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Sample records for simultaneous multiple species

  1. Acoustic classification of multiple simultaneous bird species: a multi-instance multi-label approach

    Treesearch

    F. Briggs; B. Lakshminarayanan; L. Neal; X.Z. Fern; R. Raich; S.F. Hadley; A.S. Hadley; M.G. Betts

    2012-01-01

    Although field-collected recordings typically contain multiple simultaneously vocalizing birds of different species, acoustic species classification in this setting has received little study so far. This work formulates the problem of classifying the set of species present in an audio recording using the multi-instance multi-label (MIML) framework for machine learning...

  2. Acoustic classification of multiple simultaneous bird species: a multi-instance multi-label approach.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Forrest; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Neal, Lawrence; Fern, Xiaoli Z; Raich, Raviv; Hadley, Sarah J K; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-06-01

    Although field-collected recordings typically contain multiple simultaneously vocalizing birds of different species, acoustic species classification in this setting has received little study so far. This work formulates the problem of classifying the set of species present in an audio recording using the multi-instance multi-label (MIML) framework for machine learning, and proposes a MIML bag generator for audio, i.e., an algorithm which transforms an input audio signal into a bag-of-instances representation suitable for use with MIML classifiers. The proposed representation uses a 2D time-frequency segmentation of the audio signal, which can separate bird sounds that overlap in time. Experiments using audio data containing 13 species collected with unattended omnidirectional microphones in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve high accuracy (96.1% true positives/negatives). Automated detection of bird species occurrence using MIML has many potential applications, particularly in long-term monitoring of remote sites, species distribution modeling, and conservation planning.

  3. Blending synthetic pheromones of cerambycid beetles to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Mitchell, Robert F; Striman, Becca L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated attraction of cerambycid beetle species to blends of known cerambycid pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which 1,101 (81.1%) belonged to three species in the subfamily Cerambycinae: Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Beetles of these species were significantly attracted to synthetic blends that contained their pheromone components (isomers of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2,3-hexanediol, or both), despite the presence of pheromone components of different species, including other isomers of 2,3-hexanediol, (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate, and citral. In some cases, attraction was partially inhibited by the pheromone components of heterospecific species, whereas for N. acuminatus, attraction was completely inhibited when blends contained (2R*,3S*)-hexanediol, the racemic mixture of diastereomers of its pheromone, (2S,3S)-hexanediol. Among the remaining beetles captured were three species in the subfamily Lamiinae: Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman), Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer), and Lepturges angulatus (LeConte). All three lamiine species were previously known to be attracted to (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate and were captured in significant numbers by blends containing that compound. Our results suggest that different types of cerambycid pheromones can be combined to create effective multispecies lures for use in surveillance programs that target exotic cerambycid species.

  4. Development of a bead-based multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of multiple Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Righter, Daniel J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Call, Douglas R; McElwain, Terry F

    2011-12-15

    We describe the development and analytical validation of a 7-plex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to a bead-based liquid suspension array for detection of multiple ruminant Mycoplasma spp. The assay employs a combination of newly designed and previously validated primer-probe sets that target genetic loci specific for Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp). Analytical sensitivity for the targeted Mycoplasma species ranged from 10 fg to 1 pg of purified gDNA extracted from broth cultures (approximately 8-800 MmmSC genome equivalents). In silico comparison of primers and probes, and analytical assessment with a range of near-neighbor Mycoplasma species and multiple bacterial respiratory pathogens demonstrated 100% analytical specificity of the assay. To assess assay performance and diagnostic specificity, 192 bovine respiratory samples were analyzed by incorporating a high throughput DNA extraction platform. The assay correctly classified all samples as negative for MmmSC or Mccp. All 33 field samples confirmed as positive for M. bovis by sequencing the uvrC gene were positive in the assay. The results from this study indicate that the bead-based liquid suspension array will provide a reliable, analytically sensitive and specific platform to simultaneously interrogate ruminant respiratory samples for multiple Mycoplasma species, including M. mycoides cluster organisms that are exotic to the United States. Sequential addition of primer-probe sets to the assay did not significantly impact analytical sensitivity of individual primer-probe combinations, suggesting that expanding the assay to include more Mycoplasma species will not compromise overall performance.

  5. Generating Multiple Calibrating Voltages Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutreix, Lionel J.

    1992-01-01

    Calibrating unit containing signal generator controlled by microprocessor puts out ac signals of known voltages on fifty channels simultaneously. Signals used to calibrate high-frequency tape recorder channels for multiple, ac-coupled strain gauges simultaneously. Calibrating voltage required on each tape channel determined by remote computer, and corresponding data and commands transmitted to microprocessor via modems.

  6. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements.

    PubMed

    Weikl, Markus C; Beyrau, Frank; Kiefer, Johannes; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2006-06-15

    The simultaneous application of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and vibrational linear Raman spectroscopy (LRS) for the measurement of temperature and species concentrations in combustion systems is demonstrated. In addition to the standard rotational CARS experimental setup, only one detection system (spectrometer and intensified CCD camera) for the collection of the LRS signals was applied. The emission of the broadband dye laser used for CARS was shifted to the deep red to avoid interferences with the LRS signals located in the visible region. First experimental results from a vaporizing propane spray using an engine injection system are shown.

  7. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  8. Simultaneous determination of three species with a single-injection step using batch injection analysis with multiple pulse amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Jhonys Machado; Oliveira, Thiago da Costa; Gimenes, Denise Tofanello; Munoz, Rodrigo Alejandro Abarza; Richter, Eduardo Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of simultaneous determination of three compounds with a single-injection step using batch injection analysis with multiple pulse amperometric detection (BIA-MPA) is demonstrated for the first time. A sequence of three potential pulses (+1.25 V, +1.60 V, and +1.80 V) was applied with the acquisition of three separate amperograms. 8-Chlorotheophylline was detected selectively at +1.25 V, both 8-chlorotheophylline and pyridoxine at +1.60V and 8-chlorotheophylline, pyridoxine, and diphenhydramine at +1.80 V. Subtraction between the currents detected at the three amperograms (with the help of correction factors) was used for the selective determination of pyridoxine and diphenhydramine. The proposed method is simple, inexpensive, fast (60 injections h(-1)), and present selectivity for the determination of the three compounds in pharmaceutical samples, with results similar to those obtained by HPLC (95% confidence level). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconstructing species phylogeny of the carabid beetles Ohomopterus using multiple nuclear DNA sequences: heterogeneous information content and the performance of simultaneous analyses.

    PubMed

    Sota, Teiji; Vogler, Alfried P

    2003-01-01

    We attempted a phylogenetic reconstruction for the carabid subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus), a notable case of radiation with mitochondrial introgression across species. Sequence data from five nuclear single copy loci were used, including wingless (Wg), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PepCK), cytochrome c (Cytc), elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), and an anonymous single copy locus (Carab1). Sequences of Cytc, EF-1alpha, and Carab1 included intron or intron-like parts with length variation. The analysis of individual loci resulted in low resolution of the phylogenetic relationships, and the monophyly of several morphologically recognized species for which multiple specimens were analyzed was not revealed. Several specimens were heterozygous, with non-monophyletic alleles observed in three of the five loci at which alleles in heterozygotes were separated. In a simultaneous analysis of the five loci with ambiguously aligned parts eliminated and heterozygotic sites treated as missing, the resulting tree was well resolved, but the branch support was generally weak because of conflicting phylogenetic signals from different loci. We also attempted to incorporate allelic sequence data plus the ambiguously aligned parts in the analysis, by using all possible combinations of alleles from different loci in heterozygotic individuals, but the resultant tree was not supported more strongly. Nonetheless, these simultaneous analyses provided support for the monophyly of several species and species groups, and revealed the basic evolutionary trend of OHOMOPTERUS: initial widespread groups with simpler genitalia and the origination of exaggerated genitalia in a derived clade. This study exemplifies problems inherent in the phylogenetic reconstruction of closely related organisms where low levels of variation limit the information content from each locus, while heterozygosity, different phylogenetic history of multiple loci, and alignment ambiguity further hamper

  10. Testing multiple biological mediators simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Boca, Simina M; Sinha, Rashmi; Cross, Amanda J; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N

    2014-01-15

    Modern biomedical and epidemiological studies often measure hundreds or thousands of biomarkers, such as gene expression or metabolite levels. Although there is an extensive statistical literature on adjusting for 'multiple comparisons' when testing whether these biomarkers are directly associated with a disease, testing whether they are biological mediators between a known risk factor and a disease requires a more complex null hypothesis, thus offering additional methodological challenges. We propose a permutation approach that tests multiple putative mediators and controls the family wise error rate. We demonstrate that, unlike when testing direct associations, replacing the Bonferroni correction with a permutation approach that focuses on the maximum of the test statistics can significantly improve the power to detect mediators even when all biomarkers are independent. Through simulations, we show the power of our method is 2-5× larger than the power achieved by Bonferroni correction. Finally, we apply our permutation test to a case-control study of dietary risk factors and colorectal adenoma to show that, of 149 test metabolites, docosahexaenoate is a possible mediator between fish consumption and decreased colorectal adenoma risk. R-package included in online Supplementary Material.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of multiple magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Weaver, John B.

    2010-11-01

    Distinct magnetic nanoparticle designs can have unique spectral responses to an AC magnetic field in a technique called the magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion (MSB). The spectra of the particles have been measured using desktop spectrometers and in vivo measurements. If multiple particle types are present in a region of interest, the unique spectral signatures allow for the simultaneous quantification of the various particles. We demonstrate such a potential experimentally with up to three particle types. This ability to concurrently detect multiple particles will enable new biomedical applications.

  12. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beam-forming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beam-forming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterisation, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus map detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the back-projection technique, where a part of the seismic wavetrain is mapped to a specific point in space by ray-tracing. In contrast to classic back-projection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multi-array method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beam-forming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  13. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-05-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beamforming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beamforming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterization, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus maps detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the backprojection technique, where a part of the seismic wave train is mapped to a specific point in space by ray tracing. In contrast to classic backprojection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multiarray method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beamforming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  14. Simultaneous Dual-Species Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Alexis; Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Sensors; Micro Technologie unit Team

    2015-05-01

    In the context of testing the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) with matter-wave accelerometers, some projects under development aim to compare the acceleration of two different atomic species during few seconds of free fall in order to achieve highly sensitive measurements. A simultaneous interrogation of both atomic species is crucial to fully take advantage of a differential measurement. We report the realization of an atom interferometer based on Raman transitions which simultaneously interrogates both isotopes of Rubidium. The simultaneous aspect of our experiment allows the resolution of the differential accelerometer to remain lower than 7.10-9 g even with vibration levels up to 3.10-3 g thanks to common-mode vibration noise rejection. These results exhibit a rejection ratio of 90 dB. An atom based test of the WEP has been carried out leading to a differential free fall measurement between both isotopes of Δg / g =(1 . 2 +/- 3 . 2) ×10-7 .

  15. Simultaneous Assembly of Multiple Test Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes an algorithm for the assembly of multiple test forms in which the multiple-form problem is reduced to a series of computationally less intensive two-form problems. Illustrates how the method can be implemented using 0-1 linear programming and gives two examples. (SLD)

  16. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  17. Simultaneous multiple vector distraction for craniosynostosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Tan, Eugene; David, David J

    2005-07-01

    Syndromic craniosynostoses are commonly treated conditions in craniofacial units. The features of the common syndromes (Apert, Pfeiffer and Crouzon) all include craniosynostosis, mid-face hypoplasia and ocular proptosis. The craniofacial management of a child with these syndromes through to adulthood may require a number of surgical interventions to allow brain development, to provide an adequate airway, to prevent corneal ulceration and to provide a functional dental occlusion. The management of these different priorities into timed interventions in our unit is determined by established protocols. We report two cases that underwent simultaneous mid-face (Le Fort III) and fronto-orbital osteotomies followed by distraction but using different vectors to advance the upper and mid-face regions (to achieve all treatment goals) in a 12-year-old boy and a 16-year-old girl.

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Emission Reductions on Multiple Pollutants Simultaneously

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling studies over the Philadelphia metropolitan area have examined how emission control strategies might affect several types of air pollutants simultaneously. This study supports considering effects of multiple pollutants in determining optimum pollution control strategies. ...

  19. Simultaneous detection of Legionella species and L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae and L. micdadei using conserved primers and multiple probes in a multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kristen E; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Benitez, Alvaro J; Brown, Ellen W; Diaz, Maureen H; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-07-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe respiratory disease that is estimated to cause between 8,000 and 18,000 hospitalizations each year, though the exact burden is unknown due to under-utilization of diagnostic testing. Although Legionella pneumophila is the most common species detected in clinical cases (80-90%), other species have also been reported to cause disease. However, little is known about Legionnaires' disease caused by these non-pneumophila species. We designed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of all Legionella spp. and simultaneous specific identification of four clinically-relevant Legionella species, L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae, and L. micdadei, using 5'-hydrolysis probe real-time PCR. The analytical sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid from each target species was ≤50fg per reaction. We demonstrated the utility of this assay in spiked human sputum specimens. This assay could serve as a tool for understanding the scope and impact of non-pneumophila Legionella species in human disease.

  20. Bayesian estimation applied to multiple species

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce A.; Hlozek, Renee A.

    2007-05-15

    Observed data are often contaminated by undiscovered interlopers, leading to biased parameter estimation. Here we present BEAMS (Bayesian estimation applied to multiple species) which significantly improves on the standard maximum likelihood approach in the case where the probability for each data point being ''pure'' is known. We discuss the application of BEAMS to future type-Ia supernovae (SNIa) surveys, such as LSST, which are projected to deliver over a million supernovae light curves without spectra. The multiband light curves for each candidate will provide a probability of being Ia (pure) but the full sample will be significantly contaminated with other types of supernovae and transients. Given a sample of N supernovae with mean probability,

    , of being Ia, BEAMS delivers parameter constraints equal to N

    spectroscopically confirmed SNIa. In addition BEAMS can be simultaneously used to tease apart different families of data and to recover properties of the underlying distributions of those families (e.g. the type-Ibc and II distributions). Hence BEAMS provides a unified classification and parameter estimation methodology which may be useful in a diverse range of problems such as photometric redshift estimation or, indeed, any parameter estimation problem where contamination is an issue.

  1. Bayesian estimation applied to multiple species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce A.; Hlozek, Renée A.

    2007-05-01

    Observed data are often contaminated by undiscovered interlopers, leading to biased parameter estimation. Here we present BEAMS (Bayesian estimation applied to multiple species) which significantly improves on the standard maximum likelihood approach in the case where the probability for each data point being “pure” is known. We discuss the application of BEAMS to future type-Ia supernovae (SNIa) surveys, such as LSST, which are projected to deliver over a million supernovae light curves without spectra. The multiband light curves for each candidate will provide a probability of being Ia (pure) but the full sample will be significantly contaminated with other types of supernovae and transients. Given a sample of N supernovae with mean probability, ⟨P⟩, of being Ia, BEAMS delivers parameter constraints equal to N⟨P⟩ spectroscopically confirmed SNIa. In addition BEAMS can be simultaneously used to tease apart different families of data and to recover properties of the underlying distributions of those families (e.g. the type-Ibc and II distributions). Hence BEAMS provides a unified classification and parameter estimation methodology which may be useful in a diverse range of problems such as photometric redshift estimation or, indeed, any parameter estimation problem where contamination is an issue.

  2. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  3. Array biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Golden, Joel P.; Rowe-Taitt, Chris A.; Dodson, James P.

    2001-05-01

    The array biosensor has been developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples for multiple analytes. A patterned array of capture antibodies is immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide and a sandwich immunoassay conducted using a cocktail of fluorescent tracer antibodies. Upon excitation of the fluorescent label using a 635 nm diode laser, a CCD camera detects the pattern of fluorescent antigen:antibody complexes on the sensor surface. Image analysis software correlates the position of fluorescent signals with the identity of the analyte. The assays are fast, sensitive, and specific.

  4. Seismic Signals from Multiple Near-Simultaneous Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. L.; O'Brien, M.

    2016-12-01

    An important open nuclear monitoring question is whether multiple nuclear explosions conducted either simultaneously or very close together in time generate seismic waves that are sufficiently different from a tamped single explosion to cause errors in yield estimation or discrimination. In particular, Novaya Zemlya tests with multiple explosions were observed to have low mb, leading to possible underestimation of the total explosion yield. The Soviet Union conducted many "salvo explosions" which is defined to mean two or more separate explosions where the period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds for each event. Most of these were performed at the Novaya Zemlya test site, and as many as eight near-simultaneous explosions were conducted in a single test. The United States also did some multiple explosion tests. For example, Rio Blanco, a natural gas reservoir stimulation test in Colorado, consisted of three 33 kiloton explosions vertically spaced approximately 100 meters apart. To address this question, we are performing nonlinear calculations of multiple explosions, and modeling a number of known multiple explosions. For each test, we also perform a calculation of a single explosion with the same total yield. We propagate the results of the calculation to distant stations using the representation theorem and compare the results of the single and multiple explosion calculations. An initial calculation of Rio Blanco shows that far-field P-waves from the multiple explosions vary as a function of take-off angle, and are more complex than the single explosion, particularly at higher frequencies. However the P-waves from the single and multiple explosions are identical at frequencies less than about 5 Hz.

  5. Structured plant metabolomics for the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Boccard, Julien; Lang, Gerhard; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Goepfert, Simon; Rudaz, Serge; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors act simultaneously on plants to establish complex interaction networks involving nutrients, elicitors and metabolites. Metabolomics offers a better understanding of complex biological systems, but evaluating the simultaneous impact of different parameters on metabolic pathways that have many components is a challenging task. We therefore developed a novel approach that combines experimental design, untargeted metabolic profiling based on multiple chromatography systems and ionization modes, and multiblock data analysis, facilitating the systematic analysis of metabolic changes in plants caused by different factors acting at the same time. Using this method, target geraniol compounds produced in transgenic tobacco cell cultures were grouped into clusters based on their response to different factors. We hypothesized that our novel approach may provide more robust data for process optimization in plant cell cultures producing any target secondary metabolite, based on the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors rather than varying one factor each time. The suitability of our approach was verified by confirming several previously reported examples of elicitor–metabolite crosstalk. However, unravelling all factor–metabolite networks remains challenging because it requires the identification of all biochemically significant metabolites in the metabolomics dataset. PMID:27853298

  6. Optically Mapping Multiple Bacterial Genomes Simultaneously in a Single Run

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-21

    sequence orientation. We have demonstrated mapping of Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli simultaneously, despite their very close phylogenetic...relationship ( Shigella and Escherichia coli are generally considered to be within a single species, but are segregated at the genus level for historical...reasons [4]); two clones of Shigella would likely not map together successfully using the mixed DNA method. Similarly, based on reference maps being

  7. Simultaneous dual-species matter-wave accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, A.; Zahzam, N.; Bidel, Y.; Bresson, A.

    2013-10-01

    We report the realization of a matter-wave interferometer based on Raman transitions which simultaneously interrogates two different atomic species (87Rb and 85Rb). The simultaneous aspect of our experiment presents encouraging preliminary results for future dual-species atom interferometry projects and seems very promising by taking advantage of a differential acceleration measurement. Indeed, the resolution of our differential accelerometer remains lower than 3.9×10-8g even with vibration levels up to 1×10-3g thanks to common-mode vibration noise rejection. An atom-based test of the weak equivalence principle has also been carried out leading to a differential free fall measurement between both isotopes of Δg/g=(1.2±3.2)×10-7.

  8. Simultaneous dual-species matter-wave accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Zahzam, Nassim; Bonnin, Alexis

    Light pulse atom interferometers have proven to be very high performance sensors with the development in recent decades of cold atom gravimeters, gravity gradiometers, and gyroscopes. These sensors seem very promising for spatial applications like gravity field mapping, detecting gravitational waves or testing the weak equivalence principle (WEP). In the context of testing the WEP, some projects under development (QWEP, STE-QUEST, ICE, QUANTUS) aim to measure the acceleration of two different atomic species. To date, a single-atom-based ground test of the WEP was carried out by alternatively handling both isotopes of rubidium. This method, providing a non simultaneous differential measurement, exhibits a sensitivity limited by vibration noise. Special attention must thus be paid to develop atom interferometers which will simultaneously interrogate two different atomic species in order to take full advantage of a differential measurement and to achieve the targeted sensitivity and accuracy. In this paper, we report the realization of a matter-wave interferometer based on Raman transitions which simultaneously interrogates two different atomic species ((87) Rb and (85) Rb). The simultaneous aspect of our experiment presents encouraging preliminary results for future dual-species atom interferometry projects and seems very promising by taking advantage of a differential acceleration measurement. Indeed, the resolution of our differential accelerometer remains lower than 3.9 × 10(-8) g even with vibration levels up to 1 × 10(-3) g thanks to common-mode vibration noise rejection. An atom-based test of the weak equivalence principle has also been carried out leading to a differential free fall measurement between both isotopes of Delta g/g = (1.2 ± 3.2) × 10(-7) .

  9. SIMULTANEOUS TELEPORTATION OF MULTIPLE SINGLE-PHOTON DEGREES OF FREEDOM

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P

    2011-01-01

    We report how quantum information encoded into multiple photonic degrees of freedom may be simultaneously teleported using a single, common physical process. The application of teleportation to the complete quantum state of a photon, i.e., the spectral, spatial, and polarization component states, permits the full photonic Hilbert space to be used for encoding information while simultaneously enabling subspaces to be addressed individually, e.g., for quantum information processing. We analyze the feasibility of teleporting the full quantum state through numerical analysis of the fidelity under nominal experimental conditions and for different types of input states, e.g., single-photon states that are separable and entangled in the physical degrees of freedom.

  10. Simultaneous multiple synthesis of peptide-carrier conjugates.

    PubMed

    Maeji, N J; Tribbick, G; Bray, A M; Geysen, H M

    1992-01-21

    Recently, the multipin approach for simultaneous multiple peptide synthesis was applied to the analysis of T cell determinants by using a novel cleavage method (Maeji et al., 1990). A diketopiperazine forming linker allowed cleavage of peptides into aqueous buffer which, without further purification, could be used immediately in cell culture assays. Another potential application of the technique is the simultaneous cleavage and coupling of peptides to immunogenic carriers. Without further purification the resulting conjugates can be used for the production of antipeptide antisera. The choice of carrier and conjugation chemistry is not restricted as peptide/pin cleavage occurs in aqueous solution over a range of pH and ionic strength. The method was assessed using the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group as a model hapten, diphtheria toxoid as the carrier, and N-(epsilon-maleimidocaproyloxy)succinimide as the cross-linking reagent. The resulting DNP-DT conjugate was used to prepare high titered specific anti-DNP antisera in mice.

  11. Simultaneous Real-Time Monitoring of Multiple Cortical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach We study these questions using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (6 for offline parameter optimization, 6 for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelope. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  12. Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple scheme to perform simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single complex phase mask. By designing the phase mask, the propagation directions of demultiplexed beams can be arbitrarily steered. System experiments using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-32QAM) signals over two OAM modes are carried out by using a two-mode complex phase mask. Moreover, demultiplexing of sixteen OAM modes and arbitrary demultiplexed beam steering are also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:26503167

  13. Simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images.

    PubMed

    Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

    2011-11-21

    We report a new spectral multiple image fusion analysis based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a specific spectral filtering method. In order to decrease the size of the multiplexed file, we suggest a procedure of compression which is based on an adapted spectral quantization. Each frequency is encoded with an optimized number of bits according its importance and its position in the DC domain. This fusion and compression scheme constitutes a first level of encryption. A supplementary level of encryption is realized by making use of biometric information. We consider several implementations of this analysis by experimenting with sequences of gray scale images. To quantify the performance of our method we calculate the MSE (mean squared error) and the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). Our results consistently improve performances compared to the well-known JPEG image compression standard and provide a viable solution for simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images.

  14. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unguided Species Delimitation Using DNA Sequence Data from Multiple Loci

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ziheng; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous Bayesian inference of species delimitation and species phylogeny using the multispecies coalescent model. The method eliminates the need for a user-specified guide tree in species delimitation and incorporates phylogenetic uncertainty in a Bayesian framework. The nearest-neighbor interchange algorithm was adapted to propose changes to the species tree, with the gene trees for multiple loci altered in the proposal to avoid conflicts with the newly proposed species tree. We also modify our previous scheme for specifying priors for species delimitation models to construct joint priors for models of species delimitation and species phylogeny. As in our earlier method, the modified algorithm integrates over gene trees, taking account of the uncertainty of gene tree topology and branch lengths given the sequence data. We conducted a simulation study to examine the statistical properties of the method using six populations (two sequences each) and a true number of three species, with values of divergence times and ancestral population sizes that are realistic for recently diverged species. The results suggest that the method tends to be conservative with high posterior probabilities being a confident indicator of species status. Simulation results also indicate that the power of the method to delimit species increases with an increase of the divergence times in the species tree, and with an increased number of gene loci. Reanalyses of two data sets of cavefish and coast horned lizards suggest considerable phylogenetic uncertainty even though the data are informative about species delimitation. We discuss the impact of the prior on models of species delimitation and species phylogeny and of the prior on population size parameters (θ) on Bayesian species delimitation. PMID:25274273

  16. Structural modal reanalysis for large, simultaneous and multiple type modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-jun, He; Xiang-zi, Chen; Bin, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Eigenvalue problem is widely used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of large and complex structure. For finite element models, iterative solvers are needed to precisely calculate eigenvectors and eigenvalues. However, in cases such as large-scale reanalysis studies, or optimization design of huge structure, computational cost can quickly become too time consuming. This paper focus on the structural modal reanalysis for large and multiple modifications (including simultaneous boundary, topology and type modifications), which can greatly affect the eigen-modes of the modified structures. The proposed methods are based on the results from the modal analysis of the original structure, and the stiffness and mass matrix of the modified structures. A highly approximate eigensolution are generated by the proposed method, which is combined the newly added DOF (Degrees of Freedom) condensation, ICMO strategy (Independent and Coupling Mass Orthogonalization) with the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. The numerical examples show that the proposed method is efficient with high precision even when large and multiple type modifications of the structural topology, boundary and type are made simultaneously.

  17. Improved Multiple-Species Cyclotron Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soli, George A.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1990-01-01

    Use of pure isotope 86Kr instead of natural krypton in multiple-species ion source enables source to produce krypton ions separated from argon ions by tuning cylcotron with which source used. Addition of capability to produce and separate krypton ions at kinetic energies of 150 to 400 MeV necessary for simulation of worst-case ions occurring in outer space.

  18. SIMA: simultaneous multiple alignment of LC/MS peak lists.

    PubMed

    Voss, Björn; Hanselmann, Michael; Renard, Bernhard Y; Lindner, Martin S; Köthe, Ullrich; Kirchner, Marc; Hamprecht, Fred A

    2011-04-01

    Alignment of multiple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) experiments is a necessity today, which arises from the need for biological and technical repeats. Due to limits in sampling frequency and poor reproducibility of retention times, current LC systems suffer from missing observations and non-linear distortions of the retention times across runs. Existing approaches for peak correspondence estimation focus almost exclusively on solving the pairwise alignment problem, yielding straightforward but suboptimal results for multiple alignment problems. We propose SIMA, a novel automated procedure for alignment of peak lists from multiple LC/MS runs. SIMA combines hierarchical pairwise correspondence estimation with simultaneous alignment and global retention time correction. It employs a tailored multidimensional kernel function and a procedure based on maximum likelihood estimation to find the retention time distortion function that best fits the observed data. SIMA does not require a dedicated reference spectrum, is robust with regard to outliers, needs only two intuitive parameters and naturally incorporates incomplete correspondence information. In a comparison with seven alternative methods on four different datasets, we show that SIMA yields competitive and superior performance on real-world data. A C++ implementation of the SIMA algorithm is available from http://hci.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/MIP/Software.

  19. Simultaneous rapid sequencing of multiple RNA virus genomes.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Bayles, Darrell O; Ridpath, Julia F

    2014-06-01

    Comparing sequences of archived viruses collected over many years to the present allows the study of viral evolution and contributes to the design of new vaccines. However, the difficulty, time and expense of generating full-length sequences individually from each archived sample have hampered these studies. Next generation sequencing technologies have been utilized for analysis of clinical and environmental samples to identify viral pathogens that may be present. This has led to the discovery of many new, uncharacterized viruses from a number of viral families. Use of these sequencing technologies would be advantageous in examining viral evolution. In this study, a sequencing procedure was used to sequence simultaneously and rapidly multiple archived samples using a single standard protocol. This procedure utilized primers composed of 20 bases of known sequence with 8 random bases at the 3'-end that also served as an identifying barcode that allowed the differentiation each viral library following pooling and sequencing. This conferred sequence independence by random priming both first and second strand cDNA synthesis. Viral stocks were treated with a nuclease cocktail to reduce the presence of host nucleic acids. Viral RNA was extracted, followed by single tube random-primed double-stranded cDNA synthesis. The resultant cDNAs were amplified by primer-specific PCR, pooled, size fractionated and sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. The individual virus genomes were readily assembled by both de novo and template-assisted assembly methods. This procedure consistently resulted in near full length, if not full-length, genomic sequences and was used to sequence multiple bovine pestivirus and coronavirus isolates simultaneously.

  20. Simultaneous Clustering of Multiple Gene Expression and Physical Interaction Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Manikandan; Vetta, Adrian; Schadt, Eric E.; Zhu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Many genome-wide datasets are routinely generated to study different aspects of biological systems, but integrating them to obtain a coherent view of the underlying biology remains a challenge. We propose simultaneous clustering of multiple networks as a framework to integrate large-scale datasets on the interactions among and activities of cellular components. Specifically, we develop an algorithm JointCluster that finds sets of genes that cluster well in multiple networks of interest, such as coexpression networks summarizing correlations among the expression profiles of genes and physical networks describing protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions among genes or gene-products. Our algorithm provides an efficient solution to a well-defined problem of jointly clustering networks, using techniques that permit certain theoretical guarantees on the quality of the detected clustering relative to the optimal clustering. These guarantees coupled with an effective scaling heuristic and the flexibility to handle multiple heterogeneous networks make our method JointCluster an advance over earlier approaches. Simulation results showed JointCluster to be more robust than alternate methods in recovering clusters implanted in networks with high false positive rates. In systematic evaluation of JointCluster and some earlier approaches for combined analysis of the yeast physical network and two gene expression datasets under glucose and ethanol growth conditions, JointCluster discovers clusters that are more consistently enriched for various reference classes capturing different aspects of yeast biology or yield better coverage of the analysed genes. These robust clusters, which are supported across multiple genomic datasets and diverse reference classes, agree with known biology of yeast under these growth conditions, elucidate the genetic control of coordinated transcription, and enable functional predictions for a number of uncharacterized genes. PMID:20419151

  1. Simultaneous Identification of Multiple Causal Mutations in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Chen, Zhufeng; Lu, Jiawei; Xu, Chunjue; Xie, Gang; Li, Yiqi; Deng, Xing Wang; He, Hang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies (NGST) are being used to discover causal mutations in ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized plant populations. However, the published protocols often deliver too many candidate sites and sometimes fail to find the mutant gene of interest. Accurate identification of the causal mutation from massive background polymorphisms and sequencing deficiencies remains challenging. Here we describe a NGST-based method, named SIMM, that can simultaneously identify the causal mutations in multiple independent mutants. Multiple rice mutants derived from the same parental line were back-crossed, and for each mutant, the derived F2 individuals of the recessive mutant phenotype were pooled and sequenced. The resulting sequences were aligned to the Nipponbare reference genome, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently compared among the mutants. Allele index (AI) and Euclidean distance (ED) were incorporated into the analysis to reduce noises caused by background polymorphisms and re-sequencing errors. Corrections of sequence bias against GC- and AT-rich sequences in the candidate region were conducted when necessary. Using this method, we successfully identified seven new mutant alleles from Huanghuazhan (HHZ), an elite indica rice cultivar in China. All mutant alleles were validated by phenotype association assay. A pipeline based on Perl scripts for SIMM is publicly available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/simm/. PMID:28144247

  2. A Convenient Cas9-based Conditional Knockout Strategy for Simultaneously Targeting Multiple Genes in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Du, Yinan; He, Xueyan; Huang, Xingxu; Shi, Yun S

    2017-03-31

    The most powerful way to probe protein function is to characterize the consequence of its deletion. Compared to conventional gene knockout (KO), conditional knockout (cKO) provides an advanced gene targeting strategy with which gene deletion can be performed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner. However, for most species that are amphiploid, the widely used Cre-flox conditional KO (cKO) system would need targeting loci in both alleles to be loxP flanked, which in practice, requires time and labor consuming breeding. This is considerably significant when one is dealing with multiple genes. CRISPR/Cas9 genome modulation system is advantaged in its capability in targeting multiple sites simultaneously. Here we propose a strategy that could achieve conditional KO of multiple genes in mouse with Cre recombinase dependent Cas9 expression. By transgenic construction of loxP-stop-loxP (LSL) controlled Cas9 (LSL-Cas9) together with sgRNAs targeting EGFP, we showed that the fluorescence molecule could be eliminated in a Cre-dependent manner. We further verified the efficacy of this novel strategy to target multiple sites by deleting c-Maf and MafB simultaneously in macrophages specifically. Compared to the traditional Cre-flox cKO strategy, this sgRNAs-LSL-Cas9 cKO system is simpler and faster, and would make conditional manipulation of multiple genes feasible.

  3. Kidney tumor biomarkers revealed by simultaneous multiple matrix metabolomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Sheila; Taylor, Sandra L; Abu Aboud, Omran; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher; Osier, Michael V; Alexander, Danny C; Kim, Kyoungmi; Weiss, Robert H

    2012-07-15

    Metabolomics is increasingly being used in cancer biology for biomarker discovery and identification of potential novel therapeutic targets. However, a systematic metabolomics study of multiple biofluids to determine their interrelationships and to describe their use as tumor proxies is lacking. Using a mouse xenograft model of kidney cancer, characterized by subcapsular implantation of Caki-1 clear cell human kidney cancer cells, we examined tissue, serum, and urine all obtained simultaneously at baseline (urine) and at, or close to, animal sacrifice (urine, tissue, and plasma). Uniform metabolomics analysis of all three "matrices" was accomplished using gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of all the metabolites identified (267 in tissue, 246 in serum, and 267 in urine), 89 were detected in all 3 matrices, and the majority was altered in the same direction. Heat maps of individual metabolites showed that alterations in serum were more closely related to tissue than was urine. Two metabolites, cinnamoylglycine and nicotinamide, were concordantly and significantly (when corrected for multiple testing) altered in tissue and serum, and cysteine-glutathione disulfide showed the highest change (232.4-fold in tissue) of any metabolite. On the basis of these and other considerations, three pathways were chosen for biologic validation of the metabolomic data, resulting in potential therapeutic target identification. These data show that serum metabolomics analysis is a more accurate proxy for tissue changes than urine and that tryptophan degradation (yielding anti-inflammatory metabolites) is highly represented in renal cell carcinoma, and support the concept that PPAR-α antagonism may be a potential therapeutic approach for this disease.

  4. [Simultaneous screening method for Bordetella species by conventional PCR assay].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yumi; Saito, Etsuko; Enomoto, Miki; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    A simultaneous screening method using conventional PCR was developed for the detection and discrimination of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii. A formulated multiprex method employing 4 kinds of paired primers on amplification of 4 corresponding different insertion sequences (IS481, IS1001, IS1002 and hIS1001) enabled rapid screening and identification. The detection limits of each DNA extracted from 3 kinds of Bordetella species were 5fg/microL for each. Obscure existences of B. pertussis and B. holmesii at low levels were confirmed with the LAMP method. This multiplex assay was applied to the clinical specimens obtained from patients with pertussis-like symptoms at sentinel clinics under the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases of Hyogo prefecture in FY2012. Among 42 nasopharyngeal swabs, B. pertussis was detected from 12 samples including 8 samples collected at outbreak in nursery school. The use of this method for the surveillance of infectious agents enabled us to search for 3 kinds of Bordetella species at once with low costs.

  5. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Daniel T. C.; Shanahan, Danielle F.; Hudson, Hannah L.; Fuller, Richard A.; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare. PMID:28208789

  6. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Shanahan, Danielle F; Hudson, Hannah L; Fuller, Richard A; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  7. Self-presentational persona: simultaneous management of multiple impressions.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Allen, Ashley Batts

    2011-11-01

    Most research on self-presentation has examined how people convey images of themselves on only 1 or 2 dimensions at a time. In everyday interactions, however, people often manage their impressions on several image-relevant dimensions simultaneously. By examining people's self-presentations to several targets across multiple dimensions, these 2 studies offer new insights into the nature of self-presentation and provide a novel paradigm for studying impression management. Results showed that most people rely on a relatively small number of basic self-presentational personas in which they convey particular profiles of impressions as a set and that these personas reflect both normative influences to project images that are appropriate to a particular target and distinctive influences by which people put an idiosyncratic spin on these normative images. Furthermore, although people's self-presentational profiles correlate moderately with their self-views, they tailor their public images to specific targets. The degree to which participants' self-presentations were normative and distinctive, as well as the extent to which they reflected their own self-views, were moderated by individual differences in agreeableness, self-esteem, authenticity, and Machiavellianism.

  8. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip and method for simultaneously detecting multiple redox labels

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Singhal, Pankaj; Xie, Jin; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip for detecting multiple redox-active labels simultaneously using a matrix coding scheme and to a method of selectively labeling analytes for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple label-analyte conjugates after electrophoretic or chromatographic separation.

  9. Quantification of multiple simultaneously occurring nitrogen flows in the euphotic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min Nina; Wu, Yanhua; Zheng, Li Wei; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Huade; Laws, Edward A.; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-03-01

    The general features of the N cycle in the sunlit region of the ocean are well known, but methodological difficulties have previously confounded simultaneous quantification of transformation rates among the many different forms of N, e.g., ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), and particulate/dissolved organic nitrogen (PN/DON). However, recent advances in analytical methodology have made it possible to employ a convenient isotope labeling technique to quantify in situ fluxes among oft-measured nitrogen species within the euphotic zone. Addition of a single 15N-labeled NH4+ tracer and monitoring of the changes in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), PN, NH4+, NO2-, and NO3- pools allowed us to quantify the 15N and 14N fluxes simultaneously. Constraints expressing the balance of 15N and 14N fluxes between the different N pools were expressed in the form of simultaneous equations, the unique solution of which via matrix inversion yielded the relevant N fluxes, including rates of NH4+, NO2-, and NO3- uptake; ammonia oxidation; nitrite oxidation; DON release; and NH4+ uptake by bacteria. The matrix inversion methodology that we used was designed specifically to analyze the results of incubations under simulated in situ conditions in the euphotic zone. By taking into consideration simultaneous fluxes among multiple N pools, we minimized potential artifacts caused by non-targeted processes in traditional source-product methods. The proposed isotope matrix method facilitates post hoc analysis of data from on-deck incubation experiments and can be used to probe effects of environmental factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and light) on multiple processes under controlled conditions.

  10. Simultaneous Identification of Neutral and Anionic Species in Complex Mixtures without Separation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanchuan; Chen, Lily; Swager, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A chemosensory system is reported that operates without the need for separation techniques and is capable of identifying anions and structurally similar bioactive molecules. In this strategy, the coordination of analytes to a metal complex with an open binding cleft generates “static structures” on the NMR time scale. Unique signals are created by strategically placing fluorine atoms in close proximity to bound analytes so that small structural differences induce distinct 19F NMR shifts that can be used to identify each analyte. The utility of this method is illustrated by quantifying caffeine levels in coffee, by identifying ingredients in tea and energy drinks, and by discriminating between multiple biogenic amines with remote structural differences 6 carbons away from the binding site. We further demonstrate the simultaneous identification of multiple neutral and anionic species in a complex mixture. PMID:26756442

  11. Simultaneous Identification of Neutral and Anionic Species in Complex Mixtures without Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanchuan; Chen, Lily; Swager, Timothy M

    2016-01-18

    A chemosensory system is reported that operates without the need for separation techniques and is capable of identifying anions and structurally similar bioactive molecules. In this strategy, the coordination of analytes to a metal complex with an open binding cleft generates "static structures" on the NMR timescale. Unique signals are created by strategically placing fluorine atoms in close proximity to bound analytes so that small structural differences induce distinct (19)F NMR shifts that can be used to identify each analyte. The utility of this method is illustrated by quantifying caffeine levels in coffee, by identifying ingredients in tea and energy drinks, and by discriminating between multiple biogenic amines with remote structural differences six carbon atoms away from the binding site. We further demonstrate the simultaneous identification of multiple neutral and anionic species in a complex mixture.

  12. Simultaneous Two-Way Clustering of Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Dillon, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A 2-way clustering approach to multiple correspondence analysis is proposed to account for cluster-level heterogeneity of both respondents and variable categories in multivariate categorical data. Specifically, in the proposed method, multiple correspondence analysis is combined with k-means in a unified framework in which "k"-means is…

  13. Single-species versus multiple-species approaches for management

    Treesearch

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch; Leonard A. Brennan

    1995-01-01

    Neotropical migratory birds are major components of the avifauna in most North American terrestrial ecosystems. Over 150 species of Neotropical migratory birds are known to breed in North America (Finch 1991a). Given the large number of species, developing effective management strategies for Neotropical migratory birds is a monumental task because each species exploits...

  14. Simultaneous registration of multiple images: similarity metrics and efficient optimization.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Navab, Nassir

    2013-05-01

    We address the alignment of a group of images with simultaneous registration. Therefore, we provide further insights into a recently introduced framework for multivariate similarity measures, referred to as accumulated pair-wise estimates (APE), and derive efficient optimization methods for it. More specifically, we show a strict mathematical deduction of APE from a maximum-likelihood framework and establish a connection to the congealing framework. This is only possible after an extension of the congealing framework with neighborhood information. Moreover, we address the increased computational complexity of simultaneous registration by deriving efficient gradient-based optimization strategies for APE: Gauss-Newton and the efficient second-order minimization (ESM). We present next to SSD the usage of intrinsically nonsquared similarity measures in this least squares optimization framework. The fundamental assumption of ESM, the approximation of the perfectly aligned moving image through the fixed image, limits its application to monomodal registration. We therefore incorporate recently proposed structural representations of images which allow us to perform multimodal registration with ESM. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the optimization strategies with respect to the similarity measures, leading to very good results for ESM. The extension to multimodal registration is in this context very interesting because it offers further possibilities for evaluations, due to publicly available datasets with ground-truth alignment.

  15. Modeling Coordination in Multiple Simultaneous Latent Change Scores

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Jonathan E.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Coordination is a taxonomy of how processes change together through time. It depicts the changes of two or more variables in terms of the strength and consistency of their covariation, the directionality of their covariation (i.e., do increases in one variable correspond with increases [in-phase] or decreases [anti-phase] in the other variable), and the timing of their covariation (i.e., do both variables change at the same rate or does one variable change faster than the other). Current methods are able to characterize some, but not all, of these aspects of coordination and provide incomplete information as a result. The current study addresses this limitation by demonstrating that multivariate latent change score models can be used to fully differentiate all possible coordination patterns. Furthermore, one can then expand coordination beyond the two outcome case to test arrangements of underlying coordination mechanisms or patterns. Examples using two simultaneous latent change score models and four simultaneous latent change score models illustrate this approach within the context of adolescents and parents regulating type 1 diabetes. PMID:26735358

  16. Integrative Data Analysis: The Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    There are both quantitative and methodological techniques that foster the development and maintenance of a cumulative knowledge base within the psychological sciences. Most noteworthy of these techniques is meta-analysis, which allows for the synthesis of summary statistics drawn from multiple studies when the original data are not available.…

  17. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  18. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  19. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  20. A PDP model of the simultaneous perception of multiple objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Cynthia M.; McClelland, James L.

    2011-06-01

    Illusory conjunctions in normal and simultanagnosic subjects are two instances where the visual features of multiple objects are incorrectly 'bound' together. A connectionist model explores how multiple objects could be perceived correctly in normal subjects given sufficient time, but could give rise to illusory conjunctions with damage or time pressure. In this model, perception of two objects benefits from lateral connections between hidden layers modelling aspects of the ventral and dorsal visual pathways. As with simultanagnosia, simulations of dorsal lesions impair multi-object recognition. In contrast, a large ventral lesion has minimal effect on dorsal functioning, akin to dissociations between simple object manipulation (retained in visual form agnosia and semantic dementia) and object discrimination (impaired in these disorders) [Hodges, J.R., Bozeat, S., Lambon Ralph, M.A., Patterson, K., and Spatt, J. (2000), 'The Role of Conceptual Knowledge: Evidence from Semantic Dementia', Brain, 123, 1913-1925; Milner, A.D., and Goodale, M.A. (2006), The Visual Brain in Action (2nd ed.), New York: Oxford]. It is hoped that the functioning of this model might suggest potential processes underlying dorsal and ventral contributions to the correct perception of multiple objects.

  1. Delivering multiple independent RIB simultaneously: Technical and operational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    ISAC is an ISOL-type facility at which RIB are produced by direct reactions of 480 MeV protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron on thick targets. Like other ISOL-type facilities, ISAC is limited to the production and delivery of a single RIB at any given time. ARIEL, the Advanced Rare-IsotopE Laboratory, will provide for the production and delivery of, ultimately, two additional RIB, the first produced by photofission on actinide targets using electrons from a new superconducting electron linac and the second by direct and indirect reactions with protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron. This will allow for the simultaneous delivery of three independent RIB to experimental areas at ARIEL and ISAC. The shift from single-user to multi-user operation will introduce significant technical and operational challenges that RIB facilities have not yet had to address. Almost all aspects of facility operation will become more complex as the first RIB from ARIEL targets become available.

  2. Simultaneous multiple uniform spot generation with micro optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruendt, J.; Jarczynski, M.; Mitra, T.

    2008-08-01

    Direct laser patterning of various materials is industrially implemented into several micro-system production lines such as inkjet printing, solar cell technology, flat-panel display production and medical engineering. In contrast to applications of single-mode sources, multi-mode lasers can provide very high power. This allows multi channel material processing and thus high operation speed if uniform light fields can be provided. Here within an illumination system is presented based on a high power multi-mode laser source that generates several uniform spots simultaneously without high stability requirements for the incoming laser source. These spots can be generated in various sizes and at various distances and can be located periodically and non-periodically. The concept consists of two beam processing steps: First the beam is homogenized by use of cylindrical micro-optic lens arrays. Secondly anamorphotic telecentric microoptic objectives split the beam into several uniform segments and image the spots onto the working plane. Because of LIMO's unique production technology the lens arrays can be optimized freely. It results in accurate dimensions and uniform intensity distributions for every single illuminated area. Field dimensions are only restricted by the diffraction limit. Applications could be direct material processing as well as mask illumination approaches.

  3. A combination assay for simultaneous assessment of multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Goetz, A S; Liacos, J; Yingling, J; Ignar, D M

    1999-12-01

    We have developed an assay in which modulation of two or more signaling pathways can be assessed concurrently by combining reporter gene systems with fluorescent probe technology. The validation of this method was achieved by indirect analysis of adenylyl cyclase activation with the use of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter system in combination with the measurement of calcium mobilization by Calcium Green-1 AM fluorescence on a fluorescent imaging plate reader. To demonstrate the utility of the method in studying the pharmacology of receptors that couple to more than one G protein, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which stably expressed both the CRE-luciferase reporter gene and the human pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptor, were treated with PACAP 1-27 and 1-38. Calcium mobilization and the induction of adenylyl cyclase activity in response to each concentration of peptide were assessed in individuals wells. This assay may also be used to screen for ligands of two or more unrelated receptors simultaneously without compromising the assessment of either signaling pathway. To illustrate this point, Rat-1 fibroblasts, which expressed human alpha1A receptors, were cocultured with CRE-luciferase CHO cells, which expressed human GLP-1 receptors. Calcium mobilization elicited by phenylephrine agonism of the alpha1A receptor was assessed in the same assay as GLP-1-induced activation of adenylyl cyclase. The pEC(50) for each agonist was similar to that observed when the cell lines were not cocultured. The number of different receptors that can be screened per well is limited only by the ability to distinguish different reporter gene signals and fluorescent indicators.

  4. Learning multiple rules simultaneously: Affixes are more salient than reduplications.

    PubMed

    Gervain, Judit; Endress, Ansgar D

    2017-04-01

    Language learners encounter numerous opportunities to learn regularities, but need to decide which of these regularities to learn, because some are not productive in their native language. Here, we present an account of rule learning based on perceptual and memory primitives (Endress, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Mehler, Cognition, 105(3), 577-614, 2007; Endress, Nespor, & Mehler, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(8), 348-353, 2009), suggesting that learners preferentially learn regularities that are more salient to them, and that the pattern of salience reflects the frequency of language features across languages. We contrast this view with previous artificial grammar learning research, which suggests that infants "choose" the regularities they learn based on rational, Bayesian criteria (Frank & Tenenbaum, Cognition, 120(3), 360-371, 2013; Gerken, Cognition, 98(3)B67-B74, 2006, Cognition, 115(2), 362-366, 2010). In our experiments, adult participants listened to syllable strings starting with a syllable reduplication and always ending with the same "affix" syllable, or to syllable strings starting with this "affix" syllable and ending with the "reduplication". Both affixation and reduplication are frequently used for morphological marking across languages. We find three crucial results. First, participants learned both regularities simultaneously. Second, affixation regularities seemed easier to learn than reduplication regularities. Third, regularities in sequence offsets were easier to learn than regularities at sequence onsets. We show that these results are inconsistent with previous Bayesian rule learning models, but mesh well with the perceptual or memory primitives view. Further, we show that the pattern of salience revealed in our experiments reflects the distribution of regularities across languages. Ease of acquisition might thus be one determinant of the frequency of regularities across languages.

  5. Tissue Viscoelasticity Measurement System by Simultaneous Multiple-Frequency Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Takashi; Yoshihara, Yuki; Kanzawa, Kouki; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Yamakoshi, Yoshiki

    2012-07-01

    Tissue elasticity measurements by an ultrasonic wave are a promising technique for the qualitative diagnosis of tumors and liver diseases. The viscoelastic characteristics in soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated by considering the frequency dependence of the velocity of the shear wave propagating in the tissue. To improve the reliability of the in vivo viscoelasticity measurement, we propose a novel elasticity imaging method using continuous vibration wave excitation, which was realized by developing a three dimensional ultrasonic (3D US) wave Doppler measurement system with multiple-frequency excitation. In vivo experiments on the brachial muscle were carried out in order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system. The experimental results show that this system can successfully measure the velocity of a shear wave propagating through a muscle layer. This system has the potential to obtain viscoelastic information from a target with high repeatability and reliability.

  6. Simultaneous multiple degrees of freedom (DoF) measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, G.; Strube, S.; Köchert, P.; Danzebrink, H.-U.; Flügge, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a newly developed highly accurate interferometric 6° of freedom (DoF) measurement system with Ångström resolution for displacement and μrad resolution for angle measurement, respectively. The new interferometer is based on a modified homodyne Twyman-Green interferometer concept. It uses a novel signal acquisition and processing approach whereby a spatial interferogram is captured by a CMOS camera and the registered fringe pattern is transformed into its frequency spectrum [1]. The spectral representation of a movement of e.g. a positioning stage is analyzed for its major components: the phase information directly correlates with the displacement of the stage, while a possible rotational motion causes a shift in the frequency spectrum. The developed compact 6 DoF head uses multiple rays in parallel to detect x-y-z displacements and roll-pitch-yaw movements.

