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Sample records for sindrome hellp hemolisis

  1. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. Sometimes the presence of HELLP syndrome is due ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10% to ...

  2. Ketonuria and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gubbala, Phanendra Kumar; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Zakaria, Faris

    2009-01-01

    We recently managed a patient with the HELLP syndrome (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelet count) where there was a delay in diagnosis due to gastroenteritis. This case also reiterates the varied or lack of symptomatology in patients developing HELLP and obscuring the initial diagnosis. Patients with HELLP syndrome have significant maternal morbidity and mortality, hence clinical vigilance and high suspicion play a key role in the diagnosis and subsequent management. PMID:21686464

  3. Ketonuria and HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gubbala, Phanendra Kumar; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Zakaria, Faris

    2009-01-01

    We recently managed a patient with the HELLP syndrome (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelet count) where there was a delay in diagnosis due to gastroenteritis. This case also reiterates the varied or lack of symptomatology in patients developing HELLP and obscuring the initial diagnosis. Patients with HELLP syndrome have significant maternal morbidity and mortality, hence clinical vigilance and high suspicion play a key role in the diagnosis and subsequent management.

  4. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1,000 pregnancies. About 2 in 10 pregnant women (20 percent) with preeclampsia or eclampsia have HELLP. Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has ...

  5. Biochemistry of HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Chiara; Marozio, Luca; Tancredi, Annalisa; Picardo, Elisa; Nardolillo, Paola; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis (H), elevated liver (EL) enzymes, and low platelet (LP) count that occurs in 0.2-0.6% of all pregnancies and in 10-20% of cases with severe preeclampsia and frequently leads to adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The exact pathobiology of HELLP syndrome has not been clearly defined. As it is considered a form or a complication of severe preeclampsia, it likely has its origin in aberrant placental development and function resulting in ischemia-producing oxidative stress. However, there is still a debate on whether HELLP must be considered a severe form of preeclampsia or a separate disease entity. It can be described as a placenta-induced disease, as is preeclampsia itself, but with a more acute and predominant inflammatory process typically targeting the liver and with a greater activation of the coagulation system. This occurs during a disordered immunologic process and may be due to a genetic predisposition. In this review, we discuss the main biochemical characteristics of HELLP syndrome, particularly focusing on molecular aspects of placental involvement and maternal systemic responses.

  6. Genetic Aspects of Preeclampsia and the HELLP Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Jan Helge; Nagy, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Both preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome have their origin in the placenta. The aim of this study is to review genetic factors involved in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome using literature search in PubMed. A familial cohort links chromosomes 2q, 5q, and 13q to preeclampsia. The chromosome 12q is coupled with the HELLP syndrome. The STOX1 gene, the ERAP1 and 2 genes, the syncytin envelope gene, and the −670 Fas receptor polymorphisms are involved in the development of preeclampsia. The ACVR2A gene on chromosome 2q22 is also implicated. The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and factor V Leiden mutation participate both in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. Carriers of the TT and the CC genotype of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism seem to have an increased risk of the HELLP syndrome. The placental levels of VEGF mRNA are reduced both in women with preeclampsia and in women with the HELLP syndrome. The BclI polymorphism is engaged in development of the HELLP syndrome but not in development of severe preeclampsia. The ACE I/D polymorphism affects uteroplacental and umbilical artery blood flows in women with preeclampsia. In women with preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome several genes in the placenta are deregulated. Preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome are multiplex genetic diseases. PMID:24991435

  7. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What Are the Symptoms of Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, and HELLP Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the symptoms of preeclampsia, eclampsia, & HELLP syndrome? Preeclampsia ... woman's feet might swell too, but swollen feet are common during pregnancy and may not signal a ...

  9. What Are the Treatments for Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, and HELLP Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the treatments for preeclampsia, eclampsia, & HELLP syndrome? Delivering ... the mother's seizures, treat blood pressure levels that are too high, and deliver the fetus. Magnesium sulfate ( ...

  10. [Hellp syndrome. Presentation of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vargas Hernández, V M; Romo Vázquez, L M; Oros Ramírez, J A

    1991-07-01

    A severe case of preeclampsia with Hellp Syndrome is reported. Clinical findings, laboratory abnormalities and pathogenesis, were discussed. We concluded that severe preeclampsia and Hellp Syndrome are not different diseases, but the natural course of preeclampsia per se.

  11. Maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gasem, Turki; Al Jama, Fathia E; Burshaid, Sameera; Rahman, Jessica; Al Suleiman, Suleiman A; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the maternal and fetal outcome in 64 pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome. A retrospective analysis of the medical records was performed of patients with HELLP syndrome managed at this tertiary Obstetric unit between January 1996 and December 2005, who were admitted for preeclamsia/eclampsia and had documented evidence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and analyzed. The incidence of HELLP syndrome in the study was 8.3%. Mean gestational age at delivery was 32.4 +/- 4.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1851 +/- 810 g. Forty-two percent of the patients had deliveries <32 weeks and 28% IUGR. Respiratory distress syndrome was the main indication for NICU admissions (33.9%). The PNM rate was 20%. Maternal morbidity rate was 34%. The most common maternal complications were abruptio placentae (36.4%) and DIC (31.8%). There was no maternal death. Once the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome is confirmed, the management depends on several obstetric and maternal variables like gestational age, severity of laboratory abnormalities and fetal status. As soon as the maternal condition is stabilized and fetal assessment is obtained, prompt delivery of the fetus is indicated. It is not yet established whether expectant management in preterm pregnancies with HELLP syndrome would improve perinatal outcome.

  12. Transient postpartum diabetes insipidus associated with HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ellidokuz, Ender; Uslan, Ihsan; Demir, Serap; Cevrioglu, Serhan; Tufan, Gulnihal

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy has different causes. The association of diabetes insipidus with disturbances of liver function has been reported, however, diabetes insipidus has rarely been reported in HELLP syndrome. We present a 23-year-old primigravida with a singleton gestation complicated by HELLP syndrome who developed postpartum diabetes insipidus. Labor was induced promptly to terminate pregnancy because of intrauterine fetal death and liver dysfunction. 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was administered. Diabetes insipidus and liver dysfunction resolved within 2 weeks. Development of diabetes insipidus may result from increased vasopressinase activity mainly caused by deterioration of liver functions caused by HELLP syndrome. In pregnant women with liver disease as a result of any cause, the development of diabetes insipidus should be assessed with particular attention.

  13. Gestational Diabetes Insipidus Associated with HELLP Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambito, Renela; Chan, Michael; Sheta, Mohamed; Ramirez-Arao, Precious; Gurm, Harmeet; Tunkel, Allan; Nivera, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, but well recognized, complication of pregnancy. It is related to excess vasopressinase enzyme activity which is metabolized in the liver. A high index of suspicion of gestational diabetes insipidus is required in a correct clinical setting especially in the presence of other risk factors such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and twin pregnancies. We are presenting a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a patient with HELLP syndrome. The newborn in this case also had hypernatremia thereby raising possibilities of vasopressinase crossing the placenta. PMID:24555139

  14. Role and mechanism of AT1-AA in the pathogenesis of HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bu, Shurui; Wang, Yuxian; Sun, Shuqing; Zheng, Yanqian; Jin, Zhu; Zhi, Jianming

    2018-01-10

    HELLP syndrome remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, which symptoms include hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. The objective of this study was to determine whether HELLP is associated with AT1-AA. The positive rate and titer of AT1-AA in plasma from pregnant women were determined, and the correlation of AT1-AA titer with the grade of HELLP was analyzed. A HELLP rat model established by intravenous injection of AT1-AA. Our experimental results show the AT1-AA titer and positive rate were significantly higher in HELLP group, and AT1-AA titer were positively correlated with the level of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and the grade of HELLP syndrome. The results of animal experiments showed that the typical features of HELLP in the pregnant rats after AT1-AA injection. The levels of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and liver tissue were significantly increased in AT1-AA-treated rats compared with control rats. The HELLP syndrome induced by AT1-AA was attenuated markedly after administration of losartan. These data support the hypothesis that one the potential pathway that AT1-AA induce damage to capillary endothelial cells and liver during pregnancy is through activation of TNF-α and ET-1.

  15. Dysregulation of the Fas/FasL system in an experimental animal model of HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Jacob; Morris, Rachael; Bowles, Teylor; Spencer, Shauna-Kay; Wallace, Kedra

    2017-04-01

    Placental FasL is up-regulated in women with HELLP (hemolysis elevated liver enzyme and low platelet) syndrome and has been proposed to contribute to the liver damage seen in these patients. This study aimed to determine if an experimental rodent model of HELLP also had dysregulation of Fas/FasL compared to normal pregnant (NP) rats. We also set out to determine if blockade of the endothelin system regulated Fas/FasL expression in HELLP rats. On gestational day (GD) 12, sEng (7ug/kg) and sFlt-1 (4.7ug/kg) infusion began via mini-osmotic pump into NP rats. On GD19 plasma and tissue were collected and FasL and Fas were measured via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gene expression via real-time PCR. HELLP rats had significantly more circulating and placental FasL compared to NP rats, whereas hepatic FasL was decreased and placental Fas was increased compared to NP rats. Administration of an endothelin A receptor antagonist (ET A ) beginning on GD12 significantly decreased placental expression of Fas in HELLP rats. Liver mRNA transcript of Fas was significantly increased in HELLP rats compared to NP rats. These data suggest that rats in this experimental model of HELLP syndrome have abnormal expression of the Fas/FasL system. Future studies will examine the sources of Fas/FasL dysregulation in this model and if blockade could reduce some of the inflammation and hypertension associated with HELLP syndrome. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Le HELLP syndrome: à propos de 61 cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Bougern, Hakima; Derkaoui, Ali; Bendahou, Karima; Fakir, Samira; Bouchikhi, Chehrazad; Chaara, Hikmat; Banani, Abdelaziz; Abdelilah, Moulay Melhouf

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L’objectif de ce travail etait d’étudier et comparer les paramètres épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques et évolutifs des patientes présentant un HELLP syndrome complet et incomplet. (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets count). Méthodes Une enquête rétrospective sur la période du 1er janvier 2005 au 31octobre 2008 et incluant tous les cas de HELLP syndrome colligés au service de Gynécologie obstétrique du CHU HASSAN II de Fès, incluant toutes les patientes ayant présenté un HELLP syndrome. Les patientes ont été classées en deux groupes en fonction de la forme du HELLP syndrome (complète ou incomplète). Résultats 61 patientes ont été incluses, dont 29 ont présenté un HELLP syndrome complet (groupe 1) et 32 ont présenté une forme incomplète de ce syndrome (groupe 2). La moyenne d’âge était de 29,7 ± 7 ans pour le groupe 1 et de 28,5 ± 7 ans pour le groupe 2.La gestité moyenne était de 2,8, Pour le groupe 1et de 2,5 pour le groupe 2.Les complications maternelles ont été notées chez 68,9% des patientes avec HELLP complet et 53% avec HELLP incomplet. On a recensés trois cas de décès maternel dans le groupe HELLP complet contre aucun cas dans la forme incomplète. Conclusion D’après les résultats de notre étude, le HELLP complet n’expose pas les patientes à un risque plus élevé de complications maternelles que dans la forme incomplète. PMID:22514764

  17. Serum levels of ET-1, M30, and angiopoietins-1 and -2 in HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Savas; Bozoklu Akkar, Ozlem; Yildiz, Caglar; Sancakdar, Enver; Cetin, Meral; Cetin, Ali

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to compare the serum levels of ET-1, M30, and Angs-1 and -2 in patients with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome, and normal controls. In this cross-sectional study of 74 pregnant women, serum levels of ET-1, M30, and Angs-1 and -2 were measured in preeclamptic patients with or without HELLP syndrome. 74 pregnant women; 37 had healthy pregnancies, 25 had preeclampsia (PE), and 12 had HELLP syndrome. The age, body mass index, gravidity, and parity of patients with normal pregnancy, PE, and HELLP syndrome were comparable (p > 0.05). In HELLP syndrome, compared to healthy or preeclamptic pregnancies, platelet count was lower (p < 0.05) and the values of hepatic function tests were higher (p < 0.05). In HELLP syndrome, ET-1, M30, and Ang-2 were higher compared to healthy or preeclamptic pregnancies (p < 0.05); however, they increased in preeclamptic pregnancies compared to healthy pregnancies though not significant (p > 0.05). In PE or HELLP syndrome, Ang-1 was higher compared to a healthy pregnancy (p < 0.05); however, in HELLP syndrome, it was also higher than in PE though not significant (p > 0.05). We found no significant correlation among these biomarkers and hematological and biochemical parameters (p > 0.05). For the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome, increased levels of ET-1, M30, and Angs-1 and -2 appear as promising biomarkers after determination of their standardized threshold levels after further studies. As an apoptosis-related biomarker, serum M30 level has a merit to be the most promising test for prediction or differential diagnosis of HELLP syndrome in PE patients.

  18. A Case of HELLP Syndrome in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Sebastián; Rodríguez, Fabián; Severo, Carlos; Debat, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    We will describe the clinical case of a pregnant patient with chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura who develops preeclampsia syndrome with HELLP syndrome. These concomitant and independent conditions become complex, resulting in thrombocytopenia which creates diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic inconveniences. PMID:20871821

  19. [Case Report of Liver Rupture with Fulminant HELLP Syndrome in the 37th Gestational Week].

    PubMed

    Findeklee, Sebastian

    2018-05-30

    HELLP syndrome, characterized by the triad of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes due to liver impairment, and low platelet count, is a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. Although it is said to be caused by disturbed placentation in the first trimester, its clinical presentation can be seen mostly in the third trimester, but never before the completed 20 th gestational week. Predictive for its diagnosis is the reported upper abdominal pain that normally is localized under the right arc of ribs. With the aid of laboratory examination, the suspected diagnosis can be confirmed or excluded. Therapeutic options are observational treatment with the prophylaxis of respiratory distress syndrome and attempting to prolong pregnancy with the help of steroids like dexamethasone, or delivering the infant by inducing labor or performing a primary caesarian section, depending on the gestational week. Delivery is the unique causal therapy of HELLP syndrome. Clinical management is mainly influenced by the course of HELLP syndrome. There are mild forms that allow prolonging the pregnancy for several days or sometimes weeks, but also foudroyant courses with acute liver damage. We report the case of a 40-year-old, gravida 1 woman in gestational week 36+1 who was brought to our hospital in hemorrhagic shock caused by a rupture of the liver due to acute HELLP-syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Gestational diabetes insipidus, HELLP syndrome and eclampsia in a twin pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Woelk, J L; Dombroski, R A; Brezina, P R

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of eclampsia in a twin pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome and diabetes insipidus. This confluence of disease processes suggests that a modification of common magnesium sulfate treatment protocols may be appropriate in a certain subset of patients.

  1. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    PubMed

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.

  2. Total and Fetal Circulating Cell-Free DNA, Angiogenic, and Antiangiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Medrano-Campillo, Pablo; Miranda, Maria L; Macher, Hada C; Praena-Fernández, Jose Manuel; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Dominguez-Simeon, María J; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Stiefel, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. The HELLP syndrome is the most severe form of PE. The aim of the present study was to determine different potential biomarkers that may help us perform an early diagnosis of the disease, assess on the severity of the disease, and/or predict maternal or fetal adverse outcomes. We measured serum levels of total and fetal circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), soluble endoglin, soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and placental growth factor in a healthy control group of pregnant women (n = 26), patients with mild (n = 37) and severe PE (n = 25), and patients with HELLP syndrome (n = 16). We observed a gradual and strong relationship between all the biomarkers mentioned and the range of severity of PE, with the highest levels in patients with HELLP syndrome. Nevertheless, only the values of total cfDNA were able to significantly differentiate severe PE and HELLP syndrome (20957 ± 2784 vs. 43184 ± 8647 GE/ml, P = 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed (i) for the healthy group with respect to the groups with PE and (ii) for patients with PE with respect to the group with HELLP syndrome; sensitivity and specificity values at different cutoff levels were calculated in each case. The maximum ROC area under the curve value for PE and HELLP syndrome (with respect to controls) was 0.91 (P < 0.001). The measured biomarkers of cell damage, angiogenesis, and antiangiogenesis may reflect the severity of PE, with higher levels in patients who develop HELLP syndrome. In addition, these biomarkers may also help predict adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Inability to have children caused by recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancies - implications for a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Karmowski, Andrzej; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Krzemieniewska, Joanna; Kulczycka, Aleksandra; Gabryś, Marian Stanisław; Koryś, Jerzy; Gworys, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    This review is inspired by a case of two pregnancies of the same patient complicated by HELLP syndrome, which suggests that there is a predisposition for the occurrence of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy. HELLP syndrome, uncommon below the 20th week and rarer still in two consecutive pregnancies, appeared in two pregnancies of the same woman. The aim of our work is to try to understand the cause of heterogeneity of HELLP syndrome and help find a way of prolonging such pregnancies. Recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy is a form of severe, fulminant preeclampsia. The preceding symptom is a surge in blood pressure. The hypertension becomes resistant to antihypertensive drugs, which indicates that preexisting hypertension is later accompanied by other factors contributing to the rise in blood pressure. Different effects of high dosage of corticosteroids on liver and platelets show that there are different factors responsible for liver damage and for thrombocytopenia. It seems that the symptoms have various origins, so the therapy with one drug only is not sufficiently effective. Nicotine analogues or a plant extract (from rootstock of Eriosema kraussianum) used by South African traditional healers for erectile dysfunction seem to give a chance of prolonging pregnancy and, consequently, having children.

  4. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Changes of placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Szilvia; Xu, Yi; Romero, Roberto; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Bhatti, Gaurav; Varkonyi, Tibor; Varkonyi, Ildiko; Krenacs, Tibor; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Papp, Zoltan; Kovalszky, Ilona; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal systemic anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory states. Syndecan-1 is a cell surface proteoglycan expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, which plays an important role in angiogenesis and resolution of inflammation. Our aim was to examine placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome. Methods Placentas were obtained from women in the following groups: (1) late-onset preeclampsia (n=8); (2) early-onset preeclampsia without (n=7) and (3) with HELLP syndrome (n=8); (4) preterm controls (n=5); and (5) term controls (n=9). Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from paraffin-embedded placentas. TMA slides were immunostained for syndecan-1 and evaluated using microscopy, virtual microscopy, and semi-automated image analysis. Maternal sera from patients with preeclampsia (n=49) and controls (n=32) were immunoassayed for syndecan-1. BeWo cells were treated with Forskolin or Latrunculin-B, or kept in ischemic conditions. SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 production were investigated with qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy, and immunoassays. Results Syndecan-1 was localized to the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane in normal placentas. Syndecan-1 immunoscores were higher in late-onset preeclampsia (p=0.0001) and early-onset preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome (p=0.02 for both) than in controls. Maternal serum syndecan-1 concentration was lower in preeclampsia (median: 673ng/ml, interquartile range: 459-1161ng/ml) than in controls (1158ng/ml, 622-1480ng/ml). SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 immunostainings in BeWo cells and syndecan-1 concentrations in supernatants increased during cell differentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with Latrunculin-B decreased syndecan-1 release, while ischemic conditions increased it. Conclusions Syncytiotrophoblastic syndecan-1 expression depends on the differentiation of villous trophoblasts, and trophoblastic syndecan-1 release is decreased in

  6. Maternal bradycardia occurring prior to onset of HELLP syndrome in a woman with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Ami; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2017-05-13

    A 36-year-old nulliparous woman developed pre-eclampsia at gestational week (GW) 28 -6/7 Cardiac status was checked regularly. Heart rate of 93 beats per minute (bpm) with left atrial diameter (LAD) of 35 mm, left ventricular hypertrophy and inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) of 8 mm at GW 32 -0/7 decreased to 48 bpm with an expanded IVCD to 25 mm, dilated left atrium (LAD to 39 mm), increased pulmonary arterial pressure, increased systemic vascular resistance (approximate 3000  dyn s/cm 5 ) and biphasic intrarenal venous flow pattern 3.5 hours prior to childbirth at GW 32 -3/7 Epigastralgia, tachycardia (160 bpm) and marked hypertension (201/111 mm Hg) occurring 2 hours after echocardiography necessitated caesarean section, with subsequent development of HELLP syndrome. Acute fluid shift from the splanchnic vasculature to central vasculature may have occurred causing HELLP syndrome as a result from vasospasm associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. The cause of bradycardia prior to tachycardia remains unclear. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis presenting as HELLP syndrome: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Robert Noel; Kelly, Raymond Michael; Cahill, Mary Rose; Kenny, Louise Clare

    2017-04-22

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, potentially fatal, haematological disorder, which can be clinically challenging to diagnose and manage. We report a case of HLH in a previously healthy 33-year-old primigravida. The patient presented at 22 weeks gestation with dyspnoea, abdominal pain, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes suggestive of HELLP syndrome.HELLP, a syndrome characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets is considered a severe form of pre-eclampsia. Despite delivery of the fetus, her condition deteriorated over 3-4 days with high-grade fever, worsening thrombocytopenia and anaemia requiring transfusion support. A bone marrow biopsy showed haemophagocytosis and a diagnosis of HLH was made. Partial remission was achieved with etoposide-based chemotherapy and complete remission following bone marrow transplantation. Eleven months post-transplant, the disease aggressively recurred, and the patient died within 3 weeks of relapse. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. [Otolaryngologic manifestations of Churg-Strauss sindrome. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Pardo Romero, G; Montero García, C; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    Churg-Strauss Sindrome or allergic granulomatosis is a small vessel systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma, hypereosinophilia and necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We describe a case assisted in our hospital who presented pulmonary infiltrates, fever, peripherical neuropathy, weight loss, myalgia, rhinosinusitis, with antecedents of nasal polyposis, and facial edema. Our aim is to review the main otolaryngologic manifestations of this rare illness that is treated with oral corticosteroids, immunosupresor drugs like ciclofosfamide and plasmapheresis.

