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Sample records for simvastatin

  1. Effects of simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin/ezetimibe on mitochondrial function and leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Escribano-Lopez, Irene; de Pablo, Carmen; Alvarez, Angeles; Veses, Silvia; Rocha, Milagros; Victor, Victor M

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol-lowering therapy has been related with several beneficial effects; however, its influence on oxidative stress and endothelial function is not fully elucidated. To investigate the effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on mitochondrial function and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in polymorphonuclear cells of hyperlipidemic patients. Thirty-nine hyperlipidemic patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one received simvastatin (40 mg/day) and the other received ezetimibe (10 mg/day) for 4 weeks, after which both groups were administered combined therapy for an additional 4-week period. Lipid profile, mitochondrial parameters (oxygen consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane potential), glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions and adhesion molecules -VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, were evaluated. An improvement in lipid profile was observed after administration of simvastatin or ezetimibe alone (LDLc: -40.2 vs -19.6%, respectively), though this effect was stronger with the former (p < 0.001), and a further reduction was registered when the two were combined (LDLc: -50.7% vs -56.8%, respectively). In addition to this, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe significantly increased oxygen consumption, membrane potential and glutathione content, and decreased levels of ROS, thereby improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, simvastatin + ezetimibe increased catalase activity. In addition, simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe improved leukocyte/endothelium interactions by decreasing leukocyte rolling and adhesion and increasing leukocyte rolling velocity. Finally, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe reduced levels of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and ezetimibe + simvastatin significantly decreased levels of E-selectin. Co-administration of simvastatin and ezetimibe has an additive cholesterol-lowering effect and beneficial consequences

  2. Simvastatin

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty substances such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (''bad cholesterol'') and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (''good cholesterol'') in the blood. Simvastatin may also ...

  3. L-Carnitine/Simvastatin Reduces Lipoprotein (a) Levels Compared with Simvastatin Monotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Florentin, M; Elisaf, M S; Rizos, C V; Nikolaou, V; Bilianou, E; Pitsavos, C; Liberopoulos, E N

    2017-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There are currently limited therapeutic options to lower Lp(a) levels. L-Carnitine has been reported to reduce Lp(a) levels. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of L-carnitine/simvastatin co-administration with that of simvastatin monotherapy on Lp(a) levels in subjects with mixed hyperlipidemia and elevated Lp(a) concentration. Subjects with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >160 mg/dL, triacylglycerol (TAG) >150 mg/dL and Lp(a) >20 mg/dL were included in this study. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive L-carnitine 2 g/day plus simvastatin 20 mg/day (N = 29) or placebo plus simvastatin 20 mg/day (N = 29) for a total of 12 weeks. Lp(a) was significantly reduced in the L-carnitine/simvastatin group [-19.4%, from 52 (20-171) to 42 (15-102) mg/dL; p = 0.01], but not in the placebo/simvastatin group [-6.7%, from 56 (26-108) to 52 (27-93) mg/dL, p = NS versus baseline and p = 0.016 for the comparison between groups]. Similar significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL-C, apolipoprotein (apo) B and TAG were observed in both groups. Co-administration of L-carnitine with simvastatin was associated with a significant, albeit modest, reduction in Lp(a) compared with simvastatin monotherapy in subjects with mixed hyperlipidemia and elevated baseline Lp(a) levels.

  4. Study of Simvastatin Self-Association Using Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, E. V.; Lekar, A. V.; Filonova, O. V.; Borisenko, S. N.; Maksimenko, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.

    2015-07-01

    Self-association of simvastatin, which is widely used to treat coronary heart disease, was investigated using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Formation of simvastatin self-associates in various solvents was demonstrated using mass spectrometry. Solvation effects were shown to play a special role in the formation of the self-associates. Self-associates containing from two to fi ve simvastatin molecules were detected in mass spectra of an aqueous MeOH (20%) solution of simvastatin. The formation of simvastatin self-associates could compete with the complexation of supramolecular structures during the synthesis of new generation drugs.

  5. [Medication management: Simvastatin and Amlodipin - a clinically relevant drug-interaction?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jane; Goltz, Lisa; Knoth, Holger

    2016-10-01

    The clinical relevance of the drug-drug interaction simvastatin and amlodipine is appraised controversially by german simvastatin Summary of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and different drug interaction databases. Results of clinical trials have shown that simultaneous administration of simvastatin and amlodipine can increase simvastatin bioavailability. However, it is unclear whether this increase is associated with a higher risk for adverse drug events. So far there is no evidence that the combination might increase cases of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Therefore combined treatment with amlodipine and up to 40 mg simvastatin daily seems clinically justifiable if the patient does not report adverse events. If myopathy or muscle weakness occur, simvastatin dose should be reduced to 20 mg daily or the patient should be switched to pravastatin, fluvastatin or rosuvastatin. The highest approved dose of simvastatin (80 mg) is generally not recommended in new patients because of increased risk of muscle damage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Mitophagy is required for acute cardioprotection by simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Andres, Allen M; Hernandez, Genaro; Lee, Pamela; Huang, Chengqun; Ratliff, Eric P; Sin, Jon; Thornton, Christine A; Damasco, Marichris V; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2014-11-10

    We have shown that autophagy and mitophagy are required for preconditioning. While statin's cardioprotective effects are well known, the role of autophagy/mitophagy in statin-mediated cardioprotection is not. In this study, we used HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion to elucidate the mechanism of statin-mediated cardioprotection. HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to simvastatin for 24 h exhibited diminished protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, increased activation of unc-51-like kinase 1, and upregulation of autophagy and mitophagy. Similar findings were obtained in hearts of mice given simvastatin. Mevalonate abolished simvastatin's effects on Akt/mTOR signaling and autophagy induction in HL-1 cells, indicating that the effects are mediated through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Simvastatin-treated HL-1 cells exhibited mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and p62/SQSTM1, fission, and mitophagy. Because Parkin is required for mitophagy and is expressed in heart, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on infarct size in Parkin knockout mice. Simvastatin reduced infarct size in wild-type mice but showed no benefit in Parkin knockout mice. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase limits mevalonate availability for both cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) biosynthesis. CoQ supplementation had no effect on statin-induced Akt/mTOR dephosphorylation or macroautophagy in HL-1 cells, but it potently blocked mitophagy. Importantly, CoQ supplementation abolished statin-mediated cardioprotection in vivo. Acute simvastatin treatment suppresses mTOR signaling and triggers Parkin-dependent mitophagy, the latter which is required for cardioprotection. Coadministration of CoQ with simvastatin impairs mitophagy and cardioprotection. These results raise the concern that CoQ may interfere with anti-ischemic benefits of statins mediated through stimulation of mitophagy.

  7. Mitophagy Is Required for Acute Cardioprotection by Simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Hernandez, Genaro; Lee, Pamela; Huang, Chengqun; Ratliff, Eric P.; Sin, Jon; Thornton, Christine A.; Damasco, Marichris V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We have shown that autophagy and mitophagy are required for preconditioning. While statin's cardioprotective effects are well known, the role of autophagy/mitophagy in statin-mediated cardioprotection is not. In this study, we used HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion to elucidate the mechanism of statin-mediated cardioprotection. Results: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to simvastatin for 24 h exhibited diminished protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, increased activation of unc-51-like kinase 1, and upregulation of autophagy and mitophagy. Similar findings were obtained in hearts of mice given simvastatin. Mevalonate abolished simvastatin's effects on Akt/mTOR signaling and autophagy induction in HL-1 cells, indicating that the effects are mediated through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Simvastatin-treated HL-1 cells exhibited mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and p62/SQSTM1, fission, and mitophagy. Because Parkin is required for mitophagy and is expressed in heart, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on infarct size in Parkin knockout mice. Simvastatin reduced infarct size in wild-type mice but showed no benefit in Parkin knockout mice. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase limits mevalonate availability for both cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) biosynthesis. CoQ supplementation had no effect on statin-induced Akt/mTOR dephosphorylation or macroautophagy in HL-1 cells, but it potently blocked mitophagy. Importantly, CoQ supplementation abolished statin-mediated cardioprotection in vivo. Innovation and Conclusion: Acute simvastatin treatment suppresses mTOR signaling and triggers Parkin-dependent mitophagy, the latter which is required for cardioprotection. Coadministration of CoQ with simvastatin impairs mitophagy and cardioprotection. These results raise the concern that CoQ may interfere with anti-ischemic benefits of statins mediated through

  8. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of simvastatin ethosome.

    PubMed

    An, Keyao; Sun, Yong; Xu, Lisa; Cui, Xiangzhen

    2011-12-01

    To prepare ethosome loading simvastatin,an orthogonal test was applied to optimize the prescriptions, and the qualities of simvastatin ethosome were characterized by the shape, particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and stability. The formation of 40% (v/v) ethanol, 0.02% (m/v) cholesterol, 2.0% (m/v) soy lecithin, and 5% (m/v) polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil showed the maximal EE (69.3%). We observed the shape of simvastatin ethosome through TEM. The average size of the particles was 52.4 ± 3.24 nm, which was detected by a N5 submicron particle size analyzer. After 120 days storage in 4? and at room temperature, the simvastatin ethosome had no significant change.

  9. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    PubMed

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  10. Simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida and Cryptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Caetano, Erica Pacheco de; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Souza, Elizabeth Ribeiro Yokobatake; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of some statins against different fungal species has been reported. Thus, at the first moment, the in vitro antifungal activity of simvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin was tested against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Then, in a second approach, considering that the best results were obtained for simvastatin, this drug was evaluated in combination with antifungal drugs against planktonic growth and tested against biofilms of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The interaction between simvastatin and antifungals against planktonic cells was analyzed by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, simvastatin was tested against growing biofilm and mature biofilm of one strain of each tested yeast species. Simvastatin showed inhibitory effect against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 to 1000 mg L(-1) and from 62.5 to 1000 mg L(-1), respectively. The combination of simvastatin with itraconazole and fluconazole showed synergism against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp., while the combination of simvastatin with amphotericin B was synergistic only against Cryptococcus spp. Concerning the biofilm assays, simvastatin was able to inhibit both growing biofilm and mature biofilm of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The present study showed that simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida and Cryptococcus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Simvastatin Exposure and Rotator Cuff Repair in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Deren, Matthew E; Ehteshami, John R; Dines, Joshua S; Drakos, Mark C; Behrens, Steve B; Doty, Stephen; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-03-01

    Simvastatin is a common medication prescribed for hypercholesterolemia that accelerates local bone formation. It is unclear whether simvastatin can accelerate healing at the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair. This study was conducted to investigate whether local and systemic administration of simvastatin increased tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff as detected by maximum load to failure in a controlled animal-based model. Supraspinatus tendon repair was performed on 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats had a polylactic acid membrane overlying the repair site. Of these, 30 contained simvastatin and 30 did not contain medication. Sixty rats underwent repair without a polylactic acid membrane. Of these, 30 received oral simvastatin (25 mg/kg/d) and 30 received a regular diet. At 4 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis. At 8 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis and the remaining 20 rats were killed for biomechanical analysis. One rat that received oral simvastatin died of muscle necrosis. Average maximum load to failure was 35.2±6.2 N for those receiving oral simvastatin, 36.8±9.0 N for oral control subjects, 39.5±12.8 N for those receiving local simvastatin, and 39.1±9.3 N for control subjects with a polylactic acid membrane. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the 4 groups (P>.05). Qualitative histologic findings showed that all groups showed increased collagen formation and organization at 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks, with no differences between the 4 groups at each time point. The use of systemic and local simvastatin offered no benefit over control groups. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e288-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Effects of simvastatin on cardiohemodynamic responses to ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia; Hu, Shen-Jiang

    2006-03-01

    Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, has long been thought to exert its benefits by reducing cholesterol synthesis, and has been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with or without coronary artery disease. However, it is still unknown whether acute administration of simvastatin beneficially affects the cardiac function prior or during ischemia-reperfusion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of acute simvastatin treatment on isolated rat hearts or isolated ischemia-reperfusion hearts. Hearts were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and attached to a Langendorff apparatus. The isolated hearts with or without ischemia (15 min) and reperfusion (60 min) were perfused with different concentrations of simvastatin. The parameters of cardiac function (such as left ventricular developed pressure [LVDP], +dp/dt max, and -dp/dt max), heart rate, and coronary flow were recorded. Simvastatin (3-30 micromol/l) significantly increased LVDP, +dp/dt max, and -dp/dt max in isolated rat hearts perfused for 60 min. Heart rate was depressed by 30 micromol/l simvastatin and the coronary flow was increased by 10 and 30 micromol/l simvastatin. At a concentration of 100 micromol/l simvastatin, worsening of heart function and subsequent cardiac arrest occurred. Administration of simvastatin (3-30 micromol/l) significantly preserved cardiac function detected by LVDP, +dp/dt max, and -dp/dt max in the isolated ischemia/reperfused (15/60 min) rat hearts. Simvastatin also significantly decreased heart rate at 30 micromol/l, and increased coronary flow at 10 and 30 micromol/l in these rat hearts. However, the protective effect of simvastatin reverted to increased damage at 100 micromol/l. Only 3 micromol/l simvastatin pretreatment before 15/60 min ischemia-reperfusion altered LVDP, +dp/dt max, and -dp/dt max. Both heart rate and coronary flow were unaltered after simvastatin

  13. Simvastatin inhibits smoke-induced airway epithelial injury: implications for COPD therapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Benjamin B; Zeki, Amir A; Bratt, Jennifer M; Wang, Lei; Filosto, Simone; Walby, William F; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Goldkorn, Tzipora; Schelegle, Edward S; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death. The statin drugs may have therapeutic potential in respiratory diseases such as COPD, but whether they prevent bronchial epithelial injury is unknown. We hypothesised that simvastatin attenuates acute tobacco smoke-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation and airway epithelial injury. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given simvastatin (20 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) daily for either 7 days prior to tobacco smoke exposure and during 3 days of smoke exposure, or only during tobacco smoke exposure. Pretreatment with simvastatin prior to and continued throughout smoke exposure reduced the total influx of leukocytes, neutrophils and macrophages into the lung and airways. Simvastatin attenuated tobacco smoke-induced cellular infiltration into lung parenchymal and airway subepithelial and interstitial spaces. 1 week of simvastatin pretreatment almost completely prevented smoke-induced denudation of the airway epithelial layer, while simvastatin given only concurrently with the smoke exposure had no effect. Simvastatin may be a novel adjunctive therapy for smoke-induced lung diseases, such as COPD. Given the need for statin pretreatment there may be a critical process of conditioning that is necessary for statins' anti-inflammatory effects. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of this statin protective effect.

  14. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin) may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin). Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs) phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  15. IGF-1 prevents simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Sanvee, Gerda M; Brecht, Karin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Odermatt, Alex; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 mouse myotubes were exposed to 10 μM simvastatin and/or 10 ng/mL IGF-1 for 18 h. Simvastatin inhibited the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway, resulting in increased breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, impaired protein synthesis and increased apoptosis. Simvastatin inhibited AKT S473 phosphorylation, indicating reduced activity of mTORC2. In addition, simvastatin impaired stimulation of AKT T308 phosphorylation by IGF-1, indicating reduced activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway by IGF-1. Nevertheless, simvastatin-induced myotoxicity could be at least partially prevented by IGF-1. The protective effects of IGF-1 were mediated by activation of the IGF-1R/AKT signaling cascade. Treatment with IGF-1 also suppressed muscle atrophy markers, restored protein synthesis and inhibited apoptosis. These results were confirmed by normalization of myotube morphology and protein content of C2C12 cells exposed to simvastatin and treated with IGF-1. In conclusion, impaired activity of AKT can be explained by reduced function of mTORC2 and of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway. IGF-1 can prevent simvastatin-associated cytotoxicity and metabolic effects on C2C12 cells. The study gives insight into mechanisms of simvastatin-associated myotoxicity and provides potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces extracts with simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Showande, S J; Adegbolagun, O M; Igbinoba, S I; Fakeye, T O

    2017-12-01

    Increasing number of patients use herbs with their medications. Such practice may result in beneficial or harmful herb-drug interactions. A recent survey reported that some participants co-administered Hibiscus sabdariffa, a widely used beverage, or tea, with their antihyperlipidaemic medications. This study therefore evaluated the effect of concomitant administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces' extracts with simvastatin on hyperlipidaemia and pharmacokinetics of the drug in vivo. Factorial experimental designs were used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and interactions between simvastatin and aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) on lipid profile parameters in hyperlipidaemia-induced Wistar rats. Different combinations of low (AEHS 250 mg/kg; simvastatin 10 mg/kg) and high doses (AEHS 500 mg/kg; simvastatin 20 mg/kg) were administered individually and concurrently daily for 2 and 4 weeks. Lipid profile parameters were assessed at these treatment periods. Subsequently, the effect of aqueous beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (ABHS) on the pharmacokinetics of single-dose 40 mg simvastatin was also evaluated in six healthy human volunteers using two-period randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 24 hours. The plasma obtained was analysed for simvastatin using RP-HPLC/UV method. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa reduced total cholesterol (T c ) better than simvastatin (P = .031). Low-dose AEHS and low-dose simvastatin used concomitantly caused 38.3% and 57.4% reductions in T c and triglyceride levels, respectively, compared with low-dose simvastatin (P < .05). Also, ABHS increased clearance and reduced peak concentration of simvastatin by 44.6% and 18.0%, respectively (P < .05). The geometric mean ratio of simvastatin AUC 0-∞ with or without ABHS was 0.646 with the 90% confidence interval (0.564, 0.758) falling outside the bioequivalent range. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa

  17. Use of Simvastatin and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Nationwide Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2017-07-01

    The correlation between simvastatin use and acute pancreatitis is explored. A case-control study was conducted to analyze claim data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. The case group comprising a total of 3882 subjects aged 20 to 84 years with their first acute pancreatitis episode occurring between 1998 and 2011 formed the case group, against 3790 randomly selected controls matched for sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Recent use of simvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining simvastatin tablet was noted ≤7 days before the date of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Remote use of simvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet for simvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. Never use of simvastatin was defined as subjects who had never been prescribed simvastatin. A multivariable unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95%CI to explore the correlation between simvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. After adjustment for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.3 for subjects with recent use of simvastatin (95%CI 1.02, 1.73), when compared with those with never use of simvastatin. The crude odds ratio decreased to 1.1 for those with remote use of simvastatin (95%CI 0.93, 1.34) but without statistical significance. Recent use of simvastatin is associated with acute pancreatitis. Clinicians should consider the possibility of simvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis for patients presenting for acute pancreatitis without known cause. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Simvastatin in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Daniel F; Laffey, John G; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Perkins, Gavin D; Mullan, Brian; Trinder, T John; Johnston, Paul; Hopkins, Philip A; Johnston, Andrew J; McDowell, Cliona; McNally, Christine

    2014-10-30

    Studies in animals and in vitro and phase 2 studies in humans suggest that statins may be beneficial in the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study tested the hypothesis that treatment with simvastatin would improve clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. In this multicenter, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) patients with an onset of ARDS within the previous 48 hours to receive enteral simvastatin at a dose of 80 mg or placebo once daily for a maximum of 28 days. The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days to day 28. Secondary outcomes included the number of days free of nonpulmonary organ failure to day 28, mortality at 28 days, and safety. The study recruited 540 patients, with 259 patients assigned to simvastatin and 281 to placebo. The groups were well matched with respect to demographic and baseline physiological variables. There was no significant difference between the study groups in the mean (±SD) number of ventilator-free days (12.6±9.9 with simvastatin and 11.5±10.4 with placebo, P=0.21) or days free of nonpulmonary organ failure (19.4±11.1 and 17.8±11.7, respectively; P=0.11) or in mortality at 28 days (22.0% and 26.8%, respectively; P=0.23). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of serious adverse events related to the study drug. Simvastatin therapy, although safe and associated with minimal adverse effects, did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme and others; HARP-2 Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN88244364.).

  19. Effects of the statin antihyperlipidemic agent simvastatin on grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Hoguet, Jennifer; Reed, Lou Ann; Chung, Katy W; Fulton, Michael H

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated lethal effects (i.e., survival) and sublethal effects (glutathione, GSH; lipid peroxidation, LPx; cholesterol, CHL; and acetylcholinesterase, AChE) of the antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin on larval and adult grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). The 96-h LC50 test for larvae resulted in an estimated LC50 of 1.18 mg/L (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.42 mg/L). The adult 96-h LC50 was >10.0 mg/L. GSH and AChE levels for both the larvae and the adults were not significantly affected by simvastatin exposure. LPx levels in the larvae were significantly higher than controls in the lowest and the highest simvastatin exposures. In adult grass shrimp, LPx levels were highest in the three lowest simvastatin exposures. CHL levels were significantly reduced in larvae at the highest simvastatin exposure level of 1 mg/L while adult CHL was not affected. Both lethal and sublethal effects associated with simvastatin exposure were only observed at concentrations well above those reported in the environment. (Copyright) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(simvastatin) Diblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Asafo-Adjei, Theodora A.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polyesters are commonly used as drug delivery vehicles, but their role is typically passive, and encapsulation approaches have limited drug payload. An alternative drug delivery method is to polymerize the active agent or its precursor into a degradable polymer. The prodrug simvastatin contains a lactone ring that lends itself to ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Consequently, simvastatin polymerization was initiated with 5 kDa monomethyl ether poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and catalyzed via stannous octoate. Melt condensation reactions produced a 9.5 kDa copolymer with a polydispersity index of 1.1 at 150 °C up to a 75 kDa copolymer with an index of 6.9 at 250 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed first-order propagation rates. Infrared spectroscopy of the copolymer showed carboxylic and methyl ether stretches unique to simvastatin and mPEG, respectively. Slow degradation was demonstrated in neutral and alkaline conditions. Lastly, simvastatin, simvastatin-incorporated molecules, and mPEG were identified as the degradation products released. The present results show the potential of using ROP to polymerize lactone-containing drugs such as simvastatin. PMID:25431653

  1. Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

    effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

  2. Simvastatin attenuates neutrophil recruitment in one-lung ventilation model in rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Camila Ferreira; Marangoni, Fábio André; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido; Braga, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Toro, Ivan Felizardo Contrera; Antunes, Edson; Landucci, Elen Cristina Tiezem; Mussi, Ricardo Kalaf

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in rats undergoing one-lung ventilation (OLV) followed by lung re-expansion. Male Wistar rats (n=30) were submitted to 1-h OLV followed by 1-h lung re-expansion. Treated group received simvastatin (40 mg/kg for 21 days) previous to OLV protocol. Control group received no treatment or surgical/ventilation interventions. Measurements of pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, pulmonary protein extravasation, and serum levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. OLV significantly increased the MPO activity in the collapsed and continuously ventilated lungs (31% and 52% increase, respectively) compared with control (p<0.05). Treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced the MPO activity in the continuously ventilated lung but had no effect on lung edema after OLV. The serum IL-6 and CRP levels were markedly higher in OLV group, but simvastatin treatment failed to affect the production of these inflammatory markers. Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 remained below the detection limit in all groups. In an experimental one-lung ventilation model pre-operative treatment with simvastatin reduces remote neutrophil infiltration in the continuously ventilated lung. Our findings suggest that simvastatin may be of therapeutic value in OLV-induced pulmonary inflammation deserving clinical investigations.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy and safety profile of morning administration of controlled-release simvastatin versus evening administration of immediate-release simvastatin in chronic kidney disease patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong Jin; Kim, Hyo Jin; Jo, Sang Kyung; Kim, Sung Gyun; Song, Young Rim; Chung, Wookyung; Han, Kum Hyun; Lee, Chang Hwa; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Oh, Kook-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Evening administration of the conventional immediate-release (IR) formulation of simvastatin is recommended because of its short half-life (1.9 hours). In a healthy population, morning administration of a controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was shown to have equivalent lipid-lowering efficacy and a safety profile similar to that of evening doses of IR simvastatin. The present study aimed to verify noninferiority and to compare the safety of morning administration of CR simvastatin with that of evening administration of IR simvastatin in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have dyslipidemia. The present study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, Phase IV trial with an active comparator. We randomly assigned 122 patients with CKD and dyslipidemia to 1 of 2 drug administration groups: morning administration of CR simvastatin 20 mg (test group) and evening administration of IR simvastatin 20 mg (control group). After 8 weeks, the treatment outcomes and adverse effects of the 2 treatments were compared. The mean (SD) percentage of change in serum LDL-C at the end of treatment was -35.1% (15.7%) for the test group and -35.6% (14.6%) for the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = 0.858). The 95% CI of the difference in the percentage of change of LDL-C between the test and control groups was -6.0 to 5.0. There was no difference in the percentage of change of total cholesterol (-24.3% [12.5%] vs -26.5% [12.0%], P = 0.317), triglyceride (-10.6% [35.1%] vs -12.4% [33.2%], P = 0.575) and HDL-C (10.2% [20.7%] vs 4.5% [11.4%], P = 0.064). Treatment-related adverse events were similar in both groups (10 events in the test group vs 8 events in the control group, P = 0.691). The efficacy of morning administration of CR simvastatin was noninferior to evening administration of IR simvastatin in patients with CKD. Furthermore, the safety profile analysis showed no significant difference between the 2 treatments

  4. Pretreatment with simvastatin reduces lung injury related to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Arash; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Aldemir, Derya; Yücel, Muammer; Ozen, Ozlem; Candan, Selim; Arslan, Gülnaz

    2006-01-01

    In this rat model study we evaluated whether pretreatment with simvastatin affects the severity of acute lung injury caused by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Twenty-four animals were randomly allocated to three equal groups (sham, control, simvastatin). The simvastatin group was pretreated with simvastatin 10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 3 days, whereas the other groups received placebo. The simvastatin and control groups underwent 60 min of superior mesenteric artery occlusion and 90 min of reperfusion. Compared with the simvastatin group, the control group exhibited significantly more severe intestinal I/R-induced acute lung injury, as indicated by lower Pao2 and oxygen saturation (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005, respectively) and higher mean values for neutrophil infiltration of the lungs (P = 0.003), total lung histopathologic injury score (P = 0.003), lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (P = 0.009), and lung-tissue malondialdehyde levels (P = 0.016). The control and simvastatin groups had similar serum levels and similar bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and P-selectin at all measurements, except for a significantly higher level of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid P-selectin in the control group (P = 0.006). Pretreatment with simvastatin reduces the severity of acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R in rats.

  5. Simvastatin after orthotopic heart transplantation. Costs and consequences.

    PubMed

    Krobot, K J; Wenke, K; Reichart, B

    1999-03-01

    Recent data indicate that the combination of a low cholesterol diet and simvastatin following heart transplantation is associated with significant reduction of serum cholesterol levels, lower incidence of graft vessel disease (GVD) and significantly superior 4-year survival rates than dietary treatment alone. On the basis of this first randomised long term study evaluating survival as the clinical end-point, we investigated the cost effectiveness of the above regimens as well as the long term consequences for the patient and for heart transplantation as a high-tech procedure. The perspective of the economic analysis was that of the German health insurance fund. Life-years gained were calculated on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves from the 4-year clinical trial and from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) overall survival statistics. Incremental costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were determined using various sources of data, and both costs and consequences were discounted by 3% per year. Sensitivity analyses using alternative assumptions were conducted in addition to the base-case analysis. As in the original clinical trial, the target population of the economic evaluation comprised all heart transplant recipients on standard triple immunosuppression consisting of cyclosporin, azathioprine and prednisolone, regardless of the postoperative serum lipid profile. The therapeutic regimens investigated in the analysis were the American Heart Association (AHA) step II diet plus simvastatin (titrated to a maximum dosage of 20 mg/day) and AHA step II diet alone. Four years of treatment with simvastatin (mean dosage 8.11 mg/day) translated into an undiscounted survival benefit per patient of 2.27 life-years; 0.64 life-years within the trial period and 1.63 life-years thereafter. Discounted costs per year of life gained were $US1050 (sensitivity analyses $US800 to $US15,400) for simvastatin plus diet versus diet alone

  6. Simvastatin protects against the development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Osteen, Kevin G; Duleba, Antoni J

    2009-07-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition associated with infertility and pelvic pain in women. Recent in vitro studies have shown that statins decrease proliferation of endometrial stroma (ES) and inhibit angiogenesis. The aim was to evaluate effects of simvastatin on development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model. Proliferative phase human endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy donors and established as organ cultures or used to isolate ES cells. To establish endometriosis in the nude mouse, endometrial tissues were maintained in 1 nm estradiol (E) for 24 h and subsequently injected into ovariectomized nude mice. Mice (n = 37) were treated with E (8 mg, SILASTIC capsule implants; made in author laboratory) alone or with E plus simvastatin (5 or 25 mg/kg x d) for 10 d beginning 1 d after tissue injection (from three donors). Mice were killed and examined for disease. Effects of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were evaluated in cultures of ES cells. The number and size of endometriotic implants were measured. Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease of the number and size of endometrial implants in mice. At the highest dose of simvastatin, the number of endometrial implants decreased by 87%, and the volume by 98%. Simvastatin also induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MMP-3 in the absence and presence of inflammatory challenge (using IL-1alpha). Simvastatin exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the development of endometriosis in the nude mouse. Mechanisms of action of simvastatin may include inhibition of MMP-3. The present findings may lead to the development of novel treatments of endometriosis involving statins.

  7. Simvastatin Protects against the Development of Endometriosis in a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Duleba, Antoni J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Endometriosis is a common condition associated with infertility and pelvic pain in women. Recent in vitro studies have shown that statins decrease proliferation of endometrial stroma (ES) and inhibit angiogenesis. Objective: The aim was to evaluate effects of simvastatin on development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model. Methods: Proliferative phase human endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy donors and established as organ cultures or used to isolate ES cells. To establish endometriosis in the nude mouse, endometrial tissues were maintained in 1 nm estradiol (E) for 24 h and subsequently injected into ovariectomized nude mice. Mice (n = 37) were treated with E (8 mg, SILASTIC capsule implants; made in author laboratory) alone or with E plus simvastatin (5 or 25 mg/kg · d) for 10 d beginning 1 d after tissue injection (from three donors). Mice were killed and examined for disease. Effects of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were evaluated in cultures of ES cells. Primary Outcome: The number and size of endometriotic implants were measured. Results: Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease of the number and size of endometrial implants in mice. At the highest dose of simvastatin, the number of endometrial implants decreased by 87%, and the volume by 98%. Simvastatin also induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MMP-3 in the absence and presence of inflammatory challenge (using IL-1α). Conclusions: Simvastatin exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the development of endometriosis in the nude mouse. Mechanisms of action of simvastatin may include inhibition of MMP-3. The present findings may lead to the development of novel treatments of endometriosis involving statins. PMID:19366846

  8. Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Kim, Hyunmi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

  9. [The hypotriglyceridemic action of the combination of L-carnitine + simvastatin vs. L-carnitine and vs. simvastatin].

    PubMed

    Savica, V; Bellinghieri, G; Lamanna, F

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies had determined the role played by L-carnitine and simvastatin in the treatment of altered lipidemia in dialyzed patients with chronic uremia. The authors carried out a study on the above substances either singly or together administered to the same patients with chronic uremia in hemodialysis. This study was aimed at demonstrating the possible synergic normolipidemic action of both substances in comparison with their single administration, because their different mechanism of action could be metabolically enhanced. The obtained results demonstrated that the therapeutic association proposed is preferable to the use of the single substances. Moreover, a higher and more rapid normolipidemic effect was obtained after using L-carnitina associated with simvastatin with respect to the separated substances.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  11. Modulation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence by co-administration of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaee, Amirhossein; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Naghizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-10-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in the management of different diseases beyond their primary indication for lowering cholesterol. Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in different animal models. In the present study, we examined the effects of simvastatin (30, 60, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o.) on the development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. For the induction of morphine tolerance and dependence, mice were twice daily treated with morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 consecutive days. Tolerance was evaluated by the hot-plate test and physical dependence by naloxone challenge, on the sixth day. The results showed that oral administration of simvastatin produced antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent way. Co-administration of simvastatin with morphine did not affect the acute morphine-induced analgesia (10mg/kg, s.c.). However, repeated co-administration of simvastatin with morphine significantly attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and inhibited the naloxone (5mg/kg, s.c.)-precipitated withdrawal signs (jumping and body weight loss). Also, simvastatin at doses of 100 and 300mg/kg attenuated the expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence. These data indicated that, while simvastatin can alleviate both development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance, it cannot enhance morphine-induced antinociception. Taken together, simvastatin may be used as an adjutant therapeutic agent in combination with morphine and or other opioids in patients with severe chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of coenzyme q(10) on decreased oxidative stress resistance induced by simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Kettawan, Aikkarach; Takahashi, Takayuki; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Kishi, Takeo; Okamoto, Tadashi

    2007-05-01

    The effects of simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), on oxidative stress resistance and the protective effects of coenzyme Q (CoQ) were investigated. When simvastatin was administered orally to mice, the levels of oxidized and reduced CoQ(9) and CoQ(10) in serum, liver, and heart, decreased significantly when compared to those of control. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by Fe(2+)-ascorbate in liver and heart mitochondria also increased significantly with simvastatin. Furthermore, cultured cardiac myocytes treated with simvastatin exhibited less resistance to oxidative stress, decreased time to the cessation of spontaneous beating in response to H(2)O(2) addition, and decreased responsiveness to electrical field stimulation. These results suggested that oral administration of simvastatin suppresses the biosynthesis of CoQ, which shares the same biosynthesis pathway as cholesterol up to farnesyl pyrophosphate, thus compromising the physiological function of reduced CoQ, which possesses antioxidant activity. However, these undesirable effects induced by simvastatin were alleviated by coadministering CoQ(10) with simvastatin to mice. Simvastatin also reduced the activity of NADPH-CoQ reductase, a biological enzyme that converts oxidized CoQ to the corresponding reduced CoQ, while CoQ(10) administration improved it. These findings may also support the efficacy of coadministering CoQ(10) with statins.

  13. Simvastatin in the treatment of asthma: lack of steroid-sparing effect.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Douglas C; Cowan, Jan O; Palmay, Rochelle; Williamson, Avis; Taylor, D Robin

    2010-10-01

    Statins have anti-inflammatory actions which in theory are potentially beneficial in asthma. Small trials have failed to show a significant benefit, but a systematic study to evaluate the steroid-sparing effect of statin treatment has not been carried out. A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted of simvastatin 40 mg at night with simultaneous stepwise reduction of fluticasone propionate dose until loss of control occurred, followed by an increase until regain of control ('minimum' dose required) in 51 patients with asthma and sputum eosinophils (steroid-free) ≥ 2%. 43 patients completed the study. There was no significant difference in 'minimum' inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose requirement between simvastatin and placebo: (median (IQR) 50 μg daily (0-250) vs 100 μg daily (0-250), p=0.931). 'Minimum' dose distribution was similar (p=0.269). The fluticasone dose at which loss of control occurred did not differ significantly between simvastatin and placebo (p=0.404). In patients with loss of control in both treatment arms, fluticasone dose at loss of control was similar with simvastatin and placebo (median (IQR) 50 μg daily (0-100) for both, p=0.620). In those patients who reached 0 μg/day (n=18), Astma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was lower (p=0.037), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) higher (p<0.01) and sputum eosinophils lower with simvastatin compared with placebo (9.5% compared with 25.4%, p=0.033). Simvastatin does not have clinically important steroid-sparing effects in patients with eosinophilic asthma. In the absence of steroid, simvastatin is associated with minor improvements in symptoms and lung function, and a reduction in sputum eosinophils. Clinical trial number ACTRN12606000531516.

  14. Bcl-2 upregulation and neuroprotection in guinea pig brain following chronic simvastatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Franke, Cornelia; Nöldner, Michael; Abdel-Kader, Reham; Johnson-Anuna, Leslie N; Gibson Wood, W; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2007-02-01

    The present study determined if chronic simvastatin administration in vivo would provide neuroprotection in brain cells isolated from guinea pigs after challenge with the Bcl-2 inhibitor HA 14-1 or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Bcl-2 levels were significantly increased in brains of simvastatin-treated guinea pigs while levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax were significantly reduced. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, being a critical factor of the apoptotic state of cells, was significantly reduced in simvastatin-treated animals. Cholesterol levels in the brain remained unchanged in the simvastatin group. Brain cells isolated from simvastatin-treated guinea pigs were significantly less vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-activation. These results provide new insight into potential mechanisms for the protective actions of statins within the CNS where programmed cell death has been implicated.

  15. Simvastatin Potently Induces Calcium-dependent Apoptosis of Human Leiomyoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Borahay, Mostafa A.; Kilic, Gokhan S.; Yallampalli, Chandrasekha; Snyder, Russell R.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Boehning, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Statins are drugs commonly used for the treatment of high plasma cholesterol levels. Beyond these well known lipid-lowering properties, they possess broad-reaching effects in vivo, including antitumor effects. Statins inhibit the growth of multiple tumors. However, the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that simvastatin inhibits the proliferation of human leiomyoma cells. This was associated with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and multiple changes in cell cycle progression. Simvastatin potently stimulated leiomyoma cell apoptosis in a manner mechanistically dependent upon apoptotic calcium release from voltage-gated calcium channels. Therefore, simvastatin possesses antitumor effects that are dependent upon the apoptotic calcium release machinery. PMID:25359773

  16. Novel Simvastatin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Cholic Acid-Core Star-Shaped PLGA for Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanping; Wang, Zhongyuan; Liu, Gan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wang, Xusheng; Gao, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lijuan; Shi, Xiaojun; Tao, Wei; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A novel nanocarrier system of cholic acid (CA) core, star-shaped polymer consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was developed for sustained and controlled delivery of simvastatin for chemotherapy of breast adenocarcinoma. The star-shaped polymer CA-PLGA with three branch arms was synthesized successfully through the core-first approach. The simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles were prepared through a modified nanoprecipitation method. The data showed that the fluorescence star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles could be internalized into MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. The simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles achieved significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than pristine simvastatin and simvastatin-loaded linear PLGA nanoparticles. Moreover, the expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 was dramatically inhibited by simvastatin in both cells, with simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles having the greatest effect. MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor model on BALB/c nude mice showed that simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoformulations could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor over a longer period of time than pristine simvastatin and simvastatin-loaded linear PLGA nanoformulations at the same dose. In agreement with these, the nuclear expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 in simvastatin-loaded star-shaped CA-PLGA nanoparticles group was reduced to a most extent among four groups through tumor frozen section immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, the star-shaped CA-PLGA polymers could serve as a novel polymeric nanocarrier for breast cancer chemotherapy.

  17. Vascular and metabolic effects of ezetimibe combined with simvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kwang Kon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Sakuma, Ichiro; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Yonghee; Hayashi, Toshio; Han, Seung Hwan; Park, Yae Min; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2015-11-15

    Ezetimibe demonstrates decreasing visceral fat and improving insulin sensitivity (IS) in animals and humans. We first reported that simvastatin dose-dependently worsens insulin sensitivity. Whether ezetimibe may compensate untoward effects of simvastatin, depending on dosages of simvastatin has not been investigated in patients with hypercholesterolemia, compared with simvastatin alone. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Fifty-one in each group were given placebo, ezetimibe 10mg combined with simvastatin 10mg (Vyto10), ezetimibe 10mg combined with simvastatin 20mg (Vyto20), or simvastatin 20mg alone (Simva20) daily for 2months. Placebo, Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 improved flow-mediated dilation relative to baseline measurements. Placebo therapy did not significantly change insulin and IS and adiponectin levels and visceral fat area (VFA) and VFA/subcutaneous fat area (SFA) relative to baseline measurements. Vyto10 therapy significantly decreased CRP and insulin levels and increased adiponectin levels and IS, and reduced VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Vyto20 therapy did not significantly change insulin levels and IS and adiponectin levels but significantly reduced CRP levels and VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Simva20 therapy significantly decreased adiponectin levels and IS but did not significantly change VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Of note, these different effects of each therapy were significant by ANOVA. Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 showed significant reduction of LDL cholesterol levels and improvement of flow-mediated dilation in patients with hypercholesterolemia. However, Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 showed significantly differential metabolic effects, depending on dosages of simvastatin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geraniol and simvastatin show a synergistic effect on a human hepatocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Polo, M P; Crespo, R; de Bravo, M G

    2011-08-01

    Simvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, whereas geraniol is a monoterpene with multiple pharmacologic effects on mevalonate metabolism. Both of them inhibit growth and proliferation of many cell lines. The present study was designed to determine the action of geraniol, in combination with simvastatin, by assessing their effects in vitro on human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep G2). The treatment of Hep G2 cells with concentrations of simvastatin or geraniol that did not inhibit cell proliferation (5 µmol·l⁻¹ of simvastatin and 50 µmol·l⁻¹ of geraniol) resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation. We also examined the effect of simvastatin, geraniol and the combination of both on the biosynthesis of lipids from [¹⁴C]-acetate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of simvastatin and geraniol synergistically inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis and proliferation of Hep G2 cell line, contributing to a better understanding of the action of a component of essential oils targeting a complex metabolic pathway, which would improve the use of drugs or their combination in the fight against cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Localised controlled release of simvastatin from porous chitosan-gelatin scaffolds engrafted with simvastatin loaded PLGA-microparticles for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar; Daly, Jacqueline; Chiono, Valeria; Mattu, Clara; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2016-02-01

    Localised controlled release of simvastatin from porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds was investigated by incorporating simvastatin loaded poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microparticles (MSIMs) into the scaffolds. MSIMs at 10% w/w simvastatin loading were prepared using a single emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The MSIM optimal amount to be incorporated into the scaffolds was selected by analysing the effect of embedding increasing amounts of blank PLGA microparticles (BL-MPs) on the scaffold physical properties and on the in vitro cell viability using a clonal human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). Increasing the BL-MP content from 0% to 33.3% w/w showed a significant decrease in swelling degree (from 1245±56% to 570±35%). Scaffold pore size and distribution changed significantly as a function of BL-MP loading. Compressive modulus of scaffolds increased with increasing BL-MP amount up to 16.6% w/w (23.0±1.0kPa). No significant difference in cell viability was observed with increasing BL-MP loading. Based on these results, a content of 16.6% w/w MSIM particles was incorporated successfully in CH-G scaffolds, showing a controlled localised release of simvastatin able to influence the hFOB cell proliferation and the osteoblastic differentiation after 11 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerated and enhanced bone formation on novel simvastatin-loaded porous titanium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nyan, Myat; Hao, Jia; Miyahara, Takayuki; Noritake, Kanako; Rodriguez, Reena; Kasugai, Shohei

    2014-10-01

    With increasing application of dental implants in poor-quality bones, the need for implant surfaces ensuring accelerated osseointegration and enhanced peri-implant bone regeneration is increased. A study was performed to evaluate the osseointegration and bone formation on novel simvastatin-loaded porous titanium oxide surface. Titanium screws were treated by micro-arc oxidation to form porous oxide surface and 25 or 50 μg of simvastatin was loaded. The nontreated control, micro-arc oxidized, and simvastatin-loaded titanium screws were surgically implanted into the proximal tibia of 16-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 36). Peri-implant bone volume, bone-implant contact, and mineral apposition rates were measured at 2 and 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc test. New bone was formed directly on the implant surface in the bone marrow cavity in simvastatin-loaded groups since 2 weeks. Bone-implant contact values were significantly higher in simvastatin-loaded groups than control and micro-arc oxidized groups at both time points (p < .05). Peri-implant bone volume and mineral apposition rate of simvastatin-loaded groups were significantly higher than control and micro-arc oxidized groups at 2 weeks (p < .05). These data suggested that simvastatin-loaded porous titanium oxide surface provides faster osseointegration and peri-implant bone formation and it would be potentially applicable in poor-quality bones. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Assessment of simvastatin niosomes for pediatric transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Hosny, Khaled M; Ahmed, Osama A A; Fahmy, Usama A

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood dyslipidemia increases and is considered as an important risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the adulthood. To improve dosing accuracy and facilitate the determination of dosing regimens in function of the body weight, the proposed study aims at preparing transdermal niosomal gels of simvastatin as possible transdermal drug delivery system for pediatric applications. Twelve formulations were prepared to screen the influence of formulation and processing variables on critical niosomal characteristics. Nano-sized niosomes with 0.31 μm number-weighted size displayed highest simvastatin release rate with 8.5% entrapment capacity. The niosomal surface coverage by negative charges was calculated according to Langmuir isotherm with n = 0.42 to suggest that the surface association was site-independent, probably producing surface rearrangements. Hypolipidemic activities after transdermal administration of niosomal gels to rats showed significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing plasma high-density lipoproteins concentration. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in simvastatin bioavailability by 3.35 and 2.9 folds from formulation F3 and F10, respectively, compared with oral drug suspension. Hence, this transdermal simvastatin niosomes not only exhibited remarkable potential to enhance its bioavailability and hypolipidemic activity but also considered a promising pediatric antihyperlipidemic formulation.

  2. Inhibition of HMGCoA reductase by simvastatin protects mice from injurious mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Manitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nikitopoulou, Ioanna; Siempos, Ilias; Magkou, Christina; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Zakynthinos, Spyros G; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Maniatis, Nikolaos A

    2015-02-14

    Mortality from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome exceeds 40% and there is no available pharmacologic treatment. Mechanical ventilation contributes to lung dysfunction and mortality by causing ventilator-induced lung injury. We explored the utility of simvastatin in a mouse model of severe ventilator-induced lung injury. Male C57BL6 mice (n = 7/group) were pretreated with simvastatin or saline and received protective (8 mL/kg) or injurious (25 mL/kg) ventilation for four hours. Three doses of simvastatin (20 mg/kg) or saline were injected intraperitoneally on days -2, -1 and 0 of the experiment. Lung mechanics, (respiratory system elastance, tissue damping and airway resistance), were evaluated by forced oscillation technique, while respiratory system compliance was measured with quasi-static pressure-volume curves. A pathologist blinded to treatment allocation scored hematoxylin-eosin-stained lung sections for the presence of lung injury. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction was ascertained by bronchoalveolar lavage protein content and lung tissue expression of endothelial junctional protein Vascular Endothelial cadherin by immunoblotting. To assess the inflammatory response in the lung, we determined bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell content and neutrophil fraction by microscopy and staining in addition to Matrix-Metalloprotease-9 by ELISA. For the systemic response, we obtained plasma levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-6 and Matrix-Metalloprotease-9 by ELISA. Statistical hypothesis testing was undertaken using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests. Ventilation with high tidal volume (HVt) resulted in significantly increased lung elastance by 3-fold and decreased lung compliance by 45% compared to low tidal volume (LVt) but simvastatin abrogated lung mechanical alterations of HVt. Histologic lung injury score increased four-fold by HVt but not in simvastatin-pretreated mice. Lavage pleocytosis and neutrophilia were

  3. Simvastatin inhibits Staphylococcus aureus host cell invasion through modulation of isoprenoid intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Mary P.; Knecht, Sharmon M.; Rushing, Frances L.; Birdsong, Julie; Siddall, C. Parker; Johnson, Charron M.; Abraham, Terri N.; Brown, Amy; Volk, Catherine B.; Gammon, Kelly; Bishop, Derron L.; McKillip, John L.; McDowell, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on a statin regimen are at a decreased risk of death due to bacterial sepsis. We have found that protection by simvastatin includes the inhibition of host cell invasion by Staphylococcus aureus, the most common etiologic agent of sepsis. Inhibition was due in part to depletion of isoprenoid intermediates within the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and led to the cytosolic accumulation of the small-guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) CDC42, Rac, and RhoB. Actin stress fiber disassembly required for host invasion was attenuated by simvastatin and by the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. PI3K relies on coupling to prenylated proteins, such as this subset of small-GTPases, for access to membrane-bound phosphoinositide to mediate stress fiber disassembly. Therefore, we examined whether simvastatin restricts PI3K cellular localization. In response to simvastatin, the PI3K isoform p85, coupled to these small-GTPases, was sequestered within the cytosol. From these findings, we propose a mechanism whereby simvastatin restricts p85 localization, inhibiting actin dynamics required for bacterial endocytosis. This may provide the basis for protection at the level of the host in invasive infections by S. aureus. PMID:18388257

  4. The apoptotic effect of simvastatin via the upregulation of BIM in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, In Kyoung; Lee, Hye In; Mo, Jin Young; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Statins are known to have pleiotropic effects that induce cell death in certain cancer cells. BIM is a member of the bcl-2 gene family, which promotes apoptotic cell death. This study investigated the hypothesis that simvastatin has pro-apoptotic effects in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer cell lines via the upregulation of the expression of the BIM protein. The cytotoxic effects of simvastatin on gefitinib-sensitive (HCC827, E716-A750del) and -resistant (H1975, T790M + L858R) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were compared. Cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis-related and EGFR downstream signaling proteins were evaluated. Expression of BIM was compared in H1975 cells after treatment with simvastatin or gefitinib. SiRNA-mediated BIM depletion was performed to confirm whether the cytotoxicity of simvastatin was mediated by the expression of BIM. H1975 cells showed significantly reduced viability compared with HCC827 cells after treatment with simvastatin (2 μM) for 48 hours. In simvastatin-treated H1975 cells, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins was increased and the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) was reduced. Expression of BIM was suppressed by gefitinib (1 μM) treatment in H1975 cells, but it was significantly increased by treatment with simvastatin. BIM depletion by siRNA transfection enhanced the viability of H1975 cells that received simvastatin treatment and increased their expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Simvastatin restored the expression of BIM to induce apoptotic cell death in NSCLC cells harboring an EGFR-resistant mutation. Our study suggests the potential utility of simvastatin as a BIM-targeted treatment for NSCLC.

  5. Simvastatin and Benznidazole-Mediated Prevention of Trypanosoma cruzi-Induced Endothelial Activation: Role of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the Action of Simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Estrada, Carolina; Liempi, Ana; González-Herrera, Fabiola; Lapier, Michel; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Pesce, Barbara; Ferreira, Jorge; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Maya, Juan D.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas Disease that is endemic in Latin American, afflicting more than ten million people approximately. This disease has two phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase is often asymptomatic, but with time it progresses to the chronic phase, affecting the heart and gastrointestinal tract and can be lethal. Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy involves an inflammatory vasculopathy. Endothelial activation during Chagas disease entails the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through a mechanism involving NF-κB activation. Currently, specific trypanocidal therapy remains on benznidazole, although new triazole derivatives are promising. A novel strategy is proposed that aims at some pathophysiological processes to facilitate current antiparasitic therapy, decreasing treatment length or doses and slowing disease progress. Simvastatin has anti-inflammatory actions, including improvement of endothelial function, by inducing a novel pro-resolving lipid, the 5-lypoxygenase derivative 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (15-epi-LXA4), which belongs to aspirin-triggered lipoxins. Herein, we propose modifying endothelial activation with simvastatin or benznidazole and evaluate the pathways involved, including induction of 15-epi-LXA4. The effect of 5 μM simvastatin or 20 μM benznidazole upon endothelial activation was assessed in EA.hy926 or HUVEC cells, by E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. 15-epi-LXA4 production and the relationship of both drugs with the NFκB pathway, as measured by IKK-IKB phosphorylation and nuclear migration of p65 protein was also assayed. Both drugs were administered to cell cultures 16 hours before the infection with T. cruzi parasites. Indeed, 5 μM simvastatin as well as 20 μM benznidazole prevented the increase in E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in T. cruzi-infected endothelial cells by decreasing

  6. Simvastatin prescribing patterns before and after FDA dosing restrictions: a retrospective analysis of a large healthcare claims database.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Rhianna M; Nair, Kavita; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Saseen, Joseph J

    2015-02-01

    Muscle-related events, or myopathies, are a commonly reported adverse event associated with statin use. In June 2011, the US FDA released a Drug Safety Communication that provided updated product labeling with dosing restrictions for simvastatin to minimize the risk of myopathies. Our objective was to describe prescribing patterns of simvastatin in combination with medications known to increase the risk of myopathies following updated product labeling dosing restrictions in June 2011. A retrospective observational analysis was carried out, in which administrative claims data were utilized to identify prescribing patterns of simvastatin in combination with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and other pre-specified drug therapies. Prescribing patterns were analyzed on a monthly basis 24 months prior to and 9 months following product label changes. Incidence of muscle-related events was also analyzed. In June 2011, a total of 60% of patients with overlapping simvastatin-CCB claims and 94% of patients with overlapping simvastatin-non-CCB claims were prescribed an against-label combination. As of March 2012, a total of 41% and 93% of patients continued to be prescribed against-label simvastatin-CCB and simvastatin-non-CCB combinations, respectively. The most commonly prescribed dose of simvastatin was 20 mg (39%). Against-label combinations were most commonly prescribed at a simvastatin dose of 40 mg (56%). Amlodipine was the most commonly prescribed CCB in combination with simvastatin (70%) and the most common CCB prescribed against-label (67%). Despite improvements in prescribing practices, many patients are still exposed to potentially harmful simvastatin combinations. Aggressive changes in simvastatin prescribing systems and processes are needed to improve compliance with FDA labeling to improve medication and patient safety.

  7. The safety of ezetimibe and simvastatin combination for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kei, Anastazia A; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the most recent and stricter dyslipidemia treatment guidelines, the need for combination hypolipidemic therapy is increasing. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin is available as a fixed dose therapy offering an efficient hypolipidemic treatment choice. Based on the positive results of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial, the use of this drug combination is expected to increase in the next years. This review discusses the current evidence regarding the safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin combination. Current evidence regarding possible associated side effects (musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, renal, ophthalmologic, allergic, malignancy) and drug interactions of this combination is thoroughly discussed. Ezetimibe and simvastatin treatment, either as a single pill or the combined use of the individual compounds, offers limited additional risk compared with simvastatin monotherapy and comprises a safe and efficient choice for dyslipidemia treatment in high-risk and diabetic patients.

  8. Simvastatin reduces vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell anaemia: a pilot efficacy trial.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Carolyn; Jacob, Eufemia; Styles, Lori; Kuypers, Frans; Larkin, Sandra; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2017-05-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a progressive vascular disease characterized by episodic vaso-occlusive pain. Despite the broad impact of inflammation on acute and chronic clinical manifestations of SCA, no directed anti-inflammatory therapies currently exist. Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents shown to confer protection from vascular injury by suppressing inflammation. We previously documented a reduction in soluble biomarkers of inflammation in patients with sickle cell disease treated with simvastatin. To determine the potential clinical efficacy of simvastatin, we treated 19 SCA patients with single daily dose simvastatin for 3 months and assessed changes from baseline in the frequency and intensity of diary-reported pain and levels of circulating nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-3, E-selectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Treatment with simvastatin resulted in a significant reduction in the frequency of pain (P = 0·0003), oral analgesic use (P = 0·003) and circulating hs-CRP (P = 0·003), soluble (s)E-selectin (P = 0·01), sICAM-1 (P = 0·02), sICAM-3 (P = 0·02) and sVEGF (P = 0·01). Simvastatin had no effect on pain intensity or levels of NOx, sP-selectin and sVCAM-1. The observed reductions in pain rate and markers of inflammation were greatest in subjects receiving hydroxycarbamide (HC), suggesting a synergistic effect of simvastatin. These results provide preliminary clinical data to support a larger trial of simvastatin in SCA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and simvastatin following co-administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Macha, Sreeraj; Lang, Benjamin; Pinnetti, Sabine; Broedl, Uli C

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate potential drugdrug interactions between the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin and simvastatin. In this open-label, randomized crossover trial, healthy volunteers (median (range) age 36.5 (20 - 50) years) received 3 single-dose treatments: 25 mg empagliflozin (n = 18), 40 mg simvastatin (n = 17), and 25 mg empagliflozin with 40 mg simvastatin (n = 18). Based on standard criteria, simvastatin had no effect on empagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞), adjusted geometric mean ratio (GMR): 102.05; 90% CI: 98.90 - 105.29) or maximum plasma concentration (C(max), GMR: 109.49; 90% CI: 96.91 - 123.69). There were only minor deviations in simvastatin AUC(0-∞) (GMR: 101.26; 90% CI: 80.06 - 128.07) and C(max) (GMR: 97.18; 90% CI: 76.30 - 123.77) when co-administered with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin had no effect on AUC(0-∞) (GMR: 104.87; 90% CI: 90.09 - 122.07) or C(max) (GMR: 97.27; 90% CI: 84.90 - 111.44) of simvastatin acid, the active metabolite of simvastatin. Adverse events (AEs) were reported for 6 subjects on empagliflozin, 4 on simvastatin, and 5 on co-administered treatment. No serious AEs or investigator-defined drug-related AEs were reported. No relevant drug-drug interaction was observed, and pharmacokinetic results suggest that no dose adjustments for either drug are necessary when empagliflozin and simvastatin are co-administered. Empagliflozin was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with simvastatin.

  10. Changes of Pulmonary Pathology and Gene Expressions After Simvastatin Treatment in the Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Kwan Chang; Cho, Min-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Simvastatin's properties are suggestive of a potential pathophysiologic role in pulmonary hypertension. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes of pulmonary pathology and gene expressions, including endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) and caspase 3, and to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on monocrotaline (M)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Materials and Methods Six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated, as follows: control group, subcutaneous (sc) injection of saline; M group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg); and simvastatin group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg) plus 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin orally. Results On day 28, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) significantly decreased in the simvastatin group compared to the M group. Similarly, right ventricular pressure significantly decreased in the simvastatin group on day 28. From day 7, the ratio of medial thickening of the pulmonary artery was significantly increased in the M group, but there was no significant change in the simvastatin group. The number of muscular pulmonary arterioles was significantly reduced in the simvastatin group. On day 5, gene expressions of ET-1, ERA, NOS2, NOS3, MMP and TIMP significantly decreased in the simvastatin group. Conclusion Administration of simvastatin exerted weak inhibitory effects on RVH and on the number of muscular pulmonary arterioles, during the development of M-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Simvastatin decreased gene expressions on day 5. PMID:22022327

  11. Simvastatin Prevents Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Experimental Parkinsonian Models: The Association with Anti-Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Wu, Aimin; Yang, Yu; Xiong, Zhaojun; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; Yenari, Midori A.; Yang, Yuan-Guo; Ying, Weihai; Wang, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors. Methodology/Principal Findings Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [3H]MK-801(Dizocilpine) binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area), amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine) lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha). Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings contribute to a

  12. Simvastatin prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental parkinsonian models: the association with anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junqiang; Xu, Yunqi; Zhu, Cansheng; Zhang, Limin; Wu, Aimin; Yang, Yu; Xiong, Zhaojun; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; Yenari, Midori A; Yang, Yuan-Guo; Ying, Weihai; Wang, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors. Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [³H]MK-801(Dizocilpine) binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area), amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine) lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha). Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of simvastatin in

  13. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function.

  14. The effectiveness of the controlled release of simvastatin from β-TCP macrosphere in the treatment of OVX mice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    Simvastatin, a cholesterol treatment drug, has been shown to stimulate bone regeneration. As such, there has been an increase interest in the development of suitable materials and systems for the delivery of simvastatin. Without the appropriate dosage of simvastatin, the therapeutic effects on bone growth will be significantly reduced. Furthermore, similar to many pharmaceutical compounds, at high concentration simvastatin can cause various adverse side-effects. Given the associated side-effects with the usage of simvastatin, the development of suitable controlled drug release system is pertinent. Calcium phosphate in particularly beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been extensively studied and used as a carrier material for drug delivery system. In this study, Foraminifera exoskeletons were used as calcium carbonate precursor materials, which were hydrothermally converted to β-TCP as a carrier material for simvastatin. Natural marine exoskeletons posses interconnected and uniformly porous network capable of improving drug loading and release rate. To prolong the release of simvastatin, an apatite coating was made around the β-TCP sample and in vitro release studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a significant decrease in release rate. Osteoporotic mice were used to examine the compare therapeutic effectiveness of β-TCP, β-TCP with simvastatin, apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin and direct injection of simvastatin near the right femur of the mice. Localized and systemic effect were compared with the femur of the non-implanted side (left) and showed that β-TCP with or without simvastatin was able to induce significant bone formation over 6 weeks. Mechanical analysis showed that apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin produced significantly stronger bones compared with other experimental groups. This study shows that natural exoskeletons with the appropriate structure can be successfully used as a drug delivery system for simvastatin and can its

  15. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. PMID:27444151

  16. Effects of simvastatin treatment on serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with dislipidemia.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Atefeh; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Tavallaie, Shima; Mazidi, Mohsen; Afzali, Fariba; Adab, Afrouz; Ferns, Gordon; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we aimed to assess the effects of simvastatin on serum levels of adiponectin in patients with dyslipidemia, recruited from Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. A total of 102 patients with dyslipidemia were treated with simvastatin or placebo during a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. The adiponectin levels were measured before and after each treatment period. Seventy seven participants completed the study. There was a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (approxmately 21%), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (approxmately 28%), and triglycerides (approxmately 11%), after four weeks of treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.001). No significant change in serum adiponectin concentrations was observed after treatment with simvastatin. This may be because of the relatively short duration of treatment and longer treatment duration may be necessary to investigation in future studies.