  7. Simultaneous ECG-gated PET Imaging of Multiple Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Jurgen; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Wong, Karen J.; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark R.; Kuo, Frank; Jagoda, Elaine M.; Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Griffiths, Gary L.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We describe and illustrate a method for creating ECG-gated PET images of the heart for each of several mice imaged at the same time. The method is intended to increase “throughput” in PET research studies of cardiac dynamics or to obtain information derived from such studies, e.g. tracer concentration in end diastolic left ventricular blood. Methods An imaging bed with provisions for warming, anesthetic delivery, etc., was fabricated by 3D printing to allow simultaneous PET imaging of two side-by-side mice. After electrode attachment, tracer injection and placement of the animals in the scanner field-of-view, ECG signals from each animal were continuously analyzed and independent trigger markers generated whenever an R-wave was detected in each signal. PET image data were acquired in “list” mode and these trigger markers were inserted into this list along with the image data. Since each mouse is in a different spatial location in the FOV, sorting of these data using trigger markers first from one animal and then the other yields two independent and correctly formed ECG-gated image sequences that reflect the dynamical properties of the heart during an “average” cardiac cycle. Results The described method yields two independent ECG-gated image sequences that exhibit the expected properties in each animal, e.g. variation of the ventricular cavity volumes from maximum to minimum and back during the cardiac cycle in the processed animal with little or no variation in these volumes during the cardiac cycle in the unprocessed animal. Conclusion ECG-gated image sequences for each of several animals can be created from a single list mode data collection using the described method. In principle, this method can be extended to more than two mice (or other animals) and to other forms of physiological gating, e.g. respiratory gating, when several subjects are imaged at the same time. Animal Care Animal care was provided in accordance with the procedures

  8. Simultaneity, Sequentiality, and Speed: Organizational Messages about Multiple-Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keri K.; Cho, Jaehee K.; Ballard, Dawna I.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace norms for task completion increasingly value speed and the ability to accomplish multiple tasks at once. This study situates this popularized issue of multitasking within the context of chronemics scholarship by addressing related issues of simultaneity, sequentiality, and speed. Ultimately, we consider 2 multiple-task completion…

  9. Simultaneity, Sequentiality, and Speed: Organizational Messages about Multiple-Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keri K.; Cho, Jaehee K.; Ballard, Dawna I.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace norms for task completion increasingly value speed and the ability to accomplish multiple tasks at once. This study situates this popularized issue of multitasking within the context of chronemics scholarship by addressing related issues of simultaneity, sequentiality, and speed. Ultimately, we consider 2 multiple-task completion…

  10. SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer-Sorensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris

    2013-02-15

    Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N {sub eff} = 3.58{sup +0.15} {sub -0.16}(68% CL){sup +0.55} {sub -0.53}(95% CL) and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.60 eV(95% CL), which are currently the strongest constraints on N {sub eff} and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N {sub eff} >3 is at the 2{sigma} level.

  11. Simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple mycotoxins in cereal and feedstuff samples by a suspension array immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Kai; Yan, Ya-Xian; Li, Shu-Qing; Wang, Heng-An; Ji, Wen-Hui; Sun, Jian-He

    2013-11-20

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in single cereal and feedstuff samples, which could become highly toxic for humans and animals. In order to quantify four mycotoxins (zearalenone, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, and aflatoxin B1) in cereal and feedstuff samples simultaneously, a new suspension array immunoassay was developed. Antimycotoxin monoclonal antibodies were conjugated to the surface of different encoding microspheres (19#, 37#, 39#, and 49#), and mycotoxin-protein conjugates were then coupled with biotin. Using streptavidin-phycoerythrin as a signal reporter protein, this direct competition multiple suspension array immunoassay was optimized. The results showed that the detection limits for zearalenone, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, and aflatoxin B1 were 0.51, 6.0, 4.3, and 0.56 ng/mL, respectively, with detection ranges of 0.73-6.8, 11.6-110.3, 8.6-108.1, and 1.1-14.1 ng/mL, respectively. For the detection of the spiked samples, the recovery rates were between 92.3% and 115.5%. This method also shows a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.99, P < 0.01) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the detection of toxins in commercial cereal and feedstuff samples. This suspension array immunoassay was high-throughput and accurate for the rapid quantitative detection of multiple mycotoxins in commercial cereal and feedstuff samples.

  12. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking: orchestrated dancing of ligands in binding sites of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Huameng; Li, Chenglong

    2010-07-30

    Present docking methodologies simulate only one single ligand at a time during docking process. In reality, the molecular recognition process always involves multiple molecular species. Typical protein-ligand interactions are, for example, substrate and cofactor in catalytic cycle; metal ion coordination together with ligand(s); and ligand binding with water molecules. To simulate the real molecular binding processes, we propose a novel multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy, which can deal with all the above processes, vastly improving docking sampling and binding free energy scoring. The work also compares two search strategies: Lamarckian genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, which have respective advantages depending on the specific systems. The methodology proves robust through systematic testing against several diverse model systems: E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) complex with two substrates, SHP2NSH2 complex with two peptides and Bcl-xL complex with ABT-737 fragments. In all cases, the final correct docking poses and relative binding free energies were obtained. In PNP case, the simulations also capture the binding intermediates and reveal the binding dynamics during the recognition processes, which are consistent with the proposed enzymatic mechanism. In the other two cases, conventional single-ligand docking fails due to energetic and dynamic coupling among ligands, whereas MLSD results in the correct binding modes. These three cases also represent potential applications in the areas of exploring enzymatic mechanism, interpreting noisy X-ray crystallographic maps, and aiding fragment-based drug design, respectively.

  13. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading

    PubMed Central

    Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n) during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1). In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms). Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic) information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings. PMID:28278305

  14. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    PubMed

    Snell, Joshua; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n) during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1). In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms). Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic) information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  15. Simultaneous breakdown of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms in S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaneti, Galoz; Sarig, Hadar; Marjieh, Ibrahim; Fadia, Zaknoon; Mor, Amram

    2013-12-01

    In previous studies, the oligo-acyl-lysyl (OAK) C12(ω7)K-β12 added to cultures of gram-positive bacteria exerted a bacteriostatic activity that was associated with membrane depolarization, even at high concentrations. Here, we report that multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, unlike other gram-positive species, have reverted to the sensitive phenotype when exposed to subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of the OAK, thereby increasing antibiotics potency by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Such chemosensitization was achieved using either cytoplasm or cell-wall targeting antibiotics. Moreover, eventual emergence of resistance to antibiotics was significantly delayed. Using the mouse peritonitis-sepsis model, we show that on single-dose administration of oxacillin and OAK combinations, death induced by a lethal staphylococcal infection was prevented in a synergistic manner, thereby supporting the likelihood for synergism to persist under in vivo conditions. Toward illuminating the molecular basis for these observations, we present data arguing that sub-MIC OAK interactions with the plasma membrane can inhibit proton-dependent signal transduction responsible for expression and export of resistance factors, as demonstrated for β-lactamase and PBP2a. Collectively, the data reveal a potentially useful approach for overcoming antibiotic resistance and for preventing resistance from emerging as readily as when bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic alone.

  16. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  17. Finite element simulations involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts in phase change problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouyang, Tianhong; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the simulation of phase change problems involving simultaneous multiple interface fronts employing the finite element method. Much of the past investigations employing finite elements have been restricted to primarily a single phase change situation. The existence of more than one phase, that is, the presence of multiple phase fronts poses certain challenges and further complications. However, the results provide a very interesting thermal behavior for this class of problems. In this paper, attention is focused on fixed grid methods and the trapezoidal family of one-step methods using the enthalpy formulations. Illustrative examples which handle simultaneous multiple fronts in phase change problems are presented.

  18. Multiple peaks of species abundance distributions induced by sparse interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tokita, Kei

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the replicator dynamics with "sparse" symmetric interactions which represent specialist-specialist interactions in ecological communities. By considering a large self-interaction u , we conduct a perturbative expansion which manifests that the nature of the interactions has a direct impact on the species abundance distribution. The central results are all species coexistence in a realistic range of the model parameters and that a certain discrete nature of the interactions induces multiple peaks in the species abundance distribution, providing the possibility of theoretically explaining multiple peaks observed in various field studies. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory which becomes exact on tree-like networks if all the species coexist, providing exact critical values of u below which extinct species emerge. Numerical simulations in various different situations are conducted and they clarify the robustness of the presented mechanism of all species coexistence and multiple peaks in the species abundance distributions.

  19. Multiple species inventory and monitoring technical guide

    Treesearch

    P.N. Manley; B. Van Horne; J.K. Roth; W.J. Zielinski; M.M. McKenzie; T.J. Weller; F.W. Weckerly; C. Vojta

    2006-01-01

    The National Forest Management Act (1976) recognizes the importance of maintaining species and community diversity on National Forest System (NFS) lands as a critical component of our ecological and cultural heritage. Monitoring is required of land management to assess the success of management activities in meeting legal, regulatory, and policy objectives, including...

  20. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  1. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  2. Optimal invasive species management under multiple uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    The management programs for invasive species have been proposed and implemented in many regions of the world. However, practitioners and scientists have not reached a consensus on how to control them yet. One reason is the presence of various uncertainties associated with the management. To give some guidance on this issue, we characterize the optimal strategy by developing a dynamic model of invasive species management under uncertainties. In particular, focusing on (i) growth uncertainty and (ii) measurement uncertainty, we identify how these uncertainties affect optimal strategies and value functions. Our results suggest that a rise in growth uncertainty causes the optimal strategy to involve more restrained removals and the corresponding value function to shift up. Furthermore, we also find that a rise in measurement uncertainty affects optimal policies in a highly complex manner, but their corresponding value functions generally shift down as measurement uncertainty rises. Overall, a rise in growth uncertainty can be beneficial, while a rise in measurement uncertainty brings about an adverse effect, which implies the potential gain of precisely identifying the current stock size of invasive species.

  3. Decoding the representation of multiple simultaneous objects in human occipitotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    MacEvoy, Sean P.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Previous work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that the identities of isolated objects can be extracted from distributed patterns of activity in the human brain [1]. Outside the laboratory, however, objects almost never appear in isolation; thus it is important to understand how multiple simultaneously-occurring objects are encoded in the visual system. Here we use multi-voxel pattern analysis to examine this issue, specifically testing whether patterns evoked by pairs of objects in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) showed an ordered relationship to patterns evoked by their constituent objects presented alone. Subjects viewed four categories of objects, presented either alone or in different-category pairs, while performing a one-back task that required attention to each item on the screen. Applying a “searchlight” pattern classification approach [2] to identify voxels with the highest signal-to-noise ratios, we found that the responses to object pairs among these informative voxels were well-predicted by the averages of their responses to the corresponding component objects. We validated this relationship by classifying patterns evoked by object pairs based on synthetic patterns created by averaging patterns evoked by single objects. These results indicate that the representation of multiple objects in LOC is governed by response normalization mechanisms similar to those reported in the visual systems of several species, including macaques [3–6]. They also suggest a coding scheme that allows patterns of population activity to preserve information about multiple objects under conditions of distributed attention, facilitating fast object and scene recognition during natural vision. PMID:19446454

  4. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  5. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery. PMID:27446684

  6. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  7. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  8. Electrochemical camera chip for simultaneous imaging of multiple metabolites in biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Daniel L.; Sakhtah, Hassan; Zhang, Yihan; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring spatial distribution of metabolites in multicellular structures can enhance understanding of the biochemical processes and regulation involved in cellular community development. Here we report on an electrochemical camera chip capable of simultaneous spatial imaging of multiple redox-active phenazine metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony biofilms. The chip features an 8 mm × 8 mm array of 1,824 electrodes multiplexed to 38 parallel output channels. Using this chip, we demonstrate potential-sweep-based electrochemical imaging of whole-biofilms at measurement rates in excess of 0.2 s per electrode. Analysis of mutants with various capacities for phenazine production reveals distribution of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) throughout the colony, with 5-methylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-MCA) and pyocyanin (PYO) localized to the colony edge. Anaerobic growth on nitrate confirms the O2-dependence of PYO production and indicates an effect of O2 availability on 5-MCA synthesis. This integrated-circuit-based technique promises wide applicability in detecting redox-active species from diverse biological samples. PMID:26813638

  9. The Steiner Multigraph Problem: Wildlife corridor design for multiple species

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Lai; Carla P. Gomes; Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey; David E. Calkin; Claire A. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    The conservation of wildlife corridors between existing habitat preserves is important for combating the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation facing species of concern. We introduce the Steiner Multigraph Problem to model the problem of minimum-cost wildlife corridor design for multiple species with different landscape requirements. This problem can also model...

  10. A light-switchable bidirectional expression module allowing simultaneous regulation of multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Yang, Yi

    2015-10-02

    Several light-regulated genetic circuits have been applied to spatiotemporally control transgene expression in mammalian cells. However, simultaneous regulation of multiple genes using one genetic device by light has not yet been reported. In this study, we engineered a bidirectional expression module based on LightOn system. Our data showed that both reporter genes could be regulated at defined and quantitative levels. Simultaneous regulation of four genes was further achieved in cultured cells and mice. Additionally, we successfully utilized the bidirectional expression module to monitor the expression of a suicide gene, showing potential for photodynamic gene therapy. Collectively, we provide a robust and useful tool to simultaneously control multiple genes expression by light, which will be widely used in biomedical research and biotechnology.

  11. Predicting Final GPA of Graduate School Students: Comparing Artificial Neural Networking and Simultaneous Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joan L.

    2006-01-01

    Data from graduate student applications at a large Western university were used to determine which factors were the best predictors of success in graduate school, as defined by cumulative graduate grade point average. Two statistical models were employed and compared: artificial neural networking and simultaneous multiple regression. Both models…

  12. Simultaneous multiple non-crossing quantile regression estimation using kernel constraints

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yufeng; Wu, Yichao

    2011-01-01

    Quantile regression (QR) is a very useful statistical tool for learning the relationship between the response variable and covariates. For many applications, one often needs to estimate multiple conditional quantile functions of the response variable given covariates. Although one can estimate multiple quantiles separately, it is of great interest to estimate them simultaneously. One advantage of simultaneous estimation is that multiple quantiles can share strength among them to gain better estimation accuracy than individually estimated quantile functions. Another important advantage of joint estimation is the feasibility of incorporating simultaneous non-crossing constraints of QR functions. In this paper, we propose a new kernel-based multiple QR estimation technique, namely simultaneous non-crossing quantile regression (SNQR). We use kernel representations for QR functions and apply constraints on the kernel coefficients to avoid crossing. Both unregularised and regularised SNQR techniques are considered. Asymptotic properties such as asymptotic normality of linear SNQR and oracle properties of the sparse linear SNQR are developed. Our numerical results demonstrate the competitive performance of our SNQR over the original individual QR estimation. PMID:22190842

  13. Tracking Multiple Statistics: Simultaneous Learning of Object Names and Categories in English and Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-hsin; Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Wu, Chih-Yi; Cheung, Hintat; Yu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine adult learners' ability to extract multiple statistics in simultaneously presented visual and auditory input. Experiment 1 used a cross-situational learning paradigm to test whether English speakers were able to use co-occurrences to learn word-to-object mappings and concurrently form object categories…

  14. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0% for ...

  15. Versatile antibody-sensing Boolean logic for the simultaneous detection of multiple bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kui; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Acar, Gabriele; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2013-10-18

    We present an OR gate based on monoclonal antibodies for the simultaneous detection of multiple toxins in a single tube. To further simplify the operating procedure, the Boolean rule of simplification was used to guide the selection of a marker toxin among the natural toxin profiles.

  16. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Harari, Colin M; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy; Brace, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P < .05). Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P < .05). Ablations were generally smaller in vivo compared with ex vivo. The use of multiple antennas and simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015.

  17. Complete Revascularization of Simultaneous Multiple Culprit Lesions in a Septuagenarian with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ifedili, Ikechukwu A.; Bob-Manuel, Tamunoinemi; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Askari, Raza; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 74 Final Diagnosis: Multiple culprit lesions in ST-elevation myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest pain • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually caused by rupture of unstable plaque with thrombus formation and abrupt cessation of blood flow through a single coronary artery that is deemed the culprit. The simultaneous thrombotic occlusions of multiple coronary arteries in the setting of STEMI is a rare occurrence with implications for patient management and outcome not fully addressed in the current STEMI guidelines, although more recent studies suggest a benefit of complete revascularization compared to culprit vessel-only treatment in the setting of STEMI. Case Report: A 74-year-old female presented with STEMI. Coronary angiography revealed simultaneous multiple coronary thrombotic occlusions involving the right coronary, left circumflex, and ramus intermedius arteries successfully treated with primary percutaneous revascularization at the same setting with good outcome and short hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Although the most appropriate timing to treat simultaneous multiple culprit lesions has yet to be definitively defined, multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of a STEMI with multiple culprit lesions is feasible with good outcome as shown by our index case. PMID:28035135

  18. Fully coupled simulation of multiple hydraulic fractures to propagate simultaneously from a perforated horizontal wellbore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qinglei; Liu, Zhanli; Wang, Tao; Gao, Yue; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2017-05-01

    In hydraulic fracturing process in shale rock, multiple fractures perpendicular to a horizontal wellbore are usually driven to propagate simultaneously by the pumping operation. In this paper, a numerical method is developed for the propagation of multiple hydraulic fractures (HFs) by fully coupling the deformation and fracturing of solid formation, fluid flow in fractures, fluid partitioning through a horizontal wellbore and perforation entry loss effect. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted to model arbitrary growth of the fractures. Newton's iteration is proposed to solve these fully coupled nonlinear equations, which is more efficient comparing to the widely adopted fixed-point iteration in the literatures and avoids the need to impose fluid pressure boundary condition when solving flow equations. A secant iterative method based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) is proposed to capture different propagation velocities of multiple fractures. The numerical results are compared with theoretical solutions in literatures to verify the accuracy of the method. The simultaneous propagation of multiple HFs is simulated by the newly proposed algorithm. The coupled influences of propagation regime, stress interaction, wellbore pressure loss and perforation entry loss on simultaneous propagation of multiple HFs are investigated.

  19. Simultaneous Multiple-Jet Impacts in Concrete-Experiments and Advanced Computational Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, D.W.; Kuklo, R.M.; Routh, J.W.; Simonson, S.C.

    1999-08-12

    The simultaneous impact of multiple shaped-charge jets on a concrete target has been observed experimentally to lead to the formation of a larger and deeper entrance crater than would be expected from the superposition of the craters of the individual jets. The problem has been modeled with the 3-D simulation code ALE3D, running on massively parallel processors. These calculations indicate that the enlarged damage area is the result of tensile stresses caused by the interactions among the pressure waves simultaneously emanating from the three impact sites. This phenomenon has the potential for enhancing the penetration of a follow-on projectile.

  20. Comparing multiple criteria for species identification in two recently diverged seabirds.

    PubMed

    Militão, Teresa; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; González-Solís, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Correct species identification is a crucial issue in systematics with key implications for prioritising conservation effort. However, it can be particularly challenging in recently diverged species due to their strong similarity and relatedness. In such cases, species identification requires multiple and integrative approaches. In this study we used multiple criteria, namely plumage colouration, biometric measurements, geometric morphometrics, stable isotopes analysis (SIA) and genetics (mtDNA), to identify the species of 107 bycatch birds from two closely related seabird species, the Balearic (Puffinus mauretanicus) and Yelkouan (P. yelkouan) shearwaters. Biometric measurements, stable isotopes and genetic data produced two stable clusters of bycatch birds matching the two study species, as indicated by reference birds of known origin. Geometric morphometrics was excluded as a species identification criterion since the two clusters were not stable. The combination of plumage colouration, linear biometrics, stable isotope and genetic criteria was crucial to infer the species of 103 of the bycatch specimens. In the present study, particularly SIA emerged as a powerful criterion for species identification, but temporal stability of the isotopic values is critical for this purpose. Indeed, we found some variability in stable isotope values over the years within each species, but species differences explained most of the variance in the isotopic data. Yet this result pinpoints the importance of examining sources of variability in the isotopic data in a case-by-case basis prior to the cross-application of the SIA approach to other species. Our findings illustrate how the integration of several methodological approaches can help to correctly identify individuals from recently diverged species, as each criterion measures different biological phenomena and species divergence is not expressed simultaneously in all biological traits.

  1. Comparing Multiple Criteria for Species Identification in Two Recently Diverged Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Militão, Teresa; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; González-Solís, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Correct species identification is a crucial issue in systematics with key implications for prioritising conservation effort. However, it can be particularly challenging in recently diverged species due to their strong similarity and relatedness. In such cases, species identification requires multiple and integrative approaches. In this study we used multiple criteria, namely plumage colouration, biometric measurements, geometric morphometrics, stable isotopes analysis (SIA) and genetics (mtDNA), to identify the species of 107 bycatch birds from two closely related seabird species, the Balearic (Puffinus mauretanicus) and Yelkouan (P. yelkouan) shearwaters. Biometric measurements, stable isotopes and genetic data produced two stable clusters of bycatch birds matching the two study species, as indicated by reference birds of known origin. Geometric morphometrics was excluded as a species identification criterion since the two clusters were not stable. The combination of plumage colouration, linear biometrics, stable isotope and genetic criteria was crucial to infer the species of 103 of the bycatch specimens. In the present study, particularly SIA emerged as a powerful criterion for species identification, but temporal stability of the isotopic values is critical for this purpose. Indeed, we found some variability in stable isotope values over the years within each species, but species differences explained most of the variance in the isotopic data. Yet this result pinpoints the importance of examining sources of variability in the isotopic data in a case-by-case basis prior to the cross-application of the SIA approach to other species. Our findings illustrate how the integration of several methodological approaches can help to correctly identify individuals from recently diverged species, as each criterion measures different biological phenomena and species divergence is not expressed simultaneously in all biological traits. PMID:25541978

  2. Simultaneous detection of randomly arranged multiple barcodes using time division multiplexing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Saad Md. Jaglul; Islam, Md. Kafiul

    2010-02-01

    A method of detecting multiple barcodes simultaneously using time division multiplexing technique has been proposed in this paper to minimize the effective time needed for handling multiple tags of barcodes and to lessen the overall workload. Available barcode detection systems can handle multiple types of barcode but a single barcode at a time. This is not so efficient and can create large queue and chaos in places like mega shopping malls or large warehouses where we need to scan huge number of barcodes daily. Our proposed system is expected to improve the real time identification of goods or products on production lines and in automated warehouses or in mega shopping malls in a much more convenient and efficient way. For identifying of multiple barcodes simultaneously, a particular arrangement and orientation of LASER scanner and reflector have been used with a special curve shaped basement where the barcodes are placed. An effective and novel algorithm is developed to extract information from multiple barcodes which introduces starting pattern and ending pattern in barcodes with bit stuffing technique for the convenience of multiple detections. CRC technique is also used for trustworthiness of detection. The overall system enhances the existing single barcode detection system by a great amount although it is easy to implement and use.

  3. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples.

  4. Modeling considerations for using expression data from multiple species.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Elizabeth; Kechris, Katerina J

    2013-10-15

    Although genome-wide expression data sets from multiple species are now more commonly generated, there have been few studies on how to best integrate this type of correlated data into models. Starting with a single-species, linear regression model that predicts transcription factor binding sites as a case study, we investigated how best to take into account the correlated expression data when extending this model to multiple species. Using a multivariate regression model, we accounted for the phylogenetic relationships among the species in two ways: (i) a repeated-measures model, where the error term is constrained; and (ii) a Bayesian hierarchical model, where the prior distributions of the regression coefficients are constrained. We show that both multiple-species models improve predictive performance over the single-species model. When compared with each other, the repeated-measures model outperformed the Bayesian model. We suggest a possible explanation for the better performance of the model with the constrained error term. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Spontaneous Raman scattering for simultaneous measurements of in-cylinder species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2007-10-01

    A technique for multi-species mole fraction measurement in internal combustion engines is described. The technique is based on the spontaneous Raman scattering. It can simultaneously provide the mole fractions of several species of N2, O2, H2O, CO2 and fuel. Using the system, simultaneous measurement of air/fuel ratio and burnt residual gas are carried out during the mixture process in a Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion engine. The accuracy and consistency of the measured results were confirmed by the measured air fuel ratio using an exhaust gas analyzer and independently calculated mole fraction values. Measurement of species mole fractions during combustion process has also been demonstrated. It shows that the SRS can provide valuable data on this process in a CAI combustion engine.

  6. Three-dimensional fluorescent microscopy via simultaneous illumination and detection at multiple planes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Huang, Eric; Qian, Haoliang; Bakowski, Malina A.; Troemel, Emily R.; Liu, Zhaowei

    2016-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope is an inherently two-dimensional (2D) imaging tool. The objective lens, eyepiece and image sensor are all designed to capture light emitted from a 2D ‘object plane’. Existing technologies, such as confocal or light sheet fluorescence microscopy have to utilize mechanical scanning, a time-multiplexing process, to capture a 3D image. In this paper, we present a 3D optical microscopy method based upon simultaneously illuminating and detecting multiple focal planes. This is implemented by adding two diffractive optical elements to modify the illumination and detection optics. We demonstrate that the image quality of this technique is comparable to conventional light sheet fluorescent microscopy with the advantage of the simultaneous imaging of multiple axial planes and reduced number of scans required to image the whole sample volume. PMID:27527813

  7. Simultaneously measuring multiple protein interactions and their correlations in a cell by Protein-interactome Footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si-Wei; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui

    2017-01-01

    Quantitatively detecting correlations of multiple protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vivo is a big challenge. Here we introduce a novel method, termed Protein-interactome Footprinting (PiF), to simultaneously measure multiple PPIs in one cell. The principle of PiF is that each target physical PPI in the interactome is simultaneously transcoded into a specific DNA sequence based on dimerization of the target proteins fused with DNA-binding domains. The interaction intensity of each target protein is quantified as the copy number of the specific DNA sequences bound by each fusion protein dimers. Using PiF, we quantitatively reveal dynamic patterns of PPIs and their correlation network in E. coli two-component systems. PMID:28338015

  8. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E. M.; Fuller, Richard A.; Joseph, Liana N.; Martin, Tara G.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  9. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Colin M.; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T.; Lubner, Meghan G.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. Results On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P < .05). Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P < .05). Ablations were generally smaller in vivo compared with ex vivo. Conclusion The use of multiple antennas and simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26133361

  10. Dual-Functional Ultrafiltration Membrane for Simultaneous Removal of Multiple Pollutants with High Performance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shunlong; Li, Jiansheng; Noonan, Owen; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wan, Gaojie; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-05-02

    Simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from aqueous solution with less energy consumption is crucial in water purification. Here, a novel concept of dual-functional ultrafiltration (DFUF) membrane is demonstrated by entrapment of nanostructured adsorbents into the finger-like pores of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane rather than in the membrane matrix in previous reports of blend membranes, resulting in an exceptionally high active content and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from water due to the dual functions of rejection and adsorption. As a demonstration, hollow porous Zr(OH)x nanospheres (HPZNs) were immobilized in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) UF membranes through polydopamine coating with a high content of 68.9 wt %. The decontamination capacity of DFUF membranes toward multiple model pollutants (colloidal gold, polyethylene glycol (PEG), Pb(II)) was evaluated against a blend membrane. Compared to the blend membrane, the DFUF membranes showed 2.1-fold increase in the effective treatment volume for the treatment of Pb(II) contaminated water from 100 ppb to below 10 ppb (WHO drinking water standard). Simultaneously, the DFUF membranes effectively removed the colloidal gold and PEG below instrument detection limit, however the blend membrane only achieved 97.6% and 96.8% rejection for colloidal gold and PEG, respectively. Moreover, the DFUF membranes showed negligible leakage of nanoadsorbents during testing; and the membrane can be easily regenerated and reused. This study sheds new light on the design of high performance multifunction membranes for drinking water purification.

  11. Intracellular Microreactors as Artificial Organelles to Conduct Multiple Enzymatic Reactions Simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gallardo, María; Labay, Cédric; Jansman, Michelle M T; Ek, Pramod K; Hosta-Rigau, Leticia

    2017-02-01

    The creation of artificial organelles is a new paradigm in medical therapy that aims to substitute for missing cellular function by replenishing a specific cellular task. Artificial organelles tackle the challenge of mimicking metabolism, which is the set of chemical reactions that occur within a cell, mainly catalyzed by enzymes. So far, the few reported carriers able to conduct enzymatic reactions intracellularly are based on single-compartment carriers. However, cell organelles outperform by conducting multiple reactions simultaneously within confined sub-compartments. Here, the field of artificial organelles is advanced by reporting the assembly of a microreactor consisting of polymer capsules entrapping gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and liposomes as sub-compartments. The fluorescence properties of AuNCs are employed to monitor the microreactors uptake by macrophages. Encapsulation is demonstrated and functionality of microreactors with trypsin (TRP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded liposomes is preserved. Multiple enzymatic reactions taking place simultaneously is demonstrated by exposing macrophages with the internalized microreactors to bis-(benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Pro-Arg)-Rho-110 and Amplex Red substrates, which are specific for TRP and HRP, respectively. Conversion of the substrates into the respective fluorescent products is observed. This report on the first microreactor conducting multiple enzymatic reactions simultaneously inside a cell is a considerable step in the field of artificial organelles.

  12. Crosstalk-insensitive method for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Su, Qi-Ping; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Nori, Franco

    2016-04-01

    In a circuit consisting of two or more resonators, the intercavity crosstalk is inevitable, which could create some problems, such as degrading the performance of quantum operations and the fidelity of various quantum states. The focus of this work is to propose a crosstalk-insensitive method for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators, which is important in large-scale quantum information processing and communication in a network consisting of resonators or cavities. In this work, we consider 2 N resonators of different frequencies, which are coupled to a three-level quantum system (qutrit). By applying a strong pulse to the coupler qutrit, we show that an effective Hamiltonian can be constructed for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators. The main advantage of this proposal is that the effect of inter-resonator crosstalks is greatly suppressed by using resonators of different frequencies. In addition, by employing the qutrit-resonator dispersive interaction, the intermediate higher-energy level of the qutrit is virtually excited and thus decoherence from this level is suppressed. This effective Hamiltonian can be applied to implement quantum operations with photonic qubits distributed in different resonators. As one application of this Hamiltonian, we show how to simultaneously generate multiple Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs of photonic qubits distributed in 2 N resonators. Numerical simulations show that it is feasible to prepare two high-fidelity EPR photonic pairs using a setup of four one-dimensional transmission line resonators coupled to a superconducting flux qutrit with current circuit QED technology.

  13. Multiple simultaneous choroidal melanomas arising in the same eye: globe salvage by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Matthew M; Papakostas, Thanos D; Malcolm, Arnold W; Ancell, Kristin K; Biscotti, Charles V; Gragoudas, Evangelos S; Daniels, Anthony B

    2016-12-01

    Multiple choroidal melanomas arising in the same eye is a very rare entity, usually leading ophthalmologists to entertain other diagnoses. Historically, the only available treatment reported for this rare entity was enucleation. In this study we demonstrate in a series of patients with multiple simultaneous choroidal melanomas that eye salvage is possible using a variety of radiotherapy techniques. Both patients presented with two simultaneous choroidal melanomas in one eye. The first patient was only 30 years old and presented with two largely amelanotic tumours with large exudative retinal detachment. Cytology from fine needle aspiration biopsies from both tumours with immunohistochemistry confirmed two separate melanomas. Sequential radioactive iodine plaque brachytherapy led to regression of both tumours. The second, older patient's two tumours both had the typical appearance of choroidal melanoma and he underwent proton beam irradiation to the entire field leading to tumour regression. Multiple choroidal melanomas can rarely arise simultaneously in the same eye, and despite their variable appearance, a definitive diagnosis can be aided by cytology and immunohistochemistry in atypical-appearing cases. While all other previously reported cases have necessitated enucleation, we demonstrate that globe salvage is possible using either proton beam irradiation to the entire tumour field, or with sequential radioactive plaque brachytherapy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MULTIPLE SOLVENT EXPOSURE IN HUMANS: CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple Solvent Exposures in Humans:
    Cross-Species Extrapolations
    (Future Research Plan)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    A few solvents can be safely studied in acute experiments in human subjects. Data exist in rats f...

  15. CoMuS: simulating coalescent histories and polymorphic data from multiple species.

    PubMed

    Papadantonakis, S; Poirazi, P; Pavlidis, P

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous analysis of intra- and interspecies variation is challenging mainly because our knowledge about patterns of polymorphisms where both intra- and interspecies samples coexist is limited. In this study, we present CoMuS (Coalescent of Multiple Species), a multispecies coalescent software that can simulate intra- and interspecies polymorphisms. CoMuS supports a variety of speciation models and demographic scenarios related to the history of each species. In CoMuS, speciation can be accompanied by either instant or gradual isolation between sister species. Sampling may also occur in the past, and thus, we can study simultaneously extinct and extant species. Our software supports both the infinite- and the finite-site model, with substitution rate heterogeneity among sites and a user-defined proportion of invariable sites. We demonstrate the usage of CoMuS in various applications: species delimitation, software testing, model selection and parameter inference involving present-day and ancestral samples, comparison between gradual and instantaneous isolation models, estimation of speciation time between human and chimpanzee using both intra- and interspecies variation. We expect that CoMuS will be particularly useful for studies where species have been separated recently from their common ancestor and phenomena such as incomplete lineage sorting or introgression still occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  17. Simultaneous Multiple Preoperative Localizations of Small Pulmonary Lesions Using a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro Hiraki, Takao Gobara, Hideo Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Matsui, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Seiichiro Toyooka, Shinichi Oto, Takahiro Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate simultaneous multiple hook wire placement outcomes before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).Materials and MethodsThirty-eight procedures were performed on 35 patients (13 men and 22 women; mean age, 59.9 years) with 80 lung lesions (mean diameter 7.9 mm) who underwent simultaneous multiple hook wire placements for preoperative localizations. The primary endpoints were technical success, complications, procedure duration, and VATS outcome; secondary endpoints included comparisons between technical success rates, complication rates, and procedure durations of the 238 single-placement procedures performed. Complications were also evaluated.ResultsIn 35 procedures including 74 lesions, multiple hook wire placements were technically successful; in the remaining three procedures, the second target placement was aborted because of massive pneumothorax after the first placement. Although complications occurred in 34 procedures, no grade 3 or above adverse event was observed. The mean procedure duration was 36.4 ± 11.8 min. Three hook wires dislodged during patient transport to the surgical suite. Seventy-four successfully marked lesions were resected. Six lesions without hook wires were successfully resected after detection by palpation with an additional mini-thoracotomy or using subtle pleural changes as a guide. The complication rates and procedure durations of multiple-placement procedures were significantly higher (P = 0.04) and longer (P < 0.001) than those in the single-placement group, respectively, while the technical success rate was not significantly different (P = 0.051).ConclusionsSimultaneous multiple hook wire placements before VATS were clinically feasible, but increased the complication rate and lengthened the procedure time.

  18. Cotrapping different species in ion traps using multiple radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trypogeorgos, Dimitris; Foot, Christopher J.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the stability of systems subjected to periodic parametric driving in the context of ions confined by oscillating electric fields. The behavior of these systems can be understood in terms of a pseudopotential approximation and resonances arising from parametric excitation. We investigate the key properties of a way of operating a linear Paul trap with two radio frequencies that simultaneously confines two species with extremely different charge-to-mass ratios. The theoretical calculations have been verified by molecular dynamics simulations and normal modes analysis.

  19. Species-selective confinement of atoms dressed with multiple radiofrequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentine, E.; Harte, T. L.; Luksch, K.; Barker, A. J.; Mur-Petit, J.; Yuen, B.; Foot, C. J.

    2017-05-01

    Methods to manipulate the individual constituents of an ultracold quantum gas mixture are essential tools for a number of applications, such as the direct quantum simulation of impurity physics. We investigate a scheme in which species-selective control is achieved using magnetic potentials dressed with multiple radiofrequencies, exploiting the different Landé {g}F-factors of the constituent atomic species. We describe a mixture dressed with two frequencies, where atoms are confined in harmonic potentials with a controllable degree of overlap between the two atomic species. This is then extended to a four radiofrequency scheme in which a double well potential for one species is overlaid with a single well for the other. The discussion is framed with parameters that are suitable for a {}85{Rb} and {}87{Rb} mixture, but is readily generalised to other combinations.

  20. A two-species occupancy model accommodating simultaneous spatial and interspecific dependence.

    PubMed

    Rota, Christopher T; Wikle, Christopher K; Kays, Roland W; Forrester, Tavis D; McShea, William J; Parsons, Arielle W; Millspaugh, Joshua J

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy models are popular for estimating the probability a site is occupied by a species of interest when detection is imperfect. Occupancy models have been extended to account for interacting species and spatial dependence but cannot presently allow both factors to act simultaneously. We propose a two-species occupancy model that accommodates both interspecific and spatial dependence. We use a point-referenced multivariate hierarchical spatial model to account for both spatial and interspecific dependence. We model spatial random effects with predictive process models and use probit regression to improve efficiency of posterior sampling. We model occupancy probabilities of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and coyote (Canis latrans) with camera trap data collected from six mid-Atlantic states in the eastern United States. We fit four models comprising a fully factorial combination of spatial and interspecific dependence to two-thirds of camera trapping sites and validated models with the remaining data. Red fox and coyotes each exhibited spatial dependence at distances > 0.8 and 0.4 km, respectively, and exhibited geographic variation in interspecific dependence. Consequently, predictions from the model assuming simultaneous spatial and interspecific dependence best matched test data observations. This application highlights the utility of simultaneously accounting for spatial and interspecific dependence.

  1. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  2. Multiple site-directed mutagenesis of more than 10 sites simultaneously and in a single round.

    PubMed

    Seyfang, Andreas; Jin, Jean Huaqian

    2004-01-15

    Site-directed mutagenesis is a powerful tool to explore the structure-function relationship of proteins, but most traditional methods rely on the mutation of only one site at a time and efficiencies drop drastically when more than three sites are targeted simultaneously. Many applications in functional proteomics and genetic engineering, including codon optimization for heterologous expression, generation of cysteine-less proteins, and alanine-scanning mutagenesis, would greatly benefit from a multiple-site mutagenesis method with high efficiency. Here we describe the development of a simple and rapid method for site-directed mutagenesis of more than 10 sites simultaneously with up to 100% efficiency. The method uses two terminal tailed primers with a unique 25-nucleotide tail each that are simultaneously annealed to template DNA together with the set of mutagenic primers in between. Following synthesis of the mutant strand by primer extension and ligation with T4 DNA polymerase and ligase, the unique mutant strand-specific tails of the terminal primers are used as anchors to specifically amplify the mutant strand by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction. We have employed this novel method to mutate simultaneously all 9 and 11 CUG leucine codons of the Hyg and Neo resistance genes, respectively, to the Candida albicans-friendly UUG leucine codon at 100% efficiency.

  3. Quantitative Comparison of Tumor Delivery for Multiple Targeted Nanoparticles Simultaneously by Multiplex ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Andrew; Crayton, Samuel H.; Warden-Rothman, Robert; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapidly expanding library of disease biomarkers and targeting agents, the number of unique targeted nanoparticles is growing exponentially. The high variability and expense of animal testing often makes it unfeasible to examine this large number of nanoparticles in vivo. This often leads to the investigation of a single formulation that performed best in vitro. However, nanoparticle performance in vivo depends on many variables, many of which cannot be adequately assessed with cell-based assays. To address this issue, we developed a lanthanide-doped nanoparticle method that allows quantitative comparison of multiple targeted nanoparticles simultaneously. Specifically, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles with different targeting ligands were created, each with a unique lanthanide dopant. Following the simultaneous injection of the various SPIO compositions into tumor-bearing mice, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to quantitatively and orthogonally assess the concentration of each SPIO composition in serial blood and resected tumor samples. PMID:25068300

  4. Quantitative Comparison of Tumor Delivery for Multiple Targeted Nanoparticles Simultaneously by Multiplex ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Andrew; Crayton, Samuel H.; Warden-Rothman, Robert; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Given the rapidly expanding library of disease biomarkers and targeting agents, the number of unique targeted nanoparticles is growing exponentially. The high variability and expense of animal testing often makes it unfeasible to examine this large number of nanoparticles in vivo. This often leads to the investigation of a single formulation that performed best in vitro. However, nanoparticle performance in vivo depends on many variables, many of which cannot be adequately assessed with cell-based assays. To address this issue, we developed a lanthanide-doped nanoparticle method that allows quantitative comparison of multiple targeted nanoparticles simultaneously. Specifically, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles with different targeting ligands were created, each with a unique lanthanide dopant. Following the simultaneous injection of the various SPIO compositions into tumor-bearing mice, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to quantitatively and orthogonally assess the concentration of each SPIO composition in serial blood and resected tumor samples.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of multiple radiation-induced protein expression profiles using the Luminex(TM) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, N.; Wu, H.; George, K.; Gonda, S. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Cucniotta, F. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    Space flight results in the exposure of astronauts to a mixed field of radiation composed of energetic particles of varying energies, and biological indicators of space radiation exposure provides a better understanding of the associated long-term health risks. Current methods of biodosimetry have employed the use of cytogenetic analysis for biodosimetry, and more recently the advent of technological progression has led to advanced research in the use of genomic and proteomic expression profiling to simultaneously assess biomarkers of radiation exposure. We describe here the technical advantages of the Luminex(TM) 100 system relative to traditional methods and its potential as a tool to simultaneously profile multiple proteins induced by ionizing radiation. The development of such a bioassay would provide more relevant post-translational dynamics of stress response and will impart important implications in the advancement of space and other radiation contact monitoring. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of multiple radiation-induced protein expression profiles using the Luminex(TM) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, N.; Wu, H.; George, K.; Gonda, S. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Cucniotta, F. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    Space flight results in the exposure of astronauts to a mixed field of radiation composed of energetic particles of varying energies, and biological indicators of space radiation exposure provides a better understanding of the associated long-term health risks. Current methods of biodosimetry have employed the use of cytogenetic analysis for biodosimetry, and more recently the advent of technological progression has led to advanced research in the use of genomic and proteomic expression profiling to simultaneously assess biomarkers of radiation exposure. We describe here the technical advantages of the Luminex(TM) 100 system relative to traditional methods and its potential as a tool to simultaneously profile multiple proteins induced by ionizing radiation. The development of such a bioassay would provide more relevant post-translational dynamics of stress response and will impart important implications in the advancement of space and other radiation contact monitoring. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous dispersion measurements of multiple fiber modes using virtual reference interferometry.

    PubMed

    Galle, Michael A; Saini, Simarjeet S; Mohammed, Waleed S; Sillard, Pierre; Qian, Li

    2014-03-24

    We present the simultaneous measurement of first and second order dispersion in short length (< 1 m) few mode fibers (polarization and transverse) using virtual reference interferometry. This technique generates results equivalent to balanced spectral interferometry, without the complexity associated with physical balancing. This is achieved by simulating a virtual reference with a group delay equal to that of the physical interferometer. The amplitude modulation that results from mixing the interferograms, generated in both the unbalanced interferometer and the virtual reference, is equivalent to the first order interference that would be produced by physical balancing. The advantages of the technique include speed, simplicity, convenience and the capability for simultaneous measurement of multiple modes. The theoretical framework is first developed and then verified experimentally.

  8. Simultaneous and spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, R.; Mihailescu, M.; Kusko, C.; Paun, I. A.; Nan, A. E.; Kusko, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method for spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, simultaneous. The starting point is the generation of axially superposed Laguerre-Gauss beams, carrying multiple OAM states using a single computer generated hologram. The information contained in the OAM superposition is transferred to the first diffraction order and is detected at the receiver with a reading mask, which contains two perpendicular superposed fork-like holograms, ensuring the spatial separation of the OAM states. The dynamic of the process is studied in terms of the number of generated OAM states and the constructive parameters values. The experimental investigations use an optical arrangement based on a spatial light modulator in the transmitter unit and an amplitude mask in the receiver unit. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the possibility of simultaneously detection of multiple OAM states in points located at different coordinates, controlled through the design of the holograms and shows the capability of our proposed method to increase the capacity of free-space optical communication channels.

  9. Microfluidic Quantitative PCR for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Viruses in Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Gaku; Segawa, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Ayano; Miura, Takayuki; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    To secure food and water safety, quantitative information on multiple pathogens is important. In this study, we developed a microfluidic quantitative PCR (MFQPCR) system to simultaneously quantify 11 major human viral pathogens, including adenovirus, Aichi virus, astrovirus, enterovirus, human norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and hepatitis A and E viruses. Murine norovirus and mengovirus were also quantified in our MFQPCR system as a sample processing control and an internal amplification control, respectively. River water contaminated with effluents from a wastewater treatment plant in Sapporo, Japan, was collected and used to validate our MFQPCR system for multiple viruses. High-throughput quantitative information was obtained with a quantification limit of 2 copies/μl of cDNA/DNA. Using this MFQPCR system, we could simultaneously quantify multiple viral pathogens in environmental water samples. The viral quantities obtained using MFQPCR were similar to those determined by conventional quantitative PCR. Thus, the MFQPCR system developed in this study can provide direct and quantitative information for viral pathogens, which is essential for risk assessments. PMID:25261510

  10. Simultaneous detection of multiple elastic surfaces with application to tumor segmentation in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Jolly, Marie-Pierre

    2008-03-01

    We present a new semi-supervised method for segmenting multiple interrelated object boundaries with spherical topology in volumetric images. The core of our method is a novel graph-theoretic algorithm that simultaneously detects multiple surfaces under smoothness, distance, and elasticity constraints. The algorithm computes the global optimum of an objective function that incorporates boundary, regional and surface elasticity information. A single straight line drawn by the user in a cross-sectional slice is the sole user input, which roughly indicates the extent of the object. We employ a multi-seeded Dijkstra-based range competition algorithm to pre-segment the object on two orthogonal multiplanar reformatted (MPR) planes that pass through the input line. Based on the 2D pre-segmentation results, we estimate the object and background intensity histograms, and employ an adaptive mean-shift mode-seeking process on the object histogram to automatically determine the number of surface layers to be segmented. The final multiple-surface segmentation is performed in an ellipsoidal coordinate frame constructed by an automated ellipsoid fitting procedure. We apply our method to the segmentation of liver lesions with necrosis or calcification, and various other tumors in CT images. For liver tumor segmentation, our method can simultaneously delineate both tumor and necrosis boundaries. This capability is unprecedented and is valuable for cancer diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation.

  11. Radio Frequency Identification Sensor Chips with Anticollision Algorithm for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Nemoto, Ryo; Shiratori, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    A newly developed DNA measurement method for multiple single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor chip was demonstrated. The RFID sensor chip monolithically integrates a sensor, amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a passive wireless communication interface for receiving commands and transmitting data on a 2.5×2.5 mm2 silicon chip. For the simultaneous multitarget measurement, anticollision control and peak-power suppression are essential. To assign a unique identification number (UID) for the identification of multiple sensor chips, a reproducible random number generator circuit (RRG) was designed and installed on the chip. Peak-power consumption was reduced to 1018 µW by a clock gating of functional circuit blocks. Multiple SNP typing was carried out by simultaneously operating five RFID sensor chips (four with photosensors and one with a temperature sensor). The target DNA was captured on the sensor chips, and SNPs were detected by observing bioluminescence. Finally, the observed data were wirelessly transmitted to the reader.

  12. Simultaneous confocal recording of multiple fluorescent labels with improved channel separation.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, K; Aslund, N; Mossberg, K; Philip, J

    1994-12-01

    Confocal microscopes are often used to study specimens labelled with fluorophores. A commonly used method for simultaneous recording of the distribution of multiple fluorophores is to divide the fluorescent light emitted by the specimen into different wavelength regions using dichroic and bandpass filters. These different wavelength regions are then distributed to multiple detectors. However, the broad and overlapping spectra of commonly used fluorophores often result in considerable crosstalk between channels. A new technique, intensity-modulated multiple-beam scanning (IMS) microfluorometry, can be used to reduce this cross-talk substantially. The IMS technique is implemented with two laser beams of different wavelengths, intensity-modulated at different frequencies, which illuminate the specimen simultaneously. The two laser wavelengths predominantly excite one fluorophore each. Fluorescent light from the specimen is divided into two wavelength regions (red and green) which are detected by two photomultiplier tubes. The output signals from the photomultiplier tubes are connected to lock-in amplifiers. The effect of using modulated laser beams, in combination with lock-in amplifiers, is strongly to reduce cross-talk between the channels. The performance of the IMS technique using various types of specimen is compared with the results obtained using the conventional multi-detector method.

  13. Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of multiple heavy metals by Helianthus annuus grown in a contaminated sandy-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Teresa; Gunda, Nagaraju; Kurt, Firat

    2010-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of contamination arising from heavy metal spills. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most of the studies were performed with only one heavy metal. Experiments were conducted with two cultivars of H. annuus exposed to different combinations of metal contamination (30 mg/kg Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and/or Fe). Cultivar efficiency was based on total metal uptake, as well as translocation and selectivity of each metal. The results for each cultivar were also compared after 0.1 g/kg or 0.3 g/kg EDTA was added to enhance metal bioavailability. The key finding was that H. annuus achieved hyperaccumulator status for multiple metals simultaneously: Cd, Cr, and As.

  14. Multiple species reactive chemical transport in groundwater: A verification exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.; Zhu, Ming

    1991-04-01

    Two multiple-species reactive chemical transport models (FASTCHEM and DYNAMIX) were tested against each other to check for consistency of solutions. For the particular problem studied, FASTCHEM and DYNAMIX led to differences in aqueous concentrations and mineral assemblages primarily because FASTCHEM ignores redox reactions in the transport phase of the calculations. Also, the spatial concentration profiles generated by FASTCHEM tend to be sharper than those generated by DYNAMIX because FASTCHEM is particularly designed to handle advection-dominated transport systems.

  15. Instrumentation for simultaneous kinetic imaging of multiple fluorophores in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen J.; Beatty, Diane M.; Welling, Larry W.; Wiegmann, Thomas B.

    1991-05-01

    Low-light fluorescence video microscopy has established itself as an excellent method for investigations of cell dynamics. There is a growing interest in resolving multiple images of 'ratio' fluorophores like indo or BCECF or the emission from multiple dyes placed in the same cell system. For rapid kinetic studies, the problems of photodynamic damage and photobleaching on one hand and the need for good spatial and temporal resolution on the other, press the resolution of the instrumentation. Rapid resolution of multiple probes at multiple wavelengths presents a third set of problems of exciting the probes and appropriately imaging the emitted light. The authors have designed a new real-time low-light fluorescence video microscope for capturing intensified images of up to four dyes contained in the same cell system. These can be two dual-emission wavelength 'ratio' dyes or multiple dyes. The optics allow simultaneous excitation of up to four fluorophores and the real-time (30 frames/second) capture of four separate fluorescence emission images. Each emission wavelength is imaged simultaneously by one of four cameras, then digitized and appropriately combined at standard video frame rates to be stored at high resolution on tape or video disk for further off-line correction and analysis. The design has no moving parts in its optical train, which overcomes a number of technical difficulties encountered in filter wheel or mechanical shutter designs for multiple imaging. The instrument can be assembled form off-the-shelf components. Coupled to compatible image processing software utilizing PC-AT computers, it can be realized for relatively low cost. Two examples of simultaneous multi-parameter imaging are presented. Synchronous observations of calcium and pH distribution in kidney epithelial cells, loaded with both indo-1 and SNARF-1TM, show that both are altered in response to ionomycin treatment; however, the kinetics for the two changes are quite different

  16. Simultaneously reconstructing viral cross-species transmission history and identifying the underlying constraints

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Streicker, Daniel G.; Lemey, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The factors that determine the origin and fate of cross-species transmission events remain unclear for the majority of human pathogens, despite being central for the development of predictive models and assessing the efficacy of prevention strategies. Here, we describe a flexible Bayesian statistical framework to reconstruct virus transmission between different host species based on viral gene sequences, while simultaneously testing and estimating the contribution of several potential predictors of cross-species transmission. Specifically, we use a generalized linear model extension of phylogenetic diffusion to perform Bayesian model averaging over candidate predictors. By further extending this model with branch partitioning, we allow for distinct host transition processes on external and internal branches, thus discriminating between recent cross-species transmissions, many of which are likely to result in dead-end infections, and host shifts that reflect successful onwards transmission in the new host species. Our approach corroborates genetic distance between hosts as a key determinant of both host shifts and cross-species transmissions of rabies virus in North American bats. Furthermore, our results indicate that geographical range overlap is a modest predictor for cross-species transmission, but not for host shifts. Although our evolutionary framework focused on the multi-host reservoir dynamics of bat rabies virus, it is applicable to other pathogens and to other discrete state transition processes. PMID:23382420

  17. Development of oligonucleotide microarrays for simultaneous multi-species identification of Phellinus tree-pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Tzean, Yuh; Shu, Po-Yao; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Tzean, Shean-Shong

    2016-03-01

    Polyporoid Phellinus fungi are ubiquitously present in the environment and play an important role in shaping forest ecology. Several species of Phellinus are notorious pathogens that can affect a broad variety of tree species in forest, plantation, orchard and urban habitats; however, current detection methods are overly complex and lack the sensitivity required to identify these pathogens at the species level in a timely fashion for effective infestation control. Here, we describe eight oligonucleotide microarray platforms for the simultaneous and specific detection of 17 important Phellinus species, using probes generated from the internal transcribed spacer regions unique to each species. The sensitivity, robustness and efficiency of this Phellinus microarray system was subsequently confirmed against template DNA from two key Phellinus species, as well as field samples collected from tree roots, trunks and surrounding soil. This system can provide early, specific and convenient detection of Phellinus species for forestry, arboriculture and quarantine inspection, and could potentially help to mitigate the environmental and economic impact of Phellinus-related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Michael J.; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María J.; Iglesias, David; Sherry, James; Reinisch, Carol; Muttray, Annette F.; Baldwin, Susan A.; Goff, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinctive cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils1 and dogs2,3), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. The discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria)4 suggested that this phenomenon might be more widespread. Here we analyzed disseminated neoplasia in mussels (Mytilus trossulus), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and golden carpet shell clams (Polititapes aureus) and found that neoplasias in all three species are attributable to independent transmissible cancer lineages. In mussels and cockles, the cancer lineages are derived from their respective host species, but unexpectedly, cancer cells in P. aureus are all derived from Venerupis corrugata, a different species living in the same geographic area. No cases of disseminated neoplasia have thus far been found in V. corrugata from the same region. These findings show that transmission of cancer cells in the marine environment is common in multiple species, that it has originated many times, and that while most transmissible cancers were found spreading within the species of origin, cross-species transmission of cancer cells can occur. PMID:27338791

  19. Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Michael J; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Sherry, James; Reinisch, Carol; Muttray, Annette F; Baldwin, Susan A; Goff, Stephen P

    2016-06-30

    Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinct cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils and dogs), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. The discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) suggested that this phenomenon might be more widespread. Here we analyse disseminated neoplasia in mussels (Mytilus trossulus), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and golden carpet shell clams (Polititapes aureus) and find that neoplasias in all three species are attributable to independent transmissible cancer lineages. In mussels and cockles, the cancer lineages are derived from their respective host species; however, unexpectedly, cancer cells in P. aureus are all derived from Venerupis corrugata, a different species living in the same geographical area. No cases of disseminated neoplasia have thus far been found in V. corrugata from the same region. These findings show that transmission of cancer cells in the marine environment is common in multiple species, that it has originated many times, and that while most transmissible cancers are found spreading within the species of origin, cross-species transmission of cancer cells can occur.