  9. HELLP Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management ... org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Pregnancy and Childbirth, WomenTags: Pregnant Women, prenatal care September 1, 2000 ...

  10. Factor VIII levels and the risk of pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy related hypertension and severe intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Witsenburg, C P J; Rosendaal, F R; Middeldorp, J M; Van der Meer, F J M; Scherjon, S A

    2005-01-01

    Recently, acquired as well as genetic prothrombotic factors are associated with thrombotic events. These factors have also been related to conditions of uteroplacental insufficiency such as pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to determine whether elevated factor VIII levels are associated with uteroplacental insufficiency, in particular pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome or pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth retardation. Plasma samples of 75 women with a history of pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy induced hypertension or intrauterine growth restriction were tested for factor VIII:C (FVIII:C) levels at a minimum of 10 weeks post-partum. Laboratory results were compared to factor VIII:C levels found in a healthy control group of 272 women. Mean factor VIII:C levels were similar at 123 IU/dl in both the patient group and the controls. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for age and blood group, no effect of factor VIII:C levels on the risk of pregnancy complications was observed, with the exception of IUGR with (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.7) or without hypertension (OR 2.0, CI 0.7-6.4). If the elevated level of factor VIII would be the sole factor responsible for the increased risk observed, one would expect to find an effect of blood group on risk as well (blood group being an important determinant of FVIII:C). While no such effect could be shown a causal relationship between elevated levels of factor VIII and conditions of uteroplacental insufficiency such as pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pregnancy-induced hypertension and IUGR is not very likely.

  11. Total bile acids in the maternal and fetal compartment in relation to placental ABCG2 expression in preeclamptic pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jebbink, Jiska; Veenboer, Geertruda; Boussata, Souad; Keijser, Remco; Kremer, Andreas E; Elferink, Ronald Oude; van der Post, Joris; Afink, Gijs; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    To investigate total bile acid (TBA) levels in maternal (MB) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) in normotensive, preeclamptic (PE), and PE pregnancies complicated by hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome in the context of ABCG2 placental gene expression levels, a recently reported placental bile acid transporter. TBA levels were determined in 83 paired MB and UCB samples of normotensive, PE and PE/HELLP pregnancies and in 22 paired arterial and venous UCB samples from uncomplicated term pregnancies. ABCG2 gene expression was measured in 104 human placentas by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Overall, TBA levels in MB are higher compared to levels in UCB (p<0.0001), but this comparison looses statistical significance for the 11 PE/HELLP cases. TBA levels in maternal blood are increased in PE/HELLP compared to PE pregnancies (p=0.016). TBA levels in arterial and venous UCB from 22 normotensive pregnancies are not statistically different. ABCG2 expression is reduced in pregnancies where preeclampsia is further complicated by HELLP syndrome. ABCG2 expression in human placenta is not correlated with TBA levels in either the maternal or fetal compartment. Increased maternal TBA levels in PE/HELLP pregnancies indicate a relation between bile acids in the maternal circulation and HELLP syndrome. As overall TBA levels in maternal blood are increased compared to UCB, we conclude that the placenta partly protects the fetus from increased maternal TBA levels. This consistent difference in TBA levels between the maternal and fetal compartment is unrelated to the placental expression of ABCG2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Newborn of mother with HELLP syndrome: characteristics and role of prematurity, low birth-weight and leukopenia in evolution].

    PubMed

    González Álvarez, Carmen Elena; González García, Lara Gloria; Carrera García, Laura; Díaz Zabala, Mikel; Suárez Rodríguez, Marta; Arias Llorente, Rosa Patricia; Costa Romero, Marta; Solís Sánchez, Gonzalo

    HELLP syndrome is a serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with important neonatal problems in the newborn. The objective of this work was to determine the characteristics of these infants and its neonatal evolution. A retrospective observational study of all newborns of mothers with HELLP syndrome born in a university hospital between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 was carried out. Thirty-three infants from 28 pregnancies (five twin gestations) were studied. A descriptive and comparative analysis between groups and a multivariate analysis of factors associated with mortality in the series took place. Of 33 newborns studied (2.2 newborns/1,000 infants total), two were stillbirths (6.1% of the total) and four died after birth (12.9% of live neonates) with overall perinatal mortality of 18.2%. Pregnancies in 28 infants ended before 37 weeks (84.8%) and 11 pregnancies ended before week 32 (33.3%). Seven infants weighed<1500g (four weighed <1000g). Of the 31 live births, 13 infants were in a <10th percentile weight for gestational age (41.9%), 20 needed neonatal resuscitation (64.5%) and 14 had leukopenia at birth (45.2%). In the final logistic regression, neonatal mortality was associated with extreme prematurity regardless of underweight, leukopenia and/or need for neonatal resuscitation. Children of mothers with HELLP syndrome have a high mortality associated with extreme prematurity, independent of the presence of leukopenia, low weight for gestational age and need for neonatal resuscitation. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of correctly interpreting magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with HELLP syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nonaka, Hiroaki

    2017-05-25

    Severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnancy are possible underlying trigger factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows diffuse signal abnormalities involving the subcortical white matter in the parieto-occipital lobes. Although the diagnosis of RPES was clearly established by the distinctive reversibility of clinical and radiological abnormalities, it is difficult to distinguish from differential diagnosis. Thus, it is important to correctly interpret MRI. We describe a case of HELLP syndrome with PRES. A 38-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital as an emergency case with a complaint of upper abdominal pain and headache at 29 weeks of pregnancy and the development of HELLP syndrome. An emergency caesarean section was immediately performed. After the operation, the patient received intravenous corticosteroids, and her blood pressure was controlled. Thereafter, she showed an altered mental status. MRI showed hypersignal intense lesions in the cortical and subcortical white matter in the occipital lobes, basal ganglia and callosal splenium in both the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), but these lesions were not recognized in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These images were suggestive of PRES. The patient was kept in the hospital and received the appropriate treatment, after which the patient's level of consciousness improved and all laboratory tests and imaging examinations returned normal. The MRI findings were useful for the prompt diagnosis of PRES, characterized by hypersignals in FLAIR and ADC, but not in DWI. Additionally, there was an "atypical" MRI appearance of basal ganglial and callosal splenial involvement in this case, which may mistakenly lead clinicians to diagnose other aetiologies than typical PRES. It is considered that vasogenic oedema is the main

  14. Prediction of severe pre-eclampsia/HELLP syndrome by combination of sFlt-1, CT-pro-ET-1 and blood pressure: exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lind Malte, A; Uldbjerg, N; Wright, D; Tørring, N

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a combination of angiogenic and vasoactive biomarkers to predict the development of severe pre-eclampsia (PE)/HELLP syndrome in the third trimester. Included were 215 women referred in the third trimester to an obstetric outpatient clinic with suspected PE (mean gestational age, 35 + 4 weeks), and 94 with normal pregnancy attending a midwife clinic. Cases were categorized as having subclinical PE, essential hypertension, gestational hypertension, moderate PE, and severe PE/HELLP syndrome. Blood samples were analyzed by immunoassay and groups were compared with respect to potential clinical and biochemical biomarkers, with the primary outcome being development of severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and within 2 weeks of analysis. The most promising markers were also assessed in combination. In the patients presenting with mild to moderate symptoms of PE, the individual markers which performed best for the prediction of progression to severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and within 2 weeks of biomarker evaluation were C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-pro-ET-1) (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), 0.82 and 0.78, respectively), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) (AUC, 0.81 and 0.76), systolic blood pressure (AUC, 0.80 and 0.68) and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (AUC, 0.79 and 0.77). The combination of biomarkers with the best performance was CT-pro-ET-1, sFlt-1 and systolic blood pressure, achieving an AUC of 0.94 for prediction of development of severe PE/HELLP syndrome within 1 week and an AUC of 0.83 for prediction of their development within 2 weeks of biomarker evaluation. The performance of CT-pro-ET-1 for prediction of the development of PE/HELLP syndrome in the third trimester was promising, especially in combination with sFlt-1 and systolic blood pressure. This was an exploratory study and our findings should be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2017

  15. Pseudo-HELLP syndrome par carence en folates et/ou en vitamine B12: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Mechaal; Bouassida, Mahdi; Dhouib, Firas; Bouzeidi, Kaled

    2014-01-01

    Plusieurs pathologies médicales peuvent interférer avec la grossesse et mimer le tableau biologique de HELLP syndrome. L’évolution naturelle de ce syndrome est d'une particulière gravité pour la mère et le fœtus, il convient d’éliminer rapidement les autres diagnostics afin d’éviter une extraction fœtale prématurée injustifiée. Nous rapportons le cas d'une parturiente qui s'est présentée avec un tableau évocateur d'un HELLP syndrome, rapporté finalement à une carence en folates et en vitamine B12. PMID:25404961

  16. Retinal detachment in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome: Color vision abnormality as the first and predominant manifestation.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Hiroyuki; Makino, Shinji; Takahashi, Hironori; Sorita, Mari; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2015-11-01

    Serous retinal detachment is sometimes caused by hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and its associated conditions, in which the predominant eye symptoms are blurred vision, distorted vision, and reduced visual acuity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a puerperal woman with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in whom color vision abnormality was the first and predominant manifestation of serous retinal detachment. At 32 weeks of gestation, the 34-year-old Japanese woman underwent cesarean section due to HELLP syndrome. She complained of color vision abnormality on day 1 post-partum and ophthalmological examination revealed serous retinal detachment of both eyes. The visual acuity was preserved. With supportive therapy, her color vision abnormality gradually ameliorated and retinal detachment completely resolved on day 34 post-partum without any sequelae. Obstetricians should be aware that color vision abnormality can be the first and predominant symptom of HELLP-related serous retinal detachment. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Postpartum plasma exchange in a woman with suspected thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) vs. hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome (HELLP): a case study.

    PubMed

    Myers, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of a hypercoagulable state and decreasing concentration of ADAMTS 13 in late pregnancy and during the postpartum period increases the risk for a woman to develop life-threatening thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This is also the time of great risk for the more common obstetric complications of preeclampsia; eclampsia; and hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. These conditions are associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Differential diagnosis may be difficult due to the overlapping of clinical and laboratory findings, including thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurologic symptoms, and renal insufficiency, making it difficult or impossible to distinguish them from TTP. Management of microangiopathic disorders encountered during pregnancy differ; therefore, an accurate diagnosis is required. Outcomes of TTP without plasma exchange therapy (TPE) are almost uniformly fatal. Early recognition and management of symptoms with prompt and aggressive TPE is essential when TTP is suspected.

  18. Down Syndrome = Sindrome de Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, S. M.; Glasgow, R. E.

    Presented both in English and Spanish, the brochure is primarily concerned with biological and developmental characteristics of the person with Down's syndrome. An emphasis is on the valuable humanizing influence these individuals have on society. Brief sections in the document discuss the delayed developmental aspects of Down's syndrome; the…

  19. [Polycystic ovary sindrome: impact on reproductive and material fetal health].

    PubMed

    Fux Otta, Carolina; Iraci, Gabriel Santino; Szafryk de Mereshian, Paula; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism (H), oligo-anovulation (O) and / or polycystic ovaries (P). There is currently little information on perinatal complications. to investigate obstetric and neonatal characteristics of women with PCOS in our population. we studied 87 pregnant women with PCOS (categorized in four phenotypes according Rotterdam Consensus: A (H + O + P) n = 53; B (H + O) n = 9; C (H + P) n = 16 and D (O + P) n = 9) and 96 without PCOS (control). We analyzed clinical and biochemical features (age, anthropometry hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, OGTT, insulin, lipid profile, androgen and gonadotropins) during preconception, (weight gain, blood pressure, OGTT) through gestation and occurrence of perinatal complications. we found no differences in age (29.4 ± 4 and 28.7 ± 5 years) and body mass index (28.2 ± 6 and 27.8 ± 6 kg / m2) in both groups; while patients with PCOS had higher waist circumference, blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans versus control. Despite similar weight gain, patients with PCOS had higher percentage of perinatal complications. In the A phenotype RR for perinatal adverse outcomes was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.67-3.36, p <0.001). The HOMA-IR index preconception and fasting glucose during pregnancy were the predictors for these complications (p=0.01). patients with PCOS have a higher risk for complications during pregnancy and newborns more frequently have low weight or macrosomy. A careful history can recognize patients with higher perinatal risk to develop complications.

  20. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, and HELLP Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... YouTube follow us on Flickr follow us on Instagram Español NICHD Theme Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z ... Publications Sitemap Español facebook twitter pinterest youtube flickr Instagram NEWSROOM NICHD News Videos OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® ...

  1. [Epilepsy, vertigo, dizziness, headache, emesis as neurological manifestation in a Giteleman's Sindrome case].

    PubMed

    Delsere, Mirco; Campogiani, Vincenzo; Carletti, Vincenzo; Mancini, Stefania; Piccinini, Nadia; Castelli, Paolo; Sopranzi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a woman presenting the recent onset of multiple seizure and epilepsy episodes combined with other neurological symptoms (e.g. vertigo, dizziness, vomiting, headache). She was resistant to antiepileptic and symptomatic therapy, having been first admitted to the neurology ward and subsequently to the general medicine ward. In this case, several patient assessments and imaging exams were not conclusive evidence of specific etiopathogenesis, or definitive neurological illness; however, the patient showed laboratory indexes compatible with Gitelmans Syndrome. The correction of the electrolytic imbalances of tubulopathy (including low magnesium and potassium levels) led to the progressive improvement of clinical manifestations and the eventual interruption of the antiepileptic therapy.

  2. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    PubMed

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C

    2006-10-01

    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later.

  3. [Kartagener sindrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia). Report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Pardo Romero, G; Iglesias González, R J; Rodríguez Carmona, M; del Castillo Beneyto, F

    2007-01-01

    Kartagener syndrome (a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia) is a recessive autossomical disease characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus with dextrocardia. We report one case described in a 8 years old boy who besides presented a seromucous otitis and bronchitis of repetition. Finally we performed a short bibliographic review at respect of this uncommon pathology.

  4. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding following aortic valve replacement in a patient with Heyde's sindrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    De Palma, G D; Salvatori, F; Masone, S; Simeoli, I; Rega, M; Celiento, M; Persico, G

    2007-09-01

    A 58-year old man was admitted to the hospital because of melena. He had a 1-year history of mechanical aortic valve replacement and coronary stent placement because of myocardial infarction and he was taking warfarin and clopidogrel. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for bleeding. Capsule endoscopy showed bleeding diffuse angiodysplasia of the small bowel. The patient was treated with octreotide 20 mg, at monthly interval. After 25 months there had been no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The case suggests that mechanical valve replacement may not prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in Heyde syndrome and that octreotide treatment should be considered in these cases.

  5. [Dissociation of antihypertensive and metabolic response to losartan and spironolactone in experimental rats with metabolic sindrome].

    PubMed

    Machado, Hussen; Pinheiro, Helady Sanders; Terra, Marcella Martins; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira; de Paula, Rogerio Baumgratz; Peters, Vera Maria

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of arterial hypertension (AH) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) is a challenge, since non drug therapies are difficult to implement and optimal pharmacological treatment is not fully established. To assess the blockade of the rennin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in blood pressure (BP) in renal function and morphology in an experimental model of MS induced by high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed on high fat diet from the fourth week of life, for 20 weeks. The groups received Losartan or Spironolactone from the eighth week of life. We weekly evaluated the body weight and BP by tail plethysmography. At the end of the experiment oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile, creatinine clearance tests, and the direct measurement of BP were performed. A morphometric kidney analysis was performed. The administration of high-fat diet was associated with the development of MS, characterized by central fat accumulation, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In this model there were no changes in renal histomorphometry. The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor AT1 prevented the development of hypertension. The mineralocorticoid blockage did not have antihypertensive efficacy but was associated with reduction of abdominal fat. The dissociation of the antihypertensive response to the blockades of Ang II receptors and mineralocorticoid indicates the involvement of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with obesity. Reduction of central obesity with Spironolactone suggests the presence of mineralocorticoid adipogenic effect.

  6. Down Syndrome: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 4 = El Sindrome de Down: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on Down Syndrome is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides a definition and description of this syndrome, noting its etiology in a chromosomal abnormality. Incidence figures are then given. Typical characteristics of people with Down Syndrome are listed. Commonly associated health-related problems are noted,…

  7. Focal extra-axial hemorrahagic mass with subdural hemorrhage secondare to extramedullary hematopoiesis in idiopathic myelodysplastic sindrome.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, A; Di Lieva, A; Aimar, E; Tancioni, F; Levi, D; Debernardi, A; Pisano, P; Rahal, D; Nozza, A; Magagnoli, M; Gaetani, P

    2007-03-01

    Idiopathic myelodysplastic syndrome is a disease characterized by a clonal stem cell disorder in which megacaryocitic and granulocytic lineages are mainly involved; extramedullary myeloid metaplasia is due to abnormal location of myeloid tissue in other organs than bone marrow. Rarely the central nervous system is involved. When it happens, it is typical to find masses around the brain and pachymeningeal thickening, but it is very rare to find it associated with subdural haemorrhage, as in the case we describe in the present article. Considering our case and the literature we can suggest that radiological images associated with the clinical history of the patient suggestive for extramedullary hematopoiesis can be sufficient for a correct diagnosis and for a radiotherapy treatment, demanding surgery in the case of diagnostic doubts, massive hemorrahages or neurological decifits caused by the focal lesions.

  8. [The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gestose-Frauen e.V.': A self-help organization with extensive experience in the aftercare of women with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuse, S; Wasser, M

    2007-01-01

    The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gestose-Frauen e.V.' was founded in 1984 with a couple of sufferers and has advised more than 24,000 women so far. In addition to the care by the midwife and gynaecologist, this self-help organization offers the possibility to exchange experiences with other sufferers, but also to receive medical and psychological counselling. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Garassini, M E; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1994-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme related to the metabolism of glutation, an antioxidant agent. Its deficiency causes hemolisis, generally well tolerated. However there are some factors including, exercise, infections and oxidants drugs that stimulate the hemolisis of the older red blood cells. We report two patients with G6PD deficiency, that were initially diagnosed as acute viral hepatitis. Although this pathology is not frequent it should be recognized, for the implication of giving profilactic antimalaric drugs in endemic areas. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with unconjugated jaundice, always investigating the previous ingestion of oxidants drugs.