  17. Effect of canagliflozin on the pharmacokinetics of glyburide, metformin, and simvastatin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Murphy, Joseph; Skee, Donna; Wajs, Ewa; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Tian, Hong; Vandebosch, An; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Verhaeghe, Tom; Stieltjes, Hans; Usiskin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions between canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and glyburide, metformin, and simvastatin were evaluated in three phase-1 studies in healthy participants. In these open-label, fixed sequence studies, participants received: Study 1-glyburide 1.25 mg/day (Day 1), canagliflozin 200 mg/day (Days 4-8), canagliflozin with glyburide (Day 9); Study 2-metformin 2,000 mg/day (Day 1), canagliflozin 300 mg/day (Days 4-7), metformin with canagliflozin (Day 8); Study 3-simvastatin 40 mg/day (Day 1), canagliflozin 300 mg/day (Days 2-6), simvastatin with canagliflozin (Day 7). Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed at prespecified intervals. Co-administration of canagliflozin and glyburide did not affect the overall exposure (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax ] and area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]) of glyburide and its metabolites (4-trans-hydroxy-glyburide and 3-cis-hydroxy-glyburide). Canagliflozin did not affect the peak concentration of metformin; however, AUC increased by 20%. Though Cmax and AUC were slightly increased for simvastatin (9% and 12%) and simvastatin acid (26% and 18%) following coadministration with canagliflozin, compared with simvastatin administration alone; however, no effect on active 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitory activity was observed. There were no serious adverse events or hypoglycemic episodes. No drug-drug interactions were observed between canagliflozin and glyburide, metformin, or simvastatin. All treatments were well-tolerated in healthy participants. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of fenofibrate and simvastatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Rodríguez-Núñez, Jesús Rubén; Peña-Caballero, Vicente; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Fenofibrate, an oral fibrate lipid lowering agent, and simvastatin, which reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), currently in the market. We characterized these APIs by thermal analysis and conducted X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a polypill may be established. Thus, it was found in thermochemical studies that both compounds present no chemical interactions in an equimolar mixture of solid samples at room temperature. Theoretical studies were employed to determine possible interactions between fenofibrate and simvastatin. A very weak intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl group (O5H5) of the simvastatin with chlorine and carbonyl group (C11O4, C1O2) of the fenofibrate molecule. These weak energy hydrogen bonds have no effect on the chemical stability of the compounds studied. The results were obtained using Density Functional Theory methods; particularly the BPE1BPE and B3LYP functional and 6-31++G** basis set. The values of energy show good approximation when are compared with similar calculations previously reported. Infrared spectra of monomers and dimers were obtained via theoretical calculations.

  19. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Almukhtar, H.; Garle, M.J.; Smith, P.A.

    2016-08-15

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced amore » slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10 μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10 μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10 μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10 μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. - Highlights: • Simvastatin produces a relaxation of the porcine coronary artery. • This relaxation is inhibited by mitochondrial complex inhibitors. • Simvastatin alters mitochondrial membrane

  20. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel L

    2016-11-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Effect of simvastatin on CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers in cognitively normal adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Mayer, Cynthia L; Morelli, Daniel; Millard, Steven P; Raskind, Wendy H; Petrie, Eric C; Cherrier, Monique; Fagan, Anne M; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2017-09-19

    To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group). Simvastatin was titrated to 40 mg/d. CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 were measured at baseline and after 12 months of treatment using the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay. We used analysis of covariance to assess differences in biomarker change from baseline between treatment groups, adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status. Changes from baseline did not differ significantly between treatment groups for any CSF biomarker, with p values of 0.53, 0.36, and 0.25 for CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 , respectively. There was no significant modifying effect of sex, APOE ε4, or baseline high-density lipoprotein or triglycerides on treatment group for any of the biomarkers (all p > 0.18). However, a significant interaction between treatment group and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed for p-tau 181 ( p = 0.003), where greater decreases from baseline in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations were associated with higher baseline LDL level for the simvastatin group. Simvastatin-related reductions in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations may be modulated by LDL cholesterol. The potential disease-modifying effects of simvastatin on CSF phospho-tau should be further investigated in persons with hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Simvastatin for the prevention of exacerbations in moderate-to-severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Criner, Gerard J; Connett, John E; Aaron, Shawn D; Albert, Richard K; Bailey, William C; Casaburi, Richard; Cooper, J Allen D; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Dransfield, Mark T; Han, MeiLan K; Make, Barry; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Martinez, Fernando J; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Scanlon, Paul D; Sciurba, Frank C; Scharf, Steven M; Sin, Don D; Voelker, Helen; Washko, George R; Woodruff, Prescott G; Lazarus, Stephen C

    2014-06-05

    Retrospective studies have shown that statins decrease the rate and severity of exacerbations, the rate of hospitalization, and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We prospectively studied the efficacy of simvastatin in preventing exacerbations in a large, multicenter, randomized trial. We designed the Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Simvastatin in the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations (STATCOPE) as a randomized, controlled trial of simvastatin (at a daily dose of 40 mg) versus placebo, with annual exacerbation rates as the primary outcome. Patients were eligible if they were 40 to 80 years of age, had COPD (defined by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of less than 80% and a ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity of less than 70%), and had a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years, were receiving supplemental oxygen or treatment with glucocorticoids or antibiotic agents, or had had an emergency department visit or hospitalization for COPD within the past year. Patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease and those who were taking statins or who required statins on the basis of Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were excluded. Participants were treated from 12 to 36 months at 45 centers. A total of 885 participants with COPD were enrolled for approximately 641 days; 44% of the patients were women. The patients had a mean (±SD) age of 62.2±8.4 years, an FEV1 that was 41.6±17.7% of the predicted value, and a smoking history of 50.6±27.4 pack-years. At the time of study closeout, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in the simvastatin-treated patients than in those who received placebo. The mean number of exacerbations per person-year was similar in the simvastatin and placebo groups: 1.36±1.61 exacerbations and 1.39±1.73 exacerbations, respectively (P=0.54). The median number of days to the first exacerbation was also similar: 223 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 195 to 275) and

  3. Effects of Simvastatin Treatment on Serum Adiponectin Concentrations in Patients With Dislipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Moezzi, Atefeh; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Tavallaie, Shima; Mazidi, Mohsen; Afzali, Fariba; Adab, Afrouz; Ferns, Gordon; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: In the current study, we aimed to assess the effects of simvastatin on serum levels of adiponectin in patients with dyslipidemia, recruited from Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 patients with dyslipidemia were treated with simvastatin or placebo during a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. The adiponectin levels were measured before and after each treatment period. Seventy seven participants completed the study. Results: There was a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (approxmately 21%), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (approxmately 28%), and triglycerides (approxmately 11%), after four weeks of treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.001). Conclusions: No significant change in serum adiponectin concentrations was observed after treatment with simvastatin. This may be because of the relatively short duration of treatment and longer treatment duration may be necessary to investigation in future studies. PMID:25389496

  4. Effect of simvastatin on sensorial, motor, and morphological parameters in sciatic nerve crush induced-neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Corso, Claudia Rita; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Borges, Stephanie Carvalho; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; Telles, José Ederaldo Queiroz; Buttow, Nilza Cristina; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2018-06-01

    The present study compares the effects of a low and high doses of simvastatin in a model of peripheral neuropathy by evaluating sensorial, motor, and morphological parameters. First, male Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle (saline, 1 mL/kg), simvastatin (2 and 80 mg/kg) or morphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.), 1 h before 2.5% formalin injection. Neuropathic pain was induced by crushing the sciatic nerve, and mechanical and cold allodynia, nerve function, histology, MPO and NAG concentrations, as well as mevalonate induced-nociception were evaluated. Animals were orally treated with vehicle, simvastatin, or gabapentin (30 mg/kg) for 18 days. Simvastatin (2 and 80 mg/kg) reduced the inflammatory pain induced by formalin, but failed to decrease the paw edema. Mechanical allodynia was reduced by the simvastatin (2 mg/kg) until the 12th day after injury and until the 18th day by gabapentin. However, both simvastatin and gabapentin treatments failed in attenuated cold allodynia or improved motor function. Interestingly, both doses of simvastatin showed a neuroprotective effect and inhibited MPO activity without altering kidney and hepatic parameters. Additionally, only the higher dose of simvastatin reduced the cholesterol levels and the nociception induced by mevalonate. Our results reinforce the antinociceptive, antiallodynic, and anti-inflammatory effects of oral simvastatin administration, which can strongly contribute to the sciatic nerve morphology preservation. Furthermore, our data suggest that lower and higher doses of simvastatin present beneficial effects that are dependent and independent of the mevalonate pathway, respectively, without causing signs of nerve damage.

  5. The ROCK/GGTase Pathway Are Essential to the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Mediated by Simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Wu, Jian-Min; Liao, Min; Wang, Jun-Ling; Xu, Chao-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Simvastatin, a lipophilic and fermentation-derived natural statin, is reported to treat neurological disorders, such as traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD), etc. Recently, research also indicated that simvastatin could promote regeneration in the dentate gyrus of adult mice by Wnt/β-catenin signaling (Robin et al. in Stem Cell Reports 2:9-17, 2014). However, the effect and mechanisms by which simvastatin may affect the neural stem cells (NSCs; from the embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) SD rat brain) are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of different doses of simvastatin on the survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell cycle of NSCs as well as underlying intracellular signaling pathways. The results showed that simvastatin not only inhibits the proliferation of NSCs but also enhances the βIII-tubulin + neuron differentiation rate. Additionally, we find that simvastatin could also promote NSC migration and induce cell cycle arrest at M2 phrase. All these effects of simvastatin on NSCs were mimicked with an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK) and a specific inhibitor of geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase). In conclusion, these data indicate that simvastatin could promote neurogenesis of neural stem cells, and these effects were mediated through the ROCK/GGTase pathway.

  6. Structural effects of simvastatin on liver rate tissue: Fourier transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garip, Sebnem; Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Severcan, Mete; Abbas, Sherif; Lednev, Igor K.; Severcan, Feride

    2016-02-01

    Simvastatin is one of the most frequently prescribed statins because of its efficacy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, reducing cardiovascular risk and related mortality. Determination of its side effects on different tissues is mandatory to improve safe use of this drug. In the present study, the effects of simvastatin on molecular composition and structure of healthy rat livers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared and Raman imaging. Simvastatin-treated groups received 50 mg/kg/day simvastatin for 30 days. The ratio of the area and/or intensity of the bands assigned to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids were calculated to get information about the drug-induced changes in tissues. Loss of unsaturation, accumulation of end products of lipid peroxidation, and alterations in lipid-to-protein ratio were observed in the treated group. Protein secondary structure studies revealed significant decrease in α-helix and increase in random coil, while native β-sheet decreases and aggregated β-sheet increases in treated group implying simvastatin-induced protein denaturation. Moreover, groups were successfully discriminated using principal component analysis. Consequently, high-dose simvastatin treatment induces hepatic lipid peroxidation and changes in molecular content and protein secondary structure, implying the risk of liver disorders in drug therapy.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin in an experimental model of spinal cord trauma: involvement of PPAR-α

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Statins such as simvastatin are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to their cholesterol-lowering activities, statins exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects, which might contribute to their beneficial effects on lipid-unrelated inflammatory diseases. Recently it has been demonstrated that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α mediates anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in vivo models of acute inflammation. Moreover, previous results suggest that PPAR-α plays a role in control of secondary inflammatory process associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods With the aim to characterize the role of PPAR-α in simvastatin activity, we tested the efficacy of simvastatin (10 mg/kg dissolved in saline i.p. 1 h and 6 h after the trauma) in an experimental model of SCI induced in mice by extradural compression of the spinal cord (T6-T7 level) using an aneurysm clip with a closing force of 24 g via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy, and comparing mice lacking PPAR-α (PPAR-α KO) with wild type (WT) mice. In order to elucidate whether the effects of simvastatin are due to activation of the PPAR-α, we also investigated the effect of a PPAR-α antagonist, GW6471 (1 mg/kg administered i.p. 30 min prior treatment with simvastatin) on the protective effects of on simvastatin. Results Results indicate that simvastatin activity is weakened in PPAR-α KO mice, as compared to WT controls. In particular, simvastatin was less effective in PPAR-α KO, compared to WT mice, as evaluated by inhibition of the degree of spinal cord inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, nitrotyrosine formation, pro-inflammmatory cytokine expression, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and apoptosis. In addition we demonstrated that GW6471 significantly antagonized the effect of the statin and thus abolished the

  8. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin and Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant on the Pharmacokinetics of Simvastatin in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lauring, Brett; Dishy, Victor; De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Crumley, Tami; Wenning, Larissa; Liu, Fang; Sisk, Christine; Wagner, John; Lai, Eseng

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple lipid-modifying agents with different mechanisms of action is often required to regulate lipid levels in patients with dyslipidemia. During combination therapy, alterations in the pharmacokinetics of any of the drugs used and their metabolites may occur. Three separate open-label, randomized, crossover studies evaluated the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between extended-release niacin (with and without concomitant laropiprant) and simvastatin in healthy subjects. Study 1 used single doses of extended-release niacin and simvastatin; study 2 used multiple-dose coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy subjects; and study 3 used single doses of both extended-release niacin and the coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy Chinese subjects. During each treatment period, plasma samples were collected predose and at prespecified postdose time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. The safety and tolerability of simvastatin with and without coadministered extended-release niacin (or extended-release niacin/laropiprant) were assessed by clinical evaluation of adverse experiences. In 2 studies in healthy subjects, modest increases in exposure to simvastatin acid (by ∼60%) by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. Based on the clinical experience with simvastatin, these effects are not believed to be clinically meaningful. In the third study on healthy Chinese subjects, no statistically meaningful increases in exposure to simvastatin by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. In all populations examined in these studies, the coadministration of extended-release niacin and simvastatin was generally well tolerated.

  9. Effects of high-dose simvastatin on adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis in men with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Dobs, A S; Schrott, H; Davidson, M H; Bays, H; Stein, E A; Kush, D; Wu, M; Mitchel, Y; Illingworth, R D

    2000-09-01

    In view of the role of both the de novo biosynthesis and receptor-mediated uptake of cholesterol for normal steroidogenesis, we evaluated whether extending the therapeutic dose of the hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, to 80 mg/d would affect adrenal and gonadal steroid synthesis in men with hypercholesterolemia. To evaluate this question, we enrolled men into a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled study lasting 12 weeks. Men with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) more than 145 mg/dL after 6 weeks of a lipid-lowering diet were randomized to 80 mg simvastatin or placebo. Half of the subjects were asked to undergo a 6-hour infusion of corticotropin (ACTH) to evaluate cortisol synthesis, and the entire cohort received a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test to assess gonadal hormone secretion using pooled serum samples taken 15 minutes apart. A total of 81 men (age, 45 +/- 11 years; 93% Caucasian) with baseline serum LDL-C of 197 mg/dL (placebo, n = 39) and 184 mg/dL (simvastatin 80 mg, n = 42) completed the study. After 12 weeks, serum LDL-C, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the simvastatin group changed by -43%, -25%, and 8%, respectively (all P < .001). The basal cortisol level and the peak serum cortisol and area under the curve response to the 6-hour ACTH infusion were comparable between the two treatment groups at baseline and after 12 weeks. The pooled total testosterone level at baseline was 541 and 513 ng/dL in the placebo and simvastatin-treated groups, respectively, which declined to 536 +/- 20.5 ng/dL (-1.5%) and 474 +/- 30.4 ng/dL (-13.6%, P = .09) after treatment (mean +/- SD). The pooled free testosterone declined by 6.3% in the simvastatin group, versus a 4.9% increase in the placebo group (P = .588), while pooled bioavailable testosterone declined 10.2% in the simvastatin group and increased 1.4% in the placebo group (P = .035

  10. SIMVASTATIN RESTORES ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING IN THE PRESENCE OF HYPERGLYCEMIA THROUGH A NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Kehl, Franz; Krolikowski, John G.; Pagel, Paul S.; Warltier, David C.; Kersten, Judy R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that statins decrease perioperative cardiovascular risk and that these drugs may be particularly efficacious in diabetes. Diabetes or hyperglycemia abolish the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that simvastatin restores the beneficial effects of IPC during hyperglycemia through a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. Methods Myocardial infarct size was measured in dogs (n=76) subjected to coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (300 mg/dl) with or without IPC in separate groups. Additional dogs received simvastatin (20 mg orally daily for 3 days) in the presence or absence of IPC and hyperglycemia. Other dogs were pretreated with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg intracoronary) with or without IPC, hyperglycemia and simvastatin. Results IPC significantly (P<0.05) reduced infarct size (n=7, 7±2%) as compared to control (n=7, 29±3%). Hyperglycemia (n=7), simvastatin (n=7) and L-NAME alone (n=7), and simvastatin with hyperglycemia (n=6) did not alter infarct size. Hyperglycemia (n=7, 24±2%), but not L-NAME (n=5, 10±1%), blocked the protective effects of IPC. Simvastatin restored the protective effects of IPC in the presence of hyperglycemia (n=7, 14±1%), and this beneficial action was blocked by L-NAME (n=7, 29±4%). Conclusions The results indicate that simvastatin restored the cardioprotective effects of IPC during hyperglycemia by NO-mediated signaling. The results also suggest that enhanced cardioprotective signaling could be a mechanism for statin-induced decreases in perioperative cardiovascular risk. PMID:18362595

  11. Assessment of the quality of simvastatin capsules from compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Markman, Blanca Elena Ortega; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Koschtschak, Maria Regina Walter

    2010-12-01

    To validate a method for determining the simvastatin content of compounded capsules, using high performance liquid chromatography. Eighteen samples of simvastatin 40 mg capsules from compounding pharmacies in the cities of São Paulo, Guarulhos, São Bernardo do Campo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, prescribed for fictitious patients were assessed. The analyses were based on the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and on the high performance liquid chromatography method, optimized and validated in accordance with national and international standards for identification and quantification tests on compounded capsules. The mean weight of the capsules ranged from 70 mg to 316 mg; four samples presented weight variation outside of the specification. The simvastatin content in the capsules was within the specification in 11 samples. In six, the content ranged from 4% to 87% of the declared quantity, thereby not complying with the content requirements for the active agent. For one sample, no content or uniformity determinations were performed. In the content uniformity test, 15 samples presented indices of less than 85%, with relative standard deviations greater than 6%. Three pharmacies had met the specification in this test. In the dissolution test, eight samples presented unsatisfactory results in the first stage of the test, while the remainder presented inconclusive results. The method used was shown to be suitable for application to quality control, and it revealed the poor quality of the simvastatin capsules produced by some compounding pharmacies.

  12. [Simvastatin therapy and effect on hiperlipidemia and vascular status in nephrotic children with sustained dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, Joanna; Niemirska, Anna; Lipka, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Grenda, Ryszard

    2009-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in nephrotic children and persistent lipid abnormalities are risk factor of late vascular complications. The aim of the study was evaluation of efficacy and safety of 12-months simvastatin therapy in nephrotic children with lipid profile abnormalities present despite clinical remission lasting for at least 8 weeks, including ultrasonographic assessment of carotid and femoral arteries. Overall 52 children (40 steroid-dependent and 12 steroid-resistant) were initially introduced to the study and 29 of them were treated with simvastatin. Normalisation of lipid profile was achieved in 19/29 (65.5%) and improvement in 9/29 (31%). Significant reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.00001), LDL-C (p < 0.000003), VLDL- (p < 0.0123), oxy-LDL-C fractions (p < 0.0002) and triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.0005) serum concentration was achieved in non-proteinuric patients. Analysis of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid (c) and superficial femoral (f) arteries values revealed positive correlation between baseline cIMT and VLDL-C (p = 0.038) and TG concentration (p = 0.008), as well as positive correlation between fIMT and baseline creatinine (p = 0.04) and LDL-C serum concentration (p = 0.032) after simvastatine treatment. Number of children with significant vessels pathology (Z-score > 2.0) was small. Increased cIMT was seen at baseline in 4 patients and in 5 after simvastatin treatment, however average and Z-score values in children under simvastatin treatment have decreased. Increased fIMT values were seen at baseline in 2 and in one case after simvastatin treatment. Tolerance of simvastation was very good in all cases but one. Simvastatin therapy was effective and safe in nephrotic non-proteinuric children with abnormal lipid profile. Fair estimation of impact of the 12-months simvastatin therapy on vascular status was not available due to limited number of children with significantly increased IMT at baseline.

  13. Structural analysis of alterations in zebrafish muscle differentiation induced by simvastatin and their recovery with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-06-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin--a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease--during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Dose-expanded study in the reinforcement of efficacy of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Apichati

    2002-04-01

    Two hundred and twenty two hyperlipidemic patients were recruited for a 12-week prospective, multicenter, open-label, titrate-to-goal study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 20 to 40 mg per day of simvastatin in a Thai population. The efficacy on lipid lowering was evaluated at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after medication. Based on NCEP ATP II guideline and ADA position statement, subjects were categorized into three groups according to LDL-C goals; group I: patients without CHD and with < 2 CHD risk factors, group II: patients without CHD and with > or = 2 CHD risk factors and group III: CHD patients or diabetic patients with > or = 1 risk factors. Significant changes of all lipid parameters from baselines were noted at 4 weeks after medication except for HDL-C levels. Reduction of serum LDL-C, TC and TG by 40 per cent, 29 per cent and 16 per cent respectively and increase of serum HDL-C by 5 per cent were observed at 8 weeks of therapy (p<0.05). At 4 weeks after taking simvastatin 20 mg/day, 78.9 per cent of patients in group I, 67.4 per cent in group II and 40.9 per cent in group III achieved LDL-C goals. Seventeen per cent of the patients who were evaluated at 8 weeks increased the simvastatin dosage to 40 mg per day in the second month of treatment. At 8 weeks of therapy with simvastatin 20-40 mg/day, 90.1 per cent of patients in group I, 77.4 per cent in group II and 66.7 per cent in group III achieved LDL-C goals. Adverse symptoms during therapy, mostly mild, developed in 6.3 per cent of the 222 patients. Simvastatin 20-40 mg/day was effective and well tolerated in managing lipid parameters in Thai patients similar to other ethnic populations.

  15. Simvastatin induces caspase-independent apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Mi Hee

    Macrophages participate in several inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. We examined the effect of simvastatin on the LPS-induced proinflammatory macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Co-treatment of LPS and a non-toxic dose of simvastatin induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells. The cell death was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), genomic DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation. Surprisingly, despite caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade being completely blocked by Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, the cell death was only partially repressed. In the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, DNA fragmentation was blocked, but DNA condensation, disruption of MMP, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor weremore » obvious. The cell death by simvastatin and LPS was effectively decreased by both the FPP and GGPP treatments as well as mevalonate. Our findings indicate that simvastatin triggers the cell death of LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells through both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways, suggesting a novel mechanism of statins for the severe inflammatory disease therapy.« less

  16. Simvastatin prevents triple-negative breast cancer metastasis in pre-clinical models through regulation of FOXO3a.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Adam R; Debeb, Bisrat G; Lacerda, Lara; Larson, Richard; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Huang, Xuelin; Bertucci, Francois; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Van Laere, Steven; Diagaradjan, Parmeswaran; Ruffell, Brian; Trenton, Nicholaus J; Chu, Khoi; Hittelman, Walter; Diehl, Michael; Levental, Ilya; Ueno, Naoto T; Woodward, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported using statins was correlated with improved metastasis-free survival in aggressive breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of statins on metastatic colonization by triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. TNBC cell lines were treated with simvastatin and then studied for cell cycle progression and proliferation in vitro, and metastasis formation in vivo, following injection of statin-treated cells. Reverse-phase protein assay (RPPA) analysis was performed on statin-treated and control breast cancer cells. RNA interference targeting FOXO3a was used to measure the impact of simvastatin on FOXO3a-expressing cells. The prognostic value of FOXO3a mRNA expression was examined in eight public breast cancer gene expression datasets including 1479 patients. Simvastatin increased G1/S-phase arrest of the cell cycle and inhibited both proliferation and migration of TNBC cells in vitro. In vitro pre-treatment and in vivo treatment with simvastatin reduced metastases. Phosphorylated FOXO3a was downregulated after simvastatin treatment in (RPPA) analysis. Ectopic expression of FOXO3a enhanced mammosphere formation and migratory capacity in vitro. Knockdown of FOXO3a attenuated the effect of simvastatin on mammosphere formation and migration. Analysis of public gene expression data demonstrates FOXO3a mRNA downregulation was independently associated with shorter metastasis-free survival in all breast cancers, as well as in TNBC breast cancers. Simvastatin inhibits in vitro endpoints associated with metastasis through a FOXO3a mechanism and reduced metastasis formation in vivo. FOXO3a expression is prognostic for metastasis formation in patient data. Further investigation of simvastatin as a cancer therapy is warranted.

  17. Effect of local administration of simvastatin on postorthodontic relapse in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    AlSwafeeri, Hani; ElKenany, Walid; Mowafy, Mohamed; Karam, Sahar

    2018-06-01

    Posttreatment relapse is a major challenging clinical issue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of local administration of simvastatin on posttreatment relapse. Orthodontic tooth movement was induced in 10 white New Zealand rabbits. After 21 days of active tooth movement, the orthodontic appliances were removed, and the experimental teeth were allowed to relapse for 21 days. During the relapse phase, 1 mandibular quadrant received local simvastatin administration, and the other received the control vehicle solution on a weekly basis. Three-dimensional models of the experimental teeth were created to allow the measurement of experimental tooth movement and posttreatment relapse. The animals were killed at the end of the relapse phase for histomorphometric analysis of alveolar bone remodeling. The mean relapse percentages were 75.83% in the quadrant receiving the control vehicle solution and 62.01% in the quadrant receiving simvastatin. Neither the relapse magnitude nor the relapse percentage showed a significant difference between the 2 quadrants. Histomorphometric analyses showed that local simvastatin administration yielded a significant reduction in the area of active bone-resorptive lacunae and a significant increase in newly formed bone area. Although local administration of simvastatin aids in bone remodeling associated with posttreatment relapse by reducing the area of active bone resorption and upregulating bone formation, it did not significantly minimize posttreatment relapse. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on gonadal function in male hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Dobs, A S; Miller, S; Neri, G; Weiss, S; Tate, A C; Shapiro, D R; Musliner, T A

    2000-01-01

    Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors could, in theory, adversely affect male gonadal function because cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones. The objective of this randomized double-blind trial was to compare the effects of simvastatin, pravastatin, and placebo on gonadal testosterone production and spermatogenesis. After a 6-week placebo and lipid-lowering diet run-in period, 159 male patients aged 21 to 55 years with type IIa or IIb hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol between 145 and 240 mg/dL, and normal basal levels of testosterone were randomly assigned to treatment with simvastatin 20 mg (n = 40), simvastatin 40 mg (n = 41), pravastatin 40 mg (n = 39), or placebo (n = 39) once daily. After 24 weeks of treatment, mean total cholesterol levels were decreased 24% to 27% and mean LDL cholesterol was decreased 30% to 34% in the 3 active-treatment groups (P < .001 for all comparisons to placebo). At 24 weeks, there were no statistically significant differences between the placebo group and any of the active-treatment groups for the change from baseline in testosterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)stimulated testosterone, free testosterone index, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences at week 12 or week 24 for the change from baseline in sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, or sperm motility for any active treatment relative to placebo. Both simvastatin and pravastatin were well tolerated. In summary, we found no evidence for clinically meaningful effects of simvastatin or pravastatin on gonadal testosterone production, testosterone reserve, or multiple parameters of semen quality.

  19. Effects of simvastatin administration on rodents with lipopolysaccharide-induced liver microvascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    La Mura, Vincenzo; Pasarín, Marcos; Meireles, Cintia Z; Miquel, Rosa; Rodríguez-Vilarrupla, Aina; Hide, Diana; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Jaime; Abraldes, Juan G

    2013-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction drives vascular derangement and organ failure associated with sepsis. However, the consequences of sepsis on liver sinusoidal endothelial function are largely unknown. Statins might improve microvascular dysfunction in sepsis. The present study explores liver vascular abnormalities and the effects of statins in a rat model of endotoxemia. For this purpose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline was given to: (1) rats treated with placebo; (2) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg, orally), given at 3 and 23 hours after LPS/saline challenge; (3) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg/24 h, orally) from 3 days before LPS/saline injection. Livers were isolated and perfused and sinusoidal endothelial function was explored by testing the vasodilation of the liver circulation to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine. The phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PeNOS)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ratio was measured as a marker of eNOS activation. LPS administration induced an increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure and a decrease in vasodilation to acetylcholine (sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction). This was associated with reduced eNOS phosphorylation and liver inflammation. Simvastatin after LPS challenge did not prevent the increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure, but attenuated the development of sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction. Treatment with simvastatin from 3 days before LPS prevented the increase in baseline perfusion pressure and totally normalized the vasodilating response of the liver vasculature to acetylcholine and reduced liver inflammation. Both protocols of treatment restored a physiologic PeNOS/eNOS ratio. LPS administration induces intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction that might be prevented by simvastatin, suggesting that statins might have potential for liver protection during endotoxemia. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Simvastatin prevents triple-negative breast cancer metastasis in pre-clinical models through regulation of FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Larson, Richard; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Huang, Xuelin; Bertucci, Francois; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Van Laere, Steven; Diagaradjan, Parmeswaran; Ruffell, Brian; Trenton, Nicholaus J.; Chu, Khoi; Hittelman, Walter; Diehl, Michael; Levental, Ilya; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported using statins was correlated with improved metastasis free survival in aggressive breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of statins on metastatic colonization by triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Experimental Design TNBC cell lines were treated with simvastatin and then studied for cell cycle progression and proliferation in vitro, and metastasis formation in vivo, following injection of statin-treated cells. Reverse-phase protein assay (RPPA) analysis was performed on statin-treated and control breast cancer cells. RNA interference targeting FOXO3a was used to measure the impact of simvastatin on FOXO3a-expressing cells. The prognostic value of FOXO3a mRNA expression was examined in 8 public breast cancer gene expression data sets including 1,479 patients. Results Simvastatin increased G1/S phase arrest of the cell cycle and inhibited both proliferation and migration of TNBC cells in vitro. In vitro pretreatment and in vivo treatment with simvastatin reduced metastases. Phosphorylated FOXO3a was downregulated after simvastatin treatment in (RPPA) analysis. Ectopic expression of FOXO3a enhanced mammosphere formation and migratory capacity in vitro. Knockdown of FOXO3a attenuated the effect of simvastatin on mammosphere formation and migration. Analysis of public gene expression data demonstrates FOXO3a mRNA downregulation was independently associated with shorter metastasis-free survival in all breast cancers, as well as in TNBC breast cancers. Conclusions Simvastatin inhibits in vitro endpoints associated with metastasis through a FOXO3a mechanism and reduced metastasis formation in vivo. FOXO3a expression is prognostic for metastasis formation in patient data. Further investigation of simvastatin as a cancer therapy is warranted. PMID:26590814

  1. Effect of Randomized Lipid Lowering With Simvastatin and Ezetimibe on Cataract Development (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study).

    PubMed

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; La Cour, Morten; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Ray, Simon; Pedersen, Terje; Rossebø, Anne; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-12-15

    Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on statin initiation on the basis of total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk argue that the preventive effect of statins on cardiovascular events outweigh the side effects, although this is controversial. Studies indicate a possible effect of statin therapy on reducing risk of lens opacities. However, the results are conflicting. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study (NCT00092677) enrolled 1,873 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and no history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or other serious co-morbidities were randomized (1:1) to double-blind 40 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe versus placebo. The primary end point in this substudy was incident cataract. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to analyze: (1) if the active treatment reduced the risk of the primary end point and (2) if time-varying low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol lowering (annually assessed) was associated with less incident cataract per se. During an average follow-up of 4.3 years, 65 patients (3.5%) developed cataract. Mean age at baseline was 68 years and 39% were women. In Cox multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, prednisolone treatment, smoking, baseline LDL cholesterol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein; simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo was associated with 44% lower risk of cataract development (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.96, p = 0.034). In a parallel analysis substituting time-varying LDL-cholesterol with randomized treatment, lower intreatment LDL-cholesterol was in itself associated with lower risk of incident cataract (hazard ratio 0.78 per 1 mmol/ml lower total cholesterol, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93, p = 0.008). In conclusion, randomized treatment with simvastatin plus ezetimibe was associated with a 44% lower risk of incident cataract development. This effect should perhaps be considered

  2. Reduction in Total Cardiovascular Events With Ezetimibe/Simvastatin Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome: The IMPROVE-IT Trial.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sabina A; Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P; White, Jennifer A; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Reist, Craig; Im, KyungAh; Bohula, Erin A; Isaza, Daniel; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Dellborg, Mikael; Kher, Uma; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Braunwald, Eugene

    2016-02-02

    Intensive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol therapy with ezetimibe/simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) significantly reduced the first primary endpoint (PEP) in patients post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to placebo/simvastatin. This analysis tested the hypothesis that total events, including those beyond the first event, would also be reduced with ezetimibe/simvastatin therapy. All PEP events (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, unstable angina [UA] leading to hospitalization, coronary revascularization ≥30 days post-randomization) during a median 6-year follow-up were analyzed in patients randomized to receive ezetimibe/simvastatin or placebo/simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT. Negative binomial regression was used for the primary analysis. Among 18,144 patients, there were 9,545 total PEP events (56% were first events and 44% subsequent events). Total PEP events were significantly reduced by 9% with ezetimibe/simvastatin vs placebo/simvastatin (incidence-rate ratio [RR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 0.97; p = 0.007), as were the 3 pre-specified secondary composite endpoints and the exploratory composite endpoint of CV death, MI, or stroke (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.96; p = 0.002). The reduction in total events was driven by decreases in total nonfatal MI (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.96; p = 0.004) and total NF stroke (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.93; p = 0.005). Lipid-lowering therapy with ezetimibe plus simvastatin improved clinical outcomes. Reductions in total PEP events, driven by reductions in MI and stroke, more than doubled the number of events prevented compared with examining only the first event. These data support continuation of intensive combination lipid-lowering therapy after an initial CV event. (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial [IMPROVE-IT]; NCT00202878). Copyright © 2016 American College of

  3. Simvastatin reduces neointimal thickening in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice after experimental angioplasty without changing plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiping; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Zago, Alexandre C; Ehlers, Raila; Detmers, Patricia A; Wright, Samuel D; Rogers, Campbell; Simon, Daniel I

    2002-07-02

    Statins exert antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions independent of cholesterol lowering. To determine whether these actions might affect neointimal formation, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the response to experimental angioplasty in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolemia in which changes in plasma lipids are not observed in response to simvastatin. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDLR-/- mice treated with low-dose (2 mg/kg) or high-dose (20 mg/kg) simvastatin or vehicle subcutaneously 72 hours before and then daily after injury. After 7 and 28 days, intimal and medial sizes were measured and the intima to media area ratio (I:M) was calculated. Total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar in simvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice. Intimal thickening and I:M were reduced significantly by low- and high-dose simvastatin compared with vehicle alone. Simvastatin treatment was associated with reduced cellular proliferation (BrdU), leukocyte accumulation (CD45), and platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and increased apoptosis after injury. Simvastatin modulates vascular repair after injury in the absence of lipid-lowering effects. Although the mechanisms are not yet established, additional research may lead to new understanding of the actions of statins and novel therapeutic interventions for preventing restenosis.

  4. Differential response of endothelial cells to simvastatin when conditioned with steady, non-reversing pulsatile or oscillating shear stress.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Joanna; Jonak, Paul; Rouleau, Leonie; Danielczak, Lisa; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Leask, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated whether fluid mechanics can impair or enhance endothelial cell response to pharmacological agents such as statin drugs. We evaluated and compared Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and thrombomodulin (TM) expression in human abdominal aortic endothelial cells (HAAEC) treated with increasing simvastatin concentrations (0.1, 1 or 10 μM) under static culture and shear stress (steady, non-reversing pulsatile, and oscillating). Simvastatin, steady flow, and non-reversing pulsatile flow each separately upregulated KLF2, eNOS, and TM mRNA. At lower simvastatin concentrations (0.1 and 1 μM), the combination of statin and unidirectional steady or pulsatile flow produced an overall additive increase in mRNA levels. At higher simvastatin concentration (10 μM), a synergistic increase in eNOS and TM mRNA expression was observed. In contrast, oscillating flow impaired KLF2 and TM, but not eNOS expression by simvastatin at 1 μM. A higher simvastatin concentration of 10 μM overcame the inhibitory effect of oscillating flow. Our findings suggest that oscillating shear stress renders the endothelial cells less responsive to simvastatin than cells exposed to unidirectional steady or pulsatile flow. Consequently, the pleiotropic effects of statins in vivo may be less effective in endothelial cells exposed to atheroprone hemodynamics.

  5. Simvastatin attenuates stroke-induced splenic atrophy and lung susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Zhu, Xiaolei; Liu, Lin; Nanda, Anil; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins are widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, but their effects on stroke-induced immunodeppression and post-stroke infections are elusive. We investigated effects of simvastatin treatment on stroke-induced splenic atrophy and lung susceptibility to bacterial infection in acute experimental stroke in mice. Methods Ischemic stroke was induced by transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. In some experiments, splenectomies were performed 2 weeks prior to MCAO. Animals were randomly assigned to sham and MCAO groups treated subcutaneously with vehicle or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day). Brain infarction, neurological function, brain interferon-γ expression, splenic atrophy and apoptosis, and lung infection were examined. Results Simvastatin reduced stroke-induced spleen atrophy and splenic apoptosis via increased mitochrondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased pro-apoptotic Bax translocation from cytosol into mitochondria. Splenectomy reduced brain interferon-γ (3d) and infarct size (5d) after stroke and these effects were reversed by adoptive transfer of splenocytes. Simvastatin inhibited brain interferon-γ (3d) and reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits (5d) after stroke, and these protective effects were observed not only in naïve stroke mice but also in splenectomied stroke mice adoptively transferred with splenocytes. Simvastatin also decreased the stroke-associated lung susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial infection. Conclusions Results provide the first direct experimental evidence that simvastatin ameliorates stroke-induced peripheral immunodepression by attenuating spleen atrophy and lung bacterial infection. These findings contribute to a better understanding of beneficial effects of statins in the treatment of stroke. PMID:23391769

  6. A pilot study of the short-term use of simvastatin in sickle cell disease: effects on markers of vascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Carolyn; Kuypers, Frans; Larkin, Sandra; Hagar, Ward; Vichinsky, Elliott; Styles, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by progressive vascular injury and its pathophysiology is strikingly similar to that of atherosclerosis. Statins decrease inflammation and improve endothelial function in cardiovascular disease, but their effect in SCD is not known. In this pilot study, we examined the safety and effect of short-term simvastatin on biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in SCD. We treated 26 SCD patients with simvastatin, 20 or 40 mg/d, for 21 d. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), tissue factor (TF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed and responses to simvastatin were compared between the two treatment groups. Simvastatin increased NOx levels by 23% in the low-dose (P = 0.01) and 106% in the moderate-dose (P = 0.01) groups, and by 52% overall (P = 0.0008). CRP decreased similarly in both dose groups and by 68% overall (P = 0.02). Levels of IL-6 decreased by 50% (P = 0.04) and 71% (P < 0.05) in the low- and moderate-dose groups, respectively. Simvastatin had no effect on VEGF, VCAM1 or TF. Simvastatin was well-tolerated and safe. Our preliminary findings showing a dose-related effect of simvastatin on levels of NOx, CRP and IL-6 suggest a potential therapeutic role for simvastatin in SCD. PMID:21477202

  7. Effect of Simvastatin on Cognitive Functioning in Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Krab, Lianne C.; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K.; Pluijm, Saskia M. F.; Bouman, Marlies J.; van der Geest, Jos N.; Lequin, Maarten; Catsman, Coriene E.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Kushner, Steven A.; Silva, Alcino J.; de Zeeuw, Chris I.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Elgersma, Ype

    2009-01-01

    Context Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is among the most common genetic disorders that cause learning disabilities. Recently, it was shown that statin-mediated inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase restores the cognitive deficits in an NF1 mouse model. Objective To determine the effect of simvastatin on neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological outcome measures in children with NF1. Design, Setting, and Participants Sixty-two of 114 eligible children (54%) with NF1 participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between January 20, 2006, and February 8, 2007, at an NF1 referral center at a Dutch university hospital. Intervention Simvastatin or placebo treatment once daily for 12 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were scores on a Rey complex figure test (delayed recall), cancellation test (speed), prism adaptation, and the mean brain apparent diffusion coefficient based on magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcome measures were scores on the cancellation test (standard deviation), Stroop color word test, block design, object assembly, Rey complex figure test (copy), Beery developmental test of visual-motor integration, and judgment of line orientation. Scores were corrected for baseline performance, age, and sex. Results No significant differences were observed between the simvastatin and placebo groups on any primary outcome measure: Rey complex figure test (β=0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.36 to 0.56); cancellation test (β=−0.19; 95% CI, −0.67 to 0.29); prism adaptation (odds ratio=2.0; 95% CI, 0.55 to 7.37); and mean brain apparent diffusion coefficient (β=0.06; 95% CI, −0.07 to 0.20). In the secondary outcome measures, we found a significant improvement in the simvastatin group in object assembly scores (β=0.54; 95% CI, 0.08 to 1.01), which was specifically observed in children with poor baseline performance (β =0.80; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.30). Other

  8. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)

    PubMed

    1994-11-19

    Drug therapy for hypercholesterolaemia has remained controversial mainly because of insufficient clinical trial evidence for improved survival. The present trial was designed to evaluate the effect of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin on mortality and morbidity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). 4444 patients with angina pectoris or previous myocardial infarction and serum cholesterol 5.5-8.0 mmol/L on a lipid-lowering diet were randomised to double-blind treatment with simvastatin or placebo. Over the 5.4 years median follow-up period, simvastatin produced mean changes in total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol of -25%, -35%, and +8%, respectively, with few adverse effects. 256 patients (12%) in the placebo group died, compared with 182 (8%) in the simvastatin group. The relative risk of death in the simvastatin group was 0.70 (95% CI 0.58-0.85, p = 0.0003). The 6-year probabilities of survival in the placebo and simvastatin groups were 87.6% and 91.3%, respectively. There were 189 coronary deaths in the placebo group and 111 in the simvastatin group (relative risk 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73), while noncardiovascular causes accounted for 49 and 46 deaths, respectively. 622 patients (28%) in the placebo group and 431 (19%) in the simvastatin group had one or more major coronary events. The relative risk was 0.66 (95% CI 0.59-0.75, p < 0.00001), and the respective probabilities of escaping such events were 70.5% and 79.6%. This risk was also significantly reduced in subgroups consisting of women and patients of both sexes aged 60 or more. Other benefits of treatment included a 37% reduction (p < 0.00001) in the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularisation procedures. This study shows that long-term treatment with simvastatin is safe and improves survival in CHD patients.

  9. Simvastatin Sodium Salt and Fluvastatin Interact with Human Gap Junction Gamma-3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Andrew; Casey-Green, Katherine; Probert, Fay; Withall, David; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Dilly, Suzanne J.; James, Sean; Dimitri, Wade; Ladwa, Sweta R.; Taylor, Paul C.; Singer, Donald R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Finding pleiomorphic targets for drugs allows new indications or warnings for treatment to be identified. As test of concept, we applied a new chemical genomics approach to uncover additional targets for the widely prescribed lipid-lowering pro-drug simvastatin. We used mRNA extracted from internal mammary artery from patients undergoing coronary artery surgery to prepare a viral cardiovascular protein library, using T7 bacteriophage. We then studied interactions of clones of the bacteriophage, each expressing a different cardiovascular polypeptide, with surface-bound simvastatin in 96-well plates. To maximise likelihood of identifying meaningful interactions between simvastatin and vascular peptides, we used a validated photo-immobilisation method to apply a series of different chemical linkers to bind simvastatin so as to present multiple orientations of its constituent components to potential targets. Three rounds of biopanning identified consistent interaction with the clone expressing part of the gene GJC3, which maps to Homo sapiens chromosome 7, and codes for gap junction gamma-3 protein, also known as connexin 30.2/31.3 (mouse connexin Cx29). Further analysis indicated the binding site to be for the N-terminal domain putatively ‘regulating’ connexin hemichannel and gap junction pores. Using immunohistochemistry we found connexin 30.2/31.3 to be present in samples of artery similar to those used to prepare the bacteriophage library. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that a 25 amino acid synthetic peptide representing the discovered N-terminus did not interact with simvastatin lactone, but did bind to the hydrolysed HMG CoA inhibitor, simvastatin acid. This interaction was also seen for fluvastatin. The gap junction blockers carbenoxolone and flufenamic acid also interacted with the same peptide providing insight into potential site of binding. These findings raise key questions about the functional significance of GJC3 transcripts in the vasculature and

  10. Simvastatin rises reactive oxygen species levels and induces senescence in human melanoma cells by activation of p53/p21 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guterres, Fernanda Augusta de Lima Barbosa; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin

    2013-11-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that simvastatin has antitumor properties in several types of cancer cells, mainly by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting growth. The arrest of proliferation is a feature of cellular senescence; however, the occurrence of senescence in melanoma cells upon simvastatin treatment has not been investigated until now. Our results demonstrated that exposure of human metastatic melanoma cells (WM9) to simvastatin induces a senescent phenotype, characterized by G1 arrest, positive staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, and morphological changes. Also, the main pathways leading to cell senescence were examined in simvastatin-treated human melanoma cells, and the expression levels of phospho-p53 andmore » p21 were upregulated by simvastatin, suggesting that cell cycle regulators and DNA damage pathways are involved in the onset of senescence. Since simvastatin can act as a pro-oxidant agent, and oxidative stress may be related to senescence, we measured the intracellular ROS levels in WM9 cells upon simvastatin treatment. Interestingly, we found an increased amount of intracellular ROS in these cells, which was accompanied by elevated expression of catalase and peroxiredoxin-1. Collectively, our results demonstrated that simvastatin can induce senescence in human melanoma cells by activation of p53/p21 pathway, and that oxidative stress may be related to this process. - Highlights: • Lower concentrations of simvastatin can induce senescent phenotype in melanoma cells. • Simvastatin induces senescence in human melanoma cells via p53/p21 pathway. • Senescent phenotype is related with increased intracellular ROS. • Partial detoxification of ROS by catalase/peroxiredoxin-1 could lead cells to senescence rather than apoptosis.« less

  11. Effects of cococonut water and simvastatin in the treatment of sepsis and hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Vanessa de Fátima Lima Paiva; Azevedo, Ítalo Medeiros; Carvalho, Marília Daniela Ferreira; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of modified coconut water as fluid of resuscitation combined with simvastatin in hemorrhagic shock and sepsis model in rats. Four groups of Wistar rats with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal sepsis were studied (n=8/group). Rats were bled and maintained at a mean blood pressure 35mmHg for 60min. They were then resuscitated with: 1) saline 0.9%; 2) coconut water+3% NaCl; 3) coconut water+NaCl 3%+simvastatin microemulsion (10 mg/kg i.v.; 4) normal coconut water. At 8h post-resuscitation, blood and lungs were collected for exams. Clinical scores, TNF-α, IL-1β, liver/kidney proof levels, and lung injury were significantly reduced in coconut water+NaCl 3%+simvastatin group treated rats, comparing with the other resuscitation treatments. Resuscitation with coconut water with Nacl 3%+simvastatin had a significant beneficial effect on downregulating cytokines and decreasing lung injury in a rat model of abdominal sepsis and hemorrhagic shock. We also demonstrated that coconut water with Nacl 3%+simvastatin administration clearly made liver and kidney function better and improved clinical score.

  12. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  13. Effects of Simvastatin on Cholesterol Metabolism and Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Vega, Gloria L.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Locascio, Joseph J.; Tennis, Marsha K.; Deng, Amy; Atri, Alireza; Hyman, Bradley T.; Irizarry, Michael C.; Growdon, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest a protective effect of statins on Alzheimer disease (AD). Experimental evidence indicates that some statins can cross the blood-brain barrier, alter brain cholesterol metabolism, and may ultimately decrease the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Despite these promising leads, clinical trials have yielded inconsistent results regarding the benefits of statin treatment in AD. Seeking to detect a biological signal of statins effect on AD, we conducted a 12-week open-label trial with simvastatin 40 mg/d and then 80 mg/d in 12 patients with AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment and hypercholesterolemia. We quantified cholesterol precursors and metabolites and AD biomarkers of Aβ and tau in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid at baseline and after the 12-week treatment period. We found a modest but significant inhibition of brain cholesterol biosynthesis after simvastatin treatment, as indexed by a decrease of cerebrospinal fluid lathosterol and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol. Despite this effect, there were no changes in AD biomarkers. Our findings indicate that simvastatin treatment can affect brain cholesterol metabolism within 12 weeks, but did not alter molecular indices of AD pathology during this short-term treatment. PMID:20473136

  14. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simvastatin reduces wasting and improves cardiac function as well as outcome in experimental cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Palus, Sandra; von Haehling, Stephan; Flach, Valerie C; Tschirner, Anika; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2013-10-09

    Chronic inflammation is common in cancer cachexia (CC) and directly involved in the atrophy seen in this condition. Recently, several groups have described a form of cardiomyopathy in CC animal models. Hence, we investigated the effect of simvastatin with its known anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects in a rat model of CC. Juvenile Wister Han rats (weight approx. 200 g) were inoculated with Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma cells and treated once daily with 0.1, 1, 10 or 20 mg/kg/d simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. Body weight and body composition (NMR) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography at baseline and day 11. Tumour-bearing, placebo-treated rats lost 47.9±3.8 g of their initial body weight. Treatment with 0.1, 1, 10 or 20 mg/kg/d simvastatin significantly reduced wasting by 39.6%, 47.6%, 28.5% and 35.4%, respectively (all p<0.05 vs. placebo). This was mainly due to reduced atrophy of lean mass, i.e. muscle mass. Cardiac function was significantly improved, e.g. cardiac output (untreated sham: 78.9 mL/min) was severely impaired in tumour-bearing rats (42.4 mL/min) and improved by 1, 10 or 20 mg/kg/d simvastatin (62.2, 59.0 and 57.0 mL/min, respectively, all p<0.05 vs. placebo). Most importantly, 10 or 20 mg/kg/d simvastatin reduced mortality (HR:0.16, 95%CI:0.04-0.76, p=0.021 and HR:0.16, 95%CI:0.03-0.72, p=0.017 vs placebo, respectively). Simvastatin attenuated loss of body weight as well as muscle mass and improved cardiac function leading to improved survival in this CC model. Simvastatin may be beneficial in a clinical setting to treat CC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  17. Atorvastatin and Simvastatin Promoted Mouse Lung Repair After Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Vanessa; Melo, Adriana Correa; Kennedy-Feitosa, Emanuel; Graca-Reis, Adriane; Barroso, Marina Valente; Cattani-Cavalieri, Isabella; Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Zin, Walter Araújo; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Gitirana, Lycia Brito; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) induces pulmonary emphysema by inflammation, oxidative stress, and metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Pharmacological research studies have not focused on tissue repair after the establishment of emphysema but have instead focused on inflammatory stimulation. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on mouse lung repair after emphysema caused by CS. Male mice (C57BL/6, n = 45) were divided into the following groups: control (sham-exposed), CSr (mice exposed to 12 cigarettes a day for 60 days and then treated for another 60 days with the vehicle), CSr+A (CSr mice treated with atorvastatin for 60 days), and CSr+S (CSr mice treated with simvastatin for 60 days). The treatment with atorvastatin and simvastatin was administered via inhalation (15 min with 1 mg/mL once a day). Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the completion of the 120-day experimental procedure. We performed biochemical, morphological, and physiological analyses. We observed decreased levels of leukocytes and cytokines in statin-treated mice, accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress markers. We also observed a morphological improvement confirmed by a mean linear intercept counting in statin-treated mice. Finally, statins also ameliorated lung function. We conclude that inhaled atorvastatin and simvastatin improved lung repair after cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  18. Prevention of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular remodeling by antenatal simvastatin treatment in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Makanga, Martine; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Dewachter, Celine; Da Costa, Agnès Mendes; Hupkens, Emeline; de Medina, Geoffrey; Naeije, Robert; Dewachter, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has a high mortality rate mainly due to lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Simvastatin has been shown to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in experimental models of PH. We, therefore, hypothesized that antenatal simvastatin would attenuate PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH in rats. The efficacy of antenatal simvastatin was compared with antenatal sildenafil, which has already been shown to improve pathological features of PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH. On embryonic day (E) 9.5, nitrofen or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. On E11, nitrofen-treated rats were randomly assigned to antenatal simvastatin (20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally), antenatal sildenafil (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally), or placebo administration from E11 to E21. On E21, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section, killed, and checked for left-sided CDH. Lung tissue was then harvested for further pathobiological evaluation. In nitrofen-induced CDH, simvastatin failed to reduce the incidence of nitrofen-induced CDH in the offspring and to increase the body weight, but improved the lung-to-body weight ratio and lung parenchyma structure. Antenatal simvastatin restored the pulmonary vessel density and external diameter, and reduced the pulmonary arteriolar remodeling compared with nitrofen-induced CDH. This was associated with decreased lung expression of endothelin precursor, endothelin type A and B receptors, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, together with restored lung activation of apoptotic processes mainly in the epithelium. Antenatal simvastatin presented similar effects as antenatal therapy with sildenafil on nitrofen-induced CDH. Antenatal simvastatin improves pathological features of lung hypoplasia and PPHN in experimental nitrofen-induced CDH. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Prevention of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular remodeling by antenatal simvastatin treatment in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Makanga, Martine; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Dewachter, Celine; Da Costa, Agnès Mendes; Hupkens, Emeline; de Medina, Geoffrey; Naeije, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has a high mortality rate mainly due to lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Simvastatin has been shown to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in experimental models of PH. We, therefore, hypothesized that antenatal simvastatin would attenuate PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH in rats. The efficacy of antenatal simvastatin was compared with antenatal sildenafil, which has already been shown to improve pathological features of PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH. On embryonic day (E) 9.5, nitrofen or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. On E11, nitrofen-treated rats were randomly assigned to antenatal simvastatin (20 mg·kg−1·day−1 orally), antenatal sildenafil (100 mg·kg−1·day−1 orally), or placebo administration from E11 to E21. On E21, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section, killed, and checked for left-sided CDH. Lung tissue was then harvested for further pathobiological evaluation. In nitrofen-induced CDH, simvastatin failed to reduce the incidence of nitrofen-induced CDH in the offspring and to increase the body weight, but improved the lung-to-body weight ratio and lung parenchyma structure. Antenatal simvastatin restored the pulmonary vessel density and external diameter, and reduced the pulmonary arteriolar remodeling compared with nitrofen-induced CDH. This was associated with decreased lung expression of endothelin precursor, endothelin type A and B receptors, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, together with restored lung activation of apoptotic processes mainly in the epithelium. Antenatal simvastatin presented similar effects as antenatal therapy with sildenafil on nitrofen-induced CDH. Antenatal simvastatin improves pathological features of lung hypoplasia and PPHN in experimental nitrofen-induced CDH. PMID:25617377

  20. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  1. New Fixed-Dose Combinations of Fenofibrate/Simvastatin Therapy Significantly Improve the Lipid Profile of High-Risk Patients with Mixed Dyslipidemia Versus Monotherapies.

    PubMed

    Foucher, Christelle; Aubonnet, Patrick; Reichert, Petr; Berli, Mario; Schaeffer, Axel; Calvo Vargas, Cesar Gonzalo; Lochocka, Anna; Belenky, Dmitry; Koch, Hans-Friedrich

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines propose additional therapy to statin to treat elevated triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) in dyslipidemic patients. We evaluated the effects of new fixed-dose combinations (FDC) of fenofibrate/simvastatin on plasma lipids versus simvastatin or fenofibrate monotherapies. Subjects with mixed dyslipidemia at high or very high cardiovascular risk on stable statin therapy for at least 3 months were included in a randomized, double-blind, active-control, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin 145/20 mg or 145/40 mg, simvastatin 20 mg or 40 mg, or fenofibrate 145 mg for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C were measured before and after treatments. Differences in % changes were compared between FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin and monotherapies. Significant differences between FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin and simvastatin monotherapies were observed for the % change of TG (LS mean difference [two-sided 95% CI]: -32.2% [-38.6%, -25.8%], P < 0.001) and HDL-C (7.5% [4.7%, 10.2%], P < 0.001). A significant difference between the FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin and fenofibrate was observed for LDLC % changes (-34.7% [-40.8%, -28.5%], P < 0.001). Significant differences between FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin and their respective monotherapies were also observed for Apo B and non-HDLC % changes. The FDC were well tolerated with a similar safety profile compared with monotherapies. FDC fenofibrate/simvastatin are effective and well-tolerated therapies to improve the TG and HDLC profile in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of Simvastatin Beyond Dyslipidemia: Exploring Its Antinociceptive Action in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type I

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Graziela; Cavalli, Juliana; Gonçalves, Elaine C. D.; Gonçalves, Tainara R.; Laurindo, Larissa R.; Cola, Maíra; Dutra, Rafael C.

    2017-01-01

    Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that blocks the production of cholesterol through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. In addition, recent evidence has suggested its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions during inflammatory and pain disorders. Herein, we investigated the effects of simvastatin in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I, and its underlying mechanisms. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was induced by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury of the left hind paw. Our findings showed that simvastatin inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CPIP model in single and repeated treatment schedules, respectively; however simvastatin did not alter inflammatory signs during CPIP model. The mechanisms underlying those actions are related to modulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, especially TRMP8. Moreover, simvastatin oral treatment was able to reduce the nociception induced by acidified saline [an acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) activator] and bradykinin (BK) stimulus, but not by TRPA1, TRPV1 or prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2). Relevantly, the antinociceptive effects of simvastatin did not seem to be associated with modulation of the descending pain circuits, especially noradrenergic, serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. These results indicate that simvastatin consistently inhibits mechanical hyperalgesia during neuropathic and inflammatory disorders, possibly by modulating the ascending pain signaling (TRPM8/ASIC/BK pathways expressed in the primary sensory neuron). Thus, simvastatin open-up new standpoint in the development of innovative analgesic drugs for treatment of persistent pain, including CRPS-I. PMID:28928655

  3. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Taekyu; Lee, Inkyoung; Kim, Jungmin; Kang, Won Ki

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interfering RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Taekyu; Lee, Inkyoung; Kim, Jungmin

    Purpose: We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Methods and Materials: Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interferingmore » RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. Results: The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. Conclusion: We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted.« less

  5. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In-Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Open-label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. An experimental study of the protective effect of simvastatin on sepsis-induced myocardial depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lichun; Zhao, Xin; Yang, Wenping; Zhang, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Many patients with sepsis died of heart failure caused by sepsis-induced myocardial depression. Patients with cardiovascular diseases treated by statins have a lower incidence and mortality of sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. To investigate the protective effect of simvastatin on sepsis-induced myocardial depression and to explore possible mechanisms of action. Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with simvastatin (0.2μg/g, q12h) for one week before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). It was found that in simvastatin-treated rats, cardiac function indices, including left ventricular systolic pressure (LVESP) and maximal rate of rise and fall of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax) and mean arterial pressure(MAP) markedly improved. Myocardial cells examined with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) were only partially swollen and degenerated and with fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating. Expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 protein were significantly lower in simvastatin-treated rats than that in sepsis rats at the same time point. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and NO in myocardial tissues, together with levels of CTnI in serum were significantly declined in simvastatin-treated rats. Simvastatin has a protective effect on myocardial depression caused by sepsis. The effect may be mediated by the inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway, which leads to reduced levels of downstream inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and NO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Nelfinavir and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitors Atorvastatin and Simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Hsyu, Poe-Hirr; Schultz-Smith, Melissa D.; Lillibridge, James H.; Lewis, Ronald H.; Kerr, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are effective agents in lowering cholesterol and triglycerides and are being used by human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients to treat the lipid elevation that may be associated with antiretroviral therapy. Many HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and protease inhibitors are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). In addition, many protease inhibitors are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Therefore, coadministration of these two classes of drugs may cause significant drug interactions. This open-label, multiple-dose study was performed to determine the interactions between nelfinavir, a protease inhibitor, and two HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin and simvastatin, in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy subjects received either atorvastatin calcium (10 mg once a day) or simvastatin (20 mg once a day) for the first 14 days of the study. Nelfinavir (1,250 mg twice a day) was added on days 15 to 28. Pharmacokinetic assessment was performed on days 14 and 28. The study drugs were well tolerated. Nelfinavir increased the steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve during one dosing period (AUCτ) of atorvastatin 74% and the maximum concentration (Cmax) of atorvastatin 122% and increased the AUCτ of simvastatin 505% and the Cmax of simvastatin 517%. Neither atorvastatin nor simvastatin appeared to alter the pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir. It is recommended that coadministration of simvastatin with nelfinavir should be avoided, whereas atorvastatin should be used with nelfinavir with caution. PMID:11709322

  9. Structural Analysis of Alterations in Zebrafish Muscle Differentiation Induced by Simvastatin and Their Recovery with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M.; Rios, Eduardo A.; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin—a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease—during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. PMID:25786435

  10. Simvastatin induces derepression of PTEN expression via NFkappaB to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Nayana; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam

    2010-05-01

    Sustained activation of Akt kinase acts as a focal regulator to increase cell growth and survival, which causes tumorigenesis including breast cancer. Statins, potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, display anticancer activity. The molecular mechanisms by which statins block cancer cell growth are poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the tumors derived from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell xenografts, simvastatin significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt with concomitant attenuation of the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl(XL). In many cancer cells, Bcl(XL) is a target of NFkappaB. Simvastatin inhibited the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of NFkappaB resulting in marked reduction in transcription of Bcl(XL). Signals transmitted by anti-neoplastic mechanism implanted in the cancer cells serve to obstruct the initial outgrowth of tumors. One such mechanism represents the action of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN, which negatively regulates Akt kinase activity. We provide the first evidence for significantly increased levels of PTEN in the tumors of simvastatin-administered mice. Importantly, simvastatin markedly prevented binding of NFkappaB to the two canonical recognition elements, NFRE-1 and NFRE-2 present in the PTEN promoter. Contrary to the transcriptional suppression of Bcl(XL), simvastatin significantly increased the transcription of PTEN. Furthermore, expression of NFkappaB p65 subunit inhibited transcription of PTEN, resulting in reduced protein expression, which leads to enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, our data present a novel bifaceted mechanism where simvastatin acts on a nodal transcription factor NFkappaB, which attenuates the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl(XL) and simultaneously derepresses the expression of anti-proliferative/proapoptotic tumor suppressor PTEN to prevent breast cancer cell growth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effect of the Combination of Ezetimibe and Simvastatin on Gluconeogenesis and Oxygen Consumption in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Lívia; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bracht, Adelar; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin on gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Rats were treated daily for 28 days with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin (10/40 mg/kg) by oral gavage. To measure gluconeogenesis and the associated pathways, isolated perfused rat liver was used. In addition, subcellular fractions, such as microsomes and mitochondria, were used for complementary measures of enzymatic activities. Treatment with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe resulted in a decrease in gluconeogenesis from pyruvate (-62%). Basal oxygen consumption of the treated animals was higher (+22%) than that of the control rats, but the resulting oxygen consumption that occurred after pyruvate infusion was 43% lower in animals treated with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe. Oxygen consumption in the livers from treated animals was completely inhibited by cyanide (electron transport chain inhibitor), but not by proadifen (cytochrome P450 inhibitor). Chronic treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin decreased the activity of the key enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by 59% and 45%, respectively, which is probably the major reason for the decreased gluconeogenesis seen in ezetimibe-/simvastatin-treated rats. It is also possible that part of the effect of this combination on gluconeogenesis and on the oxygen consumption is related to the impairment of mitochondrial energy transduction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. Case reports: alopecia universalis: hair growth following initiation of simvastatin and ezetimibe therapy.