  20. A sparse matrix iterative method for efficiently computing multiple simultaneous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyse, W.E.; Seidl, A.A.

    1994-12-31

    The authors consider the solution of large sparse complex symmetric indefinite systems of equations where multiple solutions are required. This type of problem occurs in calculating monostatic radar cross sections in electromagnetic scattering using the finite element method. The Quasi Minimum Residual (QMR) method, ideally suited for these matrices, is generalized using the block Lanozos algorithm to solve blocks of solutions simultaneously. The algorithm is presented and a natural convergence criterion is proposed which is shown to be as effective as the usual equation residual in monitoring convergence.

  1. Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Long; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-05

    Based on the conventional iterative algorithm, we present a pattern search assisted iterative (PSI) algorithm to simultaneously generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element. The PSI algorithm shows a favorable operation performance for generating 100 randomly spaced OAM modes and 50 evenly spaced OAM modes with high diffraction efficiency (>93%), low relative root-mean-square error (R-RMSE) and low standard deviation. Moreover, we can also manipulate the relative power distribution of the generated OAM modes simply by setting the initial weight coefficients in the PSI algorithm.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic and Selenium Species in Sediment Extracts Utilizing Coupled Techniques with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Yoon, C.

    2009-12-01

    Arsenic has been recognized as one of the major problems of toxicity in several parts of the world. It is well known that the toxicity of arsenic depends on its chemical form. Selenium is one of the minor but plays an important biological role in human health. The multiple roles of selenium, deficiency and toxicity, depend on its chemical form and concentration. The multielement detection capability of ICP-MS makes it an ideal detector for multielement chromatographic separation. Most of multielement separation analyses by LC-ICP-MS are applied to standard or to water samples. Only very few reports deal with solid matrices. A procedure for the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium species in phosphoric acid extracts of sediment samples by liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS has been developing. Arsenic species, arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and selenium species, selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)] were separated on anion exchange column by a mobile phase of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The total analysis took less than 10 min with gradient elution at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The sonication extraction was used with dry sediment and phosphoric acid. Reaction gases such as methane and oxygen was used to remove spectral interferences on arsenic and selenium measurement. The estimated detection limits in the sediment ranged between 1 and 25 ng/g for the arsenic and selenium species. The repeatability was less than 15% (RSD) for 1 µg/L arsenic species and 5 µg/L selenium species. Accuracy of the method was assessed through the recovery of the spiked sediment. Recoveries ranged between 82 and 115 % for all the species.

  3. Multiple species of noninteracting molecules adsorbed on a Bethe lattice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael; Harris, A B

    2008-10-01

    A simple method, previously used to calculate the equilibrium concentration of dimers adsorbed on a Bethe lattice as a function of the dimer activity, is generalized to solve the problem of a Bethe lattice in contact with a reservoir containing a mixture of molecules. The molecules may have arbitrary sizes and shapes consistent with the geometry of the lattice and the molecules do not interact with one another except for the hard-core restriction that two molecules cannot touch the same site. We obtain a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations, one equation for each species of molecule, which determines the equilibrium concentration of each type of molecule as a function of the (arbitrary) activities of the various species. Surprisingly, regardless of the number of species, the equilibrium concentrations are given explicitly in terms of the solution of a single equation in one unknown which can be solved numerically, if need be. Some numerical examples show that increasing the activity of one species need not necessarily decrease the equilibrium concentration of all other species. We also calculate the adsorption isotherm of an "annealed" Bethe lattice consisting of two types of sites which differently influence the activity of an adsorbed molecule. We prove that if the reservoir contains a finite number of molecular species, regions of two different polymer densities cannot simultaneously exist on the lattice. The widely used Guggenheim theory of mixtures, which can also be construed as a theory of adsorption, assumes for simplicity that the molecules in the mixture are composed of elementary units, which occupy sites of a lattice of coordination number q . Guggenheim's analysis relies on approximate combinatorial formulas which become exact on a Bethe lattice of the same coordination number, as we show in an appendix. Our analysis involves no combinatorics and relies only on recognizing the statistical independence of certain quantities. Despite the nominal

  4. CARS Spectral Fitting with Multiple Resonant Species using Sparse Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    The dual pump CARS technique is often used in the study of turbulent flames. Fast and accurate algorithms are needed for fitting dual-pump CARS spectra for temperature and multiple chemical species. This paper describes the development of such an algorithm. The algorithm employs sparse libraries, whose size grows much more slowly with number of species than a conventional library. The method was demonstrated by fitting synthetic "experimental" spectra containing 4 resonant species (N2, O2, H2 and CO2), both with noise and without it, and by fitting experimental spectra from a H2-air flame produced by a Hencken burner. In both studies, weighted least squares fitting of signal, as opposed to least squares fitting signal or square-root signal, was shown to produce the least random error and minimize bias error in the fitted parameters.

  5. Scanning multiple samples simultaneously in tube-based microCT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, S. R.; Rajamannan, N. M.; Spelsberg, T. C.; Malayannan, S.; Riaz, R.; Polavarapu, M.; Hsu, E. L.; Hsu, W., K.; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Ming

    2010-09-01

    The world-wide explosion of commercial microComputed Tomography (microCT) system emplacement has led to dayin, day-out access to laboratory scanners. Most biologically-oriented microCT facilities must characterize large numbers of samples rapidly at moderate spatial resolution (e.g., 10-20 μm isotropic volume elements, voxels). Scanning multiple specimens simultaneously is one efficient solution. Sample positioning is critical if the region of interest of each specimen is to be imaged without increasing the number of slices recorded (i.e., data acquisition and reconstruction times). Three very different, multiple sample data acquisitions are reported: mouse heart tissue calcification, rat spinal fusion and mouse tibial bone cancer models

  6. Multiple simultaneous specification attitude control of a mini flying-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markin, Shael

    The Multiple Simultaneous Specification controller design method is an elegant means of designing a single controller to satisfy multiple convex closed loop performance specifications. In this thesis, the method is used to design pitch and roll attitude controllers for a Zagi flying-wing unmanned aerial vehicle from Procerus Technologies. A linear model of the aircraft is developed, in which the lateral and longitudinal motions of the aircraft are decoupled. The controllers are designed for this decoupled state space model. Linear simulations are performed in Simulink, and all performance specifications are satisfied by the closed loop system. Nonlinear, hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out using the aircraft, on-board computer, and ground station software. Flight tests are also executed to test the performance of the designed controllers. The closed loop aircraft behaviour is generally as expected, however the desired performance specifications are not strictly met in the nonlinear simulations or in the flight tests.

  7. A pulse coding and decoding strategy to perform Lamb wave inspections using simultaneously multiple actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Moll, Jochen; Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-07-01

    The performance of Lamb wave based monitoring systems, both in terms of diagnosis time and data complexity, can be enhanced by increasing the number of transducers used to actuate simultaneously the guided waves in the inspected medium. However, in case of multiple simultaneously-operated actuators the interference among the excited wave modes within the acquired signals has to be considered for the further processing. To this aim, in this work a code division strategy based on the Warped Frequency Transform is presented. At first, the proposed procedure encodes actuation pulses using Gold sequences. Next, for each considered actuator the acquired signals are compensated from dispersion by cross correlating the warped version of the actuated and received signals. Compensated signals form the base for a final wavenumber imaging meant at emphasizing defects and or anomalies by removing incident wavefield and edge reflections. The proposed strategy is tested numerically, and validated through an experiment in which guided waves are actuated in a plate by four piezoelectric transducers operating simultaneously.

  8. Simultaneous π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atomsmore » simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.« less

  9. Downslope wind captured by simultaneous multiple-radiosonde launches with different buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We executed a newly manipulated field experiment in order to describe the vertical and horizontal structure of the air flow over a mountain range. The behavior of the flow over the mountain drastically changes; lee wave, wave breaking, downslope wind. Airborne observation can describe their vertical and horizontal structures in detail. However, the enormous cost of the airborne observation prevents us from its execution. An economical field experiment "simultaneous multiple-radiosonde launches with different buoyancies" was executed in order to understand a local lee wind referred to as "Suzuka-oroshi", in which extremely strong wind generated by the Suzuka Mountain range frequently occurs in the central parts of Japan in winter. We simultaneously launched six balloons with GPS radiosonde at 4 observatories along the prevailing wind from the windward through the top of the mountain to leeward in a narrow area, where horizontal distance between the windward and leeward observatories was about 35 km. In addition to the simultaneous launches at the 4 observatories, we utilized a multiple sounding technique, in which two balloons are launched co-instantaneously at a single point. We changed the amount of the helium gas to control the balloon trajectories and ensuring the wide data coverage in the plane. Because these simultaneous launches gave us horizontally and vertically high-resolved meteorological data, we successfully drew meteorological fields with the x-z plain. The observation was executed in winter in 2010. Overviews of the observational results are as follows. When the wind speed over the top of the mountain and the lee side of the mountain suddenly became intense, the isentropic lines in the x-z plain featured drastic wave-breaking motion. In addition, the fluctuation of ascent rates of balloons, which may correspond to the sign of the vertical wind, indicated that high and low ascent rate was respectively located along upward and downward isentropes in the

  10. Mapping habitat for multiple species in the Desert Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, Richard D.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Barr, Kelly R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Many utility scale renewable energy projects are currently proposed across the Mojave Ecoregion. Agencies that manage biological resources throughout this region need to understand the potential impacts of these renewable energy projects and their associated infrastructure (for example, transmission corridors, substations, access roads, etc.) on species movement, genetic exchange among populations, and species’ abilities to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these factors will help managers’ select appropriate project sites and possibly mitigate for anticipated effects of management activities. We used species distribution models to map habitat for 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion to aid regional land-use management planning. Models were developed using a common 1 × 1 kilometer resolution with maximum entropy and generalized additive models. Occurrence data were compiled from multiple sources, including VertNet (http://vertnet.org/), HerpNET (http://www.herpnet.org), and MaNIS (http://manisnet.org), as well as from internal U.S. Geological Survey databases and other biologists. Background data included 20 environmental covariates representing terrain, vegetation, and climate covariates. This report summarizes these environmental covariates and species distribution models used to predict habitat for the 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion.

  11. SATCHMO-JS: a webserver for simultaneous protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Raffi; Davidson, John R; Datta, Ruchira S; Samad, Bushra; Jarvis, Glen R; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2010-07-01

    We present the jump-start simultaneous alignment and tree construction using hidden Markov models (SATCHMO-JS) web server for simultaneous estimation of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and phylogenetic trees. The server takes as input a set of sequences in FASTA format, and outputs a phylogenetic tree and MSA; these can be viewed online or downloaded from the website. SATCHMO-JS is an extension of the SATCHMO algorithm, and employs a divide-and-conquer strategy to jump-start SATCHMO at a higher point in the phylogenetic tree, reducing the computational complexity of the progressive all-versus-all HMM-HMM scoring and alignment. Results on a benchmark dataset of 983 structurally aligned pairs from the PREFAB benchmark dataset show that SATCHMO-JS provides a statistically significant improvement in alignment accuracy over MUSCLE, Multiple Alignment using Fast Fourier Transform (MAFFT), ClustalW and the original SATCHMO algorithm. The SATCHMO-JS webserver is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js. The datasets used in these experiments are available for download at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js/supplementary/.

  12. Simultaneous two-axis shearographic interferometer using multiple wavelengths and a color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richoz, Guillaume L.; Schajer, Gary S.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-component measurements in shearography and other applications of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are typically achieved using multiple optical configurations that are activated sequentially to measure each desired quantity separately. A novel optical setup is introduced here where orthogonal shearography measurements are simultaneously made using a single color-camera imaging multiple monochromatic light sources of different wavelengths. The Red-Green-Blue (RGB) sensors of a conventional Bayer type camera are read separately, thereby providing three independent color signals and independent ESPI phase maps. Orthogonal axis shearography is achieved using a modified shearography interferometer where a dichroic filter is added to provide a second wavelength-dependent measurement. The availability of the two surface slopes gives the opportunity for the data to be summed numerically to give the surface displacement shape. This application is of significant practical interest because the surface displacement measurement can be made under field conditions by taking advantage of the well-known optical stability of shearography measurements. The two simultaneously measured surface slopes also offer the possibility to mathematically compensate for non-uniformity and non-orthogonality in the image shear caused by mirror non-flatness and/or mirror misalignments.

  13. Technical note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input–output relationships in climate models

    DOE PAGES

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Rasch, Philip J.; ...

    2017-02-17

    We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input–output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state. We use this technique to determine the steady-state responses of low cloud fraction and latent heat flux to heating perturbations over 22 regions spanning Earth's oceans. We show that the response characteristics are similar to thosemore » of step-change simulations, but in this new method the responses for 22 regions can be characterized simultaneously. Moreover, we can estimate the timescale over which the steady-state response emerges. The proposed methodology could be useful for a wide variety of purposes in climate science, including characterization of teleconnections and uncertainty quantification to identify the effects of climate model tuning parameters.« less

  14. Technical note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input–output relationships in climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input–output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state. We use this technique to determine the steady-state responses of low cloud fraction and latent heat flux to heating perturbations over 22 regions spanning Earth's oceans. We show that the response characteristics are similar to those of step-change simulations, but in this new method the responses for 22 regions can be characterized simultaneously. Furthermore, we can estimate the timescale over which the steady-state response emerges. The proposed methodology could be useful for a wide variety of purposes in climate science, including characterization of teleconnections and uncertainty quantification to identify the effects of climate model tuning parameters.

  15. Simultaneous entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingwen; Agnew, Megan; Roger, Thomas; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas; Faccio, Daniele; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-09-21

    High-bit-rate long-distance quantum communication is a proposed technology for future communication networks and relies on high-dimensional quantum entanglement as a core resource. While it is known that spatial modes of light provide an avenue for high-dimensional entanglement, the ability to transport such quantum states robustly over long distances remains challenging. To overcome this, entanglement swapping may be used to generate remote quantum correlations between particles that have not interacted; this is the core ingredient of a quantum repeater, akin to repeaters in optical fibre networks. Here we demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light. Our approach does not distinguish between different anti-symmetric states, and thus entanglement swapping occurs for several thousand pairs of spatial light modes simultaneously. This work represents the first step towards a quantum network for high-dimensional entangled states and provides a test bed for fundamental tests of quantum science.Entanglement swapping in high dimensions requires large numbers of entangled photons and consequently suffers from low photon flux. Here the authors demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple spatial modes of light simultaneously, without the need for increasing the photon numbers with dimension.

  16. Technical note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input-output relationships in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong

    2017-02-01

    We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input-output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state. We use this technique to determine the steady-state responses of low cloud fraction and latent heat flux to heating perturbations over 22 regions spanning Earth's oceans. We show that the response characteristics are similar to those of step-change simulations, but in this new method the responses for 22 regions can be characterized simultaneously. Furthermore, we can estimate the timescale over which the steady-state response emerges. The proposed methodology could be useful for a wide variety of purposes in climate science, including characterization of teleconnections and uncertainty quantification to identify the effects of climate model tuning parameters.

  17. Channel selection for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Hahne, Janne Mathias; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown the possibility of simultaneous and proportional control of electrically powered upper-limb prostheses, but there has been little investigation on optimal channel selection. The objective of this study is to find a robust channel selection method and the channel subsets most suitable for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). Approach. Ten able-bodied subjects and one person with congenital upper-limb deficiency took part in this study, and performed wrist movements with various combinations of two DoFs (flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation). During the experiment, high density electromyographic (EMG) signals and the actual wrist angles were recorded with an 8 × 24 electrode array and a motion tracking system, respectively. The wrist angles were estimated from EMG features with ridge regression using the subsets of channels chosen by three different channel selection methods: (1) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), (2) sequential feature selection (SFS), and (3) uniform selection (UNI). Main results. SFS generally showed higher estimation accuracy than LASSO and UNI, but LASSO always outperformed SFS in terms of robustness, such as noise addition, channel shift and training data reduction. It was also confirmed that about 95% of the original performance obtained using all channels can be retained with only 12 bipolar channels individually selected by LASSO and SFS. Significance. From the analysis results, it can be concluded that LASSO is a promising channel selection method for accurate simultaneous and proportional prosthesis control. We expect that our results will provide a useful guideline to select optimal channel subsets when developing clinical myoelectric prosthesis control systems based on continuous movements with multiple DoFs.

  18. The simultaneous occurrence of multiple myeloma and JAK2 positive myeloproliferative neoplasms - Report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Badelita, S; Dobrea, C; Colita, A; Dogaru, M; Dragomir, M; Jardan, C; Coriu, D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma and JAK2 positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are hematologic malignancies with a completely different cellular origin. Two cases of simultaneous occurrence of multiple myeloma, one with primary myelofibrosis and another one with essential thrombocythemia are reported in this article. In such cases, an accurate diagnosis requires a molecular testing, including gene sequencing and differential diagnosis of pancytosis associated with splenic amyloidosis. In general, in such cases, of two coexisting malignant hematologic diseases, the treatment of the most aggressive one is recommended. For our two cases, it was decided to start a Velcade based therapy. The main concern was the medullar toxicity, especially when a multiple myeloma was associated with a primary myelofibrosis. Abbreviations:JAK2 = Janus kinase 2 gene, PMF = primary myelofibrosis, MPNs = myeloproliferative neoplasms, ET = essential thrombocythemia, PV = polycythemia vera, MM = multiple myeloma, WBC = white blood cells, Hb = haemoglobin, Ht = haematocrit, Plt = platelets, BMB = bone marrow biopsy, CBC = blood cell count, CT = computerized tomography, LAP = leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, MGUS = monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. PMID:25914740

  19. Energetics of Multiple-Ion Species Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Berger, R; Callahan, D; Divol, L; Froula, D; London, R; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N; Michel, P; Ross, J S; Sorce, C; Widmann, K; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-05

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes in multiple-ion species plasmas has been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Gas-filled hohlraums with densities of xe22/cc are heated to Te=3keV and backscattered laser light is measured by a suite of absolutely calibrated backscatter diagnostics. Ion Landau damping is increased by adding hydrogen to the CO2/CF4 gas fill. We find that the backscatter from stimulated Brillouin scattering is reduced is monotonically reduced with increasing damping, demonstrating that Landau damping is the controlling damping mechanism in ICF relevant high-electron temperature plasmas. The reduction in backscatter is accompanied by a comparable increase in both transmission of a probe beam and an increased hohlraum radiation temperature, showing that multiple-ion species plasmas improve the overall hohlraum energetics/performance. Comparison of the experimental data to linear gain calculations as well as detailed full-scale 3D laser-plasma interaction simulations show quantitative agreement. Our findings confirm the importance of Landau damping in controlling backscatter from high-electron temperature hohlraum plasmas and have lead to the inclusion of multi-ion species plasmas in the hohlraum point design for upcoming ignition campaigns at the National Ignition Facility.

  20. Easy detection of multiple Alexandrium species using DNA chromatography chip.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Ino, Keita; Tajimi, Seisuke; Nishi, Hiromi; Tomono, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Kaneka DNA chromatography chip (KDCC) for the Alexandrium species was successfully developed for simultaneous detection of five Alexandrium species. This method utilizes a DNA-DNA hybridization technology. In the PCR process, specifically designed tagged-primers are used, i.e. a forward primer consisting of a tag domain, which can conjugate with gold nanocolloids on the chip, and a primer domain, which can anneal/amplify the target sequence. However, the reverse primer consists of a tag domain, which can hybridize to the solid-phased capture probe on the chip, and a primer domain, which can anneal/amplify the target sequence. As a result, a red line that originates from gold nanocolloids appears as a positive signal on the chip, and the amplicon is detected visually by the naked eye. This technique is simple, because it is possible to visually detect the target species soon after (<5min) the application of 2μL of PCR amplicon and 65μL of development buffer to the sample pad of the chip. Further, this technique is relatively inexpensive and does not require expensive laboratory equipment, such as real-time Q-PCR machines or DNA microarray detectors, but a thermal cycler. Regarding the detection limit of KDCC for the five Alexandrium species, it varied among species and it was <0.1-10pg and equivalent to 5-500 copies of rRNA genes, indicating that the technique is sensitive enough for practical use to detect several cells of the target species from 1L of seawater. The detection sensitivity of KDCC was also evaluated with two different techniques, i.e. a multiplex-PCR and a digital DNA hybridization by digital DNA chip analyzer (DDCA), using natural plankton assemblages. There was no significant difference in the detection sensitivity among the three techniques, suggesting KDCC can be readily used to monitor the HAB species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple-species analysis of point count data: A more parsimonious modelling framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Simons, T.R.; Shriner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Although population surveys often provide information on multiple species, these data are rarely analysed within a multiple-species framework despite the potential for more efficient estimation of population parameters. 2. We have developed a multiple-species modelling framework that uses similarities in capture/detection processes among species to model multiple species data more parsimoniously. We present examples of this approach applied to distance, time of detection and multiple observer sampling for avian point count data. 3. Models that included species as a covariate and individual species effects were generally selected as the best models for distance sampling, but group models without species effects performed best for the time of detection and multiple observer methods. Population estimates were more precise for no-species-effect models than for species-effect models, demonstrating the benefits of exploiting species' similarities when modelling multiple species data. Partial species-effect models and additive models were also useful because they modelled similarities among species while allowing for species differences. 4. Synthesis and applications. We recommend the adoption of multiple-species modelling because of its potential for improved population estimates. This framework will be particularly beneficial for modelling count data from rare species because information on the detection process can be 'borrowed' from more common species. The multiple-species modelling framework presented here is applicable to a wide range of sampling techniques and taxa. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  2. Bias correction in species distribution models: pooling survey and collection data for multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Fithian, William; Elith, Jane; Hastie, Trevor; Keith, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Presence-only records may provide data on the distributions of rare species, but commonly suffer from large, unknown biases due to their typically haphazard collection schemes. Presence–absence or count data collected in systematic, planned surveys are more reliable but typically less abundant.We proposed a probabilistic model to allow for joint analysis of presence-only and survey data to exploit their complementary strengths. Our method pools presence-only and presence–absence data for many species and maximizes a joint likelihood, simultaneously estimating and adjusting for the sampling bias affecting the presence-only data. By assuming that the sampling bias is the same for all species, we can borrow strength across species to efficiently estimate the bias and improve our inference from presence-only data.We evaluate our model’s performance on data for 36 eucalypt species in south-eastern Australia. We find that presence-only records exhibit a strong sampling bias towards the coast and towards Sydney, the largest city. Our data-pooling technique substantially improves the out-of-sample predictive performance of our model when the amount of available presence–absence data for a given species is scarceIf we have only presence-only data and no presence–absence data for a given species, but both types of data for several other species that suffer from the same spatial sampling bias, then our method can obtain an unbiased estimate of the first species’ geographic range. PMID:27840673

  3. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively. PMID:23997571

  4. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively.

  5. Rapid simultaneous measurement of multiple cytokines using 100 µl sample volumes – association with neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, G; Hodge, S; Haslam, R; McPhee, A; Sepulveda, H; Morgan, E; Nicholson, I; Zola, H

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neonatal infection has proved problematic due to the inadequacy of currently available laboratory tests. Neonatal sepsis is associated with an increase in plasma-derived cytokine levels, but an increase of a single cytokine cannot identify neonatal sepsis specifically and multiple cytokine levels are required. The time constraints and relatively large volume of plasma required to measure multiple cytokines from newborn infants by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques is prohibitive. We therefore applied cytometric bead array (CBA) technology for simultaneous measurement of multiple cytokines from a group of 18 term neonates with infection confirmed by culture and a control group. ‘Normal’ ranges were established for each cytokine from 1–7-, 8–14- and 15–21-day-old newborns. There was no significant change in the levels of cytokines from infants in different control age groups, suggesting that basal cytokine levels are unchanged in the first 3 weeks of life. In the patient groups, however, there was a significant difference in several cytokines between the different age groups. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-12 were increased significantly in the 1–7-day-old patient group compared to either the 8–14 and 15–21 age group, suggesting that infection in utero is associated with increased levels of these cytokines compared to infection acquired following birth. When individual patient cytokine levels were compared to normal control reference ranges, two patients failed to show significant elevation of any cytokine tested. All other patients showed elevated levels of between one and nine cytokines tested (mean of 4·6). There was no correlation between elevated cytokine levels and types of infective organism or patient age. In conclusion, neonatal sepsis is associated with the elevation of multiple plasma cytokines. The use of CBA kits is a rapid, easy, low sample volume and sensitive method to measure

  6. Simultaneous detection of multiple chemical residues in milk using broad-specifity antibodies in a hybrid immunosorbent assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide array of applications using quantum dots (QDs) for detection of multiple analytes reflects the versatility of the technology. In this study, a novel immunoassay using 2 types of sensors (QDs and an enzyme) were simultaneously used for detecting multiple structurally different low-molecular...

  7. Polarimetric scattering from layered media with multiple species of scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Tassoudji, M. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical media are usually heterogeneous and contain multiple species of scatterers. In this paper a model is presented to calculate effective permittivities and polarimetric backscattering coefficients of multispecies-layered media. The same physical description is consistently used in the derivation of both permittivities and scattering coefficients. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multiple species of scatterers with a general ellipsoidal shape whose orientations are randomly distributed. Under the distorted Born approximation, polarimetric scattering coefficients are obtained. These calculations are applicable to the special cases of spheroidal and spherical scatterers. The model is used to study effects of scatterer shapes and multispecies mixtures on polarimetric signatures of heterogeneous media. The multispecies model accounts for moisture content in scattering media such as snowpack in an ice sheet. The results indicate a high sensitivity of backscatter to moisture with a stronger dependence for drier snow and ice grain size is important to the backscatter. For frost-covered saline ice, model results for bare ice are compared with measured data at C band and then the frost flower formation is simulated with a layer of fanlike ice crystals including brine infiltration over a rough interface. The results with the frost cover suggest a significant increase in scattering coefficients and a polarimetric signature closer to isotropic characteristics compared to the thin saline ice case.

  8. Nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging of multiple nuclear species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devience, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh M.; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Bar-Gill, Nir; Belthangady, Chinmay; Casola, Francesco; Corbett, Madeleine; Zhang, Huiliang; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide non-invasive information about multiple nuclear species in bulk matter, with wide-ranging applications from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, the spatial resolution of conventional NMR and MRI is limited to several micrometres even at large magnetic fields (>1 T), which is inadequate for many frontier scientific applications such as single-molecule NMR spectroscopy and in vivo MRI of individual biological cells. A promising approach for nanoscale NMR and MRI exploits optical measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond, which provide a combination of magnetic field sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution unmatched by any existing technology, while operating under ambient conditions in a robust, solid-state system. Recently, single, shallow NV centres were used to demonstrate NMR of nanoscale ensembles of proton spins, consisting of a statistical polarization equivalent to ˜100-1,000 spins in uniform samples covering the surface of a bulk diamond chip. Here, we realize nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and MRI of multiple nuclear species (1H, 19F, 31P) in non-uniform (spatially structured) samples under ambient conditions and at moderate magnetic fields (˜20 mT) using two complementary sensor modalities.

  9. Development of a DNA macroarray for simultaneous detection of multiple foodborne pathogenic bacteria in fresh chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kupradit, Chanida; Rodtong, Sureelak; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2013-12-01

    A DNA macroarray was developed to provide the ability to detect multiple foodborne pathogens in fresh chicken meat. Probes targeted to the 16S rRNA and genus- and species-specific genes, including fimY, ipaH, prfA, and uspA, were selected for the specific detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The combination of target gene amplification by PCR and a DNA macroarray in our system was able to distinguish all target bacteria from pure cultures with a detection sensitivity of 10⁵ c.f.u. ml⁻¹. The DNA macroarray was also applied to 10 fresh chicken meat samples. The assay validation demonstrated that by combining the enrichment steps for the target bacteria and the DNA macroarray, all 4 target bacteria could be detected simultaneously from the fresh chicken samples. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes and Shigella boydii detection in the fresh chicken samples was at least 10 and 3 c.f.u. of the initial contamination in 25 g samples, respectively. The advantages of our developed protocol are high accuracy and time reduction when compared to conventional culture. The macroarray developed in our investigation was cost effective compared to modern oligonucleotide microarray techniques because there was no expensive equipment required for the detection of multiple foodborne pathogens.

  10. Extracellular DNA in Single- and Multiple-Species Unsaturated Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, R. E.; Holden, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of bacterial biofilms form a hydrated barrier between cells and their external environment. Better characterization of EPS could be useful in understanding biofilm physiology. The EPS are chemically complex, changing with both bacterial strain and culture conditions. Previously, we reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa unsaturated biofilm EPS contains large amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA) (R. E. Steinberger, A. R. Allen, H. G. Hansma, and P. A. Holden, Microb. Ecol. 43:416-423, 2002). Here, we investigated the compositional similarity of eDNA to cellular DNA, the relative quantity of eDNA, and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community profile of eDNA in multiple-species biofilms. By randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, cellular DNA and eDNA appear identical for P. aeruginosa biofilms. Significantly more eDNA was produced in P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida biofilms than in Rhodococcus erythropolis or Variovorax paradoxus biofilms. While the amount of eDNA in dual-species biofilms was of the same order of magnitude as that of of single-species biofilms, the amounts were not predictable from single-strain measurements. By the Shannon diversity index and principle components analysis of TRFLP profiles generated from 16S rRNA genes, eDNA of four-species biofilms differed significantly from either cellular or total DNA of the same biofilm. However, total DNA- and cellular DNA-based TRFLP analyses of this biofilm community yielded identical results. We conclude that extracellular DNA production in unsaturated biofilms is species dependent and that the phylogenetic information contained in this DNA pool is quantifiable and distinct from either total or cellular DNA. PMID:16151131

  11. Extracellular DNA in single- and multiple-species unsaturated biofilms.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, R E; Holden, P A

    2005-09-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of bacterial biofilms form a hydrated barrier between cells and their external environment. Better characterization of EPS could be useful in understanding biofilm physiology. The EPS are chemically complex, changing with both bacterial strain and culture conditions. Previously, we reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa unsaturated biofilm EPS contains large amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA) (R. E. Steinberger, A. R. Allen, H. G. Hansma, and P. A. Holden, Microb. Ecol. 43:416-423, 2002). Here, we investigated the compositional similarity of eDNA to cellular DNA, the relative quantity of eDNA, and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community profile of eDNA in multiple-species biofilms. By randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, cellular DNA and eDNA appear identical for P. aeruginosa biofilms. Significantly more eDNA was produced in P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida biofilms than in Rhodococcus erythropolis or Variovorax paradoxus biofilms. While the amount of eDNA in dual-species biofilms was of the same order of magnitude as that of of single-species biofilms, the amounts were not predictable from single-strain measurements. By the Shannon diversity index and principle components analysis of TRFLP profiles generated from 16S rRNA genes, eDNA of four-species biofilms differed significantly from either cellular or total DNA of the same biofilm. However, total DNA- and cellular DNA-based TRFLP analyses of this biofilm community yielded identical results. We conclude that extracellular DNA production in unsaturated biofilms is species dependent and that the phylogenetic information contained in this DNA pool is quantifiable and distinct from either total or cellular DNA.

  12. Nanohole Arrays of Mixed Designs and Microwriting for Simultaneous and Multiple Protein Binding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Larson, Dale N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate using nanohole arrays of mixed designs and a microwriting process based on dip-pen nanolithography to monitor multiple, different protein binding events simultaneously in real time based on the intensity of Extraordinary Optical Transmission of nanohole arrays. The microwriting process and small footprint of the individual nanohole arrays enabled us to observe different binding events located only 16μm apart, achieving high spatial resolution. We also present a novel concept that incorporates nanohole arrays of different designs to improve confidence and accuracy of binding studies. For proof of concept, two types of nanohole arrays, designed to exhibit opposite responses to protein bindings, were fabricated on one transducer. Initial studies indicate that the mixed designs could help to screen out artifacts such as protein intrinsic signals, providing improved accuracy of binding interpretation. PMID:19297143

  13. Simultaneous optical sensing of multiple fluids via spatially multiplexed surface-multiplasmonic-resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiontek, Stephen E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves are guided by the interface of a metal and a chiral sculptured thin film (STF) at a single wavelength. Spatially multiplexed 4-quadrant chips comprising a lanthanum-fluoride chiral STF embedded with a silver-nanoparticle layer were deposited atop an aluminum-coated glass substrate, each quadrant functioning as an autonomous sensor. The void regions of the chiral STF in each quadrant were in filtrated with sucrose solutions of increasing molarity and deployed in a prism-coupled surface-multi-plasmonics-resonance- imaging (SMPRI) machine. The angular locations of the SPP-wave modes shift as the molarity of the fluid increases, thus demonstrating simultaneous sensing of fluids via SMPRI.

  14. Simultaneous multiple-point velocity measurements using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.; Hiller, B.; Hanson, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated for measuring velocity at multiple locations in a plane of a gaseous flowfield using Doppler-shifted absorption with fluorescence detection from iodine molecules, excited by a sheet of tunable single-axial-mode argon-ion laser radiation at 514.5 nm. Measurements were made simultaneously at 10,000 points in an iodine-seeded supersonic flow field with a 100 x 100 element photodiode array camera and were found to agree well with a numerical solution for the velocity field. The accuracy with which a component of velocity can be measured is limited, in the current approach, by the iodine linewidth to about 5 m/sec.

  15. Novel method of simultaneous multiple immunogold localization on resin sections in high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nebesarova, Jana; Wandrol, Petr; Vancova, Marie

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of multiple immunolabeling that is suitable for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications. The general concept is to label both sides of the ultrathin section with the thickness of 70-80 nm with different antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles and to distinguish the labeled side by advanced imaging methods with high resolution scanning electron microscopy, such as by correlating images acquired at different energies of primary electrons using different signals. From the Clinical Editor: The use of transmission electron microscopy has become an indispensible tool in the detection of cellular proteins. In this short but interesting article, the authors described their new method of labeling and the identification of four different proteins simultaneously, which represents another advance in imaging technique.

  16. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong; Gu, Hongbin; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Lin; Chen, Lihong; Chang, Xinyu

    2011-12-20

    This paper reports the simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters in a scramjet facility operating at a nominal Mach number of 2.5 using a sensing system based on tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The TDLAS system measures velocity, temperature, and water vapor partial pressure at three different locations of the scramjet: the inlet, the combustion region near the flame stabilization cavity, and the exit of the combustor. These measurements enable the determination of the variation of the Mach number and the combustion mode in the scramjet engine, which are critical for evaluating the combustion efficiency and optimizing engine performance. The results obtained in this work clearly demonstrated the applicability of TDLAS sensors in harsh and high-speed environments. The TDLAS system, due to its unique virtues, is expected to play an important role in the development of scramjet engines.

  18. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL; Liu, Juewen [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  19. Simultaneously Extracting Multiple Parameters via Fitting One Single Autocorrelation Function Curve in Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lixin; He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) has recently been employed for noninvasive acquisition of blood flow information in deep tissues. Based on the established correlation diffusion equation, the light intensity autocorrelation function detected by DCS is determined by a blood flow index αDB, tissue absorption coefficient μa, reduced scattering coefficient μs’, and a coherence factor β. The present study is designed to investigate the possibility of extracting multiple parameters such as μa, μs’, β, and αDB through fitting one single autocorrelation function curve and evaluate the performance of different fitting methods. For this purpose, computer simulations, tissue-like phantom experiments and in-vivo tissue measurements were utilized. The results suggest that it is impractical to simultaneously fit αDB and μa or αDB and μs’ from one single autocorrelation function curve due to the large crosstalk between these paired parameters. However, simultaneously fitting β and αDB is feasible and generates more accurate estimation with smaller standard deviation compared to the conventional two-step fitting method (i.e., first calculating β and then fitting αDB). The outcomes from this study provide a crucial guidance for DCS data analysis. PMID:23193446

  20. Directed evolution of a cellobiose utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneously engineering multiple proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimization of metabolic pathways is critical for efficient and economical production of biofuels and specialty chemicals. One such significant pathway is the cellobiose utilization pathway, identified as a promising route in biomass utilization. Here we describe the optimization of cellobiose consumption and ethanol productivity by simultaneously engineering both proteins of the pathway, the β-glucosidase (gh1-1) and the cellodextrin transporter (cdt-1), in an example of pathway engineering through directed evolution. Results The improved pathway was assessed based on the strain specific growth rate on cellobiose, with the final mutant exhibiting a 47% increase over the wild-type pathway. Metabolite analysis of the engineered pathway identified a 49% increase in cellobiose consumption (1.78 to 2.65 g cellobiose/(L · h)) and a 64% increase in ethanol productivity (0.611 to 1.00 g ethanol/(L · h)). Conclusions By simultaneously engineering multiple proteins in the pathway, cellobiose utilization in S. cerevisiae was improved. This optimization can be generally applied to other metabolic pathways, provided a selection/screening method is available for the desired phenotype. The improved in vivo cellobiose utilization demonstrated here could help to decrease the in vitro enzyme load in biomass pretreatment, ultimately contributing to a reduction in the high cost of biofuel production. PMID:23802545

  1. Simultaneous bioaccumulation of multiple metals from electroplating effluent using Aspergillus lentulus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree

    2012-10-15

    Toxic impacts of heavy metals in the environment have lead to intensive research on various methods of heavy metal remediation. However, in spite of abundant work on heavy metals removal from simple synthetic solutions, a very few studies demonstrate the potential of microbial strains for the treatment of industrial effluents containing mixtures of metals. In the present study, the efficiency of an environmental isolate (Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995), for simultaneous removal of chromium, copper and lead from a small-scale electroplating industry effluent was investigated. Initial studies with synthetic solutions infer that A. lentulus has a remarkable tolerance against Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni. During its growth, a significant bioaccumulation of individual metal was recorded. After 5 d of growth, the removal of metals from synthetic solutions followed the trend Pb(2+) (100%) > Cr(3+) (79%) > Cu(2+) (78%), > Ni(2+) (42%). When this strain was applied to the treatment of multiple metal containing electroplating effluent (after pH adjustment), the metal concentrations decreased by 71%, 56% and 100% for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively within 11 d. Based on our results, we propose that the simultaneous removal of hazardous metals from industrial effluents can be accomplished using A. lentulus.

  2. Integrating the effects of simultaneous multiple stresses on plants using the simulation model TREGRO

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, D.A.; Yanai, R.D.

    1994-05-01

    TREGRO, a model of tree physiological response to environmental stress, was developed to examine the details of tree response to the interaction between ozone sum and nutrient deficiency. TREGRO was used to test the hypothesis that the nutrient deficiency would exacerbate growth reductions caused by ozone. When TREGRO was applied to a range of multiple-stress scenarios involving these two stresses, the simulated effects of the combined stresses in reducing red spruce (Rcea rubens Sarg.) tree growth were less than the sum of the effects simulated when each stress was acting alone. Red spruce, a species with a growth strategy involving low maximum potential growth rates and storage in C reserves, showed simulated patterns of allocation that minimized the added effect of ozone when Mg nutrient availability was low. In contrast, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.), a species that allocated C to the construction of new tissue preferentially, showed little ability to ameliorate ozone stress under low nutrient conditions. In neither case were the effects of ozone increased by nutrient deficiency. It is speculated that a species which maintains maximum C demand rates considerably below rates of C supply may be better able to adjust to conditions of multiple stresses. 22 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

  4. Comparing Apples and Oranges: Fold-Change Detection of Multiple Simultaneous Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Yuval; Mayo, Avraham E.; Shoval, Oren; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems often detect multiple types of inputs. For example, a receptor in a cell-signaling system often binds multiple kinds of ligands, and sensory neurons can respond to different types of stimuli. How do sensory systems compare these different kinds of signals? Here, we consider this question in a class of sensory systems – including bacterial chemotaxis- which have a property known as fold-change detection: their output dynamics, including amplitude and response time, depends only on the relative changes in signal, rather than absolute changes, over a range of several decades of signal. We analyze how fold-change detection systems respond to multiple signals, using mathematical models. Suppose that a step of fold F1 is made in input 1, together with a step of F2 in input 2. What total response does the system provide? We show that when both input signals impact the same receptor with equal number of binding sites, the integrated response is multiplicative: the response dynamics depend only on the product of the two fold changes, F1F2. When the inputs bind the same receptor with different number of sites n1 and n2, the dynamics depend on a product of power laws, . Thus, two input signals which vary over time in an inverse way can lead to no response. When the two inputs affect two different receptors, other types of integration may be found and generally the system is not constrained to respond according to the product of the fold-change of each signal. These predictions can be readily tested experimentally, by providing cells with two simultaneously varying input signals. The present study suggests how cells can compare apples and oranges, namely by comparing each to its own background level, and then multiplying these two fold-changes. PMID:23469195

  5. Simultaneous Bayesian Estimation of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Conductances by Exploiting Multiple Recorded Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lankarany, Milad; Heiss, Jaime E.; Lampl, Ilan; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Advanced statistical methods have enabled trial-by-trial inference of the underlying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances (SCs) of membrane-potential recordings. Simultaneous inference of both excitatory and inhibitory SCs sheds light on the neural circuits underlying the neural activity and advances our understanding of neural information processing. Conventional Bayesian methods can infer excitatory and inhibitory SCs based on a single trial of observed membrane potential. However, if multiple recorded trials are available, this typically leads to suboptimal estimation because they neglect common statistics (of synaptic inputs (SIs)) across trials. Here, we establish a new expectation maximization (EM) algorithm that improves such single-trial Bayesian methods by exploiting multiple recorded trials to extract common SI statistics across the trials. In this paper, the proposed EM algorithm is embedded in parallel Kalman filters or particle filters for multiple recorded trials to integrate their outputs to iteratively update the common SI statistics. These statistics are then used to infer the excitatory and inhibitory SCs of individual trials. We demonstrate the superior performance of multiple-trial Kalman filtering (MtKF) and particle filtering (MtPF) relative to that of the corresponding single-trial methods. While relative estimation error of excitatory and inhibitory SCs is known to depend on the level of current injection into a cell, our numerical simulations using MtKF show that both excitatory and inhibitory SCs are reliably inferred using an optimal level of current injection. Finally, we validate the robustness and applicability of our technique through simulation studies, and we apply MtKF to in vivo data recorded from the rat barrel cortex. PMID:27867353

  6. New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, G Alejandro; Luzón, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

    2015-01-15

    Although several techniques exist for the detection of equine tapeworms in serum and feces, the differential diagnosis of tapeworm infection is usually based on postmortem findings and the morphological identification of eggs in feces. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the simultaneuos detection of Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephaloides mamillana has been developed and validated. The method simultaneously amplifies hypervariable SSUrRNA gene regions in the three tapeworm species in a single reaction using three pairs of primers, which exclusively amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) in each target gene. The method was tested on three types of sample: (a) 1/10, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 dilutions of 70 ng of genomic DNA of the three tapeworm species, (b) DNA extracted from negative aliquots of sediments of negative control fecal samples spiked with 500, 200, 100, 50 and 10 eggs (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available) and (c) DNA extracted from 80, 50, 40, 30, 10 and 1 egg per 2 μl of PCR reaction mix (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available). No amplification was observed against the DNA of Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum and Strongylus vulgaris. The multiplex PCR method emerged as specific for the three tapeworms and was able to identify as few as 50 eggs per fecal sample and as little as 0.7 ng of control genomic DNA obtained from the three species. The method proposed is able to differentiate infections caused by the two most frequent species A. magna or A. perfoliata when the eggs are present in feces and is also able to detect mixed infections by the three cestode species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Chávez, V; McGloin, D; Melville, H; Sibbett, W; Dholakia, K

    2002-09-12

    Optical tweezers are commonly used for manipulating microscopic particles, with applications in cell manipulation, colloid research, manipulation of micromachines and studies of the properties of light beams. Such tweezers work by the transfer of momentum from a tightly focused laser to the particle, which refracts and scatters the light and distorts the profile of the beam. The forces produced by this process cause the particle to be trapped near the beam focus. Conventional tweezers use gaussian light beams, which cannot trap particles in multiple locations more than a few micrometres apart in the axial direction, because of beam distortion by the particle and subsequent strong divergence from the focal plane. Bessel beams, however, do not diverge and, furthermore, if part of the beam is obstructed or distorted the beam reconstructs itself after a characteristic propagation distance. Here we show how this reconstructive property may be utilized within optical tweezers to trap particles in multiple, spatially separated sample cells with a single beam. Owing to the diffractionless nature of the Bessel beam, secondary trapped particles can reside in a second sample cell far removed ( approximately 3 mm) from the first cell. Such tweezers could be used for the simultaneous study of identically prepared ensembles of colloids and biological matter, and potentially offer enhanced control of 'lab-on-a-chip' and optically driven microstructures.

  8. Simultaneous estimation of the locations and effects of multiple disease loci in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Liang, Kung-Yee; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-04-01

    The genetic basis of complex diseases often involves multiple causative loci. Under such a disease etiology, assuming one disease locus in linkage disequilibrium mapping is likely to induce bias and lead to efficiency loss in disease locus estimation. An approach is needed for simultaneously localizing multiple functional loci within the same region. However, due to the increasing number of parameters accompanying disease loci, these estimates can be computationally infeasible. To circumvent this problem, we propose to estimate the main and two-adjacent-locus joint effects and a nuisance parameter at the disease loci separately through a linear approximation. Estimates of the genetic effects are entered into a generalized estimating equation to estimate disease loci, and the procedure is conducted iteratively until convergence. The proposed method provides estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) for the disease loci, the genetic main effects, and the joint effects of two adjacent disease loci, with the CIs for the disease loci providing useful regions for further fine-mapping. We apply the proposed approach to a data example of case-control studies. Results of the simulations and data example suggest that the developed method performs well in terms of bias, variance, and coverage probability under scenarios with up to three disease loci.

  9. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Madhu; Biyani, Radhika; Tsuchihashi, Tomoko; Takamura, Yuzuru; Ushijima, Hiromi; Tamiya, Eiichi; Biyani, Manish

    2016-12-27

    We describe a simple and affordable "Disposable electrode printed (DEP)-On-Go" sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L(-1), respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, "DEP-On-Go" was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD), rapid (within 5 min), and reliable detection limit (ppb levels) performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings.

  10. Towards Omni-Tomography—Grand Fusion of Multiple Modalities for Simultaneous Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Hao; Weir, Victor; Yu, Hengyong; Cong, Wenxiang; Xu, Xiaochen; Shen, Haiou; Bennett, James; Furth, Mark; Wang, Yue; Vannier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We recently elevated interior tomography from its origin in computed tomography (CT) to a general tomographic principle, and proved its validity for other tomographic modalities including SPECT, MRI, and others. Here we propose “omni-tomography”, a novel concept for the grand fusion of multiple tomographic modalities for simultaneous data acquisition in a region of interest (ROI). Omni-tomography can be instrumental when physiological processes under investigation are multi-dimensional, multi-scale, multi-temporal and multi-parametric. Both preclinical and clinical studies now depend on in vivo tomography, often requiring separate evaluations by different imaging modalities. Over the past decade, two approaches have been used for multimodality fusion: Software based image registration and hybrid scanners such as PET-CT, PET-MRI, and SPECT-CT among others. While there are intrinsic limitations with both approaches, the main obstacle to the seamless fusion of multiple imaging modalities has been the bulkiness of each individual imager and the conflict of their physical (especially spatial) requirements. To address this challenge, omni-tomography is now unveiled as an emerging direction for biomedical imaging and systems biomedicine. PMID:22768108

  11. Simultaneous manipulation and observation of multiple ro-vibrational eigenstates in solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    We have experimentally performed the coherent control of delocalized ro-vibrational wave packets (RVWs) of solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) by the wave packet interferometry (WPI) combined with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). RVWs of solid p-H2 are delocalized in the crystal, and the wave function with wave vector k ˜ 0 is selectively excited via the stimulated Raman process. We have excited the RVW twice by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses with delay controlled by a stabilized Michelson interferometer. Using a broad-band laser pulse, multiple ro-vibrational states can be excited simultaneously. We have observed the time-dependent Ramsey fringe spectra as a function of the inter-pulse delay by a spectrally resolved CARS technique using a narrow-band probe pulse, resolving the different intermediate states. Due to the different fringe oscillation periods among those intermediate states, we can manipulate their amplitude ratio by tuning the inter-pulse delay on the sub-femtosecond time scale. The state-selective manipulation and detection of the CARS signal combined with the WPI is a general and efficient protocol for the control of the interference of multiple quantum states in various quantum systems.

  12. Simultaneous Retrieval of Multiple Aerosol Parameters Using a Multi-Angular Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K. S.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, both natural and anthropogenic, are important to the earth's radiative balance through their direct and indirect effects. They scatter the incoming solar radiation (direct effect) and modify the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (indirect effect). Although it has been suggested that aerosols exert a net cooling influence on climate, this effect has received less attention than the radiative forcing due to clouds and greenhouse gases. In order to understand the role that aerosols play in a changing climate, detailed and accurate observations are a prerequisite. The retrieval of aerosol optical properties by satellite remote sensing has proven to be a difficult task. The difficulty results mainly from the tenuous nature and variable composition of aerosols. To date, with single-angle satellite observations, we can only retrieve reliably against dark backgrounds, such as over oceans and dense vegetation. Even then, assumptions must be made concerning the chemical composition of aerosols. The best hope we have for aerosol retrievals over bright backgrounds are observations from multiple angles, such as those provided by the MISR and POLDER instruments. In this investigation we examine the feasibility of simultaneous retrieval of multiple aerosol optical parameters using reflectances from a typical set of twelve angles observed by the French POLDER instrument. The retrieved aerosol optical parameters consist of asymmetry factor, single scattering albedo, surface albedo, and optical thickness.