  10. Feasibility and safety of low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to facilitate ultra-protective ventilation in patients with moderate acute respiratory distress sindrome.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, Marco V; Mancebo, Jordi; Moerer, Onnen; Quintel, Michael; Morley, Scott; Moran, Indalecio; Parrilla, Francisco; Costamagna, Andrea; Gaudiosi, Marco; Combes, Alain

    2016-02-10

    Mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume (VT) of 6 mL/kg/predicted body weight (PBW), to maintain plateau pressure (Pplat) lower than 30 cmH2O, does not completely avoid the risk of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of a ventilation strategy consisting of very low VT combined with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R). In fifteen patients with moderate ARDS, VT was reduced from baseline to 4 mL/kg PBW while PEEP was increased to target a plateau pressure--(Pplat) between 23 and 25 cmH2O. Low-flow ECCO2R was initiated when respiratory acidosis developed (pH < 7.25, PaCO2 > 60 mmHg). Ventilation parameters (VT, respiratory rate, PEEP), respiratory compliance (CRS), driving pressure (DeltaP = VT/CRS), arterial blood gases, and ECCO2R system operational characteristics were collected during the period of ultra-protective ventilation. Patients were weaned from ECCO2R when PaO2/FiO2 was higher than 200 and could tolerate conventional ventilation settings. Complications, mortality at day 28, need for prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and data on weaning from both MV and ECCO2R were also collected. During the 2 h run in phase, VT reduction from baseline (6.2 mL/kg PBW) to approximately 4 mL/kg PBW caused respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.25) in all fifteen patients. At steady state, ECCO2R with an average blood flow of 435 mL/min and sweep gas flow of 10 L/min was effective at correcting pH and PaCO2 to within 10 % of baseline values. PEEP values tended to increase at VT of 4 mL/kg from 12.2 to 14.5 cmH2O, but this change was not statistically significant. Driving pressure was significantly reduced during the first two days compared to baseline (from 13.9 to 11.6 cmH2O; p < 0.05) and there were no significant differences in the values of respiratory system compliance. Rescue therapies for life threatening hypoxemia such as prone position and ECMO were necessary in four and two patients, respectively. Only two study-related adverse events were observed (intravascular hemolysis and femoral catheter kinking). The low-flow ECCO2R system safely facilitates a low volume, low pressure ultra-protective mechanical ventilation strategy in patients with moderate ARDS.

  11. Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia and cholecystectomy in a 40-year-old male with Down's sindrome. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, P; Mazza, L; Maglione, V; Fronda, G R

    2007-06-01

    Morgagni-Larrey hernia (MH) is an unusual diaphragmatic hernia of the retrosternal region. Few cases of MH, treated laparoscopically, associated with Down's syndrome (DS) have been reported in literature. On October 2004, a DS 40-year-old male was admitted to our Department with mild abdominal pain and nausea. Hematochemical tests were within the normal range. Ultrasonography showed biliary sludge and multiple gallstones. Chest X-ray revealed a right-sided paracardiac mass that appeared as MH after a thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT). Four trocars were placed as a routinary cholecystectomy. Abdominal exploration confirmed the presence of a voluminous hernia through a wide diaphragmatic defect (12 cm) on the left side of the falciform ligament, containing the last 20 cm ileal loops and right colon with the third lateral of transverse. After retrograde cholecystectomy and reduction of the herniated ileo-colonic tract from multiple adherences, the defect was repaired with an interrupted 2/0 silk suture and then a running 2/0 polypropylene suture. Postoperative course was complicated by pulmonary edema but subsequently the patient was discharged without further complications and has no recurrence after 2 years. In conclusion, surgery is necessary for symptomatic MH and to prevent possible severe complications. We preferred laparoscopy for the reduced morbidity compared to laparotomy, even if in our case the postoperative course was not uneventful. There are still few comparative data about the modality of closure of the defect between primary repair with nonabsorbable suture material, in case of small defects, or continuous monofilament suture or prosthesis in case of large defects.

  12. The fibrinogen/CRP ratio as a new parameter for the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with HELLP syndrome and as a predictive factor for neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Windsperger, Karin; Lehner, Rainer

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the fibrinogen/C-reactive protein (CRP) ratio could be used in obstetrics as a predictor for a disseminated intravascular coagulation. One hundred eleven patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome at the Department of Obstetrics and Fetomaternal Medicine (General Hospital, Vienna, Austria) were selected and divided into 2 groups (overt disseminated intravascular coagulation, no overt disseminated intravascular coagulation). The classical parameters and the fibrinogen/CRP ratio were compared. The analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS statistical package (SPSS, Inc, Cary, NC). The fibrinogen/CRP ratio showed significant differences. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed for the ratio (area under the curve, 0.74) significantly better discriminative power than for fibrinogen (area under curve, 0.59). The odds ratio for the fibrinogen/CRP ratio was 7.04. Finally, significant correlations between the ratio and the neonatal outcome were found. We suggest the implementation of the fibrinogen/CRP ratio within patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome as a diagnostic and prognostic factor for the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oooh, Your Aching Head!

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome (say: RYE SIN-drome). When Should You Go to a Doctor? Headaches are very rarely a ... is particularly painful when a headache doesn't go away easily when a headache follows an injury, ...

  14. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  15. Effects of intensive glucose control on platelet reactivity in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Results of the CHIPS Study ("Control de Hiperglucemia y Actividad Plaquetaria en Pacientes con Sindrome Coronario Agudo").

    PubMed

    Vivas, David; García-Rubira, Juan C; Bernardo, Esther; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Martín, Patricia; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia has been associated with increased platelet reactivity and impaired prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether platelet reactivity can be reduced by lowering glucose in this setting is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the functional impact of intensive glucose control with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients admitted with ACS and hyperglycaemia. This is a prospective, randomised trial evaluating the effects of either intensive glucose control (target glucose 80-120 mg/dl) or conventional control (target glucose 180 mg/dl or less) with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia. The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation following stimuli with 20 μM ADP at 24 h and at hospital discharge. Aggregation following collagen, epinephrine and thrombin receptor-activated peptide, as well as P2Y₁₂ reactivity index and surface expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin were also measured. Of the 115 patients who underwent random assignment, 59 were assigned to intensive and 56 to conventional glucose control. Baseline platelet functions and inhospital management were similar in both groups. Maximal aggregation after ADP stimulation at hospital discharge was lower in the intensive group (47.9 ± 13.2% vs 59.1 ± 17.3%; p=0.002), whereas no differences were found at 24 h. Similarly all other parameters of platelet reactivity measured at hospital discharge were significantly reduced in the intensive glucose control group. In this randomised trial, early intensive glucose control with insulin in patients with ACS presenting with hyperglycaemia was found to decrease platelet reactivity. Clinical Trial Registration Number http://www.controlledtrials.com/ISRCTN35708451/ISRCTN35708451.

  16. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  17. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog comment (locally political interests, commercial interests, attention-seeking, colleagues envies, etc..). The scientific journalists are normally of low scientific and ethical level and they are often coopted by negative mechanisms (mainly political for some newspapers or TV). The paper travel over again the AAPG rule of ethics (American Association of Petroleum Geology), taking the advantage of certain concepts developed by Nomisma Energia too and of concepts coming from our work, building energy-related questionnaires, also with municipalities affected by disastrous geological adverseness (i.e., earthquakes, contamination, slides, floods), even managing infrastructures of energetic production from underground (rims, storage, geothermics, etc…). In conclusions we suggest a "scientific journalist licence" (from Italy this kind of skill is escaping) and grave procedures of "Hyppocrates adjuratory" for scientific journalists as well as for scientific community and operators involved in the sector. The case histories reported emblematic of how the road is long, meandrous but necessary.

  18. The Army vs. the People: The Opposition of the Soviet Military to Baltic Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    untouched. General Fyodor Kuz’min, the commander of the Baltic Military District became Gorbachev’s de facto "Military Governer", the only powerful and... Sindrome ’, Neustavshchinye i Natsional’noi Aspekte Voinskoi Sluzhby" [Youth Try on Overcoats: on the ’Occupation Syndrome’, Non-Regulation Behavior, and...that despite the 4 V. Sein, "Komu na Ruku ’Antiarmeiskyi Sindrom ’?" [Who is Responsible for the ’Anti-Army Syndrome’?], Sovetskaya Latvia, July 5, 1989

  19. Medical Problems Related to Altitude in: Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes. Chapter 14,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    function primarily to increase oxygen availability at the tissue level. The most significant changes occur in the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems...52. 40. Monge, M.C. La Enfermedad de Los Andes. Sindromes Eritremicos. Ann. Fac. Med. (Peru) 11:1, 1928. 41. Moore, L..G., G.L. Harrison, R.E

  20. Low Frequency Noise: A Major Risk Factor in Military Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    disease before signs of cortical atrophy; and cerebral atrophy and dilation of the perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces - also seen in dementia [ 12,13...Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Militar 1992: 40(1-4): 41-45. 17. GIMOGMA. Epilepsia sintomidtica de etiologia vascular, manifestaqao da sindrome das

  1. Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin: Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    1974. Sindrome hemolitico uremico: reporte de 60 casos asociados a una epidemia de enterocolitis hemorragica. Revista Colombiana de Ped. Puericult. 28...1518-1521. 34. Fong, J.S.C., J-P de Chadarevian and B.S. Kaplan. 1982. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome: current concepts and management. Ped. Clin. North Am

  2. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  3. First Trimester Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets Syndrome in a Surrogate Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Myer, Emily; Hill, James

    2015-10-01

    Background The occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome before 20 weeks of gestation is rare. HELLP is a possible but rare syndrome in gestational surrogate pregnancies for surrogates with risk factors for development of preeclampsia. Case A 32-year-old patient with chronic hypertension and positive antinuclear antibody presented for prenatal care at 13 weeks and 1 day. She was a surrogate for the embryo of a 43-year-old couple. By 15 weeks she developed uncontrolled hypertension requiring hospitalization. She was expectantly managed until her condition deteriorated. At 16 weeks and 1 day she developed hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and fetal demise. Conclusions HELLP syndrome is rare and carries a significant morbidity and mortality for the mother and fetus. Clinicians should encourage the surrogate to share her medical history with the embryo donor for appropriate counseling on pregnancy risks.

  4. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with thrombotic microangiopathy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wayhs, Sâmia Yasin; Wottrich, Joise; Uggeri, Douglas Prestes; Dias, Fernando Suparregui

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count), and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the main causes of thrombotic microangiopathy and evere liver dysfunction during pregnancy and represent different manifestations of the same pathological continuum. The case of a 35-week pregnant woman who was admitted to an intensive care unit immediately after a Cesarean section due to fetal death and the presence of nausea, vomiting, and jaundice is reported. Postpartum preeclampsia and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were diagnosed. The patient developed an acute subdural hematoma and an intracerebral hemorrhage, which were subjected to neurosurgical treatment. The patient died from refractory hemolytic anemia and spontaneous bleeding of multiple organs. Preeclampsia HELLP syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy might overlap and be associated with potentially fatal complications, including intracranial hemorrhage, as in the present case. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial to ensure management and treatment success.

  5. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with thrombotic microangiopathy during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wayhs, Sâmia Yasin; Wottrich, Joise; Uggeri, Douglas Prestes; Dias, Fernando Suparregui

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count), and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the main causes of thrombotic microangiopathy and severe liver dysfunction during pregnancy and represent different manifestations of the same pathological continuum. The case of a 35-week pregnant woman who was admitted to an intensive care unit immediately after a Cesarean section due to fetal death and the presence of nausea, vomiting, and jaundice is reported. Postpartum preeclampsia and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were diagnosed. The patient developed an acute subdural hematoma and an intracerebral hemorrhage, which were subjected to neurosurgical treatment. The patient died from refractory hemolytic anemia and spontaneous bleeding of multiple organs. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy might overlap and be associated with potentially fatal complications, including intracranial hemorrhage, as in the present case. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial to ensure appropriate management and treatment success. PMID:23917984

  6. [Causes and management of severe acute liver damage during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Martinez, Alvaro; Romero, Carlos; Juarez, Guido; Hasbun, Jorge; Parra-Cordero, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests appear in 3% of pregnancies. Severe acute liver damage can be an exclusive condition of pregnancy (dependent or independent of pre-eclampsia) or a concomitant disease. HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the most severe liver diseases associated with pregnancy. Both appear during the third trimester and have a similar clinical presentation. Acute fatty liver may be associated with hypoglycemia and HELLP syndrome is closely linked with pre-eclampsia. Among concomitant conditions, fulminant acute hepatitis caused by medications or virus is the most severe disease. Its clinical presentation may be hyper-acute with neurological involvement and severe coagulation disorders. It has a high mortality and patients should be transplanted. Fulminant hepatic failure caused by acetaminophen overdose can be managed with n-acetyl cysteine. Because of the high fetal mortality rate, the gestational age at diagnosis is crucial.

  7. Fulminant liver failure resulting from massive hepatic infarction associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Masato; Mayama, Michinori; Ukai, Mayu; Tano, Sho; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic infarction is an extremely rare and fatal complication associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. It can develop into fulminant liver failure, which increases both maternal and neonatal mortality rates. A 34-year-old woman with no remarkable past medical history developed eclampsia after delivery at 40 weeks of gestation. Imaging indicated massive hepatic infarction and rupture followed by cardiac arrest and fulminant liver failure. Despite liver replacement therapy with plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration, the patient gradually deteriorated with persistent bacterial infection until death at 98 days after delivery. The management of fulminant liver failure complicated with HELLP syndrome should be multidisciplinary. Liver transplantation, the only radical treatment for fulminant liver failure, is worth attempting, if applicable. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Recent Advances in HNC’s Context Vector Information Retrieval Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    infectados 14 20 0.360 portadoras 5 5 0.358 deficiencia 8 10 0.351 vih 10 18 0.343 adquirida 26 28 0.340 infection 12 22 0.337 aids "patients 12...0.607 portadores 16 31 0.528 immunodeficiency 6 6 0.514 infectadas 18 21 0.504 hiv 18 49 0.496 vih 10 18 0.489 aids 86 578 0.481 infectados 14...34 Table 2 shows the stem tree for the tie-word "AIDS". In Spanish, AIDS has the acronym " SIDA " which stands for sindrome inmuno deficiencia

  9. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  10. Placental protein-13 (PP13) in combination with PAPP-A and free leptin index (fLI) in first trimester maternal serum screening for severe and early preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Carin P; Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine; Carlsen, Anting L; Rode, Line; Sundberg, Karin; Tabor, Ann; Christiansen, Michael

    2017-11-27

    Placental protein-13 (PP13) is involved in placental invasion and has been suggested as a maternal serum marker of preeclampsia (PE) development. However, the discriminatory ability of PP13 in first trimester has not been completely clarified. PP13 was measured in first trimester (week 10+3-13+6) maternal serum from 120 PE pregnancies and 267 control pregnancies and was correlated with clinical parameters. The population screening performance of PP13 in combination with the PE markers pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) and free leptin index (fLI) was assessed by Monte Carlo simulation. In severe PE (including HELLP) cases (n=26) the median PP13 concentration was 35.8 pg/mL (range: 17.8-85.5 pg/mL) and in PE pregnancies (n=10) with birth prior to week 34, the median PP13 concentration was 30.6 pg/mL (13.1-50.1 pg/mL), compared to controls with a median of 54.8 pg/mL (range: 15.4-142.6 pg/mL) (p<0.04). The population screening detection rate (DR) for a false-positive rate of 10% for severe PE and HELLP was 26% for PP13, 28% for PP13+PAPP-A, 33% for PP13+fLI, and 40% for PP13+PAPP-A+fLI. PP13 is a marker of severe PE and HELLP syndrome. The screening performance of PP13 can be markedly improved by combining it with fLI and PAPP-A.

  11. Maternal 27-hydroxycholesterol concentrations during the course of pregnancy and in pregnancy pathologies.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Brigitte Sophia; Pecks, Ulrich; Najjari, Laila; Kleine-Eggebrecht, Nicola; Maass, Nicolai; Mohaupt, Markus; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-04-04

    The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Pregnancy pathologies like preeclampsia (PE), HELLP-syndrome (HELLP), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy (ICP) are linked to disturbances in lipid metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized a specific gestational regulation of 27-OHC and compromised 27-OHC levels due to placental and hepatic diseases in pregnancy resulting in a dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The 27-OHC was measured by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and related to cholesterol concentrations. In the longitudinal cohort, a complete set of samples of healthy patients (n = 33) obtained at three different time points throughout gestation and once post-partum was analyzed. In the cross sectional cohort, patients with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 14, PE n = 14, HELLP n = 7, ICP n = 7) were matched to a control group (CTRL) of equal gestational ages. The 27-OHC levels already increased in the first trimester despite lower TC concentrations (p < 0.05). During the course of pregnancy, a subtle rise in 27-OHC concentrations results in an overall decrease of 27-OHC/TC ratio in between the first (p < 0.05) and second trimester. The ratio remains stable thereafter including the post-partum period. No significant differences have been observed in pregnancy pathologies as compared to the CTRL group. In conclusion, 27-OHC may have a compensatory role in cholesterol metabolism early in pregnancy. The conserved 27-OHC/TC ratio in pregnancy pathologies suggest that neither the placenta nor the liver is majorly involved in the regulation of 27-OHC metabolism.

  12. Multimodality imaging of hepato-biliary disorders in pregnancy: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eugene M W; Drukteinis, Jennifer S; Peters, Hope E; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2009-09-01

    Hepato-biliary disorders are rare complications of pregnancy, but they may be severe, with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Imaging is, therefore, essential in the rapid diagnosis of some of these conditions so that appropriate, life-saving treatment can be administered. This pictorial essay illustrates the multimodality imaging features of pregnancy-induced hepato-biliary disorders, such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy, preeclamsia and eclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, as well as those conditions which occur in pregnancy but are not unique to it, such as viral hepatitis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, focal hepatic lesions, biliary sludge, cholecystolithiasis, and choledocholithiasis.

  13. [The neglected control of proteinuria during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Dijkman, A; van Roosmalen, J

    2002-03-02

    In two women, primigravidae aged 29 and 27 years, no dipstick test for proteinuria was carried out despite symptoms of preeclampsia at 34 5/7 and 25 5/7 weeks of pregnancy, respectively. Both babies died in utero. The women were treated in the intensive care unit; the first woman died due to 'haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count' (HELLP) syndrome, while the second woman was able to return home in a reasonable condition on antihypertensive medication. Dipstick tests for proteinuria should always be carried out in pregnant women with symptoms of preeclampsia in order to avoid the death and serious morbidity which can be associated with eclampsia.

  14. The Epidemiology of Liver Diseases Unique to Pregnancy in a US Community: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alina M; Kim, W Ray; Larson, Joseph J; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Yawn, Barbara P; McKeon, Kimberly; Hay, J Eileen

    2016-02-01

    Little is known in the United States about the epidemiology of liver diseases that develop only during (are unique to) pregnancy. We investigated the incidence of liver diseases unique to pregnancy in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes. We identified 247 women with liver diseases unique to pregnancy from 1996 through 2010 using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database. The crude incidence rate was calculated by the number of liver disease cases divided by 35,101 pregnancies. Of pregnant women with liver diseases, 134 had preeclampsia with liver dysfunction, 72 had hemolysis-associated increased levels of liver enzymes and low-platelet (HELLP) syndrome, 26 had intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, 14 had hyperemesis gravidarum with abnormal liver enzymes, and 1 had acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The crude incidence of liver diseases unique to pregnancy was 0.77%. Outcomes were worse among women with HELLP or preeclampsia than the other disorders--of women with HELLP, 70% had a premature delivery, 4% had abruptio placentae, 3% had acute kidney injury, and 3% had infant death. Of women with preeclampsia, 56.0% had a premature delivery, 4% had abruptio placentae, 3% had acute kidney injury, and 0.7% had infant death. After 7 median years of follow-up (range, 0-18 years), 14% of the women developed recurrent liver disease unique to pregnancy; the proportions were highest in women with initial hyperemesis gravidarum (36%) or intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (35%). Women with preeclampsia were more likely to develop subsequent hepatobiliary diseases. We found the incidence of liver disease unique to pregnancy in Olmsted County, Minnesota, to be lower than that reported from Europe or US tertiary referral centers. Maternal and fetal outcomes in Olmsted County were better than those reported from other studies, but fetal mortality was still high (0.7%-3.0%). Women with preeclampsia or HELLP are at higher risk for peripartum

  15. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  16. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. General Reevaluation and Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes, Sheyenne River, North Dakota. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    21 PRIME ANT) INI(I’t !AEMI.A!;D; D-22 U.S. FIS1! AND .II.Pll SERVICE WETIAND EiSEMENT PROGRAM D-22 WILD AND S(:.NI f’ Rff RiS D-23 AEStET]I CS D-23...Kindred Dam Area D-26 L.evves and Diversion/West Fargo D-27 Baldhill Dam Area D-27 Diversions to Wild Rice River D-27 Diversion - M-6) D-27 Channel...and citizens committee input. * A list of the alternatives that address the fish and wild - life objettives and that would hellp solve the problems and

  18. Diagnosis of preeclampsia with soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1/placental growth factor ratio: an inter-assay comparison.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Work Havelund, Kathrine; Dechend, Ralf; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Jensen, Boye L; Nielsen, Jan; Lykkedegn, Sine; Barington, Torben; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2015-02-01

    The angiogenic factor ratio soluble Fms-kinase 1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) is a novel diagnostic tool for preeclampsia. We compared the efficacy of the KRYPTOR (BRAHMS) automated assays for sFlt-1 and PlGF with the Elecsys (Roche) assays in a routine clinical setting. Preeclamptic women (n = 39) were included shortly after the time of diagnosis. Normotensive control pregnancies were matched by gestational age (n = 76). The KRYPTOR assays performed comparably or superior to Elecsys (sFlt-1/PlGF area under the curve 0.746 versus 0.735; P = .09; for non-obese 0.820 versus 0.805, P = .047). For early-onset preeclampsia, KRYPTOR area under the curve increased to 0.929 with a 100% specificity for preeclampsia at cut-off 85 and an 88.9% sensitivity for preeclampsia at cut-off 33. For women with preeclampsia and preterm delivery or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, the KRYPTOR sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was manifold increased (P < .01). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio proved especially useful in early-onset preeclampsia, preeclampsia with preterm delivery or HELLP, and among non-obese women. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP).