    PubMed

    Robins, Douglas N

    2007-09-01

    Alopecia areata is an organ specific autoimmune disease in which hair is lost in various patterns. Its most extreme form, alopecia universalis, is the total loss of all scalp and body hair. This form of the condition is very resistant to treatment and spontaneous remission is quite rare. The following is a case of a 54-year-old male with longstanding alopecia universalis who began to grow dense hair on his scalp as well as patchy hair growth on his face, pubic and axillary areas one month after starting a course of simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily prescribed for his hyperlipidemia. For 2 years prior to starting the combination drug, he had taken simvastatin 40 mg alone without evidence of any hair growth. The combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe has previously demonstrated synergistic immunomodulatory effects, which most likely accounts for the clinical response in this case.

  13. Simultaneous determination of ezetimibe and simvastatin in pharmaceutical preparations by MEKC.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Ceren; Ozaltin, Nuran

    2010-02-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe and simvastatin in pharmaceutical preparations. The influence of buffer concentration, buffer pH, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentration, organic modifier, capillary temperature, applied voltage, and injection time was investigated, and the method validation studies were performed. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved in less than 10 min at 30 degrees C with a fused-silica capillary column (56 cm x 50 microm i.d.) and a 25mM borate buffer at pH 9.0 containing 25mM SDS and 10% (v/v) acetonitrile. The samples were injected hydrodynamically for 3 s at 50 mbar, and the applied voltage was +30.0 kV. Detection wavelength was set at 238 nm. Diflunisal was used as internal standard. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 and 2.0 microg/mL for both ezetimibe and simvastatin, respectively. The method developed was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe and simvastatin in pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Three months of simvastatin therapy vs. placebo for severe portal hypertension in cirrhosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pollo-Flores, Priscila; Soldan, Mônica; Santos, Ubiratan Cassano; Kunz, Danielle Gobbi; Mattos, Denise Espindola; da Silva, Alexandre Cerqueira; Marchiori, Roberta Cabral; Rezende, Guilherme Ferreira da Motta

    2015-11-01

    Pleiotropic effects of statins decrease intrahepatic resistance and portal hypertension. We evaluated the effects of simvastatin on hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and azygos vein blood flow in cirrhotic patients. A 3-month prospective, randomized, triple-blind trial with simvastatin (40 mg/day) vs. placebo was conducted in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. HVPG and azygos blood flow, measured by colour Doppler endoscopic ultrasound, were assessed before and after treatment. The primary endpoint was a decrease in the HVPG of at least 20% from baseline or to ≤12 mmHg after the treatment. 34 patients were prospectively enrolled, and 24 completed the protocol. In the simvastatin group 6/11 patients (55%) presented a clinically relevant decrease in the HVPG; no decrease was observed in the placebo group (p=0.036). Patients with medium/large oesophageal varices and previous variceal bleeding had a higher response rate to simvastatin. HVPG and azygos blood flow values were not correlated. No significant adverse events occurred. Simvastatin lowers portal pressure and may even improve liver function. The haemodynamic effect appears to be more evident in patients with severe portal hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-step production of the simvastatin precursor monacolin J by engineering of an industrial strain of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuenian; Liang, Yajing; Yang, Yong; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    Monacolin J is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (Zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. Industrially, monacolin J is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by Aspergillus terreus. Multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. A biocatalysis process for monacolin J conversion to simvastatin has been developed. However, direct bioproduction of monacolin J has not yet been achieved. Here, we identified a lovastatin hydrolase from Penicillium chrysogenum, which displays a 232-fold higher catalytic efficiency for the in vitro hydrolysis of lovastatin compared to a previously patented hydrolase, but no activity for simvastatin. Furthermore, we showed that an industrial A. terreus strain heterologously expressing this lovastatin hydrolase can produce monacolin J through single-step fermentation with high efficiency, approximately 95% of the biosynthesized lovastatin was hydrolyzed to monacolin J. Our results demonstrate a simple and green technical route for the production of monacolin J, which makes complete bioproduction of the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin feasible and promising. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of simvastatin and metformin on inflammation and insulin resistance in individuals with mild metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulcão, Caroline; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Sañudo, Adriana; Roberta Ferreira, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    In addition to lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) and metformin may have pleiotropic effects. To study the effect of simvastatin and metformin on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Forty-one subjects with body mass index (BMI) 25-39.9 kg/m(2) and impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to receive simvastatin or metformin for 16 weeks. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters before and after each treatment. As expected, when compared with simvastatin, metformin therapy resulted in significant reductions in mean BMI, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), whereas simvastatin treatment resulted in significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B levels. Independently of the medication used, significant decreases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 were detected from baseline to treatment end. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 +/- 0.04 mg/dL (p = 0.002) over the 16-week intervention period and IL-6 a mean reduction was 0.35 +/- 0.17 pg/mL (p = 0.046). No change was observed in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Baseline values of CRP and IL-6 and their percentage declines were correlated (r = 0.71 and r = 0.67, respectively; p < 0.001). In simvastatin recipients, no correlation was detected between reductions in CRP or IL-6 and lipids, whereas in metformin recipients, reductions in inflammatory markers were not correlated to BMI and HOMA-IR. Our findings suggest that both metformin and simvastatin have similar beneficial effects on low-grade inflammation, in addition to their classical effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Moreover, they confirm the importance of treating at-risk individuals even before the precipitation of overt diabetes mellitus or full-blown metabolic syndrome.

  17. Application of mixture experimental design to simvastatin apparent solubility predictions in the microemulsifion formed by self-microemulsifying.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jian; Zheng, Liangyuan

    2007-09-01

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) are useful to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing their apparent solubility through solubilization. However, very few studies, to date, have systematically examined the level of drug apparent solubility in o/w microemulsion formed by self-microemulsifying. In this study, a mixture experimental design was used to simulate the influence of the compositions on simvastatin apparent solubility quantitatively through an empirical model. The reduced cubic polynomial equation successfully modeled the evolution of simvastatin apparent solubility. The results were presented using an analysis of response surface showing a scale of possible simvastatin apparent solubility between 0.0024 ~ 29.0 mg/mL. Moreover, this technique showed that simvastatin apparent solubility was mainly influenced by microemulsion concentration and, suggested that the drug would precipitate in the gastrointestinal tract due to dilution by gastrointestinal fluids. Furthermore, the model would help us design the formulation to maximize the drug apparent solubility and avoid precipitation of the drug.

  18. [The effects of simvastatin combined with different antioxidant vitamin regimens on serum lipid profile in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels].

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Korkmaz, Mehmet Emin; Eroğlu, Serpil; Tayfun, Egemen; Yildirir, Aylin; Uluçam, Melek; Ozin, Bülent; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of simvastatin versus a combination of simvastatin with vitamin C or E on serum lipid profile, particularly, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) level, in patients with a low HDL-C level. Fifty-nine women and 49 men, who had a baseline HDL-C level equal to or lower than 40 mg/dl were randomized to one of the following study treatment groups: Group S (n=39) simvastatin 20 mg/day, Group S+C (n=33) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin C 500 mg/day, and Group S+E (n=36) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin E 400 IU/day. The groups' lipid profiles were obtained at baseline, 3rd and 6th months. Comparing with baseline values, total-C and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) values significantly reduced (p<0.001) and HDL-C values significantly increased (Group S--33.9+/-3.9 mg/dl vs. 39.8+/-6.9 mg/dl, Group S+C--34.2+/-3.5 mg/dl vs. 38.1+/-6.1 mg/dl, Group S+E--33.1+/-3.6 mg/dl vs. 34.8+/-5.9 mg/dl, p<0.001) on therapy within the groups; however, there were no significant differences among the groups with regards to these parameters. The HDL-C levels increased from baseline by 14.0%, 11.7% and 10.2% in Group S, S+C, and S+E, respectively (p>0.05). A combination of simvastatin with antioxidant vitamins does not offer any beneficial effect over simvastatin alone. Particularly vitamin E seems to blunt the simvastatin induced HDL-C increase.

  19. Simvastatin Treatment Upregulates HO-1 in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm but Independently of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Kopacz, Aleksandra; Kloska, Damian; Zagrapan, Branislav; Neumayer, Christoph; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Huk, Ihor; Brostjan, Christine; Dulak, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), encoded by HMOX1 gene and regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor, is a cytoprotective enzyme. Its deficiency may exacerbate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development, which is also often associated with hyperlipidemia. Beneficial effects of statins, the broadly used antilipidemic drugs, were attributed to modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 axis. However, the effect of statins on Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in patients with AAA has not been studied yet. We analyzed AAA tissue from patients treated with simvastatin (N = 28) or without statins (N = 14). Simvastatin treatment increased HO-1 protein level in AAA, both in endothelial cells (ECs) and in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but increased Nrf2 localization was restricted only to vasa vasorum. Nrf2 target genes HMOX1, NQO1, and GCLM expression remained unchanged in AAA. In vitro studies showed that simvastatin raises HO-1 protein level slightly in ECs and to much higher extent in SMCs, which is not related to Nrf2/ARE activation, although HMOX1 expression is upregulated by simvastatin in both cell types. In conclusion, simvastatin-induced modulation of HO-1 level in ECs and SMCs in vitro is not related to Nrf2/ARE activity. Likewise, divergent HO-1 and Nrf2 localization together with stable expression of Nrf2 target genes, including HMOX1, in AAA tissue denotes Nrf2 independency. PMID:29743974

  20. Biofunctionalization of Titanium Granules with Simvastatin for Improving Osteogenic Activity and Antibacterial Properties (Ex Vivo Study).

    PubMed

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Abbasi, Shahsanam; Shafiei, Sara; Faghihi, Shahab

    Titanium-based biomaterials present good biocompatibility, while their osseointegration and antibacterial properties need to be improved. This study aimed to enhance the bone-bonding ability of titanium-based granules, which are intended to be used as bone graft. The titanium granules were anodized in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte and subsequently annealed to be loaded separately with simvastatin. The samples were then inspected with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for drug loading. The release of simvastatin from titanium granule samples was measured after soaking samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 30 days using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG63 osteosarcoma-loaded samples was measured, and microbroth dilution assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of drug-loaded and nonloaded titanium granule samples for bacterial growth. The results expressed the gradual and constant release of simvastatin within the duration of the examination. ALP of the samples showed improved activity of anodized and annealed granules, while the antibacterial test illustrated no significant improvement in their bactericidal effects. However, the simvastatin-loaded samples showed an improved antibacterial effect compared with nonloaded samples. It is assumed that anodizing, annealing, and subsequent simvastatin loading of titanium granules could be used as surface modification to improve osseointegration and restrain bacterial growth and adhesion. It is fair to believe that the results of this study could be used to treat titanium granules as bone graft substitute materials for dental and orthopedic applications.

  1. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9more » days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.« less

  2. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; ...

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9more » days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.« less

  3. Simvastatin modulates gingival cytokine and MMP production in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mouchrek Júnior, José Carlos Elias; Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Abdalla, Henrique Ballassini; Saba, Ana Karina; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Mouchrek, Adriana Quinzeiro e Silva; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Martinez, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the synthesis of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 and metalloproteinase (MMPs) 2 and 9 in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Materials and methods Twenty Wistar rats were used, and a cotton ligature was place in a subgingival position encircling the entire cervix of the first molar of the left (ipsilateral) side of the mandible. The right (contralateral) side of the mandible had no ligature placed and was used as control. After the ligature placement, animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n=10): 1) rats with ligature + vehicle (saline; 10 mL/kg; orally) and 2) rats with ligature + simvastatin (25 mg/kg; orally). After 14 days of treatment, the animals were euthanized by anesthetic overdose and the gingival tissue was removed and homogenized in appropriate buffer. MMP-2 and -9 release as well as the IL-10 and TNF-α levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical comparison was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test, with p<0.05 representing significance. Results No differences were observed for TNF-α production between the groups (p>0.05). However, IL-10 was upregulated in simvastatin-treated animals (1.8-fold increase) in comparison with the vehicle-treated group (p<0.05). Simvastatin reduced the gingival levels of MMP-9 (64.3%) in comparison with vehicle-treated samples (p<0.05). Conclusion Oral treatment with simvastatin increased the release of IL-10 and reduced the MMP-9 in ligature-induced periodontitis model in rats. PMID:28553143

  4. Energetics and structure of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ricardo G; Bernardes, Carlos E S; Diogo, Hermínio P; Agapito, Filipe; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E

    2013-07-01

    The study of structure-energetics relationships for active pharmaceutical ingredients has received considerable attention in recent years, due to its importance for the effective production and safe use of drugs. In this work the widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin was investigated by combining experimental (combustion calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) and computational chemistry (quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics calculations) results. The studies addressed the crystalline form stable at ambient temperature (form I) and the liquid and gaseous phases. Heat capacity determinations by DSC showed no evidence of polymorphism between 293 K and the fusion temperature. It was also found that the most stable molecular conformation in the gas phase given by the quantum chemistry calculations (B3LYP-D3/cc-pVTZ) is analogous to that observed in the crystal phase. The molecular dynamics simulations correctly captured the main structural properties of the crystalline phase known from published single crystal X-ray diffraction results (unit cell dimensions and volume). They also suggested that, while preferential conformations are exhibited by the molecule in the solid at 298.15 K, these preferences are essentially blurred upon melting. Finally, the experiments and calculations led to enthalpies of formation of simvastatin at 298.15 K, in the crystalline (form I) ΔfH(m)(o) (cr I) = -1238.4 ± 5.6 kJ · mol(-1), liquid ΔfH(m)(o) (l) = -1226.4 ± 5.7 kJ · mol(-1), and gaseous ΔfH(m)(o) (g) = -1063.0 ± 7.1 kJ · mol(-1) states.

  5. Simvastatin mitigates functional and structural impairment of lung and right ventricle in a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Lihong; Li, Zhu; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate an effect of simvastatin on cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of simvastatin. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for histopathologic and morphometric analysis. Body weight of rat, mean liner intercept (MLI), mean alveolar number (MAN), lung function test, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and 5-HTT level in serum and BALF were examined in experimental rats, respectively. Application of simvastatin mitigated peribronchiolar inflammation and pulmonary bullae formed in the smoke-exposed lungs with weight gain as compared to the smoking rats (P < 0.05). Simvastatin-treated rats showed slight but significant decreases in MLI and MAN with a partial reversal of lung function decline (all P < 0.05). Treatment with simvastatin resulted in a significant decrease not only in mPAP and RVHI but also in a 5-HTT level in serum and BALF (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with a good correlation between the 5-HTT level and mPAP or RVHI (r = 0.693 and 0.479; 0.675 and 0.508). Simvastatin partly reverses lung function decline and attenuates structural impairments of lung and right ventricle possibly through reducing 5-HTT content in the model of COPD.

  6. Simvastatin mitigates functional and structural impairment of lung and right ventricle in a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajie; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Lihong; Li, Zhu; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study is conducted to investigate an effect of simvastatin on cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Methods: Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of simvastatin. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for histopathologic and morphometric analysis. Body weight of rat, mean liner intercept (MLI), mean alveolar number (MAN), lung function test, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and 5-HTT level in serum and BALF were examined in experimental rats, respectively. Results: Application of simvastatin mitigated peribronchiolar inflammation and pulmonary bullae formed in the smoke-exposed lungs with weight gain as compared to the smoking rats (P < 0.05). Simvastatin-treated rats showed slight but significant decreases in MLI and MAN with a partial reversal of lung function decline (all P < 0.05). Treatment with simvastatin resulted in a significant decrease not only in mPAP and RVHI but also in a 5-HTT level in serum and BALF (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with a good correlation between the 5-HTT level and mPAP or RVHI (r = 0.693 and 0.479; 0.675 and 0.508). Conclusion: Simvastatin partly reverses lung function decline and attenuates structural impairments of lung and right ventricle possibly through reducing 5-HTT content in the model of COPD. PMID:25674219

  7. Application of ion-trap mass spectrometry for identification and structural determination of an unknown impurity in simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Ram; Kumar, A Praveen; Reddy, B Venkateswara; Sreeramulu, J

    2009-10-01

    Anhydro-simvastatin and simvastatin dimer are the two main impurities in the fermentation broth as well as in the final product of simvastatin, which is a hypolipidemic drug. An unknown impurity with m/z 451 for [(M + H)(+)] was detected in the analysis of final simvastatin drug sample. By using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS spectra, the unknown impurity was detected and identified. Separation was achieved on ACE-5 C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 3 microm column) at the flow rate of 1.2 ml min(-1) applying gradient elution of mobile phase A consisting of Milli-Q water of pH 3.0 with formic acid and B consisting of acetonitrile. MS/MS spectrum of the unknown impurity was obtained using HPLC-MS equipped with positive electrosoray ionization (ESI). The unknown impurity is named as 7-[7-(2,2-dimethyl-butyryloxy)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-naphthalen-1 -yl]-3-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-heptanoic acid.

  8. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  9. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad AS; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin. PMID:27757012

  10. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2015-10-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases.

  11. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Nicholas P.; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L.; Adams, Marvin E.; Froehner, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26417069

  12. The effects of vitamin E-coated membrane dialyzer compared to simvastatin in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kirmizis, Dimitrios; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Dogrammatzi, Fani; Belechri, Anna-Maria; Alexopoulos, Efstathios; Efstratiadis, Georgios; Memmos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the use of vitamin E-coated membrane (VEM) dialyzer in comparison to simvastatin on markers of chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial cell apoptosis in ten patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), aiming at distinguishing the different treatment effects and their time sequence on these pathogenetic routes. Ten HD patients were sequentially submitted to a 6-month treatment with the use of VEM and 10 mg of simvastatin daily, interrupted by a 3-month washout period. At baseline, at 3, and 6 months of each trial, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and B, lipoprotein-a [Lp(a)], high-sensitivity interleukin-6 (hsIL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), and plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) levels were determined. VEM treatment resulted in a significant decrease in CRP, IL-6, sICAM-1 at 3 months, and oxLDL at 6 months, compared to baseline. Simvastatin resulted in a significant decrease in CRP, which correlated with decreases in both total (r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, oxLDL, and sFas at 6 months, compared to baseline. Simvastatin effects on sVCAM-1 (mean difference = 652 ng/mL; 95% CI = 294 to 2686; p < 0.05) and sFas (mean difference = 1284 pg/mL; 95% CI = 510 to 1910; p < 0.05) differed significantly from the corresponding VEM effects. The 6-month use of VEM resulted in more direct and immediate anti-inflammatory effects compared with those caused by the 6-month treatment with simvastatin. Simvastatin caused a more intense decrease in the markers of inflammation, which was in part correlated with its lipid-lowering effects.

  13. [Constrained competition in parallel drug importation: the case of simvastatin in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom].

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Kanavos, Panos

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of parallel simvastatin importation on drug price in three of the main parallel importing countries in the European Union, namely the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. To estimate the market share of parallel imported simvastatin and the unit price -both locally produced and parallel imported- adjusted by defined daily dose in the importing country and in the exporting country (Spain). Ordinary least squares regression was used to examine the potential price competition resulting from parallel drug trade between 1997 and 2002. The market share of parallel imported simvastatin progressively expanded (especially in the United Kingdom and Germany) in the period examined, although the price difference between parallel imported and locally sourced simvastatin was not significant. Prices tended to rise in the United Kingdom and Germany and declined in the Netherlands. We found no evidence of pro-competitive effects resulting from the expansion of parallel trade. The development of parallel drug importation in the European Union produced unexpected effects (limited competition) on prices that differ from those expected by the introduction of a new competitor. This is partially the result of drug price regulation scant incentives to competition and of the lack of transparency in the drug reimbursement system, especially due to the effect of informal discounts (not observable to researchers). The case of simvastatin reveals that savings to the health system from parallel trade are trivial. Finally, of the three countries examined, the only country that shows a moderate downward pattern in simvastatin prices is the Netherlands. This effect can be attributed to the existence of a system that claws back informal discounts.

  14. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin and Simvastatin in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, P.; Bhaskar, V. Udaya; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2014-01-01

    A new stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous analysis of sitagliptin and simvastatin in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (70:30, v/v) with 0.2 % of n-heptane sulfonic acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid was used. Retentions of sitagliptin and simvastatin were 4.3 min and 30.4 min, respectively with a flow rate of 1 ml/min on C8 (Qualisil BDS, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ). Eluents were detected at 253 nm using photodiode diode array detector. The linear regression analysis data for the linearity plot showed correlation coefficient values of 0.9998 and 0.9993 for sitagliptin and simvastatin, with respective concentration ranges of 20-150 μg/ml and 8-60 μg/ml. The relative standard deviation for inter-day precision was lower than 2.0%. The assay of sitagliptin and simvastatin was determined in tablet dosage form was found to be within limits. Both drugs were subjected to a variety of stress conditions such as acidic, basic, oxidation, photolytic, neutral and thermal stress in order to achieve adequate degradation. Results revealed that considerable degradation was found in all stress conditions except oxidative degradations. The method has proven specificity for stability indicating assay method. PMID:25425754

  15. Simvastatin Inhibits IL-5-Induced Chemotaxis and CCR3 Expression of HL-60-Derived and Human Primary Eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Wan-Chun; Lee, Ta-Jen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Su Pang, Jong-Hwei

    2016-01-01

    IL-5-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils is an important feature of allergic airway inflammatory diseases. Simvastatin, a lipid lowering agent, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Our aim was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on IL-5-induced eosinophil chemotaxis and its regulatory mechanisms. Eosinophils were derived by treating HL-60 clone 15 (HC15) cells with butyric acid (BA) in an alkaline condition or through direct isolation from human peripheral blood. The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and interleukin (IL)-5 receptors (IL5Rα and β) were analyzed using RT/real-time PCR. The granular proteins were stained using fast green. Eotaxin-induced chemotaxis was measured using a transwell migration assay. CCR3 protein expression was revealed by immunocytochemistry. An animal model of allergic rhinitis was established by challenging Sprague-Dawley® rats repeatedly with ovalbumin. Butyric acid significantly increased the expression of IL5Rα and IL5Rβ, CCR3 and granular proteins in HC15 cells, indicating the maturation of eosinophils (BA-E cells). IL-5 further enhanced the CCR3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis of BA-E cells. Simvastatin inhibited the effects of IL-5 on BA-E cells, but not in the presence of mevalonate. Similar results were also exhibited in human primary eosinophils. In vivo animal studies further confirmed that oral simvastatin could significantly suppress the infiltration of eosinophils into turbinate tissues of allergic rats. Therefore, simvastatin was demonstrated to inhibit IL-5-induced CCR3 expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils mediated via the mevalonate pathway. We confirmed that simvastatin also reduced eosinophilic infiltration in allergic rhinitis.

  16. Effect of Simvastatin, Coenzyme Q10, Resveratrol, Acetylcysteine and Acetylcarnitine on Mitochondrial Respiration.

    PubMed

    Fišar, Z; Hroudová, J; Singh, N; Kopřivová, A; Macečková, D

    2016-01-01

    Some therapeutic and/or adverse effects of drugs may be related to their effects on mitochondrial function. The effects of simvastatin, resveratrol, coenzyme Q10, acetylcysteine, and acetylcarnitine on Complex I-, Complex II-, or Complex IV-linked respiratory rate were determined in isolated brain mitochondria. The protective effects of these biologically active compounds on the calcium-induced decrease of the respiratory rate were also studied. We observed a significant inhibitory effect of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration (IC50 = 24.0 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 31.3 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 42.9 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration); the inhibitory effect of resveratrol was found at very high concentrations (IC50 = 162 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 564 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 1454 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration). Concentrations required for effective simvastatin- or resveratrol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration were found much higher than concentrations achieved under standard dosing of these drugs. Acetylcysteine and acetylcarnitine did not affect the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria. Coenzyme Q10 induced an increase of Complex I-linked respiration. The increase of free calcium ions induced partial inhibition of the Complex I+II-linked mitochondrial respiration, and all tested drugs counteracted this inhibition. None of the tested drugs showed mitochondrial toxicity (characterized by respiratory rate inhibition) at drug concentrations achieved at therapeutic drug intake. Resveratrol, simvastatin, and acetylcarnitine had the greatest neuroprotective potential (characterized by protective effects against calcium-induced reduction of the respiratory rate).

  17. Simvastatin as an Adjunct to Conventional Therapy of Non-infectious Uveitis: A Randomized, Open-Label Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shirinsky, Ivan V; Biryukova, Anastasia A; Shirinsky, Valery S

    2017-12-01

    Statins have been shown to reduce ocular inflammation in animal models of uveitis and to prevent development of uveitis in observational studies. There have been no experimental human studies evaluating statins' efficacy and safety in uveitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate efficacy and safety of simvastatin in patients with uveitis. For this single-center, open-label, randomized study, we enrolled patients with acute non-infectious uveitis. The patients were randomized to receive 40 mg simvastatin per day for 2 months in addition to conventional treatment or conventional treatment alone. The studied outcomes were the rate of steroid-sparing control of ocular inflammation, measures of ocular inflammation, intraocular pressure, and visual acuity. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five patients were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin with conventional treatment and 25 to conventional treatment alone. Simvastatin was associated with significantly higher rates of steroid-sparing ocular inflammation control, decrease in anterior chamber inflammation, and improvement in visual acuity. The treatment was well tolerated, no serious adverse effects were observed. Our findings suggest that statins may have therapeutic potential in uveitis. These results need to be confirmed in double-blind, randomized, controlled studies.

  18. Effect of simvastatin on the resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a non-small cell lung cancer with the T790M mutation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kwon, Su-Jin; Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Do-Sim; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2014-05-01

    Although non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors with activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are highly responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) including gefitinib and erlotinib, development of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. Statins show antitumor activity, but it is unknown whether they can reverse EGFR-TKIs resistance in NSCLC with the T790M mutation of EGFR. This study investigated overcoming resistance to EGFR-TKI using simvastatin. We demonstrated that addition of simvastatin to gefitinib enhanced caspase-dependent apoptosis in T790M mutant NSCLC cells. Simvastatin also strongly inhibited AKT activation, leading to suppression of β-catenin activity and the expression of its targets, survivin and cyclin D1. Both insulin treatment and AKT overexpression markedly increased p-β-catenin and survivin levels, even in the presence of gefitinib and simvastatin. However, inhibition of AKT by siRNA or LY294002 treatment decreased p-β-catenin and survivin levels. To determine the role of survivin in simvastatin-induced apoptosis of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC, we showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells following treatment with survivin siRNA and the gefitinib-simvastatin combination was greater than the theoretical additive effects, whereas survivin up-regulation could confer protection against gefitinib and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Similar results were obtained in erlotinib and simvastatin-treated HCC827/ER cells. These findings suggest that survivin is a key molecule that renders T790M mutant NSCLC cells resistant to apoptosis induced by EGFR-TKIs and simvastatin. Overall, these data indicate that simvastatin may overcome EGFR-TKI resistance in T790M mutant NSCLCs via an AKT/β-catenin signaling-dependent down-regulation of survivin and apoptosis induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of membrane cholesterol and simvastatin on red blood cell deformability and ATP release.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alison M; Braunmüller, Susanne; Wan, Jiandi; Franke, Thomas; Stone, Howard A

    2012-05-01

    It is known that deformation of red blood cells (RBCs) is linked to ATP release from the cells. Further, membrane cholesterol has been shown to alter properties of the cell membrane such as fluidity and bending stiffness. Membrane cholesterol content is increased in some cardiovascular diseases, for example, in individuals with acute coronary syndromes and chronic stable angina, and therefore, because of the potential clinical relevance, we investigated the influence of altered RBC membrane cholesterol levels on ATP release. Because of the correlation between statins and reduced membrane cholesterol in vivo, we also investigated the effects of simvastatin on RBC deformation and ATP release. We found that reducing membrane cholesterol increases cell deformability and ATP release. We also found that simvastatin increases deformability by acting directly on the membrane in the absence of the liver, and that ATP release was increased for cells with enriched cholesterol after treatment with simvastatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of simvastatin on the oxygen transport function and prooxidant - antioxidant balance in blood].

    PubMed

    Glutkina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The effects of simvastatin on the blood oxygen transport function and indices of prooxidant - antioxidant balance at incubation have been studied. Simvastatin at a concentration of 100 ng/ml increases p50 (the blood pO2 corresponding to its 50% oxygen saturation) at real values of pH and pCO2 from 39.53 + 2.41 (p <0.05) to 36.60 (36, 40, 37, 60) (p <0.05) mm Hg. An increase in the drug concentration led to a decrease in the level of this parameter, but in a dose-independent manner. In addition, the level of nitrates/nitrites in the blood plasma was also increased, which was evidence of increasing activity of the L-arginine-NO system. The indices of prooxidant - antioxidant balance exhibited no significant changes. The results demonstrate a new pleiotropic effect of simvastatin, which is realized via a change in the hemoglobin - oxygen affinity through modification of NO production. This effect must be taken into account in the treatment of pathology in the blood circulation.

  1. Pravastatin and simvastatin inhibit the adhesion, replication and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Sanfelice, Raquel Arruda; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Bosqui, Larissa Rodrigues; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Barbosa, Bellisa Freitas; Silva, Rafaela José; Ferro, Eloísa A Vieira; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Bordignon, Juliano; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogerio; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Costa, Idessania Nazareth

    2017-03-01

    The conventional treatment for toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine shows toxic effects to the host, and it is therefore necessary to search for new drugs. Some studies suggest the use of statins, which inhibit cholesterol synthesis in humans and also the initial processes of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the parasite. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of the statins pravastatin and simvastatin in HeLa cells infected in vitro with the RH strain of T. gondii. HeLa cells (1×10 5 ) were infected with T. gondii tachyzoites (5×10 5 ) following two different treatment protocols. In the first protocol, T. gondii tachyzoites were pretreated with pravastatin (50 and 100μg/mL) and simvastatin (1.56 and 3.125μg/mL) for 30min prior to infection. In the second, HeLa cells were first infected (5×10 5 ) with tachyzoites and subsequently treated with pravastatin and simvastatin for 24h at the concentrations noted above. Initially, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of drugs by the MTT assay, number of tachyzoites adhered to cells, number of infected cells, and viability of tachyzoites by trypan blue exclusion. The supernatant of the cell cultures was collected post-treatment for determination of the pattern of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines by cytometric bead array. There was no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells with 50 and 100μg/mL pravastatin and 1.56 and 3.125μg/mL simvastatin. There was no change in the viability of tachyzoites that received pretreatment. Regarding the pre- and post-treatment of the cells with pravastatin and simvastatin alone, there was a reduction in adhesion, invasion and proliferation of cells to T. gondii. As for the production of cytokines, we found that IL-6 and IL-17 were significantly reduced in cells infected with T. gondii and treated with pravastatin and simvastatin, when compared to control. Based on these results, we can infer that pravastatin and simvastatin alone possess antiproliferative effects on tachyzoites forms

  2. Combined influence of LDLR and HMGCR sequence variation on lipid-lowering response to simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Medina, Marisa Wong; Cui, Jinrui; Pressman, Sheila; Smith, Joshua D.; Rieder, Mark J.; Guo, Xiuqing; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Although statins are efficacious for lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDLC), there is wide inter-individual variation in response. We tested the extent to which combined effects of common alleles of LDLR and HMGCR can contribute to this variability. Methods and Results Haplotypes in the LDLR 3′-untranslated region (3UTR) were tested for association with lipid-lowering response to simvastatin treatment in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP) trial (335 African-Americans and 609European-Americans). LDLR haplotype 5 (L5)was associated with smaller simvastatin-induced reductions in LDLC, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (P=0.0002–0.03)in African-Americans, but not European-Americans. The combined presence of L5 and previously described HMGCR haplotypes in African-Americans was associated with significantly attenuated apoB reduction(−22.4±1.5% N=89) both compared to noncarriers (−30.6±1.5% N=78, P=0.0001) and to carriers of either individual haplotype (−28.2±1.1% N=158, P=0.001). We observed similar differences when measuring simvastatin-mediated induction of LDLR surface expression using lymphoblast cell lines (P=0.03). Conclusions We have identified a common LDLR 3UTR haplotype that is associated with attenuated lipid-lowering response to simvastatin treatment. Response was further reduced in individuals with both LDLR and previously described HMGCR haplotypes. Previously identified racial differences in statin efficacy were partially explained by increased prevalence of these combined haplotypes in African-Americans. PMID:20413733

  3. Effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ciriacks, Kevin; Coly, Gerard; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Patel, Shailendra B; Kidambi, Srividya

    2015-03-01

    Statins are used to lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there are no studies of statin efficacy among T1DM patients. T1DM patients have higher gut cholesterol absorption than synthesis; hence cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe may also be effective in T1DM. Here, we compare the effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe among subjects with T1DM and T2DM. Subjects with T1DM (n=20, 45% female) or T2DM (n=27, 56% female) were assigned to alternating therapy with simvastatin (40 mg) or ezetimibe (10 mg) for 6 weeks in a crossover design. Among T2DM subjects, simvastatin lowered TC and LDL-C from the baseline (-25±4% and -40±5%, respectively, P<0.001), whereas ezetimibe was not as effective (-2±4% and -3±5%, respectively). Among T1DM subjects, both statin and ezetimibe showed significant decreases in TC and LDL-C from baseline, although ezetimibe lowered LDL-C much more than simvastatin (-32±12 (P<0.001) and -19±5% (P<0.01), respectively). Effect of simvastatin on LDL-C was much lower among T1DM subjects compared to T2DM subjects (P=0.02). This study shows that the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin was less effective in lowering LDL-C in T1DM than T2DM subjects, whereas the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe was at least as effective in lowering LDL-C as simvastatin among T1DM subjects.

  4. Effect of simvastatin on the antihypertensive activity of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients: role of nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Elkoussi, Alaa Eldin A; Abudahab, Lotfy H; Elbakry, Mohammed H; Elsayed, Elsayed Abu-Elwafa

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated whether simvastatin has antihypertensive activity and can enhance the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were induced in rats by L-NAME and cholesterol-enriched diet, respectively. In these animals, repeated administration of simvastatin decreased the systolic blood pressure, enhanced its progressive reductions induced by repeated administration of losartan, and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Concomitantly, repeated administration of simvastatin, losartan, or simvastatin in combination with losartan to these animals increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased the elevated serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Effects of combined treatment were greater than those of simvastatin or losartan alone. In hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients, repeated administration of losartan decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased NO production, and decreased the elevated serum MDA and hs-CRP levels. Addition of simvastatin to losartan therapy enhanced these effects and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Simvastatin inhibited the contractile responses of isolated aortic rings induced by angiotensin II and enhanced the inhibitory effect of losartan on this preparation. l-arginine and acetylcholine enhanced, while L-NAME inhibited the effects of simvastatin, losartan, and their combination on these contractile responses. Thus, simvastatin exerts antihypertensive effect in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and enhances the antihypertensive effect of losartan in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Besides, its cholesterol-lowering effect, the ability of simvastatin to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction through increasing NO bioavailability and through suppression of oxidative stress and vascular inflammation may play an important role in these

  5. Two-way pharmacokinetic interaction studies between saxagliptin and cytochrome P450 substrates or inhibitors: simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, and ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag G; Li, Li; Girgis, Suzette; Kornhauser, David M; Frevert, Ernest U; Boulton, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicines, including several cholesterol-lowering agents (eg, lovastatin, simvastatin), antihypertensives (eg, diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil), and antifungals (eg, ketoconazole) are metabolized by and/or inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 metabolic pathway. These types of medicines are commonly coprescribed to treat comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the potential for drug-drug interactions of these medicines with new medicines for T2DM must be carefully evaluated. Objective To investigate the effects of CYP3A4 substrates or inhibitors, simvastatin (substrate), diltiazem (moderate inhibitor), and ketoconazole (strong inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics and safety of saxagliptin, a CYP3A4/5 substrate; and the effects of saxagliptin on these agents in three separate studies. Methods Healthy subjects were administered saxagliptin 10 mg or 100 mg. Simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, and ketoconazole doses of 40 mg once daily, 360 mg once daily, and 200 mg twice daily, respectively, were used to determine two-way pharmacokinetic interactions. Results Coadministration of simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, or ketoconazole increased mean area under the concentration-time curve values (AUC) of saxagliptin by 12%, 109%, and 145%, respectively, versus saxagliptin alone. Mean exposure (AUC) of the CYP3A4-generated active metabolite of saxagliptin, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, decreased with coadministration of simvastatin, diltiazem, and ketoconazole by 2%, 34%, and 88%, respectively. All adverse events were considered mild or moderate in all three studies; there were no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusion Saxagliptin, when coadministered with simvastatin, diltiazem extended-release, or ketoconazole, was safe and generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. Clinically meaningful interactions of saxagliptin with simvastatin and diltiazem extended-release are not expected. The dose of saxagliptin does not need

  6. A Randomized Controlled Open-Label Pilot Study of Simvastatin Addition to Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Patients With Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Hamamsy, Manal; Elwakil, Hesham; Saad, Amr S; Shawki, May A

    2016-10-27

    Statins have been reported to have a potential radiosensitizing effect that has not been evaluated in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of simvastatin in addition to whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases (BM). A prospective randomized, controlled, open-label pilot study was conducted on 50 Egyptian patients with BM who were randomly assigned to receive 30-Gy WBRT (control group: 25 patients) or 30 Gy WBRT + simvastatin 80 mg/day for the WBRT period (simvastatin group: 25 patients). The primary outcome was radiological response at 4 weeks after WBRT. Secondary outcomes were 1-year progression-free survival (PFS), 1-year overall survival (OS), and health-related quality of life (HRQL) that was assessed using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its brain module (BN-20), at baseline, after WBRT, and 4 weeks after WBRT. The addition of simvastatin was tolerated. Twenty-one patients were not evaluated for radiological response because of death (n = 16), noncompliance to follow-up (n = 4), and clinical deterioration (n = 1). Response rates were 60% and 78.6% (p = 0.427), 1-year PFS rates were 5.2% and 17.7% (p = 0.392), and 1-year OS rates were 12% and 8% (p = 0.880) for the control group and simvastatin group, respectively. Nonsignificant differences were found between the two arms regarding HRQL scales. The addition of simvastatin 80 mg/day did not improve the clinical outcomes of patients with BM receiving WBRT.

  7. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  8. Topical hydrogel matrix loaded with Simvastatin microparticles for enhanced wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Yasasvini, S; Anusa, R S; VedhaHari, B N; Prabhu, P C; RamyaDevi, D

    2017-03-01

    A prolonged release drug delivery system was developed by loading Simvastatin-chitosan microparticles into poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels for enhanced wound healing efficiency. The microparticles prepared by ionic gelation method with varying composition of chitosan and surfactants (Tween 80/Pluronic F-127) were optimized for entrapment efficiency, morphology and drug-polymer interactions. Microparticles prepared with 0.3% between 80 and 0.5:5 chitosan: drug ratio showed maximum entrapment efficiency of 82% with spherical morphology and mild interaction between drug and chitosan. 5% PVA solutions loaded with pure drug and drug loaded microparticles at three different doses (2.5mg, 5mg and 10mg equivalent of drug) were chemically cross linked using gluteraldehyde and HCl. The formulated hydrogels were optimized for swelling, in vitro release behavior and in vivo wound healing effect. Hydrogels containing 2.5mg equivalent dose of Simvastatin microparticles exhibited maximum cumulative percentage drug release of 92% (n=3) at the end of 7days. The in vitro drug release data was supported by the higher swelling index of the low dose hydrogels. The in vivo wound healing study was performed using Wistar rats (n=30, 5 groups with 6 animals in each group) for the formulated hydrogels (at 3 doses) and compared with the untreated animals and the positive control group treated with conventional topical Simvastatin ointment (1%). The wound healing effect was comparable to the in vitro results, wherein the animals treated with low dose hydrogels (replaced every 7days) exhibited considerable reduction in the wound area compared to medium and high dose hydrogels. Statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the wound area of the animals treated with low dose hydrogels compared to 1% ointment and untreated animals, as estimated by two-way ANOVA. The histopathology images of the different groups of animals also displayed the comparative changes in the wound

  9. Antinociception and anti-inflammation induced by simvastatin in algesiometric assays in mice.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Olavarria, Loreto; Zepeda, Ramiro J; Sierralta, Fernando; Prieto, Juan C

    2011-12-01

    Statins, belonging to a well-known drug class used for lowering cholesterol through competitive inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, also have other pleiotropic properties, such as anti-inflammatory action. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in five models of nociceptive behaviour. Oral gavage administration of simvastatin induced a dose-dependent inhibition of nociception for 1 day in the acetic acid writhing (ED(50) = 5.59 ± 0.07), tail-flick (ED(50) = 112.96 ± 8.00), hot-plate (ED(50) = 134.87 ± 2.20), formalin hind paw (ED(50) = 19.86 ± 1.12 in phase I and 23.30 ± 2.05 in phase II) and orofacial formalin (ED(50) = 5.54 ± 2.74 in phase I and 11.48 ± 1.88 in phase II) tests. However, after 3 days, the values were in the acetic acid writhing (ED(50) = 6.14 ± 0.51), tail-flick (ED(50) = 154 ± 8.88), hot-plate (ED(50) = 136.14 ± 2.94), formalin hind paw (ED(50) = 15.93 ± 0.42 in phase I and 17.10 ± 1.80 in phase II) and orofacial formalin (ED(50) = 6.79 ± 0.66 in phase I and 5.80 ± 1.49 in phase II) tests. This study demonstrated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of simvastatin in five models of tonic or phasic pain. These actions seem to be related to the inhibition of cytokine and prostanoid release and stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. A possible clinical role of simvastatin could be related to the potentially beneficial effects in the neuropathic pain, and by their pleiotropic properties, they could play a clinical role in anti-inflammatory disease. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Simvastatin Plus Ezetimibe for Cardiovascular Prevention in Patients With a History of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Analysis of Results of the IMPROVE-IT Trial.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Ziyad S; Guo, Jeff Jianfei; Alahmari, Abdullah; Alotaibi, Nawaf; Thaibah, Hilal

    2018-06-01

    Simvastatin plus ezetimibe reduced the risk of cardiovascular events in the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International (IMPROVE-IT) study. The aim of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding ezetimibe to simvastatin treatment for patients with ACS based on the recently completed IMPROVE-IT trial. We constructed a Markov state-transition model to evaluate the costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) associated with co-therapy compared with simvastatin alone from a health care perspective. We ran separate base-case analyses assuming a trial-length and longer term follow-up. One-way sensitivity analyses were used to explore uncertainty in model parameters. In the trial-length model, the ICERs compared with simvastatin alone were $114,400 per QALY for the combination therapy. In 5- and 10-year time horizons, the ICERs remained above the cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000 per QALY. In the lifetime horizon model, The ICER was $45,046 per QALY for combination treatment compared with simvastatin alone. The combination therapy is cost-effective at an 80% decrease in the current branded simvastatin and ezetimibe cost. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested simvastatin and ezetimibe co-therapy would be a cost-effective alternative to simvastatin monotherapy 60.7% of the time. In our trial-length, 5-year, and 10-year models, the co-therapy was not a cost-effective alternative; however, as follow-up was extended to lifetime, the co-therapy became a cost-effective treatment compared with the simvastatin monotherapy in patients with histories of ACS. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of high-dose atorvastatin compared with regular dose simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Peter; Graff, Jennifer; Olsson, Anders G; Pedersen, Terje J; Jönsson, Bengt

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of high-dose atorvastatin when compared with generic simvastatin for secondary prevention in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden based on the recently completed IDEAL trial. The IDEAL trial showed that high-dose treatment with atorvastatin was associated with fewer non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI) or coronary heart disease death (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.01) and major cardiovascular events by (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98) or any coronary event (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.76-0.91) than simvastatin with no significant difference in the number of serious adverse events. Costs during the trial period was estimated based on the trial data and a Markov model was constructed where the risk of MIs and revascularization procedures and the long-term costs, quality of life, and mortality associated with these events was simulated. Costs were based on resource consumptions recorded in the trial multiplied with recent unit costs from each country. Both direct health care costs and indirect costs (costs from lost production due to work absence) were included. Intervention lasted for the duration of the trial (4.8 years) while health-effects and costs are predicted for the lifespan of the patient. The main outcome was quality adjusted life-years (QALY) gained. High-dose treatment was predicted to lead to a mean increase in survival of 0.049 years per patient and 0.033 QALYs gained. The cost to gain one QALY was predicted to 47,197euro (Denmark), 62,639euro (Finland), 35,210euro (Norway), and 43,667euro (Sweden), with cost-effectiveness ratio decreasing with higher risk. In the prevention of cardiovascular events among patients with a previous MI, high-dose atorvastatin appears to be a cost-effective strategy when compared with generic simvastatin 20-40 mg in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. In Finland, it is cost-effective in high-risk patients. The key driver of the cost-effectiveness is the price-difference between 80

  12. Clinical and economic outcomes in patients switched to simvastatin in a community-based family medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Willey, V J; Reinhold, J A; Willey, K H; Kelly, B L; Cziraky, M J

    2010-08-01

    The introduction of a generic formulation of simvastatin has created the potential to provide significant low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in a highly cost-effective manner. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised electronic medical record data from a United States, community-based, independent physician family medicine practice. Patients switched from other statins or statin combinations to simvastatin by the family medicine physicians during routine patient care from January 2002 to October 2008 were identified. Equivalent statin dosing, lipid panel changes and National Cholesterol Education Program--Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) LDL-C goal attainment rates were compared preswitch and postswitch. The potential economic impact of simvastatin switching was also evaluated. A total of 78 patients were identified, and in 76.9% of the switches, an equipotent dose of simvastatin was prescribed. All lipid fractions showed small, non-significant increases, with LDL-C having a 2.2 mg/dl (0.06 mmol/l) increase after switching (p = 0.476). NCEP LDL-C goal attainment rates were 79.5% and 78.2% before and after switching, respectively (p = 1.00). Modelled annual cost savings associated with switching were estimated at $671.99 per patient. These results demonstrate that an independent family medicine physician practice can successfully perform statin therapeutic substitution during routine patient care. Equivalent clinical outcomes with regards to changes in lipid fractions and NCEP LDL-C goal attainment were observed in conjunction with the potential for reduced costs for patients.

  13. Intradiscal injection of simvastatin results in radiologic, histologic, and genetic evidence of disc regeneration in a rat model of degenerative disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Than, Khoi D.; Rahman, Shayan U.; Wang, Lin; Khan, Adam; Kyere, Kwaku A.; Than, Tracey T.; Miyata, Yoshinari; Park, Yoon-Shin; La Marca, Frank; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Zhang, Huina; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT A large percentage of back pain can be attributed to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to play an important role in chondrogenesis of the IVD. Simvastatin is known to up-regulate expression of BMP-2. Thus, we hypothesized that intradiscal injection of simvastatin in a rat model of degenerative disc disease (DDD) would result in retardation of DDD. PURPOSE To develop a novel conservative treatment for DDD and related discogenic back pain. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Laboratory investigation. METHODS Disc injury was induced in 272 rats via 21-gauge needle puncture. After 6 weeks, injured discs were treated with simvastatin in a saline or hydrogel carrier. Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points. Outcome measures assessed were radiologic, histologic, and genetic. Radiologically, the MRI index (number of pixels multiplied by corresponding image densities) was determined. Histologically, disc spaces were read by 3 blinded scorers employing a previously described histological grading scale. Genetically, nuclei pulposi were harvested and polymerase chain reaction was run to determine relative levels of aggrecan, collagen type II, and BMP-2 gene expression. This project was supported by Grant No. R01 AR056649 from NIAMS/NIH. There are no other financial conflicts of interest to report. RESULTS Radiologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel or saline demonstrated MRI indices that were normal through 8 weeks post-treatment, although this was more sustained when delivered in hydrogel. Histologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated improved grades in comparison to discs treated at higher doses. Genetically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL of simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated higher gene expression of aggrecan and collagen type II than control. CONCLUSIONS Degenerate discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in a hydrogel carrier demonstrated

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Simvastatin plus Ezetimibe for Cardiovascular Prevention in CKD: Results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP).

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Borislava; Schlackow, Iryna; Herrington, William; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Kent, Seamus; Emberson, Jonathan; Reith, Christina; Haynes, Richard; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Gray, Alastair; Collins, Rory; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Simvastatin, 20mg, plus ezetimibe, 10mg, daily (simvastatin plus ezetimibe) reduced major atherosclerotic events in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Cost-effectiveness of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in SHARP, a randomized controlled trial. 9,270 patients with CKD randomly assigned to simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo; participants in categories by 5-year cardiovascular risk (low, <10%; medium, 10%-<20%; or high, ≥20%) and CKD stage (3, 4, 5 not on dialysis, or on dialysis therapy). Assessment during SHARP follow-up from the UK perspective; long-term projections. Simvastatin plus ezetimibe (2015 UK £1.19 per day) during 4.9 years' median follow-up in SHARP; scenario analyses with high-intensity statin regimens (2015 UK £0.05-£1.06 per day). Additional health care costs per major atherosclerotic event avoided and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. In SHARP, the proportional reductions per 1mmol/L of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in all major atherosclerotic events of 20% (95% CI, 6%-32%) and in the costs of vascular hospital episodes of 17% (95% CI, 4%-28%) were similar across participant categories by cardiovascular risk and CKD stage. The 5-year reduction in major atherosclerotic events per 1,000 participants ranged from 10 in low-risk to 58 in high-risk patients and from 28 in CKD stage 3 to 36 in patients on dialysis therapy. The net cost per major atherosclerotic event avoided with simvastatin plus ezetimibe compared to no LDL-lowering regimen ranged from £157,060 in patients at low risk to £15,230 in those at high risk (£30,500-£39,600 per QALY); and from £47,280 in CKD stage 3 to £28,180 in patients on dialysis therapy (£13,000-£43,300 per QALY). In scenario analyses, generic high-intensity statin regimens were estimated to yield similar benefits at

  15. Incorporating simvastatin/poloxamer 407 hydrogel into 3D-printed porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for the promotion of angiogenesis, osseointegration and bone ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Liu, Can; Tan, Jie; Wang, Hong; Hai, Bao; Cai, Hong; Leng, Hui-Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jun; Song, Chun-Li

    2016-10-27

    Three-dimensional porous titanium alloys printed via electron beam melting have low stiffness similar to that of cortical bone and are promising scaffolds for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of titanium alloy is poorly compatible with bone ingrowth. We previously observed that simvastatin/poloxamer 407 thermosensitive hydrogel induces endogenous angiogenic/osteogenic growth factors and promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis, but the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are poor. The purpose of this study was to construct 3D-printed porous titanium scaffolds (pTi scaffolds) filled with simvastatin/hydrogel and evaluate the effects of this composite on osseointegration, bone ingrowth and neovascularization using a tibial defect rabbit model. Four and eight weeks after implantation, the bone volume, bone mineral density, mineral apposition rate, and push-in maximum force of the pTi scaffolds filled with simvastatin/hydrogel were significantly higher than those without simvastatin (p < 0.05). Moreover, filling with simvastatin/hydrogel significantly enhanced vascularization in and around the pTi scaffolds, and a significant correlation was observed between the volume of new bone and neovascularization (p < 0.01). In conclusion, incorporating simvastatin/poloxamer 407 hydrogel into pTi scaffolds significantly improves neovascularization, osseointegration and bone ingrowth.

  16. Sitagliptin/Simvastatin: a first combination tablet to treat type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia – a review of its characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Kabbara, Wissam K

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to review the current literature and information on the combination product Juvisync™ (sitagliptin + simvastatin), which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2011. Methods PubMed (2001–2014) was searched for primary and review articles on sitagliptin, simvastatin, or the combination product. Drug manufacturing data and product labeling were also used. Studies of simvastatin, sitagliptin, or the combination were screened and analyzed to include relevant and recent papers. Selected English language trials were limited to those with human subjects and included both safety and efficacy outcomes. Results When compared with glipizide as add-on therapy to metformin, sitagliptin was noninferior but had lower rates of hypoglycemia and weight gain. In addition, when compared with insulin glargine, sitagliptin was less effective in decreasing glycosylated hemoglobin, but was associated with significantly lower rates of hypoglycemia. Further, trials have shown a beneficial effect of using statins in patients with diabetes mellitus with regard to decreasing cardiovascular risk, regardless of baseline lipid levels or the presence of a cardiac disease. Both medications have also demonstrated an acceptable side effect profile. However, caution is needed when coadministering with any drug that may increase simvastatin levels to reduce the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Conclusion Juvisync should be used in patients requiring both sitagliptin and simvastatin. Both agents have shown good efficacy and acceptable safety profiles. Sitagliptin is a good option for diabetic patients to improve glycemic control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. PMID:25709467

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of Simvastatin in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiurong; Chen, Jiafeng; Wang, Chengdong; Wu, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the most common types of cerebrovascular disease in humans and often causes paralysis, a vegetative state and even death. Patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage are frequently monitored in intensive care units (ICUs). Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with a higher rate of mortality and morbidity than other intracephalic diseases. The expression levels of inflammatory factors have important roles in inflammatory responses indicative of changes in a patient's condition and are therefore important in the monitoring and treatment of affected patients at the ICU as well as the development of therapeutic strategies for acute cerebral hemorrhage. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Simvastatin in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage at an ICU, and inflammatory factors and cellular changes were systematically analyzed. The plasma concentrations of inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, were evaluated by ELISAs. The plasma concentrations of inflammatory cellular changes were detected by using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that after Simvastatin treatment of patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage at the ICU, the plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were downregulated compared with those in placebo-treated controls. In addition, Simvastatin treatment at the ICU decreased lymphocytes, granulocytes and mononuclear cells in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. The levels of inflammatory factors were associated with brain edema in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage treated at the ICU. In addition, the amount of bleeding was reduced in parallel with the inflammatory cell plasma concentration of lymphocytes, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. Importantly, Simvastatin treatment produced beneficial outcomes by improving brain edema and reducing the amount of bleeding. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the

  18. Simvastatin Treatment Does Not Affect Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Patients with Dyslipidemia: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rokni, Haleh; Sahebkar, Amir Hossein; Mohammadi, Akram; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are antihyperlipidemic drugs with an established efficacy in stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques and preventing atherogenesis and reducing cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on serum Vitamin D status in dyslipidemic patients as Vitamin D status has an impact on monocyte/macrophage function and may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. Selected individuals (n = 102) were treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day), or matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Each treatment period (with simvastatin or placebo) lasted for 30 days and was separated by a 2-week washout phase. Serum Vitamin D concentration was assessed pre- and post-treatment. Seventy-seven completed the trial, noncompliance with the study protocol and drug intolerance or relocation were the causes for drop-out. No significant carry-over effect was observed for the assessed parameters. There was a reduction in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, simvastatin therapy did not significantly affect serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Vitamin D level (P > 0.05). Short-term treatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) does not have a significant affect on serum levels of Vitamin D.

  19. Effects of Ezetimibe, Simvastatin, and their Combination on Inflammatory Parameters in a Rat Model of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carmem Patrícia; Bracht, Lívia; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; de Souza Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2017-04-01

    Statins are hypocholesterolemic drugs that are prescribed for patients with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Ezetimibe has an atheroprotective activity through inhibition of the expression of vascular adhesion molecule-I and vascular CD14, a marker of the infiltration of mononuclear leukocytes. Ezetimibe reduces the amount of chemoattractant protein-1 that is available for monocytes and macrophages and alters the activity of nuclear factor κB in leukocytes. The mechanisms of action of statins complement those of ezetimibe. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of statins and ezetimibe has beneficial effects, including antiinflammatory activity. The present study evaluated the effects of monotherapy with ezetimibe and simvastatin compared with ezetimibe + simvastatin combined on the evolution of the inflammatory response in a rat model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced arthritis. The animals were treated with 10 mg/kg ezetimibe, 40 mg/kg simvastatin, or 10 mg/kg ezetimibe + 40 mg/kg simvastatin for 1, 7, 14, or 28 days. We analyzed leukocyte rolling behavior, leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, the number of leukocytes that were recruited to the knee joint cavity, and the concentration of cytokines that are involved in the inflammatory response. The data were analyzed using paired t tests or analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. The treatments reduced leukocyte rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion. The monotherapies did not change the number of leukocytes that were recruited to the knee joint cavity, whereas the ezetimibe + simvastatin combination significantly reduced this parameter. The treatments reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, indicating antiinflammatory properties of these drugs in this experimental model of inflammation.

  20. Simvastatin may induce insulin resistance through a novel fatty acid mediated cholesterol independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Vasundhara; Kapadia, Bandish; Misra, Parimal; Saxena, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Statins are a class of oral drugs that are widely used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent clinical data suggest that chronic use of these drugs increases the frequency of new onset diabetes. Studies to define the risks of statin-induced diabetes and its underlying mechanisms are clearly necessary. We explored the possible mechanism of statin induced insulin resistance using a well-established cell based model and simvastatin as a prototype statin. Our data show that simvastatin induces insulin resistance in a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition independent fashion but does so by a fatty acid mediated effect on insulin signaling pathway. These data may help design strategies for prevention of statin induced insulin resistance and diabetes in patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26345110

  1. Sequential cohort design applying propensity score matching to analyze the comparative effectiveness of atorvastatin and simvastatin in preventing cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Lavikainen, Piia; Aarnio, Emma; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Sequential cohort design (SCD) applying matching for propensity scores (PS) in accrual periods has been proposed to mitigate bias caused by channeling when calendar time is a proxy for strong confounders. We studied the channeling of patients according to atorvastatin and simvastatin initiation in Finland, starting from the market introduction of atorvastatin in 1998, and explored the SCD PS approach to analyzing the comparative effectiveness of atorvastatin versus simvastatin in the prevention of cardiovascular events (CVE). Initiators of atorvastatin or simvastatin use in the 45-75-year age range in 1998-2006 were characterized by their propensity of receiving atorvastatin over simvastatin, as estimated for 17 six-month periods. Atorvastatin (10 mg) and simvastatin (20 mg) initiators were matched 1∶1 on the PS, as estimated for the whole cohort and within each period. Cox regression models were fitted conventionally, and also for the PS matched cohort and the periodically PS matched cohort, to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for CVEs. Atorvastatin (10 mg) was associated with a 11%-12% lower incidence of CVE in comparison with simvastatin (20 mg). The HR estimates were the same for a conventional Cox model (0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.91), for the analysis in which the PS was used to match across all periods and the Cox model was adjusted for strong confounders (0.89, 0.85-0.92), and for the analysis in which PS matching was applied within sequential periods (0.88, 0.84-0.92). The HR from a traditional PS matched analysis was 0.80 (0.77-0.83). The SCD PS approach produced effect estimates similar to those obtained in matching for PS within the whole cohort and adjusting the outcome model for strong confounders, but at the cost of efficiency. A traditional PS matched analysis without further adjustment in the outcome model produced estimates further away from unity.

  2. Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M.; Kim, Margarita S.; Fazal, Nadeem; Azim, Anser C.; Ali, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as

  3. Simvastatin attenuates the cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Han-Jung; Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to important and deleterious inflammation, as evidenced by edema, cytokine production, induction of nitric oxide synthase, and leukocyte infiltration. After TBI, the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial cells plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and outcome after TBI. It may represent a key cellular target for statin therapy. In our study, cortical contusions were induced, and the effect of continuous treatment of simvastatin on behavior and inflammation in adult rats following experimental TBI was evaluated. The treatment group received 15 mg/kg of simvastatin daily for 3 days. Neurological function was assessed with the grip test. The results showed that the non-treatment control group had a significantly greater increase in ICAM-1 expression from pre-injury to the post-injury 72 h time point as compared to the expression in treatment group. The treatment group had better neurological function as evidenced in a grip test performed from baseline to 72 h. The analysis of a western blot test and pathology also demonstrated reduced ICAM-1 expression and a smaller area of damage and tissue loss. Our findings suggest that simvastatin could attenuate the activation of cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response and decrease the loss of neurological function and brain tissue.