  13. Solid-state Hadamard NMR spectroscopy: simultaneous measurements of multiple selective homonuclear scalar couplings.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Kupče, Eriks; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2015-02-01

    Unambiguous measurement of homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in multi-spin scalar network systems is not straightforward. Further, the direct measurement of J-couplings is obscured in solid-state samples due to the dipolar and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA)-dominated line broadening, even under the magic angle spinning (MAS). We present a new multiple frequency selective spin-echo method based on Hadamard matrix encoding, for simultaneous measurement of multiple homonuclear scalar couplings (J) in the solid-state. In contrast to the Hadamard encoded selective excitation schemes known for the solution-state, herein the selectivity is achieved during refocusing period. The Hadamard encoded refocusing scheme concurrently allows to create the spin-spin commutation property between number of spin-pairs of choice in uniformly labelled molecules, which, therefore avoids (1) the repetition of the double selective refocusing experiments for each spin-pair and (2) the synthesis of expensive selective labelled molecules. The experimental scheme is exemplified for determining (1)JCC and (3)JCC values in (13)C6l-Histidine.HCl molecule, which are found to be in excellent agreement with those measured in conventional double frequency selective refocusing mode as well as in the solution-state. This method can be simply extended to 2D/3D pulse schemes and be applied to small bio-molecular solids.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of glycolipids and phospholids molecular species in avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Boselli, Emanuele; Lucci, Paolo; Frega, Natale G

    2007-05-25

    The molecular species of phospholipids (PLs) and glycolipids (GLs) were simultaneously characterized in the pulp and almond of the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) of four varieties by means of high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. In the pulp, the predominant species of monoglycosyldiglycerides (MGD) were m/z 796.6 (oleic/linolenic and linoleic/linoleic acids) and m/z 800.4 (stearic/linoleic and oleic/oleic acids). One of the main diglycosyldiglycerides (DGD) both in the pulp and almond was m/z 958.5 (oleic/linolenic); however, the pulp was also rich of m/z 962.4 (oleic/oleic), whereas in the almond, m/z 934.5 (palmitic/linoleic and palmitoleic/oleic) and m/z 960.5 (oleic/linoleic and stearic/linolenic) were more abundant. In the almond, the main PL classes (phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)) contained always palmitic/linoleic acids. Alpha-linolenic acid was contained as MGD (linolenic/linolenic) and DGD (linolenic/linolenic), more present in the pulp than in the almond. The major molecular species of glycocerebrosides (GCer) in the pulp and almond carried hydroxy-palmitic acid (C(16h:0))/4,8-sphyngadienine (d(18:2)).

  15. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  16. Frameless single-isocenter intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases.

    PubMed

    Lau, Steven K M; Zhao, Xiao; Carmona, Ruben; Knipprath, Erik; Simpson, Daniel R; Nath, Sameer K; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hattangadi, Jona A; Chen, Clark C; Murphy, Kevin T

    2014-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well accepted treatment for patients with intracranial metastases, but the role of frameless radiosurgery is not well defined. Here, we describe our clinical experience applying a novel single-isocenter technique to frameless intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. Between 2006 and 2012, 100 consecutive patients received frameless IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases using a single, centrally-located isocenter. Among these, 29 patients were treated for progressive or recurrent intracranial disease. A total of 465 metastases (median, 4 per patient, range, 2-18) were treated to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 15-50 Gy). Follow-up including clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occurred every 3 months. Median follow-up for all patients was 4.3 months (range, 0.2-58.3 months), with 83 patients (83.0%) followed until their death. For the remaining 17 patients alive at the time of analysis, median follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.2-58.3 months). Overall survival at 6 months was 49.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.3-63.6%]. Local control at 6 and 12 months was 88.9% (95% CI, 79.1-98.6%) and 81.5% (95% CI, 65.2-97.7%), respectively. Regional failure was observed in 39 patients (39%), and 25 patients (25%) received salvage therapy. Grade 3 or greater treatment-related toxicity was observed in 4 patients (4%) and included intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, and radionecrosis. Median total treatment time was 17.2 minutes (range, 2.8-55.3 minutes). Single-isocenter IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes comparable to those of conventional radiosurgery techniques.

  17. Frameless single-isocenter intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Steven K. M.; Zhao, Xiao; Carmona, Ruben; Knipprath, Erik; Simpson, Daniel R.; Nath, Sameer K.; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hattangadi, Jona A.; Chen, Clark C.; Murphy, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well accepted treatment for patients with intracranial metastases, but the role of frameless radiosurgery is not well defined. Here, we describe our clinical experience applying a novel single-isocenter technique to frameless intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. Methods and materials Between 2006 and 2012, 100 consecutive patients received frameless IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases using a single, centrally-located isocenter. Among these, 29 patients were treated for progressive or recurrent intracranial disease. A total of 465 metastases (median, 4 per patient, range, 2–18) were treated to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 15–50 Gy). Follow-up including clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occurred every 3 months. Results Median follow-up for all patients was 4.3 months (range, 0.2–58.3 months), with 83 patients (83.0%) followed until their death. For the remaining 17 patients alive at the time of analysis, median follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.2–58.3 months). Overall survival at 6 months was 49.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.3–63.6%]. Local control at 6 and 12 months was 88.9% (95% CI, 79.1–98.6%) and 81.5% (95% CI, 65.2–97.7%), respectively. Regional failure was observed in 39 patients (39%), and 25 patients (25%) received salvage therapy. Grade 3 or greater treatment-related toxicity was observed in 4 patients (4%) and included intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, and radionecrosis. Median total treatment time was 17.2 minutes (range, 2.8–55.3 minutes). Conclusions Single-isocenter IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes comparable to those of conventional radiosurgery techniques. PMID:25821723

  18. Atomic species identification at the (101) anatase surface by simultaneous scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Todorović, Milica; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Moreno, César; Ryan, James William; León, Carmen Pérez; Sagisaka, Keisuke; Palomares, Emilio; Matolín, Vladimír; Fujita, Daisuke; Perez, Ruben; Custance, Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Anatase is a pivotal material in devices for energy-harvesting applications and catalysis. Methods for the accurate characterization of this reducible oxide at the atomic scale are critical in the exploration of outstanding properties for technological developments. Here we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), supported by first-principles calculations, for the simultaneous imaging and unambiguous identification of atomic species at the (101) anatase surface. We demonstrate that dynamic AFM-STM operation allows atomic resolution imaging within the material's band gap. Based on key distinguishing features extracted from calculations and experiments, we identify candidates for the most common surface defects. Our results pave the way for the understanding of surface processes, like adsorption of metal dopants and photoactive molecules, that are fundamental for the catalytic and photovoltaic applications of anatase, and demonstrate the potential of dynamic AFM-STM for the characterization of wide band gap materials.

  19. Atomic species identification at the (101) anatase surface by simultaneous scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Todorović, Milica; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Moreno, César; Ryan, James William; León, Carmen Pérez; Sagisaka, Keisuke; Palomares, Emilio; Matolín, Vladimír; Fujita, Daisuke; Perez, Ruben; Custance, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Anatase is a pivotal material in devices for energy-harvesting applications and catalysis. Methods for the accurate characterization of this reducible oxide at the atomic scale are critical in the exploration of outstanding properties for technological developments. Here we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), supported by first-principles calculations, for the simultaneous imaging and unambiguous identification of atomic species at the (101) anatase surface. We demonstrate that dynamic AFM-STM operation allows atomic resolution imaging within the material's band gap. Based on key distinguishing features extracted from calculations and experiments, we identify candidates for the most common surface defects. Our results pave the way for the understanding of surface processes, like adsorption of metal dopants and photoactive molecules, that are fundamental for the catalytic and photovoltaic applications of anatase, and demonstrate the potential of dynamic AFM-STM for the characterization of wide band gap materials. PMID:26118408

  20. Simultaneous chiral analyses of multiple analytes: case studies, implications and method development considerations.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2004-12-01

    The field of chiral separations had a modest beginning some two decades ago. However, due to rapid technological advancement coupled with simultaneous availability of innovative chiral stationary phases and novel chiral derivatization agents, the field of chiral separations has now totally outpaced many other separation fields. Keeping pace with rapid changes in the field of chiral separations, investigators continue to add stereoselective pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacologic and toxicological data of new and/or marketed racemic compounds to the literature. Examination of the evolution of chiral separations suggests that in the beginning many investigators attempted to separate and quantify a single pair of enantiomers, adopting either direct (separation made on a chiral stationary phase) or indirect (separation made following precolumn conversion of enantiomers to corresponding diastereomers) approaches. However, more recent trends in chiral separations suggest that investigators are attempting to separate and quantify multiple pairs of enantiomers with available technologies. Added to this, some interesting trends have been observed in many of the recently reported chiral applications, including preferences regarding internal standard selection, mobile phase contents and composition, sorting out issues with mass spectrometric detection, determination of elution order, analytical manipulations of metabolite(s) without reference standards and addressing some specificity-related issues. This review mainly focuses on chiral separations involving multiple chiral analytes and attempts to justify the need for such chiral separations involving multiple analytes. In this context, several cases studies are described on the utility and applicability of such chiral separations under discrete headings to provide an account to the readership on the implications of such tasks. The topics of case studies covered in this review include: (a) therapy markers

  1. Dynamic models for problems of species occurrence with multiple states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture?recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics.

  2. Modeling species occurrence dynamics with multiple states and imperfect detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture-recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Modeling species occurrence dynamics with multiple states and imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Darryl I; Nichols, James D; Seamans, Mark E; Gutiérrez, R J

    2009-03-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture-recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics.

  4. Herbivores, tidal elevation, and species richness simultaneously mediate nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily; Williams, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    In order for research into the consequences of biodiversity changes to be more applicable to real-world ecosystems, experiments must be conducted in the field, where a variety of factors other than diversity can affect the rates of key biogeochemical and physiological processes. Here, we experimentally evaluate the effects of two factors known to affect the diversity and composition of intertidal seaweed assemblages--tidal elevation and herbivory--on nitrate uptake by those assemblages. Based on surveys of community composition at the end of a 1.5-year press experiment, we found that both tide height and herbivores affected seaweed community structure. Not surprisingly, seaweed species richness was greater at lower tidal elevations. Herbivores did not affect richness, but they altered the types of species that were present; seaweed species characterized by higher rates of nitrate uptake were more abundant in herbivore-removal plots. Both tide height and herbivores affected nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages. Individual seaweed species, as well as entire seaweed assemblages, living higher on the shore had greater rates of biomass-specific nitrate uptake, particularly at high ambient nitrate concentrations. Grazed seaweed assemblages exhibited reduced nitrate uptake, but only at low nitrate concentrations. We evaluated the effect of seaweed richness on nitrate uptake, both alone and after accounting for effects of tidal elevation and herbivores. When only richness was considered, we found no effect on uptake. However, when simultaneous effects of richness, tide height, and herbivores on uptake were evaluated, we found that all three had relatively large and comparable effects on nitrate uptake coefficients and that there was a negative relationship between seaweed richness and nitrate uptake. Particularly because effects of richness on uptake were not apparent unless the effects of tide height and herbivory were also considered, these results highlight the

  5. Simultaneous Tumor Segmentation, Image Restoration, and Blur Kernel Estimation in PET Using Multiple Regularizations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laquan; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation from PET images is crucial in many radiation oncology applications. Among others, partial volume effect (PVE) is recognized as one of the most important factors degrading imaging quality and segmentation accuracy in PET. Taking into account that image restoration and tumor segmentation are tightly coupled and can promote each other, we proposed a variational method to solve both problems simultaneously in this study. The proposed method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind de-convolution and Mumford-Shah segmentation with multiple regularizations. Unlike many existing energy minimization methods using either TV or L2 regularization, the proposed method employed TV regularization over tumor edges to preserve edge information, and L2 regularization inside tumor regions to preserve the smooth change of the metabolic uptake in a PET image. The blur kernel was modeled as anisotropic Gaussian to address the resolution difference in transverse and axial directions commonly seen in a clinic PET scanner. The energy functional was rephrased using the Γ-convergence approximation and was iteratively optimized using the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was validated on a physical phantom and two clinic datasets with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and esophageal cancer, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method had high performance for simultaneous image restoration, tumor segmentation and scanner blur kernel estimation. Particularly, the recovery coefficients (RC) of the restored images of the proposed method in the phantom study were close to 1, indicating an efficient recovery of the original blurred images; for segmentation the proposed method achieved average dice similarity indexes (DSIs) of 0.79 and 0.80 for two clinic datasets, respectively; and the relative errors of the estimated blur kernel widths were less than 19% in the transversal direction and 7% in the

  6. Simultaneous Tumor Segmentation, Image Restoration, and Blur Kernel Estimation in PET Using Multiple Regularizations.

    PubMed

    Li, Laquan; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tan, Shan

    2017-02-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation from PET images is crucial in many radiation oncology applications. Among others, partial volume effect (PVE) is recognized as one of the most important factors degrading imaging quality and segmentation accuracy in PET. Taking into account that image restoration and tumor segmentation are tightly coupled and can promote each other, we proposed a variational method to solve both problems simultaneously in this study. The proposed method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind de-convolution and Mumford-Shah segmentation with multiple regularizations. Unlike many existing energy minimization methods using either TV or L2 regularization, the proposed method employed TV regularization over tumor edges to preserve edge information, and L2 regularization inside tumor regions to preserve the smooth change of the metabolic uptake in a PET image. The blur kernel was modeled as anisotropic Gaussian to address the resolution difference in transverse and axial directions commonly seen in a clinic PET scanner. The energy functional was rephrased using the Γ-convergence approximation and was iteratively optimized using the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was validated on a physical phantom and two clinic datasets with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and esophageal cancer, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method had high performance for simultaneous image restoration, tumor segmentation and scanner blur kernel estimation. Particularly, the recovery coefficients (RC) of the restored images of the proposed method in the phantom study were close to 1, indicating an efficient recovery of the original blurred images; for segmentation the proposed method achieved average dice similarity indexes (DSIs) of 0.79 and 0.80 for two clinic datasets, respectively; and the relative errors of the estimated blur kernel widths were less than 19% in the transversal direction and 7% in the axial

  7. Simultaneous Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Multiple Large Scale Gene Expression Datasets in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clare M.; Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, D. R.; Wolf, C. Roland; Miele, Gino; Vass, J. Keith; Higham, Desmond J.; Crowther, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization is a useful tool for reducing the dimension of large datasets. This work considers simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization of multiple sources of data. In particular, we perform the first study that involves more than two datasets. We discuss the algorithmic issues required to convert the approach into a practical computational tool and apply the technique to new gene expression data quantifying the molecular changes in four tissue types due to different dosages of an experimental panPPAR agonist in mouse. This study is of interest in toxicology because, whilst PPARs form potential therapeutic targets for diabetes, it is known that they can induce serious side-effects. Our results show that the practical simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization developed here can add value to the data analysis. In particular, we find that factorizing the data as a single object allows us to distinguish between the four tissue types, but does not correctly reproduce the known dosage level groups. Applying our new approach, which treats the four tissue types as providing distinct, but related, datasets, we find that the dosage level groups are respected. The new algorithm then provides separate gene list orderings that can be studied for each tissue type, and compared with the ordering arising from the single factorization. We find that many of our conclusions can be corroborated with known biological behaviour, and others offer new insights into the toxicological effects. Overall, the algorithm shows promise for early detection of toxicity in the drug discovery process. PMID:23272042

  8. Simultaneous Multitarget Irradiation Using Helical Tomotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Multiple Extrahepatic Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jeong Won Kay, Chul Seung You, Chan Ran; Kim, Chang Wook; Bae, Si Hyun.; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew; Han, Chi Wha; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Ihl Bong

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with extrahepatic metastases is extremely poor. Helical tomotherapy, an image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy system, can allow for simultaneous and precise targeting of multiple cancerous lesions, while sparing normal tissues. This study evaluated the feasibility and outcome of tomotherapy for advanced HCC with metastases. Patients and Methods: A total of 42 consecutive HCC patients with metastases were treated with tomotherapy using the Hi-Art system. A total of 152 intra- and extrahepatic lesions (3.5 lesions/patient) were treated simultaneously, with a dose of 51.03 Gy (range, 30-57.61) in 10 fractions. Transarterial chemolipiodolization using epirubicin (50 mg) and cisplatin (60 mg) was repeated in patients with intrahepatic HCC (mean size, 9.0 cm) after tomotherapy. Results: An objective response (complete response and partial response) was achieved in 45.2% of patients with intrahepatic tumors, 68.4% of patients with pulmonary lesions, 60.0% of patients with lymph node/adrenal lesions, and 66.7% of patients with soft-tissue metastases. The complete response rate for those with pulmonary and lymph node/adrenal metastases was 26.3% and 5.0%, respectively. The overall survival rate at 1 and 2 years was 50.1% and 14.9%, respectively, with a median survival of 12.3 months. The actuarial in-field tumor control rate for {<=}1 year was 79.0%. No cases of Grade 4-5 acute toxicity occurred. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that helical tomotherapy is safe and feasible without major toxicities for the treatment of advanced HCC and results in excellent tumor control and a potential survival benefit. This approach is expected to be a useful palliative option for selected HCC patients with metastases.

  9. Simultaneous Analyses and Applications of Multiple Fluorobenzoate and Halide Tracers in Hydrologic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E

    2004-01-22

    An analytical method that employs ion chromatography has been developed to more fully exploit the use of fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) and halides as hydrologic tracers. In a single run, this reliable, sensitive, and robust method can simultaneously separate and quantify halides (fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide) and up to seven FBAs from other common groundwater constituents (e.g., nitrate and sulfate). The usefulness of this ion chromatographic (IC) analytical method is demonstrated in both field and laboratory tracer experiments. Field experiments in unsaturated tuff featuring fractures or a fault show that this efficient and cost-effective method helps achieve the objectives of tracer studies that use multiple FBAs and/or diffusivity tracers (simultaneous use of one or more FBA and halide). The field study examines the hydrologic response of fractures and the matrix to different flow rates and the contribution of matrix diffusion in chemical transport. Laboratory tracer experiments with eight geologic media from across the United States--mostly from Department of Energy facilities where groundwater contamination is prevalent and where subsurface characterization employing tracers has been ongoing or is in need--reveal several insights about tracer transport behavior: (1) Bromide and FBAs are not always transported conservatively. (2) The delayed transport of these anionic tracers is likely related to geologic media characteristics, such as organic matter, pH, iron oxide content, and clay mineralogy. (3) Any use of iodine as a hydrologic tracer should take into account the different sorption behaviors of iodide and iodate and the possible conversion of iodine's initial chemical form. (4) The transport behavior of potential FBA and halide tracers under relevant geochemical conditions should be evaluated before beginning ambitious, large-scale field tracer experiments.

  10. Isotope fractionation associated with the simultaneous biodegradation of multiple nitrophenol isomers by Pseudomonas putida B2.

    PubMed

    Wijker, Reto S; Zeyer, Josef; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2017-05-24

    Quantifying the extent of biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) in contaminated soils and sediments is challenging because of competing oxidative and reductive reaction pathways. We have previously shown that the stable isotope fractionation of NACs reveals the routes of degradation even if it is simultaneously caused by different bacteria. However, it is unclear whether compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) can be applied in situations where multiple pollutants are biodegraded by only one microorganism under multi-substrate conditions. Here we examined the C and N isotope fractionation of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 3-nitrophenol (3-NP) during biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida B2 through monooxygenation and partial reductive pathways, respectively, in the presence of single substrates vs. binary substrate mixtures. Laboratory experiments showed that the reduction of 3-NP by Pseudomonas putida B2 is associated with large N and minor C isotope fractionation with C and N isotope enrichment factors, εC and εN, of -0.3 ± 0.1‰ and -22 ± 0.2‰, respectively. The opposite isotope fractionation trends were found for 2-NP monooxygenation. In the simultaneous presence of 2-NP and 3-NP, 2-NP is biodegraded at identical rate constants and εC and εN values (-1.0 ± 0.1‰ and -1.3 ± 0.2‰) to those found for the monooxygenation of 2-NP in single substrate experiments. While the pathway and N isotope fractionation of 3-NP reduction (εN = -24 ± 1.1‰) are independent of the presence of 2-NP, intermediates of 2-NP monooxygenation interfere with 3-NP reduction. Because neither pH, substrate uptake, nor aromatic substituents affected the kinetic isotope effects of nitrophenol biodegradation, our study illustrates that CSIA provides robust scientific evidence for the assessment of natural attenuation processes.

  11. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species.

    PubMed

    Radhika, M; Saugata, Majumder; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  12. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Biyani, Madhu; Biyani, Radhika; Tsuchihashi, Tomoko; Takamura, Yuzuru; Ushijima, Hiromi; Tamiya, Eiichi; Biyani, Manish

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple and affordable “Disposable electrode printed (DEP)-On-Go” sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, “DEP-On-Go” was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD), rapid (within 5 min), and reliable detection limit (ppb levels) performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings. PMID:28036003

  13. On the improvement of SKS splitting measurements by the Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Waveforms (SIMW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, C.; Winter, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Schweitzer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The birefringence of core-refracted shear waves (e.g. SKS or SKKS) is often used to study seismic anisotropy in the Earth. However, depth resolution and multilayer anisotropy is generally poor for many regions on Earth. This is primarily due to SKS or SKKS phases that are not observable for different backazimuths either because of missing seismicity at the required distance range or because of a too low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We propose a new method called Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Waveforms (SIMW), which allows the joint inversion of multiple core-refracted shear waves from different earthquakes within the same source region, observed by either the same seismic station or by a seismic network. The waveforms are concatenated into a combined signal, which is then inverted with the Silver & Chan method to determine the two splitting parameters: time delay δt, and fast polarization direction Φ. We apply our method to recordings at the large aperture Norwegian NORSAR Array and the German Gräfenberg array (GRF). Our results demonstrate that SIMW allows a stable determination of splitting results for low-amplitude or noisy SKS signals. Splitting parameter uncertainties can be reduced and reliable results are obtained for both arrays. Moreover, new backazimuth directions can be explored, enabling a more accurate derivation of two-layer anisotropy models. Our new methodology is particularly helpful for temporary station deployments with limited recording times in order to utilize as many as possible signals including such with low-amplitude and small SNR.

  14. Simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers by means of SERS on polymer nanopillar gold arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Pellacani, Paola; Frangolho, Ana; Marchesini, Gerardo; Vanna, Renzo; Gualerzi, Alice; Bedoni, Marzia; Marabelli, Franco; Gramatica, Furio

    2016-03-01

    The detection of biomarkers by means of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is foreseen to became a very important tool in the clinical practice because of its excellent sensitivity and potential for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. In the present paper we describe how it was possible to build a sensor for the detection of genetic biomarkers involved in acute myeloid leukemia. The assay is based on the use of a specifically designed SERS substrate made of a 2D crystal structure of polymeric pillars embedded in a gold layer. This substrate is characterized by good enhancing properties coupled with an excellent homogeneity. The SERS substrate was conjugated with DNA probes complementary to a target sequence and used in a sandwich assay with gold nanoparticles labeled with a second DNA probe and a Raman reporter. The so developed assay allowed the detection of a leukemia biomarker (WT1 gene) and an housekeeping gene with low picomolar sensitivity. At last, we optimized the assay in order to tackle one of the main limitations of SERS based assay: the loss of signal that is observed when the Raman spectra are collected in liquid. Combining a preferential functionalization on the polymeric pillars with a different height of the polymer pillars from the gold layer the assay demonstrated its effectiveness even when measured in buffer.

  15. Simultaneous Quantitative Live Cell Imaging of Multiple FRET-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Woehler, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for multi-color spectral FRET analysis which is used to study a system of three independent FRET-based molecular sensors composed of the combinations of only three fluorescent proteins. This method is made possible by a novel routine for computing the 3-D excitation/emission spectral fingerprint of FRET from reference measurements of the donor and acceptor alone. By unmixing the 3D spectrum of the FRET sample, the total relative concentrations of the fluorophores and their scaled FRET efficiencies are directly measured, from which apparent FRET efficiencies can be computed. If the FRET sample is composed of intramolecular FRET sensors it is possible to determine the total relative concentration of the sensors and then estimate absolute FRET efficiency of each sensor. Using multiple tandem constructs with fixed FRET efficiency as well as FRET-based calcium sensors with novel fluorescent protein combinations we demonstrate that the computed FRET efficiencies are accurate and changes in these quantities occur without crosstalk. We provide an example of this method’s potential by demonstrating simultaneous imaging of spatially colocalized changes in [Ca2+], [cAMP], and PKA activity. PMID:23613792

  16. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2011-10-15

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  17. Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets based on encoding metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lichun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Panpan; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiuhui

    2014-02-15

    We present a novel strategy for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets based on the use of different encoding metal ions as tags. The principle of this scheme is that metal ions bound to metallothionein (MT) molecules can be released down after hybridization with DNA targets and then be detected by stripping voltammetry. The novel detection probes, ssDNA/MT conjugates, covered with different metal ions were synthesized for the first time, then three encoding metal ions (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate the signals of three virus DNA due to their well-defined anodic stripping peaks at -1.13 V (Zn), -0.78 V (Cd), and -0.52 V (Pb) at BiFE, respectively. The anodic peak currents increased linearly with the concentrations of DNA targets in the range from 0.1 nM to 10nM with a detection limit of 33 pM. In addition, the one-base mismatched target was effectively discriminated from the complementary target. The described results demonstrated that this method possesses high sensitivity and selectivity for multi-target DNA assay and has great potential in applications for detection of even more targets in biological assays, particularly immunoassays. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Report for simultaneous, multiple independently steered beam study for Airborne Electronically Steerable Phased Array (AESPA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts of an array for the formation of multiple, simultaneous, independently pointed beams for satellite communication links were investigated through tradeoffs of various approaches which were conceived as possible solutions to the problem. After the preferred approach was selected, a more detailed design was configured and is presented as a candidate system that should be given further consideration for development leading to a preliminary design. This array uses an attenuator and a phase shifter with every element. The aperture excitation necessary to form the four beams is calculated and then placed across the array using these devices. Pattern analysis was performed for two beam and four beam cases with numerous patterns being presented. Parameter evaluation shown includes pointing accuracy and beam shape, sidelobe characteristics, gain control, and beam normalization. It was demonstrated that a 4 bit phase shifter and a 6 bit, 30 dB attenuator were sufficient to achieve adequate pattern performances. The phase amplitude steered multibeam array offers the flexibility of 1 to 4 beams with an increase in gain of 6 dB if only one beam is selected.

  19. Modular time division multiplexer: Efficient simultaneous characterization of fast and slow transients in multiple samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Stephan D.; Luo, Jiajun; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Chang, R. P. H.; Grayson, M.

    2016-09-01

    A modular time division multiplexer (MTDM) device is introduced to enable parallel measurement of multiple samples with both fast and slow decay transients spanning from millisecond to month-long time scales. This is achieved by dedicating a single high-speed measurement instrument for rapid data collection at the start of a transient, and by multiplexing a second low-speed measurement instrument for slow data collection of several samples in parallel for the later transients. The MTDM is a high-level design concept that can in principle measure an arbitrary number of samples, and the low cost implementation here allows up to 16 samples to be measured in parallel over several months, reducing the total ensemble measurement duration and equipment usage by as much as an order of magnitude without sacrificing fidelity. The MTDM was successfully demonstrated by simultaneously measuring the photoconductivity of three amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin films with 20 ms data resolution for fast transients and an uninterrupted parallel run time of over 20 days. The MTDM has potential applications in many areas of research that manifest response times spanning many orders of magnitude, such as photovoltaics, rechargeable batteries, amorphous semiconductors such as silicon and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide.

  20. Multifunctional magnetic-optical nanoparticle probes for simultaneous detection, separation, and thermal ablation of multiple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chungang; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles possessing magnetization and near-infrared (NIR) absorption have warranted interest due to their significant applications in magnetic resonance imaging, diagnosis, bioseparation, target delivery, and NIR photothermal ablation. Herein, the site-selective assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto the ends or ends and sides of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (ARs) to create multifunctional nanorods decorated with varying numbers of magnetic particles is described for the first time. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles are designated as Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod)-Fe(3)O(4) nanodumbbells and Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike constructs with tunable optical and magnetic properties, respectively. These hybrid nanomaterials can be used for multiplex detection and separation because of their tunable magnetic and plasmonic functionality. More specifically, Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike probes of different ARs are utilized for simultaneous optical detection based on their plasmon properties, magnetic separation, and photokilling of multiple pathogens from a single sample at one time. The combined functionalities of the synthesized probes will open up many exciting opportunities in dual imaging for targeted delivery and photothermal therapy.

  1. Simultaneous z-shim method for reducing susceptibility artifacts with multiple transmitters.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiran; Yang, Cungeng; Alagappan, Vijayanand; Wald, Lawrence L; Boada, Fernando E; Stenger, V Andrew

    2009-02-01

    The signal loss susceptibility artifact is a major limitation in gradient-echo MRI applications. Various methods, including z-shim techniques and multidimensional tailored radio frequency (RF) pulses, have been proposed to mitigate the through-plane signal loss artifact, which is dominant in axial slices above the sinus region. Unfortunately, z-shim techniques require multiple steps and multidimensional RF methods are complex, with long pulse lengths. Parallel transmission methods were recently shown to be promising for improving B1 inhomogeneity and reducing the specific absorption rate. In this work, a novel method using time-shifted slice-select RF pulses is presented for reducing the through-plane signal loss artifact in parallel transmission applications. A simultaneous z-shim is obtained by concurrently applying unique time-shifted pulses on each transmitter. The method is shown to reduce the signal loss susceptibility artifact in gradient-echo images using a four-channel parallel transmission system at 3T. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Simultaneous Z-Shim Method for Reducing Susceptibility Artifacts With Multiple Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiran; Yang, Cungeng; Alagappan, Vijayanand; Wald, Lawrence L.; Boada, Fernando E.; Stenger, V. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The signal loss susceptibility artifact is a major limitation in gradient-echo MRI applications. Various methods, including z-shim techniques and multidimensional tailored radio frequency (RF) pulses, have been proposed to mitigate the through-plane signal loss artifact, which is dominant in axial slices above the sinus region. Unfortunately, z-shim techniques require multiple steps and multidimensional RF methods are complex, with long pulse lengths. Parallel transmission methods were recently shown to be promising for improving B1 inhomogeneity and reducing the specific absorption rate. In this work, a novel method using time-shifted slice-select RF pulses is presented for reducing the through-plane signal loss artifact in parallel transmission applications. A simultaneous z-shim is obtained by concurrently applying unique time-shifted pulses on each transmitter. The method is shown to reduce the signal loss susceptibility artifact in gradient-echo images using a four-channel parallel transmission system at 3T. PMID:19165881

  3. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nieradka, K; Małozięć, G; Kopiec, D; Grabiec, P; Janus, P; Sierakowski, A; Gotszalk, T

    2011-10-01

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  4. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieradka, K.; Małozieć, G.; Kopiec, D.; Grabiec, P.; Janus, P.; Sierakowski, A.; Gotszalk, T.

    2011-10-01

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  5. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis, thyroid storm, and multiple cerebral infarctions due to Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Noh, Byoungho H; Cho, Sang-Won; Ahn, Sung Yeon

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the precipitating factors that can evoke a thyroid storm. Thyroid storm may cause cerebral ischemia in Moyamoya disease, which can coexist in patients with Graves' disease. A 16-year-old girl complaining of dizziness and palpitations visited the emergency department and was diagnosed with DKA combined with hyperthyroidism. A thyroid storm occurred 6 h after the start of DKA management. Her Burch and Wartofsky score was 65 points. Right hemiplegia developed during the thyroid storm, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted images revealed multiple acute infarcts in both hemispheres. MR angiography showed stenosis of both distal internal carotid arteries and both M1 portions of the middle cerebral arteries, consistent with Moyamoya disease. After acute management for the thyroid storm with methimazole, Lugol solution and hydrocortisone, the patient's neurological symptoms completely resolved within 1 month, and free T4 level normalized within 2 months. Thyroid storm may trigger cerebral ischemia in Moyamoya disease and lead to rapid progression of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. As a simultaneous occurrence of DKA, thyroid storm and cerebrovascular accident in Moyamoya disease highly elevates morbidity and mortality, prompt recognition and management are critical to save the patient's life.

  7. Simultaneous Retrieval of Multiple Aerosol Parameters Using a Multi-Angular Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, both natural and anthropogenic, are important to the earth's radiative balance through their direct and indirect effects. They scatter the incoming solar radiation (direct effect) and modify the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (indirect effect). Although it has been suggested that aerosols exert a net cooling influence on climate, this effect has received less attention than the radiative forcing due to clouds and greenhouse gases. In order to understand the role that aerosols play in a changing climate, detailed and accurate observations are a prerequisite. The retrieval of aerosol optical properties by satellite remote sensing has proven to be a difficult task. The difficulty results mainly from the tenuous nature and variable composition of aerosols. To date, with single-angle satellite observations, we can only retrieve reliably against dark backgrounds, such as over oceans and dense vegetation. Even then, assumptions must be made concerning the chemical composition of aerosols. In this investigation we examine the feasibility of simultaneous retrieval of multiple aerosol optical parameters using reflectances from a typical set of twelve angles observed by the French POLDER instrument. The retrieved aerosol optical parameters consist of asymmetry factor, single scattering albedo, surface albedo, and optical thickness.

  8. Simultaneous Multiple Response Regression and Inverse Covariance Matrix Estimation via Penalized Gaussian Maximum Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyul; Liu, Yufeng

    2012-10-01

    Multivariate regression is a common statistical tool for practical problems. Many multivariate regression techniques are designed for univariate response cases. For problems with multiple response variables available, one common approach is to apply the univariate response regression technique separately on each response variable. Although it is simple and popular, the univariate response approach ignores the joint information among response variables. In this paper, we propose three new methods for utilizing joint information among response variables. All methods are in a penalized likelihood framework with weighted L(1) regularization. The proposed methods provide sparse estimators of conditional inverse co-variance matrix of response vector given explanatory variables as well as sparse estimators of regression parameters. Our first approach is to estimate the regression coefficients with plug-in estimated inverse covariance matrices, and our second approach is to estimate the inverse covariance matrix with plug-in estimated regression parameters. Our third approach is to estimate both simultaneously. Asymptotic properties of these methods are explored. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed methods perform competitively in terms of prediction, variable selection, as well as inverse covariance matrix estimation.

  9. S4MPLE--sampler for multiple protein-ligand entities: simultaneous docking of several entities.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Laurent; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-01-28

    S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool, based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, simulating one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). Energy calculations are based on the AMBER force field [Cornell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5179.] for biological macromolecules and its generalized version GAFF [Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004 , 25, 1157.] for ligands. This paper describes more advanced, specific applications of S4MPLE to problems more complex than classical redocking of drug-like compounds [Hoffer et al. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2012, submitted for publication.]. Here, simultaneous docking of multiple entities is addressed in two different important contexts. First, simultaneous docking of two fragment-like ligands was attempted, as such ternary complexes are the basis of fragment-based drug design by linkage of the independent binders. As a preliminary, the capacity of S4MPLE to dock fragment-like compounds has been assessed, since this class of small probes used in fragment-based drug design covers a different chemical space than drug-like molecules. Herein reported success rates from fragments redocking are as good as classical benchmarking results on drug-like compounds (Astex Diverse Set [Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 726.]). Then, S4MPLE is successfully challenged to predict locations of fragments involved in ternary complexes by means of multientity docking. Second, the key problem of predicting water-mediated interaction is addressed by considering explicit water molecules as additional entities to be docked in the presence of the "main" ligand. Blind prediction of solvent molecule positions, reproducing relevant ligand-water-site mediated interactions, is achieved in 76% cases over saved poses. S4MPLE was also successful to predict crystallographic water displacement by a therefore tailored functional group in the optimized ligand. However, water localization is an extremely delicate issue in terms of weighing of

  10. Hierarchical pictorial structures for simultaneously localizing multiple organs in volumetric pre-scan CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Song, Qi; Das, Bipul; Yin, Zhye

    2015-03-01

    Parsing volumetric computed tomography (CT) into 10 or more salient organs simultaneously is a challenging task with many applications such as personalized scan planning and dose reporting. In the clinic, pre-scan data can come in the form of very low dose volumes acquired just prior to the primary scan or from an existing primary scan. To localize organs in such diverse data, we propose a new learning based framework that we call hierarchical pictorial structures (HPS) which builds multiple levels of models in a tree-like hierarchy that mirrors the natural decomposition of human anatomy from gross structures to finer structures. Each node of our hierarchical model learns (1) the local appearance and shape of structures, and (2) a generative global model that learns probabilistic, structural arrangement. Our main contribution is twofold. First we embed the pictorial structures approach in a hierarchical framework which reduces test time image interpretation and allows for the incorporation of additional geometric constraints that robustly guide model fitting in the presence of noise. Second we guide our HPS framework with the probabilistic cost maps extracted using random decision forests using volumetric 3D HOG features which makes our model fast to train and fast to apply to novel test data and posses a high degree of invariance to shape distortion and imaging artifacts. All steps require approximate 3 mins to compute and all organs are located with suitably high accuracy for our clinical applications such as personalized scan planning for radiation dose reduction. We assess our method using a database of volumetric CT scans from 81 subjects with widely varying age and pathology and with simulated ultra-low dose cadaver pre-scan data.

  11. Simultaneous Evaluation of Multiple Rotationally Excited States of Floppy Molecules Using Diffusion Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Anne B.; Ford, Jason E.; Marlett, Melanie L.; Petit, Andrew S.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, an extension to diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is proposed, allowing for the simultaneous calculation of the energy and wave function of multiple rotationally excited states of floppy molecules. The total wave function is expanded into a set of Dirac δ-functions called walkers, while the rotational portion of the wave function is expanded in a symmetric top basis set. Each walker is given a rotational state vector containing coefficients for all states of interest. The positions of the atoms and the coefficients in the state vector evolve according to the split operator approximation of the quantum propagator. The method was benchmarked by comparing calculated rotation-vibration energies for H_3^+, H_2D^+, and H_3O^+ to experimental values. For low to moderate values of J, the resulting energies are within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation. Rotation-vibration coupling is captured through flexibility introduced in the form of the vibrational wave function. This coupling is found to increase with increasing J-values. Based on the success achieved through these systems, the method was applied to CH_5^+ and its deuterated isotopologues for v = 0, J ≥ 10. Based on these calculations, the energy level structure of CH_5^+ is found to resemble that for a of a spherical top, and excitations up to J = 10 displayed insignificant rotation-vibration coupling. Extensions of this approach that explicitly account for vibrations will also be discussed. ` A. S. Petit, J. E. Ford and A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A, in press, K. D. Jordan Festschrift, DOI: 10.1021/jp408821a

  12. Multi-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Wu, Juwell; Horton, Nicholas G.; Lin, Charles P.; Xu, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous imaging of cells expressing multiple fluorescent proteins (FPs) is of particular interest in applications such as mapping neural circuits, tracking multiple immune cell populations, etc. To visualize both in vivo and ex vivo tissue morphology and physiology at a cellular level deep within scattering tissues, two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) is a powerful tool that has found wide applications. However, simultaneous imaging of multiple FPs with 2PM is greatly hampered by the lack of proper ultrafast lasers offering multi-color femtosecond pulses, each targeting the two-photon absorption peak of a different FP. Here we demonstrate simultaneous two-photon fluorescence excitation of RFP, YFP, and CFP in human melanoma cells engineered to express a "rainbow" pallet of colors, using a novel fiber-based source with energetic, three-color femtosecond pulses. The three-color pulses, centered at 775 nm, 864 nm and 950 nm, are obtained through second harmonic generation of the 1550 nm pump laser and SHG of the solitons at 1728 nm and 1900 nm generated through soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) of the pump laser in a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber. The resulting wavelengths are well matched to the two-photon absorption peaks of the three FPs for efficient excitation. Our results demonstrate that multi-color femtosecond pulse generation using SSFS and a turn-key, fiber-based femtosecond laser can fulfill the requirements for simultaneous imaging of multiple FPs in 2PM, opening new opportunities for a wide range of biological applications where non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of multiple fluorescent indicators is required.

  13. Simultaneous Bioreduction of Multiple Oxidized Contaminants Using a Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixiang; Lin, Hua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Minmin; Chang, Chein-Chi; Xia, Siqing

    2017-02-01

      This study tests a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) to investigate simultaneous bioreduction of selected oxidized contaminants, including nitrate (-N), sulfate (), bromate (), chromate (Cr(VI)) and para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB). The experiments demonstrate that MBfR can achieve high performance for contaminants bioreduction to harmless or immobile forms in 240 days, with a maximum reduction fluxes of 0.901 g -N/m2·d, 1.573 g /m2·d, 0.009 g /m2·d, 0.022 g Cr(VI)/m2·d, and 0.043 g p-CNB/m2·d. Increasing H2 pressure and decreasing influent surface loading enhanced removal efficiency of the reactor. Flux analysis indicates that nitrate and sulfate reductions competed more strongly than , Cr(VI) and p-CNB reduction. The average H2 utilization rate, H2 flux, and H2 utilization efficiency of the reactor were 0.026 to 0.052 mg H2/cm3·d, 0.024 to 0.046 mg H2/cm2·d, and 97.5% to 99.3% (nearly 100%). Results show the hydrogen-based MBfR may be suitable for removing multiple oxidized contaminants in drinking water or groundwater.

  14. Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kalayci, Arzu; Arslan, Erol; Bakar, Salih Murat; Guneri, Mahmut; Dizman, Rafet; Kivanc, Eylem; Karabay, Can Yucel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of simultaneous coronary thrombosis of the left main, the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery in a patient, recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27489603

  15. Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multiple-ion species inertial confinemen fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P

    2007-05-14

    A long-standing problem in the field of laser-plasma interactions is to successfully employ multiple-ion species plasmas to reduce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum conditions. Multiple-ion species increase significantly the linear Landau damping for acoustic waves. Consequently, recent hohlraum designs for indirect-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility investigate wall liner material options so that the liner gain for parametric instabilities will be below threshold for the onset SBS. Although the effect of two-ion species plasmas on Landau damping has been directly observed with Thomson scattering, early experiments on SBS in these plasmas have suffered from competing non-linear effects or laser beam filamentation. In this study, a reduction of SBS scattering to below the percent level has been observed in hohlraums at Omega that emulate the plasma conditions in an indirect drive ICF experiments. These experiments have measured the laser-plasma interaction processes in ignition-relevant high-electron temperature regime demonstrating Landau damping as a controlling process for SBS. The hohlraums have been filled with various fractions of CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} varying the ratio of the light (H) to heavy (C and O) ion density from 0 to 2.6. They have been heated by 14.5 kJ of 351-nm light, thus increasing progressively Landau damping by an order of magnitude at constant electron density and temperature. A delayed 351-nm interaction beam, spatially smoothed to produce a 200-{micro}m laser spot at best focus, has propagated along the axis of the hohlraum. The backscattered light, both into the lens and outside, the transmitted light through the hohlraum plasma and the radiation temperature of the hohlraum has been measured. For ignition relevant laser intensities (3-9 10{sup 14} Wcm{sup -2}), we find that the SBS reflectivity scales as predicted with Landau damping from >30% to <1%. Simultaneously

  16. Characteristics of 263K Scrapie Agent in Multiple Hamster Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Kent D.; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)–resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species. PMID:19193264

  17. Trace element diffusion in minerals: the role of multiple diffusion mechanisms operating simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmen, R.; Marschall, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Polednia, J.; Chakraborty, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion of trace elements, often with ionic charge that differs from those of ions in the regular structural sites of a mineral, controls a number of important processes in rocks, such as: (i) Closure of radiogenic isotopic systems, (e.g. Pb diffusion in rutile; REE diffusion in garnet); (ii) Closure of trace element thermometers (e.g., Zr in rutile, Mg in plagioclase, Al in olivine); (iii) Closure of element exchange between melt inclusions and host minerals (e.g., H, REE in olivine). In addition, preserved trace element zoning profiles in minerals can be used for diffusion chronometry (e.g. Nb in rutile, Mg in plagioclase). However, experimentally determined diffusion coefficients of these trace elements are in many cases controversial (e.g., REE in olivine: [1] vs. [2]; Mg in plagioclase: [3] vs. [4]). We have carried out experiments to study the diffusion behavior in olivine, rutile, and plagioclase, and are able to show that two mechanisms of diffusion, differing in rates by up to four orders of magnitude, may operate simultaneously in a given crystal. The two mechanisms result in complex diffusion profile shapes. As a general rule, the incorporation of heterovalent substituting elements in relatively high concentrations is necessary to activate two diffusion mechanisms. This behavior is produced by the control of these elements on the point defect chemistry of a mineral - these impurities become a majority point defect when a threshold concentration limit is exceeded. In certain cases, e.g., for Li in olivine, the trace element can also be incorporated in different sites, resulting in interaction of the different species with other point defects (vacancies) during diffusion. Thus, depending on the diffusion couple used in the experiment, the associated concentration gradients within the mineral, and the analytical techniques used to measure the diffusion profile, only one diffusion mechanism may be activated or detected. These studies allow us to explain

  18. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  19. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE TYPES OF OUTCOMES IN NONLINEAR THRESHOLD MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple outcomes are often measured on each experimental unit in toxicology experiments. These multiple observations typically imply the existence of correlation between endpoints, and a statistical analysis that incorporates it may result in improved inference. When both disc...

  20. Multibeam long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument: a device for simultaneous measurements along multiple light paths.

    PubMed

    Pundt, Irene; Mettendorf, Kai Uwe

    2005-08-10

    A novel long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) apparatus for measuring tropospheric trace gases and the first results from its use are presented: We call it the multibeam instrument. It is the first active DOAS device that emits several light beams simultaneously through only one telescope and with only one lamp as a light source, allowing simultaneous measurement along multiple light paths. In contrast to conventional DOAS instruments, several small mirrors are positioned near the lamp, creating multiple virtual light sources that emit one light beam each in one specific direction. The possibility of error due to scattering between the light beams is negligible. The trace-gas detection limits of NO2, SO2, O3, and H2CO are similar to those of the traditional long-path DOAS instrument.

  1. Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes for three-dimensional microscopy using ultra-high-speed adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Duocastella, Martí; Sun, Bo; Arnold, Craig B

    2012-05-01

    Traditional white-light and fluorescent imaging techniques provide powerful methods to extract high-resolution information from two-dimensional (2-D) sections, but to retrieve information from a three-dimensional (3-D) volume they require relatively slow scanning methods that result in increased acquisition time. Using an ultra-high speed liquid lens, we circumvent this problem by simultaneously acquiring images from multiple focal planes. We demonstrate this method by imaging microparticles and cells flowing in 3-D microfluidic channels.

  2. Simultaneous Detection and Prevalence of Allergens in Anisakis Species Isolated from Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Joo; Seo, Dong Joo; Oh, Hyejin; Jeon, Su Been; Jung, Day; Choi, Changsun

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to develop a multiplex reverse transcription (RT) PCR for the detection of Anisakis allergens and to investigate the relationship between allergen profiles and anisakid larvae isolated from Scomber japonicus, Trichiurus lepturus, and Conger myriaster in Korea. The species of Anisakis was determined using Anisakis pegreffii-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The prevalence and profiles of five Ani s allergens were examined by multiplex RTPCR. A. pegreffii and Anisakis typica accounted for 97.1 and 2.9%, respectively, of the 140 larvae examined. In A. pegreffii, allergen prevalence was 41.2% for Ani s 1, 72.1% for Ani s 2, 69.9% for Ani s 3, 86.7% for Ani s 4, and 93.4% for Ani s 5. Most A. pegreffii larvae had multiple allergen profiles, and 80.7% of A. pegreffii carried both Ani s 4 and Ani s 5, which are heat-resistant allergens. Fifty-two to 65% of A. pegreffii isolated from S. japonicus and C. myriaster carried all five Ani s allergens.

  3. The ultrasound brain helmet: early human feasibility study of multiple simultaneous 3D scans of cerebral vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Whitman, John; Light, Edward; Fronheiser, Matthew; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe early stage experiments to test the feasibility of an ultrasound brain helmet to produce multiple simultaneous real-time 3D scans of the cerebral vasculature from temporal and suboccipital acoustic windows of the skull. The transducer hardware and software of the Volumetrics Medical Imaging real-time 3D scanner were modified to support dual 2.5 MHz matrix arrays of 256 transmit elements and 128 receive elements which produce two simultaneous 64° pyramidal scans. The real-time display format consists of two coronal B-mode images merged into a 128° sector, two simultaneous parasagittal images merged into a 128° × 64° C-mode plane, and a simultaneous 64° axial image. Real-time 3D color Doppler images acquired in initial clinical studies after contrast injection demonstrate flow in several representative blood vessels. An offline Doppler rendering of data from two transducers simultaneously scanning via the temporal windows provides an early visualization of the flow in vessels on both sides of the brain. The long-term goal is to produce real-time 3D ultrasound images of the cerebral vasculature from a portable unit capable of internet transmission, thus enabling interactive 3D imaging, remote diagnosis and earlier therapeutic intervention. We are motivated by the urgency for rapid diagnosis of stroke due to the short time window of effective therapeutic intervention.

  4. Simultaneous delimitation of species and quantification of interspecific hybridization in Amazonian peacock cichlids (genus cichla) using multi-locus data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Introgression likely plays a significant role in evolution, but understanding the extent and consequences of this process requires a clear identification of species boundaries in each focal group. The delimitation of species, however, is a contentious endeavor. This is true not only because of the inadequacy of current tools to identify species lineages, but also because of the inherent ambiguity between natural populations and species paradigms. The result has been a debate about the supremacy of various species concepts and criteria. Here, we utilized multiple separate sources of molecular data, mtDNA, nuclear sequences, and microsatellites, to delimit species under a polytypic species concept (PTSC) and estimate the frequency and genomic extent of introgression in a Neotropical genus of cichlid fishes (Cichla). We compared our inferences of species boundaries and introgression under this paradigm to those when species are identified under a diagnostic species concept (DSC). Results We find that, based on extensive molecular data and an inclusive species concept, 8 separate biological entities should be recognized rather than the 15 described species of Cichla. Under the PTSC, fewer individuals are expected to exhibit hybrid ancestry than under the DSC (~2% vs. ~12%), but a similar number of the species exhibit introgression from at least one other species (75% vs. 60%). Under either species concept, the phylogenetic breadth of introgression in this group is notable, with both sister species and species from different major mtDNA clades exhibiting introgression. Conclusions Introgression was observed to be a widespread phenomenon for delimited species in this group. While several instances of introgressive hybridization were observed in anthropogenically altered habitats, most were found in undisturbed natural habitats, suggesting that introgression is a natural but ephemeral part of the evolution of many tropical species. Nevertheless, even transient

  5. A novel GMO biosensor for rapid ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components in GMO products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Yinji; Xue, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Adeloju, Samuel B; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), there has been on-going and continuous concern and debates on the commercialization of products derived from GMOs. There is an urgent need for development of highly efficient analytical methods for rapid and high throughput screening of GMOs components, as required for appropriate labeling of GMO-derived foods, as well as for on-site inspection and import/export quarantine. In this study, we describe, for the first time, a multi-labeling based electrochemical biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components of GMO products on the same sensing interface. Two-round signal amplification was applied by using both an exonuclease enzyme catalytic reaction and gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode related strategies, respectively. Simultaneous multiple detections of different DNA components of GMOs were successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity using this electrochemical biosensor. Furthermore, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated by application to various GMO products, including locally obtained and confirmed commercial GMO seeds and transgenetic plants. The proposed electrochemical biosensor demonstrated unique merits that promise to gain more interest in its use for rapid and on-site simultaneous multiple screening of different components of GMO products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 5564 - Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Kern County, CA... Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS) for the Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat... such conduct (16 U.S.C. 1532). Harm includes significant habitat modification or degradation that...