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Brown, Mark A; Zeeman, Gerda G; Dekker, Gustaaf; Sibai, Baha M

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature on the definitions of severe and early-onset pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine those definitions for clinical purposes and to introduce them in the classification of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for publication purposes. We circulated a questionnaire to the International Committee of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy focusing on the thresholds for defining severe preeclampsia and the gestation at which to define early-onset preeclampsia, and on the definition and inclusion of the HELLP syndrome or other clinical features in severe preeclampsia. The questions were closed, but all answers had space for more open detailed comments. There was a general agreement to define preeclampsia as severe if blood pressure was >160mmHg systolic or 110mmHg diastolic. There was scarce agreement on the amount of proteinuria to define severity. The HELLP syndrome was considered a feature to include in the severe classification. Most investigators considered early-onset preeclampsia as that occurring before 34weeks. A definition of pre-eclampsia is paramount for driving good clinical practice. Classifications on the other hand are useful to enable international comparisons of clinical data and outcomes. We used the results of this survey to update our previous classification for the purposes of providing clinical research definitions of severe and early onset pre-eclampsia that will hopefully be accepted in the international literature. Copyright © 2012 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Matrix Metalloprotease Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Preeclampsia and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Daniela P.; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M.; Lanaro, Carolina; Baptista, Letícia C.; Cecatti, José G.; Surita, Fernanda G.; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Costa, Fernando F.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Fertrin, Kleber Y.; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the world, but its appearance is still unpredictable and its pathophysiology has not been entirely elucidated. Genetic studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteases with preeclampsia, but the results are largely inconclusive across different populations. Objectives To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NOS3 (G894T, T-786C, and a variable number of tandem repetitions VNTR in intron 4), MMP2 (C-1306T), and MMP9 (C-1562T) genes with preeclampsia in patients from Southeastern Brazil. Methods This prospective case-control study enrolled 77 women with preeclampsia and 266 control pregnant women. Clinical data were collected to assess risk factors and the presence of severe complications, such as eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome. Results We found a significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism NOS3 T-786C and preeclampsia, independently from age, height, weight, or the other SNPs studied, and no association was found with the other polymorphisms. Age and history of preeclampsia were also identified as risk factors. The presence of at least one polymorphic allele for NOS3 T-786C was also associated with the occurrence of eclampsia or HELLP syndrome among preeclamptic women. Conclusions Our data support that the NOS3 T-786C SNP is associated with preeclampsia and the severity of its complications. PMID:26317342

  1. Intrauterine cardiomyopathy and cardiac mitochondrial proliferation in mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Mueller, Martina; Cloppenburg, Eva; Motz, Reinald; Mayatepek, Ertan; Bueltmann, Burkhard; Korenke, Christoph

    2008-08-01

    Because of a switch in energy-producing substrate utilization from glucose in the fetal period to fatty acids postnatally, intrauterine morbidity of fatty acid oxidation defects has widely been denied. We report the intrauterine development of severe cardiomyopathy in a child with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency after 27 weeks of gestation. The child was born at 31 weeks of gestation and died on day 3 of life. Severe cardiac mitochondrial proliferation was observed. Molecular analysis of both TFP genes was performed and confirmed a homozygous mutation in the TFP alpha-subunit introducing a stop codon at amino acid position 256 (g.871C>T, p.R256X). Despite severe intrauterine decompensation in our patient, no HELLP-syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy was observed in the mother. In the pathogenesis of maternal HELLP-syndrome, toxic effects of accumulating long-chain hydroxy-acyl-CoAs or long-chain hydroxy-acylcarnitines are suspected. In our patient, acylcarnitine analysis on day 2 of life during severest metabolic decompensation did not reveal massive accumulation of long-chain hydroxy-acylcarnitines in blood, suggesting other pathogenic factors than toxic effects. The most important pathogenic mechanism for the development of intrauterine cardiomyopathy appears to be significant cardiac energy deficiency. In conclusion, our report implicates that fatty acid oxidation does play a significant role during intrauterine development with special regard to the heart. Severe cardiac mitochondrial proliferation in TFP deficiency suggests pathophysiologically relevant energy deficiency in this condition.

  2. Health Status of Women in the Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-10

    arta Bel, N, m coinvstigtorprovdedthe ontnua encoragmen an atenton t de iltha maes his epot te podut i is Althughnot rignall asig e tothe tud, sh...4oO BRCNCHITIS, ACUTE 44 44 703 INGrOwN TOENAIL 41 45 692 DE -MATiTiS. CONTACT, NOS 4: 46 76v NAuSEA;VOMITING 34 50 47 4u1 mPERTENSiON, ESSENTIAL ’- 48...77.59X 4 :55b NEUROMA, MORTON’S iPLANTAR NERVE) 0.424 7E.07% A -I;9o FATELLA SiNDROME 0.48Z 78.551 4 7:44 RAIN. bPH, NRADIATING SYMPTOMS 0.45% 7t0: 4

  3. Comparison of referral and non-referral hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: an analysis of 271 consecutive cases at a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2005-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical manifestations in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, assessed the risk factors compared to the severity of hypertensive disorders on maternal and perinatal morbidity, and mortality between the referral and non-referral patients. 271 pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia were assessed (1993 to 1997). Chi-square analysis was used for the comparison of categorical variables, and the comparison of the two independent variables of proportions in estimation of confidence intervals and calculated odds ratio of the referral and non-referral groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used for adjusting potential confounding risk factors. Of the 271 patients included in this study, 71 (26.2%) patients were referrals from other hospitals. Most of the 62 (87.3%) referral patients were transferred during the period 21 and 37 weeks of gestation. Univariate analysis revealed that referral patients with hypertensive disorder were significantly associated with SBP > or =180, DBP > or =105, severe preclampsia, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), emergency C/S, maternal complications, and low birth weight babies, as well as poor Apgar score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risk factors identified to be significantly associated with increased risk of referral patients included: diastolic blood pressure above 105 mmHg (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.13; P = 0.034), severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.76 to 6.81; P < 0.001), eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.35; P = 0.071), HELLP syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 18.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.14 to 164.99; P = 0.008). The significant factors associated with the referral patients with hypertensive disorders were severe preeclampsia, HELLP, and eclampsia. Lack of prenatal care was

  4. Regional anesthesia in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent W; Sahajanandan, Raj; Tan, Hungling; Grewal, Anju; Perlas, Anahi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension is a hypertensive disorder, which occurs in 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. These parturients present to the labour and delivery unit ranging from gestational hypertension to HELLP syndrome. It is essential to understand the various clinical conditions that may mimic preeclampsia and the urgency of cesarean delivery, which may improve perinatal outcome. The administration of general anesthesia (GA) increases morbidity and mortality in both mother and baby. The provision of regional anesthesia when possible maintains uteroplacental blood flow, avoids the complications with GA, improves maternal and neonatal outcome. The use of ultrasound may increase the success rate. This review emphasizes on the regional anesthetic considerations when such parturients present to the labor and delivery unit. PMID:24249977

  5. [Anaesthetic implications in a pregnant patient with an extreme thrombocytopenia due to a May-Hegglin anomaly: general o regional anaesthesia?].

    PubMed

    García Vallejo, G; Cabellos, M; Kabiri, M; Fraile, J R; Cuesta, J

    2014-10-01

    The May-Hegglin anomaly is an inherited disorder, so uncommon that the incidence is still unknown. It is characterized by macro-thrombocytopenia with normal platelet function and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in granulocytes. The case is reported of a 28-year-old primiparous patient who had an urgent caesarean section due to failed induction of labour. The patient had no history of abnormal bleeding. Other causes of thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or placental abruption, were ruled out. The platelet count prior to surgery was 20,900/mm(3) with normal platelet function. General anaesthesia was performed. No excessive bleeding occurred and a platelet transfusion was not needed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy with hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus and pancreatitis, preceded by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    English, Nicola; Rao, Jegajeeva

    2015-04-15

    We present the case of a 33-year-old woman in her first pregnancy. She presented with pruritus at 34 weeks gestation. A diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was made based on elevated bile acids and elevated liver transaminases. She re-presented 4 days later, jaundiced with abdominal pain and nausea, and was hypertensive. Her bilirubin was now elevated and her creatinine had doubled. The differential diagnosis-included pre-eclampsia and Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, and delivery was expedited. Postnatally, the patient became coagulopathic, though not thrombocytopaenic; she had persistent hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, developed acute pancreatitis and had profound ascites and peripheral oedema. Management was supportive with multidisciplinary care and over a period of 3 weeks she made a full clinical and biochemical recovery. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. [Atipical uremic hemolityc syndrome in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Álvarez-Goris, Mercedes Del Pilar; Sánchez Zamora, Ricardo; Torres Aguilar, Angélica A; Mendoza-Mórales, Rosa Elba

    2016-01-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome is one of the main variants of thrombotic microangiopathy, and is characterized by excessive complement activation in the microvasculature. It is also characterised by the clinical triad; non-immune haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. In addition, 60% of patients have mutations in the genes encoding complement regulators (factor H, factor I, membrane cofactor proteins, and thrombomodulin), activators (factor B and C3), as well as autoantibodies against factor H. Multiple factors are required for the disease to manifest itself, including a trigger and gene mutations with adequate penetration. Being one of the differential diagnoses of preeclampsia- eclampsia and HELLP syndrome means that the clinician must be familiar with the disease due to its high mortality, which can be modified with early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuromyelitis optica in pregnancy complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, eclampsia and fetal death.

    PubMed

    Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha

    2015-03-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable.

  9. Neuromyelitis Optica in Pregnancy Complicated by Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Eclampsia and Fetal Death

    PubMed Central

    Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable. PMID:25584107

  10. [Acute renal failure secondary to hemolytic uremic syndrome in a pregnant woman with pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    García-Miguel, F J; Mirón Rodríguez, M F; Alsina Aser, M J

    2009-02-01

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication of pregnancy associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; the incidence is currently 1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The most common causes are gestational hypertension, bleeding, sepsis, and intrinsic renal disease. Other less common pregnancy-related syndromes, such as HELLP syndrome or thrombotic microangiopathy, may also lead to kidney failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are forms of thrombotic microangiopathy and although neither is specific to pregnancy, the incidence of these entities rises during gestation. The classic symptoms are fever, hemolytic microangiopathic anemia, thrombopenia, neurologic dysfunction, and kidney abnormalities. When renal involvement is the predominant manifestation, the diagnosis is usually hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  11. Hypertensive choroidopathy in pre-eclampsia: two consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Dewilde, Evelien; Huygens, Marc; Cools, Geertrui; Van Calster, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive retinopathy is well known, but choroidopathy is uncommon and associated with acute increases in blood pressure. Nonperfused areas of the choriocapillaris lead to changes of overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), resulting in neurosensory or RPE detachments. The authors describe two patients with serous retinal detachments associated with acute arterial hypertension in pre-eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count) syndrome. Subretinal fluid was demonstrated on ultra-widefield fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography enabled imaging of the choroidal hypoperfusion. All signs and symptoms resolved after 1 and 3 months, respectively, with persistent macular pigmentary changes in both patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy with hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus and pancreatitis, preceded by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    English, Nicola; Rao, Jegajeeva

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 33-year-old woman in her first pregnancy. She presented with pruritus at 34 weeks gestation. A diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was made based on elevated bile acids and elevated liver transaminases. She re-presented 4 days later, jaundiced with abdominal pain and nausea, and was hypertensive. Her bilirubin was now elevated and her creatinine had doubled. The differential diagnosis-included pre-eclampsia and Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, and delivery was expedited. Postnatally, the patient became coagulopathic, though not thrombocytopaenic; she had persistent hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, developed acute pancreatitis and had profound ascites and peripheral oedema. Management was supportive with multidisciplinary care and over a period of 3 weeks she made a full clinical and biochemical recovery. PMID:25878236

  13. Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 and diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Samborek, Malgorzata

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are rarely diagnosed conditions characterized by the association of at least 2 organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Very few cases of these syndromes have been described during pregnancy. The authors report a case of a patient diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and a history of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome in a prior pregnancy. After increasing the levothyroxine dose, she developed Addisonian crisis. Normalization of adrenal cortex function resulted in the appearance of diabetes insipidus. This report shows that pregnancy may influence the course of preexisting endocrine disorders and lead to their unmasking. Although the risk of the development of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes during pregnancy is small, they may pose a serious health problem. The possible presence of these clinical entities should be considered in every woman with 1 or more endocrine disturbances.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy-specific Disorders.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Ganiger, V C

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre. During the first trimester of gestation, AKI develops most often due to septic abortion or hyperemesis gravidarum. Septic abortion related AKI with respect to total AKI decreased from 9% to 5% in our study. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are keys to eliminate abortion associated AKI in early pregnancy. However, we have not seen AKI on account of hyperemesis gravidarum over a period of 33 years at our center. In the third trimester, the differential diagnosis of AKI in association with pregnancy specific conditions namely preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies of pregnancy (P-TMA) is more challenging, because these 3 conditions share several clinical features of thrombotic microangiopathy which makes the diagnosis very difficult on clinical grounds. It is imperative to distinguish these conditions to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Typically, AFLP and HELLP syndrome improve after delivery of the fetus, whereas plasma exchange is the first-line treatment for pregnancy associated thrombotic microangioathies (P-TMA). We observed that preclampsia/eclampsia is the most common cause of AKI in late third trimester and postpartum periods followed by puerperal sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathies (aHUS/TTP) and AFLP are rare causes of AKI during pregnancy in developing countries.

  15. The kidney in pregnancy: A journey of three decades.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J

    2012-05-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3-5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy.

  16. The kidney in pregnancy: A journey of three decades

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3–5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy. PMID:23087548

  17. Can very high level of D-dimer exclusively predict the presence of thromboembolic diseases?

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao-Hung

    2011-04-01

    D-dimer quantitative test is mainly used to rule out the presence of thromboembolic diseases (TEDs). Whether very high D-dimer (100 times above the cutoff point) can exclusively indicate the presence of TED should be known. D-dimer was detected by a quantitative immunoturbidimetric assay. The normal value is 0.2-0.7 mg/L fibrinogen equivalent units (FEUs). During the year of 2009, 1,053 D-dimer tests were performed. We analyzed the results of these patients to find out the causes of very high D-dimer. The mean value of D-dimer in the 1,053 tests was 8.56 mg/L FEU, ranging from <0.2 mg/L to 563.2 mg/L FEU. Of them, 28 samples from 21 patients had very high D-dimer value: >50 mg/L FEU. Of the 21 patients, 9 (43%) had TED, 1 had suspected TED, but not proved by computed tomographic (CT) angiogram, 3 had massive gastrointestinal or other site bleeding, 3 patients had cardiac arrest with samples taken immediately after recovery from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2 had sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), 1 had postpartum hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome with acute pulmonary edema and renal failure, 1 had multiple traumatic injury, and 1 received thrombolytic therapy. Although TED was the most frequently seen disorder in patients with very high D-dimer value, very high D-dimer was not necessary exclusively the marker of TED. Other disorders such as massive bleeding, status post CPR, sepsis with DIC, multiple traumatic injuries, hyperfibrinolysis and HELLP syndrome can also have very high D-dimer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome during pregnancy and puerperium: maternal and fetal characteristics of 15 cases

    PubMed Central

    Gómez‐Puerta, José A; Cervera, Ricard; Espinosa, Gerard; Asherson, Ronald A; García‐Carrasco, Mario; da Costa, Izaias P; Andrade, Danieli C O; Borba, Eduardo F; Makatsaria, Alexander; Bucciarelli, Silvia; Ramos‐Casals, Manuel; Font, Josep

    2007-01-01

    Background The catastrophic variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a life‐threatening form of presentation of this syndrome that can be triggered by several factors. Aim To describe the characteristics of patients who developed catastrophic APS triggered during pregnancy and puerperium. Methods A review of the first 255 cases collected in the website‐based “CAPS Registry” was undertaken. Three new and unpublished cases of catastrophic APS developed during pregnancy and puerperium were added. Results Fifteen cases were identified. The mean (range) age was 27 (17–38) years. Most patients had a previous unsuccessful obstetric history. In 7 of 14 (50%) cases with available medical history, the catastrophic APS appeared during pregnancy, in 6 (43%) during the puerperium and in 1 (7%) after curettage for a fetal death. The main clinical and serological characteristics were similar to those patients with catastrophic APS triggered by other factors, except for a history of a higher prevalence of previous abortions (p<0.01). Several specific features were found, including the HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome in 8 (53%) patients, placental infarctions in 4 (27%) patients, and pelvic vein thrombosis and myometrium thrombotic microangiopathy in 1 (7%) patient each. Mortality rate was high for the mothers (46%), and for the babies (54%). Conclusions It is important to consider the possibility of the development of catastrophic APS in those patients with signs of HELLP syndrome and multiorgan failure during pregnancy or puerperium, especially in those patients with previous history of abortions and/or thrombosis. PMID:17223653

  19. Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy-specific Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Ganiger, V. C.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre. During the first trimester of gestation, AKI develops most often due to septic abortion or hyperemesis gravidarum. Septic abortion related AKI with respect to total AKI decreased from 9% to 5% in our study. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are keys to eliminate abortion associated AKI in early pregnancy. However, we have not seen AKI on account of hyperemesis gravidarum over a period of 33 years at our center. In the third trimester, the differential diagnosis of AKI in association with pregnancy specific conditions namely preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies of pregnancy (P-TMA) is more challenging, because these 3 conditions share several clinical features of thrombotic microangiopathy which makes the diagnosis very difficult on clinical grounds. It is imperative to distinguish these conditions to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Typically, AFLP and HELLP syndrome improve after delivery of the fetus, whereas plasma exchange is the first-line treatment for pregnancy associated thrombotic microangioathies (P-TMA). We observed that preclampsia/eclampsia is the most common cause of AKI in late third trimester and postpartum periods followed by puerperal sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathies (aHUS/TTP) and AFLP are rare causes of AKI during pregnancy in developing countries. PMID:28761227

  20. A mobile phone-based approach to detection of hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Archibong, Edikan; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Kaplan, Howard; Pyayt, Anna

    2017-02-15

    Preeclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome are pregnancy-related complications with high rates of morbidity and mortality. HELLP syndrome, in particular, can be difficult to diagnose. Recent work suggests that elevated levels of free cell hemoglobin in blood plasma can, as early as the first trimester, potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker for impending complications. We therefore developed a point-of-care mobile phone-based platform that can quickly characterize a patient's level of hemolysis by measuring the color of blood plasma. The custom hardware and software are designed to be easy to use. A sample of the whole blood (~10µL or less) is first collected into a clear capillary tube or microtube, which is then inserted into a low-cost 3D-printed sample holder attached to the phone. A 5-10min period of quiescence allows for gravitational sedimentation of the red blood cells, leaving a layer of yellowish plasma at the top of the tube. The phone camera then photographs the capillary tube and analyzes the color components of the cell-free plasma layer. The software converts these color values to a concentration of free hemoglobin, based on a built-in calibration curve, and reports the patient's hemolysis level: non-hemolyzed, slightly hemolyzed, mildly hemolyzed, frankly hemolyzed, or grossly hemolyzed.. The accuracy of the method is ~1mgdL -1 . This phone-based point-of-care system provides the potentially life-saving advantage of a turnaround time of about 10min (versus 4+hours for conventional laboratory analytical methods) and a cost of approximately one dollar USD (assuming you have the phone and the software are already available). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between phenotypes of preeclampsia and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (<34th week) occurred in 71% of pregnancies. Any thrombophilia factor was present in 29% of the women. Severe preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Early onset preeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Low placental weight (<5th percentile) was associated with hyperhomocysteineamia (p=0.03). No other associations were observed. Early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are

  2. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2016-08-15

    2014. Foram identificados 17 artigos de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Todas as publicações incluídas eram estudos experimentais in vitro e abordavam o uso de bombas de infusão na terapêutica transfusional. A síntese dos dados foi apresentada em quadro sinóptico e a análise gerou duas categorias relevantes: lesão celular e mecanismo de infusão. bombas de infusão podem ser deletérias às hemácias de acordo o mecanismo de infusão, sendo que as peristálticas lineares foram mais predisponentes à hemólise. A lesão celular foi relacionada à liberação plasmática de marcadores, predominando a hemoglobina livre e potássio. Reitera-se a necessidade de pesquisas adicionais e investimentos tecnológicos para nortear o desenvolvimento de protocolos que promovam prática segura e que subsidiem futuros estudos clínicos. identificar en la literatura la producción científica acerca de los efectos de la bomba de transfusión en la administración de glóbulos rojos y evaluar las implicaciones del uso de esos equipos en la práctica transfusional de enfermería. revisión integradora de literatura en las bases de datos Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, SciELO, Web of Science y Cochrane, utilizando los descriptores "bombas de infusión", "transfusión de sangre", "transfusión de eritrocitos" y "hemolisis". La fecha inicial no fue delimitada y la final fue en diciembre de 2014. Fueron identificados 17 artículos de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. todas las publicaciones incluidas eran estudios experimentales in vitro y abordaban el uso de bombas de infusión en la terapéutica transfusional. La síntesis de los datos se presenta en un cuadro sinóptico y el análisis generó dos categorías relevantes: lesión celular y mecanismo de transfusión. las bombas de infusión pueden ser perjudiciales para los glóbulos rojos de acuerdo el mecanismo de transfusión, siendo que las peristálticas lineares

  3. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement: the case of metabolic syndrome in adults from Peru.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Jose Carlos; Ruiz, Eloy F; Ponce, Oscar J; Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-12-30

    The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies.