  4. Simvastatin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via down-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Yosuke; Nishii, Masahiro

    2008-07-25

    Recently, statins have been being studied for their proapoptic and antimetastatic effects. However, the exact mechanisms of their anticancer action are still unclear. Dolichyl phosphate is a nonsterol isoprenoid derivative in the mevalonate pathway that affects the expression of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). IGF-1R activation is required for prostate cell proliferation; therefore, IGF-1R inhibitory agents may be of preventive and/or therapeutic value. In this study, the effects of simvastatin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells were examined. Simvastatin suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of PC-3, and the expression of IGF-1R was suppressed by simvastatin. Knockdownmore » of IGF-1R by siRNA led to inhibition of proliferation of PC-3. Simvastatin also inhibited IGF-1-induced activation of both ERK and Akt signaling and IGF-1-induced PC-3 cell proliferation. Our results suggest statins are potent inhibitors of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system in prostate cancer cells and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment.« less

  5. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release niacin/laropiprant added to a stable simvastatin dose in secondary prevention patients not at cholesterol goal in Germany.

    PubMed

    Michailov, Galin V; Davies, Glenn M; Krobot, Karl J

    2012-06-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death in Germany despite statin use to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels; improving lipids beyond LDL-C may further reduce cardiovascular risk. A fixed-dose combination of extended-release niacin (ERN) with laropiprant (LRPT) provides comprehensive lipid management. We adapted a decision-analytic model to evaluate the economic value (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] in terms of costs per life-years gained [LYG]) of ERN/LRPT 2 g over a lifetime in secondary prevention patients in a German setting. Two scenarios were modelled: (1) ERN/LRPT 2 g added to simvastatin 40 mg in patients not at LDL-C goal with simvastatin 40 mg; (2) adding ERN/LRPT 2 g compared with titration to simvastatin 40 mg in patients not at LDL-C goal with simvastatin 20 mg. In both scenarios, adding ERN/LRPT was cost-effective relative to simvastatin monotherapy at a commonly accepted threshold of €30,000 per LYG; ICERs for ERN/LRPT were €13,331 per LYG in scenario 1 and €17,684 per LYG in scenario 2. Subgroup analyses showed that ERN/LRPT was cost-effective in patients with or without diabetes, patients aged ≤ 65 or >65 years and patients with low baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; ICERs ranged from €10,342 to €15,579 in scenario 1, and from €14,081 to €20,462 in scenario 2. In conclusion, comprehensive lipid management with ERN/LRPT 2 g is cost-effective in secondary prevention patients in Germany who have not achieved LDL-C goal with simvastatin monotherapy.

  6. Attenuation of TNF-induced neutrophil adhesion by simvastatin is associated with the inhibition of Rho-GTPase activity, p50 activity and morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Antoniellis Silveira, Angélica Aparecida; Dominical, Venina Marcela; Morelli Vital, Daiana; Alves Ferreira, Wilson; Trindade Maranhão Costa, Fabio; Werneck, Claudio C; Ferreira Costa, Fernando; Conran, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature in response to potent inflammatory stimuli, such as TNF-α (TNF), can contribute to atheroprogression amongst other pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that simvastatin, a statin with known pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties, can partially abrogate the effects of TNF-induced neutrophil adhesion, in association with the modulation of β 2 -integrin expression. We aimed to further characterize the effects of this statin on neutrophil and leukocyte adhesive mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. A microfluidic assay confirmed the ability of simvastatin to inhibit TNF-induced human neutrophil adhesion to fibronectin ligand under conditions of shear stress, while intravital imaging microscopy demonstrated an abrogation of leukocyte recruitment by simvastatin in the microvasculature of mice that had received a TNF stimulus. This inhibition of neutrophil adhesion was accompanied by the inhibition of TNF-induced RhoA activity in human neutrophils, and alterations in cell morphology and β 2 -integrin activity. Additionally, TNF augmented the activity of the p50 NFκB subunit in human neutrophils and TNF-induced neutrophil adhesion and β 2 -integrin activity could be abolished using pharmacological inhibitors of NFκB translocation, BAY11-7082 and SC514. Accordingly, the TNF-induced elevation of neutrophil p50 activity was abolished by simvastatin. In conclusion, our data provide further evidence of the ability of simvastatin to inhibit neutrophil adhesive interactions in response to inflammatory stimuli, both in vivo and in vitro. Simvastatin appears to inhibit neutrophil adhesion by interfering in TNF-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, in association with the inhibition of Rho A activity, NFκB translocation and, consequently, β 2 -integrin activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simvastatin Attenuates Endothelial Activation through 15-Epi-Lipoxin A4 Production in Murine Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    González-Herrera, Fabiola; Cramer, Allysson; Pimentel, Pollyana; Castillo, Christian; Liempi, Ana; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Machado, Fabiana S; Maya, Juan D

    2017-03-01

    Current treatments for chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy, a disease with high mortality rates and caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , are unsatisfactory. Myocardial inflammation, including endothelial activation, is responsible for the structural and functional damage seen in the chronic phase. The clinical efficacy of benznidazole could be improved by decreasing chronic inflammation. Statins, which have anti-inflammatory properties, may improve the action of benznidazole. Here, the action of simvastatin in a murine model of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy and the link with the production of the proresolving eicosanoid 15-epi-lipoxin A4, produced by 5-lipoxygenase, are evaluated. Simvastatin decreased the expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (VCAM-1) in T. cruzi -infected mice. However, when this drug was administered to 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice, the anti-inflammatory effect was not observed unless exogenous 15-epi-lipoxin A4 was administered. Thus, in chronic Chagas disease, 5-epi-lipoxin A4 induced by simvastatin treatment could improve the pathophysiological condition of patients by increasing the trypanocidal action of benznidazole. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. The Evaluation Of Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety Profile of Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles in a Closed Fracture Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijia; Jia, Zhenshan; Yuan, Hongjiang; Dusad, Anand; Ren, Ke; Wei, Xin; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Daluiski, Aaron; Goldring, Steven R.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of a micellar prodrug formulation of simvastatin (SIM/SIM-mPEG) and explore its safety in a closed femoral fracture mouse model. Methods The amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of simvastatin (SIM-mPEG) was synthesized and formulated together with free simvastatin into micelles. It was also labeled with a near infrared dye for in vivo imaging purpose. A closed femoral fracture mouse model was established using a three-point bending device. The mice with established closed femoral fracture were treated with SIM/SIM-mPEG micelle, using free simvastatin and saline as controls. The therapeutic efficacy of the micelles was evaluated using a high-resolution micro-CT. Serum biochemistry and histology analyses were performed to explore the potential toxicity of the micelle formulation. Results Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging confirmed the passive targeting of SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles to the bone lesion of the mice with closed femoral fracture. The micelle was found to promote fracture healing with an excellent safety profile. In addition, the accelerated healing of the femoral fracture also helped to prevent disuse-associated same-side tibia bone loss accompanying the femur fracture. Conclusion SIM/SIM-mPEG micelle was found to be an effective and safe treatment for closed femoral fracture repair in mice. The evidence obtained in this study suggests that it may have the potential to be translated into a novel therapy for clinical management of skeletal fractures and non-union. PMID:27164897

  9. Simvastatin does not diminish the in vivo degeneration of decellularized aortic conduits.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Alexander; Horstkötter, Kim; Munakata, Hiroshi; Schiffer, Franziska; Delfs, Christofer; Zwirnmann, Kai; Barth, Mareike; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2014-10-01

    All present biological cardiovascular prostheses are prone to progressive in vivo degeneration, which can be partially impaired by decellularization. The administration of statins may provide an additional beneficial effect. We provide the first in vivo data on the effect of statins on decellularized cardiovascular implants. Wistar rats with aortic valve insufficiency (day 14) were fed either with a pro-calcific diet (group C; n = 17), or the same diet additionally supplemented with simvastatin (group S; n = 16). Aortic conduits from Sprague-Dawley rats were detergent-decellularized, infrarenally implanted (day 0) in all recipients and explanted at day 28 or day 84. Sonographic competence of the conduit perfusion was 100%, and overall survival amounted to 97%. Simvastatin decreased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol serum levels; however, it did not affect the calcification of the implants. Histology revealed alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive intima hyperplasia in both groups. Extensive matrix metalloproteinase activity was observed in calcified areas, especially in group S. Quantitative RNA analysis resulted in no differences with regard to several markers of calcifying degeneration (alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, bone morphogenetic protein-2, runt-related transcription factor-2) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, receptor for advanced glycation end products, CD39, CD73), but significantly lower levels of interleukin-6 in group S. In a standardized small animal model of accelerated cardiovascular calcification, simvastatin failed to diminish the calcification of decellularized aortic conduit implants. This finding confirms the observations of recent clinical trials. However, further experiments are warranted to elucidate the value of partial benefits associated with lower circulating lipid and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Simvastatin plus Ezetimibe for Cardiovascular Prevention in CKD: Results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP)

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Borislava; Schlackow, Iryna; Herrington, William; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Kent, Seamus; Emberson, Jonathan; Reith, Christina; Haynes, Richard; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Gray, Alastair; Collins, Rory; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Collins, R.; Baigent, C.; Landray, M.J.; Bray, C.; Chen, Y.; Baxter, A.; Young, A.; Hill, M.; Knott, C.; Cass, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Fellström, B.; Grobbee, D.E.; Grönhagen-Riska, C.; Haas, M.; Holdaas, H.; Hooi, L.S.; Jiang, L.; Kasiske, B.; Krairittichai, U.; Levin, A.; Massy, Z.A.; Tesar, V.; Walker, R.; Wanner, C.; Wheeler, D.C.; Wiecek, A.; Dasgupta, T.; Herrington, W.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Majoni, W.; Reith, C.; Emberson, J.; Parish, S.; Simpson, D.; Strony, J.; Musliner, T.; Agodoa, L.; Armitage, J.; Chen, Z.; Craig, J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Gaziano, J.M.; Grimm, R.; Krane, V.; Neal, B.; Ophascharoensuk, V.; Pedersen, T.; Sleight, P.; Tobert, J.; Tomson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Simvastatin, 20 mg, plus ezetimibe, 10 mg, daily (simvastatin plus ezetimibe) reduced major atherosclerotic events in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Study Design Cost-effectiveness of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in SHARP, a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Population 9,270 patients with CKD randomly assigned to simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo; participants in categories by 5-year cardiovascular risk (low, <10%; medium, 10%-<20%; or high, ≥20%) and CKD stage (3, 4, 5 not on dialysis, or on dialysis therapy). Model, Perspective, & Timeline Assessment during SHARP follow-up from the UK perspective; long-term projections. Intervention Simvastatin plus ezetimibe (2015 UK £1.19 per day) during 4.9 years’ median follow-up in SHARP; scenario analyses with high-intensity statin regimens (2015 UK £0.05-£1.06 per day). Outcomes Additional health care costs per major atherosclerotic event avoided and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results In SHARP, the proportional reductions per 1 mmol/L of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in all major atherosclerotic events of 20% (95% CI, 6%-32%) and in the costs of vascular hospital episodes of 17% (95% CI, 4%-28%) were similar across participant categories by cardiovascular risk and CKD stage. The 5-year reduction in major atherosclerotic events per 1,000 participants ranged from 10 in low-risk to 58 in high-risk patients and from 28 in CKD stage 3 to 36 in patients on dialysis therapy. The net cost per major atherosclerotic event avoided with simvastatin plus ezetimibe compared to no LDL-lowering regimen ranged from £157,060 in patients at low risk to £15,230 in those at high risk (£30,500-£39,600 per QALY); and from £47,280 in CKD stage 3 to £28,180 in patients on dialysis therapy (£13,000-£43,300 per QALY

  11. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction of mipomersen sodium (ISIS 301012), a 2'-O-methoxyethyl modified antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B-100 messenger RNA, with simvastatin and ezetimibe.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rosie Z; Geary, Richard S; Flaim, Joann D; Riley, Gina C; Tribble, Diane L; vanVliet, André A; Wedel, Mark K

    2009-01-01

    Mipomersen sodium (ISIS 301012) is a 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that is complementary to human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) messenger RNA and subsequently reduces translation of ApoB-100 protein, the major apolipoprotein of very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Mipomersen sodium is currently being studied in phase II/III clinical studies to determine its clinical utility as add-on therapy to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or other lipid-lowering agents in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic interactions of mipomersen sodium with simvastatin and ezetimibe. Another aim was to evaluate the ability of mipomersen sodium to inhibit major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in vitro. In a phase I clinical study, ten healthy subjects per cohort received a single oral dose of simvastatin 40 mg or ezetimibe 10 mg followed by four 2-hour intravenous doses of mipomersen sodium 200 mg over an 8-day period, with simvastatin 40 mg or ezetimibe 10 mg being administered again with the last dose of mipomersen sodium. Mipomersen sodium pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed following the first dose (mipomersen sodium alone) and the last dose (mipomersen sodium in combination with simvastatin or ezetimibe). Plasma samples for measurement of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and free and total ezetimibe concentrations were collected at various timepoints following their first and last oral dosing. A comparative pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to determine if there were any effects resulting from coadministration of mipomersen sodium with these lipid-lowering drugs. In addition to the clinical pharmacokinetic analysis, the ability of mipomersen sodium to inhibit the major CYP isoform enzymes (namely CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was evaluated in cryo-preserved human hepatocytes in vitro. The area under the plasma concentration

  12. Effects of Titanium Surface Microtopography and Simvastatin on Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Estrogen-Deprived Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Pripatnanont, Prisana; Chookiatsiri, Chonticha; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium surface topography and simvastatin on growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in estrogen-deprived (ED) cell culture. Human BMSCs were seeded on cell culture plates, smooth-surface titanium (Ti) disks, and sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA)-surface Ti disks; and subsequently cultured in regular (fetal bovine serum [FBS]), ED, and ED-with 100 nM simvastatin (ED-SIM) culture media for 14 to 21 days. Live/dead cell staining, scanning electron microscope examination, and cell viability assay were performed to determine cell attachment, morphology, and growth. Expression levels of osteoblast-associated genes, Runx2 and bone sialoprotein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content, and osteocalcin in culture media were measured to determine osteoblastic differentiation. Expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were investigated to examine stimulating effects of simvastatin (n = 4 to 5, mean ± SD). In vitro mineralization was verified by calcein staining. Human BMSCs exhibited different attachment and shapes on smooth and SLA titanium surfaces. Estrogen-deprived cell culture decreased cell attachment and growth, particularly on the SLA titanium surface, but cells were able to grow to reach confluence on day 21 in the ED-osteogenic (OS) culture medium. Promoting effects of the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS were significantly decreased. Simvastatin significantly increased osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs on the SLA titanium surface in the ED-OS medium, and the promoting effects of simvastatin corresponded with the increasing of BMP-2 gene expression on the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS-SIM culture medium. The ED cell culture model provided a well-defined platform for investigating the effects of hormones and growth factors on cells and titanium surface interaction. Titanium, the SLA surface, and simvastatin

  13. Determination of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, carbamazepine, diazepam, simvastatin, and oxybenzone in fish livers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Armbrust, Kevin L; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris; Bay, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol in fish liver; a second method using LC/MS was developed for the determination of carbamazepine, diazepam, simvastatin, and oxybenzone in fish liver. The fish liver samples were extracted and cleaned up by using liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction before the extracts were analyzed by LC/MS or LC/MS/MS with electrospray negative and positive ionization. Recoveries of the 5 target compounds from spiked catfish liver ranged from 72 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3%. Limits of quantification for the 5 compounds were between 4.2 and 12.3 ng/g (wet weight). Ten turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) liver samples were analyzed; levels of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, carbamazepine, simvastatin, and oxybenzone were below the detection limits. Diazepam was detected in all 10 fish liver samples at concentrations ranging from 23 to 110 ng/g (wet weight).

  14. [Combination treatment with coenzyme Q10 and simvastatin in patients with coronary atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Chapidze G E; Kapanadze, S D; Dolidze, N K; Latsabidze, N E; Bakhutashvili, Z V

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess efficacy of one of natural antioxidants--coenzyme Q10 (90 mg daily) and its combination with simvastatin (10 mg daily) 44 outpatients with coronary atherosclerosis were examined. Twenty four patients had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery, 12--coronary angioplasty and in 8 coronary heart disease was confirmed by angiography. Duration of treatment was 12 weeks. Positive effects of coenzyme Q10 was particularly expressed in relation to antiatherogenic fraction of cholesterol which increased by 23%. Index of atherogenicity decreased by 27%. At the background of coenzyme Q10 treatment 30% reduction in plasma lipoperoxide levels occurred demonstrating potentially independent role of coenzyme Q10 in positive modification of oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 revealed antiaggregatory ability. It was not related to the improvement of endothelial function. Normalization of plasma nitric oxide concentrations was achieved only with combination of coenzyme Q10 and simvastatin. This fact may be explained by positive action of statins on endothelial function.

  15. Effects of simvastatin and oral contraceptive agent on polycystic ovary syndrome: prospective, randomized, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Banaszewska, Beata; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Spaczynski, Robert Z; Dziura, James; Duleba, Antoni J

    2007-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and cardiovascular risks including dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. In vitro, statins decrease proliferation and steroidogenesis of ovarian theca-interstitial cells. The study objective was to compare effects of two treatments of PCOS: simvastatin plus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) vs. OCP alone. In a prospective, crossover trial, 48 women with PCOS were randomized to either simvastatin plus OCP for 12 wk followed by OCP alone for an additional 12 wk, or to OCP alone for 12 wk and, subsequently, simvastatin plus OCP for an additional 12 wk. Evaluations were performed at baseline, after 12 wk (crossover), and after 24 wk. Data were analyzed using a random effects model. The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Serum total testosterone was the primary outcome measure. Total testosterone decreased by 38% after Statin + OCP, whereas OCP alone led to a 26% decrease; the statin-attributable effect was significant (P < 0.004). Free testosterone declined by 58% after Statin + OCP, significantly more than the 35% decline after OCP alone (P = 0.006). Hirsutism decreased by 8.1% after Statin + OCP, a greater effect than the 4.7% decrease after OCP alone (P = 0.02). Statin decreased LH, but not FSH or prolactin. Statin + OCP decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 7.5% and 20%, respectively. OCP alone led to a 5% increase of total cholesterol without effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statin prevented OCP induced increase of triglycerides. C-reactive protein decreased by 45% after Statin + OCP, a significantly different effect (P = 0.006) than a 6% increase after OCP alone. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 decreased by 18% after Statin + OCP, a greater decline than the 10% decrease after OCP alone (P = 0.01). Simvastatin improved endocrine/clinical aspects of PCOS and had beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of systemic inflammation.

  16. LDL-C goal attainment in patients who remain on atorvastatin or switch to equivalent or non-equivalent doses of simvastatin: a retrospective matched cohort study in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rublee, Dale A; Burke, James P

    2010-03-01

    As clinical trials have shown the benefits of more intensive cholesterol control, treatment targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have decreased progressively. At the same time, physicians have been encouraged to contain costs by prescribing cheaper, generic statins for cholesterol management. To determine how these possibly conflicting goals are managed in clinical practice, we examined LDL-C control in patients switched from a potent, branded statin (atorvastatin) to a less potent, generic statin (simvastatin). Patients who switched from atorvastatin to simvastatin between July 2006 and January 2008 were retrospectively identified from a US medical and pharmacy claims database, and matched with controls remaining on atorvastatin. Outcomes measured were the number of switched patients receiving a simvastatin milligram dose>or=2 times their previous atorvastatin dose, changes in LDL-C levels, and percentage of patients achieving recommended LDL-C targets. All study variables were analyzed descriptively. After applying exclusion and inclusion criteria, 1048 patients who switched from atorvastatin to simvastatin and 1048 matched controls who remained on atorvastatin were included. Among the switchers, 379 (36%) received an inappropriately low dose of simvastatin (<2 times atorvastatin dose). In patients remaining on atorvastatin, mean LDL-C decreased from 105.7 mg/dL to 102.3 mg/dL after 44 weeks, whereas in switched patients, LDL-C remained similar, at 105.9 mg/dL on atorvastatin and 105.8 mg/dL on simvastatin. Before switching, when all patients were receiving atorvastatin, 67.4% of switchers and 69.9% of controls achieved recommended LDL-C targets. After switching, significantly fewer switchers than controls met LDL-C targets (69.1% vs 74.6%; P=0.005). However, among patients who switched to an equivalent dose of simvastatin (>or=2 times prior atorvastatin dose), similar proportions met LDL-C targets (72.8% vs 74.6% of controls; P=0.402), whereas

  17. Effects of simvastatin on CAT-1-mediated arginine transport and NO level under high glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat inner blood-retinal barrier cell lines (TR-iBRB).

    PubMed

    Tun, Temdara; Kang, Young-Sook

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia causes the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Statins have many pleiotropic effects such as improving endothelial barrier permeability and increasing eNOS mRNA stability. The objective of this study was to determine effect of simvastatin on l-arginine transport and NO production under high-glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB). Changes in l-arginine transport uptake and, expression levels of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) and eNOS mRNA were investigated after pre-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors (l-NMMA and l-NAME) under high-glucose conditions using TR-iBRB, an in vitro model of iBRB. The NO level released from TR-iBRB cells was examined using Griess reagents. Under high glucose conditions, [ 3 H]l-arginine uptake was decreased in TR-iBRB cells. Simvastatin pretreatment elevated [ 3 H]l-arginine uptake, the expression levels of CAT-1 and eNOS mRNA, and NO production under high-glucose conditions. Moreover, the co-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors reduced [ 3 H]l-arginine uptake compared to pretreatment with simvastatin alone. Our results suggest that, in the presence of high-glucose levels, increased l-arginine uptake due to simvastatin treatment was associated with increased CAT-1 and eNOS mRNA levels, leading to higher NO production in TR-iBRB cells. Thus, simvastatin might be a good modulator for diabetic retinopathy therapy by increasing of the l-arginine uptake and improving endothelial function in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and efficacy of the addition of simvastatin to panitumumab in previously treated KRAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Baas, Jara M; Krens, Lisanne L; Bos, Monique M; Portielje, Johanneke E A; Batman, Erdogan; van Wezel, Tom; Morreau, Hans; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Gelderblom, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Panitumumab has proven efficacy in patients with metastatic or locally advanced colorectal cancer patients, provided that they have no activating KRAS mutation in their tumour. Simvastatin blocks the mevalonate pathway and thereby interferes with the post-translational modification of KRAS. We hypothesize that the activity of the RAS-induced pathway in patients with a KRAS mutation might be inhibited by simvastatin. This would theoretically result in increased sensitivity to panitumumab, potentially comparable with tumours with wild-type KRAS. A Simon two-stage design single-arm, phase II study was designed to test the safety and efficacy of the addition of simvastatin to panitumumab in colorectal cancer patients with a KRAS mutation after failing fluoropyrimidine-based, oxaliplatin-based and irinotecan-based therapy. The primary endpoint of this study was the proportion of patients alive and free from progression 11 weeks after the first administration of panitumumab, aiming for at least 40%, which is comparable with, although slightly lower than, that in KRAS wild-type patients in this setting. If this 40% was reached, then the study would continue into the second step up to 46 patients. Explorative correlative analysis for mutations in the KRAS and related pathways was carried out. One of 14 patients was free from progression at the primary endpoint time. The median progression-free survival was 8.4 weeks and the median overall survival status was 19.6 weeks. We conclude that the concept of mutant KRAS phenotype expression modulation with simvastatin was not applicable in the clinic.

  19. Treatment of obese asthma in a mouse model by simvastatin is associated with improving dyslipidemia and decreasing leptin level.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Li, Jun; Tang, Huaping; Sun, Lixin

    2017-03-04

    Obesity can cause or worsen asthma. Compared with common asthma, obese asthma is difficult to control. Statins are effective serum cholesterol-lowering agents in clinical practice, and they also have anti-inflammatory properties, which in theory are potentially beneficial in asthma. Many studies have shown that simvastatin has good therapeutic effect in animal models of asthma. However, the therapeutic effect and action mechanism of simvastatin for obese asthma remain unclear. Leptin, a satiety hormone, is in positive correlation with total body fat mass and may also play a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we use the method of high-fat diet and ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge to establish the mouse model of obesity and asthma, and find that obese asthmatic mice has higher levels of glucose, lipid and leptin in serum, and neutrophil percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and more severe airway inflammation and structural changes in lung tissues than non-obese asthmatic mice, and respond poorly to dexamethasone treatment, which indicates that obese asthma might belong to steroid-resistant (SR) asthma. Simvastatin treatment reduces the levels of glucose, lipid, leptin and neutrophil percentage, and improves airway inflammation and remodeling, which can be as a potential therapeutic target used in the treatment of obese asthma in humans. Correlation analysis shows that there is positive correlation between neutrophil percentage and serum leptin/cholesterol level, which indicates that the therapeutic efficacy of simvastatin on obese asthma might be associated with improving dyslipidemia and decreasing leptin level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Bulcão, C; Giuffrida, F M A; Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Ferreira, S R G

    2007-02-01

    In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m(2) and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20) or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21) for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 +/- 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002) over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  1. The effect of simvastatin, aspirin, and their combination in reduction of atheroma plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Permatasari, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by high level of cholesterol especially low density lipoprotein (LDL) and accumulation of neutrophil and macrophage in the artery wall. Thickness of aortic wall is an early stage of atherosclerosis plaque formation. Identification of atherosclerosis plaque formation was done by measuring level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, interleukin-18 (IL-18), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and measuring the thickness of aortic wall. Atherosclerosis's model induced by high fat diet and CCT (cholesterol, cholic acid, and propyltiouracil) oral administration. Rats induced cholesterol divided into positive control, simvastatin 25 mg/kg bw, aspirin 20 mg/kg bw, and combination simvastatin 25 mg/kg and aspirin 20 mg/kg bw group for 3 weeks. In the third week, therapy was given to atherosclerosis's model. Then, in the fourth and fifth week, therapy was given but induction of high cholesterol was stopped due to the massive loss of body weight. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, MPO, and IL-18 measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry and ELISA. In the end of therapy, aorta's rats was isolated to identify the thickness of aorta wall. In the fourth week, after 1 week of treatment, only combination group showed significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL and MPO compared to positive control group. Level of triglycerides and HDL in all groups did not significantly differ compared to positive control group. After 2 weeks continuing drug treatment, the level of total cholesterol, MPO, and IL-18 were decreased in all groups, and aspirin group showed the lowest level. The level of triglycerides was decreased in simvastatin and aspirin group, and aspirin group showed the lowest. Only combination group showed the lowest level of LDL. Based on histopathology result, the thickness of aortic wall was reduced in all groups and aspirin group showed the lowest.

  2. Effect of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering by Ezetimibe/Simvastatin on Outcome Incidence: Overview, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Regression Analyses of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Skalis, George; Michalopoulou, Helena; Tsioufis, Costas; Makris, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This analysis investigated the extent of different outcome reductions from low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering following ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment and the proportionality of outcome to LDL-C reductions. The authors searched PubMed between 1997 and mid-June 2015 (any language) and the Cochrane Library to identify all randomized controlled trials comparing ezetimibe/simvastatin with placebo or less intensive LDL-C lowering. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), standardized to 20 mg/dL LDL-C reduction, were calculated for 5 primary outcomes (fatal and nonfatal) and 4 secondary outcomes (non-cardiovascular [CV] death, cancer, myopathy, and hepatopathy). Five ezetimibe/simvastatin RCTs (30 051 individuals) were eligible, 2 comparing ezetimibe/simvastatin vs placebo and 3 vs less intensive treatment. Outcomes reduced almost to the same extent were stroke (RR: -13%, 95% CI: -21% to -3%), coronary heart disease (CHD; RR: -12%, 95% CI: -19% to -5%), and composite of stroke and CHD (RR: -14%, 95% CI: -20% to -8%). Absolute risk reductions: 5 strokes, 10 CHD events, and 16 stroke and CHD events prevented for every 1000 patients treated for 5 years. Residual risk was almost 7× higher than absolute risk reduction for all the above outcomes. All death outcomes were not reduced, and secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. Logarithmic risk ratios were not associated with LDL-C lowering. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that, in patients with different CV disease burden, major CV events are safely reduced by LDL-C lowering with ezetimibe/simvastatin, while raising the hypothesis that the extent of LDL-C lowering might not be accompanied by incremental clinical-event reduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin versus simvastatin, atorvastatin and pitavastatin in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cosin Sales, Juan; Fuentes Jiménez, Francisco José; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Ruiz, Emilio; Becerra, Virginia; Aceituno, Susana; Ferrario, Maria Giovanna; Lizán, Luis; Gracia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin versus simvastatin, atorvastatin and pitavastatin in Spain, according to the European guidelines for the treatment of dyslipidemias in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk. A Markov long-term cost-effectiveness model of rosuvastatin versus simvastatin, atorvastatin and pitavastatin in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk defined according to 5 factors (sex, age, smoking habit, baseline cholesterol level, and systolic blood pressure) using the SCORE system. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is expressed in euros per quality adjusted life years and is calculated according to the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. Rosuvastatin is associated with a greater health benefit than the other statins across the considered profiles. Rosuvastatin is cost-effective compared to simvastatin in patients with SCORE risk ≥8% in females and ≥6% in males, while between 5% and the indicated values its cost-effectiveness is conditional to the patient baseline c-LDL level. Rosuvastatin is more cost-effective versus atorvastatin in female profiles associated with a SCORE risk≥11% and male profiles with SCORE risk ≥10%. Rosuvastatin is superior versus pitavastatin in both female and male profiles with high and very high cardiovascular risk. Rosuvastatin is a cost-effective therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia versus simvastatin, atorvastatin and pitavastatin, especially in specific profiles of patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk factors, according to the SCORE system, in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Simvastatin-induced up-regulation of gap junctions composed of connexin 43 sensitize Leydig tumor cells to etoposide: an involvement of PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingzhi; Fu, Yanni; Peng, Jianxin; Wu, Dengpan; Yu, Meiling; Xu, Chengfang; Wang, Qin; Tao, Liang

    2013-10-04

    Some of lipophilic statins have been reported to enhance toxicities induced by antineoplastic agents but the underling mechanism is unclear. The authors investigated the involvement of Cx43-mediated gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in the effect of simvastatin on the cellular toxicity induced by etoposide in this study. The results showed that a major component of the cytotoxicity of therapeutic levels of etoposide is mediated by gap junctions composed of connexin 43(Cx43) and simvastatin at the dosage which does not induce cytotoxicity enhances etoposide toxicity by increasing gap junction coupling. The augmentative effect of simvastatin on GJIC was related to the inhibition of PKC-mediated Cx43 phosphorylation at ser368 and subsequent enhancement of Cx43 membrane location induced by the agent. The present study suggests the possibility that upregulation of gap junctions may be utilized to increase the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    PubMed

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  6. Development and Validation of an LC-MS-MS Method for Determination of Simvastatin and Simvastatin Acid in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Partani, Pankaj; Verma, Saurabh Manaswita; Monif, Tausif

    2016-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SV) and simvastatin acid (SVA) in human plasma. To improve assay sensitivity and achieve simultaneous analysis, SVA monitored in (-)ESI (electrospray ionization) mode within the first 4.5 min and SV thereafter in (+)ESI mode. The separation of all compounds was achieved in about 6.2 min using a C18 reverse-phase fused-core(®) column (Ascentis(®) Express C18) and a mobile phase, which was composed of 2.00 ± 0.05 mM ammonium acetate buffer titrated to pH 3.8 with glacial acetic acid-acetonitrile (25:75, v/v), in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.500 mL/min. Additionally, a solid-phase extraction step was performed to reduce any ion-suppression and/or enhancement effects. The developed method was linear in the concentration range of 0.100-74.626 ng/mL for SV, and 0.100-48.971 ng/mL for SVA, with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 for both analytes. The method has shown tremendous reproducibility, with intra- and inter-day precision <7.6%, and intra- and interday accuracy within ±10.9% of nominal values, for the both analytes. The method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of SV and SVA following an oral administration of 40 mg SV tablet to healthy human volunteers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Achievement of dual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein targets more frequent with the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin and associated with better outcomes in IMPROVE-IT.

    PubMed

    Bohula, Erin A; Giugliano, Robert P; Cannon, Christopher P; Zhou, Jing; Murphy, Sabina A; White, Jennifer A; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Blazing, Michael A; Braunwald, Eugene

    2015-09-29

    Statins lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); addition of ezetimibe to statins further reduces LDL-C and hs-CRP. An analysis of the relationship between achieved LDL-C and hs-CRP targets and outcomes for simvastatin and ezetimibe/simvastatin was prespecified in Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT). The IMPROVE-IT trial randomly assigned 18 144 patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome to simvastatin or ezetimibe/simvastatin. LDL-C and hs-CRP were measured at baseline and 1 month after randomization. Outcomes were assessed in those achieving one or both of the prespecified targets of LDL-C<70 mg/dL and hs-CRP<2 mg/L versus achieving neither target, adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. An exploratory analysis examined targets of LDL-C<50 mg/dL and hs-CRP<1 mg/L. Patients meeting both targets at baseline, with no 1-month values, or with end points before 1 month were excluded. Of 15 179 patients, 39% achieved the dual LDL-C (<70 mg/dL) and hs-CRP (<2 mg/L) targets at 1 month, 14% met neither target, 14% met only the hs-CRP target, and 33% met only the LDL-C target. Those achieving dual targets had lower primary end point rates than those meeting neither target (cardiovascular death, major coronary event, or stroke; 38.9% versus 28.0%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 0.66-0.81; P<0.001). More patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin met dual targets than those treated with simvastatin alone (50% versus 29%, P<0.001). The association of dual-target attainment with improved outcomes was similar irrespective of treatment assignment (P-interaction=0.65). Similar findings were observed using the exploratory targets. Significantly more patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin met prespecified and exploratory dual LDL-C and hs-CRP targets than patients treated with simvastatin alone. Reaching both LDL-C and hs-CRP targets was associated with

  8. Influence of specific mutations at the LDL-receptor gene locus on the response to simvastatin therapy in Afrikaner patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Jeenah, M; September, W; Graadt van Roggen, F; de Villiers, W; Seftel, H; Marais, D

    1993-01-04

    Simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, lowers the plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentration in familial hypercholesterolemic patients. The efficacy of the drug shows considerable inter-individual variation, however. In this study we have assessed the influence of certain LDL-receptor gene mutations on this variation. A group of 20 male and female heterozygotic familial hypercholesterolemic patients, all Afrikaners and each bearing one of two different LDL receptor gene mutations, FH Afrikaner-1 (FH1) and FH Afrikaner-2 (FH2), was treated with simvastatin (40 mg once daily) for 18 months. The average reduction in total plasma cholesterol was 35.3% in the case of the FH2 men but only 23.2% in that of the FH1 men (P = 0.005); the reduction in LDL cholesterol concentrations was also greater in the FH2 group (39% as opposed to 27.1%, P = 0.02). The better response of the FH2 group was also evident when men and women were considered together. Female FH1 patients responded better to simvastatin treatment, however, than did males with the same gene defect. Mutations at the LDL-receptor locus may thus play a significant role in the variable efficacy of the drug. The particular mutations in the males of this group may have contributed up to 35% of the variance in total cholesterol response and 29% of the variance in LDL-cholesterol response to simvastatin treatment.

  9. Interleukin-18 enhances IL-18R/Nox1 binding, and mediates TRAF3IP2-dependent smooth muscle cell migration. Inhibition by simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Anthony J.; Yoshida, Tadashi; Izadpanah, Reza; Delafontaine, Patrice; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of TRAF3 interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2), a redox-sensitive adapter protein and an upstream regulator of IKK and JNK in interleukin (IL)-18 induced smooth muscle cell migration, and the mechanism of its inhibition by simvastatin. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-18 induced human coronary artery SMC migration through the induction of TRAF3IP2. IL-18 induced Nox1-dependent ROS generation, TRAF3IP2 expression, and IKK/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1 activation. IL-18 induced its own expression and that of its receptor subunit IL-18Rα. Using co-IP/IB and GST pull-down assays, we show for the first time that the subunits of the IL-18R heterodimer physically associate with Nox1 under basal conditions, and IL-18 appears to enhance their binding. Importantly, the HMG-coA reductase inhibitor simvastatin attenuated IL-18-induced TRAF3IP2 induction. These inhibitory effects were reversed by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP), but not by farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP). Interestingly, simvastatin, GGPP, FPP, or Rac1 inhibition did not modulate ectopically expressed TRAF3IP2. The promigratory effects of IL-18 are mediated through TRAF3IP2 in a redox-sensitive manner, and this may involve IL-18R/Nox1 physical association. Further, Simvastatin inhibits inducible, but not ectopically-expressed TRAF3IP2. Targeting TRAF3IP2 may blunt progression of hyperplastic vascular diseases in vivo. PMID:23541442

  10. Simvastatin pretreatment protects cerebrum from neuronal injury by decreasing the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4 in ischemic stroke rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min-xia; Lu, Chao; Xia, Chun-mei; Qiao, Zhong-wei; Zhu, Da-nian

    2014-12-01

    Excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema are the two major factors resulting in neuronal injury during brain ischemia and reperfusion. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), the downstream signal molecular of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), is a mediator in the excitotoxicity. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), expressed mainly in the brain, is an important aquaporin to control the flux of water. In a previous study, we had reported that pretreatment of simvastatin protected the cerebrum from ischemia and reperfusion injury by decreasing neurological deficit score and infarct area (Zhu et al. PLoS One 7:e51552, 2012). The present study used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to further explore the pleiotropic effect of simvastatin via CaMK II and AQP4. The results showed that simvastatin reduced degenerated cells and brain edema while decreasing the protein expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and increasing the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax, which was independent of cholesterol-lowering effect. Immunocomplexes formed between the subunit of NMDARs-NR3A and AQP4 were detected for the first time. It was concluded that simvastatin could protect the cerebrum from neuronal excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema by downregulating the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and that the interaction between NR3A and AQP4 might provide the base for AQP4 involving in the signaling pathways mediated by NMDARs.

  11. Intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with 80 mg versus 20 mg simvastatin daily in 12,064 survivors of myocardial infarction: a double-blind randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Jane; Bowman, Louise; Wallendszus, Karl; Bulbulia, Richard; Rahimi, Kazem; Haynes, Richard; Parish, Sarah; Peto, Richard; Collins, Rory

    2010-11-13

    Lowering of LDL cholesterol reduces major vascular events, but whether more intensive therapy safely produces extra benefits is uncertain. We aimed to establish efficacy and safety of more intensive statin treatment in patients at high cardiovascular risk. We undertook a double-blind randomised trial in 12,064 men and women aged 18-80 years with a history of myocardial infarction. Participants were either currently on or had clear indication for statin therapy, and had a total cholesterol concentration of at least 3·5 mmol/L if already on a statin or 4·5 mmol/L if not. Randomisation to either 80 mg or 20 mg simvastatin daily was done centrally using a minimisation algorithm. Participants were assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after randomisation and then every 6 months until final follow-up. The primary endpoint was major vascular events, defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or arterial revascularisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN74348595. 6031 participants were allocated 80 mg simvastatin daily, and 6033 allocated 20 mg simvastatin daily. During a mean follow-up of 6·7 (SD 1·5) years, allocation to 80 mg simvastatin produced an average 0·35 (SE 0·01) mmol/L greater reduction in LDL cholesterol compared with allocation to 20 mg. Major vascular events occurred in 1477 (24·5%) participants allocated 80 mg simvastatin versus 1553 (25·7%) of those allocated 20 mg, corresponding to a 6% proportional reduction (risk ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·88-1·01; p=0·10). There were no apparent differences in numbers of haemorrhagic strokes (24 [0·4%] vs 25 [0·4%]) or deaths attributed to vascular (565 [9·4%] vs 572 [9·5%]) or non-vascular (399 [6·6%] vs 398 [6·6%]) causes. Compared with two (0·03%) cases of myopathy in patients taking 20 mg simvastatin daily, there were 53 (0·9%) cases in the 80 mg group. The 6% (SE 3·5%) reduction in major vascular events with a further 0·35 mmol/L reduction in

  12. Simvastatin inhibits ox-LDL-induced inflammatory adipokines secretion via amelioration of ER stress in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-hong; Chen, Ya-qin; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2013-03-08

    Adipocytes behave as a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipocytes can alter adipokines secretion and induce inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the ox-LDL-induced ER stress and expression and secretion of TNF-α and MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of ox-LDL (0-100 μg/ml) for 24h with or without simvastatin pre-treatment. The protein expressions of ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), were determined by Western blot analysis. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The protein release of TNF-α and MCP-1 in culture medium were evaluated by ELISA. Ox-LDL treatment led to significant up-regulation of GRP78 and CHOP in dose-dependent manner. The expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1 were dose-dependently increased at mRNA and protein levels after ox-LDL intervention. The effects of ox-LDL on adipocytes were abolished by pre-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone known to ameliorate ER stress. Simvastatin could inhibit ox-LDL-induced ER stress and reduce the expression of TNF-α and MCP-1 at mRNA and protien level in dose dependent manner. In conclusion, ox-LDL can stimulate the expression and secretion of TNF-α and MCP-1 through its activation of ER stress in adipocytes. Simvastatin might exert direct anti-inflammatory effects in adipocytes through amelioration of ER stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Twice Daily Plus Oral Simvastatin Versus Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Alone in the Treatment of Vitiligo Patients.

    PubMed

    Iraji, Fariba; Banihashemi, Seyed Hossin; Faghihi, Gita; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Jazi, Safoura Bokaie

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo, a common disorder of depigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are known to be effective, but with modest results. Although simvastatin has been reported to be effective for immunorelated dermatologic disorders including vitiligo, controlled trials are lacking. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream (as a standard method of treatment for vitiligo) versus a combination of betamethasone valerate plus oral simvastatin in the treatment of vitiligo. Eighty-eight subjects with symmetric vitiligo who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into two groups. Group A were treated with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and Group B with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and oral simvastatin 80 mg daily for 12 weeks. Finally, 46 patients completed treatment after 12 weeks in both groups. The results were evaluated by a blind dermatologist using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) score at baseline, 4 th , 8 th , and 12 th week of treatment. In a similar way, subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo evaluation at the end of the study. Despite a continuous reduction in VASI score in both groups, according to both physician ( P = 0.13) and patient ( P = 0.374) assessment oral simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of vitiligo. This study indicates that oral simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of vitiligo as compared to other inflammatory dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis. Indeed, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of statins in the treatment of vitiligo.

  14. A Comparison of Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Twice Daily Plus Oral Simvastatin Versus Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Alone in the Treatment of Vitiligo Patients

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Banihashemi, Seyed Hossin; Faghihi, Gita; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Jazi, Safoura Bokaie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo, a common disorder of depigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are known to be effective, but with modest results. Although simvastatin has been reported to be effective for immunorelated dermatologic disorders including vitiligo, controlled trials are lacking. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream (as a standard method of treatment for vitiligo) versus a combination of betamethasone valerate plus oral simvastatin in the treatment of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight subjects with symmetric vitiligo who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into two groups. Group A were treated with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and Group B with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and oral simvastatin 80 mg daily for 12 weeks. Finally, 46 patients completed treatment after 12 weeks in both groups. The results were evaluated by a blind dermatologist using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) score at baseline, 4th, 8th, and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in VASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.13) and patient (P = 0.374) assessment oral simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of vitiligo. Conclusion: This study indicates that oral simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of vitiligo as compared to other inflammatory dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis. Indeed, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of statins in the treatment of vitiligo. PMID:28516068

  15. [Effect of simvastatin on retinal Bcl-2/Bax expression and cell apoptosis in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    To explore the protective mechanism of simvastatin on retina ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model. It was a experiment study.One hundred and sixty-five adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups using digital table method, normal control group (CON, 55 rats), ischemia-reperfusion model group (MOD, 55 rats) and the medicine of simvastatin group (SIM, 55 rats).Each group was divided into five points in time of 4 hours, 8 hours, 16 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours, and there were 11 rats in each point. The right cephalic artery of each rat was clipped in model group and simvastatin group, but it was exposed in control group. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein were determined by the immunohistochemical method, the number of cell apoptosis in retina were examined by the TUNEL method and express of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA were measured by the real-time PCR method. The expression of proteins and mRNAs of Bcl-2 and Bax and also apoptosis of the rat retinas in each group at corresponding time point are compared using single factor analysis of variance and LSD-t test. Expression of Bcl-2 protein in model group began to decline at 4 h, reached the lowest at 24 h, with the data of (0.192 ± 0.011), (0.192 ± 0.015) , (0.189 ± 0.015), (0.183 ± 0.012) and (0.187 ± 0.010) .Expression of Bcl-2 protein in simvastatin group were higher than model group at each time point, with the information of (0.208 ± 0.011), (0.220 ± 0.011) , (0.221 ± 0.014), (0.228 ± 0.007) and (0.206 ± 0.015). The numbers were statistically significant at corresponding time point in each group (F(4, 8, 16, 24, 48) = 8.079, 9.005, 9.904, 35.563, 8.810, P < 0.05). Expression of Bax protein in model group began to increased at 4 h, reached the highest at 24 h, with the data of (0.255 ± 0.010), (0.261 ± 0.033), (0.276 ± 0.025), (0.324 ± 0.037) and (0.234 ± 0.018). Expression of Bax protein in simvastatin group were lower than model group at each time point, with the information of (0

  16. Effect of simvastatin injections on temporomandibular joint inflammation in growing rats.

    PubMed

    George, Mark D; Owen, Callista M; Reinhardt, Adam L; Giannini, Peter J; Marx, David B; Reinhardt, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis often affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), resulting in facial deformities, and intra-articular injections of anti-inflammatory steroids used in treatment may inhibit bone growth in the developing condyle. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin (SIM), a bone anabolic drug, compared with the common steroid triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) in experimental TMJ arthritis of growing rats. Joint inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the TMJs of 32 growing (4-week-old) Sprague-Dawley rats while simultaneously receiving 1) ethanol drug carrier, 2) 0.1 mg of SIM, 3) 0.5 mg of SIM, or 4) 0.15 mg of TH. Six rats had no treatment to the TMJ. Animals were euthanized 28 days later, and TMJs were decalcified and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathologic TMJ results showed that CFA injection along with drug carrier induced increased thickness of the articular layer on the head of the condyle and inflammation of the retrodiscal area (CFA and ethanol). Although both TH and SIM reduced the articular layer thickness, 0.5 mg of SIM was more effective at reducing subsynovial inflammation. Intra-articular simvastatin showed anti-inflammatory properties in this TMJ model, prompting its further study in the growing TMJ, where bone anabolic properties would be important. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a high dose of simvastatin on muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling in healthy volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Galtier, F., E-mail: f-galtier@chu-montpellier.fr; INSERM, CIC 1001, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5; CPID, Faculté de Pharmacie, 15 Av. Charles Flahault, BP 14491, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, Montpellier

    Statin use may be limited by muscle side effects. Although incompletely understood to date, their pathophysiology may involve oxidative stress and impairments of mitochondrial function and of muscle Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. In order to simultaneously assess these mechanisms, 24 male healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either simvastatin for 80 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples and a stress test were performed at baseline and at follow-up, and mitochondrial respiration and Ca{sup 2+} spark properties were evaluated on a muscle biopsy 4 days before the second stress test. Simvastatin-treated subjects were separated according to theirmore » median creatine kinase (CK) increase. Simvastatin treatment induced a significant elevation of aspartate amino transferase (3.38 ± 5.68 vs − 1.15 ± 4.32 UI/L, P < 0.001) and CK (− 24.3 ± 99.1 ± 189.3vs 48.3 UI/L, P = 0.01) and a trend to an elevation of isoprostanes (193 ± 408 vs12 ± 53 pmol/mmol creatinine, P = 0.09) with no global change in mitochondrial respiration, lactate/pyruvate ratio or Ca{sup 2+} sparks. However, among statin-treated subjects, those with the highest CK increase displayed a significantly lower Vmax rotenone succinate and an increase in Ca{sup 2+} spark amplitude vs both subjects with the lowest CK increase and placebo-treated subjects. Moreover, Ca{sup 2+} spark amplitude was positively correlated with treatment-induced CK increase in the whole group (r = 0.71, P = 0.0045). In conclusion, this study further supports that statin induced muscular toxicity may be related to alterations in mitochondrial respiration and muscle calcium homeostasis independently of underlying disease or concomitant medication. -- Highlights: ► Statin use may be limited by side effects, particularly myopathy. ► Statins might impair mitochondrial function and muscle Ca2+ signaling in muscle. ► This was tested among healthy volunteers receiving simvastatin 80 mg daily for 8 weeks.

  18. Effects of Topic Simvastatin for the Treatment of Chronic Vascular Cutaneous Ulcers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Raposio, Edoardo; Libondi, Guido; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Grieco, Michele P

    2015-12-01

    Recent research suggests that statins might be useful in the process of wound healing, playing a positive immune-modulatory role, improving microvascular function and reducing oxidative stress. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of topic application of Simvastatin-based cream in the treatment of chronic vascular cutaneous ulcers, comparing this type of treatment to a collagen-based dressing, proven to be effective for ulcer treatment. A total of 20 ulcers were studied in 2 Groups of randomly-chosen patients for a period of one month. In the first Group a 0.5% Simvastatin-based cream was topically administered, while the second Group (control) was treated with an absorbable type I bovine collagen-based medication. Each week, wound healing progress was observed in both Groups, and the ulcers photographed. Wound healing rate was calculated by considering the absolute change in area and by the formula "healing ratio (%) = [(Area 0 - Area t4 )/Area 0 ] × 100," both sets of data being related to the days comprised in the study in order to calculate healing rate per day. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test. Study endpoint equaling the time-course changes of ulcer areas. At the end of the study, when considering absolute change in area, the experimental Group appeared to heal better and faster than the control Group although differences between the Groups were not statistically significant. Conversely, rates of wound healing in the experimental and control Groups were 46.88% and 64% respectively, revealing statistically significant differences. ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, topic application of a simvastatin-based cream proved to be well- tolerated but not effective in the management of vascular leg ulcers in a 4 week-period.

  19. Ridge Preservation After Maxillary Third Molar Extraction Using 30% Porosity PLGA/HA/β-TCP Scaffolds With and Without Simvastatin: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Noronha Oliveira, Miguel; Rau, Levy Hermes; Marodin, Aline; Corrêa, Márcio; Corrêa, Letícia Ruhland; Aragones, Aguedo; Magini, Ricardo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate clinically and radiographically, in humans, the healing of maxillary third molars postextraction sockets after application of different ridge preservation techniques 3 months after tooth extraction. Twenty-six sockets (13 patients) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment modalities: deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (DBBM-C), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) with hydroxyapatite/β-TCP scaffold (PLGA/HA), PLGA/HA/β-TCP with 2.0% simvastatin scaffold (PLGA/HA/S), and spontaneous healing (control). Clinical complications were assessed, and cone-beam computed tomographies were taken in 5 patients 3 months after surgeries. For statistical purposes, the Fisher exact test was used (P < 0.05). After 3 months, 6 of 9 grafts from the PLGA/HA group were lost (P < 0.05). PLGA/HA/S' loss was only 2 of 8 (P > 0.05), but no loss was observed in the DBBM-C group. Pain was present in 3 of 8 sites that lost the graft (37.5%) (P > 0.05) and infection in 1 of 8 (12.5%) (P > 0.05), with these only occurring in the PLGA/HA group. Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) with hydroxyapatite/β-TCP (PLGA/HA/β-TCP) scaffolds, with and without simvastatin, failed to obtain the initial expected results and presented more complications. Scaffolds with simvastatin showed to be superior, with less clinical complications than scaffolds without simvastatin.

  20. Topical simvastatin gel as a novel therapeutic modality for palatal donor site wound healing following free gingival graft procedure.

    PubMed

    Madi, Marwa; Kassem, Abeer

    2018-04-01

    Autogenous soft-tissue grafting is a commonly used procedure nowadays in dentistry. However, the prolonged healing time needed for the donor site leads to increase the patient's pain and discomfort. Statin has been observed to be beneficial in reducing bacterial burden, improving epithelization and wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-oral topical application of simvastatin/chitosan gel (10 mg/mL) over the palatal donor site following free gingival graft (FGG) procedure. Subjects indicated for FGG procedure were divided into four groups. Group I: Simvastatin suspension (S), group II: simvastatin/chitosan gel (SC), group III: chitosan gel (C), group IV: petroleum gel (P). Treatment was applied three times/day for the following 7 days. Wound healing was evaluated at day 3, 7 and 14 post-surgery. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the experienced discomfort at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days. Statistical significant reduction in wound-healing scores was observed after 3 and 7 days for group II compared to other groups (p  = .015). A significant reduction was also observed in VAS score for group II compared to other groups at day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Topical application of S/C gel could be used as a novel therapeutic modality that improved healing and reduced pain in the palatal donor site following FGG procedure.

  1. Intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with 80 mg versus 20 mg simvastatin daily in 12 064 survivors of myocardial infarction: a double-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) Collaborative Group

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Lowering of LDL cholesterol reduces major vascular events, but whether more intensive therapy safely produces extra benefits is uncertain. We aimed to establish efficacy and safety of more intensive statin treatment in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We undertook a double-blind randomised trial in 12 064 men and women aged 18–80 years with a history of myocardial infarction. Participants were either currently on or had clear indication for statin therapy, and had a total cholesterol concentration of at least 3·5 mmol/L if already on a statin or 4·5 mmol/L if not. Randomisation to either 80 mg or 20 mg simvastatin daily was done centrally using a minimisation algorithm. Participants were assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after randomisation and then every 6 months until final follow-up. The primary endpoint was major vascular events, defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or arterial revascularisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN74348595. Findings 6031 participants were allocated 80 mg simvastatin daily, and 6033 allocated 20 mg simvastatin daily. During a mean follow-up of 6·7 (SD 1·5) years, allocation to 80 mg simvastatin produced an average 0·35 (SE 0·01) mmol/L greater reduction in LDL cholesterol compared with allocation to 20 mg. Major vascular events occurred in 1477 (24·5%) participants allocated 80 mg simvastatin versus 1553 (25·7%) of those allocated 20 mg, corresponding to a 6% proportional reduction (risk ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·88–1·01; p=0·10). There were no apparent differences in numbers of haemorrhagic strokes (24 [0·4%] vs 25 [0·4%]) or deaths attributed to vascular (565 [9·4%] vs 572 [9·5%]) or non-vascular (399 [6·6%] vs 398 [6·6%]) causes. Compared with two (0·03%) cases of myopathy in patients taking 20 mg simvastatin daily, there were 53 (0·9%) cases in the 80 mg group. Interpretation The 6% (SE 3·5%) reduction in major

  2. [Rhabdomyolysis secondary to simvastatin and phenofibrate].

    PubMed

    Forcadell-Peris, M J; de Diego-Cabanes, C

    2014-01-01

    Statins, which are used as first-line drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, are usually safe, but in some cases there may be muscular toxicity. Statin-associated myopathy, can present as myalgia, myositis or rhabdomyolysis. Only 0.44 per 10,000 treated and per year, develop rhabdomyolysis. There are many risk factors associated with the patient and with the pharmacological treatment. A risk of muscle injury of 1-5% has been reported with some statins combined with fibrates. The fibrate with the highest risk of myopathy in combination with statins is gemfibrozil, while phenofibrate seems to be the safest. The case is presented of a 60 year-old woman with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings that suggested rhabdomyolysis secondary to a combination of simvastatin and phenofibrate. This case reminds physicians of the need to closely monitor these patients, in addition to alert them to the onset of muscle pain or weakness. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple drilling combined with simvastatin versus multiple drilling alone for the treatment of avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head: 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Han; Yuan, Zhenfeng; Wang, Dawei

    2016-08-15

    Multiple small drilling for core decompression is widely used to preserve the femoral head in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Nevertheless, the clinical outcome remains controversial. Simvastatin has been demonstrated to promote bone formation and reduce bone adsorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether simvastatin enhanced the effect of multiple decompressions in preventing progression of ANFH and to identify independent risk factors associated with poor results. We retrospectively analyzed 58 hips in 36 patients, with a follow-up of 36 months. 20 patients (32 hips) underwent multiple drilling combined with simvastatin treatment (SIM group); 16 patients (26 hips) underwent multiple drilling alone (MD group). We defined clinical failure as a requirement for subsequent hip surgery or Harris Hip Score < 75. New occurrence of collapse or increased collapse > 2 mm on plain radiographs was defined as radiological failure. Successful clinical results were achieved in 27 of 32 hips (84 %) in the SIM group compared with 15 of 26 hips (58 %) in the MD group (OR = 0.2, CI (0.1, 0.6.), P = 0.032). Successful radiological results were achieved in 27 of 32 hips (84 %) in the SIM group and in 16 of 26 hips (61.5 %) in the MD group (P = 0.048). Body mass index, disease stage and location of lesion were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. We believe that simvastatin could enhance the effects of multiple decompressions in preventing progression of ANFH and reducing the risk of femoral head collapse.

  4. Effects of simvastatin in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Results of a pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Catalina; Peralta, Alejandro; Ríos, Ángel; Iglesias, Amanda; Valera, Josep Lluís; Noguera, Aina; Soriano, Joan B; Agustí, Àlvar; Sala-Llinas, Ernest

    2016-04-15

    Statins may have pleiotropic effects in COPD, but mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the pleiotropic effect of statins in patients with stable COPD on ( 1 ): lung function ( 2 ); pulmonary and systemic inflammation ( 3 ); endothelial function (vascular stiffness) and circulating vascular growth factors; and ( 4 ), serum uric acid levels. Pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 24 patients with stable COPD, all statin-naïve, who were randomized (1:1) to receive simvastatin 40 mg/24 h during 12 weeks (n = 12; 69.0 ± 7.3 years; post-bd FEV 1 53.4 ± 10.0% pred.) or placebo (n = 12; 66.4 ± 4.6 years; post-bd FEV 1 48.2 ± 12.6% pred.). Nine patients per group (total n = 18) completed the study. Lung function, pulmonary and systemic inflammatory markers and the degree of vascular stiffness did not change significantly in any group. However, treatment with simvastatin increased the plasma levels of erythropoietin (Epo) (4.2 ± 2.2 mIU/mL to 6.8 ± 3.2 mlU/mL, p < 0.05) and reduced those of serum uric acid (7.1 ± 1.3 mg/dL to 6.5 ± 1.4 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Short-term treatment with simvastatin in stable COPD patients did not modify lung function, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, or vascular stiffness, but it changed Epo and uric acid levels.

  5. Simvastatin promotes NPC1-mediated free cholesterol efflux from lysosomes through CYP7A1/LXRα signalling pathway in oxLDL-loaded macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aolin; Halquist, Matthew S; Yuan, Xinxu; Henderson, Scott C; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun; Zhang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are the first-line medications prescribed for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The efficacy of statins has been attributed not only to their systemic cholesterol-lowering actions but also to their pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction. These pleiotropic effects have been increasingly recognized as essential in statins therapy. This study was designed to investigate the pleiotropic actions of simvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed statins, on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis with a focus on lysosomal free cholesterol egression. With simultaneous nile red and filipin staining, analysis of confocal/multi-photon imaging demonstrated that simvastatin markedly attenuated unesterified (free) cholesterol buildup in macrophages loaded with oxidized low-density lipoprotein but had little effect in reducing the sizes of cholesteryl ester-containing lipid droplets; the reduction in free cholesterol was mainly attributed to decreases in lysosome-compartmentalized cholesterol. Functionally, the egression of free cholesterol from lysosomes attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. It was determined that the reduction of lysosomal free cholesterol buildup by simvastatin was due to the up-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal residing cholesterol transporter. Moreover, the enhanced enzymatic production of 7-hydroxycholesterol by cytochrome P450 7A1 and the subsequent activation of liver X receptor α underscored the up-regulation of NPC1. These findings reveal a novel pleiotropic effect of simvastatin in affecting lysosomal cholesterol efflux in macrophages and the associated significance in the treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Solubility enhancement of simvastatin by arginine: thermodynamics, solute-solvent interactions, and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Meor Mohd Affandi, M M R; Tripathy, Minaketan; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Majeed, A B A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the solubility of simvastatin in water in 0.01 mol·dm(-3), 0.02 mol·dm(-3), 0.04 mol·dm(-3), 0.09 mol·dm(-3), 0.18 mol·dm(-3), 0.36 mol·dm(-3), and 0.73 mol·dm(-3) arginine (ARG) solutions. The investigated drug is termed the solute, whereas ARG the cosolute. Phase solubility studies illustrated a higher extent of solubility enhancement for simvastatin. The aforementioned system was subjected to conductometric and volumetric measurements at temperatures (T) of 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K to illustrate the thermodynamics involved and related solute-solvent interactions. The conductance values were used to evaluate the limiting molar conductance and association constants. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG (0), ΔH (0), ΔS (0), and E s) for the association process of the solute in the aqueous solutions of ARG were calculated. Limiting partial molar volumes and expansibilities were evaluated from the density values. These values are discussed in terms of the solute-solvent and solute-cosolute interactions. Further, these systems were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C, (1)H, and two-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance to complement thermophysical explanation.