  7. PCR-Based Multiple Species Cell Counting for In Vitro Mixed Culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruijie; Zhang, Junjie; Yang, X Frank; Gregory, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Changes of bacterial profiles in microbial communities are strongly associated with human health. There is an increasing need for multiple species research in vitro. To avoid high cost or measurement of a limited number of species, PCR-based multiple species cell counting (PCR-MSCC) has been conceived. Species-specific sequence is defined as a unique sequence of one species in a multiple species mixed culture. This sequence is identified by comparing a random 1000 bp genomic sequence of one species with the whole genome sequences of the other species in the same artificial mixed culture. If absent in the other genomes, it is the species-specific sequence. Species-specific primers were designed based on the species-specific sequences. In the present study, ten different oral bacterial species were mixed and grown in Brain Heart Infusion Yeast Extract with 1% sucrose for 24 hours. Biofilm was harvested and processed for DNA extraction and q-PCR amplification with the species-specific primers. By comparing the q-PCR data of each species in the unknown culture with reference cultures, in which the cell number of each species was determined by colony forming units on agar plate, the cell number of that strain in the unknown mixed culture was calculated. This technique is reliable to count microorganism numbers that are less than 100,000 fold different from other species within the same culture. Theoretically, it can be used in detecting a species in a mixed culture of over 200 species. Currently PCR-MSCC is one of the most economic methods for quantifying single species cell numbers, especially for the low abundant species, in a multiple artificial mixed culture in vitro.

  8. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination.

  9. Diffusion Limit of Kinetic Equations for Multiple Species Charged Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Lin, Tai-Chia; Liu, Chun

    2015-02-01

    In ionic solutions, there are multi-species charged particles (ions) with different properties like mass, charge etc. Macroscopic continuum models like the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) systems have been extensively used to describe the transport and distribution of ionic species in the solvent. Starting from the kinetic theory for the ion transport, we study a Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck (VPFP) system in a bounded domain with reflection boundary conditions for charge distributions and prove that the global renormalized solutions of the VPFP system converge to the global weak solutions of the PNP system, as the small parameter related to the scaled thermal velocity and mean free path tends to zero. Our results may justify the PNP system as a macroscopic model for the transport of multi-species ions in dilute solutions.

  10. Detection of alpha and betacoronaviruses in multiple Iberian bat species.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Ana; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Aznar, Carolina; Ruiz, Guillermo; Pozo, Francisco; Perez-Breña, Pilar; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Echevarría, Juan E

    2011-10-01

    Bat coronaviruses (CoV) are putative precursors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and other CoV that crossed the species barrier from zoonotic reservoirs into the human population. To determine the presence and distribution of CoV in Iberian bats, 576 individuals of 26 different bat species were captured in 13 locations in Spain. We report for the first time the presence of 14 coronaviruses in 9 Iberian bat species. Phylogenetic analysis of a conserved CoV genome region (RdRp gene) shows a wide diversity and distribution of alpha and betacoronavirus in Spain. Interestingly, although some of these viruses are related to other European BatCoV, or to Asian CoV, some of the viruses found in Spain cluster in new groups of α and β CoV.

  11. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, N. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tobin, J. J.; Fedele, D.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. Aims: We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. Methods: Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations ≥7″, a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of non-coevality that is due to geometry. Results: We find a non-coevality frequency of 33 ± 10% from the comparison of SED shapes of resolved multiple systems. Other source parameters suggest a somewhat lower frequency of non-coevality. The frequency of apparent non-coevality that is due to random inclination angle pairings of model SEDs is 17 ± 0.5%. Observations of the outflow of resolved multiple systems do not suggest significant misalignments within multiple systems. Effects of unresolved multiples on the SED shape are also investigated. Conclusions: We find that one-third of the multiple protostellar systems sampled here are non-coeval, which is more than expected from random geometric orientations. The other two-thirds are found to be coeval. Higher order multiples show a tendency to be non-coeval. The frequency of non-coevality found here is most likely due to formation and enhanced by

  12. Simultaneous determination of structurally diverse compounds in different Fangchi species by UHPLC-DAD and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Kang Ro; Hong, Jongki

    2013-05-07

    Two bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, two morphine alkaloids, one aporphine alkaloid, syringaresinol and aristolochic acid І were selected as marker compounds and simultaneously analyzed using an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD) method. These marker compounds were used for the quality control of Fangchi species of different origins, including Sinomenium acutum, Stephania tetrandra, Cocculus trilobus and Aristolochia fangchi. A reversed-phase UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of structurally diverse markers in different Fangchi species. In addition, an UHPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) method was used for marker identification in Fangchi species, which provided diagnostic MS/MS spectral patterns that were dependent upon the marker structures. The UHPLC-MS/MS data were used to confirm and complement the UHPLC-DAD quality evaluation results. Additionally, magnoflorine and syringaresinol were observed for the first time in S. tetrandra and C. trilobus, respectively. Twenty different Fangchi species samples were analyzed for aristolochic acid I, syringaresinol and the alkaloids using the UHPLC-DAD and MS/MS method. Based on the levels of markers and principal component analysis (PCA), this method allowed for the clear classification of the samples into four different groups representing samples originating from the four species.

  13. Simultaneous quantification of adrenergic amines and flavonoids in C. aurantium, various Citrus species, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Upparapalli, Sampath Kumar; Navarrete, Andres; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 6 amines and 20 flavonoids in fruits and extracts of 30 Citrus species, including C. aurantium, near-Citrus relatives, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The separation was achieved with a Phenomenex Synergi Hydro reversed-phase column using gradient mobile phase of sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and acetonitrile. Elution was run at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV at 254, 280, and 330 nm. Among the amines analyzed, synephrine, the main component, was present in the levels from 0.11 to 2.0 mg/g dry weight in 21 Citrus species and 0.07 to 18.62% in dietary supplements claiming to contain C. aurantium. The flavanones and flavones were analyzed in the same Citrus samples and were species-specific. The levels of flavones were very low compared with those of flavanones. The method facilitated the simultaneous quantification of 6 amines and 20 flavonoids in various Citrus species, the distinction between the different Citrus species, and the analysis of dietary supplements containing C. aurantium.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  15. Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Ryan G.; Ahsan, Shoeb; Aizawa, Yukie; Maxwell, Karen L.; Morshead, Cindi M.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) protein-patterned scaffolds provide a more biomimetic environment for cell culture than traditional two-dimensional surfaces, but simultaneous 3D protein patterning has proved difficult. We developed a method to spatially control the immobilization of different growth factors in distinct volumes in 3D hydrogels, and to specifically guide differentiation of stem/progenitor cells therein. Stem-cell differentiation factors sonic hedgehog (SHH) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were simultaneously immobilized using orthogonal physical binding pairs, barnase-barstar and streptavidin-biotin, respectively. Barnase and streptavidin were sequentially immobilized using two-photon chemistry for subsequent concurrent complexation with fusion proteins barstar-SHH and biotin-CNTF, resulting in bioactive 3D patterned hydrogels. The technique should be broadly applicable to the patterning of a wide range of proteins.

  16. Simultaneous initiation and growth of multiple radial hydraulic fractures from a horizontal wellbore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecampion, Brice; Desroches, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Multi-stage fracturing is the current preferred method of completion of horizontal wells in unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Its core component consists in simultaneously initiating and propagating an array of hydraulic fractures. We develop a numerical model for the initiation and growth of an array of parallel radial hydraulic fractures. The solution accounts for fracture growth, coupling between elastic deformation and fluid flow in the fractures, elastic stress interactions between fractures and fluid flow in the wellbore. We also take into account the presence of a local pressure drop (function of the entering flow rate) at the connection between the well and the fracture, i.e., a choke-like effect due to current well completion practices, also referred to as entry friction. The partitioning of the fluid into the different fractures at any given time is part of the solution and is a critical indicator of simultaneous (balanced fluid partitioning) versus preferential growth. We validate our numerical model against reference solutions and a laboratory experiment for the initiation and growth of a single radial hydraulic fracture. We then investigate the impact of stress interaction on preferential growth of a subset of fractures in the array. Our results show that a sufficiently large local entry friction provides a strong feedback in the system and thus can counteract elastic stress interaction between fractures, thereby ensuring simultaneous growth. We propose a dimensionless number capturing the competition between stress interaction and local entry friction. This dimensionless number is a function of rock properties, fracture spacing and injection parameters. We verify that it captures the transition from the case of simultaneous growth (entry friction larger than interaction stress) to the case of preferential growth of some fractures (interaction stress larger than entry friction). We also discuss the implication of these results for multi

  17. Calculation of Multiple Burst Interactions for Six Simultaneous Explosions of 120 Ton ANFO Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-15

    rivll, spheric ity , etc. would gene iratly be t’XpeLcted toLVI) ld Lo iow’~t tile illt!Lerct ionl Over- p rca no rca . A iiyd iocude aCUIIciaL Ion...detonations. The MISERS BLUFF II--2 test consisted of the simultaneous detonation of six 120-ton ANFO charges placed in a hexa - gonal array with 100-ft

  18. Multiple-level defect species evaluation from average carrier decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debuf, Didier

    2003-10-01

    An expression for the average decay is determined by solving the the carrier continuity equations, which include terms for multiple defect recombination. This expression is the decay measured by techniques such as the contactless photoconductance decay method, which determines the average or volume integrated decay. Implicit in the above is the requirement for good surface passivation such that only bulk properties are observed. A proposed experimental configuration is given to achieve the intended goal of an assessment of the type of defect in an n-type Czochralski-grown silicon semiconductor with an unusually high relative lifetime. The high lifetime is explained in terms of a ground excited state multiple-level defect system. Also, minority carrier trapping is investigated.

  19. Predicting Gene-Disease Associations Using Multiple Species Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-20

    predictions on interactions from protein - protein interaction networks such as HPRD [26], and Goh et al. [5] construct a network where genes are connected...they can achieve much greater coverage than pure protein - protein interaction networks. In the past decades, the growth of gene-phenotype...collected from multiple sources including [11, 12, 8, 10]. Detailed description on the extraction of the data sets can be found in [22]. In particular

  20. Multi-responses extraction optimization based on response surface methodology combined with polarity switching HPLC-MS/MS for the simultaneous quantitation of 11 compounds in Cortex Fraxini: application to four species of Cortex Fraxini and its 3 confusable species.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Zhang, Juan; Li, Tao; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Weijing; Zhao, Minmin; Du, Yingfeng; Wang, Qiao; Jia, Jing

    2014-03-01

    A novel polarity switching high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach combining optimization of extraction condition by response surface methodology (RSM) was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 11 compounds in Cortex Fraxini, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The ultrasonic extraction conditions of the 11 analytes including sample quantity, methanol concentration and extraction time were simultaneously optimized with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and Derringer's desirability function. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run of 16min. Quantitative parameters of the proposed method with respect to limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were evaluated under optimum conditions, and the results indicated that the method was sensitive, specific and reliable. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in four species of Cortex Fraxini and three kinds of its confusable species, and significant differences were found between the official and confusable species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Simultaneous Treatment of Missing Data and Measurement Error in HIV Research using Multiple Overimputation

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Michael; Hogger, Sara; Johnson, Leigh F.; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Bärnighausen, Till; Heumann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Both CD4 count and viral load in HIV infected persons are measured with error. There is no clear guidance on how to deal with this measurement error in the presence of missing data. Methods We used multiple overimputation, a method recently developed in the political sciences, to account for both measurement error and missing data in CD4 count and viral load measurements from four South African cohorts of a Southern African HIV cohort collaboration. Our knowledge about the measurement error of lnCD4 and log10 viral load is part of an imputation model that imputes both missing and mismeasured data. In an illustrative example we estimate the association of CD4 count and viral load with the hazard of death among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy by means of a Cox model. Simulation studies evaluate the extent to which multiple overimputation is able to reduce bias in survival analyses. Results Multiple overimputation emphasizes more strongly the influence of having a high baseline CD4 counts compared to a complete case analysis and multiple imputation (hazard ratio for >200 cells/mm3 vs. <25 cells/mm3: 0.21 [95%CI: 0.18;0.24] vs. 0.38 [0.29;0.48] and 0.29 [0.25;0.34] respectively). Similar results are obtained when varying assumptions about the measurement error, when using p-splines, and when evaluating time-updated CD4 count in a longitudinal analysis. The estimates of the association with viral load are slightly more attenuated when using multiple imputation instead of multiple overimputation. Our simulation studies suggest that multiple overimputation is able to reduce bias and mean squared error in survival analyses. Conclusions Multiple overimputation, which can be used with existing software, offers a convenient approach to account for both missing and mismeasured data in HIV research. PMID:26214336

  3. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), lily mottle virus (LMoV), lily symptomless virus (LSV). Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV) by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility. PMID:25288961

  4. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Split-Inteins for Simultaneous, site-specific conjugation of Quantum Dots to multiple protein targets In vivo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteins labelled with Quantum Dots (QDs) can be imaged over long periods of time with ultrahigh spatial and temporal resolution, yielding important information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins within live cells or in vivo. However one of the major problems regarding the use of QDs for biological imaging is the difficulty of targeting QDs onto proteins. We have recently developed a DnaE split intein-based method to conjugate Quantum Dots (QDs) to the C-terminus of target proteins in vivo. In this study, we expand this approach to achieve site-specific conjugation of QDs to two or more proteins simultaneously with spectrally distinguishable QDs for multiparameter imaging of cellular functions. Results Using the DnaE split intein we target QDs to the C-terminus of paxillin and show that paxillin-QD conjugates become localized at focal adhesions allowing imaging of the formation and dissolution of these complexes. We go on to utilize a different split intein, namely Ssp DnaB mini-intein, to demonstrate N-terminal protein tagging with QDs. Combination of these two intein systems allowed us to simultaneously target two distinct proteins with spectrally distinguishable QDs, in vivo, without any cross talk between the two intein systems. Conclusions Multiple target labeling is a unique feature of the intein based methodology which sets it apart from existing tagging methodologies in that, given the large number of characterized split inteins, the number of individual targets that can be simultaneously tagged is only limited by the number of QDs that can be spectrally distinguished within the cell. Therefore, the intein-mediated approach for simultaneous, in vivo, site-specific (N- and C-terminus) conjugation of Quantum Dots to multiple protein targets opens up new possibilities for bioimaging applications and offers an effective system to target QDs and other nanostructures to intracellular compartments as well as specific molecular complexes. PMID

  6. A convenient method for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites: application in study of rice-bacterium interaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Simultaneous analysis of multiple functional-related phytohormones and their metabolites will improve our understanding of interactions among different hormones in the same biologic process. Results A method was developed for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid, hormone conjugates, IAA-aspartic acid, JA-isoleucine, and methyl JA, and phytoalexins, momilactone A, naringenin, and sakuranetin. This method combines a convenient procedure for preparing filtrated crude extracted samples and a sensitive quantification assay using ultra fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS). With this method, we determined the dynamic profiles of defense-related phytohormones, hormone metabolites, and phytoalexins in the interaction of rice with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight, one of the most devastating diseases of rice worldwide. Conclusion This UFLC-ESI-MS method is convenient, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive for quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites compared to current methods. The results obtained by application of this method in studying rice-bacterial interaction provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of rice defense responses. PMID:22243810

  7. Gateway Vectors for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Protein−Protein Interactions in Plant Cells Using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Hikino, Kazumi; Goto-Yamada, Shino; Nishimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Mano, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is widely used to detect protein—protein interactions, because it is technically simple, convenient, and can be adapted for use with conventional fluorescence microscopy. We previously constructed enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-based Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors. In the current study, we generated new Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors to detect BiFC-based multiple protein—protein interactions using N- and C-terminal fragments of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Using a combination of N- and C-terminal fragments from ECFP, EGFP and EYFP, we observed a shift in the emission wavelength, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple protein—protein interactions. Moreover, we developed these vectors as binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium infiltration and for the generate transgenic plants. We verified that the binary vectors functioned well in tobacco cells. The results demonstrate that the BiFC vectors facilitate the design of various constructions and are convenient for the detection of multiple protein—protein interactions simultaneously in plant cells. PMID:27490375

  8. Generating multiple wavelengths, simultaneously, in a Ti:sapphire ring laser with a ramp-hold-fire seeding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas Z.; Anderson, F. Scott

    2012-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously produce pulsed laser output over multiple discrete wavelengths can mitigate many of the timing and jitter issues associated with the use of multiple laser systems. In addition, Fourier-transform limited laser output on every pulse is required for many applications such as with pump-probe detection, non-linear frequency mixing, differential absorption lidar (DIAL), and resonance ionization. As a matter of practice, such lasers need to be capable of operating within uncontrolled or noisy environments. We report on a novel Ti:sapphire ring laser that has been developed to produce Fourier-transform limited 20-ns laser pulses at multiple discrete wavelengths, simultaneously, utilizing a Ramp-Hold-Fire (RHF) seeding technique. Resonance of the seed light is achieved by using a KD*P crystal to modify the phase of the light circulating within the slave oscillator cavity where the fast response of the crystal results in a seeding technique that is immune to noise throughout the acoustic regime.

  9. Untangling the Diverse Interior and Multiple Exterior Guest Interactions of a Supramolecular Host by the Simultaneous Analysis of Complementary Observables.

    PubMed

    Sgarlata, Carmelo; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2016-07-05

    The entropic and enthalpic driving forces for encapsulation versus sequential exterior guest binding to the [Ga4L6](12-) supramolecular host in solution are very different, which significantly complicates the determination of these thermodynamic parameters. The simultaneous use of complementary techniques, such as NMR, UV-vis, and isothermal titration calorimetry, enables the disentanglement of such multiple host-guest interactions. Indeed, data collected by each technique measure different components of the host-guest equilibria and together provide a complete picture of the solution thermodynamics. Unfortunately, commercially available programs do not allow for global analysis of different physical observables. We thus resorted to a novel procedure for the simultaneous refinement of multiple parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) by treating different observables through a weighted nonlinear least-squares analysis of a constrained model. The refinement procedure is discussed for the multiple binding of the Et4N(+) guest, but it is broadly applicable to the deconvolution of other intricate host-guest equilibria.

  10. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species.

  11. Rapid Screening for Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Different Species of Bamboo and Simultaneous Quantitation of Four Marker Compounds by HPLC-UV/DAD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Yue, Yong-de; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing flavone C-glucosides in the leaves of different species of bamboo was developed. Firstly, the flavone C-glycosides were extracted from the bamboo leaves (51 species in 17 genera) with methanol and chromatographed on silica gel 60 plates in automatic developing chamber (ADC2), and a qualitative survey using simple derivatization steps with the NP reagent was carried out. The flavone C-glycosides were found in 40 of 51 species of bamboo examined. Secondly, an HPLC method with photodiode array and multiple wavelength detector was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavone C-glycosides, including isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin, and vitexin in the leaves of three species of bamboo and the flavone C-glycosides were confirmed by LC/MS. The optimized HPLC method proved to be linear in the concentration range tested (0.2-100 μg/mL, r(2) ≥ 0.9997), precise (RSD ≤ 1.56%), and accurate (88-106%). The concentration ranges of isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin, and vitexin in three bamboo leaves samples were 1.00-2.78, 0-0.31, 0-0.07, and 0.20-0.68 mg/g, respectively. The proposed method was validated to be simple and reliable and can be a tool for quality control of bamboo leaf extract or its commercial products.

  12. Rapid Screening for Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Different Species of Bamboo and Simultaneous Quantitation of Four Marker Compounds by HPLC-UV/DAD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Yue, Yong-de; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing flavone C-glucosides in the leaves of different species of bamboo was developed. Firstly, the flavone C-glycosides were extracted from the bamboo leaves (51 species in 17 genera) with methanol and chromatographed on silica gel 60 plates in automatic developing chamber (ADC2), and a qualitative survey using simple derivatization steps with the NP reagent was carried out. The flavone C-glycosides were found in 40 of 51 species of bamboo examined. Secondly, an HPLC method with photodiode array and multiple wavelength detector was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavone C-glycosides, including isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin, and vitexin in the leaves of three species of bamboo and the flavone C-glycosides were confirmed by LC/MS. The optimized HPLC method proved to be linear in the concentration range tested (0.2–100 μg/mL, r 2 ≥ 0.9997), precise (RSD ≤ 1.56%), and accurate (88–106%). The concentration ranges of isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin, and vitexin in three bamboo leaves samples were 1.00–2.78, 0–0.31, 0–0.07, and 0.20–0.68 mg/g, respectively. The proposed method was validated to be simple and reliable and can be a tool for quality control of bamboo leaf extract or its commercial products. PMID:22654910

  13. A planning study of simultaneous integrated boost with forward IMRT for multiple brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaodong; Ni, Lingqin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Ying, Shenpeng; Gong, Qiangjun; Liu, Yanmei

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose conformity and feasibility of whole-brain radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost by forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for 10 patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases on Pinnacle 6.2 Treatment Planning System. The prescribed dose was 30 Gy to the whole brain (planning target volume [PTV]wbrt) and 40 Gy to individual brain metastases (PTVboost) simultaneously, and both doses were given in 10 fractions. The maximum diameters of individual brain metastases ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm, and the summated PTVs per patient ranged from 1.62 to 69.81 cm(3). Conformity and feasibility were evaluated regarding conformation number and treatment delivery time. One hundred percent volume of the PTVboost received at least 95% of the prescribed dose in all cases. The maximum doses were less than 110% of the prescribed dose to the PTVboost, and all of the hot spots were within the PTVboost. The volume of the PTVwbrt that received at least 95% of the prescribed dose ranged from 99.2% to 100%. The mean values of conformation number were 0.682. The mean treatment delivery time was 2.79 minutes. Ten beams were used on an average in these plans. Whole-brain radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost by forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy in 1 to 3 brain metastases is feasible, and treatment delivery time is short. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A planning study of simultaneous integrated boost with forward IMRT for multiple brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Xiaodong; Ni, Lingqin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Ying, Shenpeng; Gong, Qiangjun; Liu, Yanmei

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose conformity and feasibility of whole-brain radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost by forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for 10 patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases on Pinnacle 6.2 Treatment Planning System. The prescribed dose was 30 Gy to the whole brain (planning target volume [PTV]{sub wbrt}) and 40 Gy to individual brain metastases (PTV{sub boost}) simultaneously, and both doses were given in 10 fractions. The maximum diameters of individual brain metastases ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm, and the summated PTVs per patient ranged from 1.62 to 69.81 cm{sup 3}. Conformity and feasibility were evaluated regarding conformation number and treatment delivery time. One hundred percent volume of the PTV{sub boost} received at least 95% of the prescribed dose in all cases. The maximum doses were less than 110% of the prescribed dose to the PTV{sub boost}, and all of the hot spots were within the PTV{sub boost}. The volume of the PTV{sub wbrt} that received at least 95% of the prescribed dose ranged from 99.2% to 100%. The mean values of conformation number were 0.682. The mean treatment delivery time was 2.79 minutes. Ten beams were used on an average in these plans. Whole-brain radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost by forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy in 1 to 3 brain metastases is feasible, and treatment delivery time is short.

  15. Holographic 3D display observable for multiple simultaneous viewers from all horizontal directions by using a time division method.

    PubMed

    Sando, Yusuke; Barada, Daisuke; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2014-10-01

    A holographic three-dimensional display system with a viewing angle of 360°, by using a high-speed digital micromirror device (DMD), has been proposed. The wavefront modulated by the DMD enters a rotating mirror tilted vertically downward. The synchronization of the rotating mirror and holograms displayed on the DMD allows for the reconstruction of a wavefront propagating in all horizontal directions. An optical experiment has been demonstrated in order to verify our proposed system. Binocular vision is realized from anywhere within the horizontal plane. Our display system enables simultaneous observation by multiple viewers at an extremely close range.

  16. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow.

  17. Selection of multiple umbrella species for functional and taxonomic diversity to represent urban biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sattler, T; Pezzatti, G B; Nobis, M P; Obrist, M K; Roth, T; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    Surrogates, such as umbrella species, are commonly used to reduce the complexity of quantifying biodiversity for conservation purposes. The presence of umbrella species is often indicative of high taxonomic diversity; however, functional diversity is now recognized as an important metric for biodiversity and thus should be considered when choosing umbrella species. We identified umbrella species associated with high taxonomic and functional biodiversity in urban areas in Switzerland. We analyzed 39,752 individuals of 574 animal species from 96 study plots and 1397 presences of 262 plant species from 58 plots. Thirty-one biodiversity measures of 7 taxonomic groups (plants, spiders, bees, ground beetles, lady bugs, weevils and birds) were included in within- and across-taxa analyses. Sixteen measures were taxonomical (species richness and species diversity), whereas 15 were functional (species traits including mobility, resource use, and reproduction). We used indicator value analysis to identify umbrella species associated with single or multiple biodiversity measures. Many umbrella species were indicators of high biodiversity within their own taxonomic group (from 33.3% in weevils to 93.8% in birds), to a lesser extent they were indicators across taxa. Principal component analysis revealed that umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity represented different aspects of biodiversity, especially with respect to measures of taxonomic and functional diversity. Thus, even umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity were complementary in the biodiversity aspects they represented. Thus, the choice of umbrella species based solely on taxonomic diversity is questionable and may not represent biodiversity comprehensively. Our results suggest that, depending on conservation priorities, managers should choose multiple and complementary umbrella species to assess the state of biodiversity.

  18. A highly tunable system for the simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Ikeuchi, Akinori; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2015-01-16

    Control of the expression levels of multiple enzymes in transgenic yeasts is essential for the effective production of complex molecules through fermentation. Here, we propose a tunable strategy for the control of expression levels based on the design of terminator regions and other gene-expression control elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our genome-integrated system, which is capable of producing high expression levels over a wide dynamic range, will broadly enable metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. We demonstrated that the activities of multiple cellulases and the production of ethanol were doubled in a transgenic yeast constructed with our system compared with those achieved with a standard expression system.

  19. Extensive genetic diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in multiple mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Lin, Xian-Dan; Ni, Xue-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liao, Yong; Yang, Si-Yuan; Dumler, J Stephen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-12-09

    Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014-2015. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the rrs, groEL and gltA genes revealed the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria in mosquitoes, comprising nine documented and five tentative species bacteria, as well as three symbionts/endosybionts. In addition, bacteria were identified in mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae sampled from aquatic environments. Hence, these data suggest that Rickettsiales circulate widely in mosquitoes in nature. Also of note was that Ehrlichia and Rickettsia bacteria were detected in each life stage of laboratory cultured mosquitoes, suggesting that Rickettsiales may be maintained in mosquitoes through both transstadial and transovarial transmission. In sum, these data indicate that mosquitoes may have played an important role in the transmission and evolution of Rickettsiales in nature.

  20. Extensive genetic diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in multiple mosquito species

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Lin, Xian-Dan; Ni, Xue-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liao, Yong; Yang, Si-Yuan; Dumler, J. Stephen; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014–2015. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the rrs, groEL and gltA genes revealed the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria in mosquitoes, comprising nine documented and five tentative species bacteria, as well as three symbionts/endosybionts. In addition, bacteria were identified in mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae sampled from aquatic environments. Hence, these data suggest that Rickettsiales circulate widely in mosquitoes in nature. Also of note was that Ehrlichia and Rickettsia bacteria were detected in each life stage of laboratory cultured mosquitoes, suggesting that Rickettsiales may be maintained in mosquitoes through both transstadial and transovarial transmission. In sum, these data indicate that mosquitoes may have played an important role in the transmission and evolution of Rickettsiales in nature. PMID:27934910

  1. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  2. A Bose-condensed, simultaneous dual-species Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, C. C. N.; McDonald, G. D.; Hardman, K. S.; Bennetts, S.; Everitt, P. J.; Altin, P. A.; Debs, J. E.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the first realization of a simultaneous 87Rb-85Rb Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer with Bose-condensed atoms. A number of ambitious proposals for precise terrestrial and space based tests of the weak equivalence principle rely on such a system. This implementation utilizes hybrid magnetic-optical trapping to produce spatially overlapped condensates with a repetition rate of 20 s. A horizontal optical waveguide with co-linear Bragg beamsplitters and mirrors is used to simultaneously address both isotopes in the interferometer. We observe a non-linear phase shift on a non-interacting 85Rb interferometer as a function of interferometer time, T, which we show arises from inter-isotope scattering with the co-incident 85Rb interferometer. A discussion of implications for future experiments is given.

  3. Simultaneous object classification and segmentation with high-order multiple shape models.

    PubMed

    Lecumberry, Federico; Pardo, Alvaro; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2010-03-01

    Shape models (SMs), capturing the common features of a set of training shapes, represent a new incoming object based on its projection onto the corresponding model. Given a set of learned SMs representing different objects classes, and an image with a new shape, this work introduces a joint classification-segmentation framework with a twofold goal. First, to automatically select the SM that best represents the object, and second, to accurately segment the image taking into account both the image information and the features and variations learned from the online selected model. A new energy functional is introduced that simultaneously accomplishes both goals. Model selection is performed based on a shape similarity measure, online determining which model to use at each iteration of the steepest descent minimization, allowing for model switching and adaptation to the data. High-order SMs are used in order to deal with very similar object classes and natural variability within them. Position and transformation invariance is included as part of the modeling as well. The presentation of the framework is complemented with examples for the difficult task of simultaneously classifying and segmenting closely related shapes, such as stages of human activities, in images with severe occlusions.

  4. OLED-based sensor array for simultaneous monitoring of multiple analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuankun; Shinar, Ruth; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Shinar, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    A compact, photoluminescence (PL)-based sensor array, utilizing tris(quinolinolate) Al OLED pixels as the excitation sources, for sequential or simultaneous monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO), glucose, lactate, and alcohol, is described. The DO is monitored through its effect on the PL lifetime of the oxygen-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) embedded in a polystyrene film. The other analytes are monitored through their oxidation, catalyzed by an appropriate oxidase, which reduces the amount of DO in their vicinity. The OLED pixels are fabricated on a glass substrate; each pixel is typically 2×2 mm2, with a 2 mm gap between the pixels. Two OLED pixels are associated with the detection of each of the analytes. The pixels are individually addressable, enabling consecutive detection of the different analytes within a few minutes utilizing a single photodetector (PD). Simultaneous detection is achieved by using an array of PDs. The OLED-based sensing array is compact and uniquely simple in its ease of fabrication and integration. Its performance attributes are comparable to those obtained for a single analyte using any excitation source. The potential of small-size, multi-color OLED pixel arrays for multianalyte detection is also discussed.

  5. Detection of multiple Bartonella species in digestive and reproductive tissues of fleas collected from sympatric mammals.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Kabeya, Hidenori; Inoue, Kai; Bai, Ying; Maruyama, Soichi

    2010-07-01

    At least 12 species in the genus Bartonella are zoonotic pathogens that may be transmitted among mammalian hosts by fleas or other arthropods. Apparent host specificity by some Bartonella species to mammalian hosts has been observed, and the detection of multiple Bartonella species in mammalian fleas suggests that fleas take bloodmeals from a variety of host species. However, many flea species are observed to parasitize a narrow host range. Therefore, we suspect that fleas may acquire Bartonella by a mechanism other than ingesting infectious blood. We found that detection of multiple Bartonella genotypes and species is apparently common in fleas and that the majority of fleas tested (5/9) carried Bartonella species atypical of their hosts. We also detected Bartonella DNA in flea reproductive tissues, suggesting that vertical transmission of this organism in vectors is possible, potentially leading to the accumulation of Bartonella diversity over time within fleas.

  6. All Set! Evidence of Simultaneous Attentional Control Settings for Multiple Target Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Jessica L.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional…

  7. All Set! Evidence of Simultaneous Attentional Control Settings for Multiple Target Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Jessica L.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional…

  8. Simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in food samples by a one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mi, Tiejun; Wang, Zhanhui; Eremin, Sergei A; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia

    2013-10-02

    This paper describes a rapid one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs) in food samples. Several fluorescent tracers were synthesized and evaluated in the FPIA method based on a broad-specificity of monoclonal antibodies toward FQs. The heterogeneous tracer, SAR-5-FAM, was considered as the optimal choice to prepare the immunocomplex single reagent, which allows a rapid and sensitive displacement reaction by addition of analytes. Optimized single-reagent FPIA exhibited broad cross-reactivities in the range of 7.8-172.2% with 16 FQs tested and was capable of determining most FQs at the level of maximum residue limits. Recoveries for spiked milk and chicken muscle samples were from 77.8 to 116%, with relative standard deviation lower than 17.4%. Therefore, this method could be applicable in routine screening analysis of multiple FQ residues in food samples.

  9. ALDH2 Mediates 5-Nitrofuran Activity in Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linna; Ishizaki, Hironori; Spitzer, Michaela; Taylor, Kerrie L.; Temperley, Nicholas D.; Johnson, Stephen L.; Brear, Paul; Gautier, Philippe; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Mitchell, Amy; Narayan, Vikram; McNeil, Ewan M.; Melton, David W.; Smith, Terry K.; Tyers, Mike; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Patton, E. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Summary Understanding how drugs work in vivo is critical for drug design and for maximizing the potential of currently available drugs. 5-nitrofurans are a class of prodrugs widely used to treat bacterial and trypanosome infections, but despite relative specificity, 5-nitrofurans often cause serious toxic side effects in people. Here, we use yeast and zebrafish, as well as human in vitro systems, to assess the biological activity of 5-nitrofurans, and we identify a conserved interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 and 5-nitrofurans across these species. In addition, we show that the activity of nifurtimox, a 5-nitrofuran anti-trypanosome prodrug, is dependent on zebrafish Aldh2 and is a substrate for human ALDH2. This study reveals a conserved and biologically relevant ALDH2-5-nitrofuran interaction that may have important implications for managing the toxicity of 5-nitrofuran treatment. PMID:22840776

  10. Molecular and morphologic data reveal multiple species in Peromyscus pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Schmidly, David J.; Amman, Brian R.; Platt, Roy N.; Neumann, Kathy M.; Huynh, Howard M.; Muñiz-Martínez, Raúl; López-González, Celia; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequence and morphometric data were used to re-evaluate the taxonomy and systematics of Peromyscus pectoralis. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene in 44 samples of P. pectoralis indicated 2 well-supported monophyletic clades. The 1st clade contained specimens from Texas historically assigned to P. p. laceianus; the 2nd was comprised of specimens previously referable to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis obtained from northern and eastern Mexico. Levels of genetic variation (~7%) between these 2 clades indicated that the genetic divergence typically exceeded that reported for other species of Peromyscus. Samples of P. p. laceianus north and south of the Río Grande were not monophyletic. In addition, samples representing P. p. collinus and P. p. pectoralis formed 2 clades that differed genetically by 7.14%. Multivariate analyses of external and cranial measurements from 63 populations of P. pectoralis revealed 4 morpho-groups consistent with clades in the DNA sequence analysis: 1 from Texas and New Mexico assignable to P. p. laceianus; a 2nd from western and southern Mexico assignable to P. p. pectoralis; a 3rd from northern and central Mexico previously assigned to P. p. pectoralis but herein shown to represent an undescribed taxon; and a 4th from southeastern Mexico assignable to P. p. collinus. Based on the concordance of these results, populations from the United States are referred to as P. laceianus, whereas populations from Mexico are referred to as P. pectoralis (including some samples historically assigned to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis). A new subspecies is described to represent populations south of the Río Grande in northern and central Mexico. Additional research is needed to discern if P. p. collinus warrants species recognition. PMID:26937045

  11. Simultaneous inhibition of multiple oncogenic miRNAs by a multi-potent microRNA sponge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyun; Yeom, Chanjoo; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Kim, Sinae; Lee, EunJi; Park, Min Ji; Kang, Sang Wook; Kim, Sung Bae; Chang, Suhwan

    2015-08-21

    The roles of oncogenic miRNAs are widely recognized in many cancers. Inhibition of single miRNA using antagomiR can efficiently knock-down a specific miRNA. However, the effect is transient and often results in subtle phenotype, as there are other miRNAs contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we report a multi-potent miRNA sponge inhibiting multiple miRNAs simultaneously. As a model system, we targeted miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221/222, known as oncogenic miRNAs in multiple tumors including breast and pancreatic cancers. To achieve efficient knockdown, we generated perfect and bulged-matched miRNA binding sites (MBS) and introduced multiple copies of MBS, ranging from one to five, in the multi-potent miRNA sponge. Luciferase reporter assay showed the multi-potent miRNA sponge efficiently inhibited 4 miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, a stable and inducible version of the multi-potent miRNA sponge cell line showed the miRNA sponge efficiently reduces the level of 4 target miRNAs and increase target protein level of these oncogenic miRNAs. Finally, we showed the miRNA sponge sensitize cells to cancer drug and attenuate cell migratory activity. Altogether, our study demonstrates the multi-potent miRNA sponge is a useful tool to examine the functional impact of simultaneous inhibition of multiple miRNAs and proposes a therapeutic potential.

  12. Evaluation of a multiple-species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale

    Treesearch

    Patricia N. Manley; William J. Zielinski; Matthew D. Schlesinger; Sylvia R. Mori

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring is required of land managers and conservation practitioners to assess the success of management actions. "Shortcuts" are sought to reduce monitoring costs, most often consisting of the selection of a small number of species that are closely monitored to represent the status of many associated species and environmental correlates. Assumptions...

  13. The development of a microprocessor system for simultaneously monitoring heart rate from multiple subjects.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J T; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-06-01

    Two computer systems developed in our laboratory to monitor the heart rate of freely moving rats are described below. The first system uses the Commodore CBM microcomputer and monitors a single rat. The second system uses the IBM CS9000, monitors up to four rats simultaneously, and provides real-time graphics. Both systems rely on a Schmitt-trigger circuit which digitizes the electrical signal generation by the heart during every cardiac cycle. Both systems also employ the same algorithm to handle the appreciable levels of noise generated by subject movement. The algorithm developed for filtering this noise and its effectiveness are presented. This paper illustrates a software-intensive approach to handling signal timing, and the advantages provided by 16/32-bit versus an 8-bit microcomputer.

  14. Miniature stereo radio transmitter for simultaneous recording of multiple single-neuron signals from behaving owls.

    PubMed

    Nieder, A

    2000-09-15

    Wireless radiotelemetric transmission of neuronal activity is an elegant technique to study brain-behavior interaction in unrestrained animals. In the current study, a miniature FM-stereo radio transmitter is described that permitted simultaneous recordings from two microelectrodes in behaving barn owls. Input from two independent channels is multiplexed to form a stereo composite signal that modulates a radio frequency carrier. The high quality of broadcasted extracellular signals enabled separation of single units based on differences in spike waveforms. Recording several single cells from different electrodes allows the possibility of investigating correlations between small, distributed neuronal ensembles. Multi-channel radiotelemetry that meets the demands of modern electrophysiology might open a new perspective for combined behavioral/neurophysiological approaches in freely-behaving animals.

  15. Double random phase encryption scheme to multiplex and simultaneous encode multiple images.

    PubMed

    Alfalou, Ayman; Mansour, Ali

    2009-11-01

    Here we present a new approach of multiplexing and simultaneous encoding of target images. Our approach can enhance the encryption level of a classical double random phase (DRP) encryption system by adding a supplementary security layer. The new approach can be divided into two security layers. The first layer is called the multiplexing level, which consists in using iterative Fourier transformations along with several encryption key images. These latter can be a set of biometric images. At the second layer, we use a classical DRP system. The two layers enable us to encode several target images (multi-encryption) and to reduce, at the same time, the requested decoded information (transmitted or storage information).

  16. Simultaneous planning of the project scheduling and material procurement problem under the presence of multiple suppliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Babak H.; Farid Ghaderi, Seyed

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous planning of project scheduling and material procurement can improve the project execution costs. Hence, the issue has been addressed here by a mixed-integer programming model. The proposed model facilitates the procurement decisions by accounting for a number of suppliers offering a distinctive discount formula from which to purchase the required materials. It is aimed at developing schedules with the best net present value regarding the obtained benefit and costs of the project execution. A genetic algorithm is applied to deal with the problem, in addition to a modified version equipped with a variable neighbourhood search. The underlying factors of the solution methods are calibrated by the Taguchi method to obtain robust solutions. The performance of the aforementioned methods is compared for different problem sizes, in which the utilized local search proved efficient. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to check the effect of inflation on the objective function value.

  17. DND-CAT's new triple area detector system for simultaneous data collection at multiple length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Steven J.; Keane, Denis T.

    2011-09-01

    The DuPont-Northwestern-Dow Collaborative Access Team (DND-CAT) built and currently manages sector 5 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. One of the principal techniques supported by DND-CAT is Small and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS), with an emphasis on simultaneous data collection over a wide azimuthal and reciprocal space range using a custom SAXS/WAXS detector system. A new triple detector system is now in development, and we describe the key parameters and characteristics of the new instrument, which will be faster, more flexible, more robust, and will improve q-space resolution in a critical reciprocal space regime between the traditional WAXS and SAXS ranges.

  18. In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Hilbert, V.; Brown, C.; Döppner, T.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Förster, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Harmand, M.; Hochhaus, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Radcliffe, P.; Schulz, M.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tavella, F.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; White, T.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers.

  19. Implementation of Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques to Simultaneously Observe Native and Mutated Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Brennan; Ben, Kelty; Link, Justin

    A protein's natural, correctly folded structure can determine the protein's ability to carry out its function. If the unfolding process of proteins can be observed, then the relative stability can be better understood between native and mutated proteins. A global picture of the unfolding process may be completed through the studies of strategically mutated proteins using tryptophan as a probe. Horse heart cytochrome c, a thoroughly studied, model protein was used in our investigation to explore this idea. Various spectroscopic techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), absorbance, and fluorescence were simultaneously applied while slowly unfolding our protein by increasing the concentration of a chemical denaturant, guanidine hydrochloride. This provided us information about the thermodynamic properties of the protein and several mutants which can then be interpreted to gain relative stability information among mutations. Efforts to utilize these techniques on native and mutated proteins in comparison to current scientific unfolding theories will be presented in this session.

  20. Simultaneous SU(2) rotations on multiple quantum dot exciton qubits using a single shaped pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Reuble; Yang, Hong Yi Shi; Hall, Kimberley C.

    2015-10-01

    Recent experimental demonstration of a parallel (π ,2 π ) single qubit rotation on excitons in two distant quantum dots [Nano Lett. 13, 4666 (2013), 10.1021/nl4018176] is extended in numerical simulations to the design of pulses for more general quantum state control, demonstrating the feasibility of full SU(2) rotations of each exciton qubit. Our results show that simultaneous high-fidelity quantum control is achievable within the experimentally accessible parameter space for commercial Fourier-domain pulse shaping systems. The identification of a threshold of distinguishability for the two quantum dots (QDs) for achieving high-fidelity parallel rotations, corresponding to a difference in transition energies of ˜0.25 meV , points to the possibility of controlling more than 10 QDs with a single shaped optical pulse.

  1. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  2. Characterisation of a cryostat using simultaneous, single-beam multiple-surface laser vibrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, Thomas; Charrett, Thomas O. H.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.; Adams, Alvin; Twin, Andrew

    2016-06-28

    A novel range-resolved interferometric signal processing technique that uses sinusoidal optical frequency modulation is applied to multi-surface vibrometry, demonstrating simultaneous optical measurements of vibrations on two surfaces using a single, collimated laser beam, with a minimum permissible distance of 3.5 cm between surfaces. The current system, using a cost-effective laser diode and a fibre-coupled, downlead insensitive setup, allows an interferometric fringe rate of up to 180 kHz to be resolved with typical displacement noise levels of 8 pm · Hz{sup −05}. In this paper, the system is applied to vibrometry measurements of a table-top cryostat, with concurrent measurements of the optical widow and the sample holder target inside. This allows the separation of common-mode vibrations of the whole cryostat from differential vibrations between the window and the target, allowing any resonances to be identified.

  3. A semiconductor metasurface with multiple functionalities: A polarizing beam splitter with simultaneous focusing ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Woong Yoon, Jae; Jin Jung, Myoung; Kyun Hong, Jong; Ho Song, Seok; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We propose a semiconductor metasurface that simultaneously performs two independent functions: focusing and polarization filtering. The wavefronts of the reflected and transmitted light distributions are precisely manipulated by spatial parametric variation of a subwavelength thin-film Si grating, which inherently possesses polarization filtering properties. We design a 12-μm-wide metasurface containing only nineteen Si grating ridges. Under a 10-μm-wide unpolarized Gaussian beam incidence at wavelength of 1.55 μm, the resulting device shows promising theoretical performance with high power efficiency exceeding 80% and polarization extinction ratio of ˜10 dB with focal spot diameters near 1-2 μm.

  4. The combined SOHO-STEREO dataset: Simultaneous observations of comets from multiple vantage points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, M.; Begun, J.; Kelley, M.; Battams, K.; A'Hearn, M.

    2014-07-01

    The set of comets observed by Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) provides a large (>2500 comets) and unique database for studying cometary properties. Sungrazing comets are discovered in SOHO or STEREO images on average every few days, with individual comets typically observable for up to a few days. We compiled photometry of more than 20 comets observed simultaneously by the same telescope and filter on both STEREO spacecraft to construct the first dust scattering phase function ever directly computed from simultaneous observations of the same object from two vantage points, thus removing uncertainty caused by changing heliocentric distance between observations. The collective dust scattering phase function spans phase angles from 28--153 deg and agrees reasonably well with the theoretical curve from [1]. However, individual comets deviate from the predicted curve by varying amounts during their apparition. This may suggest that the dust properties of individual comets change on the timescale of hours due to the dramatically different heliocentric distance or that the number of dust grains in the coma is changing due to nucleus activity, rotation, and/or erosion. We have also begun a study of the dust tails of selected well-observed comets in our database. This project utilizes the 3-D aspects of the combined SOHO and STEREO dataset to constrain the dust properties and time of release better than is possible with observations from a single location. We will present ongoing results of these investigations and place them into the wider context of sungrazing comet studies, notably by comparison with SOHO and STEREO observations of comet C/2012 S1 ISON [2], the most extensively observed sungrazing comet in history.

  5. Characterization of a simultaneous dual-species atom interferometer for a quantum test of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, A.; Zahzam, N.; Bidel, Y.; Bresson, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present here the performance of a simultaneous dual-species matter-wave accelerometer for measuring the differential acceleration between two different atomic species (87Rb and 85Rb ). We study the expression and the extraction of the differential phase from the interferometer output. The differential accelerometer reaches a short-term sensitivity of 1.23 ×10-7g /√{Hz } limited by the detection noise and a resolution of 2 ×10-9g after 11 000 s, a very high sensitivity using a dual-species atom interferometer. Thanks to the simultaneous measurement, such resolution levels can still be achieved even with vibration levels up to 3 ×10-3g , corresponding to a common-mode vibration noise rejection ratio of 94 dB (rejection factor of 50 000). These results prove the ability of such atom sensors for realizing a quantum-based test of the weak equivalence principle at a level of η ˜10-9 even with high vibration levels and a compact sensor.

  6. Online evaluation of novel choices by simultaneous representation of multiple memories

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Helen C; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2014-01-01

    Prior experience plays a critical role in decision making. It enables explicit representation of potential outcomes and provides training to valuation mechanisms. However, we can also make choices in the absence of prior experience, by merely imagining the consequences of a new experience. Here, using fMRI repetition suppression in humans, we show how neuronal representations of novel rewards can be constructed and evaluated. A likely novel experience is constructed by invoking multiple independent memories within hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. This construction persists for only a short time period, during which new associations are observed between the memories for component items. Together these findings suggest that in the absence of direct experience, co-activation of multiple relevant memories can provide a training signal to the valuation system which allows the consequences of new experiences to be imagined and acted upon. PMID:24013592

  7. Space-time delta-sigma modulation for reception of multiple simultaneous independent RF beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Guoguang; Black, Bruce A.; Siahmakoun, Azad Z.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze a multiple-RF-beam beamformer in receive mode utilizing the principle of space-time delta-sigma modulation. This principle is based on sampling input signals in both time and space and converting the sampled signals into a digital format by delta-sigma conversion. Noise shaping is achieved in 2D frequency domain. We show that the modulator can receive signals of narrow and wide bandwidths with steering capability, can receive multiple beams, and establish tradeoffs between sampling in time and in space. The ability of the modulator to trade off between time and space provides an effective way to sample high frequency RF signals without down conversion. In addition, a space-time delta-sigma modulator has better performance than a solely temporal delta-sigma modulator (for the same filter order), as is typically used in communication systems to digitize the down-converted analog signals.

  8. [Significance of Simultaneous Analysis of Bone Marrow Smear and Bone Marrow Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Multiple Myloma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Lin; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Hai-Bo

    2015-08-01

    To explore the value of bone marrow smear and biopsy simultaneously applied to diagnosis of multiple myloma (MM). Clinical data of 30 cases of multiple myloma were collected from our hospital in the year 2014 and analyzed retrospectively, and the results of the bone marrow smear and the simultaneous bone marrow biopsy were compared. Hyperplasia levels in bone marrow biopsy was significantly higher than that in bone marrow smears, and the active and highly active hyperplasia of nucleated cells were observed in all the bone marrow biopsies; the myeloma cells showed a focal or diffuse distribution, the binuclear or polynuclear myeloma cells were observed in 22 patients (73%), but the detection rate of abnormal myeloma cells was 40% in bone marrow smear (P < 0.05). There was mild to moderate hyperplasia of fibrous tissue in bone marrow biopsy, and the hyperplasia degeree of fibrous tissue strongly positively correlated with the myeloma cell ratio (r = 0.412). The bone marrow smear and aspiration biopsy can complement each other so as to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, therefore contributes to the early diaglosis and treatment.

  9. Complete inhibition of tobamovirus multiplication by simultaneous mutations in two homologous host genes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takuya; Imai, Takahiro; Satoh, Rena; Kawashima, Arata; Takahashi, Miki; Tomita, Kayo; Kubota, Kenji; Meshi, Tetsuo; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2002-03-01

    The TOM1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a putative multipass transmembrane protein which is necessary for the efficient multiplication of tobamoviruses. We have previously shown that mutations severely destructive to the TOM1 gene reduce tobamovirus multiplication to low levels but do not impair it completely. In this report, we subjected one of the tom1 mutants (tom1-1) to another round of mutagenesis and isolated a new mutant which did not permit a detectable level of tobamovirus multiplication. In addition to tom1-1, this mutant carried a mutation referred to as tom3-1. Positional cloning showed that TOM3 was one of two TOM1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Based on the similarity between the amino acid sequences of TOM1 and TOM3, together with the results of a Sos recruitment assay suggesting that both TOM1 and TOM3 bind tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins, we propose that TOM1 and TOM3 play parallel and essential roles in the replication of tobamoviruses.

  10. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  11. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  12. Photon-counting CT for simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents in the abdomen: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Symons, Rolf; Krauss, Bernhard; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Cork, Tyler E; Lakshmanan, Manu N; Bluemke, David A; Pourmorteza, Amir

    2017-04-26

    To demonstrate the feasibility of spectral imaging using photon-counting detector (PCD) x-ray computed tomography (CT) for simultaneous material decomposition of three contrast agents in vivo in a large animal model. This Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved study used a canine model. Bismuth subsalicylate was administered orally 24-72 h before imaging. PCD CT was performed during intravenous administration of 40-60 ml gadoterate meglumine; 3.5 min later, iopamidol 370 was injected intravenously. Renal PCD CT images were acquired every 2 s for 5-6 min to capture the wash-in and wash-out kinetics of the contrast agents. Least mean squares linear material decomposition was used to calculate the concentrations of contrast agents in the aorta, renal cortex, renal medulla and renal pelvis. Using reference vials with known concentrations of materials, we computed molar concentrations of the various contrast agents during each phase of CT scanning. Material concentration maps allowed simultaneous quantification of both arterial and delayed renal enhancement in a single CT acquisition. The accuracy of the material decomposition algorithm in a test phantom was -0.4 ± 2.2 mM, 0.3 ± 2.2 mM for iodine and gadolinium solutions, respectively. Peak contrast concentration of gadolinium and iodine in the aorta, renal cortex, and renal medulla were observed 16, 24, and 60 s after the start each injection, respectively. Photon-counting spectral CT allowed simultaneous material decomposition of multiple contrast agents in vivo. Besides defining contrast agent concentrations, tissue enhancement at multiple phases was observed in a single CT acquisition, potentially obviating the need for multiphase CT scans and thus reducing radiation dose. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Convergence patterns and multiple species interactions in a designed plant mixture of five species.