  4. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  5. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  6. Study of Abnormal Liver Function Test during Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chhattisgarh.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Thakur, Parineeta

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in pregnancy require proper interpretation in order to avoid pitfalls in the diagnosis. The underlying disorder can have a significant effect on the outcome of both mother and foetus. The present study was done with the objective to study the clinical profile, incidence and possible causes of derangements of liver function tests. Eighty pregnant women with abnormal liver dysfunction were studied prospectively. Women with chronic liver disease and drug-induced abnormal liver function test were excluded. All available LFTs including LDH were studied along with some more definitive tests to aid identification of underlying cause. Foetomaternal outcome was noted in all. The incidence of abnormal LFT was 0.9 %. 13/80 (16.75 %) women had liver disorder not specific to pregnancy, whereas 67/80 (83.25 %) women had pregnancy-specific liver dysfunction. Of these, 65(81.25 %) women with liver dysfunction had pre-eclampsia including 11 (13.75 %) with HELLP and six women with eclampsia. 48/65 (60 %) women had pre-eclampsia in the absence of HELLP syndrome or eclampsia. The mean value for bilirubin (mg %) in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy ranged from 1.64 to 3.8, between 5 and 10 for ICP and AFLP and >10 in infective hepatitis. Transaminases were highest in infective hepatitis, whereas alkaline phosphate was highest in ICP. Total 27 (33.75 %) women suffered from adverse outcome with four (5 %) maternal deaths and 23 (28.75 %) major maternal morbidities. 33/80 (41.25 %) women had intrauterine death. 26.25 % babies were small for date. Pregnancy-specific disorders are the leading cause of abnormal liver function test during pregnant state particularly in the third trimester. Pre-eclampsia-related disorder is the commonest. Gestational age of pregnancy and relative values of various liver function tests in different pregnancy-specific and pregnancy nonspecific disorders appear to be the best guide to clinch the diagnosis.

  7. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation (HYPITAT-II): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Langenveld, Josje; Broekhuijsen, Kim; van Baaren, Gert-Jan; van Pampus, Maria G; van Kaam, Anton H; Groen, Henk; Porath, Martina; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Groot, Christianne J de; van Beek, Erik; van Huizen, Marloes E; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Willekes, Christine; Wijnen-Duvekot, Ella J; Franssen, Maureen T M; Perquin, Denise A M; Sporken, Jan M J; Woiski, Mallory D; Bremer, Henk A; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; Brons, Jozien T J; Kaplan, Mesruwe; Nij Bijvanck, Bas W A; Mol, Ben-Willen J

    2011-07-07

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) can result in severe complications such as eclampsia, placental abruption, syndrome of Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets (HELLP) and ultimately even neonatal or maternal death. We recently showed that in women with GH or mild PE at term induction of labour reduces both high risk situations for mothers as well as the caesarean section rate. In view of this knowledge, one can raise the question whether women with severe hypertension, pre-eclampsia or deterioration chronic hypertension between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation should be delivered or monitored expectantly. Induction of labour might prevent maternal complications. However, induction of labour in late pre-term pregnancy might increase neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with delivery at term. Pregnant women with severe gestational hypertension, mild pre-eclampsia or deteriorating chronic hypertension at a gestational age between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks will be asked to participate in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Women will be randomised to either induction of labour or expectant monitoring. In the expectant monitoring arm, women will be induced only when the maternal or fetal condition detoriates or at 37+0 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome measure is a composite endpoint of maternal mortality, severe maternal complications (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pulmonary oedema and thromboembolic disease) and progression to severe pre-eclampsia. Secondary outcomes measures are respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), neonatal morbidity and mortality, caesarean section and vaginal instrumental delivery rates, maternal quality of life and costs. Analysis will be intention to treat. The power calculation is based on an expectant reduction of the maternal composite endpoint from 5% to 1% for an expected increase in neonatal RDS from 1% at 37 weeks to 10% at 34 weeks. This implies that 680 women have to be randomised. This trial will

  8. Antiphospholipid Syndrome during pregnancy: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Di Prima, Fosca A. F.; Valenti, Oriana; Hyseni, Entela; Giorgio, Elsa; Faraci, Marianna; Renda, Eliana; De Domenico, Roberta; Monte, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Obstetric complications are the hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome. Recurrent miscarriage, early delivery, oligohydramnios, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, fetal or neonatal thrombosis, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, arterial or venous thrombosis and placental insufficiency are the most severe APS-related complication for pregnant women. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes and platelets, causing an overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. These factors, associated with the typical changes in the hemostatic system during normal pregnancy, result in a hypercoagulable state. This is responsible of thrombosis that is presumed to provoke many of the pregnancy complications associated with APS. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with the association between aspirin and heparin. This review aims to deter- mine the current state of the art of APS by investigating the knowledge achievements of recent years, to provide the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic management for pregnant women suffering from this syndrome. PMID:22439075

  9. Innate Immune System at the Maternal-Fetal Interface: Mechanisms of Disease and Targets of Therapy in Pregnancy Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Triggianese, Paola; Perricone, Carlo; Chimenti, Maria Sole; De Carolis, Caterina; Perricone, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The maternal-fetal interface is an immunologically unique site that allows the tolerance to the allogenic fetus and maintains host defense against possible pathogens. Balanced immune responses are required for the maintenance of successful pregnancy. It has been demonstrated that innate immune disturbances may be responsible for some adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia (PE); hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Observational studies suggest that immunomodulatory treatments in pregnancy-specific complications may improve both the hematological/biochemical features in the mother and the perinatal outcomes. The following review will discuss how recent and relevant findings in the field of the innate immunity have advanced our understanding of the role of inflammation and innate immune system in the pathogenesis of pregnancy failure and will discuss the therapeutic outcomes of the existing studies and clinical trials in light of these new insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Twins prematurity--the influence of prenatal surveillance.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana Patrícia; Fonseca, Etelvina; Belo, Adriana; Moura, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of the local prenatal surveillance of twin pregnancies in the obstetrical results. A prospective cohort study of multiple pregnancies delivered over a period of 16 years in a tertiary centre was conducted. In this study 861 twin pregnancies were included. They were compared for obstetric complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery and birthweight, according to the place of the surveillance. Of the 861 cases examined, the following obstetric complications were significantly different: metrorrhagia (p = 0.039), infections (p < 0.001), HELLP (p = 0.007), PROMPT (p < 0.001) and fetal death (p = 0.024). The mode of delivery was similar but occurred mostly ≤32 weeks (p < 0.001), the birthweight was mostly <2000 g and occurred more NICU admission (p < 0.001) when surveillance was outside the MPC-MDM. Our results demonstrate the crucial importance of prenatal surveillance be carried in a differentiated referral centers with specific/strict protocols or the urgent implementation of same protocols in all other places of surveillance, since this straight surveillance greatly reduces the occurrence of prenatal complications, mainly PROMPT, PTD.

  11. A Brief Overview of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Aziz Khan, Farah; Fareed Khan, Mohammad; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It occurs in women with first or multiple pregnancies and is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Improper placentation is mainly responsible for the disease. If PE remains untreated, it moves towards more serious condition known as eclampsia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, obesity, family history, nulliparity, multiple pregnancies and thrombotic vascular disease contribute as the risk factors for PE. PE triggered metabolic stress causes vascular injury, thus contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in future. This risk appears to be increased especially in women with a history of recurrent PE and eclampsia. Clinically increased serum levels of sFlt-1 and decreased placental growth factor (PIGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent the severe condition of PE. The clinical findings of sever PE are assorted by the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction, microangiopathy, the liver (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests and low platelet count, namely HELLP syndrome) and the kidney (proteinuria). The early detection of PE is one of the most important goals in obstetrics. PMID:24400024

  12. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  13. Management of pre-eclampsia: issues for anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T

    2012-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Substandard care is often present and many deaths are preventable. The aim of this review is to summarise the key management issues for anaesthetists in the light of the current literature. A systematic literature search of electronic databases was undertaken including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, maternal, pre-eclampsia, preeclampsia, cardiac function, haemodynamics, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), eclampsia, anaesthesia, anesthesia, neuraxial. Relevant Colleges and Societies websites were examined for pertinent guidelines. The disease is defined within the context of hypertensive diseases, and early recognition of pre-eclampsia and its complications, as well as multidisciplinary expert team management is highlighted. Accurate monitoring and recording of observations including the use of transthoracic echocardiography is discussed. The importance of the treatment of systolic blood pressure>180 mmHg and the use of intravenous antihypertensive medication as well as the use of parenteral magnesium sulphate for the treatment and prevention of eclampsia is emphasised . Restricted intravenous fluid therapy and avoidance of ergometrine is discussed. Neuraxial analgesia and anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia for birth is summarised as well as postpartum management including analgesia, thromboprophylaxis, management of acute pulmonary oedema and the use of pharmacological agents in the setting of breastfeeding. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. [Thrombotic microangiopathy in pregnancy complicated by acute hemorrhagic-necrotic pancreatitis during early puerperium].

    PubMed

    Redechová, S; Féderová, L; Hammerová, L; Filkászová, A; Horváthová, D; Redecha, M

    2014-06-01

    Authors in the article describe a case of a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpurain 37 weeks gestation complicated by acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotic pancreatitis during the early puerperium. Case report. Ist Department of gynaecology and obstetrics of the Comenius University Bratislava. 33-years-old patient in the 37 weeks gestation was admitted to our department with the signs of HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets). Due to the worsening clinical status, we have performed caesarean section. After the transient stabilization of the patient's clinical status, the hemolysis with severe thrombocytopenia reappeared. Based on the clinical signs of abdominal pain and computer tomography, the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic-necrotic pancreatitis was set. The primary diagnosis was thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange was performed with consequent improvement of the patients clinical state. Normalization of the platelet count was achieved after 4.plasma exchanges. Consequently 5 plasma exchanges were performed. However, one month later, the disease relapsed. Therapeutic plasma exchanges were needed again (4x), with anti CD 20 administration. This therapy had good clinical outcome, without the need for further plasma exchanges. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is highly lethal disease. Early diagnosis, treatment, and multidisciplinary approach are essential.

  15. Recurrent pregnancy-induced diabetes insipidus in a woman with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kobielusz-Gembala, Iwona; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder in pregnant women, predating pregnancy or appearing for the first time during gestation. In pregnancy it usually affects women with HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy and results from the reduced hepatic degradation of placental vasopressinase leading to its increased activity. Although infiltrative diseases have been found to cause diabetes insipidus in non-pregnant population, very few studies showed that these disorders may manifest for the first time during gestation. We describe here the case of transient diabetes insipidus in two subsequent pregnancies of a female with hemochromatosis. The first symptoms of this disease appeared for the first time at the beginning of the third trimester of her second pregnancy, and diagnosis was established on the basis of typical clinical presentation, confirmed by a water deprivation test. Diabetes insipidus resulted from the increased activity of vasopressinase, caused by hemochromatosis-induced liver dysfunction, the presence of which was confirmed between the pregnancies by liver biopsy and identification of the HFE gene mutation. Subsequent desferrioxamine treatment resulted in a less severe clinical course of diabetes insipidus in the last patient's pregnancy. In both pregnancies, the patient was successfully treated with oral desmopressin, which is resistant to degradation by placental vasopressinase. Although unrecognized pituitary disorders may pose a serious health problem to the mother and fetus, hemochromatosis-induced diabetes insipidus, as the case of our patient demonstrates, if effectively diagnosed and treated, cannot be regarded as a contraindication for pregnancy.

  16. Breast-feeding in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Rath, Werner; Kuse, Sabine; Neumaier-Wagner, Peruka

    2005-01-01

    Breast feeding is particularly important and difficult in children born prematurely, especially after hypertensive diseases in pregnancies (HDP). Therefore, we aimed to investigate breast feeding in women who developed HDP. Data on breast-feeding was collected within a nationwide research project on psychosocial factors in HDP. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 2600 women with a suspected history of HDP and 1233 controls. After matching and confirming diagnosis according to ISSHP criteria, 877 women with HDP and 623 controls were included into the study. Control women initiated (48.9/39.2%; P<0.001) and continued (42.2/37.2%; P<0.005) breast-feeding significantly more often than women with HDP. This holds particularly for women who developed HELLP syndrome (48.9/34.7%; P<0.0001, 42.2/33.5%; P<0.0001). A delivery before the 32(nd) gestational week (19.5/81.8%; P<0.0001) and a birth weight of less than 1500 g (18.8/75%; P<0.0001) were associated with the decision not to breast-feed. Women affected by HDP breast fed significantly less often than control women. This effect is at least partly caused by the increased rate of prematurity. Encouraging and supporting these women in breast-feeding is important to improve neonatal physical and mental development.

  17. [Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Cruz, Oswaldo; Careaga Benítez, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon pathology; its incidence varies from two to six cases in 100,000 pregnancies. It has multiple etiologies and it is classified in central and neurogenic. Patients with diabetes insipidus generally show intense thirst, polyuria, neurologic symptoms and hypernatremia. It does not seem to alter the patient's fertility. Diabetes insipidus is usually associated with pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and fatty liver disease of pregnancy. This is a report of a case seen at the Hospital General de Cholula, in Puebla, Mexico. A 19 year-old female, with 37.2 weeks of pregnancy, had a history of Langerhans cell histiocytosis since she was four years. Patient was treated with intranasal desmopressin until 2005. She went to an obstetric evaluation; laboratory and cabinet studies were obtained. A healthy 1900 g female was obtained through vaginal delivery, with a 7/9 Apgar score. We should be familiarized with this uncommon pathology because of its association with several obstetric emergencies.

  18. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in pregnancy: a retrospective series of 36 patients from mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Yang, B; Huang, Q; Liu, Y

    2017-08-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with variable predisposing risk factors including preeclampsia and eclampsia since it proposed. However, studies of large case series focusing on pregnancy-related PRES are still limited. We performed a large retrospective study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES admitted to our institution. This was a single-center, 2010-2015 retrospective cohort study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES who underwent neuroimaging via magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography from mainland China. 26 of 28 women with eclampsia and 7 of 59 women with preeclampsia had confirmed PRES. A total of 36 patients were finally included as confirmed pregnancy-related PRES in this research. Acute hypertension was present in 31 patients (86%). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (81%) followed by seizures (73%), altered mental status (57%), nausea/vomiting (47%) and visual disturbance (33%). Atypical involved regions included frontal lobe (72%), temporal lobe (67%), basal ganglia (50%), cerebellum (47%), brain stem (14%) and thalamus (8%). Atypical neuroimaging features included restricted diffusion (33%), contrast enhancement (19%) and hemorrhage (19%). Comorbidities included thrombocytopenia (25%), pulmonary infection (25%), anemia (19%), fever (17%), acute renal failure (8%), HELLP syndrome (6%), DIC (6%). Most of patients recovered completely with timely diagnosis and treatment. Two patients who suffered DIC finally died. Patients with pregnancy-related PRES may present with atypical neuroimaging findings. Moreover, our data supported the view that nearly all imaged patients with eclampsia had clinical and radiologic findings of PRES.

  19. Effects of Parity on Blood Pressure among African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Chambers, Angelina N.; Funnell, Beth; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that age, ethnicity, weight, and lifestyle behaviors can affect blood pressure (BP). Co-morbid conditions such as HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), pre-eclampsia, and previous hypertension diagnosis might also be risks for chronic hypertension among women who have had children. Although parity has been linked to changes in blood pressure in White women, these findings have not been replicated among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to determine if the number of pregnancies urban African-American women have effects BMI and blood pressure readings later in life. Results indicated that women with a previous diagnosis of hypertension had higher SBP and DBP, and a slightly higher BMI than women who had never been diagnosed. Additionally, women with a prior history of hypertension had more children than those without a diagnosis of hypertension. As parity increased, SBP increased. However, DBP decreased after 3 to 4 children, even with increases in BMI. This study shows that parity may increase African-American women’s risk for hypertension in terms of increased SBP and BMI with increased parity. However, increased parity and BMI may also serve as protective factors in lowering DBP. Further studies, with larger samples followed throughout their pregnancies, is needed before more definitive statements may be drawn about the effects of parity on BMI and blood pressure readings among African-American women can be made. PMID:19397049

  20. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Hematologic Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces a number of physiologic changes that affect the hematologic indices, either directly or indirectly. Recognizing and treating hematologic disorders that occur during pregnancy is difficult owing to the paucity of evidence available to guide consultants. This paper specifically reviews the diagnosis and management of benign hematologic disorders occurring during pregnancy. Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent hematologic complication and is easily treated with oral iron formulations,; however care must be taken not to miss other causes of anemia, such as sickle cell disease. Thrombocytopenia is also a common reason for consulting the hematologist and distinguishing gestational thrombocytopenia from immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is essential since the treatment differs widely. Occasionally the management of mother and infant involves the expeditious recognition of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), a condition that is responsible for severe life-threatening bleeding of the newborn. Additionally, inherited and acquired bleeding disorders affect pregnant women disproportionately and often require careful monitoring of coagulation parameters in order to prevent bleeding in the puerperium. Finally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is still largely responsible for mortality during pregnancy and the diagnosis, treatment options and guidelines for prevention of VTE during pregnancy are explored. PMID:23953339

  2. Hematologic complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Townsley, Danielle M

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy induces a number of physiologic changes that affect the hematologic indices, either directly or indirectly. Recognizing and treating hematologic disorders that occur during pregnancy is difficult owing to the paucity of evidence available to guide consultants. This review discusses specifically the diagnosis and management of benign hematologic disorders occurring during pregnancy. Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent hematologic complication and is easily treated with oral iron formulations; however, care must be taken not to miss other causes of anemia, such as sickle cell disease. Thrombocytopenia is also a common reason for consulting the hematologist, and distinguishing gestational thrombocytopenia from immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is essential since the treatment differs widely. Occasionally the management of mother and infant involves the expeditious recognition of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), a condition that is responsible for severe life-threatening bleeding of the newborn. Additionally, inherited and acquired bleeding disorders affect pregnant women disproportionately and often require careful monitoring of coagulation parameters to prevent bleeding in the puerperium. Finally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is still largely responsible for mortality during pregnancy, and the diagnosis, treatment options and guidelines for prevention of VTE during pregnancy are explored. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Current insights into thrombotic microangiopathies: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Auer, Charis; von Krogh, Anne-Sophie; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A; Lämmle, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The complex relation between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and pregnancy is concisely reviewed. Pregnancy is a very strong trigger for acute disease manifestation in patients with hereditary TTP caused by double heterozygous or homozygous mutations of ADAMTS13 (ADisintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 domains, no. 13). In several affected women disease onset during their first pregnancy leads to the diagnosis of hereditary TTP. Without plasma treatment mother and especially fetus are at high risk of dying. The relapse risk during a next pregnancy is almost 100% but regular plasma transfusion starting in early pregnancy will prevent acute TTP flare-up and may result in successful pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy may also constitute a mild risk factor for the onset of acute acquired TTP caused by autoantibody-mediated severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. Women having survived acute acquired TTP may not be at very high risk of TTP relapse during an ensuing next pregnancy but seem to have an elevated risk of preeclampsia. Monitoring of ADAMTS13 activity and inhibitor titre during pregnancy may help to guide management and to avoid disease recurrence. Finally, TTP needs to be distinguished from the much more frequent hypertensive pregnancy complications, preeclampsia and especially HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelet count) syndrome. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jim, Belinda; Garovic, Vesna D

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (AKI) has declined in incidence in the last three decades, although it remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy-related causes of AKI such as preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver function tests, Low Platelets) syndrome, and the thrombotic microangiopathies (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome [HUS]) exhibit overlapping features and often present as diagnostic dilemmas. Differentiating among these conditions may be difficult or impossible based on clinical criteria only. In difficult and rare cases, a renal biopsy may need to be considered for the exact diagnosis and to facilitate appropriate treatment, but the risks and benefits need to be carefully weighed. The use of eculizumab for the treatment of atypical HUS has demonstrated efficacy in early case reports. Non-pregnancy related causes such as volume depletion and pyelonephritis require early and aggressive resuscitative as well as antibiotic measures respectively. We will discuss in this review the various etiologies of AKI in pregnancy, current diagnostic approaches, and the latest treatment strategies. Given the recent trends of increasing maternal age at the time of pregnancy, and the availability of modern reproductive methods increase the risks of AKI in pregnancy in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Etiology, clinical features and outcome of fulminant hepatic failure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brohi, Zahida Parveen; Sadaf, Aneela; Perveen, Uzma

    2013-09-01

    To determine the etiology, clinical features and outcome of fulminant hepatic failure in pregnancy. An observational hospital based study was conducted at Isra University hospital Hyderabad from 1st March 2009 to 28th February 2010. Total 1192 obstetric patients were admitted in obstetrics & gynaecology department during this period, of whom 52 were with Fulminant hepatic failure in pregnancy and were included in this study. A pre-designed structured proforma was used. All patients had clinical history and underwent a physical examination. Routine laboratory tests, liver function tests and viral serology were performed in all cases. All results were analyzed on statistical software SPSS version 11. Frequencies and percentages were calculated, the final outcome was recorded. Out of 52, 6 (11.5%) presented in the first trimester, 4 (7.6%) in the second trimester and 42 (80.7%) were in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Etiology of the disease was Hepatitis E in 28 (53.8%), Hepatitis B in 9 (17.3%), Hepatitis C in 7 (13.5%) HELLP syndrome in 7 (13.5%) and acute fatty liver of pregnancy in 1 (3.57%) case. Maternal mortality was 15 (28.8%) and foetal mortality was 40 (77%). Only 12 (23.1%) new born remained alive. Fulminant hepatic failure in pregnancy has very high foetal and maternal mortality which is mostly due to viral hepatitis E.