  7. Solubility enhancement of simvastatin by arginine: thermodynamics, solute–solvent interactions, and spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meor Mohd Affandi, MMR; Tripathy, Minaketan; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Majeed, ABA

    2016-01-01

    We examined the solubility of simvastatin in water in 0.01 mol·dm−3, 0.02 mol·dm−3, 0.04 mol·dm−3, 0.09 mol·dm−3, 0.18 mol·dm−3, 0.36 mol·dm−3, and 0.73 mol·dm−3 arginine (ARG) solutions. The investigated drug is termed the solute, whereas ARG the cosolute. Phase solubility studies illustrated a higher extent of solubility enhancement for simvastatin. The aforementioned system was subjected to conductometric and volumetric measurements at temperatures (T) of 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K to illustrate the thermodynamics involved and related solute–solvent interactions. The conductance values were used to evaluate the limiting molar conductance and association constants. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, ΔS0, and Es) for the association process of the solute in the aqueous solutions of ARG were calculated. Limiting partial molar volumes and expansibilities were evaluated from the density values. These values are discussed in terms of the solute–solvent and solute–cosolute interactions. Further, these systems were analyzed using ultraviolet–visible analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13C, 1H, and two-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance to complement thermophysical explanation. PMID:27041998

  8. A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP)

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Peter W; Clark, David WJ; Williams, Sheila M; Coulter, David M

    1999-01-01

    Aims Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. Methods A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme’s (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. Results 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. Conclusions In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin. PMID:10073746

  9. Limited Sampling Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of Statins: Reliability of a Single Time Point for AUC Prediction for Pravastatin and Simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, N R

    2016-02-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medicines and are also available in fixed dose combinations with other drugs to treat several chronic ailments. Given the safety issues associated with statins it may be important to assess feasibility of a single time concentration strategy for prediction of exposure (area under the curve; AUC). The peak concentration (Cmax) was used to establish relationship with AUC separately for pravastatin and simvastatin using published pharmacokinetic data. The regression equations generated for statins were used to predict the AUC values from various literature references. The fold difference of the observed divided by predicted values along with correlation coefficient (r) were used to judge the feasibility of the single time point approach. Both pravastatin and simvastatin showed excellent correlation of Cmax vs. AUC values with r value ≥ 0.9638 (p<0.001). The fold difference was within 0.5-fold to 2-fold for 220 out of 227 AUC predictions and >81% of the predicted values were in a narrower range of >0.75-fold but <1.5-fold difference. Predicted vs. observed AUC values showed excellent correlation for pravastatin (r=0.9708, n=115; p<0.001) and simvastatin (r=0.9810; n=117; p<0.001) suggesting the utility of Cmax for AUC predictions. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to develop a single concentration time point strategy that coincides with Cmax occurrence for both pravastatin and simvastatin from a therapeutic drug monitoring perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Biochemical Changes in Erythrocytes as a Molecular Marker of Cell Damage during Long-Term Simvastatin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mikashinovich, Z I; Belousova, E S

    2016-08-01

    Long-term administration of simvastatin to rats, irrespective of the baseline cholesterol levels, induced biochemical changes in erythrocytes attesting to hypoxic damage (accumulation of lactate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate), disturbances in ATP-dependent mechanisms of ion homeostasis regulation (decrease in total ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities), and antioxidant enzymes system imbalance. These changes can be considered as a sensitive indicator and molecular basis of cell damage during long-term administration of statins.

  11. Protective effects of l-carnitine and piracetam against mitochondrial permeability transition and PC3 cell necrosis induced by simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rute A P; Fernandes, Mariana P; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Vercesi, Aníbal E

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress followed by membrane permeability transition (MPT) has been considered as a possible mechanism for statins cytotoxicity. Statins use has been associated with reduced risk of cancer incidence, especially prostate cancer. Here we investigated the pathways leading to simvastatin-induced prostate cancer cell death as well as the mechanisms of cell death protection by l-carnitine or piracetam. These compounds are known to prevent and/or protect against cell death mediated by oxidative mitochondrial damage induced by a variety of conditions, either in vivo or in vitro. The results provide evidence that simvastatin induced MPT and cell necrosis were sensitive to either l-carnitine or piracetam in a dose-dependent fashion and mediated by additive mechanisms. When combined, l-carnitine and piracetam acted at concentrations significantly lower than they act individually. These results shed new light into both the cytotoxic mechanisms of statins and the mechanisms underlying the protection against MPT and cell death by the compounds l-carnitine and piracetam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Caveolin Contributes to the Modulation of Basal and β-Adrenoceptor Stimulated Function of the Adult Rat Ventricular Myocyte by Simvastatin: A Novel Pleiotropic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh R.; Harvey, Robert D.; Porter, Karen E.; Calaghan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The number of people taking statins is increasing across the globe, highlighting the importance of fully understanding statins' effects on the cardiovascular system. The beneficial impact of statins extends well beyond regression of atherosclerosis to include direct effects on tissues of the cardiovascular system (‘pleiotropic effects’). Pleiotropic effects on the cardiac myocyte are often overlooked. Here we consider the contribution of the caveolin protein, whose expression and cellular distribution is dependent on cholesterol, to statin effects on the cardiac myocyte. Caveolin is a structural and regulatory component of caveolae, and is a key regulator of cardiac contractile function and adrenergic responsiveness. We employed an experimental model in which inhibition of myocyte HMG CoA reductase could be studied in the absence of paracrine influences from non-myocyte cells. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were treated with 10 µM simvastatin for 2 days. Simvastatin treatment reduced myocyte cholesterol, caveolin 3 and caveolar density. Negative inotropic and positive lusitropic effects (with corresponding changes in [Ca2+]i) were seen in statin-treated cells. Simvastatin significantly potentiated the inotropic response to β2-, but not β1-, adrenoceptor stimulation. Under conditions of β2-adrenoceptor stimulation, phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and troponin I at Ser23/24 was enhanced with statin treatment. Simvastatin increased NO production without significant effects on eNOS expression or phosphorylation (Ser1177), consistent with the reduced expression of caveolin 3, its constitutive inhibitor. In conclusion, statin treatment can reduce caveolin 3 expression, with functional consequences consistent with the known role of caveolae in the cardiac cell. These data are likely to be of significance, particularly during the early phases of statin treatment, and in patients with heart failure who have altered β-adrenoceptor signalling. In addition

  13. Enhanced Single-Step Bioproduction of the Simvastatin Precursor Monacolin J in an Industrial Strain of Aspergillus terreus by Employing the Evolved Lovastatin Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Huang, Xuenian; Teng, Yun; Liang, Yajing; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Linghui; Lu, Xuefeng

    2018-06-01

    Biosynthesis of simvastatin, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of cholesterol-lowering drug Zocor, has drawn increasing global attention in recent years. Although single-step in vivo production of monacolin J, the intermediate biosynthetic precursor of simvastatin, has been realized by utilizing lovastatin hydrolase (PcEST) in our previous study, about 5% of residual lovastatin is still a problem for industrial production and quality control. In order to improve conversion efficiency and reduce lovastatin residues, modification of PcEST is carried out through directed evolution and a novel two-step high-throughput screening method. The mutant Q140L shows 18-fold improved whole-cell activity as compared to the wild-type, and one fold enhanced catalytic efficiency and 3 °C increased T 50 10 over the wild-type are observed by characterizing the purified protein. Finally, the engineered A. terreus strain overexpressing Q140L mutant exhibited the increased conversion efficiency and the reduced lovastatin residues by comparing with A. terreus strain overexpressing the wild-type PcEST, where almost 100% of the produced lovastatin is hydrolyzed to monacolin J. Therefore, this improved microbial cell factory can realize single-step bioproduction of monacolin J in a more efficient way, providing an attractive and eco-friendly substitute over the existing chemical synthetic routes of monacolin J and promoting complete bioproduction of simvastatin at industrial scale. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Estimation of simvastatin and cetirizine by RP-LC method: Application to freeze and thaw (FT) stability studies.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Sana, Aisha; Ali, Huma; Zafar, Farya; Qamar, Fatima; Sarwer, Ghulam; Abbas, Sarah; Alam, M Tanweer; Shinwari, Muhammad Ibrar

    2018-01-01

    Sensitive, simple, reliable and rapid HPLC technique for the estimation of simvastatin (SMV) and cetirizine has been designed in this study. The chromatographic conditions were set using Shimadzu LC-10 AT VP pump, with UV detector (SPD-10 AV-VP). System integration was performed with CBM-102 (Bus Module). Partitioning of components was attained with pre-packed C-18 column of Purospher Star (5 μm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at ambient conditions. Injected volume of sample was 10 μl. Mobile phase was composed of 50:50 v/v ratio of Acetonitrile/water (pH 3.0 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid) having 2 ml/minutes rate of flow. Compounds were detected in UV region at 225 nm. Percent Recovery of simvastatin was observed in the range of 98-102%. All results were found in accept table range of specification. The projected method is consistent, specific, precise, and rapid, that can be employed to quantitate the SMV along with cetirizine HCl. It was estimated by 3 successive cycles of freeze and thaw stability. Results of FT samples were found within accept table limits the method was developed and validated in raw materials, bulk formulations and final drug products.

  15. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Wheeler, David C; Tomson, Charles; Wanner, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Lixin; Hooi, Lai Seong; Levin, Adeera; Agodoa, Lawrence; Gaziano, Mike; Kasiske, Bertram; Walker, Robert; Massy, Ziad A; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Krairittichai, Udom; Ophascharoensuk, Vuddidhej; Fellström, Bengt; Holdaas, Hallvard; Tesar, Vladimir; Wiecek, Andrzej; Grobbee, Diederick; de Zeeuw, Dick; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Dasgupta, Tanaji; Lewis, David; Herrington, William; Mafham, Marion; Majoni, William; Wallendszus, Karl; Grimm, Richard; Pedersen, Terje; Tobert, Jonathan; Armitage, Jane; Baxter, Alex; Bray, Christopher; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Zhengming; Hill, Michael; Knott, Carol; Parish, Sarah; Simpson, David; Sleight, Peter; Young, Alan; Collins, Rory

    2011-06-25

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients. This randomised double-blind trial included 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease (3023 on dialysis and 6247 not) with no known history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. Patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily versus matching placebo. The key prespecified outcome was first major atherosclerotic event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death, non-haemorrhagic stroke, or any arterial revascularisation procedure). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00125593, and ISRCTN54137607. 4650 patients were assigned to receive simvastatin plus ezetimibe and 4620 to placebo. Allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe yielded an average LDL cholesterol difference of 0·85 mmol/L (SE 0·02; with about two-thirds compliance) during a median follow-up of 4·9 years and produced a 17% proportional reduction in major atherosclerotic events (526 [11·3%] simvastatin plus ezetimibe vs 619 [13·4%] placebo; rate ratio [RR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·74-0·94; log-rank p=0·0021). Non-significantly fewer patients allocated to simvastatin plus ezetimibe had a non-fatal myocardial infarction or died from coronary heart disease (213 [4·6%] vs 230 [5·0%]; RR 0·92, 95% CI 0·76-1·11; p=0·37) and there were significant reductions in non-haemorrhagic stroke (131 [2·8%] vs 174 [3·8%]; RR 0·75, 95% CI 0·60-0·94; p=0·01) and arterial revascularisation procedures (284 [6·1%] vs 352 [7·6%]; RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·68-0·93; p=0·0036). After weighting for subgroup-specific reductions in LDL

  16. Low Doses of Simvastatin Potentiate the Effect of Sodium Alendronate in Inhibiting Bone Resorption and Restore Microstructural and Mechanical Bone Properties in Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sequetto, Priscila L; Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Pinto, Aloísio S; Oliveira, Maria G A; Maldonado, Izabel R S C; Oliveira, Tânia T; Novaes, Rômulo D

    2017-10-01

    By using an experimental model of dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis we investigated the effects of different therapeutic schemes combining sodium alendronate (SA) and simvastatin on bone mineral and protein composition, microstructural and mechanical remodeling. Wistar rats were randomized into eight groups: G1: non-osteoporotic; G2: osteoporotic; G3, G4, and G5: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively); G6, G7, and G8: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively)+simvastatin (0.4, 0.6, and 1 mg/kg, respectively). Osteoporosis was induced by dexamethasone (7 mg/kg, i.m.) once a week for 5 weeks. All treatments were administered for 8 weeks. Dexamethasone increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, and urea, especially in non-treated animals, which showed severe osteoporosis. Dexamethasone also induced bone microstructural fragility and reduced mechanical resistance, which were associated with a marked depletion in mineral mass, collagenous and non-collagenous protein levels in cortical and cancellous bone. Although SA has attenuated osteoporosis severity, the effectiveness of drug therapy was enhanced combining alendronate and simvastatin. The restoration in serum parameters, organic and inorganic bone mass, and mechanical behavior showed a dose-dependent effect that was potentially related to the complementary mechanisms by which each drug acts to induce bone anabolism, accelerating tissue repair.

  17. Two smart spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous estimation of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in combined dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdy, Nancy; Ayad, Miriam F.

    2015-02-01

    Two simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and economic spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in fixed dose combination products without prior separation. The first method depends on a new chemometrics-assisted ratio spectra derivative method using moving window polynomial least square fitting method (Savitzky-Golay filters). The second method is based on a simple modification for the ratio subtraction method. The suggested methods were validated according to USP guidelines and can be applied for routine quality control testing.

  18. Achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in high-risk patients in managed care: comparison of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and simvastatin in the SOLAR trial.

    PubMed

    Insull, William; Ghali, Jalal K; Hassman, David R; Y As, Joseph W; Gandhi, Sanjay K; Miller, Elinor

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate attainment of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL with statin treatments in managed care patients at high risk for coronary heart disease. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial (SOLAR [Satisfying Optimal LDL-C ATP III goals with Rosuvastatin]) performed at 145 US clinical centers from June 5, 2002 to July 12, 2004, high-risk men and women in a managed care population received typical starting doses of rosuvastatin (10 mg/d), atorvastatin (10 mg/d), or simvastatin (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks. Those who did not meet the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL at 6 weeks had their dose titrated (doubled), and all patients were followed up for another 6 weeks. A total of 1632 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment regimens. After 6 weeks, 65% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 41% with atorvastatin and 39% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). After 12 weeks, 76% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 58% with atorvastatin and 53% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). Reductions in the LDL-C level, total cholesterol level, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly greater with rosuvastatin at both 6 and 12 weeks compared with the other statins. Adverse events were similar in type and frequency in all treatment groups, and only 3% of all patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. No myopathy was observed, no clinically important impact on renal function was attributed to study medications, and clinically important increases in serum transaminases were rare. In a managed care population, 10 mg of rosuvastatin treatment resulted in more patients reaching the NCEP ATP III LDL-C goal compared with 10 mg of atorvastatin and 20 mg of

  19. Simvastatin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a “Western-style diet” by increasing PPAR α and γ expression and reducing TC, MMP-9, and Cat S levels

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yan-wen; Ye, Ping; He, Ji-qiang; Sheng, Li; Wang, Lu-ya; Du, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The examine the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE−/− mice) fed a “Western-style diet” and the effect of simvastatin intervention. Methods: Male ApoE−/− mice (n=36) were fed a “Western-style diet” from the age of 8 weeks. After 16 weeks, they were randomly given either simvastatin (25 mg·kg−1·d−1) or normal saline (control group) by gavage for 8, 16, or 24 weeks. The left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and diameter of the myocardial cells were determined with Hematoxylin-Eosin stain, and the level of fibrosis of the myocardial matrix was assessed with Masson stain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), Cathepsin S (Cat S), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the myocardium of ApoE−/− mice. Results: ApoE−/− mice fed a “Western-style diet” showed an significant age-dependent increase in total cholesterol (TC), LV wall thickness, myocardial cell diameter and LV collagen content (P<0.05). The simvastatin treatment group showed significantly reduced LV wall thickness, myocardial cell diameters and LV collagen content at 40 weeks when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with simvastatin also significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-9 and Cat S as well as increased the mRNA and protein expressions of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma at 32 and 40 weeks compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: ApoE−/− mice fed a “Western-style diet” had cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, which worsened with age. Simvastatin treatment inhibits the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and this effect may be mediated through increased levels of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma and reduced levels of TC, MMP-9, and Cat S. PMID:20835264

  20. Preparation of Emulsifying Wax/GMO Nanoparticles and Evaluation as a Delivery System for Repurposing Simvastatin in Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Budge, Aaron; Manickavasagam, Dharani; Czech, Tori; Novak, Kimberly; Kunzler, James; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2018-05-30

    Simvastatin (Sim) is a widely known drug in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that has attracted so much attention in bone regeneration based on its potential osteoanabolic effect. However, repurposing of Sim in bone regeneration will require suitable delivery systems that can negate undesirable off-target/side effects. In this study, we have investigated a new lipid nanoparticle (NP) platform that was fabricated using a binary blend of emulsifying wax (Ewax) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO). Using the binary matrix materials, NPs loaded with Sim (0-500 µg/mL) were prepared and showed an average particle size of about 150 nm. NP size stability was dependent on Sim concentration loaded in NPs. The suitability of NPs prepared with the binary matrix materials in Sim delivery for potential application in bone regeneration was supported by biocompatibility in pre-osteoclastic and pre-osteoblastic cells. Additional data demonstrated that biofunctional Sim was released from NPs that facilitated differentiation of osteoblasts (cells that form bones) while inhibiting differentiation of osteoclasts (cells that resorb bones). The overall work demonstrated the preparation of NPs from Ewax/GMO blends and characterization to ascertain potential suitability in Sim delivery for bone regeneration. Additional studies on osteoblast and osteoclast functions are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy simvastatin-loaded Ewax/GMO NPs using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches.

  1. The Effect of Simvastatin on mRNA Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tooth Extraction Socket

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Zhe; Sun, Hong-chen

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the effect of local simvastatin application on the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tooth sockets of rat. Methodology Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=24). Polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer carriers, with or without simvastatin, were implanted into extraction sockets of right mandibular incisors. The expression of TGF-β1, BMP-2 and VEGF mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization in the tooth extraction socket at five days, one week, two weeks and four weeks after implantation. Results The fusiform stroma cells in the tooth extraction socket began to express TGF-β1, BMP-2 and VEGF mRNA in both experimental and control groups from one week after tooth extraction until the end of experiment. The expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 mRNA in the experimental group was significantly up-regulated after one, two and four weeks, and expression of VEGF mRNA was significantly increased after one and two weeks compared with that in the control group. Conclusion The findings indicate that local administration of simvastatin can influence alveolar bone remodeling by regulating the expression of a school of growth factors which are crucial to osteogenesis in the tooth extraction socket. PMID:20687301

  2. Evaluating early administration of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin in the prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill ventilated patients (MoDUS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Casarin, Annalisa; McAuley, Daniel F; Alce, Timothy M; Zhao, Xiaobei; Ely, E Wesley; Jackson, Jim C; McDowell, Cliona; Agus, Ashley; Murphy, Lynn; Page, Valerie J

    2015-05-16

    The incidence of delirium in ventilated patients is estimated at up to 82%, and it is associated with longer intensive care and hospital stays, and long-term cognitive impairment and mortality. The pathophysiology of delirium has been linked with inflammation and neuronal apoptosis. Simvastatin has pleiotropic properties; it penetrates the brain and, as well as reducing cholesterol, reduces inflammation when used at clinically relevant doses over the short term. This is a single centre randomised, controlled trial which aims to test the hypothesis that treatment with simvastatin will modify delirium incidence and outcomes. The ongoing study will include 142 adults admitted to the Watford General Hospital Intensive Care Unit who require mechanical ventilation in the first 72 hours of admission. The primary outcome is the number of delirium- and coma-free days in the first 14 days. Secondary outcomes include incidence of delirium, delirium- and coma-free days in the first 28 days, days in delirium and in coma at 14 and 28 days, number of ventilator-free days at 28 days, length of critical care and hospital stay, mortality, cognitive decline and healthcare resource use. Informed consent will be taken from patient's consultee before randomisation to receive either simvastatin (80 mg) or placebo once daily. Daily data will be recorded until day 28 after randomisation or until discharge from the ICU if sooner. Surviving patients will be followed up on at six months from discharge. Plasma and urine samples will be taken to investigate the biological effect of simvastatin on systemic markers of inflammation, as related to the number of delirium- and coma-free days, and the potential of cholinesterase activity and beta-amyloid as predictors of the risk of delirium and long-term cognitive impairment. This trial will test the efficacy of simvastatin on reducing delirium in the critically ill. If patients receiving the statin show a reduced number of days in delirium compared

  3. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H 2 O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H 2 O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H 2 O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SALAS, JUAN; MORÁN, ANDREA; SUAZO, IVÁN

    2013-01-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects. PMID:24250728

  5. Graphene Oxide/Ag Nanoparticles Cooperated with Simvastatin as a High Sensitive X-Ray Computed Tomography Imaging Agent for Diagnosis of Renal Dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Liu, Jianli; Qi, Wei; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Haijing; Ali, Mohammad Chand; Wu, Wangsuo; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2017-09-01

    Graphene oxides (GO) are attracting much attention in the diagnosis and therapy of the subcutaneous tumor as a novel biomaterial, but its diagnosis to tissue dysfunction is yet to be found. Here, a novel application of GO for diagnosis of renal dysfunction via contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is proposed. In order to serve as contrast-enhanced agent, Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are composited on the surface of GO to promote its X-ray absorption, and then simvastatin is coinjected for eliminating in vivo toxicity induced by AgNPs. It is found that GO/AgNPs can enhance the imaging of CT into the lung, liver, and kidney of mice for a long circulation time (≈24 h) and a safety profile in vivo in the presence of simvastatin. Interestingly, the lower dose of GO/AgNPs (≈0.5 mg per kg bw) shows an excellent performance for CT imaging of renal perfusion, and visually exhibits the right renal dysfunction in model mice. Hence, this work suggests that graphene nanoparticles will play a vital role for the future medical translational development including drug carrier, biosensing, and disease therapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles Target Fracture and Improve Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dusad, Anand; Yuan, Hongjiang; Ren, Ke; Li, Fei; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Goldring, Steven R.; Daluiski, Aaron; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidaemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug’s hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles’ therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing. PMID:25542644

  7. Effect of high-dose simvastatin on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and health-related quality-of-life measures in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: secondary analyses from the MS-STAT randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dennis; Binks, Sophie; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Frost, Chris; Cardoso, M Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Wilkie, David; Nicholas, Richard; Chataway, Jeremy

    2017-08-01

    In the 24-month MS-STAT phase 2 trial, we showed that high-dose simvastatin significantly reduced the annualised rate of whole brain atrophy in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We now describe the results of the MS-STAT cognitive substudy, in which we investigated the treatment effect on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcome measures. We did a secondary analysis of MS-STAT, a 24-month, double-blind, controlled trial of patients with SPMS done at three neuroscience centres in the UK between Jan 28, 2008, and Nov 4, 2011. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either 80 mg simvastatin (n=70) or placebo (n=70). The cognitive assessments done were the National Adult Reading Test, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Graded Naming Test, Birt Memory and Information Processing Battery (BMIPB), Visual Object and Space Perception battery (cube analysis), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Neuropsychiatric status was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed using the self-reported 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) version 2. Assessments were done at study entry, 12 months, and 24 months. Patients, treating physicians, and outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. Analyses were by intention to treat. MS-STAT is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00647348. Baseline assessment revealed impairments in 60 (45%) of 133 patients on the test of frontal lobe function (FAB), and in between 13 (10%) and 43 (33%) of 130 patients in tests of non-verbal and verbal memory (BMIPB). Over the entire trial, we noted significant worsening on tests of verbal memory (T score decline of 5·7 points, 95% CI 3·6-7·8; p<0·0001) and non-verbal memory (decline of 6·8 points, 4·8-8·7; p<0·0001). At 24 months, the FAB score was 1·2 points higher in the simvastatin

  8. Effect of 1.2% of simvastatin gel as a local drug delivery system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid interleukin-6 & interleukin-8 levels in non surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Gunjiganur Vemanaradhya, Gayathri; Emani, Shilpa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Bhandari, Shilpy

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 1.2% simvastatin gel as local drug delivery (LDD) system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in chronic periodontitis patients, in addition to scaling and root planing (SRP). A total of 46 chronic periodontitis patients were equally divided into two groups. Group I patients were treated by SRP; Group II patients were treated by SRP followed by LDD of 1.2% simvastatin (SMV) gel. Plaque index (PI), Gingival index(GI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Relative clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded & GCF samples were collected at baseline (0day) and at 45th day from both the groups. The collected GCF samples were analysed for IL-6 and IL-8 levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the groups showed significant reduction in all the clinical parameters scores and IL-6 and IL-8 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP for group I/SRP+1.2% SMV gel for group II) in contrast to baseline values. However, a greater reduction was observed in group II. A non-significant positive correlation was observed between clinical parameters and IL-6 and IL-8 levels except at baseline, a significant correlation was observed between PPD &IL 6 levels in group II. In adjunct to SRP, 1.2% Simvastatin gel acts as an effective local drug delivery agent for the management of chronic periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Rhabdomyolysis and severe hepatotoxicity due to a drug-drug interaction between ritonavir and simvastatin. Could we use the most cost-effective statin in all human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients?].

    PubMed

    Bastida, Carla; Also, Maria Antonia; Pericas, Juan Manuel; Letang, Emili; Tuset, Montse; Miró, Josep Maria

    2014-11-01

    Drugs like statins may induce rhabdomyolysis. Simvastatin and lovastatin have a high hepatic metabolism and their potential toxicity could be increased by interactions with other drugs that reduce their metabolism. A case-report is presented of an HIV-infected patient treated with antiretroviral drugs who developed a rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure and liver toxicity when simvastatin was substituted for atorvastatin. A literature review is also presented. The patient required hospital admission and showed a favorable response after hydration and urine alkalinization. There were 4 additional cases published of which there was one death. Drug-drug interactions can increase the risk of statin induced rhabdomyolysis. In order to evaluate them properly, physicians at all levels of clinical care should be aware of all drugs prescribed to their patients and the contraindicated combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and Validation of Chemometric Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin and Nicotinic Acid in Binary Combinations.

    PubMed

    Alahmad, Shoeb; Elfatatry, Hamed M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Hammad, Sherin F; Mansour, Fotouh R

    2018-01-01

    The development and introduction of combined therapy represent a challenge for analysis due to severe overlapping of their UV spectra in case of spectroscopy or the requirement of a long tedious and high cost separation technique in case of chromatography. Quality control laboratories have to develop and validate suitable analytical procedures in order to assay such multi component preparations. New spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SIM) and nicotinic acid (NIA) in binary combinations were developed. These methods are based on chemometric treatment of data, the applied chemometric techniques are multivariate methods including classical least squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). In these techniques, the concentration data matrix were prepared by using the synthetic mixtures containing SIM and NIA dissolved in ethanol. The absorbance data matrix corresponding to the concentration data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbance at 12 wavelengths in the range 216 - 240 nm at 2 nm intervals in the zero-order. The spectrophotometric procedures do not require any separation step. The accuracy, precision and the linearity ranges of the methods have been determined and validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the studied drugs. Chemometric spectrophotometric methods have been developed in the present study for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin and nicotinic acid in their synthetic binary mixtures and in their mixtures with possible excipients present in tablet dosage form. The validation was performed successfully. The developed methods have been shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and so simple. The developed methods can be used routinely for the determination dosage form. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Effects of Neonatal Enzyme Replacement Therapy and Simvastatin Treatment on Cervical Spine Disease in Mucopolysaccharidosis I Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chiaro, Joseph A; O’Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Malhotra, Neil R; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient α-L-iduronidase activity, leading to the accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Children with MPS I exhibit high incidence of spine disease, including accelerated disc degeneration and vertebral dysplasia, which in turn lead to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), alone or in combination with oral simvastatin (ERT+SIM) for attenuating cervical spine disease progression in MPS I, using a canine model. Four groups were studied: normal controls; MPS I untreated; MPS I ERT treated; and MPS I ERT+SIM treated. Animals were euthanized at one year-of-age. Intervertebral disc condition and spinal cord compression were evaluated from MRIs and plain radiographs, vertebral bone condition and odontoid hypoplasia were evaluated using microcomputed tomography, and epiphyseal cartilage to bone conversion was evaluated histologically. Untreated MPS I animals exhibited more advanced disc degeneration and more severe spinal cord compression than normal animals. Both treatment groups resulted in partial preservation of disc condition and cord compression, with ERT+SIM not significantly better than ERT alone. Untreated MPS I animals had significantly lower vertebral trabecular bone volume and mineral density, while ERT treatment resulted in partial preservation of these properties. ERT+SIM treatment demonstrated similar, but not greater, efficacy. Both treatment groups partially normalized endochondral ossification in the vertebral epiphyses (as indicated by absence of persistent growth plate cartilage), and odontoid process size and morphology. These results indicate that ERT begun from a very early age attenuates the severity of cervical spine disease in MPS I, particularly for the vertebral bone and odontoid process, and that additional treatment with simvastatin does not

  12. Colchicine triggered severe rhabdomyolysis after long-term low-dose simvastatin therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frydrychowicz, Clara; Pasieka, Bastian; Pierer, Matthias; Mueller, Wolf; Petros, Sirak; Weidhase, Lorenz

    2017-01-04

    Rhabdomyolysis is a widely recognized yet rare complication in statin use. Rhabdomyolysis might be triggered by the prescription of high doses of statins or by statin accumulation due to interactions with concomitant medication. Muscle cell destruction as evidenced by myoglobin elevation can induce potentially life-threatening acute renal failure. We report a case of a 70-year-old obese white man with sudden onset of severe rhabdomyolysis with consecutive renal failure. His medication included low-dose simvastatin, which he had taken for 6 years up until the event. The statin was withdrawn immediately. After 3 days of veno-venous hemofiltration his renal function was completely restored. Clinicians in both primary and special care might be unaware that side effects of statins do occur even after a long uneventful statin medication; they should be advised not to exclude that possibility upfront, even if a patient has tolerated the medication for years.

  13. Dose additive effects of simvastatin and dipentyl phthalate on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sex differentiation of the mammalian reproductive tract is a highly regulated process that is driven, in part, by fetal testosterone (T) production. In utero exposure to phthalate esters (PE) during sex differentiation can cause reproductive tract malformations in rats. PE alter the expression of genes associated with steroid synthesis/transport and cholesterol biosynthesis. Simvastatin (SMV) is a cholesterol-lowering drug that inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. As cholesterol is a precursor for steroid biosynthesis, we proposed that maternal exposure to SMV during the critical period of sex differentiation would lower fetal T and result in corresponding alterations in cholesterol- and androgenmediated gene expression. Timed pregnant SD rats were dosed orally with SMV from GD14-GD18. T production on GD18 was measured by RIA, and changes in gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues were assessed by quantitative rt-PCR. Circulating lipids were also measured in dams and fetuses. SMV lowered fetal T production, altered several genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in the maternal liver, and lowered lipids in the fetus but not in the dam. Unlike PE, SMV did not alter genes associated with sex differentiation. In a second experiment, dams were dosed with SMV, dipentyl phthalate (DPeP, a PE), or both. SMV and DPeP alone reduced fetal T production to 44.3 and 37.5% of control values, respectively, but the mixture reduced T production to 19.9% of control. These studies

  14. The controlled release of simvastatin from TiO2 nanotubes to promote osteoblast differentiation and inhibit osteoclast resorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Min; Jin, Ziyang; Yang, Xinyi; Wang, Huaying; Xu, Kui

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel drug-releasing bioactive platform that has excellent potential for improving osteoblast differentiation and inhibiting osteoclast resorption. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with an outer diameter of around 70 nm were prepared by an anodization method. TNTs were filled with simvastatin (SV) and then coated using chitosan/gelatin multilayers (TNT-SV-LBL). The successful fabrication of TNT-SV-LBL substrates was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement, respectively. The in vitro release behavior of simvastatin from TNT-SV-LBL substrates showed a sustained release as compared to the uncoated group. Osteoblasts adhering to TNT-SV-LBL substrates attached well and displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01) cell viability compared with the other substrates. More importantly, osteoblasts grown on TNT-SV-LBL substrates displayed a statistically significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) increase in protein production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and mRNA expression of runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, collagen type I (Col I), osteopontin (OPN), OC and osteoprotegerin (OPG) compared to the other groups after 4, 7 and 14 days of culture, respectively. Additionally, multinuclear osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells grown on TNT-SV-LBL substrates was inhibited as confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) analysis. These results demonstrated that bio-functionalized substrates with SV and chitosan/gelatin multilayers have great potential for improving osteoblast differentiation, as well as inhibiting osteoclast formation. Therefore, these advanced surface and chemical capabilities make this substrate well suited for the development of a drug-releasing Ti implant for bone regeneration.

  15. In vivo evaluation of a simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xinxin; Niu, Mao; Zhang, Te; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Zhonglei; Wu, Wangxi; Zhang, Qi; Lai, Chunhua; Zhou, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar bone loss has long been a challenge in clinical dental implant therapy. Simvastatin (SV) has been demonstrated to exert excellent anabolic effects on bone. However, the successful use of SV to increase bone formation in vivo largely depends on the local concentration of SV at the site of action, and there have been continuing efforts to develop an appropriate delivery system. Specifically, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) systems have become a popular type of encapsulation carrier system. Therefore, SV-loaded NLCs (SNs) (179.4 nm in diameter) were fabricated in this study, and the osteogenic effect of the SNs was evaluated in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect. Our results revealed that the SNs significantly enhanced bone formation in vivo, as evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and a fluorescence analysis. Thus, this novel nanostructured carrier system could be a potential encapsulation carrier system for SV in bone regeneration applications.

  16. Matrix-type transdermal films to enhance simvastatin ex vivo skin permeability.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Osama A A; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at employing Plackett-Burman design in screening formulation variables that affect quality of matrix-type simvastatin (SMV) transdermal film. To achieve this goal, 12 formulations were prepared by casting method. The investigated variables were Eudragit RL percentage, polymer mixture percentage, plasticizer type, plasticizer percentage, enhancer type, enhancer percentage and dichloromethane fraction in organic phase. The films were evaluated for physicochemical properties and ex vivo SMV permeation. SMV initial, delayed flux, diffusivity and permeability coefficient were calculated on the delayed flux phase with constraint to minimize the initial flux and approaching steady-state flux. The obtained results revealed flat films with homogeneous distribution of SMV within the films. Thickness values changed from 65 to 180 μm by changing the factors' combinations. Most of the permeation profiles showed sustained release feature with fast permeation phase followed by slow phase. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant effects (p < 0.05) of the investigated variables on the responses with Prob > F values of 0.0147, 0.0814, 0.0063 and 0.0142 for the initial and delayed fluxes, permeability coefficients and diffusivities, respectively. The findings of screening study showed the importance of the significant variables to be scaled up for full optimization study as a promising alternative drug delivery system.

  17. Optimized microemulsions and solid microemulsion systems of simvastatin: characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Rahul P; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2010-12-01

    The study describes development of solid microemulsions (SME) for improved delivery of simvastatin (SMV). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed and MEs were optimized for oil and drug content. SMEs were prepared using colloidal silicon dioxide to adsorb the liquid ME. MEs were characterized for mean globule size in aqueous medium and the SMEs were evaluated for powder characteristics, mean globule size after dilution with water, dissolution profile and for in vivo efficacy in rats. X-ray diffraction studies indicated complete amorphization and/or solubilization of SMV in the SMEs. It was supported by scanning electronic microscopic studies, which did not show evidence of precipitation of the drug on the surface of the carrier. Dissolution studies revealed remarkable increase in dissolution of the drug as compared to plain drug. All the formulations provided significant reduction in the total cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic rats with reference to rats of control group (p < 0.05). The proposed SMEs have potential to deliver water insoluble drugs like SMV by oral route for better efficacy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Effect of Simvastatin Prodrug on Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Aaron D; Zhang, Yijia; Jia, Zhenshan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiaobei; Pranke, Laura; Schmid, Marian J; Wang, Dong; Reinhardt, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Local application of statins has shown potential in preventing and regenerating bone loss associated with experimental periodontitis. This study evaluates the effect of a novel simvastatin (SIM) prodrug (capable of delivering high doses to periodontitis inflammatory lesion and cells) on experimental periodontitis bone loss and inflammation. Forty mature female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis between maxillary first and second molars (M1-M2). Equal groups were treated with three weekly doses of: 1) prodrug carrier alone (mPEG); 2) 0.5 mg SIM dose equivalent in carrier (SIM/SIM-mPEG); 3) 1.0 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG; 4) 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG; or 5) ligature alone. Contralateral molars served as unmanipulated controls. Four weeks after initiation of periodontitis, animals were euthanized, the M1-M2 interproximal was evaluated with microcomputed tomography and histology, and data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Ligature alone caused a mean bone loss of 1.01 ± 0.06 mm from the cemento-enamel junction, whereas all doses of SIM/SIM-mPEG reduced bone loss, especially 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG (0.68 ± 0.05 mm, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from contralateral control (0.47 ± 0.06 mm). A dose of 1.5 mg SIM/SIM-mPEG also reduced percentage of neutrophils compared with carrier alone (2.0% ± 1.0% versus 5.7% ± 1.1%; P <0.05), and increased amount of uninflamed connective tissue in the M1-M2 interproximal area (65.2% ± 3.3% versus 46.3% ± 3.3%; P <0.001). The mPEG carrier alone did not have bone-sparing or anti-inflammatory properties. Multiple local 1.5-mg doses of a macromolecular SIM prodrug decreases amount of experimental periodontitis bone loss and inflammation in rats.

  19. Behavioural and cognitive effects of simvastatin dose used in stimulation of bone regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Dircilei Nascimento de; Santana, Washington Macedo de; Ferreira, Vania Moraes; Duarte, Wagner Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the effects of simvastatin (SVT) in the locomotion, anxiety and memory of rats, as a reflection of the administration of a minimum dose capable of stimulating bone regeneration in defects in the calvariae. Surgical procedures were performed in 15 female Wistar rats, 2-month old, to insert the grafting material regenerator (Bone-ceramic®) and/or SVT, followed by behavioural and cognitive assessments in the 7th, 30th and 60th days post surgery. The SVT locally applied with the goal of bone regeneration in defects created in rat calvariae does not interfere with locomotion, anxiety levels and/or memories of rats, except for the first week following surgery, when an anxiolytic effect was observed, as a result of a possible central action. Failure to provoke any response within 30 and 60 days post surgical procedures suggests that SVT may constitute a good choice in stimulating bone regeneration without affecting the long term neural functions.

  20. Dual Incorporation of the in vitro Data (IC50) and in vivo (Cmax) Data for the Prediction of Area Under the Curve (AUC) for Statins using Regression Models Developed for Either Pravastatin or Simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, N R

    2016-08-01

    Linear regression models utilizing a single time point (Cmax) has been reported for pravastatin and simvastatin. A new model was developed for the prediction of AUC of statins that utilized the slopes of the above 2 models, with pharmacokinetic (Cmax) and a pharmacodynamic (IC50 value) components for the statins. The prediction of AUCs for various statins (pravastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin) was carried out using the newly developed dual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model. Generally, the AUC predictions were contained within 0.5 to 2-fold difference of the observed AUC suggesting utility of the new models. The root mean square error predictions were<45% for the 2 models. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to utilize both pharmacokinetic (Cmax) and pharmacodynamic (IC50) data for effectively predicting the AUC for statins. Such a new concept as described in the work may have utility in both drug discovery and development stages. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying.

    PubMed

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Laitinen, Riikka

    2015-12-03

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a "spring and parachute" effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions) was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS). In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS.

  2. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P < 0.001) was higher in the olive oil-group while that of PUFA (P = 0.001) and alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P < 0.05) in the olive oil group. TC and the TC/HDL-cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratios and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased significantly more (P < 0.05) in the olive oil-group after BMI, energy and alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin to improve the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Han, Fei; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Tianwu; Zhi, Yunlong; Jiang, Jia; Lin, Chao; Chen, Shiyi; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System has recently been widely used as the primary graft of choice in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. But the biological graft-bone healing still remains a problem. Previous studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) stimulates bone formation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether surface coating with collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere could enhance the surface biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments to accelerate graft-to-bone healing. The in vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells on the collagen-coated PET scaffolds (COL/PET) and simvastatin/collagen-coated PET scaffolds (SIM/COL/PET) proliferated vigorously. Compared with the PET group and the COL/PET group, SIM could induce bone marrow stromal cells' osteoblastic differentiation, high alkaline phosphatase activity, more mineralization deposition, and more expression of osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in the SIM/COL/PET group. In vivo, rabbits received ACL reconstruction with different scaffolds. Histological analysis demonstrated that graft-bone healing was significantly greater with angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the SIM/COL/PET group than the other groups. In addition, biomechanical testing at the eighth week demonstrated a significant increase in the ultimate failure load and stiffness in the SIM/COL/PET group. The low dose of SIM-sustained release from SIM/COL/PET promoted the graft-bone healing via its effect on both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. This study suggested that collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere coating on the surface of PET artificial ligaments could be potentially applied for ACL reconstruction.

  4. Sustained release of simvastatin from hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres prepared by aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Yinjing; Zhao, Xu; Li, Yi; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Xiaoguang

    2017-06-01

    Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCHAp) microspheres as simvastatin (SV) sustained-release vehicles were fabricated through a novel and simple one-step biomimetic strategy. Firstly, hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were precipitated through the reaction of CaCl 2 with Na 2 CO 3 in the presence of aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Then, the as-prepared hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were transformed into HCHAp microspheres with a controlled anion-exchange method. The HCHAp microspheres were 3-5μm with a shell thickness of 0.5-1μm and were constructed of short needle nanoparticles. The HCHAp microspheres were then loaded with SV, exhibiting excellent drug-loading capacity and sustained release properties. These results present a new material synthesis strategy for HCHAp microspheres and suggest that the as-prepared HCHAp microspheres are promising for applications in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical efficacy of subgingivally delivered simvastatin gel in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swati; Chaubey, Krishna Kumar; Chaubey, Abhinav; Agarwal, Vikas; Madan, Ellora; Agarwal, Manvi Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Simvastatin (SMV), a new locally delivered drug of class statins, is a specific competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Statins, besides having lipid-lowering abilities, also have pleiotropic effects like host modulation and bone regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of SMV, 1.2 mg, in an indigenously prepared biodegradable controlled-release gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). A total of 60 sites, with pocket depth ≥5 mm, two from each of 30 patients after SRP, were categorized into two treatment groups, for subgingival placement of placebo (Gp 1) or SMV (Gp 2). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months comprising plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The osseous changes were evaluated radiographically by measuring vertical gain, INFRA 1 and angle of the defect, INFRA 2 from baseline to 6 months. All subjects tolerated the drug, without any post-application complication. The treatment improved the periodontal condition in both the groups but significant reductions in PPD (p= 0.04), and INFRA 1 (p= 0.000), along with gain in CAL (p= 0.02) and INFRA 2 (p= 0.000) were observed in Gp 2. In one site, an unexpected 5 mm decrease in INFRA 1 was found. Local drug delivery of SMV enhanced the beneficial effect of SRP, in pocket reduction, gain in CAL and bone fill.

  6. Simvastatin but not bezafibrate decreases plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: relevance of high sensitive C-reactive protein, lipoprotein profile and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) electronegativity.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, Alexander; de Vries, Rindert; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J J; Gautier, Thomas; van Pelt, L Joost; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Lagrost, Laurent; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2012-10-01

    Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) levels predict incident cardiovascular disease, impacting Lp-PLA(2) as an emerging therapeutic target. We determined Lp-PLA(2) responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and assessed relationships of changes in Lp-PLA(2) with subclinical inflammation and lipoprotein characteristics. A placebo-controlled cross-over study (three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40 mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily) and their combination) was carried out in 14 male type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) mass was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) decreased (-21 ± 4%) in response to simvastatin (p<0.05 from baseline and placebo), but was unaffected by bezafibrate (1 ± 5%). The drop in Lp-PLA(2) during combined treatment (-17 ± 3%, p<0.05) was similar compared to that during simvastatin alone. The Lp-PLA(2) changes during the 3 active lipid lowering treatment periods were related positively to baseline levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and less LDL electronegativity (p<0.02 to p<0.01), and inversely to baseline Lp-PLA(2) (p<0.01). LpPLA(2) responses correlated inversely with changes in non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio during treatment (p<0.05 to p<0.02). In type 2 diabetes mellitus, plasma Lp-PLA(2) is likely to be lowered by statin treatment only. Enhanced subclinical inflammation and more severe dyslipidemia may predict diminished LpPLA(2) responses during lipid lowering treatment, which in turn appear to be quantitatively dissociated from decreases in apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Conventional lipid lowering treatment may be insufficient for optimal LpPLA(2) lowering in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-world data to assess changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and predicted cardiovascular risk after ezetimibe discontinuation post reporting of the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression trial.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Patel, Mehul D; Mavros, Panagiotis; Ramey, Dena R; Tomassini, Joanne E; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Baxter, Carl A

    The 2008 Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study demonstrated ezetimibe + simvastatin vs simvastatin alone had a neutral effect on the surrogate endpoint of carotid intima-media thickness. Subsequent media portrayal of the study prompted ezetimibe discontinuation in many patients. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of ENHANCE reporting on ezetimibe discontinuation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes, and potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This analysis used claims data in a retrospective, observational study of patients receiving ezetimibe + statin and compared LDL-C for patients who discontinued ezetimibe (n = 970) vs those who continued ezetimibe + statins (n = 3706) after ENHANCE results disclosure. Change in relative CVD risk was estimated from the absolute LDL-C difference between groups per the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' meta-analysis of statin trials. The rate of ezetimibe discontinuation was 2% in the 6 months before and 21% in the 6 months after reporting of ENHANCE results. Among patients who ultimately discontinued vs continued ezetimibe, respective mean LDL-C levels were 79.8 and 78.3 mg/dL 6 months before reporting of the ENHANCE results and 93.5 and 78.1 mg/dL 6 months after reporting of ENHANCE. Predictive application of the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' meta-analysis suggested the 13.9 mg/dL increase in mean LDL-C translated to a 9.4% increase in relative CVD risk for those who discontinued ezetimibe. After reporting of the neutral ENHANCE results, ezetimibe discontinuation rate increased, LDL-C levels increased, and predicted CVD risk increased among those who discontinued ezetimibe. Characterization of clinical outcomes regarding lipid-altering agents based on surrogate biomarker studies not designed to assess CVD outcomes may be misleading, potentially placing patients at increased CVD risk. Copyright © 2017

  8. Clinical efficacy of subgingivally delivered simvastatin gel in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Chaubey, Krishna Kumar; Chaubey, Abhinav; Agarwal, Vikas; Madan, Ellora; Agarwal, Manvi Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simvastatin (SMV), a new locally delivered drug of class statins, is a specific competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Statins, besides having lipid-lowering abilities, also have pleiotropic effects like host modulation and bone regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of SMV, 1.2 mg, in an indigenously prepared biodegradable controlled-release gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites, with pocket depth ≥5 mm, two from each of 30 patients after SRP, were categorized into two treatment groups, for subgingival placement of placebo (Gp 1) or SMV (Gp 2). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months comprising plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The osseous changes were evaluated radiographically by measuring vertical gain, INFRA 1 and angle of the defect, INFRA 2 from baseline to 6 months. Results: All subjects tolerated the drug, without any post-application complication. The treatment improved the periodontal condition in both the groups but significant reductions in PPD (p= 0.04), and INFRA 1 (p= 0.000), along with gain in CAL (p= 0.02) and INFRA 2 (p= 0.000) were observed in Gp 2. In one site, an unexpected 5 mm decrease in INFRA 1 was found. Conclusion: Local drug delivery of SMV enhanced the beneficial effect of SRP, in pocket reduction, gain in CAL and bone fill. PMID:28298823

  9. Towards optimization of odonto/osteogenic bioengineering: in vitro comparison of simvastatin, sodium fluoride, melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Zijah, Vahid; Salehi, Roya; Aghazadeh, Marziyeh; Samiei, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Effat; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for dental problems in recent years. One of the policies in tissue engineering is to use both scaffolds and additive factors for enhancing cell responses. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of three types of biofactors on poly-caprolactone-poly-ethylene glycol-poly caprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibrous scaffold on human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSCs) engineering. The PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was synthesized with ring opening polymerization method, and its nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method. Nanofibrous scaffold-seeded hDPSCs were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), or simvastatin (SIM). Non-treated nanofiber seeded cells were utilized as control. The viability, biocompatibility, adhesion, proliferation rate, morphology, osteo/odontogenic potential, and the expression of tissue-specific genes were studied. The results showed that significant higher results demonstrated significant higher adhesive behavior, viability, alizarin red activity, and dentin specific gene expression in MSH- and SIM-treated cells (p < 0.05). This study is unique; in that, it compares the effects of different treatments for optimization of dental tissue engineering.

  10. Microemulsion Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Their Combined Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Mohammed E. A.; Abu El-Enin, Mohamed A.; El-Sherbiny, Dina T.; El-Wasseef, Dalia R.; El-Ashry, Saadia M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid HPLC procedure using a microemulsion as an eluent was developed and validated for analytical quality control of antihyperlipidemic mixture containing simvastatin (SIM) and ezetimibe (EZT) in their pharmaceutical preparations. The separation was performed on a column packed with cyano bonded stationary phase adopting UV detection at 238 nm using a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The optimized microemulsion mobile phase consisted of 0.2 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 1% octanol, 10% n-propanol, and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid at pH 5.0. The developed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LOQ), lower limit of detection (LOD), precision, and accuracy. The proposed method is rapid (8.5 min), reproducible (RSD < 2.0%) and achieves satisfactory resolution between SIM and EZT (resolution factor = 2.57). The mean recoveries of the analytes in pharmaceutical preparations were in agreement with those obtained from a reference method, as revealed by statistical analysis of the obtained results using Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test. PMID:24282651

  11. Reduced mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 levels in HepG2 cells treated with high-dose simvastatin: A possible role in statin-induced hepatotoxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavintharan, S.; Ong, C.N.; Jeyaseelan, K.

    2007-09-01

    Lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well achieved by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins inhibit the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor for cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ{sub 10}). In HepG2 cells, simvastatin decreased mitochondrial CoQ{sub 10} levels, and at higher concentrations was associated with a moderately higher degree of cell death, increased DNA oxidative damage and a reduction in ATP synthesis. Supplementation of CoQ{sub 10}, reduced cell death and DNA oxidative stress, and increased ATP synthesis. It is suggested that CoQ{sub 10} deficiency plays an important role in statin-induced hepatopathy, and that CoQ{sub 10} supplementation protectsmore » HepG2 cells from this complication.« less

  12. Simvastatin prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy through modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Al-rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Oteibi, Maha M; Al-Manee, Reem Z; Al-shareef, Sarah A; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Mohamad, Raeesa A; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2015-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM) is a lipid-soluble inhibitor of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase with multiple reported therapeutic benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with SIM on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g were divided into four groups. Groups I and III received normal saline while groups II and IV received SIM (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days per gavage. In the last 7 days, rats of groups III and IV were administered ISO (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Administration of ISO induced an increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio, an increase in serum interleukin-6, and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Serum levels of lipids, cardiovascular risk indices, and cardiac troponin I and creatine phosphokinase-MB showed significant increase in ISO-induced hypertrophic rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue revealed focal areas of subendocardium degeneration, mononuclear cellular infiltrations, fibrous tissue deposition, and increased thickness of the myocardium of left ventricle. In addition, ISO-administered rats exhibited significant upregulation of cardiac Janus kinase, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription, and nuclear factor-kappa B. Pretreatment with SIM significantly prevented ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, alleviated the altered biochemical parameters, and improved the heart architecture. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that SIM prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy via modulation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-signaling pathway in the heart of ISO-administered animals. PMID:26150695

  13. Simvastatin prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy through modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Oteibi, Maha M; Al-Manee, Reem Z; Al-Shareef, Sarah A; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Mohamad, Raeesa A; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2015-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM) is a lipid-soluble inhibitor of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase with multiple reported therapeutic benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with SIM on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into four groups. Groups I and III received normal saline while groups II and IV received SIM (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days per gavage. In the last 7 days, rats of groups III and IV were administered ISO (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Administration of ISO induced an increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio, an increase in serum interleukin-6, and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Serum levels of lipids, cardiovascular risk indices, and cardiac troponin I and creatine phosphokinase-MB showed significant increase in ISO-induced hypertrophic rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue revealed focal areas of subendocardium degeneration, mononuclear cellular infiltrations, fibrous tissue deposition, and increased thickness of the myocardium of left ventricle. In addition, ISO-administered rats exhibited significant upregulation of cardiac Janus kinase, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription, and nuclear factor-kappa B. Pretreatment with SIM significantly prevented ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, alleviated the altered biochemical parameters, and improved the heart architecture. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that SIM prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy via modulation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-signaling pathway in the heart of ISO-administered animals.

  14. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Fahmy, Usama A

    2015-01-01

    The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV) nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation method, according to the Box-Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1), ethanol concentration (X2), and caseinate concentration (X3). The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1), SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2), and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3). The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability from the optimized SMV-zein formulation, by fourfold relative to SMV suspension. Formulation of caseinate-coated SMV-zein nanoparticles improves the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of SMV. Accordingly, improved hypolipidemic activities for longer duration could be achieved. In addition, the reduced dosage rate of SMV-zein nanoparticles improves patient tolerability and compliance.

  15. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama AA; Hosny, Khaled M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Fahmy, Usama A

    2015-01-01

    The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV) nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method, according to the Box–Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1), ethanol concentration (X2), and caseinate concentration (X3). The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1), SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2), and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3). The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability from the optimized SMV-zein formulation, by fourfold relative to SMV suspension. Formulation of caseinate-coated SMV-zein nanoparticles improves the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of SMV. Accordingly, improved hypolipidemic activities for longer duration could be achieved. In addition, the reduced dosage rate of SMV-zein nanoparticles improves patient tolerability and compliance. PMID:25670883

  16. Management of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia with a fixed-dose combination of sitagliptin and simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Helmut; Anderson, Matt S; Musliner, Thomas; Hanson, Mary E; Engel, Samuel S

    2013-01-01

    The risk of death due to heart disease and stroke is up to four times higher in individuals with diabetes compared to individuals without diabetes. Most guidelines that address treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes consider diabetes a cardiovascular disease (CVD) “risk equivalent” and recommend intensive treatment of dyslipidemia for the purpose of CVD prevention. Statins (3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase [HMG-CoA reductase] inhibitors) are first-line agents in achieving lipid goals as an adjunct to diet and exercise and should be used in most patients. In addition to lipid management and blood pressure control, glycemic control is a basic component in the management of diabetes. Glycemic control is achieved by combining diabetes self-management education, diet and exercise, and, where required, antihyperglycemic agents (OHAs). Persistence and adherence to therapy are critical in achieving recommended treatment goals. However, overall compliance with concomitantly prescribed OHAs and statins is low in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapies have been shown to improve adherence by reducing pill burden, the complexity of treatment regimen, and, potentially, cost. Based on the available evidence regarding the pharmacokinetics and the efficacy and safety profiles of each component drug, the sitagliptin/simvastatin FDC may provide a rational and well-tolerated approach to achieving better adherence to multiple-drug therapy and improved lipid lowering and glycemic control, with consequent reduction in cardiovascular risk, diabetic microvascular disease, and mortality in diabetic patients for whom treatment with both compounds is appropriate. PMID:23761972

  17. Could simvastatin be considered as a potential therapy for chronic lung diseases? A debate on the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tulbah, Alaa S; Ong, Hui Xin; Colombo, Paolo; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Simvastatin (SV) is a drug from the statin class, currently used orally as an anti-cholesterolemic drug. It inhibits the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase to reduce cholesterol synthesis. Recently, it has been found that SV also has several other protective pharmacological actions unrelated to its anti-cholesterol effects that might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. This review summarizes the evidence relating to SV as a potential anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and muco-inhibitory agent, administered both orally and via pulmonary inhalation, and discusses its pro and cons. Evidence could potentially be used to support the delivery of SV as inhaled formulation for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases. The use of SV as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and muco-inhibitory agent for drug delivery to the lung is promising. Inhaled SV formulations could allow the delivery profile to be customized and optimized to take advantage of the rapid onset of action, low systemic side effect and improved physico-chemical stability. This treatment could potentially to be used clinically for the localized treatment of lung diseases where inflammation and oxidative stress production is present.

  18. In vitro and clinical evaluation of OATP-mediated drug interaction potential of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696).

    PubMed

    Ayalasomayajula, S; Han, Y; Langenickel, T; Malcolm, K; Zhou, W; Hanna, I; Alexander, N; Natrillo, A; Goswami, B; Hinder, M; Sunkara, G

    2016-08-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) has been recently approved for the treatment of heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction. Several HF patients receive statins as co-medication. Because clearance of statins is meditated via OATP1B1/1B3, the inhibition potential of these transporters by LCZ696 analytes was evaluated in vitro. Furthermore, an open-label, fixed-sequence clinical study was conducted to determine the effect of LCZ696 on the exposure of simvastatin and its active metabolite simvastatin acid. In this clinical study, 26 healthy subjects received simvastatin 40 mg alone or in combination with LCZ696 or after 1 or 2 h of LCZ696 dosing. Although no significant inhibition by LBQ657 (an active metabolite of sacubitril) and valsartan was observed, sacubitril inhibited OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in vitro, with IC50 of 1·91 and 3·81 μm, respectively. Upon co-administration of simvastatin with LCZ696, the Cmax of simvastatin and simvastatin acid decreased by 7% and 13%, respectively. When administered 1 h after LCZ696 dosing, the corresponding Cmax of simvastatin and simvastatin acid decreased by 16% and 4%, respectively. When administered 2 h after LCZ696 dosing, the Cmax of simvastatin decreased by 33% and that of simvastatin acid increased by 16%. However, no notable changes were observed in the AUCs of simvastatin or simvastatin acid upon co-administration or time-separated administration with LCZ696. No notable impact of simvastatin co-administration was observed on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes. LCZ696 and simvastatin were generally well tolerated when administered alone or in combination. Overall, the results of this study suggest that although sacubitril inhibited OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in vitro, it does not translate into any clinically relevant in vivo effect. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The influence of bile salts on the distribution of simvastatin in the octanol/buffer system.

    PubMed

    Đanić, Maja; Pavlović, Nebojša; Stanimirov, Bojan; Vukmirović, Saša; Nikolić, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica; Mikov, Momir

    2016-01-01

    Distribution coefficient (D) is useful parameter for evaluating drugs permeability properties across biological membranes, which are of importance for drugs bioavailability. Given that bile acids are intensively studied as drug permeation-modifying and -solubilizing agents, the aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sodium salts of cholic (CA), deoxycholic (DCA) and 12-monoketocholic acids (MKC) on distribution coefficient of simvastatin (SV) (lactone [SVL] and acid form [SVA]) which is a highly lipophilic compound with extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. LogD values of SVA and SVL with or without bile salts were measured by liquid-liquid extraction in n-octanol/buffer systems at pH 5 and 7.4. SV concentrations in aqueous phase were determined by HPLC-DAD. Chem3D Ultra program was applied for computation of physico-chemical properties of analyzed compounds and their complexes. Statistically significant decrease in both SVA and SVL logD was observed for all three studied bile salts at both selected pH. MKC exerted the most pronounced effect in the case of SVA while there were no statistically significant differences between observed bile salts for SVL. The calculated physico-chemical properties of analyzed compounds and their complexes supported experimental results. Our data indicate that the addition of bile salts into the n-octanol/buffer system decreases the values of SV distribution coefficient at both studied pH values. This may be the result of the formation of hydrophilic complexes increasing the solubility of SV that could consequently impact the pharmacokinetic parameters of SV and the final drug response in patients.

  20. First-in-man study of simvastatin-eluting stent in de novo coronary lesions: the SIMVASTENT study.

    PubMed

    Zago, Alexandre C; Matte, Bruno S; Reginato, Luciana; Iturry-Yamamoto, Germán; Krepsky, Ana; Bergoli, Luiz Carlos C; Balvedi, Julise; Raudales, José C; Saadi, Eduardo K; Zago, Alcides J

    2012-01-01

    Statins have anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties irrespective of their cholesterol-lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a simvastatin-eluting stent (SimvES) in the treatment of de novo coronary lesions. Forty-two patients with de novo coronary artery lesions were assigned to SimvES, bare-metal stent (BMS) or everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation followed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for neointimal quantitative analysis. Six months later, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and IVUS were repeated. QCA showed no binary restenosis, a mean in-stent late loss of 1.05 ± 0.25 mm (BMS, 1.12 ± 0.48 mm; EES, 0.20 ± 0.16 mm) and a diameter stenosis of 33.5 ± 7.1% (BMS, 35.5 ± 15.30%; EES, 7.2 ± 3.12%). Control IVUS showed a mean in-stent obstruction of 18.3 ± 9.4% (BMS, 32.8 ± 19.1%; EES, 9.8 ± 2.4%) and a neointimal volume index of 1.58 ± 0.75 mm(3)/mm (BMS, 2.93 ± 1.76 mm(3)/mm; EES, 0.80 ± 0.16 mm(3)/mm). Thrombus, late incomplete apposition and major adverse cardiac events were not observed. In this sample of patients with de novo coronary lesions, the use of a SimvES was not related to major adverse cardiac events, but it was associated with a higher level of neointimal proliferation than expected.