    PubMed

    Suter, Matthias; Ramseier, Dieter; Guesewell, Sabine; Connolly, John

    2007-03-01

    It is known that convergence and divergence can occur in complex plant communities, but the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors driving these processes is less clear. We addressed this issue in an experiment using a range of mixed stands of five species that are common in Swiss fens (Carex elata, C. flava, Lycopus europaeus, Lysimachia vulgaris and Mentha aquatica) and two levels of water and nutrients. One hundred and seventy-six experimental mixtures were maintained in large pots (75 l) for two consecutive growing seasons in an experimental garden. The stands varied systematically in the initial relative abundance of each of the five species and in overall initial stand abundance. The changes in biomass over 2 years were modelled as linear functions of treatments and the initial biomass of each species. The dynamics of the system were mainly driven by differences in the identity of species and by a negative feedback mechanism but also by different abiotic conditions. In all mixtures, C. elata became more dominant over time, which caused an overall convergence of community composition. In addition, the rate of change of each species' biomass was negatively related to its own initial abundance. Thus, a negative feedback further contributed to the convergence of communities. Species responded differently to water level and nutrient supply, causing community dynamics to differ among treatments. However, the different abiotic conditions only slightly modified the overall convergence pattern. Competitive interactions between more than two species were weaker than the negative feedback but still significantly influenced the species' final relative abundance. The negative feedback suggests that there is niche partitioning between the species, which permits their coexistence.

  14. DNA-based Simultaneous Identification of Three Terminalia Species Targeting Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonal; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various parts of three Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia arjuna (stem bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruit), and Terminalia chebula (fruit) are widely known for their therapeutic principles and other commercial values. However, stem bark of T. bellirica and T. chebula along with Terminalia tomentosa are reported as adulterants of T. arjuna. Correct botanical identification is very critical for safe and effective herbal drugs. DNA-based identification approaches are advancing the conventional methods and sometime proved more beneficial. Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to ascertain the identity of T. arjuna herbal material as well as detection of mixing of other three Terminalia species. Materials and Methods: DNA from stem barks samples were isolated and subjected to ITS region amplification and sequencing. Sequences were compared for polymorphic nucleotides determination to develop species-specific primers. Final primers were selected on the basis of in silico analysis and experimentally validated. PCR assays for botanical identification of Terminalia species were developed. Sensitivity testing and assay validation were also performed. Results: The PCR assays developed for Terminalia species were resulted in definite amplicons of the corresponding species. No cross-reactivity of the primers was detected. Sensitivity was found enough to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNA. Mixing of DNA in various concentrations for validation also proved the sensitivity of assay to detect original botanicals in the mixture. The developed methods proved very specific and sensitive to authenticate Arjuna bark to develop evidence-based herbal medicines. SUMMARY Internal transcribed spacer-based species-specific polymerase chain reaction.(PCR) assays were developed to authenticate Terminalia arjuna stem bark and to identify substitution/adulteration of Terminalia bellirica

  15. Multi-resource and multi-scale approaches for meeting the challenge of managing multiple species

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; Deborah M. Finch; John R. Probst; Glen D. Gaines; David S. Dobkin

    1999-01-01

    The large number of Neotropical migratory bird (NTMB) species and their diverse habitat requirements create conflicts and difficulties for land managers and conservationists. We provide examples of assessments or conservation efforts that attempt to address the problem of managing for multiple NTMB species. We advocate approaches at a variety of spatial and geographic...

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of hemicellulose to butanol by a non-sporulating Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Li, Tinggang; He, Jianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Production of lignocellulosic butanol has drawn increasing attention. However, currently few microorganisms can produce biofuels, particularly butanol, from lignocellulosic biomass via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Here we report discovery of a wild-type, mesophilic Clostridium sp. strain MF28 that ferments xylan to produce butanol (up to 3.2g/L) without the addition of saccharolytic enzymes and without any chemical pretreatments. Application of selective pressure from 2-deoxy-d-glucose facilitated isolation of strain MF28, which exhibits inactivation of genes (gid and ccp genes) responsible for carbon catabolite repression, thus allowing strain MF28 to simultaneously ferment a combination of glucose (30g/L), xylose (15g/L), and arabinose (15g/L) to produce 11.9g/L of butanol. Strain MF28 possesses several unique features: (i) non-sporulating, (ii) no acetone/ethanol, (iii) complete hemicellulose-binding enzymatic domain, and (iv) absence of carbon catabolite repression. These unique characteristics demonstrate the industrial potential of strain MF28 for cost-effective biofuel generation from lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Ginsenosides in Panax ginseng Herbal Medicines with One Single Reference Standard

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunwei; Guan, Qingxiao; Wang, Shumei; Rong, Yueying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Renseng in Chinese) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive components. However, the shortage and high cost of some ginsenoside reference standards make it is difficult for quality control of P. ginseng. Objective: A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in P. ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd). Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on Inertsil ODS-3 C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelength was set at 203 nm. The feasibility and accuracy of SSDMC were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ginsenoside Rg1 as the internal reference substance, the contents of other eight ginsenosides were calculated according to conversion factors (F) by HPLC. Results: The method was validated with linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9990), precision (relative standard deviation [RSD] ≤2.9%), accuracy (97.5%–100.8%, RSD ≤ 1.6%), repeatability, and stability. There was no significant difference between the SSDMC method and the external standard method. Conclusion: New SSDMC method could be considered as an ideal mean to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available. SUMMARY A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was established by high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd)Various chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify applicability of FsThe feasibility and accuracy of SSDMC were checked by the external standard method

  18. Attempted integration of multiple species of turaco into a mixed-species aviary.

    PubMed

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Ferrie, Gina M; Nichols, Valerie D; Tybor, Cheryl L; Plassé, Chelle; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    Mixed-species exhibits offer a variety of benefits but can be challenging to maintain due to difficulty in managing interspecific interactions. This is particularly true when little has been documented on the behavior of the species being mixed. This was the case when we attempted to house three species of turaco (family: Musophagidae) together with other species in a walk-through aviary. To learn more about the behavior of great blue turacos, violaceous turacos, and white-bellied gray go-away birds, we supplemented opportunistic keeper observations with systematic data collection on their behavior, location, distance from other birds, and visibility to visitors. Keepers reported high levels of aggression among turacos, usually initiated by a go-away bird or a violaceous turaco. Most aggression occurred during feedings or when pairs were defending nest sites. Attempts to reduce aggression by temporarily removing birds to holding areas and reintroducing them days later were ineffective. Systematic data collection revealed increased social behavior, including aggression, during breeding season in the violaceous turacos, as well as greater location fidelity. These behavioral cues may be useful in predicting breeding behavior in the future. Ultimately, we were only able to house three species of turaco together for a short time, and prohibitively high levels of conflict occurred when pairs were breeding. We conclude that mixing these three turaco species is challenging and may not be the most appropriate housing situation for them, particularly during breeding season. However, changes in turaco species composition, sex composition, or exhibit design may result in more compatible mixed-turaco species groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemical species separation with simultaneous estimation of field map and T2* using a k-space formulation.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Jose Luis; Parot, Vicente; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio; Irarrazaval, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    Chemical species separation techniques in image space are prone to incorporate several distortions. Some of these are signal accentuation in borders and geometrical warping from field inhomogeneity. These errors come from neglecting intraecho time variations. In this work, we present a new approach for chemical species separation in MRI with simultaneous estimation of field map and T2* decay, formulated entirely in k-space. In this approach, the time map is used to model the phase accrual from off-resonance precession and also the amplitude decay due to T2*. Our technique fits the signal model directly in k-space with the acquired data minimizing the l(2)-norm with an interior-point algorithm. Standard two dimensional gradient echo sequences in the thighs and head were used for demonstrating the technique. With this approach, we were able to obtain excellent estimation for the species, the field inhomogeneity, and T2* decay images. The results do not suffer from geometric distortions derived from the chemical shift or the field inhomogeneity. Importantly, as the T2* map is well positioned, the species signal in borders is correctly estimated. Considering intraecho time variations in a complete signal model in k-space for separating species yields superior estimation of the variables of interest when compared to existing methods.

  20. Multiple Developmental Dental Anomalies in a Non-Syndromic Patient: Report of a Rare Simultaneous Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Hemmati, Samane; Mooudi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    A case of multiple pulp stones, a supernumerary tooth and a congenitally missing tooth accompanied by several developmental dental anomalies concurrently affecting the upper and lower anterior teeth in an Iranian healthy girl is reported. Developmental tooth abnormalities are usually found in conjunction with certain diseases or conditions. In the present case, although the patient had consanguineous parents and the role of genetics should be considered particularly for autosomal recessive traits, based on the child’s family and medical history, no correlation could be established between dental findings and systemic or metabolic diseases. PMID:26877734

  1. Microfluidic PicoArray synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides and simultaneous assembling of multiple DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaochuan; Cai, Shiying; Hong, Ailing; You, Qimin; Yu, Peilin; Sheng, Nijing; Srivannavit, Onnop; Muranjan, Seema; Rouillard, Jean Marie; Xia, Yongmei; Zhang, Xiaolin; Xiang, Qin; Ganesh, Renuka; Zhu, Qi; Matejko, Anna; Gulari, Erdogan; Gao, Xiaolian

    2004-01-01

    Large DNA constructs of arbitrary sequences can currently be assembled with relative ease by joining short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (oligonucleotides). The ability to mass produce these synthetic genes readily will have a significant impact on research in biology and medicine. Presently, high-throughput gene synthesis is unlikely, due to the limits of oligonucleotide synthesis. We describe a microfluidic PicoArray method for the simultaneous synthesis and purification of oligonucleotides that are designed for multiplex gene synthesis. Given the demand for highly pure oligonucleotides in gene synthesis processes, we used a model to improve key reaction steps in DNA synthesis. The oligonucleotides obtained were successfully used in ligation under thermal cycling conditions to generate DNA constructs of several hundreds of base pairs. Protein expression using the gene thus synthesized was demonstrated. We used a DNA assembly strategy, i.e. ligation followed by fusion PCR, and achieved effective assembling of up to 10 kb DNA constructs. These results illustrate the potential of microfluidics-based ultra-fast oligonucleotide parallel synthesis as an enabling tool for modern synthetic biology applications, such as the construction of genome-scale molecular clones and cell-free large scale protein expression. PMID:15477391

  2. Simultaneous detection of multiple fish pathogens using a naked-eye readable DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-I; Hung, Pei-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Che; Cheng, Ta Chih; Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Lin, King-Jung; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum) commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer) complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP), resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 10(3) CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens.

  3. Simultaneous multiplexing and encoding of multiple images based on a double random phase encryption system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfalou, Ayman; Mansour, Ali

    2009-09-01

    Nowadays, protecting information is a major issue in any transmission system, as showed by an increasing number of research papers related to this topic. Optical encoding methods, such as a Double Random Phase encryption system i.e. DRP, are widely used and cited in the literature. DRP systems have very simple principle and they are easily applicable to most images (B&W, gray levels or color). Moreover, some applications require an enhanced encoding level based on multiencryption scheme and including biometric keys (as digital fingerprints). The enhancement should be done without increasing transmitted or stored information. In order to achieve that goal, a new approach for simultaneous multiplexing & encoding of several target images is developed in this manuscript. By introducing two additional security levels, our approach enhances the security level of a classic "DRP" system. Our first security level consists in using several independent image-keys (randomly and structurally) along with a new multiplexing algorithm. At this level, several target images (multiencryption) are used. This part can reduce needed information (encoding information). At the second level a standard DRP system is included. Finally, our approach can detect if any vandalism attempt has been done on transmitted encrypted images.

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Fish Pathogens Using a Naked-Eye Readable DNA Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-I; Hung, Pei-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Che; Cheng, Ta Chih; Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Lin, King-Jung; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum) commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer) complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP), resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 103 CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens. PMID:22736973

  5. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices.

  6. Frequency scanning interferometry in ATLAS: remote, multiple, simultaneous and precise distance measurements in a hostile environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, P. A.; Howell, D. F.; Nickerson, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    ATLAS is the largest particle detector under construction at CERN Geneva. Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI), also known as absolute distance interferometry, will be used to monitor shape changes of the SCT (semiconductor tracker), a particle tracker in the inaccessible, high radiation environment at the centre of ATLAS. Geodetic grids with several hundred fibre-coupled interferometers (30 mm to 1.5 m long) will be measured simultaneously. These lengths will be measured by tuning two lasers and comparing the resulting phase shifts in grid line interferometers (GLIs) with phase shifts in a reference interferometer. The novel inexpensive GLI design uses diverging beams to reduce sensitivity to misalignment, albeit with weaker signals. One micrometre precision length measurements of grid lines will allow 10 µm precision tracker shape corrections to be fed into ATLAS particle tracking analysis. The technique was demonstrated by measuring a 400 mm interferometer to better than 400 nm and a 1195 mm interferometer to better than 250 nm. Precise measurements were possible, even with poor quality signals, using numerical analysis of thousands of intensity samples. Errors due to drifts in interferometer length were substantially reduced using two lasers tuned in opposite directions and the precision was further improved by linking measurements made at widely separated laser frequencies.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of multiple serum proteins adhering to the surface of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane elastomers.

    PubMed

    Backovic, Aleksandar; Wolfram, Dolores; Del-Frari, Barbara; Piza, Hildegunde; Huber, Lukas A; Wick, Georg

    2007-12-01

    Although polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) elastomers are presumed to be chemically inert and of negligible toxicity, they induce a prompt acute inflammatory response with subsequent fibrotic reactions. Since local inflammatory and fibrotic side effects are associated with the proteinaceous film on the surface of silicone implants, the process of protein adherence to silicone is of practical medical relevance, and interesting from theoretical, clinical and biotechnological perspectives. It is hypothesized that the systemic side effects resembling rheumatoid and other connective tissue diseases may be triggered by local immunological changes, but this functional relationship has yet to be defined. Because the proteinaceous film on the surface of silicone has been identified as a key player in the activation of host defense mechanisms, we propose a test system based on a proteomics screen to simultaneously identify proteins adsorbed from serum to the surface of silicone. Herein, we describe protein adsorption kinetics on the surface of silicone implants, correlate the adhesion properties of serum proteins with the occurrence of adverse reactions to silicone, and successfully discriminate their signature on the silicone surface in a blinded study of patients suffering from fibrotic reactions (as determined by Baker scale) to silicone implants.

  8. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  9. Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements

    DOE PAGES

    Faye, Sherry A.; Richards, Jason M.; Gallardo, Athena M.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible. This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials. Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species.

  10. Simultaneous multiple-excitation multiphoton microscopy yields increased imaging sensitivity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) offers many advantages over conventional wide-field and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for imaging biological samples such as 3D resolution of excitation, reduced phototoxicity, and deeper tissue imaging. However, adapting MPM for critical multi-color measurements presents a challenge because of the largely overlapping two-photon absorption (TPA) peaks of common biological fluorophores. Currently, most multi-color MPM relies on the absorbance at one intermediate wavelength of multiple dyes, which introduces problems such as decreased and unequal excitation efficiency across the set of dyes. Results Here we describe an MPM system incorporating two, independently controlled sources of two-photon excitation whose wavelengths are adjusted to maximally excite one dye while minimally exciting the other. We report increased signal-to-noise ratios and decreased false positive emission bleed-through using this novel multiple-excitation MPM (ME-MPM) compared to conventional single-excitation MPM (SE-MPM) in a variety of multi-color imaging applications. Conclusions Similar to the tremendous gain in popularity of CLSM after the introduction of multi-color imaging, we anticipate that the ME-MPM system will further increase the popularity of MPM. In addition, ME-MPM provides an excellent tool to more rapidly design and optimize pairs of fluorescence probes for multi-color two-photon imaging, such as CFP/YFP or GFP/DsRed for CLSM. PMID:21366923

  11. Journey to Flexible, Reliable, Laboratory Platform for Simultaneous Control of Multiple Reactive Power Producing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Jason; Rizy, D Tom; Kueck, John D

    2007-01-01

    Herein is discussed the instrumentation and control requirements for achieving the goal of operating multiple Distributed Energy (DE) devices in parallel to regulate local voltage. The process for establishing the flexible laboratory control and data acquisition system that allows for the integration of multiple Distributed Energy (DE) devices in XXXX Laboratory's Distributed Energy - Communications and Controls Laboratory (DECC) is discussed. The DE devices control local distribution system voltage through dynamic reactive power production. Although original efforts were made to control the reactive power (RP) output using information from commercially available meters specifically designed for monitoring and analyzing electric power values, these "intelligent" meters did not provide the flexibility needed. A very flexible and capable real-time monitoring and control system was selected after the evaluation of various methods of data acquisition (DAQ) and control. The purpose of this paper is to describe the DAQ and controls system development. The chosen controller is a commercially available real-time controller from dSPACE. This controller has many excellent features including a very easy programming platform through Simulink and Matlab's Real Time Workshop. The dSPACE system proved to provide both the flexibility and expandability needed to integrate and control the RP producing devices under consideration. The desire was to develop controls with this flexible laboratory instrumentation and controls setup that could be eventually be included in an embedded controller on a DE device. Some experimental results are included that clearly show that some functional control strategies are currently being tested.

  12. Simultaneous microsurgical and endovascular management of multiple cerebral aneurysms in acute subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    James Ling, Adrian; D'Urso, Paul Steven; Madan, Anoop

    2006-08-01

    Most aneurysms can be effectively managed using endovascular coiling or microsurgical clipping, but in an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage where there are multiple aneurysms identified, a sequential multimodal approach may prove more beneficial. This report involves a 31-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of severe headache and photophobia. A computed tomography brain scan revealed a diffuse grade II subarachnoid haemorrhagic pattern, and four-vessel angiography revealed two aneurysms: a right middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm measuring 12 x 8 mm and a 4-mm basilar artery aneurysm associated with a fenestration at the confluence of the vertebral arteries. It was not possible to determine which aneurysm or aneurysms were responsible for the haemorrhage using the customary criteria. The patient underwent sequential endovascular coiling of the vertebrobasilar aneurysm without delay, followed immediately by microsurgical clipping of the right middle cerebral artery aneurysm, under a single anaesthetic. The postoperative course was uneventful. This method is a treatment option for acute subarachnoid haemorrhage where there are multiple aneurysms. It is a logical progression of management that could be employed at any experienced neurovascular centre; the employment of a sequential multimodal approach from the integration of these techniques is beneficial to the patient because it decreases morbidity and mortality.

  13. All set! Evidence of simultaneous attentional control settings for multiple target colors.

    PubMed

    Irons, Jessica L; Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W

    2012-06-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional control settings for color. In a standard spatial cueing task, participants searched for either of two colored targets accompanied by an irrelevantly colored distractor. Across five experiments, results consistently showed that nonpredictive cues matching either target color produced a significant spatial cueing effect, while irrelevantly colored cues did not. This was the case even when the target colors could not be linearly separated from irrelevantly cue colors in color space, suggesting that participants were not simply adopting one general color set that included both target colors. The results could not be explained by intertrial priming by previous targets, nor could they be explained by a single inhibitory set for the distractor color. Overall, the results are most consistent with the maintenance of multiple attentional control settings.

  14. A method for rapid and simultaneous mapping of genetic loci and introgression sizes in nematode species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cheung; Bi, Yu; Yin, Da; Zhao, Zhongying

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis briggsae is emerging as an attractive model organism not only in studying comparative biology against C. elegans, but also in developing novel experimentation avenues. In particular, recent identification of a new Caenorhabditis species, C. sp.9 with which it can mate and produce viable progeny provides an opportunity for studying the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities (HI) between the two. Mapping of a specific HI locus demands repeated backcrossing to get hold of the specific genomic region underlying an observed phenotype. To facilitate mapping of HI loci between C. briggsae and C. sp.9, an efficient mapping method and a genetic map ideally consisting of dominant markers are required for systematic introgression of genomic fragments between the two species. We developed a fast and cost-effective method for high throughput mapping of dominant loci with resolution up to 1 million bps in C. briggsae. The method takes advantage of the introgression between C. briggsae and C. sp.9 followed by PCR genotyping using C. briggsae specific primers. Importantly, the mapping results can not only serve as an effective way for estimating the chromosomal position of a genetic locus in C. briggsae, but also provides size information for the introgression fragment in an otherwise C. sp.9 background. In addition, it also helps generate introgression line as a side-product that is invaluable for the subsequent mapping of HI loci. The method will greatly facilitate the construction of a genetic map consisting of dominant markers and pave the way for systematic isolation of HI loci between C. briggsae and C. sp.9 which has so far not been attempted between nematode species. The method is designed for mapping of a dominant allele, but can be easily adapted for mapping of any other type of alleles in any other species if introgression between a sister species pair is feasible.

  15. Simultaneous and rapid detection of multiple pesticide and veterinary drug residues by suspension array technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Gao, Zhixian; Ma, Hongwei; Su, Pu; Ma, Xinhua; Li, Xiaoli; Ou, Guorong

    2013-03-15

    Suspension array technology is proposed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven kinds of pesticide and veterinary drug residues, namely, atrazine, chloramphenicol, carbaryl, clenbuterol, 17-β-estradiol, imidacloprid, and tylosin. The assay is simple and can be accomplished within 2h without repeated pumping and washing steps unlike conventional suspension arrays. The hapten-protein conjugate-coated beads bind to their complementary biotinylated antibodies using a competitive immunoassay format. The coefficients of determination R(2) for six targets were greater than 0.992, whereas that for atrazine was 0.961, which indicate good logistic correlations. The dynamic ranges for the seven targets in the 7-plex assay ranged from 2 log units to 4 log units(1.60×10(0)-1.64×10(3), 5.12×10(-2)-1.60×10(2), 1.00×10(0)-3.13×10(3), 4.00×10(-1)-4.10×10(2), 4.00×10(-1)-4.10×10(2), 5.12×10(-2)-1.60×10(2), and 2.00×10(0)-4.00×10(2)ngmL(-1)). The minimum detection concentrations of chloramphenicol, carbaryl, clenbuterol and 17-β-estradiol in the suspension array (0.05, 1.00, 0.40 and 0.40 ng mL(-1)) were lower than the corresponding limits of detection (0.25, 6.60, 24.23 and 13.96 ng mL(-1)) of using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Environmental scanning electron microscope was employed to characterize the bead surface, which directly confirmed the reactions on the beads. The suspension array is more flexible and feasible than ELISA for the fast quantitative analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues.

  16. A dynamic factor modeling framework for analyzing multiple groundwater head series simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendrecht, W. L.; van Geer, F. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present an approach in which we combine a dynamic factor model (DFM) and predefined response functions to analyze a set of groundwater head series simultaneously. Each groundwater head series is decomposed into: (a) one or more deterministic components as a response to known driving forces, (b) one or more common dynamic factors, representing spatial patterns not related to any of the input series and (c) one specific dynamic factor for each groundwater head series, describing unique variation for that series. The approach reduces the degrees of freedom for each response function, enables the application to irregular observed data, and exploits the correlation between residual series of a set of groundwater head series. The common dynamic factors may be interpreted as spatial patterns due to e.g. limitations in the model specification or concept, spatially correlated errors in input variables, or driving forces which have not been included in the model. In the latter case the model can be applied in the context of an alarming system, e.g. to monitor regional trends. The specific dynamic factor depicts the variation of a particular groundwater head series that cannot be related to any other time series of the set nor to any input series. Therefore the specific dynamic factor is suitable for analyzing local variations and detecting incidental measurement errors, for example in a quality control procedure. The DFM framework is illustrated with a set of 8 groundwater head series and applied for filling gaps in time series, reconstructing high-frequency data, and detecting outliers.

  17. Proteolytic Activity Matrix Analysis (PrAMA) for Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Protease Activities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Miles A.; Barkal, Layla; Jeng, Karen; Herrlich, Andreas; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are two related protease families that play key roles in matrix remodeling and growth factor ligand shedding. Directly ascertaining the proteolytic activities of particular MMPs and ADAMs in physiological environments in a non-invasive, real-time, multiplex manner remains a challenge. This work describes Proteolytic Activity Matrix Analysis (PrAMA), an integrated experimental measurement and mathematical analysis framework for simultaneously determining the activities of particular enzymes in complex mixtures of MMPs and ADAMs. The PrAMA method interprets dynamic signals from panels of moderately specific FRET-based polypeptide protease substrates to deduce a profile of specific MMP and ADAM proteolytic activities. Deconvolution of signals from complex mixtures of proteases is accomplished using prior data on individual MMP/ADAM cleavage signatures for the substrate panel measured with purified enzymes. We first validate PrAMA inference using a compendium of roughly 4000 measurements involving known mixtures of purified enzymes and substrates, and then demonstrate application to the live-cell response of wildtype, ADAM10−/−, and ADAM17−/− fibroblasts to phorbol ester stimulation. Results indicate PrAMA can distinguish closely related enzymes from each other with high accuracy, even in the presence of unknown background proteolytic activity. PrAMA offers a valuable tool for applications ranging from live-cell in vitro assays to high-throughput inhibitor screening with complex enzyme mixtures. Moreover, our approach may extend to other families of proteases, such as caspases and cathepsins, that also can lack highly-specific substrates. PMID:21180771

  18. A technology platform to assess multiple cancer agents simultaneously within a patient's tumor

    PubMed Central

    Klinghoffer, Richard A.; Frazier, Jason P.; Moreno-Gonzalez, Alicia; Strand, Andrew D.; Kerwin, William S.; Casalini, Joseph R.; Thirstrup, Derek J.; You, Sheng; Morris, Shelli M.; Watts, Korashon L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Grenley, Marc O.; Tretyak, Ilona; Dey, Joyoti; Carleton, Michael; Beirne, Emily; Pedro, Kyle D.; Ditzler, Sally H.; Girard, Emily J.; Deckwerth, Thomas L.; Bertout, Jessica A.; Meleo, Karri A.; Filvaroff, Ellen H.; Chopra, Rajesh; Press, Oliver W.; Olson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental problem in cancer drug development is that antitumor efficacy in preclinical cancer models does not translate faithfully to patient outcomes. Much of early cancer drug discovery is performed under in vitro conditions in cell-based models that poorly represent actual malignancies. To address this inconsistency, we have developed a technology platform called CIVO, which enables simultaneous assessment of up to eight drugs or drug combinations within a single solid tumor in vivo. The platform is currently designed for use in animal models of cancer and patients with superficial tumors but can be modified for investigation of deeper-seated malignancies. In xenograft lymphoma models, CIVO microinjection of well-characterized anticancer agents (vincristine, doxorubicin, mafosfamide, and prednisolone) induced spatially defined cellular changes around sites of drug exposure, specific to the known mechanisms of action of each drug. The observed localized responses predicted responses to systemically delivered drugs in animals. In pair-matched lymphoma models, CIVO correctly demonstrated tumor resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine and an unexpected enhanced sensitivity to mafosfamide in multidrug-resistant lymphomas compared with chemotherapy-naïve lymphomas. A CIVO-enabled in vivo screen of 97 approved oncology agents revealed a novel mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway inhibitor that exhibits significantly increased tumor-killing activity in the drug-resistant setting compared with chemotherapy-naïve tumors. Finally, feasibility studies to assess the use of CIVO in human and canine patients demonstrated that microinjection of drugs is toxicity-sparing while inducing robust, easily tracked, drug-specific responses in autochthonous tumors, setting the stage for further application of this technology in clinical trials. PMID:25904742

  19. Trade-off between Multiple Constraints Enables Simultaneous Formation of Modules and Hubs in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter , and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of , resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The discrepancy

  20. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The

  1. A New Double Digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR Method for Simultaneous Bacteria DNA-Typing and Confirmation of Species: An Acinetobacter sp. Model

    PubMed Central

    Stojowska, Karolina; Krawczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new ddLMS PCR (double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR) method based on restriction site polymorphism upstream from the specific target sequence for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of bacterial strains. The ddLMS PCR combines a simple PCR used for species or genus identification and the LM PCR strategy for strain differentiation. The bacterial identification is confirmed in the form of the PCR product(s), while the length of the PCR product makes it possible to differentiate between bacterial strains. If there is a single copy of the target sequence within genomic DNA, one specific PCR product is created (simplex ddLMS PCR), whereas for multiple copies of the gene the fingerprinting patterns can be obtained (multiplex ddLMS PCR). The described ddLMS PCR method is designed for rapid and specific strain differentiation in medical and microbiological studies. In comparison to other LM PCR it has substantial advantages: enables specific species' DNA-typing without the need for pure bacterial culture selection, is not sensitive to contamination with other cells or genomic DNA, and gives univocal “band-based” results, which are easy to interpret. The utility of ddLMS PCR was shown for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, the genetically closely related and phenotypically similar species and also important nosocomial pathogens, for which currently, there are no recommended methods for screening, typing and identification. In this article two models are proposed: 3′ recA-ddLMS PCR-MaeII/RsaI for Acb complex interspecific typing and 5′ rrn-ddLMS PCR-HindIII/ApaI for Acinetobacter baumannii intraspecific typing. ddLMS PCR allows not only for DNA-typing but also for confirmation of species in one reaction. Also, practical guidelines for designing a diagnostic test based on ddLMS PCR for genotyping different species of bacteria are provided. PMID:25522278

  2. Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Källback, Patrik; Alvarsson, Alexandra; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Svenningsson, Per; Goodwin, Richard J A; Andren, Per E

    2016-08-01

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine) as well as neuroactive drugs (amphetamine, sibutramine, fluvoxamine) and drug metabolites in situ directly in brain tissue sections. The use of both positive and negative ionization modes increased the number of identified molecular targets. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging the primary amines of molecules significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling the detection of low abundant neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances previously undetectable by MSI. The sensitivity of the imaging approach of neurochemicals has a great potential in many diverse applications in fields such as neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery, neurochemistry, and medicine.

  3. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  4. Simultaneous transport of different localized mRNA species revealed by live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lange, Susanne; Katayama, Yoshihiko; Schmid, Maria; Burkacky, Ondrej; Bräuchle, Christoph; Lamb, Don C; Jansen, Ralf-Peter

    2008-08-01

    Intracellular mRNA localization is a common mechanism to achieve asymmetric distributions of proteins. Previous studies have revealed that in a number of cell types, different mRNA species are localized by the same transport machinery. However, it has been unclear if these individual mRNA species are specifically sorted into separate or common ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles before or during transport. Using budding yeast as a model system, we analyzed the intracellular movement of individual pairs of localized mRNA in live cells. Yeast cells localize more than 20 different mRNAs to the bud with the help of the Myo4p/She3p/She2p protein complex. For live cell imaging, mRNA pairs were tagged with tandem repeats of either bacteriophage MS2 or lambda boxB RNA sequences and fluorescently labeled by fusion protein constructs that bind to the RNA tag sequences. Using three-dimensional, single-particle tracking with dual-color detection, we have tracked the transport of two different localized mRNA species in real time. Our observations show that different localized mRNAs are coassembled into common RNP particles and cotransported in a directional manner to the target site. Nonlocalized mRNAs or mutant mRNAs that lack functional localization signals form separate particles that are not transported to the bud. This study reveals a high degree of co-ordination of mRNA trafficking in budding yeast.

  5. Mini-SNaPshot multiplex assays authenticate elephant ivory and simultaneously identify the species origin.

    PubMed

    Kitpipit, Thitika; Thongjued, Kantima; Penchart, Kitichaya; Ouithavon, Kanita; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2017-03-01

    Illegal trading of ivory is mainly responsible for the dramatic decline in elephant populations. Thailand is one of the largest laundering hotspots for African ivory, as the domestic Asian elephant ivory can be legally traded. So, to help combat ivory poaching and smuggling, an efficient method is needed to identify the elephant species from its ivory and ivory products. In this study, a mini-SNaPshot(®) multiplex assay was developed and fully validated for the identification of confiscated ivory and low DNA template ivory products. Elephantid- and elephant species-specific mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from 207 mammalian and 1705 elephant/mammoth cytochrome b sequence alignments. Seven informative SNPs were used for assay development. The assay unambiguously and accurately identified authentic elephant ivory and its species of origin on the basis of peak size and color observed in the haplotype profile. The assay was highly efficient for analysis of confiscated ivory and low-template ivory products with a 99.29% success rate (N=140). It was highly reproducible, exhibited no cross-reaction with eight other mammalian DNA; and had 100% identification accuracy. In addition, nested and direct PCR amplification were also compatible with the developed assay. This efficient assay should benefit wildlife forensic laboratories and aid in the prosecution of elephant-related crimes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. True lemurs…true species - species delimitation using multiple data sources in the brown lemur complex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Species are the fundamental units in evolutionary biology. However, defining them as evolutionary independent lineages requires integration of several independent sources of information in order to develop robust hypotheses for taxonomic classification. Here, we exemplarily propose an integrative framework for species delimitation in the “brown lemur complex” (BLC) of Madagascar, which consists of seven allopatric populations of the genus Eulemur (Primates: Lemuridae), which were sampled extensively across northern, eastern and western Madagascar to collect fecal samples for DNA extraction as well as recordings of vocalizations. Our data base was extended by including museum specimens with reliable identification and locality information for skull shape and pelage color analysis. Results Between-group analyses of principal components revealed significant heterogeneity in skull shape, pelage color variation and loud calls across all seven populations. Furthermore, post-hoc statistical tests between pairs of populations revealed considerable discordance among different data sets for different dyads. Despite a high degree of incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear loci, significant exclusive ancestry was found for all populations, except for E. cinereiceps, based on one mitochondrial and three nuclear genetic loci. Conclusions Using several independent lines of evidence, our results confirm the species status of the members of the BLC under the general lineage concept of species. More generally, the present analyses demonstrate the importance and value of integrating different kinds of data in delimiting recently evolved radiations. PMID:24159931

  7. True lemurs…true species - species delimitation using multiple data sources in the brown lemur complex.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Matthias; Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Fichtel, Claudia; von Grumbkow, Phillip; Brameier, Markus; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-10-26

    Species are the fundamental units in evolutionary biology. However, defining them as evolutionary independent lineages requires integration of several independent sources of information in order to develop robust hypotheses for taxonomic classification. Here, we exemplarily propose an integrative framework for species delimitation in the "brown lemur complex" (BLC) of Madagascar, which consists of seven allopatric populations of the genus Eulemur (Primates: Lemuridae), which were sampled extensively across northern, eastern and western Madagascar to collect fecal samples for DNA extraction as well as recordings of vocalizations. Our data base was extended by including museum specimens with reliable identification and locality information for skull shape and pelage color analysis. Between-group analyses of principal components revealed significant heterogeneity in skull shape, pelage color variation and loud calls across all seven populations. Furthermore, post-hoc statistical tests between pairs of populations revealed considerable discordance among different data sets for different dyads. Despite a high degree of incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear loci, significant exclusive ancestry was found for all populations, except for E. cinereiceps, based on one mitochondrial and three nuclear genetic loci. Using several independent lines of evidence, our results confirm the species status of the members of the BLC under the general lineage concept of species. More generally, the present analyses demonstrate the importance and value of integrating different kinds of data in delimiting recently evolved radiations.

  8. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to simultaneously distinguish Cryptosporidium species of veterinary and public health concern in cattle.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2009-12-03

    Four species of Cryptosporidium are routinely found in cattle: Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium ryanae, and Cryptosporidium andersoni. It is important to determine the species of Cryptosporidium in infected cattle because C. parvum is the only serious pathogen for humans as well as cattle. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes currently relies on molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or gene sequencing. Incorporation of these techniques in a routine veterinary diagnostic laboratory is cost prohibitive. As such, their applications are limited primarily to research and a few public health laboratories. To overcome this problem, a multiplex PCR assay was developed for simultaneously detecting the 4 species of Cryptosporidium that commonly infect cattle. This assay specifically identifies Cryptosporidium oocysts present in cattle feces, improves the detection of mixed infections, reduces the time and cost relative to current sequencing methods, and further demonstrates the shortcomings of sequencing as the definitive method for identification when analyzing samples containing mixed infections.

  9. Simultaneous estimation of multiple quantitative trait loci and growth curve parameters through hierarchical Bayesian modeling

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, M J; Pikkuhookana, P; Abrahamsson, S; Knürr, T; Fries, A; Lerceteau, E; Waldmann, P; García-Gil, M R

    2012-01-01

    A novel hierarchical quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method using a polynomial growth function and a multiple-QTL model (with no dependence in time) in a multitrait framework is presented. The method considers a population-based sample where individuals have been phenotyped (over time) with respect to some dynamic trait and genotyped at a given set of loci. A specific feature of the proposed approach is that, instead of an average functional curve, each individual has its own functional curve. Moreover, each QTL can modify the dynamic characteristics of the trait value of an individual through its influence on one or more growth curve parameters. Apparent advantages of the approach include: (1) assumption of time-independent QTL and environmental effects, (2) alleviating the necessity for an autoregressive covariance structure for residuals and (3) the flexibility to use variable selection methods. As a by-product of the method, heritabilities and genetic correlations can also be estimated for individual growth curve parameters, which are considered as latent traits. For selecting trait-associated loci in the model, we use a modified version of the well-known Bayesian adaptive shrinkage technique. We illustrate our approach by analysing a sub sample of 500 individuals from the simulated QTLMAS 2009 data set, as well as simulation replicates and a real Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) data set, using temporal measurements of height as dynamic trait of interest. PMID:21792229

  10. Simultaneous Optimization of Multiple Response Variables for the Gelatin-chitosan Microcapsules Containing Angelica Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Sun, Li-Jian; Gong, Xian-Feng; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Angelica essential oil (AO), a major pharmacologically active component of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, possesses hemogenesis, analgesic activities, and sedative effect. The application of AO in pharmaceutical systems had been limited because of its low oxidative stability. The AO-loaded gelatin-chitosan microcapsules with prevention from oxidation were developed and optimized using response surface methodology. The effects of formulation variables (pH at complex coacervation, gelatin concentration, and core/wall ratio) on multiple response variables (yield, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidation rate, percent of drug released in 1 h, and time to 85% drug release) were systemically investigated. A desirability function that combined these five response variables was constructed. All response variables investigated were found to be highly dependent on the formulation variables, with strong interactions observed between the formulation variables. It was found that optimum overall desirability of AO microcapsules could be obtained at pH 6.20, gelatin concentration 25.00%, and core/wall ratio 40.40%. The experimental values of the response variables highly agreed with the predicted values. The antioxidation rate of optimum formulation was approximately 8 times higher than that of AO. The in-vitro drug release from microcapsules was followed Higuchi model with super case-II transport mechanism.

  11. ESCRT-0 assembles as a heterotetrameric complex on membranes and binds multiple ubiquitinylated cargoes simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Jonathan R; Fyfe, Ian; Schuh, Amber L; Chapman, Edwin R; Edwardson, J Michael; Audhya, Anjon

    2011-03-18

    The ESCRT machinery consists of multiple protein complexes that collectively participate in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). The ESCRT-0 complex is composed of two subunits, Hrs and STAM, both of which can engage ubiquitinylated substrates destined for lysosomal degradation. Here, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of ESCRT-0:ubiquitin interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry and define the affinity of each ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD) within the intact ESCRT-0 complex. Our data demonstrate that ubiquitin binding is non-cooperative between the ESCRT-0 UBDs. Additionally, our findings show that the affinity of the Hrs double ubiquitin interacting motif (DUIM) for ubiquitin is more than 2-fold greater than that of UBDs found in STAM, suggesting that Hrs functions as the major ubiquitin-binding protein in ESCRT-0. In vivo, Hrs and STAM localize to endosomal membranes. To study recombinant ESCRT-0 assembly on lipid bilayers, we used atomic force microscopy. Our data show that ESCRT-0 forms mostly heterodimers and heterotetramers of Hrs and STAM when analyzed in the presence of membranes. Consistent with these findings, hydrodynamic analysis of endogenous ESCRT-0 indicates that it exists largely as a heterotetrameric complex of its two subunits. Based on these data, we present a revised model for ESCRT-0 function in cargo recruitment and concentration at the endosome.

  12. Microfluidic assay for simultaneous culture of multiple cell types on surfaces or within hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yoojin; Han, Sewoon; Jeon, Jessie S.; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Sudo, Ryo; Kamm, Roger D.; Chung, Seok

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel incorporating chambers between surface-accessible microchannels. Using this platform, well-defined biochemical and biophysical stimuli can be applied to multiple cell types interacting over distances of <1mm, thereby replicating many aspects of the in vivo microenvironment. Capabilities exist for time-dependent manipulation of flows and concentration gradients as well as high-resolution real-time imaging for observing spatial-temporal single cell behavior, cell-cell communication, cell-matrix interactions and cell population dynamics. These heterotypic cell type assays can be used to study cell survival, proliferation, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation under controlled conditions. Applications include the study of previously unexplored cellular interactions, and have already provided new insights into how biochemical and biophysical factors regulate interactions between populations of different cell types. It takes 3 days to fabricate the system and experiments can run for up to several weeks. PMID:22678430

  13. [The review process of the National Health Promotion Policy: simultaneous multiple movements].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Dais Gonçalves; Alexandre, Veruska Prado; Marcelo, Vânia Cristina; Rezende, Regiane; Nogueira, Júlia Devidé; Franco de Sá, Ronice

    2014-11-01

    Public policy can be understood as the translation of government proposals and the aspirations of society. Driven by the advances and challenges of social transformation, the need for the coordination of agendas and limited social participation in the drafting of the 2006 National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS), the Ministry of Health and the Thematic Group on Health Promotion/Abrasco proposed the PNPS review. This article describes the steps in that process. It involves policy analysis conducted by literature review and document analysis from the "internal triangulation" standpoint. The revision process adopted multiple approaches on data gathering (Regional Workshops and Health Councils, Intra/Intersectorial Delphi and Electronic Questionnaire). It also used heterogeneous sources of information, different local contexts (five regions of Brazil) and peer validation. The results were systematically ordered with the aid of an analytical matrix organized by objectives, principles, guidelines, themes and actions, resulting in a draft of the new PNPS. Lastly, a national seminar was organized in which the results of the process and a synthesis of the revised text were presented, making it possible to identify process gains and the next steps for the actors involved with the new PNPS.

  14. Portable simultaneous multiple analyte whole-blood analyzer for point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Schembri, C T; Ostoich, V; Lingane, P J; Burd, T L; Buhl, S N

    1992-09-01

    We describe a portable clinical chemistry analyzer for point-of-care measurements of multiple analytes in less than 10 min from approximately 40 microL of whole blood (fingerstick or venous). Whole blood is applied directly to a 7.9-cm-diameter, single-use plastic rotor containing liquid diluent and greater than or equal to 4-12 tests in the form of 1- to 2-mm-diameter dry reagent beads. The reagent/rotor is immediately placed in a portable instrument along with a ticket/label results card. As the instrument spins the rotor, capillary and rotational forces process the blood into diluted plasma, distribute the patient's diluted sample to cuvettes containing the reagent beads, and mix the diluted sample with the reagents. The instrument monitors the chemical reactions optically at nine wavelengths; sample volume and temperature are also measured optically. The calibration data for each reagent are read from a bar code on the periphery of each rotor. The instrument processes all the measurements to calculate, store, print, and communicate the results. Each reagent/rotor contains an enzymatic control that must be within a defined range before the results from that analysis are reported.

  15. A GeXP-Based Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Viruses in Hospitalized Children with Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Mengchuan; Shi, Zhongren; Feng, Zhishan; Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Lanping; Li, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    The GeXP-based assay has recently been developed for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. So far, the application of the GeXP assay to test larger clinical samples has hardly been reported. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death in children worldwide and a substantial proportion of childhood CAP is caused by viruses. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of virus infection is important for the clinical management of CAP. In this study, we explored the GeXP assay for simultaneous detection of 20 types/subtypes of viruses in hospitalized children with CAP. A total of 1699 nasopharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected and viral nucleic acid was extracted and assayed. Using viral genomic DNA or RNA as template, we showed that at the concentration of 104 copies of DNA or RNA of each virus/μl, all 20 target viruses were simultaneously identified by the GeXP assay. Fifteen control microorganisms, in contrast, failed to be amplified by the assay. About 65% of cases tested in this study had viral infection, with patients aged <3 years having a 70% positive rate, significantly higher than that in patients aged > 3 years (40%). The most frequently detected virus was RSV followed by PIV3, HRV, ADV and HBoV. Seasonal distribution analysis revealed that RSV was the most predominant in autumn and winter, while in spring and summer PIV3 and RSV were the most frequently identified with similar positive percentages. One hundred twenty randomly-chosen samples tested by the GeXP assay were re-evaluated by mono-RT-PCR, the results showed 97.5% diagnosis agreement between these 2 methods. Our findings suggest that the GeXP assay could be a valuable diagnostic tool for virus infection in pediatric patients with CAP. PMID:27627439

  16. Simultaneous inversion of multiple land surface parameters from MODIS optical-thermal observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Han; Liang, Shunlin; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hanyu

    2017-06-01

    Land surface parameters from remote sensing observations are critical in monitoring and modeling of global climate change and biogeochemical cycles. Current methods for estimating land surface variables usually focus on individual parameters separately even from the same satellite observations, resulting in inconsistent products. Moreover, no efforts have been made to generate global products from integrated observations from the optical to Thermal InfraRed (TIR) spectrum. Particularly, Middle InfraRed (MIR) observations have received little attention due to the complexity of the radiometric signal, which contains both reflected and emitted radiation. In this paper, we propose a unified algorithm for simultaneously retrieving six land surface parameters - Leaf Area Index (LAI), Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), land surface albedo, Land Surface Emissivity (LSE), Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Upwelling Longwave radiation (LWUP) by exploiting MODIS visible-to-TIR observations. We incorporate a unified physical radiative transfer model into a data assimilation framework. The MODIS visible-to-TIR time series datasets include the daily surface reflectance product and MIR-to-TIR surface radiance, which are atmospherically corrected from the MODIS data using the Moderate Resolution Transmittance program (MODTRAN, ver. 5.0). LAI was first estimated using a data assimilation method that combines MODIS daily reflectance data and a LAI phenology model, and then the LAI was input to the unified radiative transfer model to simulate spectral surface reflectance and surface emissivity for calculating surface broadband albedo and emissivity, and FAPAR. LST was estimated from the MIR-TIR surface radiance data and the simulated emissivity, using an iterative optimization procedure. Lastly, LWUP was estimated using the LST and surface emissivity. The retrieved six parameters were extensively validated across six representative sites with

  17. A system for recording neural activity chronically and simultaneously from multiple cortical and subcortical regions in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Joseph; Desrochers, Theresa M.; Fujii, Naotaka; Harlan, Ray; Tierney, Patrick L.; Shimazu, Hideki; Amemori, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    A major goal of neuroscience is to understand the functions of networks of neurons in cognition and behavior. Recent work has focused on implanting arrays of ∼100 immovable electrodes or smaller numbers of individually adjustable electrodes, designed to target a few cortical areas. We have developed a recording system that allows the independent movement of hundreds of electrodes chronically implanted in several cortical and subcortical structures. We have tested this system in macaque monkeys, recording simultaneously from up to 127 electrodes in 14 brain regions for up to one year at a time. A key advantage of the system is that it can be used to sample different combinations of sites over prolonged periods, generating multiple snapshots of network activity from a single implant. Used in conjunction with microstimulation and injection methods, this versatile system represents a powerful tool for studying neural network activity in the primate brain. PMID:22170970

  18. Exploiting off-targeting in guide-RNAs for CRISPR systems for simultaneous editing of multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raphael; Gatto, Francesco; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-09-08

    Bioinformatics tools to design guide-RNAs (gRNAs) in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats systems mostly focused on minimizing off-targeting to enhance efficacy of genome editing. However, there are circumstances in which off-targeting might be desirable to target multiple genes simultaneously with a single gRNA. We termed these gRNAs as promiscuous gRNAs. Here, we present a computational workflow to identify promiscuous gRNAs that putatively bind to the region of interest for a defined list of genes in a genome. We experimentally validated two promiscuous gRNA for gene deletion, one targeting FAA1 and FAA4 and one targeting PLB1 and PLB2, thus demonstrating that multiplexed genome editing through design of promiscuous gRNA can be performed in a time and cost-effective manner. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of Myelin Basic Protein and Tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of Multiple Sclerosis patients using nanoimmunosensor.

    PubMed

    Derkus, Burak; Acar Bozkurt, Pinar; Tulu, Metin; Emregul, Kaan C; Yucesan, Canan; Emregul, Emel

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed at the development of an immunosensor for the simultaneous quantification of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and Tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, obtained from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The newly developed GO/pPG/anti-MBP/anti-Tau nanoimmunosensor has been established by immobilization of MBP and Tau antibodies. The newly developed nanoimmunosensor was tested, optimized and characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The developed nanoimmunosensor was seen to have detection limits of 0.30nM for MBP and 0.15nM for Tau proteins which were sufficient for the levels to be analysed in neuro-clinic. The clinical study performed using CSF and serum of MS patients showed that the designed nanoimmunosensor was capable of detecting the proteins properly, that were essentially proven by ELISA.

  20. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  1. Zymography Methods to Simultaneously Analyze Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities: Novel Application for Yeast Species Identification.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    We provide an optimized protocol for a double staining technique to analyze superoxide dismutase enzymatic isoforms Cu-Zn SOD (Sod1) and Mn-SOD (Sod2) and catalase in the same polyacrylamide gel. The use of NaCN, which specifically inhibits yeast Sod1 isoform, allows the analysis of Sod2 isoform while the use of H2O2 allows the analysis of catalase. The identification of a different zymography profiling of SOD and catalase isoforms in different yeast species allowed us to propose this technique as a novel yeast identification and classification strategy.

  2. A method for simultaneously delineating multiple targets in 3D-FISH using limited channels, lasers, and fluorochromes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F Y; Yang, X; Chen, D Y; Ma, W Y; Zheng, J G; Zhang, X M

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested a link between the spatial organization of genomes and fundamental biological processes such as genome reprogramming, gene expression, and differentiation. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization on three-dimensionally preserved nuclei (3D-FISH), in combination with confocal microscopy, has become an effective technique for analyzing 3D genome structure and spatial patterns of defined nucleus targets including entire chromosome territories and single gene loci. This technique usually requires the simultaneous visualization of numerous targets labeled with different colored fluorochromes. Thus, the number of channels and lasers must be sufficient for the commonly used labeling scheme of 3D-FISH, "one probe-one target". However, these channels and lasers are usually restricted by a given microscope system. This paper presents a method for simultaneously delineating multiple targets in 3D-FISH using limited channels, lasers, and fluorochromes. In contrast to other labeling schemes, this method is convenient and simple for multicolor 3D-FISH studies, which may result in widespread adoption of the technique. Lastly, as an application of the method, the nucleus locations of chromosome territory 18/21 and centromere 18/21/13 in normal human lymphocytes were analyzed, which might present evidence of a radial higher order chromatin arrangement.

  3. Simulation and Performance evaluation of ZigBee for wireless sensor networks having multiple events occurring simultaneously at a time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhama, Nitin; Minal, Kaur, Prabhjot; Kumar, Neelu

    2010-11-01

    ZigBee is an emerging standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It targets low distance, low data rate, low power consumption and low cost applications. According to standard nomenclature, it implements a Low Rate-Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN). ZigBee defines upper layers (network and application) of the ISO protocol reference model. On the contrary, in regards to the physical and data link ones, it relies over another standard, the well accepted IEEE802.15.4, which offers a gross transfer rate of 250 kbps in the 2.4 GHz ISM unlicensed band. Although ZigBee is designed for event-based applications, ZigBee is designed as a low-cost, low-power, low-data rate wireless mesh technology. There are many wireless sensor networks in which it is required to send information to the pan coordinator continuously and simultaneously. Our purpose here in this paper is to test zigbee for such kind of networks where multiple events take place simultaneously. Also we want to see the effect of increasing the number of events in a scenario, so that we can find out its effect.