  6. A brief overview of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Aziz Khan, Farah; Fareed Khan, Mohammad; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-02-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It occurs in women with first or multiple pregnancies and is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Improper placentation is mainly responsible for the disease. If PE remains untreated, it moves towards more serious condition known as eclampsia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, obesity, family history, nulliparity, multiple pregnancies and thrombotic vascular disease contribute as the risk factors for PE. PE triggered metabolic stress causes vascular injury, thus contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in future. This risk appears to be increased especially in women with a history of recurrent PE and eclampsia. Clinically increased serum levels of sFlt-1 and decreased placental growth factor (PIGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent the severe condition of PE. The clinical findings of sever PE are assorted by the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction, microangiopathy, the liver (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests and low platelet count, namely HELLP syndrome) and the kidney (proteinuria). The early detection of PE is one of the most important goals in obstetrics.

  7. [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Berlit, P

    2016-02-01

    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The Sheehan syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism post partum due to apoplexia of the pituitary gland in severe peripartal blood loss leading to longstanding hypotension. Some neurological disorders occur during pregnancy and puerperium with an increased frequency. These include stroke, sinus thrombosis, the restless legs syndrome and peripheral nerve syndromes, especially the carpal tunnel syndrome. Chronic neurologic diseases need an interdisciplinary approach during pregnancy. Some anticonvulsants double the risk of birth defects. The highest risk exists for valproic acid, the lowest for lamotrigine and levetiracetam. For MS interval treatment, glatiramer acetate and interferones seem to be safe during pregnancy. All other drugs should be avoided. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Thrombophilia and pregnancy complications: cause or association?

    PubMed

    Middeldorp, S

    2007-07-01

    Both acquired and inherited thrombophilia is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy failure (i.e. sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, late fetal loss), as well as hypertensive pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. The question of whether this relationship can be considered causal is rather philosophical. For practical purposes, the consistency and strengths of associations, potential mechanisms and, most importantly, the possibility to intervene with anticoagulants are reviewed. Relevant methodological issues in the case of thrombophilia and pregnancy complications consist of differences between observational and experimental research and quality issues in randomized controlled trials. The mechanisms associating thrombophilia and pregnancy complications are likely to involve effects on trophoblast differentiation rather than mere hypercoagulability. Therapeutic options comprise aspirin as well as (low molecular weight) heparin. For women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, this treatment is often suggested although the evidence is limited. For women with inherited thrombophilia and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss, at present there is no evidence supporting treatment. Observational research is hampered by severe methodological flaws or inconsistent results. Two published randomized trials have not used an adequate comparator (i.e. no treatment or placebo). Currently, randomized controlled trials with no treatment or placebo are being carried out and results should be awaited before implementing a potentially harmful intervention in pregnant women with inherited thrombophilia and a history of pregnancy complications.

  9. Women's Experiences of Preeclampsia: Australian Action on Preeclampsia Survey of Women and Their Confidants

    PubMed Central

    East, C.; Conway, K.; Pollock, W.; Frawley, N.; Brennecke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The experience of normal pregnancy is often disrupted for women with preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods. Postal survey of the 112 members of the consumer group, Australian Action on Pre-Eclampsia (AAPEC). Results. Surveys were returned by 68 women (61% response rate) and from 64 (57%) partners, close relatives or friends. Respondents reported experiencing pre-eclampsia (n = 53), eclampsia (n = 5), and/or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome) (n = 26). Many women had no knowledge of PE prior to diagnosis (77%) and, once diagnosed, did not appreciate how serious or life threatening it was (50%). Women wanted access to information about PE. Their experience contributed substantial anxiety towards future pregnancies. Partners/friends/relatives expressed fear for the woman and/or her baby and had no prior understanding of PE. Conclusions. The PE experience had a substantial effect on women, their confidants, and their babies and affected their approach to future pregnancies. Access to information about PE was viewed as very important. PMID:21547089

  10. Cognitive functioning and insight in schizophrenia and in schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, Nadia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Crivelli, Barbara; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Rocca, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.

  11. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  12. Association between adverse pregnancy outcome and imbalance in angiogenic regulators and oxidative stress biomarkers in gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Cornelius A; Sakyi, Samuel A; Owiredu, William K B A; Ephraim, Richard K D; Anto, Enoch O

    2015-08-25

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and Preeclampsia, (PE) are the most complicated amongst hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The mechanism that links hypertension in pregnancy to adverse maternal outcomes is not fully understood though some relate this to endothelial dysfunction originating from an imbalanced angiogenic regulators and oxidative stress biomarkers. This study assessed the correlation between angiogenic regulators and oxidative stress biomarker levels with adverse pregnancy outcomes among GH and PE participants. A cohort of pregnant women who received antenatal care at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) were followed. During their antenatal visits, 100 developed PE and 70 developed GE, of these, 50 PE and 50 GH gave informed consent. Their blood samples were taken at time of diagnosis and 48 h post-partum. 50 other aged-matched women who did not develop neither GH nor PE were selected as controls. Placental growth factor (PLGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-epi-PGF2α) levels were estimated by ELISA and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was measured spectrophotometrically. Graphpad Prism was used for data analysis. Median levels of sFlt-1, 8-epi-PGF2α and sFlt-1/PLGF were elevated among participants with PE co-existing with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental abruptio, placental previa, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared to PE without adverse outcomes (p = 0.041, p = 0.005, p = 0.0002). Levels of PLGF, T-AOC and PLGF/sFlt-1 were significantly reduced among participants with PE co-existing with IUFD, placental abruptio, placental previa, HELLP syndrome and IUGR compared to PE without adverse outcomes (p = 0.0013, p = 0.006, p < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation of IUGR (p = 0.0030; p < 0.0001), placental abruptio (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001), IUFD (p < 0.0001; p

  13. Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes and Outcome of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the German Neonatal Network

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Kathrin; Hartz, Annika; Manz, Maike; Bendiks, Meike; Heitmann, Friedhelm; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Müller, Andreas; Olbertz, Dirk; Kühn, Thomas; Siegel, Jens; von der Wense, Axel; Wieg, Christian; Kribs, Angela; Stein, Anja; Pagel, Julia; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang; Härtel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objective It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants < 32 weeks of gestation. Design Observational, epidemiological study design. Setting Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN). Population 6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age. Results PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03) but not with other major outcomes. Conclusions The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM. PMID:25856083

  14. Pregnancy outcome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome comparing the effects of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and clomiphene citrate stimulation in women pre-treated with metformin: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovarian stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk for perinatal complications. Ovulation induction by laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) might improve the overall pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the adverse events or effects on pregnancy of LOD and clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation in patients who received metformin. Methods Setting: Academic research institution. We retrospectively analyzed the courses of 40 spontaneous pregnancies after LOD for CC-resistance, 40 pregnancies after CC stimulation, and 40 pregnancies after metformin treatment alone. Patients in the LOD and the CC groups had been pre-treated with Metformin. Primary outcome parameters were: the rate of multiple pregnancies; the rate of early pregnancy losses/miscarriages; the development of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia/HELLP-syndrome; premature delivery; and birth weight. Results The rate of twin pregnancies did not differ between the CC group (12.5%), the LOD group (7.5%), and the metformin only group (2.5%, p = 0.239). Seventeen women suffered an early miscarriage. There were no differences with regard to the rates of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. By analyzing all pregnancy complications together, the overall pregnancy complication rate was highest in the CC group (70.0%, 28/40), followed by the LOD group (45.0%, 18/40), and the metformin only group (47.5%, 19/40; p = 0.047). Conclusions CC, but not LOD, increases the complication rate in pregnant patients who received metformin. PMID:20465786

  15. Pregnancy outcome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome comparing the effects of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and clomiphene citrate stimulation in women pre-treated with metformin: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ott, Johannes; Kurz, Christine; Nouri, Kazem; Wirth, Stefan; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Huber, Johannes C; Mayerhofer, Klaus

    2010-05-13

    Ovarian stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk for perinatal complications. Ovulation induction by laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) might improve the overall pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the adverse events or effects on pregnancy of LOD and clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation in patients who received metformin. Academic research institution. We retrospectively analyzed the courses of 40 spontaneous pregnancies after LOD for CC-resistance, 40 pregnancies after CC stimulation, and 40 pregnancies after metformin treatment alone. Patients in the LOD and the CC groups had been pre-treated with Metformin. Primary outcome parameters were: the rate of multiple pregnancies; the rate of early pregnancy losses/miscarriages; the development of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia/HELLP-syndrome; premature delivery; and birth weight. The rate of twin pregnancies did not differ between the CC group (12.5%), the LOD group (7.5%), and the metformin only group (2.5%, p=0.239). Seventeen women suffered an early miscarriage. There were no differences with regard to the rates of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. By analyzing all pregnancy complications together, the overall pregnancy complication rate was highest in the CC group (70.0%, 28/40), followed by the LOD group (45.0%, 18/40), and the metformin only group (47.5%, 19/40; p=0.047). CC, but not LOD, increases the complication rate in pregnant patients who received metformin.

  16. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Torrance, H L; Bloemen, M C T; Mulder, E J H; Nikkels, P G J; Derks, J B; de Vries, L S; Visser, G H A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight < 10(th) percentile, gestational age at delivery < 34 weeks and abnormal Doppler ultrasound examination of the UA. Various antenatal and perinatal variables were studied in relation to short- and long-term outcome. Neonatal and overall mortality (up to 2 years of age) were predicted by low gestational age at delivery. Neonatal mortality was additionally predicted by absent or reversed UA end-diastolic flow, while the presence of severe neonatal complications and placental villitis were additional predictors of both infant (between 28 days and 1 year of postnatal life) and overall mortality. Placental villitis was found to be the only predictor of necrotizing enterocolitis. Low gestational age at delivery, male sex, abnormal cardiotocography, absent or reversed UA end-diastolic flow and the HELLP syndrome predicted respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years was predicted by low birth weight (< 2.3(rd) percentile), fetal acidosis (UA pH < 7.00), and placental villitis. Less advanced gestation at delivery remains an important predictor of short-term outcome in growth-restricted fetuses. In addition, the presence of placental villitis may aid neonatologists in the early identification of infants at increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, death and abnormal neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Abnormal neurodevelopment was related to low weight and acidosis at birth, indicating that the severity of malnutrition and fetal acidosis affect long-term outcome.

  17. Transient CD15-positive endothelial phenotype in the human placenta correlates with physiological and pathological fetoplacental immaturity.

    PubMed

    Seidmann, L; Suhan, T; Unger, R; Gerein, V; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2014-09-01

    Placental growth and villous maturation are critical parameters of placental function at the end of pregnancy. A failure in these processes leads to the development of placental dysfunction, as well as fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the study was to determine the relevant diagnostic markers associated with pathological placental development. Forty tissue samples from normal placentas of different gestational age and 68 pathological term placentas with defective villous maturation (GDM, idiopathic IUFD, preeclamsia, HELLP syndrome) comprised the comparative immunohistochemical study (CD15, CD45 and CD34). Positive immunohistochemical reactions were quantitatively assessed in the chorionic plate and vessels of the villi of different histological type. Physiologically immature placentas of the first and second trimester and pathologically immature term placentas were characterized by marked endothelial CD15-immunostaining. A significant loss of CD15-positive endothelium of the placentas was associated with a physiological and accelerated villous maturity. A spatio-temporal correlation was shown for CD15+ endothelial cells (ECs) and the number of CD45+ stromal cells (SCs). A negative temporal correlation was shown for CD15+ ECs and CD15+ myelomonocytes in the fetal blood. CD34 expression in the ECs was stable during the pregnancy. A correlation between a transient CD15-positive endothelial phenotype and a physiological and pathological fetoplacental immaturity was demonstrated. Physiological and accelerated placental maturation was accompanied by a significant disappearance of CD15-positive endothelium. We propose that "immature" CD15+ endothelium is an important diagnostic marker of the physiological and pathological fetoplacental immaturity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Genital Anomalies in Boys: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Parner, Erik T; Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2018-06-14

    Although congenital abnormalities in the male reproductive tract are common, their causes remain poorly understood. We studied associations between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-gestational hypertension, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia) and the genital anomalies, cryptorchidism (undescended testes), and hypospadias (ventrally displaced urethral meatus). We established a population of 1,073,026 Danish boys born alive between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 2012. By means of Cox regression analyses, we estimated hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for cryptorchidism and hypospadias according to type and severity of hypertensive disorder. Further, we used restricted cubic spline analyses to investigate the association between gestational age at onset of severe and moderate preeclampsia and the two genital anomalies. We found associations between pre-gestational hypertension and cryptorchidism [HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6)] and hypospadias [HR: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.3)], whereas gestational hypertension was only associated with cryptorchidism [HR: 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4)]. Boys of mothers with preeclampsia had the highest occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias, increasing with preeclampsia severity. Women with HELLP syndrome faced the highest risk of having a child with both cryptorchidism [HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2)] and hypospadias [HR: 3.9 (95% CI: 2.5, 6.1)]. Further, the occurrence increased with early onset of preeclampsia diagnosis. These findings support the hypotheses that preeclampsia and genital anomalies share common etiologic factors and that placental dysfunction and androgen deficiency in early pregnancy are important in the etiology of male genital anomalies.

  19. [Occurence, etiology and clinical significance of trombocytopenia in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Brychtová, P; Procházka, M; Lattová, V; Lubušký, M; Procházková, J; Slavík, L; Úlehlová, J; Simetka, O

    2013-12-01

    The principal objective of the study is to compare results from the experimental group of pregnant women suffering from thrombocytopenia in pregnancy with results from the control group of pregnant women with normal physiologic blood platelet count. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Tomas Bata Regional Hospital Zlín, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Haematology and Oncology Clinic of the Palacky University Teaching Hospital and Medical School in Olomouc, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic of the Ostrava Teaching Hospital. A group of 200 pregnant women suffering from thrombocytopenia underwent thorough medical tests. The level of platelets, presence of anti-platelets agents, liver function (LFT), anti-phospholipid antibodies, complete blood count with differential, specific antibodies for hepatitis B and C, Lyme borreliosis and cytomegalovirus were determined from venous blood using the EIA, ELISA methods. Medical articles and books about thrombocytopenia divide the causes for thrombocytopenia as follows: 79.5% benign gestational thrombocytopenia, 16% preeclampsia, 2.5% HELLP syndrome, 1% immune thrombocytopenia, 1% HVC. The number of women who developed physiological anaemia in pregnancy and were overweight is identical in the experimental group of pregnant women suffering from thrombocytopenia and in the control group of pregnant women with normal physiologic blood platelet count, and the proportion of the different age groups in the two groups of pregnant women is also identical. 32% of pregnancies in the experimental group ended in a caesarean section, of which 13.5% in a group of 127 pregnant women suffering from mild thrombocytopenia, 17.5% in a group of 71 pregnant women suffering from moderate thrombocytopenia and 1% in a group of 2 pregnant women suffering from severe thrombocytopenia. 20.5% pregnancies in the control group ended in caesarean section.

  20. Maternal serum uric acid level and maternal and neonatal complications in preeclamptic women: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Kazemi, Soudabeh; Pourmarzi, Davood; Mahdipour Keivani, Mina; Dalil Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It has been indicated that increased uric acid might have a predictive role on preeclampsia. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of uric acid with maternal and neonatal complications in women with preeclampsia. In this cross-sectional study, 160 singleton preeclamptic women at more than 28 wk gestational age were included. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, liver and uric acid tests, and maternal and neonatal complications were assessed. The severity of preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm labor, thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), HELLP syndrome, eclampsia and required hospitalization in the ICU was considered as the maternal complication. Fetal complications were: small for gestational age (SGA), intrauterine fetal death, hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, and Apgar score <7 at five minutes. Of our participants, 38 women had severe preeclampsia (23.8%). The mean level of uric acid in women with severe preeclampsia was significantly higher than non-severe preeclampsia (p=0.031), also in those with an abnormal liver test (p=0.009). The mean level of uric acid in women with preterm delivery was significantly higher than women with term delivery (p=0.0001). Also, the level of uric acid had no effect on neonatal hospitalization in neonate invasive care unit. Based on logistic regression, the incidence of severe preeclampsia not affected by decreased or increased serum levels of uric acid. With higher level of uric acid in server preeclampsia we can expected more complications such as hepatic dysfunction and preterm delivery. Thus serum uric acid measurement can be helpful marker for severe preeclampsia.

  1. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes of Pregnancies in Women with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaggl, Martina; Aigner, Christof; Csuka, Dorottya; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Prohászka, Zoltán; Kain, Renate; Haninger, Natalja; Knechtelsdorfer, Maarten; Sunder-Plassmann, Raute; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Schmidt, Alice

    2018-03-01

    Atypical HUS (aHUS) is a disorder most commonly caused by inherited defects of the alternative pathway of complement, or the proteins that regulate this pathway, and life-threatening episodes of aHUS can be provoked by pregnancy. We retrospectively and prospectively investigated 27 maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes in 14 women with aHUS from the Vienna Thrombotic Microangiopathy Cohort. Seven pregnancies (26%) were complicated by pregnancy-associated aHUS (p-aHUS), of which three appeared to be provoked by infection, bleeding, and curettage, and three individuals were considered to have preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome before the definitive diagnosis of p-aHUS was made. Mutations in genes that encode the complement alternative pathway proteins or the molecules that regulate this pathway were detected in 71% of the women, with no relationship to pregnancy outcome. Twenty-one pregnancies (78%) resulted in a live birth, two preterm infants were stillborn, and four pregnancies resulted in early spontaneous abortions. Although short-term renal outcome was good in most women, long-term renal outcome was poor; among the 14 women, four had CKD stage 1-4, five had received a renal allograft, and three were dialysis-dependent at study end. We prospectively followed nine pregnancies of four women and treated six of these pregnancies with prophylactic plasma infusions (one pregnancy resulted in p-aHUS, one intrauterine fetal death occurred, and seven pregancies were uneventful). Our study emphasizes the frequency of successful pregnancies in women with aHUS. Close monitoring of such pregnancies for episodes of thrombotic microangiopathy is essential but, the best strategy to prevent these episodes remains unclear. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Baumfeld, Yael; Herskovitz, Reli; Niv, Zehavi Bar; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group. A composite outcome was created to include conditions associated with placental insufficiency. It included hypertensive disorders (i.e. gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, HELLP and eclampsia), small for gestational age neonates and placental abruption. Patients with pregnancy complicated by placenta previa had significantly different obstetrical characteristics including bad obstetric history (8% vs. 4%, p < 0.001), recurrent abortions (11% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Patients with placenta previa had higher rates of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy (3% vs. 0%, p < 0.001), gestational diabetes (8% vs. 5.5%, p < 0.001), placental abruption (10% vs. 1%, p < 0.001), adherent placenta (4% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001), preterm delivery (52% vs. 8%, p < 0.001), with a median gestational age of 36 vs. 39 weeks, p < 0.001. The composite outcome was significantly more prevalent in the placenta previa group (21% vs. 13%, p < 0,001). Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Maternal vascular malperfusion of the placental bed associated with hypertensive disorders in the Boston Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bustamante Helfrich, Blandine; Chilukuri, Nymisha; He, Huan; Cerda, Sandra R; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Pearson, Colleen; Burd, Irina; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-04-01

    The associations of maternal conditions, before or during pregnancy, with placental lesions have not been adequately studied in populations. In the Boston Birth Cohort, we evaluated associations between three maternal medical conditions (hypertensive disorders [HDs], gestational/pre-gestational diabetes and obesity), and placental histological findings, using a standardized classification system proposed by the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group. Placental pathology diagnoses and clinical data from 3074 mothers with clinical indications who delivered singleton live births at the Boston Medical Center between October 1998 and November 2013 were evaluated. Associations between each maternal condition and maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) of the placental bed and its standardized subgroups were examined using multivariate logistic and multinomial regressions. Women with HDs (chronic hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome) had significantly increased odds of MVM lesions when compared to women with no HD (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.74-2.50), after adjusting for demographics, substance use, diabetes and body mass index. No significant differences in frequencies or aORs were seen in women with and without diabetes, or across body mass index categories. Co-morbid condition patterns that included HDs were more likely to be associated with MVM than those without. Using a standardized classification system, we showed that MVM is strongly and specifically associated with maternal HDs, but not other maternal conditions. Additional studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings, and evaluate the role of maternal vascular lesions of the placental bed in relation to postnatal growth and development of the offspring and effect modifiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry.

    PubMed

    Butwick, A J; El-Sayed, Y Y; Blumenfeld, Y J; Osmundson, S S; Weiniger, C F

    2015-08-01

    Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24(+0) and 36(+6) weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7-2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2-1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2-3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1-3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia after 36 weeks' gestation (HYPITAT): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Corine M; Bijlenga, Denise; Groen, Henk; Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Bekedam, Dick J; van den Berg, Paul P; de Boer, Karin; Burggraaff, Jan M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Drogtrop, Addy P; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kwee, Anneke; van Loon, Aren J; Lub, Annemiek; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; van der Post, Joris A M; Roumen, Frans J M E; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Willekes, Christine; Mol, Ben W J; van Pampus, Maria G

    2009-09-19

    Robust evidence to direct management of pregnant women with mild hypertensive disease at term is scarce. We investigated whether induction of labour in women with a singleton pregnancy complicated by gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia reduces severe maternal morbidity. We undertook a multicentre, parallel, open-label randomised controlled trial in six academic and 32 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands between October, 2005, and March, 2008. We enrolled patients with a singleton pregnancy at 36-41 weeks' gestation, and who had gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio by block randomisation with a web-based application system to receive either induction of labour or expectant monitoring. Masking of intervention allocation was not possible. The primary outcome was a composite measure of poor maternal outcome--maternal mortality, maternal morbidity (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pulmonary oedema, thromboembolic disease, and placental abruption), progression to severe hypertension or proteinuria, and major post-partum haemorrhage (>1000 mL blood loss). Analysis was by intention to treat and treatment effect is presented as relative risk. This study is registered, number ISRCTN08132825. 756 patients were allocated to receive induction of labour (n=377 patients) or expectant monitoring (n=379). 397 patients refused randomisation but authorised use of their medical records. Of women who were randomised, 117 (31%) allocated to induction of labour developed poor maternal outcome compared with 166 (44%) allocated to expectant monitoring (relative risk 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86, p<0.0001). No cases of maternal or neonatal death or eclampsia were recorded. Induction of labour is associated with improved maternal outcome and should be advised for women with mild hypertensive disease beyond 37 weeks' gestation. ZonMw.

  6. [Post-partum eclampsia: epidemiology and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Sabiri, B; Moussalit, A; Salmi, S; El Youssoufi, S; Miguil, M

    2007-05-01

    The post-partum eclampsia occurs usually in the first 48 hours, its incidence is between 13 and 37% of all eclampsia. The goal of this prospective study was to analyse the epidemiologic data and the prognosis of this complication in the post-partum stage. We enrolled between January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2003 all eclampsia admitted to the intensive care unit of the maternity of the university hospital centre Ibn Rochd of Casablanca, Morocco. We noted for each patient epidemiologic, clinical, biological and radiologic data. We releaved outcomoe also. Two groups are individualized: 1) group 1 (N=247): when eclampsia diagnosed in the prepartum stage; 2) group 2 (N=58): when crisis diagnosed in the post-partum stage. We compared the groups (student test), p<0.05 was significative. The incidence of eclampsia in the post-partum in this study was 19% (58 over 305). Eighty-two percent had the crisis in the first 24 hours; we noted a crisis in the sixth, seventh and lately in the sixtieth day. The major proportion of patients are nulliparous (64%), young (mean age: 24 years), without prenatal care, and has high blood pressure (48%), low GCS (mean: 12) and massive proteinuria>3 g/24 hours (37%). The post-partum eclampsia has best out come than these occurring in prepartum, with significantly (p<0.05) less high blood pressure, hellp syndrome and less placental abruption. Eclampsia is still frequent in our service; it seems less bad when occurring in the post-partum stage. We must give more attention for severe preeclamptic patient in this period.

  7. The lost children.

    PubMed

    Smith, S

    1999-03-01

    Women who have lost children to perinatal complications, are subjected to pain and grief continuously; however their agony increases on remembrance days such as birthdate, or on Mother's Day. Fathers, siblings and grandparents suffer too. Common disorders of pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), or the more serious pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia, can lead to devastating effects such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death; or at the very least, a sick infant. With many of these consequences, the loss of the dreams, hopes and plans that parents have made is imminent. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of 'high-risk' pregnancy has never been fully addressed. However, the threat of loss, or the actual experience, may provoke the onset of a potential psychological crisis during the perinatal period. Therefore, it is important that these issues be addressed by the nurse in order to aid the development of coping mechanisms to enable women and their families to deal with what may happen. This may be done by predicting the stages of the bereavement process experienced by these women and their family members, as outlined in the Kubler-Ross model of bereavement (1969), which is indicative of many types of grief reactions. Other issues including the restriction in activity, uncertainty of pregnancy outcomes, disruption in work or career activities, financial strains, and reduced labour and birthing options, become concerns for high-risk pregnant women. The way women deal with these issues and the pathways nurses can take to help these women develop effective coping strategies, will be addressed also.

  8. [Perinatal result with conservative treatment in preeclampsia-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; de León-Ponce, Manuel Díaz; González-Vargas, Angel; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Conservative treatment in severe preeclampsia has been documented by several authors citing significant improvement in neonatal outcome lacking a significant increase in maternal complications. Our objective was to inform of our preliminary results using protocolized conservative management in women with preeclampsia-eclampsia, favoring better neonate conditions. We included 34 patients with average age of 28.2 years with documented severe preeclampsia-eclampsia complicating a 36-weeks or less pregnancy, admitted in the obstetric intensive care unit (OICU) between October 2001 and February 2002. Patients received protocolized management consisting of intravascular colume expansion, anti-hypertensive control, target organ protection, monitoring, and clinical observation. We considered conservative management as a 24 or more period offered to patients with satisfactory response to medical treatment and no evidence of binomial compromise. Of our group, 85% corresponded to severe preeclampsia, 9% to eclampsia, 3% to imminence of eclampsia, and 3% to HELLP syndrome. Average stay in OICU was 5.5 days with 3.5 days average management before pregnancy was interrupted. These patients presented mean gestational age of 32.8 weeks during which we observed anemia, low platelets, D dimmer increments, MAP average of 112.8, PCOc 18.6, and BI 0.15. We obtained 36 live newborns of whom 12% four died, two were extremely immatures (510 g and 600 g, respectively); one 980-g newborn presented intraventricular hemorrhage, and a 1,450-g newborn had multiple organ failure. Conservative treatment in patients with severe preeclampsia-eclampsia is a feasible alternative in hospitals with an ICU. Conservative management can improve neonatal survival and prognosis in preterm newborns.

  9. Strokes Associated With Pregnancy and Puerperium: A Nationwide Study by the Japan Stroke Society.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Takahashi, Jun C; Takenobu, Yohei; Suzuki, Norihiro; Ogawa, Akira; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    The incidence and cause of strokes associated with pregnancy and the puerperium are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterize pregnancy-related strokes in Japan using a large-scale survey with current imaging techniques. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on clinical chart reviews in 736 stroke teaching hospitals certified by the Japan Stroke Society between 2012 and 2013, using a web-based questionnaire requesting the detailed clinical course without any personally identifying information. The collection rate of this questionnaire was 70.5%, with 151 pregnancy-associated strokes extracted. Hemorrhagic strokes were observed in 111 cases (73.5%), ischemic strokes in 37 (24.5%), and mixed type in 3 cases (2.0%). The estimated incidence of pregnancy-associated stroke was 10.2 per 100 000 deliveries. Major causes of hemorrhage were aneurysm (19.8%), arteriovenous malformation (17.1%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (11.7%), and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) (8.1%). Preexisting cerebrovascular diseases responsible for hemorrhage were detected in 59 cases (53.1%). Among the ischemic strokes, 28 (75.7%) were arterial and 9 (24.3%) were venous infarctions. The most frequent cause of arterial infarctions was reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Hemorrhagic stroke showed much poorer prognosis than ischemic stroke. The incidence of pregnancy-associated stroke in Japan did not seem higher than that in other Asian and Western countries. The proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among Japanese women was much higher than that in white women. Preexisting cerebrovascular diseases and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome play a key role in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, respectively. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Circulating cell-derived microparticles in severe preeclampsia and in fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Palacio-Garcia, Carles; Farran-Codina, Immaculada; Ruiz-Romance, Mar; Llurba, Elisa; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2012-02-01

    The behavior of the circulating microparticles (cMP) in severe preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) is disputed. METHOD OF STUDY  Non-matched case-control study. Seventy cases of severe PE/HELLP/FGR were compared to 38 healthy pregnant women. Twenty healthy non-pregnant women acted as a control. cMP were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results are given as total (annexin-A5-ANXA5+), platelet (CD41+), leukocyte (CD45+), endothelial (CD144+CD31+//CD41-), and CD41-negative cMP/μL of plasma. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were analyzed through usual methods. Platelet and endothelial cMP increased in healthy pregnant women. PE whole group (PE±FGR) showed an increase in endothelial and CD41-negative, but not in platelet-derived, cMP. Comparing PE whole group versus healthy pregnant, we found cMP levels of endothelial and CD41- had increased. The cMP results obtained in PE group were similar to those of the PE whole group. Comparing PE group to isolated FGR, significant CD41-negative cMP increase was found in PE. According to its aPL positivity, a trend to decrease in leukocyte and endothelial-derived cMP was found in PE group. Normal pregnancy is accompanied by endothelial and platelet cell activation. Endothelial cell activation has been shown in PE but not in isolated FGR. In PE, aPL may contribute to endothelial and possibly to leukocyte cell activation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-Type 1 (-675 4G/5G) Polymorphism with Pre-Eclampsia: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessie A.; Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive generation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. The PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) promoter polymorphism (rs1799889) affects transcriptional activity and is a putative genetic risk factor for pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was identify, appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the association of the PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) polymorphism with pre-eclampsia. Methods Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Results We found 12 eligible genetic association studies in which a total of 1511 women with pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome and 3492 controls participated. The studies were generally small (median number of cases 102, range 24 to 403) and underpowered to detect plausible association sizes. Meta-analysis of all of the studies detected statistically significant gene-disease associations in the recessive [pooled odds ratio 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.09, 1.50); population attributable risk 7.7%] and dominant [pooled odds ratio 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.44); population attributable risk 13.7%] models. We did not find evidence of statistical heterogeneity, funnel plot asymmetry or small study bias. Conclusions These data suggest that the fibrinolytic pathway regulated by the PAI-1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. This association, if confirmed in larger genetic association studies, may inform research efforts to develop novel interventions or help to prioritise therapeutic targets that merit evaluation in randomised clinical trials. PMID:23457639

  12. Maternal near miss and death among women with severe hypertensive disorders: a Brazilian multicenter surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Elvira; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Costa, Maria Laura; Haddad, Samira Maerrawi; Sousa, Maria Helena; E Silva, Joao Luiz Pinto; Souza, Joao Paulo; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme

    2014-01-16

    Hypertensive disorders represent the major cause of maternal morbidity in middle income countries. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with severe maternal outcomes in women with severe hypertensive disorders. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study, including 6706 women with severe hypertensive disorder from 27 maternity hospitals in Brazil. A prospective surveillance of severe maternal morbidity with data collected from medical charts and entered into OpenClinica®, an online system, over a one-year period (2009 to 2010). Women with severe preeclampsia, severe hypertension, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome were included in the study. They were grouped according to outcome in near miss, maternal death and potentially life-threatening condition. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for cluster effect for maternal and perinatal variables and delays in receiving obstetric care were calculated as risk estimates of maternal complications having a severe maternal outcome (near miss or death). Poisson multiple regression analysis was also performed. Severe hypertensive disorders were the main cause of severe maternal morbidity (6706/9555); the prevalence of near miss was 4.2 cases per 1000 live births, there were 8.3 cases of Near Miss to 1 Maternal Death and the mortality index was 10.7% (case fatality). Early onset of the disease and postpartum hemorrhage were independent variables associated with severe maternal outcomes, in addition to acute pulmonary edema, previous heart disease and delays in receiving secondary and tertiary care. In women with severe hypertensive disorders, the current study identified situations independently associated with a severe maternal outcome, which could be modified by interventions in obstetric care and in the healthcare system. Furthermore, the study showed the feasibility of a hospital system for surveillance of severe maternal morbidity.

  13. Characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in young and elderly gravidas with hypertensive disease.

    PubMed

    Rymer-Haskel, Noa; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Hass, Yigal; Rahav, Roni; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Hendler, Israel

    2018-06-01

    Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with increased risk for preeclampsia, however, a paucity of data exists regarding the characteristics of the disease in this age group. Our aim was to compare the characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in older and younger gravidas. A retrospective, small case control study of women diagnosed with preeclampsia in a single tertiary care center. Nulliparous women ≥40 years old with singleton pregnancies ≥ 24 0/7 weeks' gestation were matched (1:2 ratio) with young (20-34 years old) nulliparous women. The rate of severe preeclampsia (60.9 vs 69.6% respectively), HELLP, eclampsia or the need for magnesium treatment did not differ between the groups. However, the AMA group had an increased rate of postpartum presentation or exacerbation of preeclampsia compared to the control group (50.0 vs. 28.3% respectively, p = 0.01). In the AMA group, 93.5% of births were by cesarean section (CS) compared to 52.2% in the control group (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in birthweight, rate of small for gestational age or composite neonatal morbidity between the groups. Preeclampsia at an advanced maternal age carries a similar rate of severe preeclampsia and complications as in young women. However, women over 40 years old have an increased risk for presentation or exacerbation of preeclampsia in the postpartum period and an increased rate of CS compared to younger gravidas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Updated Etiology and Significance of Elevated Bilirubin During Pregnancy: Changes Parallel Shift in Demographics and Vaccination Status.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Sangeethapriya; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Mcintire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth; Mayo, Marlyn J

    2017-02-01

    The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus. Clinical data from all pregnant women who delivered an infant between 2005 and 2011 at a single hospital in Dallas, Texas, were ascertained using prospectively collected computerized databases. Women with elevated total bilirubin (>1.2 mg/dl) were analyzed to determine the cause of hyperbilirubinemia and maternal and fetal outcomes. Out of a total of 80,857 consecutive deliveries, there were 397 (0.5 %) pregnancies with hyperbilirubinemia. The most common etiology was gallstones (98/397 = 25 %), followed by preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP (94/397 = 24 %) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (53/397 = 13 %). Adverse infant outcomes, including stillbirths, fetal malformations, neonatal deaths, and small for gestational age births, were more common in the women with hyperbilirubinemia during pregnancy, but there were no maternal deaths. Acute viral hepatitis is no longer a common cause of jaundice in pregnant women in the US. In the current era, gallstones and preeclampsia-related disorders are the most common causes of jaundice in pregnant women. Disorders that cause elevated maternal bilirubin during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for the fetus.

  15. Etiology and outcome of acute renal failure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Irfana; Junejo, Abdul Manan; Dawani, Manohar Lal

    2009-11-01

    To determine the etiology and outcome of Acute Renal Failure (ARF) in pregnancy. A case series. Nephrology Department of the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2007 to July 2008. Pregnant women who were healthy previously and had developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria (urine output <400 ml/day) and mounting azotemia (serum creatinine > 2 mg%) were included in the study. Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed for delayed recovery, i.e. after three weeks. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months. Percentages were calculated for qualitative variables i.e. causes of ARF, mortality, morbidity and outcome in form of complete recovery, partial recovery, demise and non-recovery. A total of 43 patients with pregnancy-related ARF were included in the study. The puerperal group comprised 36 patients (83.7%). Haemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 25 (58.1%), antepartum haemorrhage APH in 8 (18.6%) and postpartum haemorrhage PPH in 16 (37.2%) of patients. In 12 (27.9%), puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while 4 (9.3%) patients had DIC on presentation. Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 5 (11.6%). While 1 (2.3%) was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome and another one was diagnosed as ARF secondary to hypotension produced by hyperemesis gravidarum. Renal biopsy was performed in 31 patients showing that 10 had acute cortical necrosis and 21 had acute tubular necrosis. Maternal mortality was 16.2% (n=7). Of the 36 (83.7%) surviving patients, 18 (41.4%) had complete recovery of renal function; 12 (27.9%) had partial recovery; and 6 (13.9%) required chronic dialysis. Pregnancy-related ARF was associated with poor outcome. Antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage were the most common cause of ARF in pregnancy.

  16. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry†‡

    PubMed Central

    Butwick, A. J.; El-Sayed, Y. Y.; Blumenfeld, Y. J.; Osmundson, S. S.; Weiniger, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Methods Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Results Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7–2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2–1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2–3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1–3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. Conclusions In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. PMID:25956901

  17. Historical evolution of ideas on eclampsia/preeclampsia: A proposed optimistic view of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Dekker, Gustaaf; Chaouat, Gérard; Scioscia, Marco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Hulsey, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    Eclampsia (together with epilepsy) being the first disease ever written down since the beginning of writings in mankind 5000 years ago, we will make a brief presentation of the different major steps in comprehension of Pre-eclampsia. 1) 1840. Rayer, description of proteinuria in eclampsia, 2) 1897 Vaquez, discovery of gestational hypertension in eclamptic women, 3) In the 1970's, description of the "double" trophoblastic invasion existing only in humans (Brosens & Pijnenborg,), 4) between the 1970's and the 1990's, description of preeclampsia being a couple disease. The "paternity problem" (and therefore irruption of immunology), 5) at the end of the 1980's, a major step forward: Preeclampsia being a global endothelial cell disease (glomeruloendotheliosis, hepatic or cerebral endotheliosis, HELLP, eclampsia), inflammation (J.Roberts.C Redman, R Taylor), 6) End of the 1990's: Consensus for a distinction between early onset preeclampsia EOP and late onset LOP (34 weeks gestation), EOP being rather a problem of implantation of the trophoblast (and the placenta), LOP being rather a pre-existing maternal problem (obesity, diabetes, coagulopathies etc…). LOP is predominant everywhere on this planet, but enormously predominant in developed countries: 90% of cases. This feature is very different in countries where women have their first child very young (88% of world births), where the fatal EOP (early onset) occurs in more than 30% of cases. 7) What could be the common factor which could explain the maternal global endotheliosis in EOP and LOP? Discussion about the inositol phospho glycans P type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [Analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality in Slovak Republic in the years 2007-2012].

    PubMed

    Korbeľ, M; Krištúfková, A; Dugátová, M; Daniš, J; Némethová, B; Kaščák, P; Nižňanská, Z

    Analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality in Slovak Republic (SR) in the years 2007-2012. Epidemiological perinatological nation-wide. 1st Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics School of Medicine, Comenius University and University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. The analysis of selected maternal morbidity and mortality data prospective collected in the years 2007-2012 from all obstetrics hospitals in the Slovak Republic. Caesarean section rate progressively increased from 24.1% in the year 2007 up to 30.3% in the year 2012. In the year 2012 the frequency of vacuum-extraction was 1.4%, forceps 0.6%, perineal tears 3th and 4th degree 0.49% and episiotomy 65%. Incidence of total severe acute maternal morbidity was 6.34 per 1,000 births. Incidence (per 1,000 births) of transport to anaesthesiology department/intensive care unit was 2.32, postpartum hysterectomy 0.72, HELLP syndrome 0.63, eclampsia 0.29, abnormal placental invasion 0.37, uterine rupture 0.27, severe sepsis in pregnancy and puerperium 0.21. In the years 2007-2012 frequency of fatal amniotic fluid embolism was 2.46/100,000 maternities or 2.43/100,000 live-births. Maternal mortality ratio in this period was 14 per 100,000 live births and pregnancy-related deaths ratio was 11.9 per 100,000 live births. In the year 2012 Slovakia reached the highest caesarean section rate in her own history - 30.3%. Incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity was 6.34 per 1,000 births. Maternal mortality ratio in Slovakia was one of the highest in European Union. Decreasing of caesarean section rate and episiotomy, incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal mortality still need to be improved in Slovak Republic.

  19. Magnitude and consequences of undertreatment of high-risk patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: insights from the DESCARTES Registry.

    PubMed

    Heras, M; Bueno, H; Bardají, A; Fernández-Ortiz, A; Martí, H; Marrugat, J

    2006-11-01

    To analyse intensity of treatment of high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) included in the DESCARTES (Descripción del Estado de los Sindromes Coronarios Agudos en un Registro Temporal Español) registry. Patients with NSTEACS (n = 1877) admitted to 45 randomly selected Spanish hospitals in April and May 2002 were studied. Patients with ST segment depression and troponin rise were considered high risk (n = 478) and were compared with non-high risk patients (n = 1399). 46.9% of high-risk patients versus 39.5% of non-high-risk patients underwent angiography (p = 0.005), 23.2% versus 18.8% (p = 0.038) underwent percutaneous revascularisation, and 24.9% versus 7.4% (p < 0.001) were given glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. In-hospital and six-month mortality were 7.5% versus 1.1% and 17% versus 4.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. A treatment score (> or = 4, 2-3 and < 2) was defined according to the number of class I interventions recommended in clinical guidelines: aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins and revascularisation. Independent predictors of six-month mortality were age (odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.10, p < 0.001), diabetes (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.22, p = 0.014), previous cardiovascular disease (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.63 to 10.68, p = 0.003), high risk (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.71, p = 0.003) and treatment score < 2 versus > or = 4 (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.52, p = 0.012). Class I recommended treatments were underused in high-risk patients in the DESCARTES registry. This undertreatment was an independent predictor of death of patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

  20. Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia: incidence, complications, and perinatal outcomes at a low-resource setting, Mpilo Central Hospital, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Solwayo

    2017-01-01

    Severe preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure and significant proteinuria after 20 weeks gestation. Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia have considerable adverse impacts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal health especially in low-resource countries. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the third leading cause of maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa. Significant avoidable maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality may result. This study aimed 1) to determine the incidence of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia in a low-resource setting; 2) to determine the maternal complications of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia in a low-resource setting; 3) to determine the perinatal outcomes of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia in a low-resource setting. This was a retrospective descriptive cohort study carried out at Mpilo Central Hospital, a tertiary teaching referral government hospital in a low-resource setting in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Data were obtained from the birth registers in labor ward, intensive care unit, and neonatal intensive care unit of patients who had a diagnosis of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia for the period January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. The case notes were retrieved and the demographic, clinical, and outcome data were gathered. There were 9,086 deliveries at the institution during the period January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. There were 121 cases of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia. The incidence of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia was 1.3% at Mpilo Central Hospital. The most common major complication was HELLP syndrome (9.1%). Maternal mortality was 1.7%. There were 127 babies born with six sets of twins, 49.6% of the babies were lost through stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. The incidence of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia at Mpilo Central Hospital was 1.3%. The most common maternal complication was hemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelet syndrome. Maternal mortality was 1.7% due to acute renal failure. Nearly

  1. Pregnancy outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youxia; Ma, Xinxin; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Xiangchun; Yan, Tiekun

    2017-07-18

    Presently, the matter of pregnancy outcomes of patients with pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) were disputed. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of PR-AKI on pregnancy outcomes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, VIP, CNKI and Wanfang Databases for cohort or case-control studies in women with PR-AKI and those without AKI as a control group to assess the influence of PR-AKI on pregnancy outcomes and kidney outcome. Reduction of odd ratio (OR) was calculated by a random-effects model. One thousand one hundred fifty two articles were systematically reviewed, of those 11 studies were included, providing data of 845 pregnancies in 834 women with PR-AKI and 5387 pregnancies in 5334 women without AKI. In terms of maternal outcomes, women with PR-AKI had a greater likelihood of cesarean delivery (OR, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 1.61), hemorrhage (1.26; 1.02 to 1.56), HELLP syndrome (1.86; 1.41 to 2.46), placental abruption (3.13; 1.96 to 5.02), DIC (3.41; 2.00 to 5.84), maternal death (4.50; 2.73 to 7.43), but had a lower risk of eclampsia (0.53; 0.34 to 0.83). Women with PR-AKI also had a longer stay in ICU (weighted mean difference, 2.13 day [95% CI 1.43 to 2.83 day]) compared with those without PR-AKI. As for fetal outcomes, higher incidence of stillbirth/perinatal death (3.39, 2.76 to 4.18), lower mean gestational age at delivery (-0.70 week [95% CI -1.21 to -0.19 week]) and lower birth weight (-740 g [95% CI -1180 to 310 g]) were observed in women with PR-AKI. The occurrence of kidney outcome, defined as ESRD requiring dialysis, in women with PR-AKI was 2.4% (95% CI 1.3% to 4.2%). PR-AKI remains a grave complication and has been associated with increased maternal and fetal mortality.

  2. Case mix, outcome and activity for obstetric admissions to adult, general critical care units: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    that APACHE II overestimates mortality in obstetric admissions to critical care units. This may be because of the physiological changes in pregnancy or the unique scoring profile of obstetric pathologies such as HELLP syndrome. It may be possible to recalibrate the APACHE II score for obstetric admissions or to devise an alternative score specifically for obstetric admissions.

  3. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: our experience.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6

  4. [Study on the heterogeneity of edema in severe preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Junmei; Yang, Zi; Chen, Lei

    2014-05-06

    The aim of this study was to analysis the clinical edema forms and explore the heterogeneity of edema in severe preeclampsia (PE) . From February 2002 to February 2009, Peking University Third Hospital admitted with severe preeclampsia 228 cases who were enrolled in this study. The form is divided into no edema (A-type), pure interstitial edema (B-type), a simple cavity gap edema (C-type) and mixed interstitial edema that coexist with lacunar edema (D-type). Analysis and comparison of various types of edema in patients with different clinical manifestations of prenatal care models, laboratory parameters, the incidence of gestational age, complications and obstetric and perinatal outcomes, and analyze the relationship between different types of edema and albumins and the peak value of proteinuria. Edema was seen in 86% (197/228) of all of cases. Compared the cases who have regular prenatal care with those who have irregular care, differences were statistically significant in edema type composition ratio (P < 0.01) and the incidence of serious complications (P < 0.01), and serum albumin levels (P < 0.01), but not in the peak value of proteinuria (P > 0.05); Compared early-onset PE and late-onset PE patients, differences were statistically significant in edema type composition ratio (P < 0.01) and peak value of proteinuria (P < 0.01), but not in serum albumin levels and the incidence of serious complications (P > 0.05). Comparison between the various types of edema, differences were statistically significant in serum albumin levels and peak value of proteinuria and incidence of serious complications and the gestational week at PE onset and the incidence of treatment preterm labor (P < 0.05).Occurrence of placental abruption, heart failure and HELLP syndrome had statistical significance in different types of edema(P < 0.05). The varying degrees of interstitial edema were correlated with serum albumin levels (r = -0.19, P < 0.05) and serious complication occurrence (r

  5. Association between the high soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio and adverse outcomes in asymptomatic women with early-onset fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Satoshi; Uchida, Yuzo; Kasai, Mayuko; Sunami, Rei

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether the high soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio is associated with adverse outcomes (e.g., HELLP syndrome [hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets], severe hypertension uncontrolled by medication, non-reassuring fetal status, placental abruption, pulmonary edema, growth arrest, maternal death, or fetal death) and a shorter duration to delivery in early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). Thirty-four women with FGR diagnosed at <34.0 weeks were recruited. Serum angiogenic marker levels were estimated within 6 hours of a diagnosis of FGR. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the threshold of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio to predict adverse outcomes. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio and adverse outcomes. Finally, we used Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test to assess the probability of delay in delivery. Women who developed adverse outcomes within a week had a significantly higher sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than did those who did not develop complications. A cutoff value of 86.2 for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio predicted adverse outcomes, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 80.0%, respectively. Moreover, 58.4% of women with an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≥86.2 versus 9.1% of those with an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio <86.2 delivered within a week of presentation (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≥86.2 (adjusted odds ratio 9.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-72.8) was associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. A high sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was associated with adverse outcomes and a shorter duration to delivery in early-onset FGR.

  6. Endoglin in pregnancy complicated by fetal intrauterine growth restriction in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women: a comparison between preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight infants and healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2012-06-01

    blood pressure and inverse correlation between endoglin and infant birth weight and additionally higher levels of ENG in patients with pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, increased liver enzymes, low platelet count) or eclampsia suggest that endoglin may be a marker of severity of these pregnancy disorders.

  7. Hématome sous capsulaire de foie compliquant une pré-éclampsie: à propos de 6 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Derkaoui, Ali; Bougern, Hakima; Bouchikhi, Chehrazad; Chaara, Hikmat; Banani, Abdelaziz; Abdelilah, Melhouf Moulay

    2011-01-01

    L'hématome sous capsulaire du foie (HSCF) est une complication rare mais gravissime de la grossesse. Devant une symptomatologie clinique souvent non spécifique et un tableau biologique retardé, son diagnostic est basé essentiellement sur les moyens de l'imagerie (échographie, TDM, IRM). Son traitement est fonction de l'intégrité ou non de la capsule de Glisson. Nous rapportons les observations de 6 patientes, à travers une étude rétrospective s’étalant sur la période du Janvier 2005 à Octobre 2008, incluant tous les cas de preeclampsie colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique du CHU Hassan II. Durant la période d’étude, L'incidence de l'hématome sous capsulaire de foie chez les patientes préeclamptiques admises durant la période d’étude est de 1,49 %. Aucune des patientes n'a benificié d'un suivi prénatal au sein de notre formation. La moyenne d’âge des patientes est de 37,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 33 à 45 ans. La gestité moyenne était de 4,8 avec une parité moyenne de 4,5.l'hematome sous capsulaire est survenu en post partum chez tous nos cas avec un délai moyen de 4 jours et des extrêmes allant de J0 et J10 du post partum .Toutes les patientes ont présenté un HELLP syndrome concomitant à la survenue de cette complication gravissime.Le diagnostic positif s'est basé sur les données échographiques dans 5 cas (hemoperitoine –HSCF).l’équipe a opté pour une abstention thérapeutique avec surveillance armée chez 2 cas et l'exploration chirurgicale a été indiquée chez quatre patientes en instabilité hemodynamique.Nous avons déploré deux cas de décès maternel. PMID:22145072

  8. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Lawrie, Theresa A; Atallah, Alvaro N; Duley, Lelia; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-06-24

    group one death versus placebo group six deaths). There was an anomalous increase in the risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome (two trials, 12,901 women: RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.05 to 6.82; I² = 0%) in the calcium group, however, the absolute number of events was low (16 versus six).The average risk of preterm birth was reduced in the calcium group (11 trials, 15,275 women: RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97; I² = 60%) and amongst women at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia (four trials, 568 women: average RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83; I² = 60%), but no significant reduction in neonatal high care admission. There was no overall effect on the risk of stillbirth or infant death before discharge from hospital (11 trials 15,665 babies: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.09; I² = 0%).One study showed a reduction in childhood systolic BP greater than 95th percentile among children exposed to calcium supplementation in utero (514 children: RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). In a subset of these children, dental caries at 12 years old was also reduced (195 children, RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.87). Low-dose calcium supplementation (< 1 g/day)We included 10 trials (2234 women) that evaluated low-dose supplementation with calcium alone (4) or in association with vitamin D (3), linoleic acid (2), or antioxidants (1). Most studies recruited women at high risk for pre-eclampsia, and were at high risk of bias, thus the results should be interpreted with caution. Supplementation with low doses of calcium significantly reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.52; I² = 0%). There was also a reduction in hypertension, low birthweight and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Calcium supplementation (≥ 1 g/day) is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of pre-eclampsia, particularly for women with low calcium diets. The treatment effect may be overestimated due to small-study effects or publication bias. It also reduces preterm

  9. PP144. Profile of lupus pregnancy in internal medecine practice.

    PubMed

    Haddad, T; Hakem, D; Berrah, A

    2012-07-01

    chronic renal Insufficiency (1). The specific events observed are a HELLP syndrome (1), pre-eclampsia (2), fetal losses (5), ischemic strokes (4) and post-partum cardiomyopathy (1). The pregnancies require caesarians (15) with ligature of trunks (2). We deplore fetal deaths (7) in tripled (1) and in twin (1) during the period of follow-up. We note a small birth weight (7), a preterm birth (5), a foetal distress (5) at the origin of a psychomotor disorders (1) and we observed a case of a transient skin lupus (1). The frequency of the maternal and fetal complications is partially understandable by the fact that the majority of the pregnancies neither are programmed, nor authorized by the treating physician. Indeed, between the denial of the disease and the desire of pregnancy in everything taken, the patients often take the risk and put the treating physician in front of pregnancies in top risks. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Clinical study of 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin-lin; Wang, Chen-hong; Li, Zhi-quan

    2012-03-01

    To discuss the clinical features, management, pregnancy outcome and prognosis of obstetric mirror syndrome. The clinical data of 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome at Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from April 2008 to December 2010 were collected to retrospectively analyze the clinical features, management, pregnancy outcome and prognosis. (1) ETIOLOGY: 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome included 9 cases of Bart's hydrops fetalis, 2 cases with fetal complicated congenital cardiac anomalies, and 1 case of unknown etiology. (2) Gestational age at diagnosis and at delivery: gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 28 to 36 weeks [mean (31.5 ± 4.7) weeks], and gestational age at delivery ranged from 28(+3) to 38 weeks [mean (32.9 ± 2.9) weeks]. There were no significant differences between the gestational age at diagnosis and at delivery in consistence with severe preeclampsia group and mild preeclampsia group [(31.8 ± 2.3) weeks vs. (30.9 ± 7.2) weeks, (32.5 ± 2.3) weeks vs. (33.5 ± 3.9) weeks, P > 0.05]. (3) The patients with obstetric mirror syndrome can present a preeclampsia-like syndrome: maternal extremity edema in 12 cases, headache and visual disturbance in 1 case, proteinuria in 11 cases, elevated blood pressure in 5 cases, elevated uric acid in 9 cases, hypoproteinemia in 12 cases, elevated creatinine in 3 case, elevated liver enzyme in 1 case, thrombocytopenia in 2 cases. The major complications included 1 case of HELLP syndrome, acute pulmonary edema, placental abruption, amnionic fluid embolism, DIC respectively, 3 cases of acute kidney failure and 6 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. (4) Sonographic findings: 1) Hydrops fetalis: fetal ultrasound revealed pleural fluid, fetal ascites, skin edema, scalp edema, encephalocolele enlargement, hydropericardium and increased cardio-chest ratio. 2) Placenta megaly: the placental pathological examination revealed edematous and large in 12 cases. Placental thickness was beyond 4 cm in

  11. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy occurring in two to four out of 100 000 pregnancies. It usually develops at the end of the second or third trimester of pregnancy and remits spontaneously 4–6 weeks after delivery. Gestational DI occurrence is related to excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts during pregnancy, which metabolises AVP. Its activity is proportional to the placental weight, explaining the higher vasopressinase activity in third trimester or in multiple pregnancies. Vasopressinase is metabolised by the liver, which most likely explains its higher concentrations in pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction, such acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP syndrome, hepatitis and cirrhosis. Therefore, it is important to assess liver function in patients with gestational DI, and to be aware of the risk of DI in pregnant women with liver disease. Serum and urine osmolality are essential for the diagnosis, but other tests such as serum sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, liver function may be informative. The water deprivation test is normally not recommended during pregnancy because it may lead to significant dehydration, but a pituitary MRI should be performed at some point to exclude lesions in the hypothalamo-pituitary region. These patients should be monitored for vital signs, fluid balance, body weight, fetal status, renal and liver function, and treated with desmopressin. The recommended doses are similar or slightly higher than those recommended for central DI in non-pregnant women, and should be titrated individually. PMID:26524979

  12. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    100 000 pregnancies. It usually develops at the end of the second or third trimester of pregnancy and remits spontaneously 4-6 weeks after delivery.Gestational DI occurrence is related to excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts during pregnancy, which metabolises AVP. Its activity is proportional to the placental weight, explaining the higher vasopressinase activity in third trimester or in multiple pregnancies.Vasopressinase is metabolised by the liver, which most likely explains its higher concentrations in pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction, such acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP syndrome, hepatitis and cirrhosis. Therefore, it is important to assess liver function in patients with gestational DI, and to be aware of the risk of DI in pregnant women with liver disease.Serum and urine osmolality are essential for the diagnosis, but other tests such as serum sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, liver function may be informative. The water deprivation test is normally not recommended during pregnancy because it may lead to significant dehydration, but a pituitary MRI should be performed at some point to exclude lesions in the hypothalamo-pituitary region.These patients should be monitored for vital signs, fluid balance, body weight, fetal status, renal and liver function, and treated with desmopressin. The recommended doses are similar or slightly higher than those recommended for central DI in non-pregnant women, and should be titrated individually.

  13. Epidural therapy for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia in non labouring women.

    PubMed

    Ray, Amita; Ray, Sujoy

    2017-11-28

    these, were eligible for inclusion. Trials using a cluster design, and studies published in abstract form only are also eligible for inclusion in this review. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion in this review. The two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and trial quality. There were no relevant data available for extraction. We included one small study (involving 24 women). The study was a single-centre randomised trial conducted in Mexico. This study compared a control group who received antihypertensive therapy, anticonvulsant therapy, plasma expanders, corticosteroids and dypyridamole with an intervention group that received epidural block instead of the antihypertensives, as well as all the other four drugs. Lumbar epidural block was given using 0.25% bupivacaine, 10 mg bolus and 5 mg each hour on continuous epidural infusion for six hours. This study was at low risk of bias in three domains but was assessed to be high risk of bias in two domains due to lack of allocation concealment and blinding of women and staff, and unclear for random sequence generation and outcome assessor blinding.The included study did not report on any of this review's important outcomes. Meta-analysis was not possible.For the mother, these were: maternal death (death during pregnancy or up to 42 days after the end of the pregnancy, or death more than 42 days after the end of the pregnancy); development of eclampsia or recurrence of seizures; stroke; any serious morbidity: defined as at least one of stroke, kidney failure, liver failure, HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets), disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary oedema.For the baby, these were: death: stillbirths (death in utero at or after 20 weeks' gestation), perinatal deaths (stillbirths plus deaths in the first week of life), death before discharge from the hospital, neonatal deaths (death within the first 28 days after birth), deaths after the first 28