  1. HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via geranylgeranylation and RhoA activation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haidari, Amr A.; Syk, Ingvar; Thorlacius, Henrik, E-mail: henrik.thorlacius@med.lu.se

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Simvastatin blocked CCL17-induced and CCR4-dependent RhoA activation in HT29 cells. • CCL17/CCR4-mediated migration of colon cancer cells was antagonised by simvastatin. • Cell migration recovered by adding Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. • Targeting HMG-CoA reductase might be useful to inhibit colon cancer metastasis. - Abstract: Background: Simvastatin is widely used to lower cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases, although accumulating evidence suggests that statins, such as simvastatin, also exert numerous anti-tumoral effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration. Methods: Migration assays were performed to evaluatemore » CCL17-induced colon cancer cell (HT-29) chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth and apoptosis were assessed using a proliferation assay and annexin V assay, respectively. Active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using a G-LISA assay. Results: We found that simvastatin dose-dependently decreased CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Simvastatin had no effect on colon cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis. Inhibition of beta chemokine receptor 4, CCR4, reduced CCL17-evoked activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Moreover, administration of mevalonate reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Interestingly, co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) antagonized the inhibitory impact of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17. Moreover, we observed that simvastatin decreased CCL17-induced activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Administration of mevalonate and GGPP reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-provoked RhoA activation in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings show for the first time that HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell

  2. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study.

    PubMed

    Masaeli, Reza; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shahoon, Hossein; Hooshmand, Behzad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein; Khoshroo, Kimia; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA+nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P<0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n=30, ANOVA P<0.05). METHODS AND RESULTS PERTAINING TO SIM-LOADED PLGA MICROSPHERES+NANOSTRONTIUM-CPC COMPOSITE: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n=50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96±1.01), bone materials (32.28±4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84±2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40.12±3.29), and SIM-loaded PLGA+nanostrontium-CPC (44.8±6.45) (ANOVA P

  3. Impact of Pharmacy-Led Dyslipidemia Interventions on Medication Safety and Therapeutic Failure in Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Center (PEC) guidelines on therapeutic failure. Such guidelines recommend atorvastatin as an alternative agent in patients who had a bona fide failure...on simvastatin. Failures requiring atorvastatin as an alternate agent were defined as (a) patients not at their LDL goal on maximal doses of...simvastatin 20 atorvastatin 20 med changed 3 (2%) simvastatin 10 atorvastatin 10 med changed 1 (0.7%) simvastatin 10 atorvastatin 20 med changed 5 (3.3

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Statin Drug Therapy in the Lowering of Cholesterol in Patients at Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    significant increase in the LDL-C levels of patients (p=.113 for atorvastatin to simvastatin conversion, p=.072 for pravastatin to simvastatin conversion...the ability for a patient to reach their LDL-C goal (p=.571 for atorvastatin to simvastatin conversion, p=.579 for pravastatin to simvastatin...two were available under special order criteria ( atorvastatin and fluvastatin) during the period of FY 97 to FY 99. Due to double-digit inflation in the

  5. Simvastatin reverses podocyte injury but not mesangial expansion in early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wei, P; Grimm, P R; Settles, D C; Balwanz, C R; Padanilam, B J; Sansom, S C

    2009-01-01

    Statins may confer renal protection in a variety of glomerular diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, various glomerular lesions have different etiologies and may have different responses to statins. This study was performed to determine the differential effects of simvastatin (SMV) on glomerular pathology including mesangial expansion and podocyte injury in a mouse model of early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 DM was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat diet (HF; 45 kcal% fat). After 22 weeks, one group of HF mice was treated with SMV (HF-SMV; 7 mug/day/g BW) and another group was treated with vehicle (HF-vehicle) for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump. A third group served as age-matched normal diet vehicle controls (ND-vehicle; 10 kcal% fat). At the end of treatment, glomerular morphology was evaluated in a blind manner to determine the progression of DN. Body weight, blood glucose, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, were increased in HF mice. Over the course of treatment, the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was unchanged in ND-vehicle. HF mice exhibited elevated UAE, which decreased with SMV, but was unchanged with vehicle. The absolute mesangial volume and the relative mesangial volume per glomerular volume increased in HF-vehicle and remained elevated with SMV treatment. The immuno-staining of nephrin, a protein marker of the integrity of podocyte slit diaphragms, was decreased in HF-vehicle; however, the nephrin quantity of the HF-SMV group was not different from ND-vehicle. It is concluded that SMV reverses podocyte damage, but does not affect mesangial expansion in the kidneys of early stage proteinuria of type 2 DM.

  6. DoD/VA Health Information Technology (IT) Data Sharing to Benefit Our Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    drug·drug interaction: ERYTHROMYCIN!. SIMVASTATIN [SIMVASTATIN TAB 40MG 1--:====- 1/2 TABLET BY MOUTH EVERY EVENING FOR 90 DAYS ’ TO LOWER Patient lnsbuction...rv TAKEN LESTEROL’AVOID GRAPEFRUIT AND ITS JUICE’USE TABLET CUTTER change from 20 mg. [ACTIVEJ] drug·drug interaction: ERYTHROMYCIN!. SIMVASTATIN...SIMVASTATIN 20MG TAB ONE TABLET BY MOUTH EVERYDAY IN THE EVENING TO LOWER CHOLESTEROL II RF3[ACTIVEI » NH Great Lakes IL) I Accept Order I Cancel

  7. A study of the comparative effects of hawthorn fruit compound and simvastatin on lowering blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En; Ryan, Damien

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the lowering blood lipids effect in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice. Group A mice (n = 6), fed with a normal diet, served as the negative control. The experimental groups used mice fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) for eight weeks, and then selected for inclusion in the study on the basis of high blood lipid levels and the formation of atherosclerotic lesion plaque, which was indicated by an ultrasound biomicroscopy test. Eighteen mice met the selection criteria (atherosclerotic mice with high blood lipid levels) and these were randomly assigned into three groups B, C and D (n = 6). Group B fed with a HCD, served as the positive control. The intervention Group C was fed with HCD and Simvastatin. The intervention Group D was fed with a HCD and Hawthorn fruit compound (HFC includes Hawthorn and Kiwi fruit extract) for eight weeks. The results showed that after feeding on a HCD, Group B had significantly higher blood lipid levels compared to Group A and this confirmed the validity of Group A and Group B controls in this study. The results also showed that compared to Group B, in both Group C and D, there was a significant reduction in triglyceride and in the ratio between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and serum cholesterol. Moreover a reduction of LDL-C was evident in Group D, whereas a similar effect did not occur in Group C. The results indicate that HFC can be considered for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis.

  8. Behind-the-Counter Statins: A Silver Bullet for Reducing Costs and Increasing Access?

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Sun, Eric; Zhuo, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how the 2004 introduction of behind-the-counter (BTC) simvastatin in the United Kingdom affected utilization, prices, and expenditures. Data Sources/Study Setting Secondary data on simvastatin utilization, prices, and expenditures between 1997 and 2007 in the United Kingdom and four other countries. Study Design We used a difference-in-differences approach to estimate how the introduction of BTC simvastatin affected utilization, prices, and expenditures. This approach compares outcomes in the United Kingdom before and after the introduction of BTC simvastatin, using outcomes in countries where the drug remained prescription only to control for possible confounders. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data on simvastain utilization, prices, and expenditures between 1997 and 2007 in the United Kingdom and four other countries were obtained from an outside vendor. Principal Findings The introduction of BTC simvastatin in the United Kingdom led to a significant increase in utilization of simvastatin and a significant decline in expenditures for simvastatin purchases. Our results are robust to alternate model specifications. Conclusions Behind-the-counter statins have the potential to simultaneously increase use of statins and lower expenditures. PMID:22091792

  9. Clinical outcome of statin plus ezetimibe versus high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction propensity-score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mi Seon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young Keun; Kim, Sang Hyung; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2016-12-15

    It is unclear whether simvastatin-ezetimibe could be an alternative therapy to high-intensity statin therapy in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of simvastatin-ezetimibe and high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and especially in those with high-risk factor. A total of 3520 AMI patients in the KAMIR (Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry) were classified into simvastatin-ezetimibe group (n=1249) and high-intensity statin group (n=2271). Multivariate analysis and propensity-score matching analysis were performed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12-months follow-up. In overall AMI patients, MACE occurred in 116 patients (9.3%) in simvastatin-ezetimibe group and 116 patients (5.1%) in high-intensity statin group. The difference in MACE between groups was driven by repeat revascularization (5.9% vs. 2.2%). After propensity matching analysis, simvastatin-ezetimibe was associated with a higher incidence of MACE than high-intensity statin therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.090, 95% confidence interval: 1.715 to 5.566, p<0.001). However, in patients with high-risk factors, such as diabetes, old age, or heart failure, simvastatin-ezetimibe had similar incidence of MACE compared with high-intensity statin therapy in further adjusted analysis. In overall AMI patients, high-intensity statin therapy had better clinical outcomes than simvastatin-ezetimibe. However, in patients with high-risk factor, simvastatin-ezetimibe had comparable clinical outcomes to high-intensity statin therapy. Therefore, simvastatin-ezetimibe could be used as an alternative to high-intensity statin therapy in such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological Analysis of Simvastatin-releasing Chitosan Scaffold as a Cell-free System for Pulp-dentin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Soares, Diana G; Anovazzi, Giovanna; Bordini, Ester Alves F; Zuta, Uxua O; Silva Leite, Maria Luísa A; Basso, Fernanda G; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    The improvement of biomaterials capable of driving the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex mediated by resident cells is the goal of regenerative dentistry. In the present investigation, a chitosan scaffold (CHSC) that released bioactive concentrations of simvastatin (SIM) was tested, aimed at the development of a cell-free tissue engineering system. First, we performed a dose-response assay to select the bioactive dose of SIM capable of inducing an odontoblastic phenotype in dental pulp cells (DPCs); after which we evaluated the synergistic effect of this dosage with the CHSC/DPC construct. SIM at 1.0 μmol/L (CHSC-SIM1.0) and 0.5 μmol/L were incorporated into the CHSC, and cell viability, adhesion, and calcium deposition were evaluated. Finally, we assessed the biomaterials in an artificial pulp chamber/3-dimensional culture model to simulate the cell-free approach in vitro. SIM at 0.1 μmol/L was selected as the bioactive dose. This drug was capable of strongly inducing an odontoblastic phenotype on the DPC/CHSC construct. The incorporation of SIM into CHSC had no deleterious effect on cell viability and adhesion to the scaffold structure. CHSC-SIM1.0 led to significantly higher calcium-rich matrix deposition on scaffold/dentin disc assay compared with the control (CHSC). This biomaterial induced the migration of DPCs from a 3-dimensional culture to its surface as well as stimulated significantly higher expressions of alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha 1, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein on 3-dimensional-cultured DPCs than on those in contact with CHSC. CHSC-SIM1.0 scaffold was capable of increasing the chemotaxis and regenerative potential of DPCs. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of interactions of simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and pitavastatin with bovine serum albumin: multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Wang, Qi; Pan, Dong-Qi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min

    2017-05-01

    The binding interactions of simvastatin (SIM), pravastatin (PRA), fluvastatin (FLU), and pitavastatin (PIT) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated for determining the affinity of four statins with BSA through multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The experimental results showed that SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT statins quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching process and the stable stains-BSA complexes with the binding constants in the order of 10 4  M -1 at 298 K were formed through intermolecular nonbond interaction. The values of ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 in the binding process of SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT with BSA were negative at the studied temperature range, suggesting that the binding process of four statins and BSA was spontaneous and the main interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Moreover, the binding of four statins with BSA was enthalpy-driven process due to |ΔH°|>|TΔS°| under the studied temperature range. From the results of site marker competitive experiments and molecular docking, subdomain IIIA (site II) was the primary binding site for SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT on BSA. The results of UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra proved that the slight change in the conformation of BSA, while the significant changes in the conformation of SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT drug in statin-BSA complexes, indicating that the flexibility of statin molecules plays an important role in increasing the stability of statin-BSA complexes.

  12. Low incidence of paradoxical reductions in HDL-C levels in dyslipidemic patients treated with fenofibrate alone or in combination with ezetimibe or ezetimibe/simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibrates have been reported to cause paradoxical decreases in HDL-C in certain patients. Design and methods This post-hoc analysis explored the frequency/magnitude of HDL-C reductions in a pooled database of mixed dyslipidemic patients (LDL-C:3.4-5.7 mmol/L;TG:1.7-5.7 mmol/L) receiving placebo (PBO), fenofibrate (FENO), ezetimibe plus FENO (EZE+FENO), or EZE/simvastatin plus FENO (EZE/SIMVA+FENO) for 12 weeks. Results PBO-treated patients had the highest incidence of HDL-C reductions from baseline (45%) compared with patients taking FENO (14%), EZE+FENO (9%), or EZE/SIMVA+FENO (9%). Reductions <30% reflected natural variability since the largest reduction in HDL-C approached 30% in the PBO group. Only 3 patients exhibited HDL-C reductions ≥30% (i.e., 2 patients in the FENO group and 1 in the EZE+FENO group). There were no differences in demographic/biochemical characteristics between patients with and without HDL-C reductions. Conclusions The incidence of paradoxical HDL-C reductions was low in mixed dyslipidemic patients receiving FENO alone or combined with EZE or EZE/SIMVA. Trial registrations Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00092560 and NCT00092573 PMID:22087637

  13. International Conference: Paraoxonases - Basic and Clinical Directions of Current Research (1st) Held in Ann Arbor, Michigan on April 22-24, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cholesterol lowering by simvastatin and atorvastatin Mark Roest, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Population-based and family studies suggest an...lowering by simvastatin and atorvastatin * Mark ROEST, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands 20. Study of factors influencing the decreased paraoxonase...lowering by simvastatin and atorvastatin . Mark Roest1 , Thomas van Himbergen1, 2, Jacqueline de Graaf 2, Hiroaki Hattori 3, John Kastelein4

  14. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Atorvastatin had similar benefits on Rotarod but a somewhat greater reduction in neuronal death than Simvastatin. In addition, in that study... Atorvastatin was favored over Simvastatin related to its longer half life and active metabolites. Both are FDA approved and represent, thus, prime low...than Atorvastatin , although both showed benefit. A total of 14 studies were identified with Simvastatin in TBI—8 published after submission of the

  15. G5 PAMAM dendrimer versus liposome: a comparison study on the in vitro transepithelial transport and in vivo oral absorption of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Qi, Rong; Zhang, Heran; Xu, Lu; Shen, Wenwen; Chen, Cong; Wang, Chao; Cao, Yini; Wang, Yunan; van Dongen, Mallory A; He, Bing; Wang, Siling; Liu, George; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    This study compared formulation effects of a dendrimer and a liposome preparation on the water solubility, transepithelial transport, and oral bioavailability of simvastatin (SMV). Amine-terminated G5 PAMAM dendrimer (G5-NH2) was chosen to form SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes, and SMV-liposomes were prepared by using a thin film dispersion method. The effects of these preparations on the transepithelial transport were investigated in vitro using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results indicated that the solubility and transepithelial transport of SMV were significantly improved by both formulations. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats also revealed that both the SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes and the SMV-liposomes significantly improved the oral bioavailability of SMV with the liposomes being more effective than the G5-NH2. The overall better oral absorption of SMV-liposomes as compared to SMV/G5-NH2 molecular complexes appeared to arise from better liposomal solubilization and encapsulation of SMV and more efficient intracellular SMV delivery. Various carrier systems have been designed to enhance drug delivery via the oral route. In this study, the authors compared G5 PAMAM dendrimers to liposome preparations in terms of solubility, transepithelial transport, and oral bioavailability of this poorly water-soluble drug. This understanding has improved our knowledge in the further development of drug carrier systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid)/biphasic calcium phosphate composite coating on a porous scaffold to deliver simvastatin for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byong Taek

    2013-09-01

    In this study, simvastatin (SIM) drug incorporated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composite material (SPB) was coated on the BCP/ZrO2 (SPB-BCP/ZrO2) scaffold to enhance the mechanical and bioactive properties of the BCP/ZrO2 scaffold for bone engineering applications. The composite coating was prepared by combining different ratios of PLGA and BCP (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). After completion of the coating process, the compressive strength of the scaffolds was shown to increase with an increase in PLGA concentration from 8.5 ± 0.52 MPa for the SPB1-BCP/ZrO2 (1:2) to 11 ± 0.65 MPa for SPB3-BCP/ZrO2 (2:1) scaffolds when PLGA concentration was increased. Furthermore, the increase of PLGA in the coating composition corresponds to a decrease in porosity, degradation rate and weight loss of the scaffolds after 4 weeks. SIM release study demonstrated sustained release of the drug for the three kinds of scaffolds with improved biocompatibility. The increase of PLGA concentration also resulted in a lower release rate of SIM. Thus, the lower release rate of SIM brought upon by the increase of PLGA concentration further enhanced the performance of the scaffold in vitro making it a promising approach in the field of bone tissue regeneration.

  17. A Fast and Validated Reversed-Phase HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Telmisartan and Irbesartan in Bulk Drugs and Tablet Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Alhazmi, Hassan A.; Alnami, Ahmed M.; Arishi, Mohammed A. A.; Alameer, Raad K.; Al Bratty, Mohammed; Rehman, Zia ur; Javed, Sadique A.; Arbab, Ismail A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast and simple reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four cardiovascular agents—atorvastatin, simvastatin, telmisartan and irbesartan in bulk drugs and tablet oral dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was accomplished by using Symmetry C18 column (75 mm × 4.6 mm; 3.5 μ) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM; pH 4.0) and acetonitrile in a ratio 40:60 v/v. Flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min up to 3.5 min, and then suddenly changed to 2 mL/min till the end of the run (7.5 min). The data was acquired using ultraviolet detector monitored at 220 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The developed method has shown excellent linearity (R2 > 0.999) over the concentration range of 1–16 µg/mL. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.189–0.190 and 0.603–0.630 µg/mL, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision data were recorded in the acceptable limits. The new method has successfully been applied for quantification of all four drugs in their tablet dosage forms with percent recovery within 100 ± 2%. PMID:29257120

  18. Ezetimibe Added to Statin Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P; McCagg, Amy; White, Jennifer A; Theroux, Pierre; Darius, Harald; Lewis, Basil S; Ophuis, Ton Oude; Jukema, J Wouter; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Ruzyllo, Witold; De Lucca, Paul; Im, KyungAh; Bohula, Erin A; Reist, Craig; Wiviott, Stephen D; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Musliner, Thomas A; Braunwald, Eugene; Califf, Robert M

    2015-06-18

    Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 2.6 mmol per liter) if they were receiving lipid-lowering therapy or 50 to 125 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 3.2 mmol per liter) if they were not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. The combination of simvastatin (40 mg) and ezetimibe (10 mg) (simvastatin-ezetimibe) was compared with simvastatin (40 mg) and placebo (simvastatin monotherapy). The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, coronary revascularization (≥30 days after randomization), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 6 years. The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study was 53.7 mg per deciliter (1.4 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group, as compared with 69.5 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier event rate for the primary end point at 7 years was 32.7% in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group, as compared with 34.7% in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (absolute risk difference, 2.0 percentage points; hazard ratio, 0.936; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99; P=0.016). Rates of prespecified muscle, gallbladder, and hepatic adverse effects and cancer were similar in the two groups. When added to statin therapy, ezetimibe resulted in incremental lowering of LDL cholesterol levels and improved cardiovascular outcomes. Moreover, lowering LDL cholesterol to levels below previous targets provided additional

  19. Protection of rat skeletal muscle fibers by either L-carnitine or coenzyme Q10 against statins toxicity mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen generation

    PubMed Central

    La Guardia, P. G.; Alberici, L. C.; Ravagnani, F. G.; Catharino, R. R.; Vercesi, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial redox imbalance has been implicated in mechanisms of aging, various degenerative diseases and drug-induced toxicity. Statins are safe and well-tolerated therapeutic drugs that occasionally induce myotoxicity such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Previous studies indicate that myotoxicity caused by statins may be linked to impairment of mitochondrial functions. Here, we report that 1-h incubation of permeabilized rat soleus muscle fiber biopsies with increasing concentrations of simvastatin (1–40 μM) slowed the rates of ADP-or FCCP-stimulated respiration supported by glutamate/malate in a dose-dependent manner, but caused no changes in resting respiration rates. Simvastatin (1 μM) also inhibited the ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration supported by succinate by 24% but not by TMPD/ascorbate. Compatible with inhibition of respiration, 1 μM simvastatin stimulated lactate release from soleus muscle samples by 26%. Co-incubation of muscle samples with 1 mM L-carnitine, 100 μM mevalonate or 10 μM coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) abolished simvastatin effects on both mitochondrial glutamate/malate-supported respiration and lactate release. Simvastatin (1 μM) also caused a 2-fold increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation and a decrease in Co-Q10 content by 44%. Mevalonate, Co-Q10 or L-carnitine protected against stimulation of hydrogen peroxide generation but only mevalonate prevented the decrease in Co-Q10 content. Thus, independently of Co-Q10 levels, L-carnitine prevented the toxic effects of simvastatin. This suggests that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction induced by simvastatin, is associated with increased generation of superoxide, at the levels of complexes-I and II of the respiratory chain. In all cases the damage to these complexes, presumably at the level of 4Fe-4S clusters, is prevented by L-carnitine. PMID:23720630

  20. Interaction of clopidogrel and statins in secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia – a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Siepmann, Timo; Heinke, Denise; Kepplinger, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Gehrisch, Siegmund; Grählert, Xina; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gahn, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Aims Variability in responsiveness to clopidogrel is a clinical problem in secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia which has been suggested to be linked to competitive metabolization of clopidogrel and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-oxidated statins such as simvastatin. We assessed the hypothesis that simvastatin, in contrast to CYP 2C9-metabolized fluvastatin, reduces clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two period crossover study in 13 patients with cerebral ischaemia (8F, 5 M), aged 64.1 ± 8.0 years (mean ± SD). After a 14 day period in which all patients received 75 mg clopidogrel day−1, patients additionally received either 20 mg simvastatin day−1 or 80 mg fluvastatin day−1 for 14 days. Regimens were crossed over after a 14 day wash-out period and switched regimens were continued for another 14 days. Platelet aggregation, clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) plasma concentrations and routine laboratory parameters including prothrombin time (PT) Quick percent value were assessed at baseline and following each treatment phase. Results Clopidogrel reduced platelet aggregation in all patients as expected. Platelet aggregation and CAM plasma concentrations were unaltered when simvastatin or fluvastatin was added to clopidogrel. Simvastatin decreased PT Quick percent value (decrease from 109 ± 10.5% to 103 ± 11%, P < 0.05) when combined with clopidogrel but there was no such change following treatment with fluvastatin and clopidogrel. Conclusions Our data indicate that treatment with CYP 3A4-metabolized simvastatin does not jeopardize clopidogrel-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. After co-administration of simvastatin and clopidogrel we observed a decrease in the PT Quick percent value which could be due to simvastatin-induced reduction of activity of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. PMID:24803100

  1. Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Between Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) and Statins Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Ji, Tao; Einolf, Heidi; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Lin, Tsu-Han; Hanna, Imad; Heimbach, Tycho; Breen, Christopher; Jarugula, Venkateswar; He, Handan

    2017-05-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) has been approved for the treatment of heart failure. Sacubitril is an in vitro inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). In clinical studies, LCZ696 increased atorvastatin C max by 1.7-fold and area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.3-fold, but had little or no effect on simvastatin or simvastatin acid exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling approach was applied to explore the underlying mechanisms behind the statin-specific LCZ696 drug interaction observations. The model incorporated OATP-mediated clearance (CL int,T ) for simvastatin and simvastatin acid to successfully describe the pharmacokinetic profiles of either analyte in the absence or presence of LCZ696. Moreover, the model successfully described the clinically observed drug effect with atorvastatin. The simulations clarified the critical parameters responsible for the observation of a low, yet clinically relevant, drug-drug interaction DDI between sacubitril and atorvastatin and the lack of effect with simvastatin acid. Atorvastatin is administered in its active form and rapidly achieves C max that coincide with the low C max of sacubitril. In contrast, simvastatin requires a hydrolysis step to the acid form and therefore is not present at the site of interactions at sacubitril concentrations that are inhibitory. Similar models were used to evaluate the drug-drug interaction risk for additional OATP-transported statins which predicted to maximally result in a 1.5-fold exposure increase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Statin Therapy Inhibits Remyelination in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Miron, Veronique E.; Zehntner, Simone P.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Ludwin, Samuel K.; Owens, Trevor; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Bedell, Barry J.; Antel, Jack P.

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood-brain barrier-permeable statin in multiple sclerosis clinical trials, has been shown to impact the in vitro processes that have been implicated in remyelination. Animals were fed a cuprizone-supplemented diet for 6 weeks to induce localized demyelination in the corpus callosum; subsequent return to normal diet for 3 weeks stimulated remyelination. Simvastatin was injected intraperitoneally during the period of coincident demyelination and OPC maturation (weeks 4 to 6), throughout the entire period of OPC responses (weeks 4 to 9), or during the remyelination-only phase (weeks 7 to 9). Simvastatin treatment (weeks 4 to 6) caused a decrease in myelin load and both Olig2strong and Nkx2.2strong OPC numbers. Simvastatin treatment (weeks 4 to 9 and 7 to 9) caused a decrease in myelin load, which was correlated with a reduction in Nkx2.2strong OPCs and an increase in Olig2strong cells, suggesting that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2strong/Nkx2.2weak). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes. PMID:19349355

  3. A randomized clinical trial of hydroxymethylglutaryl- coenzyme a reductase inhibition for acute lung injury (The HARP Study).

    PubMed

    Craig, Thelma R; Duffy, Martin J; Shyamsundar, Murali; McDowell, Cliona; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Elborn, J Stuart; McAuley, Daniel F

    2011-03-01

    There is no effective pharmacological treatment for acute lung injury (ALI). Statins are a potential new therapy because they modify many of the underlying processes important in ALI. To test whether simvastatin improves physiological and biological outcomes in ALI. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in patients with ALI. Patients received 80 mg simvastatin or placebo until cessation of mechanical ventilation or up to 14 days. Extravascular lung water was measured using thermodilution. Measures of pulmonary and nonpulmonary organ function were assessed daily. Pulmonary and systemic inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma cytokines. Systemic inflammation was also measured by plasma C-reactive protein. Sixty patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics, including demographics and severity of illness scores, were similar in both groups. At Day 7, there was no difference in extravascular lung water. By Day 14, the simvastatin-treated group had improvements in nonpulmonary organ dysfunction. Oxygenation and respiratory mechanics improved, although these parameters failed to reach statistical significance. Intensive care unit mortality was 30% in both groups. Simvastatin was well tolerated, with no increase in adverse events. Simvastatin decreased bronchoalveolar lavage IL-8 by 2.5-fold (P = 0.04). Plasma C-reactive protein decreased in both groups but failed to achieve significance in the placebo-treated group. Treatment with simvastatin appears to be safe and may be associated with an improvement in organ dysfunction in ALI. These clinical effects may be mediated by a reduction in pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Clinical trial registered with www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN70127774).

  4. Elevated Baseline C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (STASH) Trial.

    PubMed

    Turner, Carole L; Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Murray, G D

    2015-11-01

    There remains a proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, of particular relevance in those who present with a good clinical grade. A forewarning of those at risk provides an opportunity towards more intensive monitoring, investigation, and prophylactic treatment prior to the clinical manifestation of advancing cerebral injury. To assess whether biochemical markers sampled in the first days after the initial hemorrhage can predict poor outcome. All patients recruited to the multicenter Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Hemorrhage Trial (STASH) were included. Baseline biochemical profiles were taken between time of ictus and day 4 post ictus. The t-test compared outcomes, and a backwards stepwise binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors providing independent prediction of an unfavorable outcome. Baseline biochemical data were obtained in approximately 91% of cases from 803 patients. On admission, 73% of patients were good grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades 1 or 2); however, 84% had a Fisher grade 3 or 4 on computed tomographic scan. For patients presenting with good grade on admission, higher levels of C-reactive protein, glucose, and white blood cells and lower levels of hematocrit, albumin, and hemoglobin were associated with poor outcome at discharge. C-reactive protein was found to be an independent predictor of outcome for patients presenting in good grade. Early recording of C-reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome.

  5. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    SIMVASTATIN 2 SIMVASTATIN 1 METOPROLOL 1 METOPROLOL 1 Discharge  Medications Note that the length of stay in rehabilitation is shorter in SCVMC, a...ENOXAPARIN 3 GABAPENTIN 3 GABAPENTIN 2 DOXYCYCLINE 3 DOXYCYCLINE 1 LISINOPRIL 3 LISINOPRIL 1 CHLORHEXIDINE 2 CHLORHEXIDINE 2 METOPROLOL 2 METOPROLOL 2

  6. Quality and efficiency of statin prescribing across countries with a special focus on South Africa: findings and future implications.

    PubMed

    Godman, Brian; Bishop, Iain; Campbell, Stephen M; Malmström, Rickard E; Truter, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Statins are recommended first-line treatment for hyperlipidemia, with published studies suggesting limited differences between them. However, there are reports of under-dosing. South Africa has introduced measures to enhance generic utilization. Part one documents prescribed doses of statins in 2011. Part two determines the extent of generics versus originator and single-sourced statins in 2011 and their costs. Underdosing of simvastatin in 2011 with average prescribed dose of 23.7 mg; however, not for atorvastatin (20.91 mg) or rosuvastatin (15.02 mg). High utilization of generics versus originators at 93-99% for atorvastatin and simvastatin, with limited utilization of single-sourced statins (22% of total statins - defined daily dose basis), mirroring Netherlands, Sweden and UK. Generics priced 33-51% below originator prices. Opportunity to increase simvastatin dosing through education, prescribing targets and incentives. Opportunity to lower generic prices with generic simvastatin 96-98% below single-sourced prices in some European countries.

  7. Doxycycline Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaque via Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinases and Attenuating Inflammation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Mei; Zhong, Lin; Chen, Wen Qiang; Ji, Xiao Ping; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Li, Li; Yao, Gui Hua; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is implicated in the process of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We hypothesized that doxycycline, a broad MMPs inhibitor, was as effective as simvastatin in reducing the incidence of plaque disruption. Thirty rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury and were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. At the end of week 8, the rabbits were divided into three groups for 12-week treatment: a doxycycline-treated group that received oral doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d, a simvastatin-treated group that received oral simvastatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and a control group that received no treatment. At the end of week 20, pharmacological triggering was performed to induce plaque rupture. Biochemical, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies were performed. The results showed that oral administration of doxycycline resulted in a significant increase in the thickness of the fibrous cap of the aortic plaque whereas there was a substantial reduction of MMPs expression, local and systemic inflammation, and aortic plaque vulnerability. The incidence of plaque rupture with either treatment (0% for both) was significantly lower than that for controls (56.0%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between doxycycline-treated group and simvastatin-treated group in any serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression measurement except for the serum lipid levels that were higher with doxycycline than with simvastatin treatment. In conclusion, doxycycline at a common antimicrobial dose stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and attenuating inflammation in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque. These effects were similar to a large dose of simvastatin and independent of serum lipid levels. PMID:22737253

  8. Ezetimibe reduces plaque inflammation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis and inhibits monocyte migration in addition to its lipid-lowering effect

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Garre, D; Muñoz-Pacheco, P; González-Rubio, ML; Aragoncillo, P; Granados, R; Fernández-Cruz, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Ezetimibe, a selective inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, might also suppress inflammatory components of atherogenesis. We have studied the effects of ezetimibe on two characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (infiltrate and fibrosis) and on expression of inflammatory genes in a rabbit model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Experimental approach: Femoral atherosclerosis was induced by a combination of endothelial desiccation and atherogenic diet. Animals were randomized to ezetimibe (0.6 mg·kg−1·day−1), simvastatin (5 mg·kg−1·day−1), ezetimibe plus simvastatin or no treatment, still on atherogenic diet. A control group of rabbits received normolipidemic diet. Key results: Rabbits fed the normolipidemic diet showed normal plasma lipid levels. Either the normolipidemic diet or drug treatment reduced the intima/media ratio (normolipidemic diet: 22%, ezetimibe: 13%, simvastatin: 27%, ezetimibe + simvastatin: 28%), compared with rabbits with atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe also decreased macrophage content and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, ezetimibe reduced the increased activity of nuclear factor κB in peripheral blood leucocytes and plasma C-reactive protein levels in rabbits with atherosclerosis. In THP-1 cells, ezetimibe decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced monocyte migration. Importantly, the combination of ezetimibe with simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in plaque monocyte/macrophage content and some proinflammatory markers than observed with each drug alone. Conclusions and implications: Ezetimibe had beneficial effects both on atherosclerosis progression and plaque stabilization and showed additional anti-atherogenic benefits when combined with simvastatin. Its effect on monocyte migration provides a potentially beneficial action, in addition to its effects on lipids. PMID:19222481

  9. CYP3A4-catalyzed simvastatin metabolism as a non-invasive marker of small intestinal health in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Morón, Belén; Verma, Anil K; Das, Prasenjit; Taavela, Juha; Dafik, Laila; Diraimondo, Thomas R; Albertelli, Megan A; Kraemer, Thomas; Mäki, Markku; Khosla, Chaitan; Rogler, Gerhard; Makharia, Govind K

    2013-08-01

    Histological examination of duodenal biopsies is the gold standard for assessing intestinal damage in celiac disease (CD). A noninvasive marker of disease status is necessary, because obtaining duodenal biopsies is invasive and not suitable for routine monitoring of CD patients. As the small intestine is a major site of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and also the location of the celiac lesion, we investigated whether patients with active CD display abnormal pharmacokinetics of an orally administered CYP3A4 substrate, simvastatin (SV), which could potentially be used for noninvasive assessment of their small intestinal health. Preclinical experiments were performed in CYP3A4-humanized mice to examine the feasibility of the test. Subsequently, a clinical trial was undertaken with 11 healthy volunteers, 18 newly diagnosed patients with CD, and 25 celiac patients who had followed a gluten-free diet (GFD) for more than 1 year. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of orally administered SV plus its major non-CYP3A4-derived metabolite SV acid (SV equivalent (SVeq)) was measured, and compared with clinical, histological, and serological parameters. In CYP3A4-humanized mice, a marked decrease in SV metabolism was observed in response to enteropathy. In the clinical setting, untreated celiac patients displayed a significantly higher SVeq Cmax (46±24 nM) compared with treated patients (21±16 nM, P<0.001) or healthy subjects (19±11 nM, P<0.005). SVeq Cmax correctly predicted the diagnosis in 16/18 untreated celiac patients, and also the recovery status of all follow-up patients that exhibited normal or near-normal biopsies (Marsh 0-2). All patients with abnormal SVeq Cmax showed a reduction in the value after 1 year of following a GFD. SVeq Cmax is a promising noninvasive marker for assessment of small intestinal health. Further studies are warranted to establish its clinical utility for assessing gut status of patients with CD.

  10. A randomized trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with confirmed statin myopathy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Beth A; Lorson, Lindsay; White, C Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-02-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation is the most popular therapy for statin myalgia among both physicians and patients despite limited and conflicting evidence of its efficacy. This study examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on simvastatin-associated muscle pain, muscle strength and aerobic performance in patients with confirmed statin myalgia. Statin myalgia was confirmed in 120 patients with prior symptoms of statin myalgia using an 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover trial of simvastatin 20 mg/d and placebo. Forty-one subjects developed muscle pain with simvastatin but not with placebo and were randomized to simvastatin 20 mg/d combined with CoQ10 (600 mg/d ubiquinol) or placebo for 8 weeks. Muscle pain (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), time to pain onset, arm and leg muscle strength, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured before and after each treatment. Serum CoQ10 increased from 1.3 ± 0.4 to 5.2 ± 2.3 mcg/mL with simvastatin and CoQ10, but did not increase with simvastatin and placebo (1.3 ± 0.3 to 0.8 ± 0.2) (p < 0.05). BPI pain severity and interference scores increased with simvastatin therapy (both p < 0.01), irrespective of CoQ10 assignment (p = 0.53 and 0.56). There were no changes in muscle strength or VO2max with simvastatin with or without CoQ10 (all p > 0.10). Marginally more subjects reported pain with CoQ10 (14 of 20 vs 7 of 18; p = 0.05). There was no difference in time to pain onset in the CoQ10 (3.0 ± 2.0 weeks) vs. placebo (2.4 ± 2.1 wks) groups (p = 0.55). A similar lack of CoQ10 effect was observed in 24 subjects who were then crossed over to the alternative treatment. Only 36% of patients complaining of statin myalgia develop symptoms during a randomized, double-blind crossover of statin vs placebo. CoQ10 supplementation does not reduce muscle pain in patients with statin myalgia. Trial RegistrationNCT01140308; www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  11. Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-05-01

    Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medication for Military Aircrew: Current Use, Issues, and Strategies for Expanded Options (les medicaments pour les equipaes militaires: Consommation actuelle, questions et strategies pour des options elargies)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, commonly referred to as “statins” (lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin ) d. Others (nicotinic...cholesterol by 2 - 15%. Many statins (pravastatin, atorvastatin , fluvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin) have been developed for clinical use and are now...trail making test, or visual memory test.16 There are unpublished data about atorvastatin and pravastatin, in which both showed an increase in

  13. The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone turnover markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small

  14. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score, cardiovascular risk stratification and a strategy for secondary prevention with ezetimibe.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tracey G; Corey, Kathleen E; Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael; Park, Jeong-Gun; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Chung, Raymond T; Giugliano, Robert P

    2018-05-26

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) is comprised of unique metabolic risk indicators that may accurately predict residual cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with established coronary disease and metabolic dysfunction. We applied the NFS prospectively to 14,819 post-ACS patients randomized to ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S) or placebo/simvastatin (P/S), in the IMPROVE-IT trial, using validated NFS cutoffs. The primary endpoint included CV death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, revascularization or stroke. Outcomes were compared between NFS categories and treatment arms using frequency of events, KM rates and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The ability of the NFS to predict recurrent CV events was independently validated in 5395 placebo-treated patients enrolled in the SOLID-TIMI 52 trial. Among 14,819 patients enrolled in IMPROVE-IT, 14.2% (N = 2106) were high-risk (NFS > 0.67). The high-risk group had a 30% increased risk of recurrent major CV events, compared to the low-risk NFS group (HR 1.30 [1.19-1.43]; p < 0.001). Among high-risk patients, ezetimibe/simvastatin conferred a 3.7% absolute reduction in risk of recurrent CV events, compared to placebo/simvastatin (HR 0.85 [0.74-0.98]), translating to a number-needed-to-treat of 27. Similar benefit was not found in the low-risk group (HR ezetimibe/simvastatin vs. placebo/simvastatin, 1.01 [0.91-1.12]; p-interaction = 0.053). The relationship between NFS category and recurrent CV events was independently validated in patients enrolled in SOLID-TIMI 52 (HR for NFS > 0.67 vs. NFS < -1.455 = 1.55 [1.32-1.81]; p < 0.001). Stratification of cardiovascular risk by NFS identifies an independent population of patients who are at highest risk of recurrent events, and most likely to benefit from dual lipid-lowering therapy. Clinical trials.gov: NCT00202878. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Bilayer Tablets with Modified Release of Selected Incompatible Drugs.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Neha; Awasthi, Rajendra; Jindal, Shammy; Khatri, Smriti; Dua, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The oral route is considered to be the most convenient and commonly-employed route for drug delivery. When two incompatible drugs need to be administered at the same time and in a single formulation, bilayer tablets are the most appropriate dosage form to administer such incompatible drugs in a single dose. The aim of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of two incompatible drugs; telmisartan and simvastatin. The bilayer tablets were prepared containing telmisartan in a conventional release layer using croscarmellose sodium as a super disintegrant and simvastatin in a slow-release layer using HPMC K15M, Carbopol 934P and PVP K 30 as matrix forming polymers. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties, drug-excipient interactions using FTIR spectroscopy and in vitro drug release using 0.1M HCl (pH 1.2) for the first hour and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for the remaining period of time. The release kinetics of simvastatin from the slow release layer were evaluated using the zero order, first order, Higuchi equation and Peppas equation. All the physical parameters (such as hardness, thickness, disintegration, friability and layer separation tests) were found to be satisfactory. The FTIR studies indicated the absence of interactions between the components within the individual layers, suggesting drug-excipient compatibility in all the formulations. No drug release from the slow-release layer was observed during the first hour of the dissolution study in 0.1M HCl. The release-controlling polymers had a significant effect on the release of simvastatin from the slow-release layer. Thus, the formulated bilayer tablets avoided incompatibility issues and proved the conventional release of telmisartan (85% in 45 min) and slow release of simvastatin (80% in 8 h). Stable and compatible bilayer tablets containing telmisartan and simvastatin were developed with better patient compliance as an alternative to existing conventional dosage forms.

  16. Persistent use of against-label statin-fibrate combinations from 2003-2009 despite United States Food and Drug Administration dose restrictions.

    PubMed

    Alford, Julie C; Saseen, Joseph J; Allen, Richard R; Nair, Kavita V

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribing against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy. Retrospective cohort study. Medstat MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounter database. Adults (aged 18-89 yrs) who were prescribed statin-fibrate combination therapy between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2009, had pharmacy claims demonstrating two or more concurrently filled prescriptions for a statin and a fibrate, and had continuous insurance enrollment for at least 12 months. Claims data were used to identify patients with dyslipidemia based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. National Drug Codes were used to describe concurrent statin-fibrate combination therapy. The primary outcome was recent use of against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy, defined as use during the last 18 months (January 1, 2008-June 30, 2009) of the study period. Patients were stratified according to statin and dosage to identify against-label combination use (e.g., simvastatin > 10 mg/day with gemfibrozil). Within the recent-use period, 131,394 patients were prescribed concurrent statin-fibrate combination therapy; of these patients, 13,420 (10.2%) had against-label therapy. Simvastatin-gemfibrozil accounted for 8978 (66.9%) of all against-label combinations. Of all 9877 simvastatin-gemfibrozil combinations prescribed in the recent-use period (both on-label and against-label use), 8978 (90.9%) were against label. The secondary outcome was prevalence of against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy on an annual basis: 15.5% in 2003, 18.7% in 2004, 9.1% in 2005, 8.3% in 2006, 9.2% in 2007, and 9.8% in 2008. Against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy continues to be prescribed despite established United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dose restrictions. Nearly every time the simvastatin-gemfibrozil combination was prescribed, it was against label because simvastatin exceeded the maximum dose restriction

  17. The benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and acute coronary syndrome in the IMPROVE-IT trial.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Alon; Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Bohula, Erin A; Park, Jeong-Gun; Murphy, Sabina A; White, Jennifer A; Giugliano, Robert P; Braunwald, Eugene

    2016-12-21

    To examine the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe added to statin in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) following hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In the IMPROVE-IT trial, post-ACS patients with mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 93.8 mg/dL at presentation were randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe or simvastatin/placebo. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, major coronary event or stroke, and the median follow-up was 6 years. Efficacy and safety endpoints were examined by prior CABG status. Among 18 134 patients, 1684 (9.3%) had a prior CABG (median age 69 years, 82% male). During the trial, the median time-weighted LDL-C level was 55.0 mg/dL with simvastatin/ezetimibe vs. 69.9 mg/dL with simvastatin/placebo in patients with prior CABG (P < 0.001), and it was 53.6 mg/dL vs. 69.5 mg/dL, respectively, in patients without prior CABG (P < 0.001). The rate of the primary endpoint was higher in patients with vs. without prior CABG [56% vs. 32%, adj. hazard ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.58]. Patients with prior CABG receiving simvastatin/ezetimibe had an 8.8% (95% CI 3.1-14.6%) lower absolute risk over simvastatin/placebo in the primary endpoint, whereas patients without prior CABG had a 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.6%) lower absolute risk (P-interaction = 0.02). There were no between-group significant differences in safety endpoints. The clinical benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin appears to be enhanced in patients with prior CABG, supporting the use of intensive lipid lowering therapy in these high-risk patients following ACS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Prevention of Stroke with the Addition of Ezetimibe to Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial).

    PubMed

    Bohula, Erin A; Wiviott, Stephen D; Giugliano, Robert P; Blazing, Michael A; Park, Jeong-Gun; Murphy, Sabina A; White, Jennifer A; Mach, Francois; Van de Werf, Frans; Dalby, Anthony J; White, Harvey D; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-12-19

    Patients who experience an acute coronary syndrome are at heightened risk of recurrent ischemic events, including stroke. Ezetimibe improved cardiovascular outcomes when added to statin therapy in patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome. We investigated the efficacy of the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin for the prevention of stroke and other adverse cardiovascular events in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial), with a focus on patients with a stroke before randomization. Patients who experienced acute coronary syndrome were randomized to a placebo/simvastatin or ezetimibe/simvastatin regimen and followed for a median of 6 years. Treatment efficacy was assessed for the entire population and by subgroups for the first and total (first and subsequent) events for the end points of stroke of any etiology, stroke subtypes, and the primary trial end point at 7 years. Of 18 144 patients, 641 (3.5%) experienced at least 1 stroke; most were ischemic (527, 82%). Independent predictors of stroke included prior stroke, older age, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, and renal dysfunction. There was a nonsignificant reduction in the first event of stroke of any etiology (4.2% versus 4.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.00; P =0.052) with ezetimibe/simvastatin versus placebo/simvastatin, driven by a significant 21% reduction in ischemic stroke (3.4% versus 4.1%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94; P =0.008) and a nonsignificant increase in hemorrhagic stroke (0.8% versus 0.6%; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.93-2.04; P =0.11). Evaluating total events, including the first and all recurrent strokes, ezetimibe/simvastatin reduced stroke of any etiology (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.98; P =0.029) and ischemic stroke (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91; P =0.003). Patients who had experienced a stroke prior to randomization were at a higher risk of recurrence and

  19. Lipid Lowering Agents Aeromedical Concerns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin ) b. family history of premature CHD (first degree d. Others (nicotinic acid, probucol) male relative ឧ, first... atorvastatin , fluvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin) serum liver enzyme levels associated with have been developed for clinical use and are now...Engl J Med 1993; There are unpublished data about atorvastatin and 328:1213-9. 18 10. LRCP. JAMA 1984;251:351-64. 15. Vgontzas, et al. Clin Pharm Ther

  20. The Relationship between Statins and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    jnci.oxfordjournals.org JNCI | Articles 887 any of the following medications: atorvastatin , fluvastatin, lova- statin, pravastatin, or simvastatin. Statin users may...lovastatin and pravastatin doses by 2, dividing the fluvastatin dose by 4, and multiplying the atorvastatin dose by 2. We then determined the hazard...dif- ferent statin agent in the statin user group 1 year after statin initi- ation: simvastatin, 54.6%; lovastatin, 43.9%; atorvastatin , 1.2

  1. Statins and daptomycin: safety assessment of concurrent use and evaluation of drug interaction liability.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Larry K; Barber, Gerard R; Barron, Michelle A; Page, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Acute muscle injury and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis may occur with use of statins and certain interacting medications. This investigation assessed risk for myopathy in patients receiving treatment with a statin in combination with daptomycin, a medication also associated with muscle injury. Patients hospitalized from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2010, who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin concurrently with daptomycin were identified and their medical records were examined. Patients were judged to have treatment-related muscle injury if their records contained evidence of myalgia with or without weakness and secondarily impaired mobility together with elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. These assessments were compared with similar data from hospitalized patients who received a statin alone. A total of 52 patients received 66 courses of concurrent treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin. Of these, no patient (0%) met evidentiary requirements for diagnosis of myopathy or related complications. No patient (0%) developed muscle pain or discomfort and none developed markedly elevated CK levels. The incidence of asymptomatic elevations of CK in these simvastatin or rosuvastatin plus daptomycin recipients (9%) was statistically indistinguishable from the incidence of CK elevations found in a cohort of 105 inpatients who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin alone (21%; p=0.135). In patients receiving treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin, no symptoms or objective evidence of muscle injury attributable to a drug interaction were identified. These findings are consistent with data indicating that the myopathic effects of statins and daptomycin are incited by disparate and perhaps unique pharmacological mechanisms. Risk of muscle injury therefore appears to be no greater when a statin is administered with daptomycin than when either medication is used alone.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of statins revisited: lessons learned about the value of innovation.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt

    2012-08-01

    The economic evaluation of statins has undergone a development from risk-factor-based models to modeling of hard end points in clinical trials with a shift back to risk-factor models after increased confidence in their predictive power has now been established. At this point, we can look back on the historical economic data on simvastatin to see what lesson regarding reimbursement we can learn. Historical data on the usage and sales of simvastatin in Sweden were combined with published epidemiological and clinical data to calculate the social value of simvastatin to the present day and to make projection until projected until 2018. The distribution of the social surplus was calculated by taking the costs born by society and the producer of the drug into consideration. The cost of simvastatin fell drastically following patent expiration, although the number of treated patients has continued to grow. Presently, the use of simvastatin is close to cost neutrality taking direct and indirect cost savings from reduced morbidity into account. However, the major part of the social surplus generated comes from the value of improved quality-adjusted survival. Of the social surplus generated, the producer appropriated 20-43% of the value during the on-patent period, a figure dropping to 1% following loss of exclusivity. The total producer surplus between 1987 and 2018 is 2-5% of the total social surplus. Only a small part of the surplus value generated was appropriated by the producer. A regulatory and reimbursement approach that favors early market access and coverage with evidence development as opposed to long-term trials as a pre-requisite for launch is more attractive from both a company and social perspective.

  3. Impact of local steroid or statin treatment of experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis on bone growth in young rats.

    PubMed

    Holwegner, Callista; Reinhardt, Adam L; Schmid, Marian J; Marx, David B; Reinhardt, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) is often treated with intra-articular steroid injections, which can inhibit condylar growth. The purpose of this study was to compare simvastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug that reduces TMJ inflammation) with the steroid triamcinolone hexacetonide in experimental TMJ arthritis. Joint inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the TMJs of 40 growing Sprague Dawley rats; 4 other rats were left untreated. In the same intra-articular injection, one of the following was applied: (1) 0.5 mg of simvastatin in ethanol carrier, (2) ethanol carrier alone, (3) 0.15 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide, (4) 0.5 mg of simvastatin and 0.15 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide, or (5) nothing additional to the CFA. The animals were killed 28 days later, and their mandibles were evaluated morphometrically and with microcomputed tomography. The analysis showed that the TMJs subjected to CFA alone had decreased ramus height compared with those with no treatment (P <0.05). Groups that had injections containing the steroid overall had decreases in weight, ramus height, and bone surface density when compared with the CFA-alone group (P <0.0001). Groups that had injections containing simvastatin, however, had overall increases in weight (P <0.0001), ramus height (P <0.0001), condylar width (P <0.05), condylar bone surface density (P <0.05), and bone volume (P <0.0001) compared with the groups receiving the steroid injections, and they were not different from the healthy (no treatment) group. Treatment of experimentally induced arthritis in TMJs with intra-articular simvastatin preserved normal condylar bone growth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cholesterol lowering on stiffness of aortic and femoral arterial walls in rabbits on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Xu, Wan-Hai; Xu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Tong; Bi, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Bao-Zhong

    2009-06-20

    Researches in arterial elasticity have increased over the past few years. We investigated the effects of simvastatin on vascular stiffness in fat fed rabbits by ultrasonography. Thirty rabbits were assigned randomly to 3 groups: normal control group (A), the cholesterol group (B), simvastatin group (C: high fat diet for 4 weeks and high fat diet + simvastatin for further 4 weeks). Stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and velocity of pulse waves in abdominal aorta and femoral artery were measured by ultrasonographic echo tracking at the end of the 4th and the 8th weeks. At the end of the 4th week, stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity of femoral artery were significantly increased in group B compared with those in group A. Similarly, at the end of the 8th week, the same parameters of abdominal aorta were significantly increased in group B compared with those in group A. In contrast, stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity of femoral artery were significantly decreased in group C compared with those in group B, however, there was no significant difference in parameters of abdominal aorta between groups B and C. Short term administration of simvastatin can improve the elasticity of femoral artery but not abdominal aorta.

  5. The anti-osteoporotic and anti-atherogenic effects of alendronate and simvastatin in ovariectomized rats fed high fat diet: A comparative study of combination therapy versus monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Maha Tarek; Abuelezz, Sally A; Atalla, Suzi Sobhy; El Aziz, Lobna Fouad Abd; Gorge, Sonia Salib

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a possible link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Mevalonate pathway was pointed to as a part of this link. This study was done to investigate the effects of Alendronate (Al) and Simvastatin (Sim), both act on the mevalonate pathway, on osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic changes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed high fat diet (HFD). 60 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups: control sham, OVX-HFD untreated, OVX -HFD treated with Al (3mg/kg/d) or/and Sim (6mg/kg/d). Treatments were taken for 4 weeks by oral gavage and were started 8 weeks after ovariectomy. OVX-HFD untreated group exhibited a significant negative alteration in lipid profile and on different bone markers e.g. alkaline phosphatase, hydroxyproline and osteocalcin. A significant increase in body weights and on serum levels of TNFα, iNOS and leptin were also found compared to control sham group. Vascular reactivity studies revealed a significant decrease in effective concentration 50 of phenylephrine and in acetylcholine% of relaxation and a significant increase in maximum contractile response of phenylephrine. The atherosclerotic and osteoporotic changes were further confirmed histopathologically. Treatment of OVX-HFD with Al or/and Sim significantly improved these deleterious effects compared to OVX-HFD untreated group. Comparing the combination therapy versus the mono-therapy exhibited a significant improvement in different tested parameters which came in favor of the combination therapy. Al and Sim have anti-osteoporotic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic beneficial effects. Their combination has more promising effects in treatment of osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    GLUCONATE 1 SIMVASTATIN 2 SIMVASTATIN 1 METOPROLOL 1 METOPROLOL 1 Discharge  Medications Note that the length of stay in rehabilitation is shorter in SCVMC...ENOXAPARIN 3 ENOXAPARIN 3 GABAPENTIN 3 GABAPENTIN 2 DOXYCYCLINE 3 DOXYCYCLINE 1 LISINOPRIL 3 LISINOPRIL 1 CHLORHEXIDINE 2 CHLORHEXIDINE 2 METOPROLOL 2... METOPROLOL 2 DEXTROSE 2 DEXTROSE 1 MICONAZOLE 2 MICONAZOLE 1 HEPARIN 1 HEPARIN 3 FENTANYL 1 FENTANYL 2 BACLOFEN 1 BACLOFEN 1 FERROUS  SULFATE 1 FERROUS

  7. Drosophila as a Screening Platform for Novel Lung Cancer Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    CoA reductase, an activity that has proven useful clinically for lowering cholesterol (Figure 5A). Two additional statins, atorvastatin and simvastatin...prenylation, are inhibited by GGTI and FTI. Inhibitors are listed in red. (B) Two additional statins, atorvastatin (p % 0.05) and simvastatin (p% 0.05...H., Hou, J., Zhang, X., Zhang, C., Yue, L., Wen, X., Liu, D., Shi, H., Yuan, J., et al. (2013). Atorvastatin overcomes gefitinib resistance in KRAS

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of Ezetimibe on major cardiovascular endpoints: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Battaggia, Alessandro; Donzelli, Alberto; Font, Maria; Molteni, Davide; Galvano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about Ezetimibe's efficacy on patient-oriented outcomes have given discordant results. The aim of this study was to determine the net effect of Ezetimibe and of the widely marketed combination, Ezetimibe+simvastatin, on mortality and morbidity outcomes. We searched for RCT on Ezetimibe using MEDLINE, CCTR, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov databases up to December 2013, Merck and Novartis online registers, and personal communications. Two authors independently selected trials fulfilling these criteria: RCTs comparing Ezetimibe±statin or another lipid-lowering drug against placebo, or against the same lipid-lowering drug at the same dosage, with a follow-up at least 24 weeks and one or more of these outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), cancer, serious adverse events (SAEs); we assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane checklist. We extracted the data for major clinical events as a dichotomous measure, with the patient the unit of analysis. Pooled analysis was done with random and fixed effect based models. Trials comparing Ezetimibe plus a lipid-lowering drug against the same lipidlowering drug representing the net effect of Ezetimibe, showed a nonsignificant tendency toward damage for cancer, MI, stroke and SAEs. Ezetimibe+simvastatin vs. simvastatin alone showed a stronger tendency towards a higher risk for all-cause death (2.52; 0.65-9.74), CV death (3.04; 0.48-19.21), non-CV death (3.03; 0.12-73.50), MI (1.91; 0.42-8.70), stroke (2.38; 0.46-12.35), cancer (RR 11.11; 0.62-198.29), and SAEs (1.45; 0.95-2.23). Limitations include small numbers of events and inadequate power of the pooling. Trials comparing Ezetimibe+simvastatin vs placebo showed non-significant effects: MI (0.81; 0.66-1.00 p = 0.051), all-cause death (1.02; 0.95-1.09), CV death (0.91; 0.80-1.04), non-CV death (108; 0.99-1.18), stroke (0.86; 0.72-1.04), cancer (1.18; 0.80-1.74), SAEs (1.01; 0

  9. Prostacyclin induction by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in vascular smooth muscle cells depends on sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors: effect of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, María; Rodríguez, Cristina; Badimon, Lina; Martínez-González, José

    2008-07-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is an important regulator of vascular homeostasis. Our goal was to analyze the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) induced by HDL in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). S1P induces Cox-2 expression in a time-and dose-dependent manner at concentrations (0.02-1 microM) compatible with those present in physiological HDL levels. The effect was mimicked by dihydro-S1P (DhS1P), a S1P derivative that only acts through cell surface S1P receptors. Desensitization of S1P receptors with S1P (or DhS1P) abolished HDL-induced Cox-2 up-regulation and PGI2 release. Inhibition of S1P receptors by suramin (inhibitor of S1P3), JTE013 (inhibitor of S1P2) or VPC23019 (inhibitor of S1P1 and S1P3) reduced the up-regulation of Cox-2 induced by HDL and S1P. The combination of suramin and JTE013 increased the inhibitory effect compared to that observed in cells treated with each inhibitor alone. siRNA against S1P2 or S1P3 significantly reduced the ability of HDL and S1P to up-regulate Cox-2. Simvastatin induced over-expression of S1P3 and potentiated the induction of Cox-2 expression produced by HDL (or S1P). Finally, suramin, JTE013 and VPC23019 inhibited p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways activated by HDL (or S1P) and the downstream activation of CREB, a key transcription factor involved in Cox-2 transcriptional up-regulation. These results indicate that S1P receptors, in particular S1P2 and S1P3, are involved in the Cox-2-dependent effects of HDL on vascular cells. Strategies aimed to therapeutically modulate S1P or S1P receptors could be useful to improve cardiovascular protection.

  10. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Programs for Western PA FY04 and FY05

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    LDL > 130 mg/dl. First line Rx is HMG CoA reductase inhibitor montotherapy. Initial treatment and dose: Atorvastatin (dose range 10-80 mg) with...necessary. Attempts to decrease higher doses if goals are reached may also be necessary.) High atorvastatin or simvastatin dose (80 mg) may be needed...100mg/dl, add or switch to atorvastatin or simvastatin 10 mg with evening meal. If LDL-C still remains >100 mg/dl after above addition, up-titrate

  11. Studies on the Antibacterial Effects of Statins - In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Linde, Charlotte; Pütsep, Katrin; Pohanka, Anton; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Andersson, Jan; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background Statin treatment has been associated with a beneficial outcome on respiratory tract infections. In addition, previous in vitro and in vivo experiments have indicated favorable effects of statins in bacterial infections. Aim The aim of the present study was to elucidate possible antibacterial effects of statins against primary pathogens of the respiratory tract. Methods MIC-values for simvastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin against S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were determined by traditional antibacterial assays. A BioScreen instrument was used to monitor effects of statins on bacterial growth and to assess possible synergistic effects with penicillin. Bacterial growth in whole blood and serum from healthy volunteers before and after a single dose of simvastatin, fluvastatin and penicillin (positive control) was determined using a blood culture system (BactAlert). Findings The MIC-value for simvastatin against S pneumoniae and M catarrhalis was 15 µg/mL (36 mmol/L). Fluvastatin and Pravastatin showed no antibacterial effect in concentrations up to 100 µg/mL (230 µmol/L). Statins did not affect growth or viability of H influenzae. Single doses of statins given to healthy volunteers did not affect growth of pneumococci, whereas penicillin efficiently killed all bacteria. Conclusions Simvastatin at high concentrations 15 µg/mL (36 µmol/L) rapidly kills S pneumoniae and M catarrhalis. However, these concentrations by far exceed the concentrations detected in human blood during simvastatin therapy (1–15 nmol/L) and single doses of statins given to healthy volunteers did not improve antibacterial effects of whole blood. Thus, a direct bactericidal effect of statins in vivo is probably not the mechanism behind the observed beneficial effect of statins against various infections. PMID:21912631

  12. Statin cost-effectiveness in the United States for people at different vascular risk levels.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    Statins reduce the rates of heart attacks, strokes, and revascularization procedures (ie, major vascular events) in a wide range of circumstances. Randomized controlled trial data from 20,536 adults have been used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of prescribing statin therapy in the United States for people at different levels of vascular disease risk and to explore whether wider use of generic statins beyond the populations currently recommended for treatment in clinical guidelines is indicated. Randomized controlled trial data, an internally validated vascular disease model, and US costs of statin therapy and other medical care were used to project lifetime risks of vascular events and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 40 mg simvastatin daily. For an average of 5 years, allocation to simvastatin reduced the estimated US costs of hospitalizations for vascular events by approximately 20% (95% CI, 15 to 24) in the different subcategories of participants studied. At a daily cost of $1 for 40 mg generic simvastatin, the estimated costs of preventing a vascular death within the 5-year study period ranged from a net saving of $1300 (95% CI, $15,600 saving to $13,200 cost) among participants with a 42% 5-year major vascular event risk to a net cost of $216,500 ($123,700 to $460,000 cost) among those with a 12% 5-year risk. The costs per life year gained with lifetime simvastatin treatment ranged from $2500 (-$40 to $3820) in people aged 40 to 49 years with a 42% 5-year major vascular event risk to $10,990 ($9430 to $14,700) in people aged 70 years and older with a 12% 5-year risk. Treatment with generic simvastatin appears to be cost-effective for a much wider population in the United States than that recommended by current guidelines.