  4. Cocktail-Dosing Microdialysis Study to Simultaneously Assess Delivery of Multiple Organic-Cationic Drugs to the Brain.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Okura, Takashi; Higuchi, Kei; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-02-01

    Brain microdialysis is a powerful tool to estimate brain-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio at the steady state (Kp,uu) of compounds by direct measurement of the unbound concentration in brain interstitial fluid. Here, we evaluated a method to estimate Kp,uu values of multiple organic-cationic drugs simultaneously, by means of brain microdialysis combined with cocktail dosing. Five cationic drugs (diphenhydramine, memantine, oxycodone, pyrilamine, and tramadol), substrates of the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system, were selected as model drugs, and compared under single-dosing and cocktail-dosing conditions. We selected doses of the drugs at which no significant drug-drug interaction occurs at the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed by uptake studies in hCMEC/D3 cells, an in vitro BBB model. The Kp,uu values after cocktail administration were in the range of 1.8-5.2, and were in good agreement with those after single administration. These results suggest that the microdialysis method with cocktail dosing is suitable to estimate Kp,uu values of several cationic drugs simultaneously, if there is no drug-drug interaction during BBB transport. The method could be useful for evaluating drug candidates with high Kp,uu values at an early stage in the development of central nervous system-acting drugs. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave ablation with multiple simultaneously powered small-gauge triaxial antennas: results from an in vivo swine liver model.

    PubMed

    Brace, Christopher L; Laeseke, Paul F; Sampson, Lisa A; Frey, Tina M; van der Weide, Daniel W; Lee, Fred T

    2007-07-01

    To prospectively investigate the ability of a single generator to power multiple small-diameter antennas and create large zones of ablation in an in vivo swine liver model. Thirteen female domestic swine (mean weight, 70 kg) were used for the study as approved by the animal care and use committee. A single generator was used to simultaneously power three triaxial antennas at 55 W per antenna for 10 minutes in three groups: a control group where antennas were spaced to eliminate ablation zone overlap (n=6; 18 individual zones of ablation) and experimental groups where antennas were spaced 2.5 cm (n=7) or 3.0 cm (n=5) apart. Animals were euthanized after ablation, and ablation zones were sectioned and measured. A mixed linear model was used to test for differences in size and circularity among groups. Mean (+/-standard deviation) cross-sectional areas of multiple-antenna zones of ablation at 2.5- and 3.0-cm spacing (26.6 cm(2) +/- 9.7 and 32.2 cm(2) +/- 8.1, respectively) were significantly larger than individual ablation zones created with single antennas (6.76 cm(2) +/- 2.8, P<.001) and were 31% (2.5-cm spacing group: multiple antenna mean area, 26.6 cm(2); 3 x single antenna mean area, 20.28 cm(2)) to 59% (3.0-cm spacing group: multiple antenna mean area, 32.2 cm(2); 3 x single antenna mean area, 20.28 cm(2)) larger than 3 times the mean area of the single-antenna zones. Zones of ablation were found to be very circular, and vessels as large as 1.1 cm were completely coagulated with multiple antennas. A single generator may effectively deliver microwave power to multiple antennas. Large volumes of tissue may be ablated and large vessels coagulated with multiple-antenna ablation in the same time as single-antenna ablation. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  6. Uniformity of simultaneous deposition of powder in multiple dies: Measurements and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinsheng

    This research aimed at testing, evaluating, analyzing, and modeling the deposition process and uniformity of powder fill in multiple dies. The second generation pressure deposition tester (PDT-II) was developed to investigate the effects of some factors (die geometry and size, die configuration and location of the die, powder characteristics, and feed shoe speed) on the deposition process and final pressure distribution. A battery powder mixture and an alumina powder were used to fill three parallel-oriented dies. Cylindrical, toroidal, and E-shaped dies were investigated. For the cylindrical and toroidal dies, feed shoe speeds of 20, 100, 200 (for the alumina powder), and 500 mm/s (for the battery powder mixture) were tested For the E-shaped dies, 20 mm/s was used. A computed tomography (CT) scanner was employed to obtain fill density distribution for the cylindrical and toroidal dies filled with the two powders. PDT-II satisfactorily generates a real-time pressure profile of the process and final pressures at multiple locations. For the cylindrical dies filled with the battery powder mixture: (1) at 20 and 100 mm/s feed shoe speeds, the half circle close to the leeward end had higher final pressures; (2) at 500 mm/s, the final pressure distribution was more uniform; (3) the final pressure distribution was not always symmetrical about the center line. Final pressure decreased with increasing radial distance for low feed shoe speeds. The distribution was not always regular for high speed; (4) the three parallel dies did not always have similar pressure distributions; (5) the 500 mm/s feed shoe speed resulted in higher (P < 0.05) final pressures (774.5 to 1424.5 Pa) than at lower speeds (235.2 to 1136.0 Pa) at most locations; (6) at 20 and 100 mm/s feed shoe speeds, the right die tended to have higher (P < 0.05) final pressures (393.8 to 1136.0 Pa) than the center die (235.2 to 726.0 Pa). At 500 mm/s, the quantitative differences between the center (774.5 to 1246

  7. Method development for simultaneous analyses of multiple legacy and emerging organic chemicals in sediments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiehong; Li, Zhuona; Sandy, Andy L; Li, An

    2014-11-28

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using a single pretreatment procedure for the analyses of multiple groups of organics, which have a wide range of chemical structures and physicochemical properties, in sediment samples. Nine groups of 162 individual compounds (including 11 surrogates) were investigated, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel halogenated flame retardants (nXFRs), musk fragrances (MFs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The individual and grouped recoveries of spiked analytes from adsorption chromatographic columns using either only fully activated, neutral silica gel (SG) or the combinations of silica gel and alumina (Si/Al) sorbents were compared. The results showed a generally stronger adsorption and more effective fractionation on the Si/Al column than on the SG column. The dependence of fractionation on halogen substitution, molecular planarity, and polar functional groups was discussed. The effects of adding sulfuric acid with two different methods were investigated, and the recoveries of a number of MFs, OCPs, nXFRs and OPFRs were recovered less than 60%. Sodium hydroxide treatment of silica gel had minor effects on some OPFRs. Copper used to remove elemental sulfur did not affect the recoveries of all target analytes except chloroneb. The finalized method was validated by spiking the target analysts into the sediment samples and comparing the analytical results of this work on two standard reference materials for sediment (SRMs 1941b and 1944) with the certified or reference values.

  8. Simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents using full-spectrum micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Touch, M.; Barber, W.; Badea, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges for in vivo, micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging is poor soft tissue contrast. To increase contrast, exogenous contrast agents can be used as imaging probes. Combining these probes with a photon counting x-ray detector (PCXD) allows energy-sensitive CT and probe material decomposition from a series of images associated with different x-ray energies. We have implemented full-spectrum micro-CT using a PCXD and 2 keV energy sampling. We then decomposed multiple k-edge contrast materials present in an object (iodine, barium, and gadolinium) from water. Since the energy bins were quite narrow, the projection data was very noisy. This noise and further spectral distortions amplify errors in post-reconstruction material decompositions. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel post-reconstruction denoising scheme which jointly enforces local and global gradient sparsity constraints, improving the contrast-to-noise ratio in full-spectrum micro-CT data and resultant material decompositions. We performed experiments using both calibration phantoms and ex vivo mouse data. Denoising increased the material contrast-to-noise ratio by an average of 13 times relative to filtered backprojection reconstructions. The relative decomposition error after denoising was 21%. To further improve material decomposition accuracy in future work, we also developed a model of the spectral distortions caused by PCXD imaging using known spectra from radioactive isotopes (109Cd, 133Ba). In future work, we plan to combine this model with the proposed denoising algorithm, enabling material decomposition with higher sensitivity and accuracy.

  9. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    PubMed

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system.

  10. A massive and simultaneous sex event of two Pseudo-nitzschia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, Diana; Zingone, Adriana; Montresor, Marina

    2010-02-01

    Sex is an obligatory event in the life cycle of many diatoms, being the means of restoration of maximum cell size that counteracts the progressive miniaturization induced by asexual divisions. Nonetheless, sexual stages and evidence for sexual reproduction in diatoms have rarely been directly reported from the marine environment. On September 20, 2006, different stages of the sexual cycle of two species, Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima and P. cf. calliantha, were detected in surface waters of the Gulf of Naples, at the Long Term Ecological Research Station MareChiara. The sampling date corresponded with a seasonal peak of abundance of the two species, which reached maximum concentrations of 9.1×10 6 and 7.0×10 5 cells L -1, respectively. Gametangia, auxospores of different size, and initial cells within and outside the perizonium were observed. Up to 9.2% of P. cf. delicatissima and 14.3% of P. cf. calliantha cells were undergoing sexual reproduction. The sexual event was mainly concentrated in surface waters and no sexual stages were observed a week before or after the date. The low percentage of sexual stages and the short duration of such events are probably the reasons for the scarcity of sexual stage observations in nature.

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of multiple depth images without off-focus points in integral imaging using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of multiple depth images with a ray back-propagation algorithm in three-dimensional (3D) computational integral imaging is computationally burdensome. Further, a reconstructed depth image consists of a focus and an off-focus area. Focus areas are 3D points on the surface of an object that are located at the reconstructed depth, while off-focus areas include 3D points in free-space that do not belong to any object surface in 3D space. Generally, without being removed, the presence of an off-focus area would adversely affect the high-level analysis of a 3D object, including its classification, recognition, and tracking. Here, we use a graphics processing unit (GPU) that supports parallel processing with multiple processors to simultaneously reconstruct multiple depth images using a lookup table containing the shifted values along the x and y directions for each elemental image in a given depth range. Moreover, each 3D point on a depth image can be measured by analyzing its statistical variance with its corresponding samples, which are captured by the two-dimensional (2D) elemental images. These statistical variances can be used to classify depth image pixels as either focus or off-focus points. At this stage, the measurement of focus and off-focus points in multiple depth images is also implemented in parallel on a GPU. Our proposed method is conducted based on the assumption that there is no occlusion of the 3D object during the capture stage of the integral imaging process. Experimental results have demonstrated that this method is capable of removing off-focus points in the reconstructed depth image. The results also showed that using a GPU to remove the off-focus points could greatly improve the overall computational speed compared with using a CPU.

  12. A protocol for the refinement of NMR structures using simultaneously pseudocontact shift restraints from multiple lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Sala, Davide; Giachetti, Andrea; Luchinat, Claudio; Rosato, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The binding of paramagnetic metal ions to proteins produces a number of different effects on the NMR spectra of the system. In particular, when the magnetic susceptibility of the metal ion is anisotropic, pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) arise and can be easily measured. They constitute very useful restraints for the solution structure determination of metal-binding proteins. In this context, there has been great interest in the use of lanthanide(III) ions to induce PCSs in diamagnetic proteins, e.g. through the replacement native calcium(II) ions. By preparing multiple samples in each of which a different ion of the lanthanide series is introduced, it is possible to obtain multiple independent PCS datasets that can be used synergistically to generate protein structure ensembles (typically called bundles). For typical NMR-based determination of protein structure, it is necessary to perform an energetic refinement of such initial bundles to obtain final structures whose geometric quality is suitable for deposition in the PDB. This can be conveniently done by using restrained molecular dynamics simulations (rMD) in explicit solvent. However, there are no available protocols for rMD using multiple PCS datasets as part of the restraints. In this work, we extended the PCS module of the AMBER MD package to handle multiple datasets and tuned a previously developed protocol for NMR structure refinement to achieve consistent convergence with PCS restraints. Test calculations with real experimental data show that this new implementation delivers the expected improvement of protein geometry, resulting in final structures that are of suitable quality for deposition. Furthermore, we observe that also initial structures generated only with traditional restraints can be successfully refined using traditional and PCS restraints simultaneously.

  13. Simultaneous positive and negative density-dependent dispersal in a colonial bird species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Contradictory patterns of density-dependent animal dispersal can potentially be reconciled by integrating the conspecific attraction hypothesis with the traditional competition hypothesis. We propose a hypothesis that predicts a U-shaped relationship between density and both natal and breeding dispersal distance. Using 10 years of observations on a breeding colony of the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), the hypothesis was confirmed by documenting simultaneous positive and negative density-dependent dispersal distances in natal and breeding dispersal of males and breeding dispersal of females within the colony. Point-pattern analyses demonstrated that the breeding sites of Blue-footed Boobies were highly aggregated in all years within a large study area, and aggregation presumably resulted in heterogeneity in patch density throughout the colony. As predicted, at moderate to high densities, dispersal distances showed positive density dependence, with individuals moving to lower density patches. In contrast, at low to moderate densities, dispersal distances showed negative density dependence, with individuals moving to higher density patches. In both sexes of the 1994 cohort, the higher the mean density in patches used by an individual over the long term (up to age 11 years), the fewer fledglings it produced. A positive effect of density on long-term reproductive success was not detected, possibly because birds that failed during pair formation or incubation were not sampled. Density of conspecifics may be an important influence on habitat selection of breeders, and dispersal may tend to carry individuals to patches where pair formation opportunities are better and negative effects of competition on reproductive success are reduced.

  14. Simultaneous colour visualizations of multiple ALS point cloud attributes for land cover and vegetation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Schroiff, Anke; Otepka, Johannes; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    LIDAR point clouds hold valuable information for land cover and vegetation analysis, not only in the spatial distribution of the points but also in their various attributes. However, LIDAR point clouds are rarely used for visual interpretation, since for most users, the point cloud is difficult to interpret compared to passive optical imagery. Meanwhile, point cloud viewing software is available allowing interactive 3D interpretation, but typically only one attribute at a time. This results in a large number of points with the same colour, crowding the scene and often obscuring detail. We developed a scheme for mapping information from multiple LIDAR point attributes to the Red, Green, and Blue channels of a widely used LIDAR data format, which are otherwise mostly used to add information from imagery to create "photorealistic" point clouds. The possible combinations of parameters are therefore represented in a wide range of colours, but relative differences in individual parameter values of points can be well understood. The visualization was implemented in OPALS software, using a simple and robust batch script, and is viewer independent since the information is stored in the point cloud data file itself. In our case, the following colour channel assignment delivered best results: Echo amplitude in the Red, echo width in the Green and normalized height above a Digital Terrain Model in the Blue channel. With correct parameter scaling (but completely without point classification), points belonging to asphalt and bare soil are dark red, low grassland and crop vegetation are bright red to yellow, shrubs and low trees are green and high trees are blue. Depending on roof material and DTM quality, buildings are shown from red through purple to dark blue. Erroneously high or low points, or points with incorrect amplitude or echo width usually have colours contrasting from terrain or vegetation. This allows efficient visual interpretation of the point cloud in planar

  15. Simultaneous gene quantitation of multiple genes in individual bovine nuclear transfer blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig; Berg, Debbie; Beaumont, Sue; Standley, Neil T; Wells, David N; Pfeffer, Peter L

    2007-01-01

    During somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT), the transcriptional status of the donor cell has to be reprogrammed to reflect that of an embryo. We analysed the accuracy of this process by comparing transcript levels of four developmentally important genes (Oct4, Otx2, Ifitm3, GATA6), a gene involved in epigenetic regulation (Dnmt3a) and three housekeeping genes (beta-actin, beta-tubulin and GAPDH) in 21 NT blastocysts with that in genetically half-identical in vitro produced (IVP, n=19) and in vivo (n=15) bovine embryos. We have optimised an RNA-isolation and SYBR-green-based real-time RT-PCR procedure allowing the reproducible absolute quantification of multiple genes from a single blastocyst. Our data indicated that transcript levels did not differ significantly between stage and grade-matched zona-free NT and IVP embryos except for Ifitm3/Fragilis, which was expressed at twofold higher levels in NT blastocysts. Ifitm3 expression is confined to the inner cell mass at day 7 blastocysts and to the epiblast in day 14 embryos. No ectopic expression in the trophectoderm was seen in NT embryos. Gene expression in NT and IVP embryos increased between two- and threefold for all eight genes from early to late blastocyst stages. This increase exceeded the increase in cell number over this time period indicating an increase in transcript number per cell. Embryo quality (morphological grading) was correlated to cell number for NT and IVP embryos with grade 3 blastocysts containing 30% fewer cells. However, only NT embryos displayed a significant reduction in gene expression (50%) with loss of quality. Variability in gene expression levels was not significantly different in NT, IVP or in vivo embryos but differed among genes, suggesting that the stringency of regulation is intrinsic to a gene and not affected by culture or nuclear transfer. Oct4 levels exhibited the lowest variability. Analysing the total variability of all eight genes for individual embryos revealed that in

  16. Simultaneous determination of most prescribed antibiotics in multiple urban wastewater by SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Julia; Schubert, Sara; Gurke, Robert; Oertel, Reinhard; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-10-15

    A rapid analytical method was developed for the application of a long-term monitoring (>one year) of the most prescribed and often in hospitals used antibiotics in diverse wastewaters of an urban sewage treatment plant (STP). Additionally to the selected multi-class antibiotics amoxicillin, penicillin V and piperacillin (penicillins), cefotaxime and cefuroxime (cephalosporins), azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin (macrolids), ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin-ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), clindamycin (lincosamide), doxycycline (tetracycline), sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide) and trimethoprim (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor), the bioactive metabolite clindamycin-sulfoxide, the reserve antibiotic vancomycin (glycopeptide) and as tracer of the STP the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the antifungal fluconazole were involved. The analytical method combines a low-sample-volume solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by a chromatographic separation using a reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) technique, respectively, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detection was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measured with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The extraction efficiency of different SPE cartridges and optimized pH-values of the preparation procedure were tested. Finally, the extraction of antibiotics was realized with the Oasis HLB cartridge and a pH adjustment at 3.5. An external calibration curve in diluted blank urine was used for quality control of the sample set of daily composite samples of the STP for the duration of one year monitoring. The squared coefficient of determination (r(2)) in the concentration range (20-20,000ng/L or 100-100,000ng/L) of the calibration curves for the method was higher than 0.99 for all determined substances. The limit of quantification (LoQ) ranged between 0.8ng/L (azithromycin) and 245.1ng/L (vancomycin). Furthermore, a standard addition was used

  17. Simultaneous detection of both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in guinea pig vestibular sensory cells.

    PubMed

    Takumida, Masaya; Anniko, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Gentamicin-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of nitric oxide (NO) in the vestibular end organs of the guinea pig was investigated by applying two new fluorescence indicators, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate for direct detection of NO and dihydrotetramethylrosamine for ROS. The vestibular sensory cells produced both NO and ROS after exposure to gentamicin. A nonspecific inhibitor of NO synthase, L-NAME, inhibited the production of NO but did not appear to affect the production of ROS following exposure to gentamicin. In contrast, a radical scavenger, D-methionine, or the neurotrophin BDNF suppressed the production of ROS, in turn stimulating NO production. These findings could indicate that both NO and ROS play an important role in aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasmatransport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasmamore » made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. We find that these results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.« less

  19. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei N. Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-15

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas 23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasma transport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasma made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. These results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.

  20. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasmatransport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasma made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. We find that these results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.

  1. Development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with simple extraction for simultaneous determination of huperzine A and huperzine B in the species containing lycopodium alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Chen, Wen-Qian; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC method with simple extraction was developed for simultaneous determination of huperzine A (HupA) and huperzine B (HupB) in Huperzia serrata, H. crispata, H. miyoshiana, and Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides. In order to avoid conventional multiple-step and time-consuming sample preparation methods, direct reflux extraction with alkaline chloroform was adopted. The quantitative determination was conducted by reversed-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector set at 308 nm. Separation was performed on a Luna C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with methanol-0.2% aqueous acetic acid (18 + 82, v/v) mobile phase. The method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, precision, and limits of detection and quantification. Quantification of the two active compounds in the samples was performed by this newly developed method, and the content of HupA and HupB varied substantially among four different species. The satisfactory results indicated that the developed method can readily be utilized for quality control of the species of Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae containing the two compounds.

  2. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Chrysisignita (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) species group based on simultaneous Bayesian alignment and phylogeny reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Soon, Villu; Saarma, Urmas

    2011-07-01

    The ignita species group within the genus Chrysis includes over 100 cuckoo wasp species, which all lead a parasitic lifestyle and exhibit very similar morphology. The lack of robust, diagnostic morphological characters has hindered phylogenetic reconstructions and contributed to frequent misidentification and inconsistent interpretations of species in this group. Therefore, molecular phylogenetic analysis is the most suitable approach for resolving the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. We present a well-resolved phylogeny of the Chrysis ignita species group based on mitochondrial sequence data from 41 ingroup and six outgroup taxa. Although our emphasis was on European taxa, we included samples from most of the distribution range of the C. ignita species group to test for monophyly. We used a continuous mitochondrial DNA sequence consisting of 16S rRNA, tRNA(Val), 12S rRNA and ND4. The location of the ND4 gene at the 3' end of this continuous sequence, following 12S rRNA, represents a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement for insects. Due to difficulties in aligning rRNA genes, two different Bayesian approaches were employed to reconstruct phylogeny: (1) using a reduced data matrix including only those positions that could be aligned with confidence; or (2) using the full sequence dataset while estimating alignment and phylogeny simultaneously. In addition maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses were performed to test the robustness of the Bayesian approaches. Although all approaches yielded trees with similar topology, considerably more nodes were resolved with analyses using the full data matrix. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of the C. ignita species group and divided its species into well-supported clades. The resultant phylogeny was only partly in accordance with published subgroupings based on morphology. Our results suggest that several taxa currently treated as subspecies or names treated as synonyms may in fact constitute

  3. Evaluating multiple criteria for species delimitation: an empirical example using Hawaiian palms (Arecaceae: Pritchardia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Robust species delimitations are fundamental for conservation, evolutionary, and systematic studies, but they can be difficult to estimate, particularly in rapid and recent radiations. The consensus that species concepts aim to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages is clear, but the criteria used to distinguish evolutionary lineages differ based on the perceived importance of the various characteristics of evolving populations. We examined three different species-delimitation criteria (monophyly, absence of genetic intermediates, and diagnosability) to determine whether currently recognized species of Hawaiian Pritchardia are distinct lineages. Results Data from plastid and nuclear genes, microsatellite loci, and morphological characters resulted in various levels of lineage subdivision that were likely caused by differing evolutionary rates between data sources. Additionally, taxonomic entities may be confounded because of the effects of incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene flow. A coalescent species tree was largely congruent with the simultaneous analysis, consistent with the idea that incomplete lineage sorting did not mislead our results. Furthermore, gene flow among populations of sympatric lineages likely explains the admixture and lack of resolution between those groups. Conclusions Delimiting Hawaiian Pritchardia species remains difficult but the ability to understand the influence of the evolutionary processes of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization allow for mechanisms driving species diversity to be inferred. These processes likely extend to speciation in other Hawaiian angiosperm groups and the biota in general and must be explicitly accounted for in species delimitation. PMID:22353848

  4. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  5. EasyCloneMulti: A Set of Vectors for Simultaneous and Multiple Genomic Integrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Maury, Jérôme; Germann, Susanne M; Baallal Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad; Jensen, Niels B; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Herrgård, Markus J; Schneider, Konstantin; Koza, Anna; Forster, Jochen; Nielsen, Jens; Borodina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the biotechnology industry for production of ethanol, recombinant proteins, food ingredients and other chemicals. In order to generate highly producing and stable strains, genome integration of genes encoding metabolic pathway enzymes is the preferred option. However, integration of pathway genes in single or few copies, especially those encoding rate-controlling steps, is often not sufficient to sustain high metabolic fluxes. By exploiting the sequence diversity in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of Ty retrotransposons, we developed a new set of integrative vectors, EasyCloneMulti, that enables multiple and simultaneous integration of genes in S. cerevisiae. By creating vector backbones that combine consensus sequences that aim at targeting subsets of Ty sequences and a quickly degrading selective marker, integrations at multiple genomic loci and a range of expression levels were obtained, as assessed with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system. The EasyCloneMulti vector set was applied to balance the expression of the rate-controlling step in the β-alanine pathway for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). The best 3HP producing clone, with 5.45 g.L(-1) of 3HP, produced 11 times more 3HP than the lowest producing clone, which demonstrates the capability of EasyCloneMulti vectors to impact metabolic pathway enzyme activity.

  6. EasyCloneMulti: A Set of Vectors for Simultaneous and Multiple Genomic Integrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Baallal Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad; Jensen, Niels B.; Kildegaard, Kanchana R.; Herrgård, Markus J.; Schneider, Konstantin; Koza, Anna; Forster, Jochen; Nielsen, Jens; Borodina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the biotechnology industry for production of ethanol, recombinant proteins, food ingredients and other chemicals. In order to generate highly producing and stable strains, genome integration of genes encoding metabolic pathway enzymes is the preferred option. However, integration of pathway genes in single or few copies, especially those encoding rate-controlling steps, is often not sufficient to sustain high metabolic fluxes. By exploiting the sequence diversity in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of Ty retrotransposons, we developed a new set of integrative vectors, EasyCloneMulti, that enables multiple and simultaneous integration of genes in S. cerevisiae. By creating vector backbones that combine consensus sequences that aim at targeting subsets of Ty sequences and a quickly degrading selective marker, integrations at multiple genomic loci and a range of expression levels were obtained, as assessed with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system. The EasyCloneMulti vector set was applied to balance the expression of the rate-controlling step in the β-alanine pathway for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). The best 3HP producing clone, with 5.45 g.L-1 of 3HP, produced 11 times more 3HP than the lowest producing clone, which demonstrates the capability of EasyCloneMulti vectors to impact metabolic pathway enzyme activity. PMID:26934490

  7. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network.

  8. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD): A novel approach to study the effect of inhibitors on substrate binding to PPO.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, S; Aditya Rao, S J; Kumar, Vadlapudi; Ramesh, C K

    2015-12-01

    Multiple ligand simultaneous docking, a computational approach is used to study the concurrent interactions between substrate and the macromolecule binding together in the presence of an inhibitor. The present investigation deals with the study of the effect of different inhibitors on binding of substrate to the protein Polyphenoloxidase (PPO). The protein was isolated from Mucuna pruriens and confirmed as tyrosinases involved in L-DOPA production. The activity was measured using different inhibitors at different concentrations taking catechol as substrate. A high-throughput binding study was conducted to compare the binding orientations of individual ligands and multiple ligands employing Autodock 4.2. The results of single substrate docking showed a better binding of urea with the binding energy of -3.48 kJ mol(-1) and inter molecular energy of -3.48 kJ mol(-1) while the results of MLSD revealed that ascorbic acid combined with the substrate showed better inhibition with a decreased binding energy of -2.37 kJ mol(-1).

  9. Instability-Enhanced Collisional Friction Determines the Bohm Criterion in Multiple-Ion-Species Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-11-01

    Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentrations, masses and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).

  10. A Nonparametric Lower Bound for the Number of Species Shared by Multiple Communities.

    PubMed

    Pan, H-Y; Chao, Anne; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2009-12-17

    In biological and ecological statistical inference, it is practically useful to provide a lower bound for species richness in a community. Chao (1984, 1989) derived a nonparametric lower bound for species richness in a single community. However, there have been no lower bounds proposed in the literature for the number of species shared by multiple communities. Based on sample species abundance or replicated incidence records from each of the N communities, we derive in this article a nonparametric approach to constructing a lower bound for the number of species shared by N (N ≥ 2) communities. The approach is valid for all types of species abundance distributions (for abundance data) or species detection probabilities (for replicated incidence data). Variance estimators for the proposed lower bounds are obtained by using typical asymptotic theory. Simulation results are reported to examine the performance of the lower bounds. Replicated incidence data of ciliate species collected in three areas from Namibia, southwest Africa, are used for illustration. We also briefly discuss the application of the proposed method to estimate the size of a shared population (i.e., the number of individuals in the intersection of multiple populations) based on capture-recapture data from each population.

  11. Simultaneous Observation of an Intraband Transition and Distinct Transient Species in the Infrared Region for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Chung, Chih-Chun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2016-07-07

    Solar cells based on organometal-halide perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 have emerged as a promising next-generation photovoltaic system, but the underlying photophysics and photochemistry remain to be established because of the limited availability of methods to implement the simultaneous and direct measurement of various charge carriers and ions that play a crucial role in the operating device. We used nanosecond time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate, with high molecular specificity, distinct transient species that are formed in perovskite solar cells after photoexcitation. In CH3NH3PbI3 planar-heterojuction solar cells, we simultaneously observed infrared spectral signatures that are associated with an intraband transition of conduction-band electrons, Fano resonance, and the spiro-OMeTAD cation having an exceptionally short lifetime of 1.0 μs (at ∼1485 cm(-1)). The present results show that the time-resolved IR method offers a unique capability to elucidate these important transients in perovskite solar cells and their dynamic interplay in a comprehensive manner.

  12. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    PubMed

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing.

  13. Assessing the performance of a method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images and its resistance against various attacks.

    PubMed

    Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Abdallah, N; Jridi, M

    2013-04-08

    We introduce a double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the discrete cosine transformation (DCT). The new analysis technique is a combination of spectral fusion based on the properties of DCT, specific spectral filtering, and quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. A set of numerical simulations and a comparison with the well known JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard have been carried out to demonstrate the improved performances of this method. The focus here will differ from the method of simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images (SFCE) [Opt. Express 19, 24023 (2011)] in the following ways. Firstly, we shall be concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is achieved by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion. We found that this size adaptation provides a good tradeoff between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of each block before spectral fusion. By using a real-valued key image we have been able to increase the compression rate of 50% over the original SFCE method. We provide numerical examples of the effects for size, rotation, and shifting of DCT-blocks which play noteworthy roles in the optimization of the bandwidth of the spectral plane. Inspection of the results for different types of attack demonstrates the robustness of our procedure.

  14. Simultaneous Single Molecule Fluorescence and Conductivity Studies Reveal Distinct Classes of Aβ Species on Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Schauerte, Joseph A.; Wong, Pamela T.; Wisser, Kathleen C.; Ding, Hao; Steel, Duncan G.; Gafni, Ari

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular senile plaques prevalent in brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are composed of amyloid fibrils formed by the Aβ peptide. These fibrils have been traditionally believed to feature in neurotoxicity; however, numerous recent studies provide evidence that cytotoxicity in AD may be associated with low molecular weight oligomers of Aβ that associate with neuronal membranes and may lead to membrane permeabilization and disruption of the ion balance in the cell. The underlying mechanism leading to disruption of the membrane is the subject of many recent studies. Here we report the application of single molecule optical detection, using fluorescently labeled human Aβ40, combined with membrane conductivity measurements, to monitor the interaction of single oligomeric peptide structures with model planar black lipid membranes (BLM). In a qualitative study, we show that the binding of Aβ to the membrane can be described by three distinctly different behaviors, depending on the Aβ monomer concentration. For concentrations much below 10 nM, there is uniform binding of monomers over the surface of the membrane with no evidence of oligomer formation or membrane permeabilization. Between 10 nM and a few 100 nM, the uniform monomer binding is accompanied by the presence of peptide species ranging from dimers to small oligomers. The dimers are not found to permeabilize the membrane but the larger oligomers lead to permeabilization with individual oligomers producing ion conductances of less than 10 pS/pore. At higher concentration, perhaps beyond physiologically relevant concentrations, larger extended and dynamic structures are found with large conductance (100's of pS) suggesting major disruption of the membrane. PMID:20201586

  15. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; van Noort, Simon

    2012-01-03

    The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  16. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution. PMID:22214193

  17. LC-MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of the anti-inflammatory constituents in oregano (Origanum species).

    PubMed

    Shen, Diandian; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Qing-Li; Park, Chung-Heon; Juliani, H Rodolfo; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E

    2010-06-23

    Oregano (Origanum spp.), a popular herb in western and Middle Eastern cuisine, was reported to show anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo but without any information as to the compounds responsible, whether the plants were authenticated or only contained true Origanum spp. Using a wide range of botanically authenticated oregano, we were able to show that oregano had anti-inflammatory activity and then using biodirected-guided fractionation, identified the anti-inflammatory agents in oregano as rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. In this study, we successfully developed an LC-MS (SIM mode) method to achieve coquantitation of these three organic acids with the application of a unique tandem column system. The detection of rosmarinic acid was optimal under negative ion mode of SIM, whereas oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were sensitive to positive ion mode. The simultaneous quantitation was attained by setting two time segments in one run to facilitate the ESI polarity switch. For the investigated analytes romarinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid, good linearities (r(2) > 0.999) were obtained for each calibration curve. Validation for this method showed a precision (relative standard deviation) ranging from 4.84 to 6.41%, and the recoveries varied from 92.2 to 100.8% for the three analytes. A quantitative survey of these anti-inflammatory constituents in different oregano species (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, O. vulgare, and O. syriacum) and chemotypes within the species varied significantly in their accumulation of rosmarinic, oleanolic, and ursolic acids. Significant variation in chemical composition between species and within a species was found.

  18. Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species. PMID:20856862

  19. Integrated optic chemical sensor for the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple ions. Final report, March--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, E.

    1995-09-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) on the DOE contract entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Optic Chemical Sensor for the Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Multiple Metal Ions{close_quotes}. This project successfully demonstrated a multi-element integrated optic chemical sensor (IOCS) system capable of simultaneous detection and quantification of metal ions in a water flow stream. POC`s innovative integrated optic chemical sensor technology uses an array of chemically active optical waveguides integrated in parallel in a single small IOCS chip. The IOCS technique uses commonly available materials and straightforward processing to produce channel waveguides in porous glass, each channel treated with a chemical indicator that responds optically to heavy metal ions in a water flow stream. The porosity of the glass allows metal ions present in the water to diffuse into the glass and interact with the immobilized indicators, producing a measurable optical chance. For the {open_quotes}proof-of-concept{close_quotes} demonstration, POC designed and fabricated two types of IOCS chips. Type I uses an array of four straight channel waveguides, three of which are doped with a metal sensitive indicator, an ionophore. The undoped fourth channel is used as the reference channel. Type II uses a 1 x 4 star coupler structure with three sensing channels and a reference channel. Successful implementation of the IOCS technology is expected to have a broad impact on water quality control as well as in the commercial environmental monitoring market. Because of the self-referenced, multidetection capability of the IOCS technique, POC`s water quality sensors are expected to find markets in environmental monitoring and protection, ground water monitoring, and in-line process control. Specific applications include monitoring of chromium, copper, and iron ions in water discharged by the metal plating industry.

  20. Multiple Dictyostelid Species Destroy Biofilms of Klebsiella oxytoca and Other Gram Negative Species.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dean; Borys, Katarzyna D; Kisa, Fikrullah; Rakowski, Sheryl A; Lozano, Marcela; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    Dictyostelids are free-living phagocytes that feed on bacteria in diverse habitats. When bacterial prey is in short supply or depleted, they undergo multicellular development culminating in the formation of dormant spores. In this work, we tested isolates representing four dictyostelid species from two genera (Dictyostelium and Polysphondylium) for the potential to feed on biofilms preformed on glass and polycarbonate surfaces. The abilities of dictyostelids were monitored for three hallmarks of activity: 1) spore germination on biofilms, 2) predation on biofilm enmeshed bacteria by phagocytic cells and 3) characteristic stages of multicellular development (streaming and fructification). We found that all dictyostelid isolates tested could feed on biofilm enmeshed bacteria produced by human and plant pathogens: Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, Erwinia amylovora 1189 (biofilm former) and E. amylovora 1189 Δams (biofilm deficient mutant). However, when dictyostelids were fed planktonic E. amylovora Δams the bacterial cells exhibited an increased susceptibility to predation by one of the two dictyostelid strains they were tested against. Taken together, the qualitative and quantitative data presented here suggest that dictyostelids have preferences in bacterial prey which affects their efficiency of feeding on bacterial biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2013-02-06

    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  2. Using AVIRIS data and multiple-masking techniques to map urban forest trees species

    Treesearch

    Q. Xiao; S.L. Ustin; E.G. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Tree type and species information are critical parameters for urban forest management, benefit cost analysis and urban planning. However, traditionally, these parameters have been derived based on limited field samples in urban forest management practice. In this study we used high-resolution Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and multiple-...

  3. Simultaneous Identification of Four "Legal High" Plant Species in a Multiplex PCR High-Resolution Melt Assay().

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M; Perez, Anjelica C U; Quinn, Alicia A

    2017-05-01

    The international prevalence of "legal high" drugs necessitates the development of a method for their detection and identification. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a tetraplex multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used to simultaneously identify morning glory, jimson weed, Hawaiian woodrose, and marijuana detected by high-resolution melt using LCGreen Plus(®) . The PCR assay was evaluated based on the following: (i) specificity and selectivity-primers were tested on DNA extracted from 30 species and simulated forensic samples, (ii) sensitivity-serial dilutions of the target DNA were prepared, and (iii) reproducibility and reliability-sample replicates were tested and remelted on different days. The assay is ideal for cases in which inexpensive assays are needed to quickly detect and identify trace biological material present on drug paraphernalia that is too compromised for botanical microscopic identification and for which analysts are unfamiliar with the morphology of the emerging "legal high" species. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Dual beam experiment for simultaneous irradiation of surfaces with ion species of gaseous and solid-state elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyukov, I.; Krieger, K.

    2006-04-01

    The effects occurring under simultaneous bombardment of surfaces by ions of gaseous and solid elements is a new field for research, which is of great interest for applications ranging from cold plasma technologies to nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas. A multitude of new effects has been observed originating from mixing of incident ion species and bulk material at the surface and, in some cases, from additional complex chemical interactions between the mixing species. To study these effects under controlled conditions a new dual beam experiment has been commissioned, particularly suited for in situ studies of surface sputtering and ion implantation processes. Thin films with negligible impurity level and surface roughness are used as targets. High energy ion beam analysis is used as a means of nondestructive elemental depth profiling and concentration measurements. This allows for the first time the fast quantification of the elemental composition change of a target sample in intervals between ion irradiation. The article describes the details of design and operation, as well as the accessible range of experimental conditions.

  5. Simultaneous detection of cow and buffalo species in milk from China, India, and Pakistan using multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cottenet, G; Blancpain, C; Golay, P-A

    2011-08-01

    Asian countries are major producers of cow and buffalo milk. For quality and authenticity purposes, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to specifically and simultaneously detect DNA from these 2 bovine species. Targeting the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA, common PCR primers amplified a 105-bp fragment, and 2 fluorescent probes specific to either cow or buffalo were designed for their identification. Specificity was successfully tested on 6 other species, including sheep and goat, and sensitivity reached 1% of cow DNA in buffalo DNA and vice versa. As an evaluation, the method was tested using 119 freeze-dried Asian milk samples from regional industrial milk facilities. Although these samples did not cover the entire Asian zone, the multiplex assay indicated that approximately 20% of the samples (mainly from India) showed high levels of cross-contamination of cow milk by buffalo milk, and vice versa. Fast, sensitive, and straightforward, this method is fit-for-purpose for the authenticity control of Asian milk. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Finding all multiple stable fixpoints of n-species Lotka-Volterra competition models.

    PubMed

    Lischke, Heike; Löffler, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    One way to explore assembly of extant and novel communities from species pools, and by that biodiversity and species ranges, is to study the equilibrium behavior of dynamic competition models such as the Lotka-Volterra competition (LVC) model. We present a novel method (COMMUSTIX) to determine all stable fixpoints of the general LVC model with abundances x from a given pool of n species. To that purpose, we split the species in potentially surviving species (xi>0) and in others going extinct (xi=0). We derived criteria for the stability of xi=0 and for the equilibrium of xi>0 to determine possible combinations of extinct and surviving species by iteratively applying a mixed binary linear optimization algorithm. We tested this new method against (a) the numerical solution at equilibrium of the LVC ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and (b) the fixpoints of all combinations of surviving and extinct species (possible only for small n), tested for stability and non-negativity. The tests revealed that COMMUSTIX is reliable, it detects all multiple stable fixpoints (SFPs), which is not guaranteed by solving the ODEs, and more efficient than the combinations method. With COMMUSTIX, we studied the dependence of the fixpoint behavior on the competition strengths relative to the intra-specific competition. If inter-specific competition was considerably lower than intra-specific competition, only globally SFPs occurred. In contrast, if all inter-specific was higher than intra-specific competition, multiple SFPs consisting of only one species occurred. If competition strengths in the species pool ranged from below to above the intra-specific competition, either global or multiple SFPs strongly differing in species composition occurred. The species richness over all SFPs was high for pools of species with similar, either weak or strong competition, and lower for species with dissimilar or close to intra-specific competition strengths. The new approach is a reliable and

  7. Multiple cryptic species in the blue-spotted maskray (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae: Neotrygon spp.): An update.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe; Shen, Kang-Ning; Arlyza, Irma S; Hoareau, Thierry B

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations have uncovered divergent mitochondrial clades within the blue-spotted maskray, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle). The hypothesis that the blue-spotted maskray may consist of a complex of multiple cryptic species has been proposed, and four species have been recently described or resurrected. To test the multiple cryptic species hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and coalescence patterns of mitochondrial sequences in a sample of 127 new individuals from the Indian Ocean and the Coral Triangle region, sequenced at both the CO1 and cytochrome b loci. The maximum-likelihood (ML) tree of concatenated CO1+cytochrome b gene sequences, rooted by the New Caledonian maskray N. trigonoides, yielded 9 strongly supported, main clades. Puillandre's ABGD algorithm detected gaps in nucleotide distance consistent with the ML phylogeny. The general mixed Yule-coalescent algorithm partitioned the dataset into putative species generally consistent with the ML phylogeny. Nuclear markers generally confirmed that distinct mitochondrial clades correspond to genetically isolated lineages. The nine main lineages identified by ML analysis were geographically distributed in a parapatric fashion, indicating reproductive isolation. The hypothesis of multiple cryptic species is thus validated.

  8. Effects of multiple predator species on green treefrog (Hyla cinerea) tadpoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunzburger, M.S.; Travis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Prey species that occur across a range of habitats may be exposed to variable communities of multiple predator species across habitats. Predicting the combined effects of multiple predators can be complex. Many experiments evaluating the effects of multiple predators on prey confound either variation in predator density with predator identity or variation in relative predator frequency with overall predation rates. We develop a new experimental design of factorial predator combinations that maintains a constant expected predation rate, under the null hypothesis of additive predator effects. We implement this design to evaluate the combined effects of three predator species (bass, aeshnid and libellulid odonate naiads) on mortality rate of a prey species, Hyla cinerea (Schneider, 1799) tadpoles, that occurs across a range of aquatic habitats. Two predator treatments (libellulid and aeshnid + libellulid) resulted in lower tadpole mortality than any of the other predator treatments. Variation in tadpole mortality across treatments was not related to coarse variation in microhabitat use, but was likely due to intraguild predation, which occurred in all predator treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles have constant, low survival values when exposed to many different combinations of predator species, and predation rate probably increases linearly with predator density.

  9. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Linn F; Weisrock, David W; Rasoloarison, Rodin M; Yoder, Anne D; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Background Species are viewed as the fundamental unit in most subdisciplines of biology. To conservationists this unit represents the currency for global biodiversity assessments. Even though Madagascar belongs to one of the top eight biodiversity hotspots of the world, the taxonomy of its charismatic lemuriform primates is not stable. Within the last 25 years, the number of described lemur species has more than doubled, with many newly described species identified among the nocturnal and small-bodied cheirogaleids. Here, we characterize the diversity of the dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus) and assess the status of the seven described species, based on phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of mtDNA (cytb + cox2) and three nuclear markers (adora3, fiba and vWF). Results This study identified three distinct evolutionary lineages within the genus Cheirogaleus. Population genetic cluster analyses revealed a further layer of population divergence with six distinct genotypic clusters. Conclusion Based on the general metapopulation lineage concept and multiple concordant data sets, we identify three exclusive groups of dwarf lemur populations that correspond to three of the seven named species: C. major, C. medius and C. crossleyi. These three species were found to be genealogically exclusive in both mtDNA and nDNA loci and are morphologically distinguishable. The molecular and morphometric data indicate that C. adipicaudatus and C. ravus are synonymous with C. medius and C. major, respectively. Cheirogaleus sibreei falls into the C. medius mtDNA clade, but in morphological analyses the membership is not clearly resolved. We do not have sufficient data to assess the status of C. minusculus. Although additional patterns of population differentiation are evident, there are no clear subdivisions that would warrant additional specific status. We propose that ecological and more geographic data should be collected to confirm these results. PMID:19193227

  10. Distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of African monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.

    PubMed Central

    van der Kuyl, A C; Dekker, J T; Goudsmit, J

    1995-01-01

    PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats. PMID:7494300

  11. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Carl; Adams, John S.; Stewart, Paul M.; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D ‘status’ most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220 μl of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease. PMID:26874878

  12. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Adams, John S; Stewart, Paul M; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220μL of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease.

  13. [Microchip electrophoresis coupled with multiplex allele-specific am-plification for typing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Guo-Hua

    2009-02-01

    A new method of DNA adapter ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification (ALM-ASA) was developed for typing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the platform of microchip electrophoresis. Using seven SNPs of 794C>T, 1274C>T, 2143T>C, 2766T>del, 3298G>A, 5200G>A, and 5277C>T in the interleukin 1B (IL1B) gene as a target object, a long DNA fragment containing the seven SNPs of interest was pre-amplified to enhance the specificity. The pre-amplified DNA fragment was digested by a restriction endonuclease to form sticky ends; and then the adapter was ligated to either end of the digested fragment. Using the adapter-ligated fragments as templates, a 7-plex allele-specific amplification was performed by 7 allele-specific primers and a universal primer in one tube. The allele-specific products amplified were separated by chip electrophoresis and the types of SNPs were easily discriminated by the product sizes. The seven SNPs in IL1B gene in 48 healthy Chinese were successfully typed by microchip electrophoresis and the results coincided with those by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing method. The method established was accurate and can be used to type multiple SNPs simultaneously. In combination with microchip electrophoresis for readout, ALM-ASA assay can be used for fast SNP detection with a small amount of sample. Using self-prepared gel matrix and reused chips for analysis, the SNP can be typed at an ultra low cost.

  14. Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost to Multiple Brain Metastases Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerwaard, Frank J. Hoorn, Elles A.P. van der; Verbakel, Wilko; Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) allows for the generation of intensity-modulated dose distributions by use of a single gantry rotation. We used RA to plan and deliver whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost in patients with multiple brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Composite RA plans were generated for 8 patients, consisting of WBRT (20 Gy in 5 fractions) with an integrated boost, also 20 Gy in 5 fractions, to Brain metastases, and clinically delivered in 3 patients. Summated gross tumor volumes were 1.0 to 37.5 cm{sup 3}. RA plans were measured in a solid water phantom by use of Gafchromic films (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ). Results: Composite RA plans could be generated within 1 hour. Two arcs were needed to deliver the mean of 1,600 monitor units with a mean 'beam-on' time of 180 seconds. RA plans showed excellent coverage of planning target volume for WBRT and planning target volume for the boost, with mean volumes receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose of 100% and 99.8%, respectively. The mean conformity index was 1.36. Composite plans showed much steeper dose gradients outside Brain metastases than plans with a conventional summation of WBRT and radiosurgery. Comparison of calculated and measured doses showed a mean gamma for double-arc plans of 0.30, and the area with a gamma larger than 1 was 2%. In-room times for clinical RA sessions were approximately 20 minutes for each patient. Conclusions: RA treatment planning and delivery of integrated plans of WBRT and boosts to multiple brain metastases is a rapid and accurate technique that has a higher conformity index than conventional summation of WBRT and radiosurgery boost.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of multiple lipid oxidation products in vivo by liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiyong; Davis, Todd; Porter, Ned A

    2010-01-01

    Free radical-induced oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) has been linked to a number of human diseases including atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidation of PUFAs generates hydroperoxides and cyclic peroxides that are reduced to lipid alcohol, such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETEs), and isoprostanes (IsoPs) respectively. The IsoPs are isomers of prostaglandins that are generated from autoxidation of arachidonic acid (C20:4). Quantification of F(2)-IsoPs has been regarded as the "gold standard" to assess oxidative stress status in various human diseases. We herein report the protocol of analyzing HETEs and F(2)-IsoPs using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to reverse phase liquid chromatography. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode selects the parent ion of interest in the first Quad (m/z 319 for HETE and m/z 353 for F(2)-IsoPs) and fragments it in the second while an ion characteristic of the analyte of interest is monitored in the third Quad. This highly selective technique permits the simultaneous analysis of multiple oxidation products such as the HETEs and F(2)-IsoPs. This LC-MS technique can be applied to study the free radical oxidation mechanism in vitro and assess the oxidative stress status in biological tissues and fluids.

  16. Simultaneous acute shoulder arthritis and multiple mononeuropathy in a newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patient - First case report.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Zaborowski, Grzegorz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Nowacki, Przemysław

    Diabetes is a common disorder that leads to the musculoskeletal symptoms such as the shoulder arthritis. The involvement of peripheral nervous system is one of the troublesome for the patients as it provokes chronic sensory symptoms, lower motor neuron involvement and autonomic symptoms. In the course of the disease there has been several types of neuropathies described. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the internal medicine department because of the general weakness, malaise, polydypsia and polyuria since several days. The initial blood glucose level was 780mg/dl. During the first day the continuous insulin infusion was administered. On the next day when he woke up, the severe pain in the right shoulder with limited movement, right upper extremity weakness and burning pain in the radial aspect of this extremity appeared. On examination right shoulder joint movement limitation was found with the muscle weakness and sensory symptoms in the upper limbs. The clinical picture indicated on the right shoulder arthritis and the peripheral nervous system symptoms such as the right musculocutaneous, supraspinatus, right radial nerve and left radial nerve damage. We present a first case report of simultaneous, acute involvement of the shoulder joint and multiple neuropathy in a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, presumably in the state of ketoacidosis.

  17. Simultaneous screening of multiple mutations by invader assay improves molecular diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Usami, Shin-ichi; Nishio, Shin-ya; Nagano, Makoto; Abe, Satoko; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Although etiological studies have shown genetic disorders to be a common cause of congenital/early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, there have been no detailed multicenter studies based on genetic testing. In the present report, 264 Japanese patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss from 33 ENT departments nationwide participated. For these patients, we first applied the Invader assay for screening 47 known mutations of 13 known deafness genes, followed by direct sequencing as necessary. A total of 78 (29.5%) subjects had at least one deafness gene mutation. Mutations were more frequently found in the patients with congenital or early-onset hearing loss, i.e., in those with an awareness age of 0-6 years, mutations were significantly higher (41.8%) than in patients with an older age of awareness (16.0%). Among the 13 genes, mutations in GJB2 and SLC26A4 were mainly found in congenital or early-onset patients, in contrast with mitochondrial mutations (12S rRNA m.1555A>G, tRNA(Leu(UUR)) m.3243A>G), which were predominantly found in older-onset patients. The present method of simultaneous screening of multiple deafness mutations by Invader assay followed by direct sequencing will enable us to detect deafness mutations in an efficient and practical manner for clinical use.

  18. Simultaneous dual-functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode for transferrable optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zheng; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-10-01

    We propose a wafer-level procedure for the fabrication of 1.5-mm-diameter dual functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) diodes on a GaN-on-silicon platform for transferrable optoelectronics. Nitride semiconductor materials are grown on (111) silicon substrates with intermediate Al-composition step-graded buffer layers, and membrane-type MQW-diode architectures are obtained by a combination of silicon removal and III-nitride film backside thinning. Suspended MQW-diodes are directly transferred from silicon to foreign substrates such as metal, glass and polyethylene terephthalate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred MQW-diodes display strong electroluminescence under current injection and photodetection under light irradiation. Interestingly, they demonstrate a simultaneous light-emitting light-detecting function, endowing the 1.5-mm-diameter MQW-diode with the capability of producing transferrable optoelectronics for adjustable displays, wearable optical sensors, multifunctional energy harvesting, flexible light communication and monolithic photonic circuit.

  19. Structure of North American mantle constrained by simultaneous inversion of multiple-frequency SH, SS, and Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Zhou, Ying; Sigloch, Karin; Nolet, Guust; Laske, Gabi

    2011-02-01

    We simultaneously invert for the velocity and attenuation structure of the North American mantle from a mixed data set: SH wave traveltime and amplitude anomalies, SS wave differential traveltime anomalies, and Love wave fundamental mode phase delays. All data are measured for multiple frequency bands, and finite frequency sensitivity kernels are used to explain the observations. In the resulting SH velocity model, a lower mantle plume is observed to originate at about 1500 km depth beneath the Yellowstone area, tilting about 40° from vertical. The plume rises up through a gap in the subducting Farallon slab. The SH velocity model confirms high-level segmentation of the Farallon slab, which was observed in the recent P velocity model. Attenuation structure is resolvable in the upper mantle and transition zone; in estimating it, we correct for focusing. High-correlation coefficients between δlnVS and δlnQS under the central and eastern United States suggest one main physical source, most likely temperature. The smaller correlation coefficients and larger slopes of the δlnQS - δlnVS relationship under the western United States suggest an influence of nonthermal factors such as the existence of water and partial melt. Finally, we analyze the influence of the different components of our data set. The addition of Love wave phase delays helps to improve the resolution of both velocity and attenuation, and the effect is noticeable even in the lower mantle.