  13. Using search engine query data to track pharmaceutical utilization: a study of statins.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Nathaniel M; Rogers, Mary A M; McMahon, Laurence F

    2010-08-01

    To examine temporal and geographic associations between Google queries for health information and healthcare utilization benchmarks. Retrospective longitudinal study. Using Google Trends and Google Insights for Search data, the search terms Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium; Pfizer, Ann Arbor, MI) and simvastatin were evaluated for change over time and for association with Lipitor revenues. The relationship between query data and community-based resource use per Medicare beneficiary was assessed for 35 US metropolitan areas. Google queries for Lipitor significantly decreased from January 2004 through June 2009 and queries for simvastatin significantly increased (P <.001 for both), particularly after Lipitor came off patent (P <.001 for change in slope). The mean number of Google queries for Lipitor correlated (r = 0.98) with the percentage change in Lipitor global revenues from 2004 to 2008 (P <.001). Query preference for Lipitor over simvastatin was positively associated (r = 0.40) with a community's use of Medicare services. For every 1% increase in utilization of Medicare services in a community, there was a 0.2-unit increase in the ratio of Lipitor queries to simvastatin queries in that community (P = .02). Specific search engine queries for medical information correlate with pharmaceutical revenue and with overall healthcare utilization in a community. This suggests that search query data can track community-wide characteristics in healthcare utilization and have the potential for informing payers and policy makers regarding trends in utilization.

  14. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and antioxidant vitamins on free radical lipid oxidation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Ivanova, M V; Konovalova, G G; Tikhaze, A K; Kaminnyi, A I; Kukharchuk, V V

    2007-04-01

    We studied the effects of two inhibitors of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, simvastatin and lovastatin, on the lag phase of ascorbate-dependent lipid oxidation in rat liver. Oxidizability of liver biological membranes significantly increased in intact animals and rats with induced hypercholesterolemia after peroral administration of these statins. The lag phase of ascorbate-dependent lipid oxidation in liver biomembranes decreased by 2.1 times in hypercholesterolemic rats. In animals of the lovastatin group this parameter decreased by 4.4 times compared to the control. In intact rats receiving simvastatin, the lag phase of oxidation in biomembranes from the liver decreased practically by 2 times. At the same time, in animals receiving simvastatin in combination with antioxidant vitamins (vitamins E and C, provitamin A) and selenium, the period of induction of oxidation increased by 3.3 times. Our results indicate that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors produce a prooxidant effect on the liver, which can be prevented by administration of antioxidant agents.

  15. The effect of statin on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Kang, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sun Ha; Nam, Bo Young; Paeng, Jisun; Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2014-01-01

    Statins have recently been highlighted for their pleiotropic actions distinct from cholesterol-lowering effects. Despite this interest, it is currently unknown whether statin therapy inhibits peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro, human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose (NG) or 100 mM glucose (HG) with or without simvastatin (1 µM). In vivo, PD catheters were inserted into 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline (C, n = 16) or 4.25% peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) (PD, n = 16) was infused for 4 weeks. Eight rats from each group were treated with 5 mg/kg/day of simvastatin intraperitoneally. Changes in the protein expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin in HPMCs and the peritoneum were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical staining. We also explored whether activation of the mevalonate pathway and its downstream small GTPases were involved in dialysis-related peritoneal EMT and could be inhibited by statin treatment. Compared to NG cells, E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased, while α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased in HPMCs exposed to HG, and these changes were abrogated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In addition, the cobblestone-like appearance of normal HPMCs was converted into a fibroblast-like morphology after HG treatment, which was reversed by simvastatin. These EMT-like changes were also observed in HPMCs treated with geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (5 µM). HG significantly increased the protein expression of RhoA and Rac1 in the membrane fractions, and these increases were ameliorated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In PD rats, E-cadherin in the peritoneum was significantly decreased, whereas α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to C rats. The thickness of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneum were also

  16. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ezetimibe on Major Cardiovascular Endpoints: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Battaggia, Alessandro; Donzelli, Alberto; Font, Maria; Molteni, Davide; Galvano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about Ezetimibe's efficacy on patient-oriented outcomes have given discordant results. The aim of this study was to determine the net effect of Ezetimibe and of the widely marketed combination, Ezetimibe+simvastatin, on mortality and morbidity outcomes. Methods and Findings We searched for RCT on Ezetimibe using MEDLINE, CCTR, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov databases up to December 2013, Merck and Novartis online registers, and personal communications. Two authors independently selected trials fulfilling these criteria: RCTs comparing Ezetimibe±statin or another lipid-lowering drug against placebo, or against the same lipid-lowering drug at the same dosage, with a follow-up at least 24 weeks and one or more of these outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), cancer, serious adverse events (SAEs); we assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane checklist. We extracted the data for major clinical events as a dichotomous measure, with the patient the unit of analysis. Pooled analysis was done with random and fixed effect based models. Trials comparing Ezetimibe plus a lipid-lowering drug against the same lipidlowering drug representing the net effect of Ezetimibe, showed a nonsignificant tendency toward damage for cancer, MI, stroke and SAEs. Ezetimibe+simvastatin vs. simvastatin alone showed a stronger tendency towards a higher risk for all-cause death (2.52; 0.65-9.74), CV death (3.04; 0.48-19.21), non-CV death (3.03; 0.12-73.50), MI (1.91; 0.42-8.70), stroke (2.38; 0.46-12.35), cancer (RR 11.11; 0.62-198.29), and SAEs (1.45; 0.95-2.23). Limitations include small numbers of events and inadequate power of the pooling. Trials comparing Ezetimibe+simvastatin vs placebo showed non-significant effects: MI (0.81; 0.66-1.00 p = 0.051), all-cause death (1.02; 0.95-1.09), CV death (0.91; 0.80-1.04), non-CV death (108; 0.99-1.18), stroke (0.86; 0.72-1.04), cancer (1.18; 0

  17. Chlorogenic acid-enriched extract from Eucommia ulmoides leaves inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Yan; Mo, Zhentao; Chen, Yang; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Canhui; Li, Yiqi; Li, Wenna

    2016-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (Eucommiaceae) leaf exhibits beneficial lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA)-enriched extract from this plant (CAEF) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, focusing on cholesterol metabolism. HepG2 cells were treated with CAEF (10, 20, 25, 40, 60, and 80 mg/L), CGA (0.3, 3, 30, 300, and 600 μmol/L), and simvastatin (0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 or 48 h. The cytotoxicity, Oil red O staining, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol in supernatants were determined. The mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was determined with RT-PCR. The protein expression of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was examined by immunocytochemistry and western-blot. The IC50 values were 59.2 mg/L for CAEF, 335.9 μmol/L for CGA, and 10.5 μmol/L for simvastatin. By treating cells with CAEF (25 mg/L), CGA (30 μmol/L), or simvastatin (10 μmol/L) for 48 h, the efflux of total cholesterol and triacylglycerol was increased (CAEF, 4.06- and 31.00-folds; CGA, 2.94- and 2.17-folds; and simvastatin, 3.94- and 24.67-folds), and the cellular lipid droplets were reduced in Oil red O staining. CAEF and CGA increased mRNA expression of ABCA1, CYP7A1, and AMPKα2, while CAEF and simvastatin decreased SREBP2. However, their effects on LXRα mRNA expression were variable. Importantly, all drugs significantly inhibited protein expression of HMGCR at mRNA and protein levels. CAEF is a promising dietary supplement to prevent obesity and dyslipidemia and the effects appear to be due, at least in part, to regulating cholesterol metabolism through inhibition of HMGCR in HepG2 cells.

  18. [LDL cholesterol lowering therapy: no target value but personalised treatment].

    PubMed

    Simoons, Maarten L; Deckers, Jaap W

    2015-01-01

    We previously recommended that LDL cholesterol lowering therapy be based on the risk for (recurrent) coronary events, rather than on arbitrary targets for serum LDL cholesterol concentration. We also recommended refraining from therapy with ezetimibe until its efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events had been documented. At the American Heart Association scientific sessions 2014 the results of the IMPROVE-IT study were reported. In this large, randomised trial, a modest benefit of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe over simvastatin alone was reported after 7 years of treatment. The efficacy of such combination therapy was similar to the efficacy of high-dose statin therapy, while the combination therapy is much more expensive. Comparing the efficacy and costs of different preventive therapies, we recommend first prescribing aspirin and a moderate dose of statin, secondly an ACE inhibitor. A high-dose statin should be considered in high-risk patients. The combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe should be prescribed only in high-risk patients (e.g. diabetics after myocardial infarction) who do not tolerate high-dose statins.

  19. Statin-Induced Increases in Atrophy Gene Expression Occur Independently of Changes in PGC1α Protein and Mitochondrial Content

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Snow, Rod J.; Russell, Aaron P.; McConell, Glenn K.

    2015-01-01

    One serious side effect of statin drugs is skeletal muscle myopathy. Although the mechanism(s) responsible for statin myopathy remains to be fully determined, an increase in muscle atrophy gene expression and changes in mitochondrial content and/or function have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we examined the relationship between statin-induced expression of muscle atrophy genes, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, and markers of mitochondrial content in slow- (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) rat skeletal muscles. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with simvastatin (60 or 80 mg·kg-1·day-1) or vehicle control via oral gavage for 14 days. In the absence of overt muscle damage, simvastatin treatment induced an increase in atrogin-1, MuRF1 and myostatin mRNA expression; however, these were not associated with changes in peroxisome proliferator gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) protein or markers of mitochondrial content. Simvastatin did, however, increase neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and AMPK α-subunit protein expression, and tended to increase total NOS activity, in FT but not ST muscles. Furthermore, simvastatin induced a decrease in β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activity only in FT muscles. These findings suggest that the statin-induced activation of muscle atrophy genes occurs independent of changes in PGC-1α protein and mitochondrial content. Moreover, muscle-specific increases in NOS expression and possibly NO production, and decreases in fatty acid oxidation, could contribute to the previously reported development of overt statin-induced muscle damage in FT muscles. PMID:26020641

  20. Treatment dynamics of newly marketed drugs and implications for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Willke, Richard J; Kahler, Kristijan H; Subedi, Prasun; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians and payers require rapid comparative effectiveness (CE) evidence generation to inform decisions for new drugs. We empirically assessed treatment dynamics of newly marked drugs and their implications for conducting CE research. We used claims data to evaluate five drug-outcome pairs: 1) raloxifene (vs. alendronate) and fracture; 2) risedronate (vs. alendronate) and fracture; 3) simvastatin plus ezetimibe fixed-dose combination (simvastatin + ezetimibe) (vs. simvastatin alone) and cardiovascular events; 4) rofecoxib (vs. nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [ns-NSAIDs]) and myocardial infarction; and 5) rofecoxib (vs. ns-NSAIDS) and gastrointestinal bleed. We examined utilization dynamics in the early marketing period, including evolving utilization patterns, outcome risk among those treated with new versus established drugs, and prior treatment patterns that may indicate treatment resistance or intolerance. We addressed these challenges by replicating active CE monitoring with sequential matched cohort analysis. Patients initiating new drugs were more likely to have used other drugs for the same indication in the past, but the majority of patients in all new drug cohorts were treatment naive (82.0% overall). Patients initiating rofecoxib had higher predicted baseline risk of gastrointestinal bleed than did patients initiating ns-NSAIDs. Patients initiating risedronate and alendronate had similar predicted baseline risks of fracture, while those initiating raloxifene and simvastatin + ezetimibe had lower risks of outcomes of interest relative to their comparators. Prospective monitoring yielded results consistent with expectation for each example. Many challenges to assessing the CE of new drugs are borne out in empirical data. Attention to these challenges can yield valid CE results. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Determination of statins by gas chromatography - EI/MRM - Tandem mass spectrometry: fermentation of pine samples with Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Kaijanen, Laura; Kaartinen, Sini; Väre, Monna; Riikonen, Päivi; Jernström, Eeva

    2014-06-01

    Statins were separated and quantified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) using total ion monitoring (TIC) and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The MRM method in statins determination has a novelty value, since there are no previous studies on their simultaneous analysis in environmental or plant samples. The method development and optimization was challenging due to the physicochemical similarities of the silylated lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and atorvastatin. The results showed that the use of MRM decreased their detection and quantification limits by factors of 2-10 compared to that obtained in TIC monitoring. The concentration calibration was made between 247.5ng/L and 9900ng/L. Limits of detection and quantification were between 50ng/L (lovastatin)-500ng/L (pravastatin) and 250ng/L (lovastatin)-1000ng/L (pravastatin), respectively. Based on the MRM results, the wood bark and phloem samples contained lovastatin, lovastatin-lactone, simvastatin, simvastatin-lactone, and pravastatin. Their concentrations were 250-3000μg/L, i.e. 4.2-50mg/kg in phloem and bark. However, they were not detected in fluids made with Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation of wood core. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statins for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2015-02-11

    . Both trials compared simvastatin versus placebo in older people (> 50 or 60 years) with high risk of developing AMD (drusen present on examination). The larger trial with 114 participants was conducted in Australia and used a higher dose (40 mg daily) of simvastatin for three years. Participants and study personnel in this trial were adequately masked; however, data were missing for 30% of participants at three years follow-up. The smaller trial of 30 participants was conducted in Italy and used a lower dose (20 mg) of simvastatin for three months. This trial reported insufficient details to assess the risk of bias.Neither trial reported data for change in visual acuity. Analysis of 30 participants in the smaller trial did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and placebo groups in visual acuity values at three months of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.21 ± 0.56 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.40 in placebo group) or 45 days after the completion of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.20 ± 0.50 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.48 in placebo group). The lack of a difference in visual acuity was not explained by lens or retina status, which remained unchanged during and after the treatment period for both groups.Preliminary analyses of 42 participants who had completed 12 months follow-up in the larger trial did not show a statistically significant difference between simvastatin and the placebo groups for visual acuity, drusen score, or visual function (effect estimates and confidence intervals were not available). Complete data for these outcomes at three years follow-up were not reported. At three years, the effect of simvastatin in slowing progression of AMD compared with placebo was uncertain (odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.09).One trial did not report adverse outcomes. The second trial reported no difference between groups in terms of adverse events such as death, muscle aches, and acute hepatitis

  3. Benefit of Adding Ezetimibe to Statin Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Safety in Patients With Versus Without Diabetes Mellitus: Results From IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial).

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Robert P; Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Nicolau, José C; Corbalán, Ramón; Špinar, Jindřich; Park, Jeong-Gun; White, Jennifer A; Bohula, Erin A; Braunwald, Eugene

    2018-04-10

    Ezetimibe, when added to simvastatin, reduces cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome. We explored outcomes stratified by diabetes mellitus (DM). In IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial), 18 144 patients after acute coronary syndrome with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 50 to 125 mg/dL were randomized to 40 mg ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S) or 40 mg placebo/simvastatin. The primary composite end point was cardiovascular death, major coronary events, and stroke. DM was a prespecified subgroup. The 4933 (27%) patients with DM were more often older and female, had had a prior myocardial infarction and revascularization, and presented more frequently with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome compared with patients without DM (each P <0.001). The median admission low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among patients with DM (89 versus 97 mg/dL, P <0.001). E/S achieved a significantly lower median time-weighted average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with placebo/simvastatin, irrespective of DM (DM: 49 versus 67 mg/dL; no DM: 55 versus 71 mg/dL; both P <0.001). In patients with DM, E/S reduced the 7-year Kaplan-Meier primary end point event rate by 5.5% absolute (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.94); in patients without DM, the absolute difference was 0.7% (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.04; P int =0.02). The largest relative reductions in patients with DM were in myocardial infarction (24%) and ischemic stroke (39%). No differences in safety outcomes by treatment were present regardless of DM. When stratified further by age, patients ≥75 years of age had a 20% relative reduction in the primary end point regardless of DM ( P int =0.91), whereas patients <75 years of age with DM had greater benefit than those without ( P int =0.011). When stratified by the TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) Risk Score for Secondary Prevention, all

  4. Statin Effects on Aggression: Results from the UCSD Statin Study, a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Koslik, Hayley J.; Evans, Marcella A.; Lu, Xun; Rossi, Steven; Mills, Paul J.; Criqui, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low/ered cholesterol is linked to aggression in some study designs. Cases/series have reported reproducible aggression increases on statins, but statins also bear mechanisms that could reduce aggression. Usual statin effects on aggression have not been characterized. Methods 1016 adults (692 men, 324 postmenopausal women) underwent double-blind sex-stratified randomization to placebo, simvastatin 20mg, or pravastatin 40mg (6 months). The Overt-Aggression-Scale-Modified–Aggression-Subscale (OASMa) assessed behavioral aggression. A significant sex-statin interaction was deemed to dictate sex-stratified analysis. Exploratory analyses assessed the influence of baseline-aggression, testosterone-change (men), sleep and age. Results The sex-statin interaction was significant (P=0.008). In men, statins tended to decrease aggression, significantly so on pravastatin: difference=-1.0(SE=0.49)P=0.038. Three marked outliers (OASMa-change ≥40 points) offset otherwise strong significance-vs-placebo: statins:-1.3(SE=0.38)P=0.0007; simvastatin:-1.4(SE=0.43)P=0.0011; pravastatin:-1.2(SE=0.45)P=0.0083. Age≤40 predicted greater aggression-decline on statins: difference=-1.4(SE=0.64)P=0.026. Aggression-protection was emphasized in those with low baseline aggression: age<40-and-low-baseline-aggression (N=40) statin-difference-vs-placebo=-2.4(SE=0.71)P=0.0016. Statins (especially simvastatin) lowered testosterone, and increased sleep problems. Testosterone-drop on statins predicted aggression-decline: β=0.64(SE=0.30)P=0.034, particularly on simvastatin: β=1.29(SE=0.49)P=0.009. Sleep-worsening on statins significantly predicted aggression-increase: β=2.2(SE=0.55)P<0.001, particularly on simvastatin (potentially explaining two of the outliers): β=3.3(SE=0.83)P<0.001. Among (postmenopausal) women, a borderline aggression-increase on statins became significant with exclusion of one younger, surgically-menopausal woman (N=310) β=0.70(SE=0.34)P=0.039. The increase was

  5. Pretreatment with quercetin prevents changes in lymphocytes E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and cytokines secretion in hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Josiane B S; Ruchel, Jader B; Manzoni, Alessandra G; Abdalla, Fátima H; Casalli, Emerson A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Passos, Daniela F; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-11-29

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a condition associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Purinergic system ectoenzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune response. This study investigated whether the preventive treatment with quercetin is able to prevent changes caused by hyperlipidemia in the purinergic system, through the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in lymphocytes, and quantify the nucleotides and nucleoside, and the secretion of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. Animals were divided into saline/control, saline/quercetin 5 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50 mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0.04 mg/kg), hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 5 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 25 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 50 mg/kg, and hyperlipidemia/simvastatin. Animals were pretreated with quercetin for 30 days and hyperlipidemia was subsequently induced by intraperitoneal administration of 500 mg/kg of poloxamer-407. Simvastatin was administered after the induction of hyperlipidemia. Lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Serum was separated for the cytokines and nucleotide/nucleoside quantification. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were increased in lymphocytes from hyperlipidemic rats and pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the increase in the activities of these enzymes caused by hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic rats when receiving pretreatment with quercetin and treatment with simvastatin showed decreased levels of ATP and ADP when compared to the untreated hyperlipidemic group. The IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines were increased in the hyperlipidemic group when compared with control group, and decreased when hyperlipidemic rats received the pretreatment with quercetin. However, pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the alterations caused by hyperlipidemia probably by regulating the inflammatory process. We can suggest that the quercetin is a

  6. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Henry N; Elam, Marshall B; Lovato, Laura C; Crouse, John R; Leiter, Lawrence A; Linz, Peter; Friedewald, William T; Buse, John B; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Grimm, Richard H; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Bigger, J Thomas; Goff, David C; Cushman, William C; Simons-Morton, Denise G; Byington, Robert P

    2010-04-29

    We investigated whether combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate, as compared with statin monotherapy, would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease. We randomly assigned 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes who were being treated with open-label simvastatin to receive either masked fenofibrate or placebo. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The mean follow-up was 4.7 years. The annual rate of the primary outcome was 2.2% in the fenofibrate group and 2.4% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the fenofibrate group, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.08; P=0.32). There were also no significant differences between the two study groups with respect to any secondary outcome. Annual rates of death were 1.5% in the fenofibrate group and 1.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.10; P=0.33). Prespecified subgroup analyses suggested heterogeneity in treatment effect according to sex, with a benefit for men and possible harm for women (P=0.01 for interaction), and a possible interaction according to lipid subgroup, with a possible benefit for patients with both a high baseline triglyceride level and a low baseline level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.057 for interaction). The combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as compared with simvastatin alone. These results do not support the routine use of combination therapy with fenofibrate and simvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in the majority of high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  7. Effect of Daisaikoto on Expressions of SIRT1 and NF-kappaB of Diabetic Fatty Liver Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Weibin; Cai, Xinrui; Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Yingying; Qian, Qiuhai; Hasegawa, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Daisaikoto (DSKT), a classical traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treating digestive diseases for 1800 years in China. Therefore, in this study, we are going to investigate the effect of DSKT on diabetic fatty liver rats induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ), and the effects of DSKT on silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Methods Diabetic fatty liver rat model was selected to establish a high-fat diet and STZ. Sixty Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): control group, high-fat diet + STZ group, simvastatin treatment group, DSKT low dose, medial dose and high dose treatment groups. After 8 weeks of drug intervention, body and liver weights, blood chemistry, blood glucose and insulin were examined. The expressions of sirtuin 1 and NF-kappaB in the liver were observed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results A high-fat diet increased body, liver weights, and serum cholesterol concentrations. Intraperitoneal injection of STZ increased blood glucose and decreased body weights. DSKT improved them. Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices were increased in the high-fat diet groups. DSKT improved them too. In histological examinations of the liver, we observed a significant improvement after treatment. Immunostaining expression of NF-kappaB in the liver was improved by DSKT and simvastatin. The mRNA expressions of SIRT1 in the liver were increased by DSKT and simvastatin. Conclusion We have demonstrated that DSKT is capable of reversing dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet and STZ. High dose DSKT reveals a stronger effect than simvastatin on the expressions of SIRT1 and NF-kappaB. Furthermore, DSKT has shown a strong dose-depended protective effect on diabetic fatty liver. PMID:27493486

  8. Effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Charoenwanthanang, Puttavee; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Porntadavity, Sureerut

    2011-04-12

    Curcuma comosa has been known to have potential use in cardiovascular diseases, but its immunoregulatory role in atherosclerosis development and liver toxicity has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with 1.0% cholesterol for one month and were subsequently treated with 0.5% cholesterol either alone, or in combination with 5mg/kg/day of simvastatin or with 400mg/kg/day of Curcuma comosa powder for three months. The expression of IL-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in the isolated abdominal aorta and liver were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Liver toxicity was determined by hepatic enzyme activity. Curcuma comosa significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a stronger reduction in IL-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression compared to that was suppressed by simvastatin treatment. However, neither Curcuma comosa nor simvastatin affected the expression of anti-inflammation cytokines. In the liver, Curcuma comosa insignificantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significantly increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering the activity of hepatic enzymes. In contrast, simvastatin significantly increased the MCP-1 and TNF-α expressions and serum ALT level, without affecting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that Curcuma comosa exerts anti-inflammatory activity in the aorta and liver without causing liver toxicity, indicating that Curcuma comosa is a potential candidate as an alternative agent in cardiovascular disease therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications for Ezetimibe Therapy Use Based on IMPROVE-IT Criteria.

    PubMed

    Virani, Salim S; Akeroyd, Julia M; Nambi, Vijay; Maddox, Thomas M; Gillette, Michael A; Michael Ho, P; Rumsfeld, John; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2015-11-01

    In the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT), simvastatin/ezetimibe combination was associated with a 6% relative risk reduction in the combined cardiovascular outcome compared with simvastatin alone in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Given strict inclusion criteria (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 50-125 mg/dL and no use of statins more potent than simvastatin 40 mg), the implications of this important trial in routine acute coronary syndrome care are unknown. We identified patients with acute coronary syndrome from the Veterans Affairs health care system over a 5-year period and determined what proportion would be candidates for ezetimibe on the basis of IMPROVE-IT criteria. We then evaluated what proportion could potentially see an increase in ezetimibe use if IMPROVE-IT criteria are not strictly followed. Of 219,625 patients with acute coronary syndrome, 69,508 (31.6%) would qualify for ezetimibe on the basis of strict criteria. Among those who did not meet IMPROVE-IT criteria (n = 150,117), ezetimibe could potentially be prescribed by clinicians in a further 28% of patients (n = 61,635) using statins more potent than simvastatin 40 mg, 7.1% of patients (15,527) with a documented statin intolerance, and 10.4% of patients (22,758) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >125 mg/dL. Our results provide a first look at the implications of this trial in a large health care system. Although 31.6% of patients would qualify for ezetimibe, there is a large potential for an increase in ezetimibe use in acute coronary syndrome outside of the strict trial inclusions. These findings call for a discussion on ezetimibe's role in patients with acute coronary syndrome already taking high-intensity statins or those with statin intolerance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Renal hemodynamic effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Ladan; Torres, Vicente E.; Larson, Timothy S.; King, Bernard F.; Sethi, Sanjeev; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of statins on renal hemodynamics in normal volunteers and those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease either with mild or moderate renal dysfunction. Methods Thirty-two study subjects were enrolled in this study: 11 normal volunteers, 11 study subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and mild kidney disease and 10 study subjects with ADPKD and moderate kidney disease. Subjects in each group received simvastatin 40 mg once daily for a period of 4 weeks. Renal blood flow was measured based on para-amino-hippurate (PAH) clearance and with the use of a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner at the beginning and following 4 weeks of therapy with statins. Results At the end of the study, except for the lipid profile, which was significantly lower in all groups, other laboratory results showed no change. Four weeks of therapy with simvastatin resulted in no change in serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, sodium, iothalamate clearance, PAH clearance or renal blood flow as measured by MRI or based on PAH clearance. Conclusions Four weeks of therapy with simvastatin did not change renal blood flow in the study subjects with ADPKD with mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction or in healthy volunteers. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT02511418. PMID:26614268

  11. Comparative effectiveness of lipid-lowering treatments to reduce cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Griggs, Scott K; Henderson, Emmett R; Lee, Seung-Mi; Park, Taehwan

    2018-02-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor is a new treatment option for patients with hypercholesterolemia. The objective of this study was to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering agents. Areas covered: Based on Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, we identified 29 relevant articles. Studies found statins were cost-effective compared with placebo or no treatment in general. Atorvastatin was reported to be cost-effective against simvastatin. In most cases, rosuvastatin was more cost-effective than atorvastatin or simvastatin. Additionally, ezetimibe was considered to be cost-effective compared with no treatment for statin intolerant patients. For patients not meeting treatment goals with their statins, switching to ezetimibe plus simvastatin was consistently reported cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness of ezetimibe plus a hybrid of a statin varied by the source of clinical data and cost of ezetimibe. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitor plus a statin against statin monotherapy was uncertain. The PCSK9 inhibitor plus a stain was cost-ineffective compared with ezetimibe plus a statin. Expert commentary: Drug costs and treatment efficacy were the key drivers of the cost-effectiveness results in prior analyses. Future evaluations are warranted to reflect the decreasing drug prices and the long-term treatment effects of PCSK9 inhibitors.

  12. Towards onset prevention of cognition decline in adults with Down syndrome (The TOP-COG study): A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sally-Ann; Ademola, Temitope; Caslake, Muriel; Douglas, Elizabeth; Evans, Jonathan; Greenlaw, Nicola; Haig, Caroline; Hassiotis, Angela; Jahoda, Andrew; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jill; Ring, Howard; Starr, John; Stiles, Ciara; Sirisena, Chammy; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-07-29

    Dementia is very common in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) adults. Statins may slow brain amyloid β (Aβ, coded on chromosome 21) deposition and, therefore, delay Alzheimer disease onset. One prospective cohort study with Down syndrome adults found participants on statins had reduced risk of incident dementia, but there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this issue. Evidence is sparse on the best instruments to detect longitudinal cognitive decline in older Down syndrome adults. TOP-COG was a feasibility/pilot, double-blind RCT of 12 months simvastatin 40 mg versus placebo for the primary prevention of dementia in Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome adults aged 50 years or older. Group allocation was stratified by age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele status, and cholesterol level. Recruitment was from multiple general community sources over 12 months. Adults with dementia, or simvastatin contraindications, were excluded. Main outcomes were recruitment and retention rates. Cognitive decline was measured with a battery of tests; secondary measures were adaptive behaviour skills, general health, and quality of life. Assessments were conducted pre randomisation and at 12 months post randomisation. Blood Aβ40/Aβ42 levels were investigated as a putative biomarker. Results were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A qualitative sub-study was conducted and analysed using the Framework Approach to determine recruitment motivators/barriers, and participation experience. We identified 181 (78 %) of the likely eligible Down syndrome population, and recruited 21 (11.6 %), from an area with a general population size of 3,135,974. Recruitment was highly labour-intensive. Thirteen (62 %) participants completed the full year. Results favoured the simvastatin group. The most appropriate cognitive instrument (regarding ease of completion and detecting change over time) was the Memory for Objects test from the Neuropsychological Assessment of Dementia in

  13. Comparison of prescription drug costs in the United States and the United Kingdom, Part 1: statins.

    PubMed

    Jick, Hershel; Wilson, Andrew; Wiggins, Peter; Chamberlin, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    To compare the annual cost of statins in the United States and in the United Kingdom. Matched-cohort cost analysis. U.K. General Practice Research Database (GPRD), and MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database, a large, U.S. self-insured medical claims database. We initially identified 1.6 million people in the GPRD who were younger than 65 years of age in 2005. These people were then matched by year of birth and sex with 1.6 million people in the U.S. database. From this matched pool, we estimated that 280,000 people aged 55-64 years from each country in 2005 were prescribed at least one drug. Of these, 91,474 (33%) in the U.S. were prescribed a statin compared with 68,217 (24%) in the U.K. After excluding those who did not receive statins continuously or who switched statins during the year, there remained 61,470 in the U.S. and 45,788 in the U.K. who were prescribed a single statin preparation continuously during 2005 (annual statin users). We estimated and compared drug costs (presented in 2005 U.S. dollars) separately in the two countries. Estimated drug costs were determined by random sampling. Estimated annual costs/patient in the U.S. ranged from $313 for generic lovastatin to $1428 for nongeneric simvastatin. In the U.K., annual costs/patient ranged from $164 for generic simvastatin to $509 for nongeneric atorvastatin. The total annual cost of the continuous receipt of statins in the U.S. was $64.9 million compared with $15.7 million in the U.K. In June 2006, after our study results were analyzed, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved generic simvastatin. We thus derived cost estimates for simvastatin use during 2006 and found that more than 60% of simvastatin users switched to the generic product, which reduced the cost/pill by more than 50%. The cost paid for statins in the U.S. for people younger than 65 years, who were insured by private companies, was approximately 400% higher than comparable costs paid by the government in

  14. High dose simvastatin exhibits enhanced lipid lowering effects relative to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: Background: Statins are the frontline in cholesterol reduction therapies; however use in combination with agents that possess complimentary mechanisms of action may achieve further reduce in LDL-C. Methods and Results: Thirty-nine patients were treated with either 80mg simvasta...

  15. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    included studies. Main results Two RCTs with 144 total participants met the selection criteria. Both trials compared simvastatin versus placebo in older people (> 50 or 60 years) with high risk of developing AMD (drusen present on examination). The larger trial with 114 participants was conducted in Australia and used a higher dose (40 mg daily) of simvastatin for three years. Participants and study personnel in this trial were adequately masked; however, data were missing for 30% of participants at three years follow-up. The smaller trial of 30 participants was conducted in Italy and used a lower dose (20 mg) of simvastatin for three months. This trial reported insufficient details to assess the risk of bias. Neither trial reported data for change in visual acuity. Analysis of 30 participants in the smaller trial did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and placebo groups in visual acuity values at three months of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.21 ± 0.56 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.40 in placebo group) or 45 days after the completion of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.20 ± 0.50 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.48 in placebo group). The lack of a difference in visual acuity was not explained by lens or retina status, which remained unchanged during and after the treatment period for both groups. Preliminary analyses of 42 participants who had completed 12 months follow-up in the larger trial did not show a statistically significant difference between simvastatin and the placebo groups for visual acuity, drusen score, or visual function (effect estimates and confidence intervals were not available). Complete data for these outcomes at three years follow-up were not reported. At three years, the effect of simvastatin in slowing progression of AMD compared with placebo was uncertain (odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.09). One trial did not report adverse outcomes. The second trial reported no difference

  16. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes between the included studies. Main results Two RCTs with a total of 144 participants met the selection criteria. Both trials compared simvastatin versus placebo in older people (older than 50 or 60 years) with high risk of developing AMD (drusen present on examination). Overall, we judged the quality of the evidence to be low, as we downgraded all outcomes due to limitations in the designs of the trials and insufficient outcome reporting. The larger trial, with 114 participants, was conducted in Australia and used a higher dose (40 mg daily) of simvastatin for three years. Participants and study personnel in this trial were adequately masked, however data were missing for 30% of participants at three years’ follow-up. The smaller trial, with 30 participants, was conducted in Italy and used a lower dose (20 mg) of simvastatin for three months. This trial reported insufficient details to assess the risk of bias. Neither trial reported data for change in visual acuity. Low-quality evidence from the smaller trial, with 30 participants, did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and placebo groups in visual acuity values at three months of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.21 ± 0.56 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.40 in placebo group) or 45 days after the completion of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.20 ± 0.50 in simvastatin group and 0.19 ± 0.48 in placebo group). The lack of a difference in visual acuity was not explained by lens or retina status, which remained unchanged during and after the treatment period for both groups. Preliminary analyses of 42 participants who had completed 12months’ follow-up in the larger trial did not show a statistically significant difference between simvastatin and the placebo groups for visual acuity, drusen score, or visual function (effect estimates and confidence intervals were not available). Complete data for these outcomes at three years’ follow

  17. Prediction of Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcers: an Observational Study in Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soewondo, Pradana; Suyono, Slamet; Sastrosuwignyo, Mpu Kanoko; Harahap, Alida R; Sutrisna, Bambang; Makmun, Lukman H

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the role of clinical characteristics, functional markers of vasodilation, inflammatory response, and atherosclerosis in predicting wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer. a cohort study (February - October 2010) was conducted from 40 subjects with acute diabetic foot ulcer at clinical ward of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Each subject underwent at least two variable measurements, i.e. during inflammatory phase and proliferation phase. The studied variables were clinical characteristics, complete peripheral blood count (CBC) and differential count, levels of HbA1c, ureum, creatinine, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG), marker of endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine/ADMA, endothelin-1/ET-1, and flow-mediated dilation/FMD of brachial artery), and marker of vascular calcification (osteoprotegerin/OPG). median of time achieving 50% granulation tissue in our study was 21 days. There were nine factors that contribute in the development of 50% granulation tissue, i.e. family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), previous history of wound, wound area, duration of existing wound, captopril and simvastatin medications, levels of ADMA, ET-1, and OPG. There were three out of the nine factors that significantly correlated with wound healing, i.e. wound area, OPG levels, and simvastatin medications. in acute diabetic foot ulcers, wound area and OPG levels had positive correlation with wound healing, whereas simvastatin medications had negative correlation with wound healing.

  18. The value of atorvastatin over the product life cycle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Michael; Johnson, Wallace; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M; Kuznik, Andreas; Mullins, C Daniel

    2011-10-01

    US health care reform mandates the reduction of wasteful health care spending while maintaining quality of care. Introducing new drugs into crowded therapeutic classes may be viewed as offering "me-too" (new drugs with a similar mechanism of action compared to existing drugs) drugs without incremental benefit. This article presents an analysis of the incremental costs and benefits of atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent. This analysis models the cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin over the product life cycle. The yearly cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin was modeled from 1997 to 2030 from the point of view of a US third-party payer. Estimates for incremental costs (in US $) and effects (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events were taken from previously published literature and adjusted for changes in drug prices over time. Estimates of total statin use were derived using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine variations in study parameters, including drug prices, indications, and discount rates. Assuming increasing statin use over time (with a mean of 1.07 million new users per year) and a 3% discount rate, the cumulative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atorvastatin versus simvastatin ranged from cost-savings at release to a maximum of $45,066/QALY after 6 years of generic simvastatin use in 2012. Over the full modeled life cycle (1997-2030), the cumulative ICER of atorvastatin was $20,331/QALY. The incremental value of atorvastatin to US payers (after subtracting costs) was estimated at $44.57 to $194.78 billion, depending on willingness to pay. Findings from the sensitivity analyses were similar. A hypothetical situation in which atorvastatin did not exist was associated with a reduction in total expenditures but also a loss of QALYs gained. The cumulative ICER of atorvastatin varied across the

  19. Synergistic antifungal activity of statin-azole associations as witnessed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae- and Candida utilis-bioassays and ergosterol quantification.

    PubMed

    Cabral, María Eugenia; Figueroa, Lucía I C; Fariña, Julia I

    2013-01-03

    Frequent opportunist fungal infections and the resistance to available antifungal drugs promoted the development of new alternatives for treatment, like antifungal drug combinations. This work aimed to detect the antifungal synergism between statins and azoles by means of an agar-well diffusion bioassay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 32051 and Candida utilis Pr(1-2) as test strains. Synergistic antifungal effects were tested by simultaneously adding a sub inhibitory concentration (SIC) of statin (atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin or simvastatin) plus a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azole (clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole or miconazole) to yeast-embedded YNB agar plates, and a positive result corresponded to a yeast growth inhibition halo higher than that produced by the MIC of the azole alone. Yeast cell ergosterol quantification by RP-HPLC was used to confirm statin-azole synergism, and ergosterol rescue bioassays were performed for evaluating statin-induced ergosterol synthesis blockage. Growth inhibition was significantly increased when clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole were combined with atorvastatin, lovastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin. Highest growth inhibition increments were observed on S. cerevisiae (77.5%) and C. utilis (43.2%) with a SIC of simvastatin plus a MIC of miconazole, i.e. 4 + 2.4 μg/ml or 20 + 4.8 μg/ml, respectively. Pravastatin showed almost no significant effects (0-7.6% inhibition increase). Highest interaction ratios between antifungal agents corresponded to simvastatin-miconazole combinations and were indicative of synergism. Synergism was also confirmed by the increased reduction in cellular ergosterol levels (S. cerevisiae, 40% and C. utilis, 22%). Statin-induced ergosterol synthesis blockage was corroborated by means of ergosterol rescue bioassays, pravastatin being the most easily abolished inhibition whilst rosuvastatin being the most

  20. Differences in hypolipidaemic effects of two statins on Hep G2 cells or human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, T.; Sbarra, V.; Domingo, N.; Rault, J. P.; Diaconescu, N.; Moutardier, V.; Hasselot, N.; Lafont, H.; Jadot, G.; Laruelle, C.; Chanussot, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to compare in cultured human hepatocytes or Hep G2 cells, changes in the fate of unesterified low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol induced by crilvastatin, a new cholesterol lowering drug and a reference statin, simvastatin. 2. The experiments were carried out for 20 h, each well contained 4.2 x 10(5)/cm2 Hep G2 cells or 0.5 x 10(5)/Cm2 human hepatocytes, 130 microM ursodeoxycholate, 0.68 microCi or 1.59 microCi unesterified human [14C]-LDL-cholesterol, crilvastatin or simvastatin at 0 or 50 microM (both cell types) or 300 microM (Hep-G2 cells). Incubation with the two drugs resulted in increased amounts of unesterified [14C]-LDL-cholesterol taken by the two cell types, compared to control. 3. Crilvastatin 50 microM led to significantly higher quantities of [14C]-glyco-tauro-conjugated bile salts, compared to simvastatin. Statins reduced the apo B100 level secreted by the two cell types (simvastatin) or human hepatocytes (crilvastatin). Crilvastatin enhanced both the level of apo A1 secreted by the Hep G2 cells and the level of APF, a high density lipoprotein (HDL) and biliary apoprotein. 4. Crilvastatin not only acts by stimulating LDL-cholesterol uptake by hepatocytes, but also by enhancing the catabolism of LDL-cholesterol in bile salts and probably by stimulating HDL and/or bile component secretion. Such a mechanism was not previously described for HMG CoA reductase inhibitors. Our results on APF show that this apoprotein could be considered also as an indicator of changes in bile and/or HDL compartments. 5. The human hepatocyte model appeared to be a suitable and relevant model in the pharmacological-metabolic experiments carried out in this study. It led to more consistent data than those obtained with Hep G2 cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8842455

  1. Extended-release niacin therapy and risk of ischemic stroke in patients with cardiovascular disease: the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcome (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    PubMed

    Teo, Koon K; Goldstein, Larry B; Chaitman, Bernard R; Grant, Shannon; Weintraub, William S; Anderson, David C; Sila, Cathy A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Padley, Robert J; Kostuk, William J; Boden, William E

    2013-10-01

    In Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial, addition of extended-release niacin (ERN) to simvastatin in participants with established cardiovascular disease, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglycerides had no incremental benefit, despite increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Preliminary analysis based on incomplete end point adjudication suggested increased ischemic stroke risk among participants randomized to ERN. This final analysis was conducted after complete AIM-HIGH event ascertainment to further explore potential relationship between niacin therapy and ischemic stroke risk. There was no group difference in trial primary composite end point at a mean 36-month follow-up among 3414 patients (85% men; mean age, 64±9 years) randomized to simvastatin plus ERN (1500-2000 mg/d) versus simvastatin plus matching placebo. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there were 50 fatal or nonfatal ischemic strokes: 18 (1.06%) in placebo arm versus 32 (1.86%) in ERN arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.00-3.17; P=0.050). Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between ischemic stroke risk and >65 years of age (HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.82-7.05; P=0.0002), history of stroke/transient ischemic attack/carotid disease (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.23-3.88; P=0.0079), elevated baseline Lp(a) (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.25-6.27 comparing the middle with the lowest tertile; HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.002-5.30 comparing the highest with the lowest tertile; overall P=0.042) but a nonsignificant association with ERN (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.97-3.11; P=0.063). Although there were numerically more ischemic strokes with addition of ERN to simvastatin that reached nominal significance, the number was small, and multivariable analysis accounting for known risk factors did not support a significant association between niacin and ischemic stroke risk. http

  2. Protective effects of Xiongshao Capsule () on anti-inflammatory function of high-density lipoprotein in an atherosclerosis rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jing; Tong, Wen-Xin; Xu, Feng-Qin

    2017-05-01

    To observe the effects of Xiongshao Capsule (, XSC) on anti-inflflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in serum of atherosclerosis (AS) rabbit model and explore the anti-inflflammatory protective effects of XSC on HDL. Sixty rabbits were randomized into the control, the model, XSC low-, medium- and high-dose (Rhizoma Chuanxiong + Radix Paeoniae rubra: 0.6+0.3, 1.2+0.6, 2.4+1.2g·kg -1 ·day -1 , respectively), and simvastatin (1g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) groups. The model rabbits were fed with high-fat diet and drugs for 15 weeks. The blood and thoracic aortas samples were collected at the end of 15 weeks. The levels of serum MPO and PON1 as well as total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) in aorta wall cells were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. TC and FC in the model group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, TC and FC in the XSC groups were signifificantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), so was simvastatin group (P<0.01). There was no signifificant difference in PON1 level between groups (P>0.05), even between model and control groups (P>0.05). The serum MPO level in the model group was signifificantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), which was signifificantly lower in XSC groups as well as simvastatin group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and no difference was found between XSC groups and simvastatin group (P>0.05). XSC can reduce the serum MPO level in AS rabbits to protect the anti-inflammatory function of HDL, maintaining the normal lipid transport function. TC and FC levels in aorta cells decline, and this process initiated by XSC plays an anti-AS role.

  3. Saquinavir

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease); simvastatin (Zocor, in Vytorin); tacrolimus (Astagraf XL, Envarsus XR, Protopic); thioridazine; trazodone; triazolam (Halcion); or ... Tenormin, in Tenoretic), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL, in Dutoprol, in Loressor HCT), nadolol (Corgard, in ...

  4. Statins: Are These Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for use in the United States. They include: atorvastatin (Lipitor) lovastatin (Altoprev) pitavastatin (Livalo) pravastatin (Pravachol) rosuvastatin ( ... combined with another heart health medication. Examples are atorvastatin/amlodipine (Caduet) and simvastatin/ezetimibe (Vytorin). Increasing evidence ...

  5. A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of a Pharmacist-Led Collaborative Intervention to Improve Statin Prescribing and Attainment of Cholesterol Targets in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Richard; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Background Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists’ interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delivered to doctors and nurses in primary care, would improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets for incident and prevalent patients with vascular disease, beyond one year. Methods We allocated general practices to a 12-month Statin Outreach Support (SOS) intervention or usual care. SOS was delivered by one of 11 pharmacists who had received additional training. SOS comprised academic detailing and practical support to identify patients with vascular disease who were not prescribed a statin at optimal dose or did not have cholesterol at target, followed by individualised recommendations for changes to management. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving cholesterol targets. Secondary outcomes were: the proportion of patients prescribed simvastatin 40 mg with target cholesterol achieved; cholesterol levels; prescribing of simvastatin 40 mg; prescribing of any statin and the proportion of patients with cholesterol tested. Outcomes were assessed after an average of 1.7 years (range 1.4–2.2 years), and practice level simvastatin 40 mg prescribing was assessed after 10 years. Findings We randomised 31 practices (72 General Practitioners (GPs), 40 nurses). Prior to randomisation a subset of eligible patients were identified to characterise practices; 40% had cholesterol levels below the target threshold. Improvements in data collection procedures allowed identification of all eligible patients (n = 7586) at follow up. Patients in

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Codexis and Professor Yi Tang, developed a synthesis for the high cholesterol drug, simvastatin, using an engineered acyltransferase enzyme and a low-cost acyl donor as a feedstock.

  7. SLCO1B1 polymorphism is not associated with risk of statin-induced myalgia/myopathy in a Czech population.

    PubMed

    Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Dlouhá, Dana; Adámková, Vera; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Viklický, Ondřej; Hrubá, Petra; Češka, Richard; Vrablík, Michal

    2015-05-20

    Gene SLCO1B1, encoding solute organic anionic transport polypeptide OATP1B1, belongs to the group of candidates potentially influencing statin treatment safety. OATP1B1 regulates (not only) the hepatic uptake of statins. Its genetic variation was described as an important predictor of statin-associated myopathy in a cohort of patients treated with a maximum dose of simvastatin. However, the impact of SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism on this risk in patients treated with other statins or lower doses of simvastatin needs to be assessed. Therefore, we performed the present study. SLCO1B1 tagging rs4363657 polymorphism was analyzed in 2 groups of patients with dyslipidemia (treated with simvastatin or atorvastatin, 10 or 20 mg per day), subgroup with statin-induced myalgia (N=286), and subgroup (N=707) without myalgia/myopathy, and in 2301 population controls without lipid-lowering treatment. Frequency of the individual genotypes in patients with myalgia/myopathy (TT=62.3%, CT=34.5%, CC=2.8%) did not significantly differ (both P values over 0.19) from that in patients without muscle symptoms (TT=61.4%, CT=32.9%, CC=5.7%) or from the population controls (TT=63.9%, CT=32.5%, CC=3.6%). Null results were also obtained for the dominant and recessive models of the analysis. In Czech patients treated with low statin doses, there is no association between SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism and risk of myalgia/myopathy.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Lipid-Lowering Therapy in the Secondary Prevention Setting in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tumanan-Mendoza, Bernadette A; Mendoza, Victor L

    2013-05-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in the Philippines. A cost-utility analysis was performed by using Markov modeling in the secondary prevention setting. The models incorporated efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy demonstrated in randomized controlled trials and mortality rates obtained from local life tables. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were obtained for simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, and gemfibrozil. The costs of the following were included: medications, laboratory examinations, consultation and related expenses, and production losses. The costs were expressed in current or nominal prices as of the first quarter of 2010 (Philippine peso). Utility was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed by using variations in the cost centers, discount rates, starting age, and differences in utility weights for stroke. In the analysis using the lower-priced generic counterparts, therapy using 40 mg simvastatin daily was the most cost-effective option compared with the other therapies, while pravastatin 40 mg daily was the most cost-effective alternative if the higher-priced innovator drugs were used. In all sensitivity analyses, gemfibrozil was strongly dominated by the statins. In secondary prevention, simvastatin or pravastatin were the most cost-effective options compared with atorvastatin and gemfibrozil in the Philippines. Gemfibrozil was strongly dominated by the statins. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Statins Reduce the Risks of Relapse to Addiction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Claudia; Nicolas, Celine; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Statins are drugs that have been used for decades in humans for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. More recently, several lines of evidence demonstrate that statins, in addition to their peripheral effects, produce a wide variety of effects in the brain and may be beneficial in neurological and psychiatric conditions. In this study, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine for several weeks and, at the end of self-administration training, we treated them with low doses of statins daily for a 21-day period of abstinence. Chronic administration of brain-penetrating statins, simvastatin (1 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), reduced cocaine seeking compared with vehicle, whereas administration of pravastatin (2 mg/kg), a statin with low brain penetrability, did not. Importantly, the effects of brain-penetrating statins persisted even after discontinuation of the treatment and were specific for drug seeking because drug taking was not altered by simvastatin treatment. Finally, the effects of simvastatin were found to generalize to another drug of abuse such as nicotine, but not to food reward, and to reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by stress. These results demonstrate that brain-penetrating statins can reduce risks of relapse to addiction. Given their well-known safety profile in humans, statins could be a novel effective treatment for relapse to cocaine and nicotine addiction and their use could be implemented in clinical settings without major health risks. PMID:26466819

  10. Hypercholesterolemia Up-Regulates the Expression of Intermedin and Its Receptor Components in the Aorta of Rats via Inducing the Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingtao; Shi, Di; Feng, Jiayue; Su, Yanling; Long, Yang; He, Sen; Wang, Si; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Xiangxun; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia can cause damage to the artery. Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family. This study aims to investigate the aortic expression of IMD and its receptors in hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis. Male Wistar rats were fed with high cholesterol diet, with or without simvastatin and vitamin C. Both the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma and aorta were determined as the oxidative stress biomarkers. The plasma IMD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Within the aorta, the mRNA expression of IMD along with its receptor components was determined, and the corresponding protein level of the CRLR/RAMPs was also assessed. The hypercholesterolemia rats without atherosclerotic lesion manifested a higher level of MDA and SOD and the plasma IMD elevated. Increased expression of IMD and all its receptor components (CRLR, RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3) were displayed within the aorta. The simvastatin indirectly attenuated oxidative stress by improving lipid profiles, while the vitamin C directly reduced oxidative stress without interfering with the serum lipids. Both simvastatin and vitamin C ameliorated the aortic injury, decreased the plasma IMD level, and recovered the expression of IMD and its receptors within the aorta. The up-regulated expression of IMD is observed within the aorta of the hypercholesterolemia rats. In addition, the oxidative stress participates in the up-regulation. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  12. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States, statins available by prescription include atorvastatin ( Lipitor ™ ), lovastatin ( Mevacor ™ ), pravastatin ( Pravachol ™), and simvastatin ( Zocor ™). ... 2006. The study will assess the efficacy of atorvastatin (and two other investigational agents, an anti-inflammatory , ...

  13. Physicians’ attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing before and after pharmacogenetic education

    PubMed Central

    Luzum, Jasmine A; Luzum, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to evaluate physicians’ attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing before and after pharmacogenetic education. Methods: In total, 12 physicians (˜40% response rate) completed a survey with eight questions on 10-point scales on their attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing before and after a 1-h grand rounds presentation on pharmacogenetics. Differences in question scores overall, among training levels (resident/fellow/attending), and specific drugs (clopidogrel/simvastatin/warfarin) were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and exact Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results & conclusion: The scores for all eight questions increased, with statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases for four out of eight questions. The scores were similar among training levels, but the postscores for clopidogrel were significantly higher than for simvastatin and warfarin. In conclusion, brief pharmacogenetic education can significantly affect physicians’ attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:29749904

  14. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Clinical and Basic Science Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    patients’ oral morning temperatures fall approximately ten days after starting cholesterol-lowering statin medication such as simvastatin, atorvastatin or...application for DREAMS renewal for fiscal years 2001-2002 (submitted June 2001). Appendix: Effect of Atorvastatin (Lipitor®) Therapy on Morning

  15. Physicians' Experiences as Patients with Statin Side Effects: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Koslik, Hayley J; Meskimen, Athena Hathaway; Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Physicians are among those prescribed statins and therefore, subject to potential statin adverse effects (AEs). There is little information on the impact of statin AEs on physicians affected by them. We sought to assess the character and impact of statin AEs occurring in physicians and retired physicians, and to ascertain whether/how personal experience of AEs moderated physicians' attitude toward statin use. Seven active or retired physicians from the United States communicated with the Statin Effects Study group regarding their personal experience of statin AEs. AE characteristics, experience with (their own) physicians, and impact of AE was ascertained. We inquired whether or how their experience altered their own attitude toward statins or statin AEs. Patient A: Atorvastatin 40 then 80 mg was followed by cognitive problems, neuropathy, and glucose intolerance in a Radiologist in his 50s (Naranjo criteria: probable causality). Patient B: Atorvastatin 10 mg was followed in 2 months by muscle weakness and myalgia in an Internist in his 40s (probable causality). Patient C: Atorvastatin, ezetimibe/simvastatin, rosuvastatin at varying doses was followed shortly after by irritability, myalgia, and fatigue in a Cardiac Surgeon in his 40s (probable causality). Patient D: Simvastatin 20 then 40 mg was followed in 4 years by mitochondriopathy, myopathy, neuropathy, and exercise intolerance in an Emergency Medicine physician in his 50s (definite causality). Patient E: Simvastatin 20 mg and niacin 1000 mg was followed in one month by muscle weakness and myalgia in a Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physician in his 50s (probable causality). Patient F: Lovastatin 20 mg then simvastatin 20 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, rosuvastatin 5 mg, niacin 20 mg and ezetimbe 10 mg was followed by muscle weakness and myalgia in an Obstetrician/Gynecologist in his 70s (definite causality). Patient G: Ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin (dose unavailable) was followed

  16. SLCO1B1 variants and statin-induced myopathy--a genomewide study.

    PubMed

    Link, E; Parish, S; Armitage, J; Bowman, L; Heath, S; Matsuda, F; Gut, I; Lathrop, M; Collins, R

    2008-08-21

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy results in substantial reductions in cardiovascular events, and larger reductions in cholesterol may produce larger benefits. In rare cases, myopathy occurs in association with statin therapy, especially when the statins are administered at higher doses and with certain other medications. We carried out a genomewide association study using approximately 300,000 markers (and additional fine-mapping) in 85 subjects with definite or incipient myopathy and 90 controls, all of whom were taking 80 mg of simvastatin daily as part of a trial involving 12,000 participants. Replication was tested in a trial of 40 mg of simvastatin daily involving 20,000 participants. The genomewide scan yielded a single strong association of myopathy with the rs4363657 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within SLCO1B1 on chromosome 12 (P=4x10(-9)). SLCO1B1 encodes the organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP1B1, which has been shown to regulate the hepatic uptake of statins. The noncoding rs4363657 SNP was in nearly complete linkage disequilibrium with the nonsynonymous rs4149056 SNP (r(2)=0.97), which has been linked to statin metabolism. The prevalence of the rs4149056 C allele in the population was 15%. The odds ratio for myopathy was 4.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 7.7) per copy of the C allele, and 16.9 (95% CI, 4.7 to 61.1) in CC as compared with TT homozygotes. More than 60% of these myopathy cases could be attributed to the C variant. The association of rs4149056 with myopathy was replicated in the trial of 40 mg of simvastatin daily, which also showed an association between rs4149056 and the cholesterol-lowering effects of simvastatin. No SNPs in any other region were clearly associated with myopathy. We have identified common variants in SLCO1B1 that are strongly associated with an increased risk of statin-induced myopathy. Genotyping these variants may help to achieve the benefits of statin

  17. Generic and therapeutic statin switches and disruptions in therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Richard H; Benner, Joshua S; Girase, Prafulla; Benigno, Michael; Axelsen, Kirsten; Liu, Larry Z; Nichol, Michael B

    2009-05-01

    The study objective was to compare dose-equivalence, adherence and subsequent switch rates among patients recently switched from a branded to generic version of the same statin (generic substitution, GS) vs. those switched from branded statin to generic version of a different statin (therapeutic substitution, TS). In a retrospective cohort analysis among adult enrollees in over 90 US health plans, the authors identified adult patients who switched from a branded to generic statin from July-December 2006 (simvastatin became generic in June 2006). Patients were classified by type of statin switch: GS (e.g., branded simvastatin --> generic simvastatin), and TS (e.g., branded atorvastatin --> generic simvastatin). Demographic and clinical data were collected from claims before switch through 6 months follow-up. Separate outcomes of interest included proportion of patients that switched to a less potent daily dose, that switched back to previous branded statin after switch, and that were at least 80% adherent during the 6 months after initial switch. Significant predictors of each clinical outcome were identified using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for differences between groups in covariates and potential confounders. The 6-month TS (n = 3807) and GS (n = 40,165) groups were generally similar demographically. Compared to GS, TS patients were significantly more likely to be switched to a less potent dose (26.2% vs. 0.5%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] in patients with high-potency index medication = 83.4, p < 0.0001); 33% less likely to be adherent in the 6 months after switch (67.7% vs. 75.9%, AOR in patients with no switch in first 6 months follow-up = 0.67, p < 0.0001); and four times more likely to switch back to previous branded statin (11.3% vs. 2.9%, AOR = 4.1, p < 0.0001). This study did not account for co-payment changes, lipid measurements, or changes in pill burden. While this study did not have data on why patients had TS (e.g., for cost or

  18. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Atorvastatin . Both are FDA approved and are, thus, low hanging fruit candidates. Sierra et al69 compared 9 statins with regard to their BBB penetration...et al. Simvastatin and atorvastatin improve behavioral outcome, reduce hippocampal degeneration, and improve cerebral blood flow after experimental

  19. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    simvastatin synergized with ruxolitinib (INCB018424) in HEL cells (Fig. 8), atorvastatin synergized with ruxolitinib (INCB018424) in HEL cells (Fig. 9), and...Figure 9: Atorvastatin synergizes with ruxolitinib (INCB018424) to inhibit HEL cell growth. The MPN model, and JAK2

  20. Predictors of Treatment Response to Fluoxetine in PTSD Following a Recent History of War Zone Stress Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    brain injury, rats treated subchronically (two weeks) with orally gavaged atorvastatin or simvastatin showed evidence of diminished loss of cells in...203. Lu D, Goussev A, Chen J, et al. Atorvastatin reduces neurological deficit and increases synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuronal survival in

  1. Effects of Different Types of Statins on Lipid Profile: A Perspective on Asians.

    PubMed

    Meor Anuar Shuhaili, Meor Fairuz Rizal; Samsudin, Intan Nureslyna; Stanslas, Johnson; Hasan, Shariful; Thambiah, Subashini C

    2017-04-01

    The present review aimed at reviewing the effects of different statins on lipid profile, particularly in Asians. PubMed searches were conducted using the keywords 'statin, effect, and lipid profile' from database inception through March 2016. In this review, 718 articles were retrieved from the primary search. After reviewing the titles, abstracts, and full texts, we found that 59 studies met our inclusion criteria. These also included subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles. CURVES study compared the effect on lipid profile between atorvastatin and other statins. This study demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced more with atorvastatin compared to simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and fluvastatin. However, simvastatin provided a greater elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to atorvastatin. The STELLAR trial was based on dose-to-dose comparisons between atorvastatin and rosuvastatin efficacy in reducing LDL-C. Te present study also revealed that as the doses of rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin increased, HDL-C also increased, with rosuvastatin having the greatest effect. However, HDL-C levels decreased as the dose of atorvastatin increased. The DISCOVERY study involving the Asian population revealed that the percentage of patients achieving the European goals for LDL-C and TC at 12 weeks was higher in rosuvastatin group compared to atorvastatin group. The effects of statins on lipid profile are dose dependent. Most studies showed that rosuvastatin has the best effect on lipid profile. Prescribing lower doses of statins in Asians seems necessary.

  2. Disruption of a sugar transporter gene cluster in a hyperthermophilic archaeon using a host-marker system based on antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Matsumi, Rie; Manabe, Kenji; Fukui, Toshiaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a gene disruption system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis using the antibiotic simvastatin and a fusion gene designed to overexpress the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase gene (hmg(Tk)) with the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter. With this system, we disrupted the T. kodakaraensis amylopullulanase gene (apu(Tk)) or a gene cluster which includes apu(Tk) and genes encoding components of a putative sugar transporter. Disruption plasmids were introduced into wild-type T. kodakaraensis KOD1 cells, and transformants exhibiting resistance to 4 microM simvastatin were isolated. The transformants exhibited growth in the presence of 20 microM simvastatin, and we observed a 30-fold increase in intracellular HMG-CoA reductase activity. The expected gene disruption via double-crossover recombination occurred at the target locus, but we also observed recombination events at the hmg(Tk) locus when the endogenous hmg(Tk) gene was used. This could be avoided by using the corresponding gene from Pyrococcus furiosus (hmg(Pf)) or by linearizing the plasmid prior to transformation. While both gene disruption strains displayed normal growth on amino acids or pyruvate, cells without the sugar transporter genes could not grow on maltooligosaccharides or polysaccharides, indicating that the gene cluster encodes the only sugar transporter involved in the uptake of these compounds. The Deltaapu(Tk) strain could not grow on pullulan and displayed only low levels of growth on amylose, suggesting that Apu(Tk) is a major polysaccharide-degrading enzyme in T. kodakaraensis.

  3. SLCO1B1 Polymorphism is not associated with Risk of Statin-Induced Myalgia/Myopathy in a Czech Population

    PubMed Central

    Hubáček, Jaroslav A.; Dlouhá, Dana; Adámková, Vera; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš; Viklický, Ondřej; Hrubá, Petra; Češka, Richard; Vrablík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene SLCO1B1, encoding solute organic anionic transport polypeptide OATP1B1, belongs to the group of candidates potentially influencing statin treatment safety. OATP1B1 regulates (not only) the hepatic uptake of statins. Its genetic variation was described as an important predictor of statin-associated myopathy in a cohort of patients treated with a maximum dose of simvastatin. However, the impact of SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism on this risk in patients treated with other statins or lower doses of simvastatin needs to be assessed. Therefore, we performed the present study. Material/Methods SLCO1B1 tagging rs4363657 polymorphism was analyzed in 2 groups of patients with dyslipidemia (treated with simvastatin or atorvastatin, 10 or 20 mg per day), subgroup with statin-induced myalgia (N=286), and subgroup (N=707) without myalgia/myopathy, and in 2301 population controls without lipid-lowering treatment. Results Frequency of the individual genotypes in patients with myalgia/myopathy (TT=62.3%, CT=34.5%, CC=2.8%) did not significantly differ (both P values over 0.19) from that in patients without muscle symptoms (TT=61.4%, CT=32.9%, CC=5.7%) or from the population controls (TT=63.9%, CT=32.5%, CC=3.6%). Null results were also obtained for the dominant and recessive models of the analysis. Conclusions In Czech patients treated with low statin doses, there is no association between SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism and risk of myalgia/myopathy. PMID:25992810

  4. On the hypothetical universal use of statins in primary prevention: an observational analysis on low-risk patients and economic consequences of a potential wide prescription rate.

    PubMed

    Macchia, Alejandro; Mariani, Javier; Romero, Marilena; Robusto, Fabio; Lepore, Vito; Dettorre, Antonio; Tognoni, Gianni

    2015-04-01

    Recent guidelines expand indications for statins. However, research on practical economic feasibility and cost-effectiveness in low-risk people is lacking. We aimed to describe the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE), their total direct costs and the hypothetical effects of wide provision of statins on those rates and expenditures. We conducted a population-based cohort study using administrative data among low risk individuals. Estimators of effects of statins were taken from Cholesterol Treatment trialist metaanalysis and from Heart Protection Study trial. Two statin prices were used for analyses: National Italian Health System (€ 0.36) and the International Drug Price Indicator (€ 0.021). Overall, 920,067 persons at low risk were identified and 14,849 CVE were registered (incidence rate 27.3 per 10,000 person-years). Direct costs for hospitalizations for CVE were 143 M €. Universal provision of statins would result in a significant decrease in CVE rates, from 27.3 to 17.5 per 10,000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.8-19.4). Universal prescription of simvastatin 20 mg would cost 802 M €. Otherwise, provision of simvastatin at International Drug Price Indicator's prices would be both clinically effective and cost saving in men older than age 44 (observed expenditures 120 M €, expected 97.4 M €) but not in women (observed expenditures 22.7 M €, expected 36.5 M €). Among a low-risk population, hypothetical universal provision of low-cost simvastatin to men over 44 years could be both clinically effective and a cost-saving strategy.

  5. Generic atorvastatin, the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Sinnaeve, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines how the market entry of generic atorvastatin influences the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Using IMS Health data, the Belgian 2000-2011 statin market was analyzed in terms of total expenditure, annual price of statin treatment, and patient numbers. A simulation analysis projected statin market shares from 2012 to 2015 following market entry of generic atorvastatin. This analysis was based on three scenarios regarding the number of patients taking specific statins. Savings associated with an atorvastatin price reduction of 50-70 % were calculated. A literature review of economic evaluations assessed the cost-effectiveness of generic atorvastatin. Statin expenditure increased from €113 million in 2000 to €285 million in 2011 due to higher expenditure on atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Although the number of patients treated with simvastatin increased by nearly 800 %, the resulting increase in expenditure was partially offset by price reductions. Atorvastatin is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market (market share of 47-66 % by 2015). Annual savings would attain €108.6-€153.7 million for a 50 % reduction in the atorvastatin price and €152.0-€215.2 million for a 70 % price reduction. The literature suggests that generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin. The limited evidence about the cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin as compared with generic atorvastatin is inconclusive. Generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin, is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market and is expected to generate substantial savings to health care payers.

  6. Physiological insights into novel therapies for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental kidney physiology research can provide important insight into how the kidney works and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities to treat human diseases. This is especially true for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Over the past decade, studies elucidating the molecular physiology and signaling pathways regulating water transport have suggested novel therapeutic possibilities. In patients with congenital NDI due to mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) or acquired NDI due to lithium (or other medications), there are no functional abnormalities in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, or in another key inner medullary transport protein, the UT-A1 urea transporter. If it is possible to phosphorylate and/or increase the apical membrane accumulation of these proteins, independent of vasopressin or cAMP, one may be able to treat NDI. Sildenifil (through cGMP), erlotinib, and simvastatin each stimulate AQP2 insertion into the apical plasma membrane. Some recent human data suggest that sildenafil and simvastatin may improve urine concentrating ability. ONO-AE1-329 (ONO) stimulates the EP4 prostanoid receptor (EP4), which stimulates kinases that in turn phosphorylate AQP2 and UT-A1. Clopidogrel is a P2Y12-R antagonist that potentiates the effect of vasopressin and increases AQP2 abundance. Metformin stimulates AMPK to phosphorylate and activate AQP2 and UT-A1, and it increases urine concentrating ability in two rodent models of NDI. Since metformin, sildenafil, and simvastatin are commercially available and have excellent safety records, the potential for rapidly advancing them into clinical trials is high. PMID:27534996

  7. CYP109E1 is a novel versatile statin and terpene oxidase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Litzenburger, Martin; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Milhim, Mohammed; Brill, Elisa; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-12-01

    CYP109E1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium with a hydroxylation activity for testosterone and vitamin D3. This study reports the screening of a focused library of statins, terpene-derived and steroidal compounds to explore the substrate spectrum of this enzyme. Catalytic activity of CYP109E1 towards the statin drug-precursor compactin and the prodrugs lovastatin and simvastatin as well as biotechnologically relevant terpene compounds including ionones, nootkatone, isolongifolen-9-one, damascones, and β-damascenone was found in vitro. The novel substrates induced a type I spin-shift upon binding to P450 and thus permitted to determine dissociation constants. For the identification of conversion products by NMR spectroscopy, a B. megaterium whole-cell system was applied. NMR analysis revealed for the first time the ability of CYP109E1 to catalyze an industrially highly important reaction, the production of pravastatin from compactin, as well as regioselective oxidations generating drug metabolites (6'β-hydroxy-lovastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-simvastatin, and 4″-hydroxy-simvastatin) and valuable terpene derivatives (3-hydroxy-α-ionone, 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, 11,12-epoxy-nootkatone, 4(R)-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one, 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 4-hydroxy-β-damascone, and 3,4-epoxy-β-damascone). Besides that, a novel compound, 2-hydroxy-β-damascenone, produced by CYP109E1 was identified. Docking calculations using the crystal structure of CYP109E1 rationalized the experimentally observed regioselective hydroxylation and identified important amino acid residues for statin and terpene binding.

  8. Changes to the statin prescribing policy in Belgium: potential impact in clinical and economic terms.

    PubMed

    Liew, Danny; Webb, Kate; Marbaix, Sophie; Annemans, Lieven

    2012-08-01

    New policies in Belgium encourage prescribing of generic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), but may lead to non-equivalent switching of patients from more potent second generation statins, as has occurred elsewhere. We sought to assess the potential health economic impact of the new policies. This was a cost-effectiveness analysis. A Markov model was constructed to simulate the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death among a representative cohort of 80 Belgian patients initially free of CVD and taking atorvastatin. Cardiovascular risks were estimated from calibrated Framingham equations, and utilities and costs from published data. Decision analysis assessed the potential impact of switching all 80 patients to simvastatin. Changes in lipid levels expected to arise from switching were based on a published meta-analysis. If the 80 patients remained on atorvastatin, the model predicted that 23 (29%) would develop CVD over 20 years. If they were switched to simvastatin, the predicted number was 25 (31%), equating to a 'number needed to harm' of 52. Switching would lead to a net cost saving of €131 (2012) per subject, but also a loss of 0.03 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per subject. These equated to a decremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €4777 per QALY lost. Sensitivity analyses indicated this result to be robust. Recently introduced statin prescribing policies in Belgium are likely, as intended, to reduce statin costs, but also increase the burden of CVD due to non-equivalent switching. It would be cost effective to maintain patients on atorvastatin for primary prevention rather than switch them to simvastatin.

  9. 76 FR 55689 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ..., Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 31.../Schering-Plough) Singapore Company, LLC. Simvastatin lowers lipids (fats that circulate in the bloodstream... in producing lipids in the body, and ezetimibe lowers lipids by inhibiting the absorption of...

  10. Ciprofloxacin and statin interaction: a cautionary tale of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Fraser Charles; Brogan, Amy; Boyle, James Graham

    2016-07-28

    A 62-year-old woman presented to hospital, on general practitioner (GP) advice, with a 15-day history of slowly progressing muscle weakness. Results showed newly deranged liver function and creatine kinase (CK) of >24 000. Prior medical history includes previous myocardial infarction and recurrent urinary tract infection. 4 days prior to symptom onset, the patient developed typical urinary tract infection symptoms, treated with ciprofloxacin. The patient had been taking simvastatin (40 mg nocte) for 13 years and had never previously taken ciprofloxacin. Initial management included intravenous crystalloid fluids and discontinuation of simvastatin. CK level fell, liver function slowly improved and renal function remained stable. Muscle weakness improved and the patient became independently able to perform activities of daily living. While the interactions between statins and other antibiotics are well documented, the interaction between statins and ciprofloxacin is less so. The consequences of this interaction can have potentially serious outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Comparison of therapeutic lipid target achievements among high-risk patients in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Baneerje, Yajnavalka; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Farhan, Hatem; Habsi, Khadija Al; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    We compared therapeutic lipid target achievements among patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease (CHD) in Oman. A retrospective chart review of 94 patients was conducted at an outpatient clinic in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The variables included low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The overall mean age of the cohort was 59 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 66% were diabetic, 48% hypertensive, 45% had CHD, 94% were on simvastatin, 4% were on fenofibrate, and 2% were on both simvastatin and fenofibrate. Lipid goal attainments of calculated LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/L), apo B (<0.9 g/L), and non-HDL-C (<3.36 mmol/L) were reached in 52%, 39%, and 53% of the patients, respectively. A significant proportion of high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowering agents reach LDL-C but not the apo B treatment targets, suggesting that the use of apo B target values should also be considered.

  12. The Role of Distant Mutations and Allosteric Regulation on LovD Active Site Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Gao, Xue; Sawaya, Michael R.; Gilson, Lynne; Collier, Steven J.; Huisman, Gjalt W.; Yeates, Todd O.; Tang, Yi; Houk, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Natural enzymes have evolved to perform their cellular functions under complex selective pressures, which often require their catalytic activities to be regulated by other proteins. We contrasted a natural enzyme, LovD, which acts on a protein-bound (LovF) acyl substrate, with a laboratory-generated variant that was transformed by directed evolution to accept instead a small free acyl thioester, and no longer requires the acyl carrier protein. The resulting 29-mutant variant is 1000-fold more efficient in the synthesis of the drug simvastatin than the wild-type LovD. This is the first non-patent report of the enzyme currently used for the manufacture of simvastatin, as well as the intermediate evolved variants. Crystal structures and microsecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed the mechanism by which the laboratory-generated mutations free LovD from dependence on protein-protein interactions. Mutations dramatically altered conformational dynamics of the catalytic residues, obviating the need for allosteric modulation by the acyl carrier LovF. PMID:24727900

  13. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of two antihyperlipidemic mixtures containing ezetimibe in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Maher, Hadir M; Youssef, Rasha M; Hassan, Ekram M; El-Kimary, Eman I; Barary, Magda A

    2011-02-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe/simvastatin and ezetimibe/atorvastatin binary mixtures in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms without prior separation. The first is the derivative ratio method where the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra ((1) DD) at 299.5 and 242.5 nm were found to be linear with ezetimibe and simvastatin concentrations in the ranges 0.5-20 µgml(-1) and 1-40 µgml(-1) , respectively, whereas the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra ((1) DD) at 289.5 and 288 nm were selected to determine ezetimibe and atorvastatin in the concentration ranges 5-50 µgml(-1) and 1-40 µgml(-1) , respectively. The second is the H-point standard additions method; absorbances at the two pairs of wavelengths, 228 and 242 nm or 238 and 248 nm, were monitored while adding standard solutions of ezetimibe or simvastatin, respectively. For the analysis of ezetimibe/atorvastatin mixture, absorbance values at 226 and 248 nm or 212 and 272 nm were monitored while adding standard solutions of ezetimibe or atorvastatin, respectively. Moreover, differential spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of ezetimibe in the two mixtures without any interference from the co-existing drug. This was performed by measurement of the difference absorptivities (ΔA) of ezetimibe in 0.07 M 30% methanolic NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0.07 M 30% methanolic HCl at 246 nm. The described methods are simple, rapid, precise and accurate for the determination of these combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  15. The Cost-Benefit Balance of Statins in Hawai'i: A Moving Target.

    PubMed

    Lum, Corey J; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Shohet, Ralph V; Seto, Todd B; Taira, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    Statins are lipid-lowering medications used for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic disease and represent a substantial portion of drug costs in the United States. A better understanding of prescribing patterns and drug costs should lead to more rational utilization and help constrain health care expenditures in the United States. The 2013 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Part D Prescriber Public Use File for the State of Hawai'i was analyzed. The number of prescriptions for statins, total annual cost, and daily cost were calculated by prescriber specialty and drug. Potential savings from substituting the highest-cost statin with lower-cost statins were calculated. Over 421,000 prescriptions for statins were provided to Medicare Part D beneficiaries in Hawai'i in 2013, which cost $17.6M. The three most commonly prescribed statins were simvastatin (33.4%), atorvastatin (33.4%), and lovastatin (13.9%). Although rosuvastatin comprised 5.4% of the total statin prescriptions, it represented 30.1% of the total cost of statins due to a higher daily cost ($5.53/day) compared to simvastatin ($0.25/day) and atorvastatin ($1.10/day). Cardiologists and general practitioners prescribed the highest percentage of rosuvastatin (8% each). Hypothetical substitution of rosuvastatin would have resulted in substantial annual cost savings (Simvastatin would have saved $1.3M for 25% substitution and $5.1M for 100% substitution, while atorvastatin would have saved $1.1M for 25% substitution and $4.3M for 100% substitution). Among Medicare Part D beneficiaries in Hawai'i, prescribing variation for statins between specialties were observed. Substitution of higher-cost with lower-cost statins may lead to substantial cost savings.

  16. Physiological insights into novel therapies for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M; Klein, Janet D

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental kidney physiology research can provide important insight into how the kidney works and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities to treat human diseases. This is especially true for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Over the past decade, studies elucidating the molecular physiology and signaling pathways regulating water transport have suggested novel therapeutic possibilities. In patients with congenital NDI due to mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) or acquired NDI due to lithium (or other medications), there are no functional abnormalities in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, or in another key inner medullary transport protein, the UT-A1 urea transporter. If it is possible to phosphorylate and/or increase the apical membrane accumulation of these proteins, independent of vasopressin or cAMP, one may be able to treat NDI. Sildenifil (through cGMP), erlotinib, and simvastatin each stimulate AQP2 insertion into the apical plasma membrane. Some recent human data suggest that sildenafil and simvastatin may improve urine concentrating ability. ONO-AE1-329 (ONO) stimulates the EP4 prostanoid receptor (EP4), which stimulates kinases that in turn phosphorylate AQP2 and UT-A1. Clopidogrel is a P2Y12-R antagonist that potentiates the effect of vasopressin and increases AQP2 abundance. Metformin stimulates AMPK to phosphorylate and activate AQP2 and UT-A1, and it increases urine concentrating ability in two rodent models of NDI. Since metformin, sildenafil, and simvastatin are commercially available and have excellent safety records, the potential for rapidly advancing them into clinical trials is high. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    greater benefit than Atorvastatin . Both are FDA approved and thus, low hanging fruit. Sierra et al69 compared 9 statins with regard to their BBB...cyclosporine-A in rats: Events in tissues. Drug Metab Dispo. 2000; 28:582-89. 54. Wang H, Lynch JR, Song P, et al. Simvastatin and atorvastatin improve

  18. A Review on Pharmacokinetic Modeling and the Effects of Environmental Stressors on Pharmacokinetics for Operational Medicine: Operational Pharmacokinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    hypercholesterolemia Two-compartment model Ezzet, Krishna et al. 2001 Antilipemics Statins: simvastatin, rosuvastatin, atorvastatin Treatment of...Pharmacokinetic model* & rosuvastatin Scopus 14 3 PubMed 9 3 Pharmacokinetic model* & atorvastatin Scopus 49 4 Pharmacokinetic model* & zaleplon...Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & heat 9 2 Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & cold 4 0 Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & blood loss 19 5 Atorvastatin

  19. Deriving Therapies for Children with Primary CNS Tumors Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of Cerebral Microdialysis Data

    PubMed Central

    Jacus, M.O.; Throm, S.L.; Turner, D.C.; Patel, Y.T.; Freeman, B.B.; Morfouace, M.; Boulos, N.; Stewart, C. F.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors continues to be a challenge despite recent advances in technology and diagnostics. In this overview, we describe our approach for identifying and evaluating active anticancer drugs through a process that enables rational translation from the lab to the clinic. The preclinical approach we discuss uses tumor subgroup-specific models of pediatric CNS tumors, cerebral microdialysis sampling of tumor extracellular fluid (tECF), and pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to overcome challenges that currently hinder researchers in this field. This approach involves performing extensive systemic (plasma) and target site (CNS tumor) pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of the data derived from these studies are then used to inform future decisions regarding drug administration, including dosage and schedule. Here, we also present how our approach was used to examine two FDA approved drugs, simvastatin and pemetrexed, as candidates for new therapies for pediatric CNS tumors. We determined that due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and insufficient concentrations in tumor tissue in a mouse model of ependymoma, simvastatin would not be efficacious in further preclinical trials. In contrast to simvastatin, pemetrexed was advanced to preclinical efficacy studies after our studies determined that plasma exposures were similar to those in humans treated at similar tolerable dosages and adequate unbound concentrations were found in tumor tissue of medulloblastoma-bearing mice. Generally speaking, the high clinical failure rates for CNS drug candidates can be partially explained by the fact that therapies are often moved into clinical trials without extensive and rational preclinical studies to optimize the transition. Our approach addresses this limitation by using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of data generated from appropriate in vivo models to

  20. Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ethanolic extract as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradana, Dimas Adhi; Pondawinata, Marizki; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential activity of standardized ethanolic extract of red spinach as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A total of 42 animals was divided into 6 groups: normal control group, negative control group, positive control group (0.9 mg/kgBW of simvastatin), first intervention group (200 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), second intervention group (400 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), and third intervention group (800 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract). From the first day up to the 66th day, all the groups, except the normal control group and negative control group, were administered simvastatin (positive control) and extract of amaranth (intervention). Then, from the eighth day until Day 66, induction of high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was given in two hours after the simvastatin and red spinach extract administration. The determination of LDL parameters was conducted on Day 0, Day 35, and Day 67. On the 67th day, the animals were dissected to examine the aortic histopathological parameters. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of red spinach with a dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW statistically demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.05). The histopathological feature of the aorta in the treatment indicated the absence of fat in the blood vessel walls or even of foam cells supporting thereby the result of LDL level. This means there was a significant effect of ethanolic extract of red spinach on the prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and the histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  1. Role of Prostaglandin Pathway and Alendronate-Based Carriers to Enhance Statin-induced Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeonju; Liu, Xinming; Nawshad, Ali; Marx, David B.; Wang, Dong; Reinhardt, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of the prostaglandin (PG) pathway in locally-applied, simvastatin-induced oral bone growth. The possibility of enhancing long-term bone augmentation with an alendronate-based carrier was initiated. Methods Mandibles of 44 mature female rats were treated bilaterally with the following combinations: 2 mg simvastatin in ethanol (SIM-EtOH), EtOH, 2 mg simvastatin acid complexed with alendronate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugate (SIM/ALN-CD), ALN-CD, or ALN. Bone wash technology (injection of PBS and recollection by suction) was used to sample injection sites at baseline (day 0), and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-treatment. After 21-24 or 48 days, histomorphometric analysis was done. The amount of PGE2 in bone wash fluid was measured by ELISA, normalized by total protein, and compared between high and low bone growth groups (ANOVA) and correlated with subsequent bone histology at 21 days (Spearman). SIM-stimulated PGE2 synthase and EP4 receptor mRNA in murine osteoblast and fibroblast cell lines were evaluated with real-time PCR. Results Single injections of 2 mg SIM-EtOH induced significantly more new bone than control side after 21 days. PGE2/protein ratios peaked at day 7 and were correlated with the subsequent 21-day new bone width. The correlations at day 14 between PGE2 and new bone width changed to a negative relationship in the test group. SIM-stimulated osteoblasts expressed increased mRNA levels of PGE receptor EP4, while SIM activated PGE synthesis in fibroblasts. SIM/ALN-CD tended to preserve bone long-term. Conclusion Findings suggest that PGE pathway activation and higher levels of PGE2 during the first week following SIM-induced bone growth are desirable, and alendronate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugates not only act as tissue-specific carriers, but preserve new bone. PMID:21438610

  2. Impact of Ezetimibe on the Rate of Cardiovascular-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Costs Among Patients With a Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome: Results From the IMPROVE-IT Trial (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial).

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja; Vilain, Katherine; Wang, Kaijun; Mark, Daniel B; Davies, Glenn; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P; Braunwald, Eugene; Cannon, Christopher P; Cohen, David J; Magnuson, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe, when added to simvastatin therapy, reduces cardiovascular events after recent acute coronary syndrome. However, the impact of ezetimibe on cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and associated costs is unknown. We used patient-level data from the IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) to examine the impact of simvastatin-ezetimibe versus simvastatin-placebo on cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and related costs (excluding drug costs) over 7 years follow-up. Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups were assigned to all cardiovascular hospitalizations. Hospital costs were estimated using Medicare reimbursement rates for 2013. Associated physician costs were estimated as a percentage of hospital costs. The impact of treatment assignment on hospitalization rates and costs was estimated using Poisson and linear regression, respectively. There was a significantly lower cardiovascular hospitalization rate with ezetimibe compared with placebo (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.99; P =0.031), mainly attributable to fewer hospitalizations for percutaneous coronary intervention, angina, and stroke. Consequently, cardiovascular-related hospitalization costs over 7 years were $453 per patient lower with ezetimibe (95% confidence interval, -$38 to -$869; P =0.030). Although all prespecified subgroups had lower cost with ezetimibe therapy, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients aged ≥75 years, and patients at higher predicted risk for recurrent ischemic events had even greater cost offsets. Addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome leads to reductions in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and associated costs, with the greatest cost offsets in high-risk patients. These cost reductions may completely offset the cost of the drug once ezetimibe becomes generic, and may lead to cost savings from the perspective of the healthcare system, if treatment

  3. Iatrogenic metrorrhagia after the use of itraconazole for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic; Gulin, Dario; Chiriac, Anca

    2017-01-01

    We present first case report on itraconazole, a drug very commonly used for onychomycosis, used along with simvastatin that caused metrorrhagia. The suggested probable mechanism is the inhibition of steroidogenesis, especially estrogens that resulted in low-estrogen breakthrough bleeding. This article emphasizes the importance of drug interaction check prior the initiation of onychomycosis treatment.

  4. Statins Inhibit Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Expression in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Hakan; Basar, Murat; Seval-Celik, Yasemin; Osteen, Kevin G.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Arici, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of the endogenous mevalonate pathway. Besides inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis, statins may also demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is implicated in the attachment and invasion of endometrial cells to the peritoneal surface and growth of ectopic endometrium by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of statins on monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in endometriotic implants in nude mouse model and in cultured endometriotic cells was evaluated. In mouse model, simvastatin decreased MCP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in endometriotic implants (P < .05). Similarly, both simvastatin and mevastatin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of MCP-1 production in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .01). This inhibitory effect of the statins on MCP-1 production was reversed by the downstream substrates of the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, statins decreased MCP-1 messenger RNA expression in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .05). In conclusion, statins exert anti-inflammatory effect in endometriotic cells and could provide a potential treatment of endometriosis in the future. PMID:22267540

  5. Statins as neuroprotectants: a comparative in vitro study of lipophilicity, blood-brain-barrier penetration, lowering of brain cholesterol, and decrease of neuron cell death.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Saleta; Ramos, Maria C; Molina, Pilar; Esteo, Cynthia; Vázquez, Jose Antonio; Burgos, Javier S

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the hypothesis that statins may act as neuroprotectants in several neuropathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms for neuroprotection are only partially understood, however, and pleiotropic phenomena could be involved. We have made a comparative study of 9 statins (lovastatin, mevastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, cerivastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin), analyzing several parameters that could be related to neuroprotection, such as chemical structure, lipophilicity, potential blood-brain-barrier penetration (BBB), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibition, cholesterol modulation in neurons, glia, and human hepatocyte cell lines, and protection against neurodegeneration caused by tau hyperphosphorylation induced by okadaic acid. Our results indicate that monacolin J derivatives (natural and semi-synthetic statins) are the best candidates for the prevention of neurodegenerative conditions due to their higher potential BBB penetration capacity, cholesterol lowering effect on neurons with a satisfactory safety profile, and in vitro protection against cell death caused by okadaic acid in culture. Among the nine statins studied, simvastatin presented the best characteristics for preventing neurodegenerative conditions.

  6. Prevention of coronary atherosclerosis by the use of combination therapy with antioxidant coenzyme Q10 and statins.

    PubMed

    Chapidze, G; Kapanadze, S; Dolidze, N; Bachutashvili, Z; Latsabidze, N

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to assess the efficacy of combination treatment with antioxidant coenzyme Q10 and simvastatin as well as coenzyme Q10 without statin therapy in order to prevent coronary atherosclerosis. 42 outpatients were divided into 2 groups: receiving coenzyme Q10 (Hasco-Lek, Poland) 60mg daily and its combination with simvastatin (zocor, vasilip) 10mg daily for an 8-week period. The treatment with coenzyme Q10 demonstrated its potential independent role in positive modification of oxidative stress, antiatherogenic fraction of lipid profile, atherogenic ratio, platelet aggregability. Taking into consideration the obtained results the study supports the use of coenzyme Q10 in combination with statins. Suggested attractive approach may result in complete correction of dislipidemia, reverse of endothelial dysfunction, reduce degree of oxidative stress and platelet aggregability. Consequently such a combination may be beneficial in preventing of further development of atherosclerosis in native coronary arteries as well as in bypass grafts in all coronary heart disease patients with or without myocardial revascularization.

  7. Iatrogenic metrorrhagia after the use of itraconazole for onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic; Gulin, Dario; Chiriac, Anca

    2017-01-01

    We present first case report on itraconazole, a drug very commonly used for onychomycosis, used along with simvastatin that caused metrorrhagia. The suggested probable mechanism is the inhibition of steroidogenesis, especially estrogens that resulted in low-estrogen breakthrough bleeding. This article emphasizes the importance of drug interaction check prior the initiation of onychomycosis treatment. PMID:29674803

  8. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Nicotinamide Choline Atorvastatin FK 506 Minocycline Lithium Rolipram Aniracetam Pentostatin...possible effects on CBF and trophic factor production. They confer benefit in experimental TBI.24,25 Atorvastatin , simvastatin, and lovastatin all show...promise after TBI in rats. Impressive benefit was seen with atorvastatin therapy by Wang et al.24 where improved perfor- mance on rotarod and Morris

  9. Surviving the Storm : Expanding Public Health’s Capabilities in Response to the Increasing Threats Posed by Novel Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Therapy Citations Uses Pros Cons Medical Efficacy Mono-Therapy: Class: Statins Atorvastatin (Lipitor) Rosuvastatin (Crestor) Simvastatin...Considerations Citations Good Choice for a State Stockpile? Yes or No Mono-Therapy: Statins Atorvastatin (Lipitor) ↓ Virus Rep: No ↓ Imm...www.goodrx.com/lipitor/price#/?distance=13&filter-location=&coords=&label= atorvastatin &formtablet &strength=40mg&quantity=custom&qty-custom=18450&language

  10. The impact of generic reference pricing interventions in the statin market.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the intended and unintended impact on pharmaceutical use and sales of three public reimbursement reforms applied to the prescription of statins: a Spanish generic reference pricing system, and two competing policies introduced by the Andalusian Public Health Service. This study is designed as an interrupted time series analysis with comparison series of 46 monthly drug use and sales figures from January 2001 to October 2004 for each active ingredient. The mean monthly saving for the year after the introduction of reference pricing was 16.7% of total lovastatin sales, representing only 1.1% of total statins sales. Mean monthly savings for the 10 months after reference pricing being applied to simvastatin were 51.8% of simvastatin sales, and 13.9% of statin sales. Over the 46 months of the study, all analysed public interventions resulted in a 2.2% average monthly decrease in statin sales in the rest of Spain and savings non-significantly different from zero in Andalusia. RP has been effective at reducing the volume of sales growth of the off-patent statins, yet its overall impact on sales of all statins has been relatively modest.

  11. Edible bird’s nest attenuates procoagulation effects of high-fat diet in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Hou, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is popular in Asia, and has long been used traditionally as a supplement. There are, however, limited evidence-based studies on its efficacy. EBN has been reported to improve dyslipidemia, which is closely linked to hypercoagulation states. In the present study, the effects of EBN on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced coagulation in rats were evaluated. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with HFD alone or in combination with simvastatin or EBN. Food intake was estimated, and weight measurements were made during the experimental period. After sacrifice, serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), adiponectin, leptin, von willibrand factor, prostacyclin, thromboxane and lipid profile, and whole blood coagulation indices (bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, red blood count count, and platelet count) were estimated. Furthermore, hepatic expression of coagulation-related genes was evaluated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that EBN could attenuate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia and coagulation similar to simvastatin, partly through transcriptional regulation of coagulation-related genes. The results suggested that EBN has the potential for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease-related hypercoagulation due to hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26251574

  12. Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Sony; Limdi, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Pharmacogenetics is an important component of precision medicine. Even within the genomic era, several challenges lie ahead in the road towards clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in the clinic. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drugs, focusing on those with the most evidence supporting clinical implementation- clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin. Recent findings There is limited translation of pharmacogenetics into clinical practice primarily due to the absence of outcomes data from prospective, randomized, genotype-directed clinical trials. There are several ongoing randomized controlled trials that will provide some answers as to the clinical utility of genotype-directed strategies. Several academic medical centers have pushed towards clinical implementation where the clinical validity data are strong. Their experiences will inform operational requirements of a clinical pharmacogenetics testing including the timing of testing, incorporation of test results into the electronic health record, reimbursement and ethical issues. Summary Pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin are three examples where pharmacogenetics testing may provide added clinical value. Continued accumulation of evidence surrounding clinical utility of pharmacogenetics markers is imperative as this will inform reimbursement policy and drive adoption of pharamcogenetics into routine care. PMID:29057167

  13. Prediction of Drug-Target Interactions and Drug Repositioning via Network-Based Inference

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Weiqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Zhou, Weixing; Huang, Jin; Tang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Drug-target interaction (DTI) is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI), target-based similarity inference (TBSI) and network-based inference (NBI). Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning. PMID:22589709

  14. The incidence of kidney injury for patients treated with a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen after an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Amy; Cannon, Christopher P; de Lemos, James; Rouleau, Jean L; Lewis, Eldrin F; Guo, Jianping; Mega, Jessica L; Sabatine, Marc S; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Observational studies have raised concerns that high-potency statins increase the risk of acute kidney injury. We therefore examined the incidence of kidney injury across 2 randomized trials of statin therapy. PROVE IT-TIMI 22 enrolled 4162 subjects after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and randomized them to atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus pravastatin 40 mg/day. A-to-Z enrolled 4497 subjects after ACS and randomized them to a high-potency (simvastatin 40 mg/day × 1 months, then simvastatin 80 mg/day) versus a delayed moderate-potency statin strategy (placebo × 4 months, then simvastatin 20 mg/day). Serum creatinine was assessed centrally at serial time points. Adverse events (AEs) relating to kidney injury were identified through database review. Across both trials, mean serum creatinine was similar between treatment arms at baseline and throughout follow-up. In A-to-Z, the incidence of a 1.5-fold or ≥ 0.3 mg/dL rise in serum creatinine was 11.4% for subjects randomized to a high-potency statin regimen versus 12.4% for those on a delayed moderate-potency regimen (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.33). In PROVE IT-TIMI 22, the incidence was 9.4% for subjects randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/day and 10.6% for subjects randomized to pravastatin 40 mg/day (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.09; P=0.25). Consistent results were observed for different kidney injury thresholds and in individuals with diabetes mellitus or with moderate renal dysfunction. The incidence of kidney injury-related adverse events (AEs) was not statistically different for patients on a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.67; P=0.78). For patients enrolled in 2 large randomized trials of statin therapy after ACS, the use of a high-potency statin regimen did not increase the risk of kidney injury.

  15. Statin Prescriptions and Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk: A Danish Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lars; Tarp, Maja; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Garne, Jens Peter; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that statins affect diseases other than cardiovascular disease, including cancer, and that these effects may depend on the lipid solubility of specific statins. Though many studies have reported an association between statin use and breast cancer incidence, the relationship between statin use and breast cancer recurrence has not been well studied. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study of all female residents in Denmark diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast carcinoma who were reported to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry between 1996 and 2003 (n = 18 769). Women were followed for a median of 6.8 years after diagnosis. Prescriptions for lipophilic and hydrophilic statins were ascertained from the national electronic pharmacy database. Associations between statin prescriptions and breast cancer recurrence were estimated with generalized linear models and Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age and menopausal status at diagnosis; histological grade; estrogen receptor status; receipt of adjuvant therapy; type of primary surgery received; pre-diagnosis hormone replacement therapy; and co-prescriptions of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or anticoagulants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Most prescriptions for lipophilic statins in the study population were for simvastatin. Exclusive simvastatin users experienced approximately 10 fewer breast cancer recurrences per 100 women after 10 years of follow-up (adjusted 10-year risk difference = −0.10, 95% confidence interval = −0.11 to −0.08), compared with women who were not prescribed a statin. Exclusive hydrophilic statin users had approximately the same risk of breast cancer recurrence as women not prescribed a statin over follow-up (adjusted 10-year risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval = −0.01 to 0

  16. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Meneses, María E; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  17. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, María E.; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  18. HPS2-THRIVE randomized placebo-controlled trial in 25 673 high-risk patients of ER niacin/laropiprant: trial design, pre-specified muscle and liver outcomes, and reasons for stopping study treatment.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    Niacin has potentially favourable effects on lipids, but its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is uncertain. HPS2-THRIVE is a large randomized trial assessing the effects of extended release (ER) niacin in patients at high risk of vascular events. Prior to randomization, 42 424 patients with occlusive arterial disease were given simvastatin 40 mg plus, if required, ezetimibe 10 mg daily to standardize their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering therapy. The ability to remain compliant with ER niacin 2 g plus laropiprant 40 mg daily (ERN/LRPT) for ~1 month was then assessed in 38 369 patients and about one-third were excluded (mainly due to niacin side effects). A total of 25 673 patients were randomized between ERN/LRPT daily vs. placebo and were followed for a median of 3.9 years. By the end of the study, 25% of participants allocated ERN/LRPT vs. 17% allocated placebo had stopped their study treatment. The most common medical reasons for stopping ERN/LRPT were related to skin, gastrointestinal, diabetes, and musculoskeletal side effects. When added to statin-based LDL-lowering therapy, allocation to ERN/LRPT increased the risk of definite myopathy [75 (0.16%/year) vs. 17 (0.04%/year): risk ratio 4.4; 95% CI 2.6-7.5; P < 0.0001]; 7 vs. 5 were rhabdomyolysis. Any myopathy (definite or incipient) was more common among participants in China [138 (0.66%/year) vs. 27 (0.13%/year)] than among those in Europe [17 (0.07%/year) vs. 11 (0.04%/year)]. Consecutive alanine transaminase >3× upper limit of normal, in the absence of muscle damage, was seen in 48 (0.10%/year) ERN/LRPT vs. 30 (0.06%/year) placebo allocated participants. The risk of myopathy was increased by adding ERN/LRPT to simvastatin 40 mg daily (with or without ezetimibe), particularly in Chinese patients whose myopathy rates on simvastatin were higher. Despite the side effects of ERN/LRPT, among individuals who were able to tolerate it for ~1 month, three-quarters continued to take it for ~4 years.

  19. Dan-gua fang improves glycolipid metabolic disorders by promoting hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase expression in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yuan-long; Huang, Su-ping; Heng, Xian-pei; Chen, Ling; Li, Peng-hui; Wu, Jing; Yang, Liu-qing; Pan, Xu-dong; Lin, Tong; Cheng, Xin-ling; Lin, Qing; Chen, Si-xin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Dan-gua Fang on adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) α expression in liver and subsequent improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. Forty 13-week-old diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were randomly divided into model, Dan-gua Fang, metformin and simvastatin groups (n=10 for each), and fed high-fat diet ad libitum. Ten Wistar rats were used as normal group and fed normal diet. After 24 weeks, liver expression of AMPKα mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. AMPKα and phospho-AMPKα protein expression in liver was evaluated by Western blot. Liver histomorphology was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin staining, and blood glucose (BG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), food intake and body weight recorded. Similar AMPKα mRNA levels were found in the Dan-gua Fang group and normal group, slightly higher than the values obtained for the remaining groups (P<0.05). AMPKα protein expression in the Dan-gua Fang group animals was similar to other diabetic rats, whereas phospho-AMPKα (Thr-172) protein levels were markedly higher than in the metformin group and simvastatin group (P<0.05), respectively. However, phosphor-AMPKα/AMPKα ratios were similar in all groups. Dan-gua Fang reduced fasting blood glucose with similar strength to metformin, and was superior in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with simvastatin and metformin. Dan-gua Fang decreases plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly. Dan-gua Fang, while treating phlegm-stasis, could decrease BG and lipid in type 2 diabetic GK rats fed with high-fat diet, and effectively protect liver histomorphology and function. This may be partly explained by increased AMPK expression in liver. Therefore, Dan-gua Fang might be an ideal drug for comprehensive intervention for glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Current statins show calcium channel blocking activity through voltage gated channels.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Begum, Robina; Faisal, Muhammad Saleh; Khan, Aslam; Nabi, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Gulfam; Ullah, Shakir; Ali, Waqar

    2016-09-21

    Statins are used for treatment of hypercholestremia. Common adverse reports associated with use of statins are generalized bodyache, rhabdomyolysis, muscles weakness and gastrointestinal disorders. The current work is an attempt to explain how smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tissues are affected by the current statins (Simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin). Effects of the current statins were studied on spontaneous activity of isolated rabbits' jejunal preparations. Different molar concentrations (10(-12)-10(-2)M) of the statins were applied on spontaneously contracting rabbits' jejunal preparations. As statins relaxed spontaneous activity, so we tested the statins on KCl (80 mM) induced contractions in similar test concentrations. Positive relaxant statins were tested again through construction of Calcium Concentration Response Curves (CCRCs) in the absence and presence of the statins using verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. CCRCs of statins were compared with CCRCs of verapamil. Simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin relaxed the spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions. IC50 for simvastatin on spontaneous rabbit's jejunal preparations is -5.08 ± 0.1 Log 10 M. Similarly, IC50 for KCl-induced contractions is -4.25 ± 0.01 Log 10 M. Mean IC50 (Log 10 M) for atorvastatin on spontaneous rabbit's jejunal preparations and KCl-induced contractions are -5.19 ± 0.07 and -4.37 ± 0.09, respectively. Fluvastatin relaxed spontaneous activity of rabbits' jejunal preparations with an IC50 (Log 10 M) -4.5 ± 0.03. Rosuvastatin relaxed spontaneous as well as KCl (80 mM) induced contractions with respective IC50 (Log 10 M) -3.62 ± 0.04 and -4.57 ± 0.06. In case of CCRCs, tissues pre-treated with 4.6 μg/ml of simvastatin, have IC50 = -1.84 ± 0.03 [log (Ca(++)) M] vs control IC50 = -2.54 ± 0.04 [log (Ca(++)) M]. Similarly, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin produced

  1. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2013-01-01

    analyses of 30 participants did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and the placebo arm in visual acuity at three months of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.21± 0.56 in simvastatin and 0.19± 0.40 in placebo arm) or 45 days after the completion of treatment (decimal visual acuity 0.20± 0.50 in simvastatin and 0.19± 0.48 in placebo arm). The lens and retina status were unchanged during and after the treatment period for both groups. Of the ongoing trial, the preliminary analyses of 42 participants who completed 12 months follow-up did not show a statistically significant difference between the simvastatin and the placebo arm in visual acuity, drusen score or visual function (effect estimates and confidence intervals were not available). We contacted the investigators and will update the review as data become available. Authors' conclusions Evidence from currently available RCTs was insufficient to conclude that statins have any role in preventing or delaying the onset or progression of AMD. PMID:22419318

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Associated with Statin Use: A Disproportionality Analysis of the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Golomb, Beatrice A; Verden, Abril; Messner, Alexis K; Koslik, Hayley J; Hoffman, Keith B

    2018-04-01

    Apparent elevations in reporting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like conditions associated with statin use have been previously described from data obtained via US and European databases. The aim of this study was to examine US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data to compare reporting odds ratios (RORs) of ALS and ALS-like conditions between statins and other drugs, for each statin agent. We assessed for disproportional rates of reported ALS and ALS-related conditions for each statin agent separately by using the ROR formula. FAERS data were analyzed through September 2015. RORs for ALS were elevated for all statins, with elevations possibly stronger for lipophilic statins. RORs ranged from 9.09 (6.57-12.6) and 16.2 (9.56-27.5) for rosuvastatin and pravastatin (hydrophilic) to 17.0 (14.1-20.4), 23.0 (18.3-29.1), and 107 (68.5-167) for atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin (lipophilic), respectively. For simvastatin, an ROR of 57.1 (39.5-82.7) was separately present for motor neuron disease. These findings extend previous evidence showing that significantly elevated ALS reporting extends to individual statin agents, and add to concerns about potential elevated occurrence of ALS-like conditions in association with statin usage.

  3. Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jun

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

  4. Functional-drink rich in antioxidant cardamom-rhizome (Amomum cardamomum willd) suppresses inflammation and improves lipid profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarsi, H.; Susilowati, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of functional drink rich in antioxidant cardamom rhizome (Fd-Carrhi) on level of IL-6, C-RP, and lipid profile of atherosclerotic. A total of 30 women with atherosclerosis, age 40-65 years old, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lived in Purwokerto, Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia, and were willing to sign informed consent, recruited as research subjects. They consumed simvastatin from doctors, divided by 3 groups of 10 people each. Group I, given Fd-Carrhi; II, placebo; and III, only simvastatin, for 2 months. As many as 100 ml of Fd-Carrhi or placebo were given every morning. Blood samples were taken 3 times, 1 ml, at baseline, 1 and 2 months after intervention. Blood plasma was determined levels of IL-6, C-RP, as well as total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TG), LDL-c, and HDL-c. Result showed Fd-Carrhi versus placebo significantly decreased plasma level of IL-6, C-RP, total-c, and LDL-c, and otherwise increased HDL-c, but no differences were seen in TG. The findings clearly support Fd-Carrhi inhibit the development of atherosclerosis towards cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) by suppressing IL-6 and CRP levels, and improving lipid profile.

  5. Edible Bird's Nest Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Sarega, Nadarajan; Chan, Kim Wei; Hou, Zhiping; Yusuf, Norhayati Binti

    2015-01-01

    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is used traditionally in many parts of Asia to improve wellbeing, but there are limited studies on its efficacy. We explored the potential use of EBN for prevention of high fat diet- (HFD-) induced insulin resistance in rats. HFD was given to rats with or without simvastatin or EBN for 12 weeks. During the intervention period, weight measurements were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected at the end of the intervention and oral glucose tolerance test conducted, after which the rats were sacrificed and their liver and adipose tissues collected for further studies. Serum adiponectin, leptin, F2-isoprostane, insulin, and lipid profile were estimated, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance computed. Effects of the different interventions on transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling genes were also evaluated. The results showed that HFD worsened metabolic indices and induced insulin resistance partly through transcriptional regulation of the insulin signaling genes. Additionally, simvastatin was able to prevent hypercholesterolemia but promoted insulin resistance similar to HFD. EBN, on the other hand, prevented the worsening of metabolic indices and transcriptional changes in insulin signaling genes due to HFD. The results suggest that EBN may be used as functional food to prevent insulin resistance. PMID:26273674

  6. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenqiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chunshen

    2016-01-01

    In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD) early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA) were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P < 0.05); compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:27703477

  7. 4PBA strongly attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress, fibrosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis markers in cyclosporine treated human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, Suresh; Subbarayan, Rajasekaran; Ajitkumar, Supraja; Murugan Girija, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    Cyclosporine induces overgrowth of human gingiva. Previously we have shown (i) cyclosporine-inducing ER stress in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), (ii) increased matrix protein expression, and (iii) interference with mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of melatonin (an antioxidant), 4PBA (an ER stress inhibitor), and simvastatin on the expression of ER Stress markers as well as on matrix and mitochondrial markers. HGF incubated with cyclosporine, or without melatonin/4PBA/statin. After 24 hr of incubation, mRNA expression of ER stress markers (GRP78, CHOP, XBP1, and XBPs) and matrix protein markers (like α-SMA, VEGF, TGF-β, CTGF), and mitochondrial apoptosis markers estimated and compared with housekeeping gene GAPDH. Compared to the control cyclosporine significantly augmented ER Stress and matrix proteins, which decreased significantly with the use of melatonin, 4PBA, and simvastatin. The mitochondrial proapoptotic molecule cyclophilin D, as well as Bcl2 expression also decreased after PBA treatment, paralleling an increase in cytochrome c expression. The effect of 4PBA was much more pronounced than the influence of other two. In conclusion, 4PBA could be a viable therapeutic option for drug-induced gingival overgrowth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interpreting the Clinical Significance of Capacity Scores for Informed Consent in Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Karlawish, Jason; Kim, Scott Y. H.; Knopman, David; van Dyck, Christopher H.; James, Bryan D.; Bioethics, M.; Marson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among Alzheimer disease (AD) patients enrolled in a clinical trial, the authors assessed the ability of a standardized capacity assessment procedure to identify persons who are capable of giving their own informed consent. Design Cross-sectional interview. Setting Thirteen sites participating in a randomized and placebo controlled study of simvastatin for the treatment of mild to moderate AD. Participants Persons with mild to moderate AD and their study partners enrolled in the simvastatin clinical trial. Measurements Interviews to assess decision-making capacity using the MacArthur Competency Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). Results Judges blinded to the subject’s clinical status had a high rate of agreement on patients capable of giving their own informed consent (κ = 0.73). The understanding subscale had the best receiver operator characteristic and an analysis of positive and negative predictive values over a range of hypothetical prevalences of incapacity to consent demonstrated the value of a range of understanding cut-points. Conclusion Among mild to moderate AD patients, enrolled in an actual clinical trial, these results suggest evidence based guidelines for using the MacCAT-CR understanding subscale to help guide judgments about whether a patient has the capacity to consent. PMID:18556397

  9. Anti-atherogenic properties of Deglet Noor Date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera) Methanol extract on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.

  10. Statins impact primary embryonic mouse neural stem cell survival, cell death, and fate through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carson, Ross A; Rudine, Anthony C; Tally, Serena J; Franks, Alexis L; Frahm, Krystle A; Waldman, Jacob K; Silswal, Neerupma; Burale, Suban; Phan, James V; Chandran, Uma R; Monaghan, A Paula; DeFranco, Donald B

    2018-01-01

    Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (CBP), and are used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The anti-inflammatory effects of statins may also provide therapeutic benefits and have led to their use in clinical trials for preeclampsia, a pregnancy-associated inflammatory condition, despite their current classification as category X (i.e. contraindicated during pregnancy). In the developing neocortex, products of the CBP play essential roles in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPCs). To understand how statins could impact the developing brain, we studied effects of pravastatin and simvastatin on primary embryonic NSPC survival, proliferation, global transcription, and cell fate in vitro. We found that statins dose dependently decrease NSPC expansion by promoting cell death and autophagy of NSPCs progressing through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis demonstrates an increase in expression of CBP genes following pravastatin treatment, through activation of the SREBP2 transcription factor. Co-treatment with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), a CBP metabolite downstream of HMG-CoA reductase, reduces SREBP2 activation and pravastatin-induced PARP cleavage. Finally, pravastatin and simvastatin differentially alter NSPC cell fate and mRNA expression during differentiation, through a non-CBP dependent pathway.

  11. The Role of the Rho/ROCK Pathway in Ang II and TGF-β1-Induced Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gui-Hua; Xu, Cheng-Gui; Xu, Zhe; Tang, Kai; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Gao, Xiu-Ren; Wu, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the role of the Rho/ROCK pathway in Ang II and TGF-β1-induced atrial remodeling. Methods and Results A canine atrial fibrillation (AF) model was established by rapid atrial pacing (RAP) of the left atrium. The roles of TGF-β1, the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in atrial remodeling were studied via both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Each of the dogs that received RAP developed persistent AF within 4 weeks. The mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1 (1.32±0.38), Collagen-I(1.33±0.91), CTGF(5.83±3.71), RhoA(1.23±0.57) and ROCK-1 (1.02±0.27) in the left atrium were significantly increased following 4 weeks of RAP. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced the proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and up-regulated the expression of both CTGF and ROCK-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Simvastatin and Y27632 reversed Ang II-induced CFs proliferation, as well as ROCK-1(0.89±0.05 and 1.27±0.03, respectively) and CTGF (0.87±0.04 and 0.91±0.02, respectively) expression. The expression mRNA of ROCK-1(1.74±0.13) and CTGF (2.28±0.11) can upregulated by TGF-β1, and down-regulated by Simvastatin (1.22±0.03 vs 2.27±0.11), Y27632 (1.01±0.04 vs 1.64±0.03), Los (1.04±0.11 vs 1.26±0.05), respectively. Losartan and Simvastatin attenuated the effects of TGF-β1, inhibited RhoA activity as opposed to RhoA protein expression. Y27632 had no effect on either the expression or the activity of RhoA. Conclusions The increased expression of profibrotic factors (CTGF, ROCK1 and Smad2/3) played an important role in our RAP-induced AF model. Increased atrial profibrotic factors involve the activation of either the TGF-β1/RhoA/ROCK-1 or the TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. PMID:27611832

  12. National Drug Formulary review of statin therapeutic group using the multiattribute scoring tool

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Azuana; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sulong, Saperi; Md Yusof, Faridah Aryani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are extensively used in treating hypercholesterolemia. The statins available in Malaysia include atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and fluvastatin. Over the years, they have accumulated in the National Drug Formulary; hence, the need for review. Effective selection of the best drugs to remain in the formulary can become complex due to the multiple drug attributes involved, and is made worse by the limited time and resources available. The multiattribute scoring tool (MAST) systematizes the evaluation of the drug attributes to facilitate the drug selection process. In this study, a MAST framework was developed to rank the statins based on their utilities or benefits. Methods Published literature on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) were studied and five sessions of expert group discussions were conducted to build the MAST framework and to review the evidence. The attributes identified and selected for analysis were efficacy (clinical efficacy, clinical endpoints), safety (drug interactions, serious side effects and documentation), drug applicability (drug strength/formulation, indications, dose frequency, side effects, food–drug interactions, and dose adjustments), and cost. The average weights assigned by the members for efficacy, safety, drug applicability and cost were 32.6%, 26.2%, 24.1%, and 17.1%, respectively. The utility values of the attributes were scored based on the published evidence or/and agreements during the group discussions. The attribute scores were added up to provide the total utility score. Results Using the MAST, the six statins under review were successfully scored and ranked. Atorvastatin scored the highest total utility score (TUS) of 84.48, followed by simvastatin (83.11). Atorvastatin and simvastatin scored consistently high, even before drug costs were included. The low scores on the side effects for atorvastatin were compensated for by the higher

  13. Complexation of Statins with β-Cyclodextrin in Solutions of Small Molecular Additives and Macromolecular Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süle, András; Csempesz, Ferenc

    The solubility of lovastatin and simvastatin (inevitable drugs in the management of cardiovascular diseases) was studied by phase-solubility measurements in multicomponent colloidal and non-colloidal media. Complexation in aqueous solutions of the highly lipophilic statins with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the absence and the presence of dissolved polyvinyl pyrrolidone, its monomeric compound, tartaric acid and urea, respectively, were investigated. For the characterization of the CD-statin inclusion complexes, stability constants for the associates have been calculated.

  14. Statins and tendinopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Teichtahl, Andrew J; Brady, Sharmayne R E; Urquhart, Donna M; Wluka, Anita E; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shaw, Jonathan E; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-02-15

    To systematically review the evidence on whether statin therapy, commonly used in clinical practice to treat hypercholesterolaemia for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, contributes to tendinopathy; and to examine causality according to the Bradford Hill criteria. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between statin therapy and tendinopathy. Included studies were rated based on their methodological quality. A best evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results, and Bradford Hill criteria were used to assess causation. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PubMed and Embase databases. We included adult human studies published in the English language between January 1966 and October 2015. Study designs eligible for inclusion were randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies. Four studies (three cohort studies and one case-control study) were included, with a mean methodological quality score of 67%. Three studies were deemed high quality. Tendon rupture was the primary outcome in three studies, and rotator cuff disease in the other. All studies found no positive association between statin therapy and tendon rupture for the total study population. There was evidence that simvastatin reduces the risk of tendinopathy. To date, there is a paucity of evidence to implicate statin therapy as a well established risk factor or causal mechanism for tendon rupture in the general population. There is strong evidence that simvastatin reduces the risk of tendinopathy.

  15. Increased risk of diabetes with statin treatment is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion: a 6 year follow-up study of the METSIM cohort.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Henna; Stančáková, Alena; Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with statin treatment in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort. A total of 8,749 non-diabetic participants, aged 45-73 years, were followed up for 5.9 years. New diabetes was diagnosed in 625 men by means of an OGTT, HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or glucose-lowering medication started during the follow-up. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated with OGTT-derived indices. Participants on statin treatment (N = 2,142) had a 46% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.46 [95% CI 1.22, 1.74]). The risk was dose dependent for simvastatin and atorvastatin. Statin treatment significantly increased 2 h glucose (2hPG) and glucose AUC of an OGTT at follow-up, with a nominally significant increase in fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Insulin sensitivity was decreased by 24% and insulin secretion by 12% in individuals on statin treatment (at FPG and 2hPG <5.0 mmol/l) compared with individuals without statin treatment (p < 0.01). Decreases in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were dose dependent for simvastatin and atorvastatin. Statin treatment increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 46%, attributable to decreases in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion.

  16. Update of green tea interactions with cardiovascular drugs and putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Werba, José Pablo; Misaka, Shingen; Giroli, Monica Gianna; Shimomura, Kenju; Amato, Manuela; Simonelli, Niccolò; Vigo, Lorenzo; Tremoli, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Many patients treated with cardiovascular (CV) drugs drink green tea (GT), either as a cultural tradition or persuaded of its putative beneficial effects for health. Yet, GT may affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CV compounds. Novel GT-CV drug interactions were reported for rosuvastatin, sildenafil and tacrolimus. Putative mechanisms involve inhibitory effects of GT catechins at the intestinal level on influx transporters OATP1A2 or OATP2B1 for rosuvastatin, on CYP3A for sildenafil and on both CYP3A and the efflux transporter p-glycoprotein for tacrolimus. These interactions, which add to those previously described with simvastatin, nadolol and warfarin, might lead, in some cases, to reduced drug efficacy or risk of drug toxicity. Oddly, available data on GT interaction with CV compounds with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin and tacrolimus, derive from single case reports. Conversely, GT interactions with simvastatin, rosuvastatin, nadolol and sildenafil were documented through pharmacokinetic studies. In these, the effect of GT or GT derivatives on drug exposure was mild to moderate, but a high inter-individual variability was observed. Further investigations, including studies on the effect of the dose and the time of GT intake are necessary to understand more in depth the clinical relevance of GT-CV drug interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Cardiovascular Events and Kidney Function in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the AIM-HIGH Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kalil, Roberto S.; Wang, Jeffrey H.; de Boer, Ian H.; Mathew, Roy O.; Ix, Joachim H.; Asif, Arif; Shi, Xuefeng; Boden, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and prevalent abnormal lipid metabolism. The AIM-HIGH trial examined the benefits of adding extended-release niacin (ERN) to simvastatin in patients with established coronary heart disease. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the AIM-HIGH trial examining whether participants derived cardiovascular or renal benefits when stratified by renal function. Of 3414 participants, 505 had stage 3 CKD at baseline. Among the CKD subset, demographics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were well balanced in the ERN and placebo arms. Compared to placebo, CKD participants receiving ERN had a significant decrease in triglycerides by a median of 59.0 mg/dL, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly increased by a mean of 11.3 mg/dL over a mean follow-up of 3 years. CVD events were similar between CKD participants in both arms. However, all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the ERN group (hazard ratio of 1.73). Mean change in eGFR among ERN-treated CKD participants was not significantly different between study arms. Thus, among AIM-HIGH participants with CKD, the addition of ERN to simvastatin for secondary prevention of CVD improved triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations but did not improve cardiovascular outcomes or kidney function, and was associated with higher all-cause mortality. PMID:25651367

  18. Effect of extended-release niacin on cardiovascular events and kidney function in chronic kidney disease: a post hoc analysis of the AIM-HIGH trial.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Roberto S; Wang, Jeffrey H; de Boer, Ian H; Mathew, Roy O; Ix, Joachim H; Asif, Arif; Shi, Xuefeng; Boden, William E

    2015-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and prevalent abnormal lipid metabolism. The AIM-HIGH trial examined the benefits of adding extended-release niacin (ERN) to simvastatin in patients with established coronary heart disease. Here we conducted a post hoc analysis of the AIM-HIGH trial examining whether participants derived cardiovascular or renal benefits when stratified by renal function. Of 3414 participants, 505 had stage 3 CKD at baseline. Among the CKD subset, demographics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were well balanced in the ERN and placebo arms. Compared with placebo, CKD participants receiving ERN had a significant decrease in triglycerides by a median of 59.0 mg/dl, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly increased by a mean of 11.3 mg/dl over a mean follow-up of 3 years. CVD events were similar between CKD participants in both arms. However, all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the ERN group (hazard ratio of 1.73). Mean change in eGFR among ERN-treated CKD participants was not significantly different between study arms. Thus, among AIM-HIGH participants with CKD, the addition of ERN to simvastatin for secondary prevention of CVD improved triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations but did not improve cardiovascular outcomes or kidney function, and was associated with higher all-cause mortality.

  19. Effects of Lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Cui, BoKang; Liu, Su; Lin, XiaoJun; Wang, Jun; Li, ShuHong; Wang, QiBo; Li, ShengPing

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high fat diet (HF). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups of ten rats each and fed a different diet for eight weeks as follows: One group (NC group) was fed a standard diet, one group was fed a high-fat diet (HF group), one group was fed a high-fat diet and orally fed with 20 mg/kg b.w. simvastatin (HF + simvastatin group), and the other group was fed the high fat diet and orally fed with 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBAE (HF + LBAE), or 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBEE (HF + LBEE), respectively. After eight weeks, the HF diet caused deleterious metabolic effects. Rats fed the HF diet alone showed increased hepatocellular enzyme activities in plasma, a significant decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, and elevated liver lipid peroxidation indices. LBAE and LBEE administration significantly reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal levels. These data suggest that these antioxidants protect against toxicity parameters in HF rats.

  20. Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Task 2A. Generate the appropriate breeding scheme to build cohorts of tri- transgenic mice (MMTV-PyMT; Stat3C/+ mice and C3(1)/Tag; Stat3C/+ mice...simvastatin treatment on tumors in the C3(1)/TAg model ( transgenic , not orthotopic). I am also at the final stages of obtaining several breeding ...cytokines and degree of immunosuppression in LuBC and TNBC mouse models. Task 1A. Generate the appropriate breeding scheme to build cohorts of tri