  20. Comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Kumar, Peeyush; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Patel, Neelam; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-11-15

    In the present study, five fungal strains viz., Aspergillus terreus AML02, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, Beauveria bassiana 4580, Aspergillus terreus PD-17, Aspergillus fumigatus PD-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. Highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (500mg/L) was recorded for A. fumigatus for the metals (Cd, 0.72; Cu, 0.72; Pb, 1.02; Zn, 0.94) followed by B. bassiana for the metals (Cd, 0.56; Cu, 0.14; Ni, 0.29; Zn, 0.85). Next, the strains were exposed to multiple metal mixture (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of various concentrations (6, 12, 18, 30mg/L). Compared to other strains, B. bassiana and A. fumigatus had higher cube root growth (k) constants indicating their better adaptability to multi metal stress. After 72h, multimetal accumulation potential of B. bassiana (26.94±0.07mg/L) and A. fumigatus (27.59±0.09mg/L) were higher than the other strains at initial multimetal concentration of 30mg/L. However, considering the post treatment concentrations of individual metals in multimetal mixture (at all the tested concentrations), A. fumigatus demonstrated exceptional performance and could bring down the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn below the threshold level for irrigation prescribed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous localization of multiple broadband non-impulsive acoustic sources in an ocean waveguide using the array invariant.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2015-11-01

    The array invariant method, previously derived for instantaneous range and bearing estimation of a single broadband impulsive source in a horizontally stratified ocean waveguide, can be generalized to simultaneously localize multiple uncorrelated broadband noise sources that are not necessarily impulsive in the time domain by introducing temporal pulse compression and an image processing technique similar to the Radon transform. This can be done by estimating the range and bearing of broadband non-impulsive sources from measured beam-time migration lines of modal arrivals along a horizontal array arising from differences in modal group velocity and modal polar angle for each propagating mode. The generalized array invariant approach is used to estimate the range of a vertical source array and vocalizing humpback whales over wide areas from measurements made by a towed horizontal receiver array during the Gulf of Maine 2006 Experiment. The localization results are shown to have roughly 12% root-mean-squared errors from Global Positioning System measured ground truth positions for controlled source transmissions and less than 10% discrepancy from those obtained independently via moving array triangulation for vocalizing humpbacks, respectively.

  2. Polymer nanopillar-gold arrays as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate for the simultaneous detection of multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Morasso, Carlo; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Pellacani, Paola; Marchesini, Gerardo; Valsesia, Andrea; Prosperi, Davide; Tresoldi, Cristina; Ciceri, Fabio; Gramatica, Furio

    2014-10-28

    In our study, 2D nanopillar arrays with plasmonic crystal properties are optimized for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) application and tested in a biochemical assay for the simultaneous detection of multiple genetic leukemia biomarkers. The special fabrication process combining soft lithography and plasma deposition techniques allows tailoring of the structural and chemical parameters of the crystal surfaces. In this way, it has been possible to tune the plasmonic resonance spectral position close to the excitation wavelength of the monochromatic laser light source in order to maximize the enhancing properties of the substrate. Samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and reflectance measurements and tested for SERS activity using malachite green. Besides, as the developed substrate had been prepared on a simple glass slide, SERS detection from the support side is also demonstrated. The optimized substrate is functionalized with thiol-modified capture oligonucleotides, and concentration-dependent signal of the target nucleotide is detected in a sandwich assay with labeled gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with different DNA and various Raman reporters are applied in a microarray-based assay recognizing a disease biomarker (Wilms tumor gene) and housekeeping gene expressions in the same time on spatially separated microspots. The multiplexing performance of the SERS-based bioassay is illustrated by distinguishing Raman dyes based on their complex spectral fingerprints.

  3. Simultaneous Profiling of Lysoglycerophospholipids in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using Direct Infusion-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-03-29

    White rice is the final product after the hull and bran layers have been removed during the milling process. Although lysoglycerophospholipids (lysoGPLs) only occupy a small proportion in white rice, they are essential for evaluating rice authenticity and quality. In this study, we developed a high-throughput and targeted lipidomics approach that involved direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring to simultaneously profile lysoGPLs in white rice. The method is capable of characterizing 17 lysoGPLs within 1 min. In addition, unsupervised and supervised analyses exhibited a considerably large diversity of lysoGPL concentrations in white rice from different origins. In particular, a classification model was built using identified lysoGPLs that can differentiate white rice from Korea, China, and Japan. Among the discriminatory lysoGPLs, for the lysoPE(16:0) and lysoPE(18:2) compositions, there were relatively small within-group variations, and they were considerably different among the three countries. In conclusion, our proposed method provides a rapid, high-throughput, and comprehensive format for profiling lysoGPLs in rice samples.

  4. Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Hülskötter, Jennifer; Acharya, Kamal Prasad; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A O; Dar, Pervaiz A; Diekmann, Martin; De Frenne, Pieter; Hermy, Martin; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Reshi, Zafar A; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2015-08-20

    Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species' native range in Kashmir, India, to those in its invaded range, along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. For comparison, the results from 39 other studies of genetic diversity in invasive species were collated. Our results suggest that I. glandulifera was established in the wild in Europe at least twice, from an area outside of our Kashmir study area. Our results further revealed that the genetic diversity in invasive populations of I. glandulifera is unusually low compared to native populations, in particular when compared to other invasive species. Genetic drift rather than mutation seems to have played a role in differentiating populations in Europe. We find evidence of limitations to local gene flow after introduction to Europe, but somewhat less restrictions in the native range. I. glandulifera populations with significant inbreeding were only found in the species' native range and invasive species in general showed no increase in inbreeding upon leaving their native ranges. In Europe we detect cases of migration between distantly located populations. Human activities therefore seem to, at least partially, have facilitated not only introductions, but also further spread of I. glandulifera across Europe. Although multiple introductions will facilitate the retention of genetic diversity in invasive ranges, widespread invasive species can remain genetically relatively invariant also after multiple introductions. Phenotypic plasticity may therefore be an important component of the

  5. Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species.

  6. Computational tool for risk assessment of nanomaterials: novel QSTR-perturbation model for simultaneous prediction of ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of uncoated and coated nanoparticles under multiple experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; González-Díaz, Humberto; Ruso, Juan M; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2014-12-16

    Nanomaterials have revolutionized modern science and technology due to their multiple applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, and biomedicine. Nevertheless, the use and manipulation of nanoparticles (NPs) can bring serious damages to living organisms and their ecosystems. For this reason, ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays are of special interest in order to determine the potential harmful effects of NPs. Processes based on ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity tests can significantly consume time and financial resources. In this sense, alternative approaches such as quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) modeling have provided important insights for the better understanding of the biological behavior of NPs that may be responsible for causing toxicity. Until now, QSAR/QSTR models have predicted ecotoxicity or cytotoxicity separately against only one organism (bioindicator species or cell line) and have not reported information regarding the quantitative influence of characteristics other than composition or size. In this work, we developed a unified QSTR-perturbation model to simultaneously probe ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of NPs under different experimental conditions, including diverse measures of toxicities, multiple biological targets, compositions, sizes and conditions to measure those sizes, shapes, times during which the biological targets were exposed to NPs, and coating agents. The model was created from 36488 cases (NP-NP pairs) and exhibited accuracies higher than 98% in both training and prediction sets. The model was used to predict toxicities of several NPs that were not included in the original data set. The results of the predictions suggest that the present QSTR-perturbation model can be employed as a highly promising tool for the fast and efficient assessment of ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of NPs.

  7. Integrated airborne lidar and multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) for plant species mapping across multiple functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to map plant species distributions has long been one of the key goals of terrestrial remote sensing. Achieving this goal has been challenging, however, due to technical constraints and the difficulty in relating remote observations to ground measurements. Advances in both the types of data that can be collected remotely and in available analytical tools like multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) are allowing for rapid improvements in this field. In 2007 the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) acquired high resolution lidar and hyperspectral imagery of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Woodside, California). The site contains a mosaic of vegetation types, from grassland to chaparral to evergreen forest. To build a spectral library, 415 GPS points were collected in the field, made up of 44 plant species, six plant categories (for nonphotosynthetic vegetation), and four substrate types. Using the lidar data to select the most illuminated pixels as seen from the aircraft (based on canopy shape and viewing angle), we then reduced the spectral library to only the most fully lit pixels. To identify individual plant species in the imagery, first the hyperspectral data was used to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and then pixels with an NDVI less than 0.15 were removed from further analysis. The remaining image was stratified into five classes based on vegetation height derived from the lidar data. For each class, a suite of possible endmembers was identified and then three endmember selection procedures (endmember average RMS, minimum average spectral angle, and count based endmember selection) were employed to select the most representative endmembers from each species in each class. Two and three endmember models were then applied and each pixel was assigned a species or plant category based on the highest endmember fraction. To validate the approach, an independent set of 200 points was collected throughout the

  8. Self-similar flow channel designs for parallel multiscale transport of multiple fluid species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Omer

    2011-11-01

    The need for multiscale fluid transport arises in a number of engineering applications involving fluid delivery or collection over a range of different lengthscales. A ``tree-shaped'' system of flow channels has been an efficient transport solution commonly practiced by biomimetics. There has been much work in optimizing these dendritic flow systems, primarily for cooling applications. However, most designs can be costly to manufacture and limited in scalability. Moreover, most systems are restricted to the transport of a single fluid species. This work explores the feasibility of self-similar flow channel designs to provide parallel multiscale transport of multiple fluid species. The self-similar characteristic of these designs simplifies manufacturing and allows for flexible scalability. Prototypes for the parallel transport of one and two independent fluid species are supported with analytical theory and experimental work. Designs for three and four species are presented as well. Supported by Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP)

  9. The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Senevirathne, Gayani; Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Jayawardena, Beneeta; Bandara, Champika; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan

    2015-01-19

    The bufonid genus Adenomus, an endemic of the montane and lowland rainforests of central and south-western Sri Lanka, has been considered to comprise of three species, viz. A. kelaartii, A. dasi and A. kandianus, the last of which has been recently highlighted as "the world's rarest toad". We conducted a survey across the known range of Adenomus and used multiple criteria to delineate species boundaries within the genus. These include: a molecular phylogeny based on a 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment; an examination of the external morphology of adults and larvae, and the skeletal morphology of adults; a bioacoustic analysis; and ecological niche modelling. We show that Adenomus is monophyletic and that it comprises only two species: A. kelaartii and A. kandianus, with A. dasi being a junior synonym of the latter. For the two valid species of Adenomus, we provide detailed osteological descriptions; clarify the distribution patterns; and provide genetic data to facilitate their scientific conservation management. 

  10. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Major Species Concentration in a Hydrocarbon-Fueled Dual Mode Scramjet Using WIDECARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Emanuela Carolina Angela

    Width increased dual-pump enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (WIDECARS) measurements were conducted in a McKenna air-ethylene premixed burner, at nominal equivalence ratio range between 0.55 and 2.50 to provide quantitative measurements of six major combustion species (C2H 4, N2, O2, H2, CO, CO2) concentration and temperature simultaneously. The purpose of this test was to investigate the uncertainties in the experimental and spectral modeling methods in preparation for an subsequent scramjet C2H4/air combustion test at the University of Virginia-Aerospace Research Laboratory. A broadband Pyrromethene (PM) PM597 and PM650 dye laser mixture and optical cavity were studied and optimized to excite the Raman shift of all the target species. Two hundred single shot recorded spectra were processed, theoretically fitted and then compared to computational models, to verify where chemical equilibrium or adiabatic condition occurred, providing experimental flame location and formation, species concentrations, temperature, and heat losses inputs to computational kinetic models. The Stark effect, temperature, and concentration errors are discussed. Subsequently, WIDECARS measurements of a premixed air-ethylene flame were successfully acquired in a direct connect small-scale dual-mode scramjet combustor, at University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF). A nominal Mach 5 flight condition was simulated (stagnation pressure p0 = 300 kPa, temperature T0 = 1200 K, equivalence ratio range ER = 0.3 -- 0.4). The purpose of this test was to provide quantitative measurements of the six major combustion species concentration and temperature. Point-wise measurements were taken by mapping four two-dimensional orthogonal planes (before, within, and two planes after the cavity flame holder) with respect to the combustor freestream direction. Two hundred single shot recorded spectra were processed and theoretically fitted. Mean flow and standard deviation are

  11. Trinuclear nickel complexes with triplesalen ligands: simultaneous occurrence of mixed valence and valence tautomerism in the oxidized species.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Thorsten; Heidemeier, Maik; Fröhlich, Roland; Hildebrandt, Peter; Bothe, Eberhart; Bill, Eckhard

    2005-07-25

    forms exhibit the phenomena of valence tautomerism and mixed valence simultaneously. The extent of delocalization of the radical species and of the Ni(III) species is discussed.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of metabolic and acoustic power and the efficiency of sound production in two mole cricket species (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Kenneth N; O'Sullivan, Kristin

    2005-04-01

    We here report the first simultaneous measurement of metabolic cost of calling, acoustic power and efficiency of sound production in animals--the mole crickets Scapteriscus borellii and S. vicinus (Gryllotalpidae). We measured O(2) consumption, CO(2) production and acoustic power as the crickets called from their burrows in an open room. We utilized their calling burrow as the functional equivalent of a mask. Both species had a respiratory quotient near 0.85, indicative of metabolism based on a mix of carbohydrates and fats. The metabolic rate was significantly higher in S. borellii (11.6 mW g(-1)) than in S. vicinus (9.0 mW g(-1)) and averaged about eight- to fivefold greater, respectively, than resting metabolism. In some individuals, metabolic rate decreased by 20% during calling bouts. Costs of refurbishing calling burrows in S. borellii were less than calling costs, due to the behavior's short duration (ca. 15 min) and its relatively low average metabolic rate (4 mW). Acoustic power was on average sevenfold greater in S. borellii (21.2 vs 2.9 microW) and was more variable within individuals and across species than the metabolic rate. The efficiency of sound production was significantly higher in S. borellii (0.23 vs 0.03%). These values are below published estimates for other insects even though these mole crickets construct acoustic burrows that have the potential to increase efficiency. The cricket/burrow system in both species have an apparent Q(ln decrement) of about 6, indicative of significant internal damping caused by the airspaces in the sand that forms the burrow's walls. Damping is therefore an important cause of the low sound production efficiency. In field conditions where burrow walls are saturated with water and there is less internal damping, calls are louder and sound production efficiency is likely higher. File tooth depths and file tooth-to-tooth distances correlated with interspecific differences in metabolism and acoustic power much better

  13. Assessing multiple paternity in three commercially exploited shark species: Mustelus mustelus, Carcharhinus obscurus and Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, C; Wintner, S P; Bester-Van Der Merwe, A E

    2016-08-01

    In this study, multiple paternity (MP) was investigated in three commercially important shark species, common smoothhound Mustelus mustelus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini occurring in southern Africa. Reduced marker panels of between five and six microsatellite loci were constructed for each species and used to genotype and assess the presence of MP in a total of 60 M. mustelus individuals from six litters, 90 C. obscurus individuals from 14 litters and 54 S. lewini individuals from 13 litters. Analysis in GERUD and COLONY revealed the presence of MP in all three species. Multiple paternities were observed in 67, 35 and 46% of the litters of M. mustelus, C. obscurus and S. lewini, with corresponding average sire size of 1·6, 1·4 and 2·0, respectively. The variation in the rate of MP among the three species is in accordance with previous studies whilst the comparatively high frequency of MP observed for M. mustelus, matches what has previously been reported for shark species demonstrating aggregation behaviour.

  14. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Wysocki, Joseph A.; Storms, Edmund K.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Behrens, Robert G.; Swanson, Lynwood W.; Bell, Anthony E.

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  15. Simultaneous Separation of Negatively and Positively Charged Species in Dynamic Field Gradient Focusing Using a Dual Polarity Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey M.; Huang, Zheng; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic field gradient focusing (DFGF) utilizes an electric field gradient established by a computer-controlled electrode array to separate and concentrate charged analytes at unique axial positions. Traditionally, DFGF has been restricted to the analysis of negatively charged species due to limitations in the software of our voltage controller. This paper introduces a new voltage controller capable of operating under normal polarity (positive potentials applied to the electrode array) and reversed polarity (negative potentials applied to the electrode array) for the separation of negatively and positively charged analytes, respectively. The experiments conducted under normal polarity and reversed polarity illustrate the utility of the new controller to perform reproducible DFGF separations (elution times showing less than 1% run-to-run variation) over a wide pH range (3.08 to 8.5) regardless of the protein charge. A dual polarity experiment is then shown in which the separation channel has been divided into normal polarity and reversed polarity regions. This simultaneous separation of negatively charged R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) and positively charged cytochrome c (CYTC) within the same DFGF apparatus is shown. PMID:19722517

  16. Simultaneous separation of negatively and positively charged species in dynamic field gradient focusing using a dual polarity electric field.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey M; Huang, Zheng; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2009-10-01

    Dynamic field gradient focusing (DFGF) utilizes an electric field gradient established by a computer-controlled electrode array to separate and concentrate charged analytes at unique axial positions. Traditionally, DFGF has been restricted to the analysis of negatively charged species due to limitations in the software of our voltage controller. This paper introduces a new voltage controller capable of operating under normal polarity (positive potentials applied to the electrode array) and reversed polarity (negative potentials applied to the electrode array) for the separation of negatively and positively charged analytes, respectively. The experiments conducted under normal polarity and reversed polarity illustrate the utility of the new controller to perform reproducible DFGF separations (elution times showing less than 1% run-to-run variation) over a wide pH range (3.08 to 8.5) regardless of the protein charge. A dual polarity experiment is then shown in which the separation channel has been divided into normal polarity and reversed polarity regions. This simultaneous separation of negatively charged R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) and positively charged cytochrome c (CYTC) within the same DFGF apparatus is shown.

  17. Simultaneous measurement at multiple depths of in situ rates of denitrification in the bed of a groundwater-fed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansdown, Katrina; Trimmer, Mark; Heppell, Kate

    2010-05-01

    Typically characterised by steep chemical gradients and variable redox conditions, the hyporheic zone is considered a 'hotpot' or site of enhanced biogeochemical activity in the aquatic environment. As such the importance of the hyporheic zone for the attenuation of nutrients such as nitrate in a fluvial network has long been recognised. Controls on nitrogen transformations, however, especially at depths greater than 10cm below the sediment-water interface, remain comparatively less understood. Most work aimed at quantifying denitrification in the hyporheic zone has involved laboratory incubation of recovered sediments which is likely to affect the estimate of the true in situ rate. Results of such studies are usually cited as 'potential' rates of denitrification and have undoubtedly improved the understanding of nitrogen cycling in the aquatic environment. There is, however, a need for in situ measurement to improve our knowledge of nitrogen cycling in the river bed. Here, rates of denitrification in the hyporheic zone have been measured at multiple depths, simultaneously using 'push-pull' methodology (e.g. Snodgrass and Kitanidis 1998). The 'push-pull' technique involves injection of a solution containing reactant(s) (e.g. nitrate) and a conservative tracer (e.g. chloride) into the sediment and extraction of pore water samples over time. Recovered samples are screened for the removal of reactant(s) and/or the accumulation of products(s). Temporal changes in the conservative tracer are used to correct the concentration of the reactant(s) and product(s) for dispersion and advection. The disadvantage of the 'traditional' 'push-pull' methodology is that rates of nitrate removal are measured rather than rates of denitrification. In this research, comparison of measured and 'corrected' nitrate concentrations allowed the rate of nitrate removal (or production) to be quantified. In order to determine in situ rates of denitrification we used 15N-enriched nitrate as the

  18. Influence of multiple ion species on low-frequency electromagnetic wave instabilities. [in solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of multiple (singly ionized) coexisting newborn ion species on the stability of low-frequency electromagnetic waves was investigated using a plasma model in which solar wind magnetoplasma is made up of isotropic Maxwellian electron and proton populations with a common number density of 4.95/cu cm and temperatures equal to 17.2 eV and 6.9 eV, respectively. It is shown that the effect of multiple ions on wave growth, for given background magnetoplasma conditions and relative densities, depends not only on their mass but also on the physical nature of the wave modes. If the ion masses are disparate, each one of the coexisting ion beams tends to stimulate instabilities without undue influence from the other species. If the masses of newborn ions are similar, they can strongly catalyze wave growth of fluidlike nonresonant modes, but bring about weak growth enhancements in cyclotron resonant instabilities.

  19. Using multiple gears to assess acoustic detectability and biomass of fish species in lake superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, D.L.; Adams, J.V.; Stockwell, J.D.; Gorman, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent predator demand and prey supply studies suggest that an annual daytime bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior underestimates prey fish biomass. A multiple-gear (acoustics, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl) nighttime survey has been recommended, but before abandoning a long-term daytime survey the effectiveness of night sampling of important prey species must be verified. We sampled three bottom depths (30, 60, and 120 m) at a Lake Superior site where the fish community included all commercially and ecologically important species. Day and night samples were collected within 48 h at all depths during eight different periods (one new and one full moon period during both early summer and late summer to early fall over 2 years). Biomass of demersal and benthic species was higher in night bottom trawl samples than in day bottom trawl samples. Night acoustic collections showed that pelagic fish typically occupied water cooler than 15°C and light levels less than 0.001 lx. Using biomass in night bottom trawls and acoustic biomass above the bottom trawl path, we calculated an index of acoustic detectability for each species. Ciscoes Coregonus artedi, kiyis C. kiyi, and rainbow smeltOsmerus mordax left the bottom at night, whereas bloaters C. hoyi stayed nearer the bottom. We compared the biomass of important prey species estimated with two survey types: day bottom trawls and night estimates of the entire water column (bottom trawl biomass plus acoustic biomass). The biomass of large ciscoes (>200 mm) was significantly greater when measured at night than when measured during daylight, but the differences for other sizes of important species did not vary significantly by survey type. Nighttime of late summer is a period when conditions for biomass estimation are largely invariant, and all important prey species can be sampled using a multiple-gear approach.

  20. Functional responses of cougars (Puma concolor) in a multiple prey-species system.

    PubMed

    Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Fowler, Mike S; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Oro, Daniel

    2017-03-06

    The study of predator-prey interactions is commonly analyzed using functional responses to gain an understanding of predation patterns and the impact they have on prey populations. Despite this, little is known about predator-prey systems with multiple prey species in sites near the equator. Here we studied the functional response of cougars (Puma concolor) in Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (Mexico), in relation to their main prey, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), coati (Nasua narica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between 2004 and 2010, cougar scats were collected along five transects to estimate the consumption of different prey species. A relative abundance index (RAI) was calculated for each prey species and cougar using 18 camera traps. We compared Holling type I, II and III functional response models to determine patterns in prey consumption based on the relative abundance and biomass of each prey species consumed. The three main prey species comprised 55% (armadillo), 17% (coati) and 8% (white-tailed deer) of the diet. Type I and II functional responses described consumption of the two most common prey species armadillos and coati similarly well, while a type I response best characterized consumption of white-tailed deer. A negative correlation between the proportions of armadillo versus coati and white-tailed deer biomass in cougar scats suggests switching to consume alternative prey, confirming high foraging plasticity of this carnivore. This work represents one of the few studies to compare functional responses across multiple prey species, combined with evidence for prey-switching at low densities of preferred prey. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A multiplex nanoparticle-based bio-barcoded DNA sensor for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng; Huarng, Michael C; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2010-12-15

    A highly amplified, nanoparticle-based, bio-barcoded electrochemical biosensor for the simultaneous multiple detection of the protective antigen A (pagA) gene (accession number, M22589) of Bacillus anthracis and the insertion element (Iel) gene (accession number, Z83734) of Salmonella enteritidis is reported in this paper. The biosensor system is mainly composed of three nanoparticles: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nanoparticle tracers (NTs, such as PbS and CdS). The AuNPs are coated with the first target-specific DNA probe (1pDNA), which can recognize one end of the target DNA sequence (tDNA), and many NT-terminated bio-barcode ssDNA (bDNA-NT), which act as signal reporter and amplifier. The MNPs are coated with the second target-specific DNA probe (2pDNA) that can recognize the other end of the target gene. After binding the nanoparticles with the target DNA, the following sandwich structure is formed: MNP-2pDNA/tDNA/1pDNA-AuNP-bDNA-NTs. A magnetic field is applied to separate the sandwich structure from the unreacted materials. Because the AuNPs have a large number of nanoparticle tracers per DNA probe binding event, there is substantial amplification. After the nanoparticle tracer is dissolved in 1M nitric acid, the NT(2+) ions are detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) chips. The results show that the detection limit of this multiplex bio-barcoded DNA sensor are 0.5 ng/mL of the insertion element (Iel) gene of S. enteritidis using CdS, and 50 pg/mL of the pagA gene of B. anthracis using PbS NTs. The nanoparticle-based bio-barcoded DNA sensor has potential application in rapid detection of multiple pathogenic agents in the same sample.

  2. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  3. Tetramerization and interdomain flexibility of the replication initiation controller YabA enables simultaneous binding to multiple partners

    PubMed Central

    Felicori, Liza; Jameson, Katie H.; Roblin, Pierre; Fogg, Mark J.; Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Ventroux, Magali; Cherrier, Mickaël V.; Bazin, Alexandre; Noirot, Philippe; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Molina, Franck; Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    YabA negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. The protein exerts its control through interactions with the initiator protein DnaA and the sliding clamp DnaN. Here, we combined X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering (SAXS), modeling and biophysical approaches, with in vivo experimental data to gain insight into YabA function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of YabA solved at 2.7 Å resolution reveals an extended α-helix that contributes to an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Homology modeling and biochemical analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of YabA is a small Zn-binding domain. Multi-angle light scattering and SAXS demonstrate that YabA is a tetramer in which the CTDs are independent and connected to the N-terminal four-helix bundle via flexible linkers. While YabA can simultaneously interact with both DnaA and DnaN, we found that an isolated CTD can bind to either DnaA or DnaN, individually. Site-directed mutagenesis and yeast-two hybrid assays identified DnaA and DnaN binding sites on the YabA CTD that partially overlap and point to a mutually exclusive mode of interaction. Our study defines YabA as a novel structural hub and explains how the protein tetramer uses independent CTDs to bind multiple partners to orchestrate replication initiation in the bacterial cell. PMID:26615189

  4. Peptide-MHC Cellular Microarray with Innovative Data Analysis System for Simultaneously Detecting Multiple CD4 T-Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xinhui; Gebe, John A.; Bollyky, Paul L.; James, Eddie A.; Yang, Junbao; Stern, Lawrence J.; Kwok, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peptide:MHC cellular microarrays have been proposed to simultaneously characterize multiple Ag-specific populations of T cells. The practice of studying immune responses to complicated pathogens with this tool demands extensive knowledge of T cell epitopes and the availability of peptide:MHC complexes for array fabrication as well as a specialized data analysis approach for result interpretation. Methodology/Principal Findings We co-immobilized peptide:DR0401 complexes, anti-CD28, anti-CD11a and cytokine capture antibodies on the surface of chamber slides to generate a functional array that was able to detect rare Ag-specific T cell populations from previously primed in vitro T cell cultures. A novel statistical methodology was also developed to facilitate batch processing of raw array-like data into standardized endpoint scores, which linearly correlated with total Ag-specific T cell inputs. Applying these methods to analyze Influenza A viral antigen-specific T cell responses, we not only revealed the most prominent viral epitopes, but also demonstrated the heterogeneity of anti-viral cellular responses in healthy individuals. Applying these methods to examine the insulin producing beta-cell autoantigen specific T cell responses, we observed little difference between autoimmune diabetic patients and healthy individuals, suggesting a more subtle association between diabetes status and peripheral autoreactive T cells. Conclusions/Significance The data analysis system is reliable for T cell specificity and functional testing. Peptide:MHC cellular microarrays can be used to obtain multi-parametric results using limited blood samples in a variety of translational settings. PMID:20634998

  5. Tetramerization and interdomain flexibility of the replication initiation controller YabA enables simultaneous binding to multiple partners.

    PubMed

    Felicori, Liza; Jameson, Katie H; Roblin, Pierre; Fogg, Mark J; Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Ventroux, Magali; Cherrier, Mickaël V; Bazin, Alexandre; Noirot, Philippe; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Molina, Franck; Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-08

    YabA negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. The protein exerts its control through interactions with the initiator protein DnaA and the sliding clamp DnaN. Here, we combined X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering (SAXS), modeling and biophysical approaches, with in vivo experimental data to gain insight into YabA function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of YabA solved at 2.7 Å resolution reveals an extended α-helix that contributes to an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Homology modeling and biochemical analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of YabA is a small Zn-binding domain. Multi-angle light scattering and SAXS demonstrate that YabA is a tetramer in which the CTDs are independent and connected to the N-terminal four-helix bundle via flexible linkers. While YabA can simultaneously interact with both DnaA and DnaN, we found that an isolated CTD can bind to either DnaA or DnaN, individually. Site-directed mutagenesis and yeast-two hybrid assays identified DnaA and DnaN binding sites on the YabA CTD that partially overlap and point to a mutually exclusive mode of interaction. Our study defines YabA as a novel structural hub and explains how the protein tetramer uses independent CTDs to bind multiple partners to orchestrate replication initiation in the bacterial cell. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Simultaneous determination of multiple phthalate metabolites and bisphenol-A in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Tao, Lin; Collins, Erin M.; Austin, Christine; Lu, Chensheng

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A are environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals used widely in common consumer products. There is increasing concern about human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A due to the potential adverse effects related to the anti-androgenic activity of phthalates and estrogenic activity of bisphenol A. In assessing environmental exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A, it is essential to have a validated analytical method that can quantify trace concentrations of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in humans. In this study, we developed and validated an accurate, sensitive, and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify 5 phthalate monoester metabolites, including mono-methyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and bisphenol A in human urine. In this method, the phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A, along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were extracted from 200 μl of human urine using automated off-line solid phase extraction. The analytes were quantitatively determined using LC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The limit of quantification was 0.3 ng/ml for mono-methyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate and bisphenol A, and 1 ng/ml for mono-butyl phthalate and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. The precision and accuracy were well within the acceptable 15% range. This validated method has been used successfully in assessing exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A in humans. PMID:22884473

  7. Simultaneous determination of multiple angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists and its application to high-throughput pharmacokinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Jianguo; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji; Hu, Xiaoling; Lv, Hua; Gu, Shenghua; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Jinyi

    2008-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists (AT1RAs) WX472, WX581, 1b and telmisartan in rat plasma for the purpose of high-throughout pharmacokinetic screening. The method was operated under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode in the positive ion mode. The analytes and the internal standard (pitavastatin) were extracted from 100 [mu]L rat plasma under acidic conditions by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The analytes and internal standard were baseline separated on a Gemini analytical column (3 [mu]m, 150 mm × 2.0 mm) with the adoption of a gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.05% aqueous formic acid. The standard curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 4.5-900 ng/mL for WX472, 5-1000 ng/mL for WX581 and 0.5-100 ng/mL for 1b and telmisartan. Intra- and inter-batch precisions (R.S.D.%) were all within 15% and the method assessed a quite good accuracy (R.E.%). Recoveries were found to be >65% for all the compounds and no obvious matrix effects were found. This method has been successfully applied to the high-throughput pharmacokinetic screening study for both cassette dosing and cassette analysis of four compounds to rats. Significant drug-drug interactions were observed after cassette dosing. The study suggested that cassette analysis of pooled samples would be a better choice for the high-throughput pharmacokinetic screening of angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists.

  8. Simultaneous Delivery of Multiple Antibacterial Agents from Additively Manufactured Porous Biomaterials to Fully Eradicate Planktonic and Adherent Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bakhshandeh, S; Gorgin Karaji, Z; Lietaert, K; Fluit, A C; Boel, C H E; Vogely, H C; Vermonden, T; Hennink, W E; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S

    2017-08-09

    Implant-associated infections are notoriously difficult to treat and may even result in amputation and death. The first few days after surgery are the most critical time to prevent those infections, preferably through full eradication of the micro-organisms entering the body perioperatively. That is particularly important for patients with a compromised immune system such as orthopedic oncology patients, as they are at higher risk for infection and complications. Full eradication of bacteria is, especially in a biofilm, extremely challenging due to the toxicity barrier that prevents delivery of high doses of antibacterial agents. This study aimed to use the potential synergistic effects of multiple antibacterial agents to prevent the use of toxic levels of these agents and achieve full eradication of planktonic and adherent bacteria. Silver ions and vancomycin were therefore simultaneously delivered from additively manufactured highly porous titanium implants with an extremely high surface area incorporating a bactericidal coating made from chitosan and gelatin applied by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The presence of the chitosan/gelatin (Ch+Gel) coating, Ag, and vancomycin (Vanco) was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The release of vancomycin and silver ions continued for at least 21 days as measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and UV-spectroscopy. Antibacterial behavior against Staphylococcus aureus, both planktonic and in biofilm, was evaluated for up to 21 days. The Ch+Gel coating showed some bactericidal behavior on its own, while the loaded hydrogels (Ch+Gel+Ag and Ch+Gel+Vanco) achieved full eradication of both planktonic and adherent bacteria without causing significant levels of toxicity. Combining silver and vancomycin improved the release profiles of both agents and revealed a synergistic behavior that further increased the bactericidal effects.

  9. Simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for 3-D ionosphere tomography in comparison to other algebraic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, T.; Minkwitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and availability of satellite-based applications like GNSS positioning and remote sensing crucially depends on the knowledge of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The tomography of the ionosphere is one of the major tools to provide link specific ionospheric corrections as well as to study and monitor physical processes in the ionosphere. In this paper, we introduce a simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for electron density reconstruction. Further, SMART+ is developed by combining SMART with a successive correction method. In this way, a balancing between the measurements of intersected and not intersected voxels is realised. The methods are compared with the well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques ART and SART. All the four methods are applied to reconstruct the 3-D electron density distribution by ingestion of ground-based GNSS TEC data into the NeQuick model. The comparative case study is implemented over Europe during two periods of the year 2011 covering quiet to disturbed ionospheric conditions. In particular, the performance of the methods is compared in terms of the convergence behaviour and the capability to reproduce sTEC and electron density profiles. For this purpose, independent sTEC data of four IGS stations and electron density profiles of four ionosonde stations are taken as reference. The results indicate that SMART significantly reduces the number of iterations necessary to achieve a predefined accuracy level. Further, SMART+ decreases the median of the absolute sTEC error up to 15, 22, 46 and 67 % compared to SMART, SART, ART and NeQuick respectively.

  10. Total soft-tissue reconstruction of the middle and lower face with multiple simultaneous free flaps in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Burt, J D; Burns, A J; Muzaffar, A R; Byrd, H S; Hobar, P C; Beran, S J; Adams, W P; Kenkel, J M

    2000-06-01

    A 2-year-old boy sustained a massive facial soft-tissue wound secondary to a dog attack. Essentially all the soft tissues of the face were absent, including innervation and intraoral lining. We describe the reconstruction of this defect with five simultaneous free tissue transfers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of five simultaneous free flaps in any patient.

  11. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal multiple species of Boa and independent origins of insular dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Corbin, Andrew B; Perry, Blair W; Andrew, Audra L; Pasquesi, Giulia I M; Smith, Eric N; Jezkova, Tereza; Boback, Scott M; Booth, Warren; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-09-01

    Boa is a Neotropical genus of snakes historically recognized as monotypic despite its expansive distribution. The distinct morphological traits and color patterns exhibited by these snakes, together with the wide diversity of ecosystems they inhabit, collectively suggest that the genus may represent multiple species. Morphological variation within Boa also includes instances of dwarfism observed in multiple offshore island populations. Despite this substantial diversity, the systematics of the genus Boa has received little attention until very recently. In this study we examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Boa populations using mitochondrial sequences and genome-wide SNP data obtained from RADseq. We analyzed these data at multiple geographic scales using a combination of phylogenetic inference (including coalescent-based species delimitation) and population genetic analyses. We identified extensive population structure across the range of the genus Boa and multiple lines of evidence for three widely-distributed clades roughly corresponding with the three primary land masses of the Western Hemisphere. We also find both mitochondrial and nuclear support for independent origins and parallel evolution of dwarfism on offshore island clusters in Belize and Cayos Cochinos Menor, Honduras. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lines of evidence for horizontal gene transfer of a phenazine producing operon into multiple bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2009-02-01

    Phenazines are secondary metabolites with broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes. In pseudomonad species, a conserved seven-gene phenazine operon (phzABCDEFG) is required for the conversion of chorismic acid to the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate. Previous analyses of genes involved in phenazine production from nonpseudomonad species uncovered a high degree of sequence similarity to pseudomonad homologues. The analyses undertaken in this study wished to eluciadate the evolutionary history of genes involved in the production of phenazines. Furthermore, I wanted to determine if the phenazine operon has been transferred through horizontal gene transfer. Analyses of GC content, codon usage patterns, frequency of 3:1 dinucleotides, sequence similarities, and phylogenetic reconstructions were undertaken to map the evolutionary history of phenazine genes from multiple bacterial species. Patchy phyletic distribution, high sequence similarities, and phylogenetic evidence infer that pseudomonad, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Brevibacterium linens, and Mycobacterium abscessus species all contain a phenazine operon which has most likely been transferred among these species through horizontal gene transfer. The acquisition of an antibiotic-associated operon is significant, as it may increase the relative fitness of the recipient species.

  13. Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N; Sen Gupta, Alex; England, Matthew H

    2005-08-23

    The anthropogenic introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest modern threats to marine biodiversity. Yet exotic species introductions remain difficult to predict and are easily misunderstood because knowledge of natural dispersal patterns, species diversity, and biogeography is often insufficient to distinguish between a broadly dispersed natural population and an exotic one. Here we compare a global molecular phylogeny of a representative marine meroplanktonic taxon, the moon-jellyfish Aurelia, with natural dispersion patterns predicted by a global biophysical ocean model. Despite assumed high dispersal ability, the phylogeny reveals many cryptic species and predominantly regional structure with one notable exception: the globally distributed Aurelia sp.1, which, molecular data suggest, may occasionally traverse the Pacific unaided. This possibility is refuted by the ocean model, which shows much more limited dispersion and patterns of distribution broadly consistent with modern biogeographic zones, thus identifying multiple introductions worldwide of this cryptogenic species. This approach also supports existing evidence that (i) the occurrence in Hawaii of Aurelia sp. 4 and other native Indo-West Pacific species with similar life histories is most likely due to anthropogenic translocation, and (ii) there may be a route for rare natural colonization of northeast North America by the European marine snail Littorina littorea, whose status as endemic or exotic is unclear.

  14. Effects of multiple heteroatom species and topographic defects on electrocatalytic and capacitive performances of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Mengmeng; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Fanshu; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Jiazhi; Sun, Dongping

    2017-10-01

    N-doped graphene has been widely researched as metal-free electrocatalyst and electrode material of energy storage devices but the effect of heteroatom species and topographic defects on these applications was rarely reported. We successfully prepared dual (N, S) or ternary heteroatoms (N, S, P)-doped graphene by simple hydrothermal and then carbonization treatment. Compared to singly N doping, multiple heteroatom species dopant is beneficial to positively move onset potential, approach four electron catalytic pathway in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to the synergistic effect. The emerging topographic defects induced by removing heteroatoms and oxygen at high temperature also act as efficient active sites for positively shifting onset potential. Meanwhile, the porous ternary heteroatoms-doped graphene possesses a good capacitive performance such as high gravimetric capacitance (196.4 Fg-1 at 1 Ag-1), high retained rate (92.7%), 98% retention over 2000 recycling. The excellent capacitive properties derive from large specific surface area (943.5 m2 g-1), mesoporous structure, particularly the important role of abundant dopants of multiple heteroatom species. Therefore, we demonstrated the effect of heteroatom species and topographic defects on electrocatalyzing ORR and capacitive performance.

  15. Simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids from aerial parts of Passiflora species and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV-MS and HPTLC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid UPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five indole alkaloids (harmalol, harmol, harmane, harmaline and harmine) and four flavonoids (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin) from the aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloracea), different species of Pass...

  16. Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy affording time-resolved simultaneous detection of surface and liquid phase species at catalytic solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Meier, Daniel M; Urakawa, Atsushi; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-09-01

    Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) combined with concentration modulation allows simultaneous monitoring of dynamic evolutions of surface and liquid phase species during reactions at catalytic interfaces as demonstrated for the Pt-catalysed oxidation of CO by O2 in cyclohexane.

  17. Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.

    PubMed

    Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

    2010-11-01

    Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR.

  18. Seroepidemiological Prevalence of Multiple Species of Filoviruses in Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) Migrating in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Nakayama, Eri; Yoshida, Reiko; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Matsuno, Keita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Muramatsu, Mieko; Kuroda, Makoto; Simulundu, Edgar; Changula, Katendi; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Nambota, Andrew; Katampi, Jackson; Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Feldmann, Heinz; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato

    2015-10-01

    Fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia during 2006-2013. Although antibodies to African filoviruses (eg, Zaire ebolavirus) were most prevalent, some serum samples showed distinct specificity for Reston ebolavirus, which that has thus far been found only in Asia. Interestingly, the transition of filovirus species causing outbreaks in Central and West Africa during 2005-2014 seemed to be synchronized with the change of the serologically dominant virus species in these bats. These data suggest the introduction of multiple species of filoviruses in the migratory bat population and point to the need for continued surveillance of filovirus infection of wild animals in sub-Saharan Africa, including hitherto nonendemic countries.

  19. Valid flow combinations for stable sheath in a magnetized multiple ion species plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Devendra; Kaw, Predhiman K.

    2012-11-15

    Theoretical study is done of the entry criterion for the plasma flow into the electrostatic boundary layer, or sheath, forming in a magnetized multiple ion species plasma. Finding valid entry velocity combinations in a magnetized set up requires a magnetized equivalent of the generalized Bohm criterion. A magnetized generalized entry criterion is obtained with the scale length distribution in a region of validity for the stable solutions. The analysis finds that the valid entry flow velocity combinations with distinct values of individual ion species can correspond to a unique system phase velocity. Magnetization effects govern the region of validity whose boundaries collapse to the unmagnetized sheath criterion in the limit of normal incidence, independent of the strength of the magnetic field. Considerably smaller entry velocities, in comparison to the unmagnetized system sound velocity, are recovered for the species in appropriate regime of magnetization in the cases of oblique incidences.

  20. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  1. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. I. General formulation

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    A generalization of the Braginskii ion fluid description [S. I. Braginskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 6, 358 (1958)] to the case of an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species is presented. An asymptotic expansion in the ion Knudsen number is used to derive the individual ion species continuity, as well as the total ion mass density, momentum, and energy evolution equations accurate through the second order. Expressions for the individual ion species drift velocities with respect to the center of mass reference frame, as well as for the total ion heat flux and viscosity, which are required to close themore » fluid equations, are evaluated in terms of the first-order corrections to the lowest order Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions. A variational formulation for evaluating such corrections and its relation to the plasma entropy are presented. Employing trial functions for the corrections, written in terms of expansions in generalized Laguerre polynomials, and maximizing the resulting functionals produces two systems of linear equations (for “vector” and “tensor” portions of the corrections) for the expansion coefficients. A general matrix formulation of the linear systems as well as expressions for the resulting transport fluxes are presented in forms convenient for numerical implementation. The general formulation is employed in the companion paper [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2015)] to evaluate the individual ion drift velocities and the total ion heat flux and viscosity for specific cases of two and three ion species plasmas.« less

  2. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. I. General formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    A generalization of the Braginskii ion fluid description [S. I. Braginskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 6, 358 (1958)] to the case of an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species is presented. An asymptotic expansion in the ion Knudsen number is used to derive the individual ion species continuity, as well as the total ion mass density, momentum, and energy evolution equations accurate through the second order. Expressions for the individual ion species drift velocities with respect to the center of mass reference frame, as well as for the total ion heat flux and viscosity, which are required to close the fluid equations, are evaluated in terms of the first-order corrections to the lowest order Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions. A variational formulation for evaluating such corrections and its relation to the plasma entropy are presented. Employing trial functions for the corrections, written in terms of expansions in generalized Laguerre polynomials, and maximizing the resulting functionals produces two systems of linear equations (for “vector” and “tensor” portions of the corrections) for the expansion coefficients. A general matrix formulation of the linear systems as well as expressions for the resulting transport fluxes are presented in forms convenient for numerical implementation. The general formulation is employed in the companion paper [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2015)] to evaluate the individual ion drift velocities and the total ion heat flux and viscosity for specific cases of two and three ion species plasmas.

  3. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. L. steigerwaltii, L. gormanii, L. pneumophila serogroup 6 ATCC 33215, L. bozemanii, and L. micdadei showed a stable bacterial count in Mono Mac 6 cells after infection but a decreasing count in amoebae. They can be regarded as members of the third cluster. As the only member of the fourth cluster, L. oakridgensis was able to multiply slight in Mono Mac 6 cells but was killed within amoebae. A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. The sixth cluster is characterized by intracellular multiplication in both host cell systems and consists of several strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia, a strain of L. pneumophila

  4. Simultaneous detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Cornelis P J; de Vos, Sander; Taoufik, Amar; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Jongejan, Frans

    2002-10-22

    The detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific PCR assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously. To this end, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in domestic ruminants and ticks. In a PCR the hypervariable V1 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia [Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (2001) 2145]. Amplified PCR products from blood of domestic ruminants or Amblyomma variegatum tick samples were hybridized onto a membrane to which eight species-specific oligonucleotide probes and one Ehrlichia and Anaplasma catch-all oligonucleotide probe were covalently linked. No DNA was amplified from uninfected blood, nor from other hemoparasites such as Theileria annulata, or Babesia bigemina. The species-specific probes did not cross-react with DNA amplified from other species. E. ruminantium, A. ovis and another Ehrlichia were identified by RLB in blood samples collected from small ruminants in Mozambique. Finally, A. variegatum ticks were tested after feeding on E. ruminantium infected sheep. E. ruminantium could be detected in adult ticks even if feeding of nymphs was carried out 3.5 years post-infection. In conclusion, the developed species-specific oligonucleotide probes used in an RLB assay can simultaneously detect and identify several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species. However, as no quantitative data for the detection limit are available yet, only positive results are interpretable at this stage.

  5. A Patchy Growth via Successive and Simultaneous Cambia: Key to Success of the Most Widespread Mangrove Species Avicennia marina?

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Nele; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Verheyden, Anouk; Kairo, James Gitundu; Beeckman, Hans; Koedam, Nico

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary growth via successive cambia has been intriguing researchers for decades. Insight into the mechanism of growth layer formation is, however, limited to the cellular level. The present study aims to clarify secondary growth via successive cambia in the mangrove species Avicennia marina on a macroscopic level, addressing the formation of the growth layer network as a whole. In addition, previously suggested effects of salinity on growth layer formation were reconsidered. Methods A 1-year cambial marking experiment was performed on 80 trees from eight sites in two mangrove forests in Kenya. Environmental (soil water salinity and nutrients, soil texture, inundation frequency) and tree characteristics (diameter, height, leaf area index) were recorded for each site. Both groups of variables were analysed in relation to annual number of growth layers, annual radial increment and average growth layer width of stem discs. Key Results Between trees of the same site, the number of growth layers formed during the 1-year study period varied from only part of a growth layer up to four growth layers, and was highly correlated to the corresponding radial increment (0–5 mm year–1), even along the different sides of asymmetric stem discs. The radial increment was unrelated to salinity, but the growth layer width decreased with increasing salinity and decreasing tree height. Conclusions A patchy growth mechanism was proposed, with an optimal growth at distinct moments in time at different positions around the stem circumference. This strategy creates the opportunity to form several growth layers simultaneously, as observed in 14 % of the studied trees, which may optimize tree growth under favourable conditions. Strong evidence was provided for a mainly endogenous trigger controlling cambium differentiation, with an additional influence of current environmental conditions in a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability. PMID

  6. Simultaneous determination of catechins, rutin, and gallic acid in Cistus species extracts by HPLC with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Santagati, Natale Alfredo; Salerno, Loredana; Attaguile, Giuseppina; Savoca, Francesca; Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe

    2008-02-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method using a diode array detector (DAD) is developed for the simultaneous analysis of five major catechins: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GCT), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and the phenolic plant metabolites gallic acid (GA) and rutin (RT) in lyophilized extracts of Cistus species. The optimal analytical conditions are investigated to obtain the best resolution and the highest UV sensitivity for the quantitative detection of catechins. The optimized conditions (acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 2.5, gradient elution system on a C18 reversed-phase column with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance at 210 nm) allowed a specific and repeatable separation of the studied analytes to be achieved. All compounds are successfully separated within 32 min. Calibration curves are linear in the 2-50 microg/mL range for GCT, C, and EGCG and in the 5-50 microg/mL range for GA, EGC, EC, and RT. The limit of detection values ranged from 0.24 to 0.74 microg/mL. The limit of quantitation limit values ranged from 0.77 to 1.94 microg/mL. The validated method is applied to the determination of the specific phytochemical markers GA, GCT, C, and RT in Cistus incanus and Cistus monspeliensis lyophilised extracts. The recovery values ranged between 78.7% and 98.2%. The described HPLC method appears suitable for the differentiation and determination of the most common catechins together with the glycoside rutin and the phenolic compound gallic acid and can be considered an effective and alternative procedure for the analyses of this important class of natural compounds.

  7. Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in the short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate atmosphere-only model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with recent past year 2000 levels if the emissions of only BC are reduced to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial~for the mitigation of global warming. However, both aerosol negative direct and indirect radiative effects are weakened when BC and its co-emitted species (sulfur dioxide and organic carbon) are simultaneously reduced. Relative to year 2000 levels, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 if the emissions of all these aerosols are decreased to the levels projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  8. Variation in resistance to multiple pathogen species: anther smuts of Silene uniflora

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Erin; Petit, Elsa; Antonovics, Janis; Pedersen, Amy B; Hood, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogen species on a shared host species is unexpected when they exploit the same micro-niche within the host individual. One explanation for such observations is the presence of pathogen-specific resistances segregating within the host population into sites that are differentially occupied by the competing pathogens. This study used experimental inoculations to test whether specific resistances may contribute to the maintenance of two species of anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum silenes-inflatae and Microbotryum lagerheimii, in natural populations of Silene uniflora in England and Wales. Overall, resistance to the two pathogens was strongly positively correlated among host populations and to a lesser degree among host families within populations. A few instances of specific resistance were also observed and confirmed by replicated inoculations. The results suggest that selection for resistance to one pathogen may protect the host from the emergence via host shifts of related pathogen species, and conversely that co-occurrence of two species of pathogens may be dependent on the presence of host genotypes susceptible to both. PMID:23139888

  9. Multiple gene genealogies reveal important relationships between species of Phaeophleospora infecting Eucalyptus leaves.

    PubMed

    Andjic, Vera; Hardy, Giles E StJ; Cortinas, Maria Noel; Wingfield, Michael J; Burgess, Treena I

    2007-03-01

    The majority of Eucalyptus species are native to Australia, but worldwide there are over 3 million ha of exotic plantations, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Of the numerous known leaf diseases, three species of Phaeophleospora can cause severe defoliation of young Eucalyptus; Phaeophleospora destructans, Phaeophleospora eucalypti and Phaeophleospora epicoccoides. Phaeophleospora destructans has a major impact on seedling survival in Asia and has not, as yet, been found in Australia where it is considered a serious threat to the biosecurity of native eucalypts. It can be difficult to distinguish Phaeophleospora species based on symptoms and micromorphology and an unequivocal diagnostic tool for quarantine purposes would be useful. In this study, a multiple gene genealogy of these Phaeophleospora species and designed specific primers has been constructed to detect their presence from leaf samples. The phylogenetic position of these Phaeophleospora species within Mycosphaerella was established. They are closely related to each other and to other important Eucalyptus pathogens, Mycosphaerella nubilosa, Mycosphaerella cryptica and Colletogloeopsis zuluensis. The specific primers developed can now be used for diagnostic and screening purposes within Australia.

  10. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Stephen; Higgins, Desmond G.; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygo