The Dynamical Sine-Gordon Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hairer, Martin; Shen, Hao
2016-02-01
We introduce the dynamical sine-Gordon equation in two space dimensions with parameter {β}, which is the natural dynamic associated to the usual quantum sine-Gordon model. It is shown that when {β2 in (0, 16π/3)} the Wick renormalised equation is well-posed. In the regime {β2 in (0, 4π)}, the Da Prato-Debussche method [J Funct Anal 196(1):180-210, 2002; Ann Probab 31(4):1900-1916, 2003] applies, while for {β2 in [4π, 16π/3)}, the solution theory is provided via the theory of regularity structures [Hairer, Invent Math 198(2):269-504, 2014]. We also show that this model arises naturally from a class of {2 + 1} -dimensional equilibrium interface fluctuation models with periodic nonlinearities. The main mathematical difficulty arises in the construction of the model for the associated regularity structure where the role of the noise is played by a non-Gaussian random distribution similar to the complex multiplicative Gaussian chaos recently analysed in Lacoin et al. [Commun Math Phys 337(2):569-632, 2015].
Generalized universality in the massive sine-Gordon model
Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Nandori, I.; Polonyi, J.
2008-01-15
A nontrivial interplay of the UV and IR scaling laws, a generalization of the universality is demonstrated in the framework of the massive sine-Gordon model, as a result of a detailed study of the global behavior of the renormalization group flow and the phase structure.
Criticality in self-dual sine-Gordon models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecheminant, P.; Gogolin, Alexander O.; Nersesyan, Alexander A.
2002-09-01
We discuss the nature of criticality in the β2=2 πN self-dual extension of the sine-Gordon model. This field theory is related to the two-dimensional classical XY model with a N-fold degenerate symmetry-breaking field. We briefly overview the already studied cases N=2,4 and analyze in detail the case N=3 where a single phase transition in the three-state Potts universality class is expected to occur. The Z3 infrared critical properties of the β2=6 π self-dual sine-Gordon model are derived using two non-perturbative approaches. On one hand, we map the model onto an integrable deformation of the Z4 parafermion theory. The latter is known to flow to a massless Z3 infrared fixed point. Another route is based on the connection with a chirally asymmetric, su(2) 4⊗su(2) 1 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model with anisotropic current-current interaction, where we explore the existence of a decoupling (Toulouse) point.
Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.
2016-05-01
We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1 + 1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.
Zero temperature landscape of the random sine-Gordon model
Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Cai, D.
1997-04-01
We present a preliminary summary of the zero temperature properties of the two-dimensional random sine-Gordon model of surface growth on disordered substrates. We found that the properties of this model can be accurately computed by using lattices of moderate size as the behavior of the model turns out to be independent of the size above certain length ({approx} 128 x 128 lattices). Subsequently, we show that the behavior of the height difference correlation function is of (log r){sup 2} type up to a certain correlation length ({xi} {approx} 20), which rules out predictions of log r behavior for all temperatures obtained by replica-variational techniques. Our results open the way to a better understanding of the complex landscape presented by this system, which has been the subject of very many (contradictory) analysis.
Renormalization-group analysis of layered sine-Gordon type models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nándori, I.; Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Jentschura, U. D.
2005-10-01
We analyze the phase structure and the renormalization group (RG) flow of the generalized sine-Gordon models with nonvanishing mass terms, using the Wegner-Houghton RG method in the local potential approximation. Particular emphasis is laid upon the layered sine-Gordon (LSG) model, which is the bosonized version of the multi-flavour Schwinger model and approaches the sum of two "normal", massless sine-Gordon (SG) models in the limit of a vanishing interlayer coupling J. Another model of interest is the massive sine-Gordon (MSG) model. The leading-order approximation to the UV (ultraviolet) RG flow predicts two phases for the LSG as well as for the MSG, just as it would be expected for the SG model, where the two phases are known to be separated by the Coleman fixed point. The presence of finite mass terms (for the LSG and the MSG) leads to corrections to the UV RG flow, which are naturally identified as the "mass corrections". The leading-order mass corrections are shown to have the following consequences: (i) for the MSG model, only one phase persists, and (ii) for the LSG model, the transition temperature is modified. Within the mass-corrected UV scaling laws, the limit of J→0 is thus nonuniform with respect to the phase structure of the model. The modified phase structure of general massive sine-Gordon models is connected with the breaking of symmetries in the internal space spanned by the field variables. For the LSG, the second-order subleading mass corrections suggest that there exists a cross-over regime before the IR scaling sets in, and the nonlinear terms show explicitly that higher-order Fourier modes appear in the periodic blocked potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baron, H. E.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
2016-06-01
We investigate the validity of collective coordinate approximations to the scattering of two solitons in several classes of (1+1) dimensional field theory models. We consider models which are deformations of the sine-Gordon (SG) or the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model which posses soliton solutions (which are topological (SG) or non-topological (NLS)). Our deformations preserve their topology (SG), but change their integrability properties, either completely or partially (models become `quasi-integrable').
Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt
2016-05-01
We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.
Nonperturbative study of the two-frequency sine-Gordon model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajnok, Z.; Palla, L.; Takács, G.; Wágner, F.
2001-05-01
The two-frequency sine-Gordon model is examined. The focus is mainly on the case when the ratio of the frequencies is 1/2, given the recent interest in the literature. We discuss the model both in a perturbative (form factor perturbation theory) and a nonperturbative (truncated conformal space approach) framework, and give particular attention to a phase transition conjectured earlier by Delfino and Mussardo. We give substantial evidence that the transition is of second order and that it is in the Ising universality class. Furthermore, we check the UV-IR operator correspondence and conjecture the phase diagram of the theory.
Nonperturbative Analysis of the Two-Frequency Sine-Gordon Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajnok, Z.; Palla, L.; Takács, G.; Wágner, F.
2001-04-01
The two-frequency sine-Gordon model is examined. The focus is mainly on the case when the ratio of the frequencies is 1/2, given the recent interest in the literature. We discuss the model both in a perturbative (form factor perturbation theory) and a nonperturbative (truncated conformal space approach) framework, and give particular attention to a phase transition conjectured earlier by Delfino and Mussardo. We give substantial evidence that the transition is of second order and that it is in the Ising universality class. Furthermore, we check the UV-IR operator correspondence and conjecture the phase diagram of the theory.
Regularization of multi-soliton form factors in sine-Gordon model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pálmai, T.
2012-08-01
A general and systematic regularization is developed for the exact solitonic form factors of exponential operators in the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by analytical continuation of their integral representations. The procedure is implemented in Mathematica. Test results are shown for four- and six-soliton form factors. Catalogue identifier: AEMG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1462 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 488 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica [1] Computer: PC Operating system: Cross-platform Classification: 7.7, 11.1, 23 Nature of problem: The multi-soliton form factors of the sine-Gordon model (relevant in two-dimensional physics) were given only by highly non-trivial integral representation with a limited domain of convergence. Practical applications of the form factors, e.g. calculation of correlation functions in two-dimensional condensed matter systems, were not possible in general. Solution method: Using analytic continuation techniques an efficient algorithm is found and implemented in Mathematica, which provides a general and systematic way to calculate multi-soliton form factors in the sine-Gordon model. The package contains routines to compute the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors. Running time: Strongly dependent on the desired accuracy and the number of solitons. For physical rapidities after an initialization of about 30 s, the calculation of the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors at a single point takes approximately 0.5 s, 2.5 s and 8 s, respectively. Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica Edition: Version 7.0, Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008.
Chaos in a model of the forced and damped Sine-Gordon equation
Kovacic, G.
1990-01-01
The author analytically determines two of the mechanisms which cause chaotic dynamics to appear in a model of the forced and damped Sine Gordon equation. In particular, he finds orbits homoclinic to periodic orbits, and orbits homoclinic to fixed points which satisfy conditions sufficient to guarantee the existence of nearby chaotic invariant sets. One of these homoclinic orbits is a so-called Silnikov-type loop. A proof the existence of a symmetric pair of such loops is the main result. This proof consists of a modified Melnikov perturbation analysis, augmented by some techniques from the field of geometric singular perturbation theory.
Breaking integrability at the boundary: the sine-Gordon model with Robin boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arthur, Robert; Dorey, Patrick; Parini, Robert
2016-04-01
We explore boundary scattering in the sine-Gordon model with a non-integrable family of Robin boundary conditions. The soliton content of the field after collision is analysed using a numerical implementation of the direct scattering problem associated with the inverse scattering method. We find that an antikink may be reflected into various combinations of an antikink, a kink, and one or more breathers, depending on the values of the initial antikink velocity and a parameter associated with the boundary condition. In addition we observe regions with an intricate resonance structure arising from the creation of an intermediate breather whose recollision with the boundary is highly dependent on the breather phase.
Structure of the Broken Phase of the Sine-Gordon Model Using Functional Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pangon, V.
We study in this paper the sine-Gordon model using functional renormalization group at local potential approximation using different renormalization group (RG) schemes. In d = 2, using Wegner-Houghton RG we demonstrate that the location of the phase boundary is entirely driven by the relative position to the Coleman fixed point even for strongly coupled bare theories. We show the existence of a set of IR fixed points in the broken phase that are reached independently of the bare coupling. The bad convergence of the Fourier series in the broken phase is discussed and we demonstrate that these fixed points can be found only using a global resolution of the effective potential. We then introduce the methodology for the use of average action method where the regulator breaks periodicity and show that it provides the same conclusions for various regulators. The behavior of the model is then discussed in d≠2 and the absence of the previous fixed points is interpreted.
Multisymplectic approach to integrable defects in the sine-Gordon model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caudrelier, Vincent
2015-05-01
Ideas from the theory of multisymplectic systems, introduced recently in integrable systems by the author and Kundu to discuss Liouville integrability in classical field theories with a defect, are applied to the sine-Gordon model. The key ingredient is the introduction of a second Poisson bracket in the theory that allows for a Hamiltonian description of the model that is completely equivalent to the standard one, in the absence of a defect. In the presence of a defect described by frozen Bäcklund transformations, our approach based on the new bracket unifies the various tools used so far to attack the problem. It also gets rid of the known issues related to the evaluation of the Poisson brackets of the defect matrix which involve fields at coinciding space point (the location of the defect). The original Lagrangian approach also finds a nice reinterpretation in terms of the canonical transformation representing the defect conditions.
Quantum quench dynamics of the sine-Gordon model in some solvable limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iucci, A.; Cazalilla, M. A.
2010-05-01
With regard to the thermalization problem in isolated quantum systems, we investigate the dynamics following a quantum quench of the sine-Gordon model (sGM) in the Luther-Emery and the semiclassical limits. We consider the quench from the gapped to the gapless phase, as well as the reverse one. By obtaining analytic expressions for the one- and two-point correlation functions of the order parameter operator at zero-temperature, the manifestations of integrability in the absence of thermalization in the sGM are studied. It is shown that correlations in the long-time regime after the quench are well described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We also consider the case where the system is initially in contact with a reservoir at finite temperature. The possible relevance of our results to current and future experiments with ultracold atomic systems is also considered.
Quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model: A semiclassical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kormos, M.; Zaránd, G.
2016-06-01
We compute the time evolution of correlation functions after quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model within the semiclassical approximation, which is expected to yield accurate results for small and slow quenches producing slow quasiparticles with low density. We demonstrate this by reproducing results of a recent form-factor calculation of the relaxation of expectation values [B. Bertini, D. Schuricht, and F. H. L. Essler, J. Stat. Mech. (2014) P10035, 10.1088/1742-5468/2014/10/P10035]. Extending these results, we find that—in the universal limit of vanishingly small quasiparticle velocities—the expectation values of most vertex operators do not decay to zero. We give analytic expressions for the relaxation of dynamic correlation functions and show that they have diffusive behavior for large timelike separation.
Quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model: A semiclassical approach.
Kormos, M; Zaránd, G
2016-06-01
We compute the time evolution of correlation functions after quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model within the semiclassical approximation, which is expected to yield accurate results for small and slow quenches producing slow quasiparticles with low density. We demonstrate this by reproducing results of a recent form-factor calculation of the relaxation of expectation values [B. Bertini, D. Schuricht, and F. H. L. Essler, J. Stat. Mech. (2014) P100351742-546810.1088/1742-5468/2014/10/P10035]. Extending these results, we find that-in the universal limit of vanishingly small quasiparticle velocities-the expectation values of most vertex operators do not decay to zero. We give analytic expressions for the relaxation of dynamic correlation functions and show that they have diffusive behavior for large timelike separation. PMID:27415202
Sine-Gordon model and the small k+ region of light-cone perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Paul A.
1992-10-01
The nonperturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k+=0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the nonperturbative β2=8π critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k+=0 diagrams in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and nonvanishing for all β, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k+=0 region of momentum also contributes to connected Green's functions; the connected two-point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k+=0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k+=0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher-dimensional gauge theories starting at two-loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.
Sine-Gordon quantum mechanics on the complex plane and N=2 gauge theory
He Wei
2010-05-15
We study the relation between the N=2 gauge theory in the {Omega} background and the quantized integral system recently proposed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. We focus on the simplest case, the pure Yang-Mills theory with the SU(2) gauge group and the corresponding sine-Gordon integral model on the complex plane. We analyze the periodic wave function and the corresponding energy spectrum of the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics, and find this model contains information of the low energy effective theory of the gauge theory.
Resonant phase dynamics in 0- π Sine-Gordon facets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotoli, Giacomo; Stornaiuolo, Daniela; Cedergren, Karin; Leo, Antonio; Bauch, Thilo; Lombardi, Filomena; Tafuri, Francesco
2015-09-01
A locally phase-shifted Sine-Gordon model well accounts for the phenomenology of unconventional Josephson junctions. The phase dynamics shows resonant modes similar to Fiske modes that appear both in the presence and in the absence of the external magnetic field in standard junctions. In the latter case, they are also in competition with zero field propagation of Sine-Gordon solitons, i.e., fluxons, which give rise to the so-called zero field steps in the current-voltage (I-V) of the junction. We numerically study the I-V characteristics and the resonances magnetic field patterns for some different faceting configurations, in various dissipative regimes, as a function of temperature. The simulated dynamics of the phase is analyzed for lower-order resonances. We give evidence of a nontrivial dynamics due to the interaction of propagating fluxons with localized semifluxons. Numerical results are compared with experimental outcomes obtained on high-quality high-Tc grain boundary YBCO junctions.
A new explicit solution to the lattice sine-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaoxue; Cao, Cewen
2016-03-01
Based on a new discrete Lax pair, an elementary explicit solution is found for the lattice sine-Gordon equation through Riemann surface method. It contains only exponential functions, quite different from the usual higher genus solutions, expressed with complicated theta functions. The solutions to the associated models, the lattice potential MKdV equation and a special H3 equation are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Shi, Yu
2012-10-01
Using the approach of low-energy effective field theory, the phase diagram is studied for a mixture of two species of pseudospin-\\frac{1}{2} Bose atoms with interspecies spin exchange. There are four mean-field regimes on the parameter plane of ge and gz, where ge is the interspecies spin-exchange interaction strength, while gz is the difference between the interaction strength of interspecies scattering without spin exchange of equal spins and that of unequal spins. Two regimes, with |gz| > |ge|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel along the z direction, and the low-energy excitations are equivalent to those of two-component spinless bosons. The other two regimes, with |ge| > |gz|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel on the xy plane, and the low-energy excitations are described by a sine-Gordon model coupled with a free scalar field, where the effective fields are combinations of the phases of the original four boson fields. In (1 + 1)-dimension, they are described by Kosterlitz-Thouless renormalization group (RG) equations, and there are three sectors in the phase plane of a scaling dimension and a dimensionless parameter proportional to the strength of the cosine interaction, both depending on the densities. The gaps of these elementary excitations are experimental probes of the underlying many-body ground states.
Interconnection between static regimes in the LJJs described by the double sine-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanasova, P. Kh; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Shukrinov, Yu M.
2012-11-01
The second harmonic contribution to the current-phase relation changes the properties of the static magnetic flux distributions in the long Josephson junction (LJJ) and inspires new homogenious and fluxon static states. We study stability properties and bifurcations of these static regimes within the frame of a model described by the double sine-Gordon equation. The critical curves behavior and the interconnection between different types of magnetic flux distributions are analyzed.
Control of antikinks of the Sine Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porubov, A. V.; Bondarenkov, R. S.; Fradkov, A. L.; Andrievsky, B. R.
2016-06-01
The control of the smoothness of an antikink profile of the Sine Gordon equation is considered. It is shown that variations in the initial conditions give rise to oscillations on the profile of the antikink. The control algorithm based on variation of one of the coefficient of the equation is developed to recover the smooth wave shape and the phase velocity of the antikink.
Localization of the sine-Gordon equation solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porubov, A. V.; Fradkov, A. L.; Bondarenkov, R. S.; Andrievsky, B. R.
2016-10-01
Localization of the waves of the sine-Gordon equation depends on the shape of the initial condition. It is shown how initially motionless Gaussian distribution may be modified to obtain propagation of localized waves in both directions. However, the resulting localized wave profile is described neither by an asymptotic envelope- wave solution to the sine-Gordon equation nor by its exact traveling breather solution. The distributed control algorithms are developed to achieve wave localization independent of the shape of the initial condition. It is shown that localization of the waves in both directions is achieved by means of a feedforward (nonfeedback) control. The waves are similar to the envelope wave solution. The feedback distributed algorithm is shown to provide both localized waves according to analytical solutions and their unidirectional propagation.
Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers.
Caputo, J-G; Soerensen, M P
2013-08-01
We consider radial sine-Gordon kinks in two, three, and higher dimensions. A full two-dimensional simulation showing that azimuthal perturbations remain small allows us to reduce the problem to the one-dimensional radial sine-Gordon equation. We solve this equation on an interval [r(0),r(1)] and absorb all outgoing radiation. As the kink shrinks toward r(0), before the collision, its motion is well described by a simple law derived from the conservation of energy. In two dimensions for r(0)≤2, the collision disintegrates the kink into a fast breather, while for r(0)≥4 we obtain a kink-breather metastable state where breathers are shed at each kink "return." In three and higher dimensions d, an additional kink-oscillon state appears for small r(0). On the application side, the kink disintegration opens the way for new types of terahertz microwave generators.
Quantum Creep and Quantum-Creep Transitions in 1D Sine-Gordon Chains.
Krajewski, Florian R; Müser, Martin H
2004-01-23
Discrete sine-Gordon (SG) chains are studied with path-integral molecular dynamics. Chains commensurate with the substrate show the transition from pinning to quantum creep at bead masses slightly larger than in the continuous SG model. Within the creep regime, a field-driven transition from creep to complete depinning is identified. The effects of disorder on the chain's dynamics depend on the potential's roughness exponent H. For example, quantum fluctuations are generally too small to depin the chain if H=1/2, while an H=0 chain can be pinned or unpinned depending on the bead masses. Thermal fluctuations always depin the chain. PMID:14753858
Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.
2016-07-01
Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.
Lattice twist operators and vertex operators in sine-Gordon theory in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Masaaki; Voit, Johannes
2002-04-01
In one dimension, the exponential position operators introduced in a theory of polarization are identified with the twist operators appearing in the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis argument, and their finite-size expectation values z(q)L measure the overlap between the q-fold degenerate ground state and an excited state. Insulators are characterized by z∞≠0, and different states are distinguished by the sign of zL. We identify zL with ground-state expectation values of vertex operators in the sine-Gordon model. This allows an accurate detection of quantum phase transitions in the universality classes of the Gaussian and the SU(2)1 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models. We apply this theory to the half-filled extended Hubbard model and obtain agreement with the level-crossing method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke
2015-09-01
We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the {C}{P}^{N-1} model on {{R}}^1× {S}^1 with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.
Sine-Gordon solitons in networks: Scattering and transmission at vertices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobirov, Zarif; Babajanov, Doniyor; Matrasulov, Davron; Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Uecker, Hannes
2016-09-01
We consider the sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies and derive vertex boundary conditions from the fundamental conservation laws together with successive space-derivatives of sine-Gordon equation. We analytically obtain traveling-wave solutions in the form of standard sine-Gordon solitons such as kinks and antikinks for star and tree graphs. We show that for this case the sine-Gordon equation becomes completely integrable just as in case of a simple 1D chain. This simple analysis provides a cornerstone for the numerical solution of the general case, including a quantification of the vertex scattering. Applications of the obtained results to Josephson junction networks and DNA double helix are discussed.
Kovalyov, Mikhail
2010-06-15
In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.
Sine-Gordon modulation solutions: Application to macroscopic non-lubricant friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Skinner, Thomas E.
2016-10-01
The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and its continuum approximation, the sine-Gordon (SG) equation, are widely used to model a variety of important nonlinear physical systems. Many practical applications require the wave-train solution, which includes many solitons. In such cases, an important and relevant extension of these models applies Whitham's averaging procedure to the SG equation. The resulting SG modulation equations describe the behavior of important measurable system parameters that are the average of the small-scale solutions given by the SG equation. A fundamental problem of modern physics that is the topic of this paper is the description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime. We have shown that the SG modulation equations are a suitable apparatus for describing this transition. The model provides relations between kinematic (rupture and slip velocities) and dynamic (shear and normal stresses) parameters of the transition process. A particular advantage of the model is its ability to describe frictional processes over a wide range of rupture and slip velocities covering seismic events ranging from regular earthquakes, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/s, to slow slip events, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/day.
Symmetries and soliton solutions of the Galilean complex Sine-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Melo, G. R.; de Montigny, M.; Pinfold, J.; Tuszynski, J. A.
2016-03-01
We discuss a new equation, the Galilean version of the complex Sine-Gordon equation in 1 + 1 dimensions, Ψxx (1 -Ψ* Ψ) + 2 imΨt +Ψ* Ψx2- Ψ(1 -Ψ* Ψ) 2 = 0, derived from its relativistic counterpart via Galilean covariance. We determine its Lie point symmetries, discuss some group-invariant solutions, and examine some soliton solutions. The reduction under Galilean symmetry leads to an equation similar to the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This work is motivated in part by recent applications of the relativistic complex Sine-Gordon equation to the dynamics of Q-balls.
{pi} kinks in the parametrically driven sine-Gordon equation and applications
Zharnitsky, V.; Mitkov, I.
1997-07-08
Parametrically driven sine-Gordon equation with a mean-zero forcing is considered. It is shown that the system is well approximated by the double sine-Gordon equation using the normal form technique. The reduced equation possesses {pi}-kink solutions, which are also observed numerically in the original system. This result is applied to domain walls dynamics in one-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets. For such system the existence of {pi}-kinks implies the true domain structure in the presence of high-frequency magnetic field.
Spectral averaging of small-amplitude sine-Gordon wave trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, J. W.; Tracy, E. R.
1988-11-01
It is well known that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is the generic envelope description of nonlinear wave trains in the small-amplitude limit. V. E. Zakharov and E. A. Kuznetsov [Physica 18D, 455 (1986)] have shown that for many systems integrable via inverse-scattering techniques it is possible, through the use of multiscale techniques, to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger Lax pair from the Lax pair of the system that is being modulated. It will be shown that this technique of ``multiscale averaging'' can be applied to the sine-Gordon theory to obtain not only the nonlinear Schrödinger Lax pair from the sine-Gordon Lax pair, but also the nonlinear Schrödinger spectral data, conservation laws, Θ-function solutions, and reality constraint from their sine-Gordon counterparts. This allows a physical interpretation of the mathematical elements of the nonlinear Schrödinger envelope in terms of the physical characteristics of the sine-Gordon system that is being modulated.
Darboux Transformation for the Vector Sine-Gordon Equation and Integrable Equations on a Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping
2016-07-01
We propose a method for construction of Darboux transformations, which is a new development of the dressing method for Lax operators invariant under a reduction group. We apply the method to the vector sine-Gordon equation and derive its Bäcklund transformations. We show that there is a new Lax operator canonically associated with our Darboux transformation resulting an evolutionary differential-difference system on a sphere. The latter is a generalised symmetry for the chain of Bäcklund transformations. Using the re-factorisation approach and the Bianchi permutability of the Darboux transformations, we derive new vector Yang-Baxter map and integrable discrete vector sine-Gordon equation on a sphere.
Dressing method for the vector sine-Gordon equation and its soliton interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop the dressing method to study the exact solutions for the vector sine-Gordon equation. The explicit formulas for one kink and one breather are derived. The method can be used to construct multi-soliton solutions. Two soliton interactions are also studied. The formulas for position shift of the kink and position and phase shifts of the breather are given. These quantities only depend on the pole positions of the dressing matrices.
On the solution of the generalized wave and generalized sine-Gordon equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ablowitz, M. J.; Beals, R.; Tenenblat, K.
1986-01-01
The generalized wave equation and generalized sine-Gordon equations are known to be natural multidimensional differential geometric generalizations of the classical two-dimensional versions. In this paper, a system of linear differential equations is associated with these equations, and it is shown how the direct and inverse problems can be solved for appropriately decaying data on suitable lines. An initial-boundary value problem is solved for these equations.
Stochastic D-bifurcation for a damped sine-Gordon equation with noise
Huang, Qiongwei; Xue, Changfeng; Tang, Jiashi
2015-04-15
We investigate the stochastic bifurcation of a damped sine-Gordon equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions under the influence of multiplicative Gaussian white noise. Introducing a slow time scale, we derive the amplitude equations near the trivial solution by multiscale analysis. And the stationary probability density functions are formulated analytically using the stochastic averaging of energy envelope. The numerical calculations show that the system undergoes a stochastic D-bifurcation of energy envelope from a delta measure to new stationary measures when the control parameter crosses a critical point.
Mass of the sine-Gordon soliton in the Hartree approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altenbokum, M.; Kaulfuss, U.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.
1986-09-01
We derive the quantum corrections to the mass of the one-soliton solution of the sine-Gordon system in the Hartree approximation. In the weak-coupling limit we reproduce the semiclassical correction to the soliton mass. This happens only after a nontrivial cancellation of contributions related to the deformation of the soliton due to quantum fluctuations. Numerical results are obtained up to the critical value of the coupling constant as given by Coleman. In approaching the critical point we find an increasing number of discrete modes which seem to build up a new continuum with a lower mass.
Nonlinear quantum-mechanical system associated with Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions
Zarmi, Yair
2014-10-15
Despite the fact that it is not integrable, the (1 + 2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation has N-soliton solutions, whose velocities are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for all N ≥ 1. Based on these solutions, a quantum-mechanical system is constructed over a Fock space of particles. The coordinate of each particle is an angle around the unit circle. U, a nonlinear functional of the particle number-operators, which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions, is constructed. Its eigenvalues on N-particle states in the Fock space are the slower-than-light, N-soliton solutions of the equation. A projection operator (a nonlinear functional of U), which vanishes on the single-particle subspace, is a mass-density generator. Its eigenvalues on multi-particle states play the role of the mass density of structures that emulate free, spatially extended, relativistic particles. The simplicity of the quantum-mechanical system allows for the incorporation of perturbations with particle interactions, which have the capacity to “annihilate” and “create” solitons – an effect that does not have an analog in perturbed classical nonlinear evolution equations.
Effects of Lévy noise on the dynamics of sine-Gordon solitons in long Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarcello, Claudio; Valenti, Davide; Carollo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Bernardo
2016-05-01
We numerically investigate the generation of solitons in current-biased long Josephson junctions in relation to the superconducting lifetime and the voltage drop across the device. The dynamics of the junction is modelled with a sine-Gordon equation driven by an oscillating field and subject to an external non-Gaussian noise. A wide range of $\\alpha$-stable L\\'evy distributions is considered as noise source, with varying stability index $\\alpha$ and asymmetry parameter $\\beta$. In junctions longer than a critical length, the mean switching time (MST) from superconductive to the resistive state assumes a values independent of the device length. Here, we demonstrate that such a value is directly related to the mean density of solitons which move into or from the washboard potential minimum corresponding to the initial superconductive state. Moreover, we observe: (i) a connection between the total mean soliton density and the mean potential difference across the junction; (ii) an inverse behavior of the mean voltage in comparison with the MST, with varying the junction length; (iii) evidences of non-monotonic behaviors, such as stochastic resonant activation and noise enhanced stability, of MST versus the driving frequency and noise intensity for different values of $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$; (iv) finally, these non-monotonic behaviors are found to be related to the mean density of solitons formed along the junction.
Zarmi, Yair
2016-01-01
Slower-than-light multi-front solutions of the Sine-Gordon in (1+2) dimensions, constructed through the Hirota algorithm, are mapped onto spatially localized structures, which emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. A localized structure is an image of the junctions at which the fronts intersect. It propagates together with the multi-front solution at the velocity of the latter. The profile of the localized structure obeys the linear wave equation in (1+2) dimensions, to which a term that represents interaction with a slower-than-light, Sine-Gordon-multi-front solution has been added. This result can be also formulated in terms of a (1+2)-dimensional Lagrangian system, in which the Sine-Gordon and wave equations are coupled. Expanding the Euler-Lagrange equations in powers of the coupling constant, the zero-order part of the solution reproduces the (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon fronts. The first-order part is the spatially localized structure. PACS: 02.30.Ik, 03.65.Pm, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik. PMID:26930077
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin
2016-06-01
In this study, we investigate some new analytical solutions to the fractional Sine-Gordon equation by using the new version of generalized F-expansion method. The fractional derivatives are defined in the modified Riemann-Liouville context. As a result, new analytical solutions were obtained in terms Jacobi elliptic functions.
Infinite-dimensional Estabrook-Wahlquist prolongations for the sine-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finley, J. D., III; McIver, John K.
1995-10-01
We are looking for the universal covering algebra for all symmetries of a given partial differential equation (PDE), using the sine-Gordon equation as a typical example for a nonevolution equation. For nonevolution equations, Estabrook-Wahlquist prolongation structures for nonlocal symmetries depend on the choice of a specific subideal of the contact module to define the PDE. For each inequivalent such choice we determine the most general solution of the prolongation equations, as subalgebras of the (infinite-dimensional) algebra of all vector fields over the space of nonlocal variables associated with the PDE, in the style of Vinogradov covering spaces. We show explicitly how previously known prolongation structures, known to lie within the Kac-Moody algebra, A(1)1, are special cases of these general solutions, although we are unable to identify the most general solutions with previously studied algebras. We show the existence of gauge transformations between prolongation structures, viewed as determining connections over the solution space, and use these to relate (otherwise) distinct algebras. Faithful realizations of the universal algebra allow integral representations of the prolongation structure, opening up interesting connections with algebras of Toeplitz operators over Banach spaces, an area that has only begun to be explored.
Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim
2011-12-15
We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schroedinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t)=(n({h_bar}/2{pi})/{tau})/cosh(t/{tau}), with n being an integer and {tau} being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Lu Trong Khiem
2016-07-01
A finite difference formula based on the predictor-corrector technique is presented to integrate the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations numerically. Based on various numerical observations, one property of the waves of kink type is conjectured and used to explain their returning effect. Several numerical experiments are carried out and they are in excellent agreement with the existing results. In addition, the corresponding modulation solution for the two-dimensional ring-shaped kink is extended to that in three-dimension. Both numerical and theoretical aspects are utilized to verify the reliability of the proposed numerical scheme and thus the analytical modulation solutions.
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2010-08-15
In this paper we investigate wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions in four-dimensional gravity plus a matter source consisting of a ghost scalar field with a sine-Gordon potential. For the wormhole solutions we also include the possibility of electric and/or magnetic charges. For both types of solutions we perform a linear stability analysis and show that the wormhole solutions are stable and that when one turns on the electric and/or magnetic field the solution remains stable. The linear stability analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions indicates that they can be stable or unstable depending on one of the parameters of the system. This result for the spherically symmetric solution is nontrivial since a previous investigation of four-dimensional gravity plus a ghost scalar field with a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} interaction found only unstable spherically symmetric solutions. Both the wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions presented here asymptotically go to anti-de Sitter space-time.
Zarmi, Yair
2015-01-01
The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions.
Zarmi, Yair
2015-01-01
The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions. PMID:26020922
Quantum complex sine-Gordon dressed boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowcock, P.; Umpleby, J. M.
2008-11-01
In this paper we investigate the quantum reflection factor for the CSG dressed boundary, previously constructed by dressing the Dirichlet boundary with the integrable CSG defect [1]. We analyse classical bound states and use semi-classical methods to investigate the quantum boundary spectrum. We conjecture a fully quantum reflection matrix for a particle reflecting from an unexcited boundary. By using the reflection and boundary bootstrap equations, the reflection matrix for a charge Q = +n soliton reflecting from the mth excited boundary is constructed. Evidence supporting our conjecture is given by checking that the bootstrap closes and that the reflection matrices agrees with known results in the classical limit. A partial analysis of the poles in the reflection matrices which arise from Coleman-Thun diagrams is given.
Configurational entropy in brane-world models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-11-01
In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.
Conceptual Foundations of Soliton Versus Particle Dualities Toward a Topological Model for Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouneiher, Joseph
2016-06-01
The idea that fermions could be solitons was actually confirmed in theoretical models in 1975 in the case when the space-time is two-dimensional and with the sine-Gordon model. More precisely S. Coleman showed that two different classical models end up describing the same fermions particle, when the quantum theory is constructed. But in one model the fermion is a quantum excitation of the field and in the other model the particle is a soliton. Hence both points of view can be reconciliated.The principal aim in this paper is to exhibit a solutions of topological type for the fermions in the wave zone, where the equations of motion are non-linear field equations, i.e. using a model generalizing sine- Gordon model to four dimensions, and describe the solutions for linear and circular polarized waves. In other words, the paper treat fermions as topological excitations of a bosonic field.
Consistency of the triplet seesaw model revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonilla, Cesar; Fonseca, Renato M.; Valle, J. W. F.
2015-10-01
Adding a scalar triplet to the Standard Model is one of the simplest ways of giving mass to neutrinos, providing at the same time a mechanism to stabilize the theory's vacuum. In this paper, we revisit these aspects of the type-II seesaw model pointing out that the bounded-from-below conditions for the scalar potential in use in the literature are not correct. We discuss some scenarios where the correction can be significant and sketch the typical scalar boson profile expected by consistency.
Bosonic description of a Tomonaga-Luttinger model with impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Victoria; Li, Kang; Naón, Carlos
1999-04-01
We extend a recently proposed non-local version of Coleman's equivalence between the Thirring and sine-Gordon models to the case in which the original fermion fields interact with fixed impurities. We explain how our results can be used in the context of one-dimensional strongly correlated systems (the so called Tomonaga-Luttinger model) to study the dependence of the charge-density oscillations on the range of the fermionic interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yi; Schmidt, Michael A.
2016-05-01
Combining neutrino mass generation and a dark matter candidate in a unified model has always been intriguing. We revisit the class of R νMDM models, which incorporate minimal dark matter in radiative neutrino mass models based on the one-loop ultraviolet completions of the Weinberg operator. The possibility of an exact accidental Z 2 is completely ruled out in this scenario. We study the phenomenology of one of the models with an approximate Z 2 symmetry. In addition to the Standard Model particles, it contains two real scalar quintuplets, one vector-like quadruplet fermion and a fermionic quintuplet. The neutral component of the fermionic quintuplet serves as a good dark matter candidate which can be tested by the future direct and indirect detection experiments. The constraints from flavor physics and electroweak-scale naturalness are also discussed.
Revisiting the standard solar model
Turck-Chieze, S.; Cahen, S.; Casse, M.; Doom, C.
1988-12-01
The mutual consistency between standard solar models is studied based on the recent Los Alamos opacity tables. Satisfactory agreement is found among these models concerning the helium content and the neutrino capture rates. The reference model leads to a solar helium content of 0.276 + or - 0.012 by mass fraction. 75 references.
Quantization of the nonlinear sigma model revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Timothy
2016-08-01
We revisit the subject of perturbatively quantizing the nonlinear sigma model in two dimensions from a rigorous, mathematical point of view. Our main contribution is to make precise the cohomological problem of eliminating potential anomalies that may arise when trying to preserve symmetries under quantization. The symmetries we consider are twofold: (i) diffeomorphism covariance for a general target manifold; (ii) a transitive group of isometries when the target manifold is a homogeneous space. We show that there are no anomalies in case (i) and that (ii) is also anomaly-free under additional assumptions on the target homogeneous space, in agreement with the work of Friedan. We carry out some explicit computations for the O(N)-model. Finally, we show how a suitable notion of the renormalization group establishes the Ricci flow as the one loop renormalization group flow of the nonlinear sigma model.
Structural sensitivity of biological models revisited.
Cordoleani, Flora; Flora, Cordoleani; Nerini, David; David, Nerini; Gauduchon, Mathias; Mathias, Gauduchon; Morozov, Andrew; Andrew, Morozov; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Jean-Christophe, Poggiale
2011-08-21
Enhancing the predictive power of models in biology is a challenging issue. Among the major difficulties impeding model development and implementation are the sensitivity of outcomes to variations in model parameters, the problem of choosing of particular expressions for the parametrization of functional relations, and difficulties in validating models using laboratory data and/or field observations. In this paper, we revisit the phenomenon which is referred to as structural sensitivity of a model. Structural sensitivity arises as a result of the interplay between sensitivity of model outcomes to variations in parameters and sensitivity to the choice of model functions, and this can be somewhat of a bottleneck in improving the models predictive power. We provide a rigorous definition of structural sensitivity and we show how we can quantify the degree of sensitivity of a model based on the Hausdorff distance concept. We propose a simple semi-analytical test of structural sensitivity in an ODE modeling framework. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of directly linking the variability of field/experimental data and model predictions, and we demonstrate a way of assessing the robustness of modeling predictions with respect to data sampling variability. As an insightful illustrative example, we test our sensitivity analysis methods on a chemostat predator-prey model, where we use laboratory data on the feeding of protozoa to parameterize the predator functional response.
Galeta, Leonardo; Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos
2009-12-01
We show how to match the Isgur-Karl model to the spin-flavor quark operator expansion used in the 1/N{sub c} studies of the nonstrange negative parity L=1 excited baryons. Using the transformation properties of states and interactions under the permutation group S{sub 3} we are able to express the operator coefficients as overlap integrals, without making any assumption on the spatial dependence of the quark wave functions. The general mass operator leads to parameter free mass relations and constraints on the mixing angles that are valid beyond the usual harmonic oscillator approximation. The Isgur-Karl model with harmonic oscillator wave functions provides a simple counterexample that demonstrates explicitly that the alternative operator basis for the 1/N{sub c} expansion for excited baryons recently proposed by Matagne and Stancu is incomplete.
The sausage sigma model revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suneeta, Vardarajan
2015-06-01
Fateev’s sausage sigma models in two and three dimensions are known to be integrable. We study their stability under renormalization group (RG) flow in the target space by using results from the mathematics of Ricci flow. We show that the three-dimensional sausage is unstable, whereas the two-dimensional sausage appears to be stable at least at leading order as it approaches the sphere. We speculate that the stability results obtained are linked to the classification of ancient solutions to Ricci flow (i.e., sigma models that are nonperturbative in the infrared regime) in two and three dimensions. We also describe a class of perturbations of the three-dimensional sausage (with the same continuous symmetries) which remarkably decouple. This indicates that there could be a new solution to RG flow, which is described at least perturbatively as a deformation of the sausage.
The abelian confinement mechanism revisited: New aspects of the Georgi–Glashow model
Anber, Mohamed M.
2014-02-15
The confinement problem remains one of the most difficult problems in theoretical physics. An important step toward the solution of this problem is Polyakov’s work on abelian confinement. The Georgi–Glashow model is a natural testing ground for this mechanism which has been surprising us by its richness and wide applicability. In this work, we shed light on two new aspects of this model in 2+1 D. First, we develop a many-body description of the effective degrees of freedom. Namely, we consider a non-relativistic gas of W-bosons in the background of monopole–instanton plasma. Many-body treatment is a standard toolkit in condensed matter physics. However, we add a new twist by supplying the monopole–instantons as external background field. Using this construction along with a mean-field approximation, we calculate the form of the potential between two electric probes as a function of their separation. This potential is expressed in terms of the Meijer-G function which interpolates between logarithmic and linear behavior at small and large distances, respectively. Second, we develop a systematic approach to integrate out the effect of the W-bosons at finite temperature in the range 0≤T
A Multi-Level Model of Moral Functioning Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reed, Don Collins
2009-01-01
The model of moral functioning scaffolded in the 2008 "JME" Special Issue is here revisited in response to three papers criticising that volume. As guest editor of that Special Issue I have formulated the main body of this response, concerning the dynamic systems approach to moral development, the problem of moral relativism and the role of…
Lattice Boltzmann model for nonlinear convection-diffusion equations.
Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli
2009-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equation with nonlinear convection and isotropic-diffusion terms is proposed through selecting equilibrium distribution function properly. The model can be applied to the common real and complex-valued nonlinear evolutionary equations, such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, nonlinear heat conduction equation, and sine-Gordon equation, by using a real and complex-valued distribution function and relaxation time. Detailed simulations of these equations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions and the numerical solutions reported in previous studies.
Quantum projectors and local operators in lattice integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oota, Takeshi
2004-01-01
In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method, we consider a problem of constructing local operators for one-dimensional quantum integrable models, especially for the lattice versions of the nonlinear Schrödinger and sine-Gordon models. We show that a certain class of local operators can be constructed from the matrix elements of the monodromy matrix in a simple way. They are closely related to the quantum projectors and have nice commutation relations with half of the matrix elements of the elementary monodromy matrix. The form factors of these operators can be calculated by using the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz techniques.
Equivalent bosonic theory for the massive Thirring model with a non-local interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kang; Naón, Carlos
1998-10-01
We study, through path-integral methods, an extension of the massive Thirring model in which the interaction between currents is non-local. By examining the mass expansion of the partition function we show that this non-local massive Thirring model is equivalent to a certain non-local extension of the sine-Gordon theory. Thus, we establish a non-local generalization of the well known Coleman's equivalence. We also discuss some possible applications of this result in the context of one-dimensional strongly correlated systems and finite-size quantum field theories.
Mathematical modeling of intrinsic Josephson junctions with capacitive and inductive couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu M.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Sarhadov, I.; Andreeva, O.
2012-11-01
We investigate the current voltage characteristics (CVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) with two types of couplings between junctions: capacitive and inductive. The IJJ model is described by a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations which is solved numerically by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The method of numerical simulation and numerical results are presented. The magnetic field distribution is calculated as the function of coordinate and time at different values of the bias current. The influence of model parameters on the CVC is studied. The behavior of the IJJ in dependence on coupling parameters is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Cuba, G.; Paunov, R.
1998-10-01
We study the relation between the group-algebraic approach and the dressing symmetry one to the soliton solutions of the An(1) Toda field theory in 1+1 dimensions. Originally, solitons in the affine Toda models were found by Olive, Turok, and Underwood. Single solitons are created by exponentials of elements which ad-diagonalize the principal Heisenberg subalgebra. Alternatively, Babelon and Bernard exploited the dressing symmetry to reproduce the known expressions for the fundamental tau functions in the sine-Gordon model. In this paper we show the equivalence between these two methods to construct solitons in the An(1) Toda models.
How clonal are Neisseria species? The epidemic clonality model revisited.
Tibayrenc, Michel; Ayala, Francisco J
2015-07-21
The three species Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Neisseria lactamica are often regarded as highly recombining bacteria. N. meningitidis has been considered a paradigmatic case of the "semiclonal model" or of "epidemic clonality," demonstrating occasional bouts of clonal propagation in an otherwise recombining species. In this model, occasional clonality generates linkage disequilibrium in the short term. In the long run, however, the effects of clonality are countered by recombination. We show that many data are at odds with this proposal and that N. meningitidis fits the criteria that we have proposed for predominant clonal evolution (PCE). We point out that (i) the proposed way to distinguish epidemic clonality from PCE may be faulty and (ii) the evidence of deep phylogenies by microarrays and whole-genome sequencing is at odds with the predictions of the semiclonal model. Last, we revisit the species status of N. meningitidis, N. gonorrheae, and N. lactamica in the light of the PCE model.
Potts-model critical manifolds revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scullard, Christian R.; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper
2016-03-01
We compute critical polynomials for the q-state Potts model on the Archimedean lattices, using a parallel implementation of the algorithm of Jacobsen (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 47 135001) that gives us access to larger sizes than previously possible. The exact polynomials are computed for bases of size 6 × 6 unit cells, and the root in the temperature variable v={{{e}}}K-1 is determined numerically at q = 1 for bases of size 8 × 8. This leads to improved results for bond percolation thresholds, and for the Potts-model critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane. In the two most favourable cases, we find now the kagome-lattice threshold to eleven digits and that of the (3,{12}2) lattice to thirteen. Our critical manifolds reveal many interesting features in the antiferromagnetic region of the Potts model, and determine accurately the extent of the Berker-Kadanoff phase for the lattices studied.
Density waves in the Calogero model - revisited
Bardek, V. Feinberg, J. Meljanac, S.
2010-03-15
The Calogero model bears, in the continuum limit, collective excitations in the form of density waves and solitary modulations of the density of particles. This sector of the spectrum of the model was investigated, mostly within the framework of collective-field theory, by several authors, over the past 15 years or so. In this work we shall concentrate on periodic solutions of the collective BPS-equation (also known as 'finite amplitude density waves'), as well as on periodic solutions of the full static variational equations which vanish periodically (also known as 'large amplitude density waves'). While these solutions are not new, we feel that our analysis and presentation add to the existing literature, as we explain in the text. In addition, we show that these solutions also occur in a certain two-family generalization of the Calogero model, at special points in parameter space. A compendium of useful identities associated with Hilbert transforms, including our own proofs of these identities, appears in Appendix A. In Appendix B we also elucidate in the present paper some fine points having to do with manipulating Hilbert-transforms, which appear ubiquitously in the collective field formalism. Finally, in order to make this paper self-contained, we briefly summarize in Appendix C basic facts about the collective field formulation of the Calogero model.
Equilibria of Constantin Popovici's Photogravitational Model Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mioc, Vasile
The equilibria of the two-body problem associated to Constantin Popovici's photogravitational model are tackled again. We consider the motion in the infinity-blow-up coordinates provided by McGehee-type transformations. Then we study the vector field expressed in collision-regularizing Levi-Civita coordinates. This new framework provides the same location of the equilibria and the same information about their nature as the previous approaches.
The murine excisional wound model: Contraction revisited
Chen, Lin; Mirza, Rita; Kwon, Young; DiPietro, Luisa A.; Koh, Timothy J.
2016-01-01
Rodent models of healing are considered limited because of the perception that rodent wounds heal by contraction while humans heal by re-epithelialization. The purpose of this report is to present evidence that simple murine excisional wounds provide a valid and reproducible wound model that heals by both contraction and re-epithelialization. Previous studies have shown that, although rodent wounds contract by up to 80%, much of this contraction occurs only after epithelial closure. To confirm these previous findings, we measured re-epithelialization and contraction in three separate mouse strains, (BALB/c, db/+ and db/db); re-epithelialization and contraction each accounted for ~40-60% of the initial closure of full thickness excisional wounds. After closure, the wound continues to contract and this provides the impression of dominant closure by contraction. In conclusion, the simple excisional rodent wound model produces a well-defined and readily identifiable wound bed over which the process of re-epithelialization is clearly measurable. PMID:26136050
The maternal deprivation animal model revisited.
Marco, Eva M; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Prada, Carmen; Viveros, María-Paz
2015-04-01
Early life stress, in the form of MD (24h at pnd 9), interferes with brain developmental trajectories modifying both behavioral and neurobiochemical parameters. MD has been reported to enhance neuroendocrine responses to stress, to affect emotional behavior and to impair cognitive function. More recently, changes in body weight gain, metabolic parameters and immunological responding have also been described. Present data give support to the fact that neuronal degeneration and/or astrocyte proliferation are present in specific brain regions, mainly hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of neonatal stress. The MD animal model arises as a valuable tool for the investigation of the brain processes occurring at the narrow time window comprised between pnd 9 and 10 that are critical for the establishment of brain circuitries critical for the regulation of behavior, metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the present review we will discuss three possible mechanisms that might be crucial for the effects of MD, namely, the rapid increase in glucocorticoids, the lack of the neonatal leptin surge, and the enhanced endocannabinoid signaling during the specific critical period of MD. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental consequences of MD is a concern for public health and may provide new insights into mental health prevention strategies and into novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatry. PMID:25616179
The maternal deprivation animal model revisited.
Marco, Eva M; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Prada, Carmen; Viveros, María-Paz
2015-04-01
Early life stress, in the form of MD (24h at pnd 9), interferes with brain developmental trajectories modifying both behavioral and neurobiochemical parameters. MD has been reported to enhance neuroendocrine responses to stress, to affect emotional behavior and to impair cognitive function. More recently, changes in body weight gain, metabolic parameters and immunological responding have also been described. Present data give support to the fact that neuronal degeneration and/or astrocyte proliferation are present in specific brain regions, mainly hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of neonatal stress. The MD animal model arises as a valuable tool for the investigation of the brain processes occurring at the narrow time window comprised between pnd 9 and 10 that are critical for the establishment of brain circuitries critical for the regulation of behavior, metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the present review we will discuss three possible mechanisms that might be crucial for the effects of MD, namely, the rapid increase in glucocorticoids, the lack of the neonatal leptin surge, and the enhanced endocannabinoid signaling during the specific critical period of MD. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental consequences of MD is a concern for public health and may provide new insights into mental health prevention strategies and into novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatry.
Form factors of descendant operators: reduction to perturbed M (2 , 2 s + 1) models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav
2015-04-01
In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the Φ13-perturbation of minimal conformal models of the M (2 , 2 s + 1) series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents T ±2 k , Θ±(2 k-2), which correspond to the spin ±(2 k - 1) integrals of motion, for any positive integer k. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators T 2 k T -2 l , which generalize the famous operator. The construction is analytic in the s parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.
On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.
2012-09-15
In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.
Revisiting rodent models: Octodon degus as Alzheimer's disease model?
Steffen, Johannes; Krohn, Markus; Paarmann, Kristin; Schwitlick, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Korth, Carsten; Braun, Katharina; Pahnke, Jens
2016-01-01
Alzheimer's disease primarily occurs as sporadic disease and is accompanied with vast socio-economic problems. The mandatory basic research relies on robust and reliable disease models to overcome increasing incidence and emerging social challenges. Rodent models are most efficient, versatile, and predominantly used in research. However, only highly artificial and mostly genetically modified models are available. As these 'engineered' models reproduce only isolated features, researchers demand more suitable models of sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. One very promising animal model was the South American rodent Octodon degus, which was repeatedly described as natural 'sporadic Alzheimer's disease model' with 'Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology'. To unveil advantages over the 'artificial' mouse models, we re-evaluated the age-dependent, neurohistological changes in young and aged Octodon degus (1 to 5-years-old) bred in a wild-type colony in Germany. In our hands, extensive neuropathological analyses of young and aged animals revealed normal age-related cortical changes without obvious signs for extensive degeneration as seen in patients with dementia. Neither significant neuronal loss nor enhanced microglial activation were observed in aged animals. Silver impregnation methods, conventional, and immunohistological stains as well as biochemical fractionations revealed neither amyloid accumulation nor tangle formation. Phosphoepitope-specific antibodies against tau species displayed similar intraneuronal reactivity in both, young and aged Octodon degus.In contrast to previous results, our study suggests that Octodon degus born and bred in captivity do not inevitably develop cortical amyloidosis, tangle formation or neuronal loss as seen in Alzheimer's disease patients or transgenic disease models. PMID:27566602
Revisiting PLUMBER: Why Do Simple Data-driven Models Outperform Modern Land Surface Models?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nijssen, B.; Clark, M. P.; Haughton, N.; Abramowitz, G.
2015-12-01
PLUMBER, a recent benchmarking study for the performance of land surface models (LSMs), demonstrated that simple data-driven models outperform modern LSMs at FLUXNET stations. Specifically, data-driven models out-performed LSMs in partitioning net radiation into turbulent heat fluxes over a wide range of performance criteria. The question is why. After all, LSMs combine process understanding with site information and might be expected to outperform simple data-driven models that are trained out-of-sample and that do not include an explicit representation of past states such as soil moisture or heat storage. In other words, the data-driven models have no explicit representation of memory, which we know to be important for land surface energy and moisture states. Here, we revisit the PLUMBER results with the aim to understand why simple data-driven models outperform LSMs. First, we analyze the PLUMBER results to determine the conditions under which data-driven models outperform LSMs. We then use the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) to construct LSMs of varying complexity to relate model performance to process representation. SUMMA is a hydrologic modeling approach that enables a controlled and systematic analysis of alternative modeling options. Results are intended to identify development priorities for LSMs.
Revisited: The South Dakota Board of Nursing theory-based regulatory decisioning model.
Damgaard, Gloria; Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt
2012-07-01
The authors of this column describe the South Dakota Board of Nursing's 11 year journey utilizing a humanbecoming theory-based regulatory decisioning model. The column revisits the model with an emphasis on the cocreation of a strategic plan guiding the work of the South Dakota Board of Nursing through 2014. The strategic plan was influenced by the latest refinements of the humanbecoming postulates and the humanbecoming community change concepts. A graphic picture of the decisioning model is presented along with future plans for the theory-based model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taejin
2016-09-01
We study the dissipative Hofstadter model on a triangular lattice, making use of the O(2, 2; R) T-dual transformation of string theory. The O(2, 2; R) dual transformation transcribes the model in a commutative basis into the model in a noncommutative basis. In the zero-temperature limit, the model exhibits an exact duality, which identifies equivalent points on the two-dimensional parameter space of the model. The exact duality also defines magic circles on the parameter space, where the model can be mapped onto the boundary sine-Gordon on a triangular lattice. The model describes the junction of three quantum wires in a uniform magnetic field background. An explicit expression of the equivalence relation, which identifies the points on the two-dimensional parameter space of the model by the exact duality, is obtained. It may help us to understand the structure of the phase diagram of the model.
Quantum quench dynamics in analytically solvable one-dimensional models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iucci, Anibal; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Giamarchi, Thierry
2008-03-01
In connection with experiments in cold atomic systems, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of some analytically solvable one-dimensional systems which undergo a quantum quench. In this quench one or several of the parameters of the Hamiltonian of an interacting quantum system are changed over a very short time scale. In particular, we concentrate on the Luttinger model and the sine-Gordon model in the Luther-Emery point. For the latter, we show that the order parameter and the two-point correlation function relax in the long time limit to the values determined by a generalized Gibbs ensemble first discussed by J. T. Jaynes [Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957); 108, 171 (1957)], and recently conjectured by M. Rigol et.al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007)] to apply to the non-equilibrium dynamics of integrable systems.
Revisiting the Mode-Beating Model of AC Helicity Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.
2010-11-01
Oscillating field current drive (OFCD), or AC helicity injection, is an important candidate for current sustainment in reversed-field pinch devices. Bellan examined AC helicity injection in a slab geometry and described it as a beating between two plasma modes that produces a mean current parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field [P. M. Bellan. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1381 (1985)]. This mean current is confined to within a classical resistive skin depth of the plasma surface, and plasma relaxation is responsible for transporting this current to the core. We revisit this analytical work and examine how this wave-beating effect is represented in zero-beta MHD simulations, including consideration of the choice of boundary conditions. In addition to the expected parallel current, numerical simulations show a pinch effect from a cycle-averaged current that is perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, which is not described in Bellan's original work. Our results are discussed with respect to Boozer's general anti-dynamo theorem [A. H. Boozer. Phys. Fluids B Vol. 5, 2271 (1993)].
Sample selection versus two-part models revisited: the case of female smoking and drinking.
Madden, David
2008-03-01
There is a well-established debate between Heckman sample selection and two-part models in health econometrics, particularly when no obvious exclusion restrictions are available. Most of this debate has focussed on the application of these models to health care expenditure. This paper revisits the debate in the context of female smoking and drinking, and evaluates the two approaches on three grounds: theoretical, practical and statistical. The two-part model is generally favoured but it is stressed that this comparison should be carried out on a case-by-case basis.
Lattice Boltzmann model for generalized nonlinear wave equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng
2011-10-01
In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann model is developed to solve a class of the nonlinear wave equations. Through selecting equilibrium distribution function and an amending function properly, the governing evolution equation can be recovered correctly according to our proposed scheme, in which the Chapman-Enskog expansion is employed. We validate the algorithm on some problems where analytic solutions are available, including the second-order telegraph equation, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, and the damped, driven sine-Gordon equation. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions, which indicates that the present algorithm is very effective and can be used to solve more general nonlinear problems.
On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt
2016-06-01
We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the Θ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.
Revisiting the Boundary Layer Leaf Water Isotopic Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, X.; Shu, Y.; Posmentier, E. S.; Sonder, L. J.; Yakir, D.
2007-12-01
The boundary layer (BL) model for oxygen or hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf water has been widely used in the past four decades, and has been incorporated into models that require information about leaf water isotopic variations. However, since its introduction, model predictions of the bulk leaf water have often exceeded observed isotopic enrichments. There are also cases in which the model yielded lower than observed isotopic enrichments of bulk leaf water. In general, underpredictions occur under relatively high humidity. In order to explain why the BL model overpredicts the isotopic composition, several modifications of the model have been proposed. However, no explanation exists for why the BL model underestimates observed isotopic enrichments. We recently developed a 2D model that successfully simulates the observed along-leaf 18O enrichment of pine needles, and can explain why the BL model could have over- or under-predicted the bulk leaf water δ18O values. In the BL model, bulk leaf water is isotopically equivalent to water at the evaporation site, fed directly by stem water. In a real leaf, however, stem water enters the base of the leaf and becomes progressively enriched in 18O towards the tip due to fractionation by transpiration, consistent with both our observations and behavior of the 2D model. Therefore, at least part of the leaf water, that near the base, would have isotopic values lower than water at transpiration sites predicted by the BL model, which might thus overestimate bulk isotope values. On the other hand, as water moves through a leaf, it becomes increasingly enriched in 18O, and the leaf water near the tip may have δ18O values well above the BL model prediction. Therefore, it is also possible for the BL model to underestimate the bulk leaf water δ18O. The actual isotopic composition of the bulk leaf water is a combination of these two effects. It is clear then that the BL model may not accurately predict the δ18O value of the
Field theoretical model of multilayered Josephson junction and dynamics of Josephson vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Iida, Hideaki; Nitta, Muneto
2016-09-01
Multilayered Josephson junctions are modeled in the context of a field theory, and dynamics of Josephson vortices trapped inside insulators are studied. Starting from a theory consisting of complex and real scalar fields coupled to a U(1) gauge field which admit parallel N -1 domain-wall solutions, Josephson couplings are introduced weakly between the complex scalar fields. The N -1 domain walls behave as insulators separating N superconductors, where one of the complex scalar fields has a gap. We construct the effective Lagrangian on the domain walls, which reduces to a coupled sine-Gordon model for well-separated walls and contains more interactions for walls at short distance. We then construct sine-Gordon solitons emerging in an effective theory in which we identify Josephson vortices carrying singly quantized magnetic fluxes. When two neighboring superconductors tend to have the same phase, the ground state does not change with the positions of domain walls (the width of superconductors). On the other hand, when two neighboring superconductors tend to have π -phase differences, the ground state has a phase transition depending on the positions of domain walls; when the two walls are close to each other (one superconductor is thin), frustration occurs because of the coupling between the two superconductors besides the thin superconductor. Focusing on the case of three superconductors separated by two insulators, we find for the former case that the interaction between two Josephson vortices on different insulators changes its nature, i.e., attractive or repulsive, depending on the positions of the domain walls. In the latter case, there emerges fractional Josephson vortices when two degenerate ground states appear due to spontaneous charge-symmetry breaking, and the number of the Josephson vortices varies with the position of the domain walls. Our predictions should be verified in multilayered Josephson junctions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanitha, M.; Daniel, M.
2012-04-01
We study the internal nonlinear dynamics of an inhomogeneous short lattice DNA model by solving numerically the governing discrete perturbed sine-Gordon equations under the limits of a uniform and a nonuniform angular rotation of bases. The internal dynamics is expressed in terms of open-state configurations represented by kink and antikink solitons with fluctuations. The inhomogeneity in the strands and hydrogen bonds as well as nonuniformity in the rotation of bases introduce fluctuations in the profile of the solitons without affecting their robust nature and the propagation. These fluctuations spread into the tail regions of the soliton in the case of periodic inhomogeneity. However, the localized form of inhomogeneity generates amplified fluctuations in the profile of the soliton. The fluctuations are expected to enhance the denaturation process in the DNA molecule.
LISREL Modeling: Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ Revisited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chipuer, Heather M.; And Others
1990-01-01
A model-fitting analysis of the covariance structure of an intelligence quotient (IQ) data set is reported using a model that considers additive and nonadditive genetic parameters and shared and nonshared environment parameters that permit different estimates for different types of relatives. The use of LISREL for such purposes is reviewed. (SLD)
Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Robert D.
2011-01-01
Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…
The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".
Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen
2014-01-01
Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.
Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited
Stocker, Benjamin D; Prentice, I Colin; Cornell, Sarah; Davies-Barnard, T; Finzi, Adrien; Franklin, Oskar; Janssens, Ivan; Larmola, Tuula; Manzoni, Stefano; Näsholm, Torgny; Raven, John; Rebel, Karin; Reed, Sasha C.; Vicca, Sara; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke
2016-01-01
Understanding the degree to which nitrogen (N) availability limits land carbon (C) uptake under global environmental change represents an unresolved challenge. First-generation ‘C-only’vegetation models, lacking explicit representations of N cycling,projected a substantial and increasing land C sink under rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This prediction was questioned for not taking into account the potentially limiting effect of N availability, which is necessary for plant growth (Hungate et al.,2003). More recent global models include coupled C and N cycles in land ecosystems (C–N models) and are widely assumed to be more realistic. However, inclusion of more processes has not consistently improved their performance in capturing observed responses of the global C cycle (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2014). With the advent of a new generation of global models, including coupled C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling, model complexity is sure to increase; but model reliability may not, unless greater attention is paid to the correspondence of model process representations ande mpirical evidence. It was in this context that the ‘Nitrogen Cycle Workshop’ at Dartington Hall, Devon, UK was held on 1–5 February 2016. Organized by I. Colin Prentice and Benjamin D. Stocker (Imperial College London, UK), the workshop was funded by the European Research Council,project ‘Earth system Model Bias Reduction and assessing Abrupt Climate change’ (EMBRACE). We gathered empirical ecologists and ecosystem modellers to identify key uncertainties in terrestrial C–N cycling, and to discuss processes that are missing or poorly represented in current models.
Revisiting the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy
Kim, Clifford B; D'Amore, Patricia A; Connor, Kip M
2016-01-01
Abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina is a hallmark of many retinal diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. In particular, ROP has been an important health concern for physicians since the advent of routine supplemental oxygen therapy for premature neonates more than 70 years ago. Since then, researchers have explored several animal models to better understand ROP and retinal vascular development. Of these models, the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) has become the most widely used, and has played a pivotal role in our understanding of retinal angiogenesis and ocular immunology, as well as in the development of groundbreaking therapeutics such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for wet age-related macular degeneration. Numerous refinements to the model have been made since its inception in the 1950s, and technological advancements have expanded the use of the model across multiple scientific fields. In this review, we explore the historical developments that have led to the mouse OIR model utilized today, essential concepts of OIR, limitations of the model, and a representative selection of key findings from OIR, with particular emphasis on current research progress. PMID:27499653
Revisiting antibody modeling assessment for CDR-H3 loop
Nishigami, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Nakamura, Haruki
2016-01-01
The antigen-binding site of antibodies, also known as complementarity-determining region (CDR), has hypervariable sequence properties. In particular, the third CDR loop of the heavy chain, CDR-H3, has such variability in its sequence, length, and conformation that ordinary modeling techniques cannot build a high-quality structure. At Stage 2 of the Second Antibody Modeling Assessment (AMA-II) held in 2013, the model structures of the CDR-H3 loops were submitted by the seven modelers and were critically assessed. After our participation in AMA-II, we rebuilt one of the long CDR-H3 loops with 13 residues (A52 antibody) by a more precise method, using enhanced conformational sampling with the explicit water model, as compared to our previous method employed at AMA-II. The current stable models obtained from the free energy landscape at 300 K include structures similar to the X-ray crystal structures. Those models were not built in our previous work at AMA-II. The current free energy landscape suggested that the CDR-H3 loop structures in the crystal are not stable in solution, but they are stabilized by the crystal packing effect. PMID:27515703
Revisiting the domain model for lithium intercalated graphite
Krishnan, Sridevi; Brenet, Gilles; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Pochet, Pascal
2013-12-16
In this Letter, we study the stability of the domain model for lithium intercalated graphite in stages III and II by means of Density Functional Theory and Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the domain model is either thermodynamically or kinetically stable when compared to the standard model in stages III and II. The existence of domains in the intercalation sequence is well supported by recent high resolution transmission electron microscope observations in lithiated graphite. Moreover, we predict that such domain staging sequences leads to a wide range of diffusivity as reported in experiments.
Electromagnetic braking revisited with a magnetic point dipole model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Sara; McGuire, Patrick; Bumb, Nikhil; Mann, Brian P.; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-04-01
A theoretical model is developed to predict the trajectory of magnetized spheres falling through a copper pipe. The derive magnetic point dipole model agrees well with the experimental trajectories for NdFeB spherical magnets of varying diameter, which are embedded inside 3D printed shells with fixed outer dimensions. This demonstration of electrodynamic phenomena and Lenz's law serves as a good laboratory exercise for physics, electromagnetics, and dynamics classes at the undergraduate level.
STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED
Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.
2015-10-20
In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.
Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.
2015-12-01
Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.
The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited
Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.
1989-01-01
As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model
Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.
2000-07-24
This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).
The Thirring-Wess model revisited: a functional integral approach
Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br
2005-06-01
We consider the Wess-Zumino-Witten theory to obtain the functional integral bosonization of the Thirring-Wess model with an arbitrary regularization parameter. Proceeding a systematic of decomposing the Bose field algebra into gauge-invariant- and gauge-non-invariant field subalgebras, we obtain the local decoupled quantum action. The generalized operator solutions for the equations of motion are reconstructed from the functional integral formalism. The isomorphism between the QED {sub 2} (QCD {sub 2}) with broken gauge symmetry by a regularization prescription and the Abelian (non-Abelian) Thirring-Wess model with a fixed bare mass for the meson field is established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fowler, Keirnan J. A.; Peel, Murray C.; Western, Andrew W.; Zhang, Lu; Peterson, Tim J.
2016-03-01
Hydrologic models have potential to be useful tools in planning for future climate variability. However, recent literature suggests that the current generation of conceptual rainfall runoff models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of runoff to a given change in rainfall, leading to poor performance when evaluated over multiyear droughts. This research revisited this conclusion, investigating whether the observed poor performance could be due to insufficient model calibration and evaluation techniques. We applied an approach based on Pareto optimality to explore trade-offs between model performance in different climatic conditions. Five conceptual rainfall runoff model structures were tested in 86 catchments in Australia, for a total of 430 Pareto analyses. The Pareto results were then compared with results from a commonly used model calibration and evaluation method, the Differential Split Sample Test. We found that the latter often missed potentially promising parameter sets within a given model structure, giving a false negative impression of the capabilities of the model. This suggests that models may be more capable under changing climatic conditions than previously thought. Of the 282[347] cases of apparent model failure under the split sample test using the lower [higher] of two model performance criteria trialed, 155[120] were false negatives. We discuss potential causes of remaining model failures, including the role of data errors. Although the Pareto approach proved useful, our aim was not to suggest an alternative calibration strategy, but to critically assess existing methods of model calibration and evaluation. We recommend caution when interpreting split sample results.
Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.
2014-07-01
Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.
MRAC Revisited: Guaranteed Performance with Reference Model Modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje
2010-01-01
This paper presents modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to achieve guaranteed transient performance both in the output and input signals of an uncertain system. The proposed modification is based on the tracking error feedback to the reference model. It is shown that approach guarantees tracking of a given command and the ideal control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient by a proper selection of the error feedback gain. The method prevents generation of high frequency oscillations that are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference command of any magnitude form any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated in simulations.
Matrix model approach to minimal Liouville gravity revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belavin, V.; Rud, Yu
2015-05-01
Using the connection with the Frobenius manifold (FM) structure, we study the matrix model description of minimal Liouville gravity (MLG) based on the Douglas String equation. Our goal is to find an exact discrete formulation of the (q,p) MLG model that intrinsically contains information about the conformal selection rules. We discuss how to modify the FM structure appropriately for this purposes. We propose a modification of the construction for Lee-Yang series involving the {{A}p-1} algebra instead of the previously used A1 algebra. With the new prescription, we calculate correlators on the sphere up to four points and find full agreement with the continuous approach without using resonance transformations.
Stochastic resonance in neuron models: Endogenous stimulation revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesser, Hans E.; Geisel, Theo
2001-03-01
The paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR)-the idea that signal detection and transmission may benefit from noise-has met with great interest in both physics and the neurosciences. We investigate here the consequences of reducing the dynamics of a periodically driven neuron to a renewal process (stimulation with reset or endogenous stimulation). This greatly simplifies the mathematical analysis, but we show that stochastic resonance as reported earlier occurs in this model only as a consequence of the reduced dynamics.
Allele frequencies at microsatellite loci: The stepwise mutation model revisited
Valdes, A.M.; Slatkin, M. ); Freimer, N.B. )
1993-03-01
The authors summarize available data on the frequencies of alleles at microsatellite loci in human populations and compare observed distributions of allele frequencies to those generated by a simulation of the stepwise mutation model. They show that observed frequency distributions at 108 loci are consistent with the results of the model under the assumption that mutations cause an increase or decrease in repeat number by one and under the condition that the product Nu, where N is the effective population size and u is the mutation rate, is larger than one. It is also shown that the variance of the distribution of allele sizes is a useful estimator of Nu and performs much better than previously suggested estimators for the stepwise mutation model. In the data, there is no correlation between the mean and variance in allele size at a locus or between the number of alleles and mean allele size, which suggests that the mutation rate at these loci is independent of allele size. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.
Revisiting the Unified Model of Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netzer, Hagai
2015-08-01
This review describes recent developments related to the unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). It focuses on new ideas about the origin and properties of the central obscurer (torus) and the connection to its surroundings. The review does not address radio unification. AGN tori must be clumpy but uncertainties about their properties persist. Today's most promising models involve disk winds of various types and hydrodynamic simulations that link the large-scale galactic disk to the inner accretion flow. Infrared (IR) studies greatly improved our understanding of the spectral energy distribution of AGNs, but they are hindered by various selection effects. X-ray samples are more complete. The dependence of the covering factor of the torus on luminosity is a basic relationship that remains unexplained. There is also much confusion regarding real type-II AGNs, which do not fit into a simple unification scheme. The most impressive recent results are due to IR interferometry, which is not in accord with most torus models, and the accurate mapping of central ionization cones. AGN unification may not apply to merging systems and is possibly restricted to secularly evolving galaxies.
Animal models of neuropsychiatry revisited: a personal tribute to Teitelbaum.
Robbins, T W
2012-06-01
Several themes and principles of behavioural neuroscience are evident in the work of Phillip Teitelbaum. He has emphasised the importance of studying behaviour in simple preparations, of re-synthesising complex behavioural patterns from these elemental 'building-blocks' and understanding their often hierarchical organisation. He also more recently has become interested in the possible power of behavioural endophenotypes. His work has resulted in a new emphasis on animal neuropsychology which is highly relevant to human psychopathology. This article illustrates these themes from examples taken from animal models of sensory neglect, drug addiction and cognitive syndromes associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22440232
Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.
1999-01-01
Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 < XGSM < --15, i.e. which of the records that were located in the current sheet, in the tail lobe, in the magnetosheath and in the boundary layers respectively. The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.
Model Independent Constraints of the Averaged Neutrino Masses Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Takeshi; Nishiura, Hiroyuki
2013-11-01
Averaged neutrino masses defined by <{m}ν >ab≡ (\\vert∑_ {j = 1}3UajUbjmj) \\vert (a, b = e, μ , τ ) are reanalyzed using up-to-date observed MNS parameters and neutrino masses by the neutrino oscillation experiments together with the cosmological constraint on neutrino masses. The values of
Temperature Effect on Micelle Formation: Molecular Thermodynamic Model Revisited.
Khoshnood, Atefeh; Lukanov, Boris; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-03-01
Temperature affects the aggregation of macromolecules such as surfactants, polymers, and proteins in aqueous solutions. The effect on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is often nonmonotonic. In this work, the effect of temperature on the micellization of ionic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions is studied using a molecular thermodynamic model. Previous studies based on this technique have predicted monotonic behavior for ionic surfactants. Our investigation shows that the choice of tail transfer energy to describe the hydrophobic effect between the surfactant tails and the polar solvent molecules plays a key role in the predicted CMC. We modify the tail transfer energy by taking into account the effect of the surfactant head on the neighboring methylene group. The modification improves the description of the CMC and the predicted micellar size for aqueous solutions of sodium n-alkyl sulfate, dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and n-alkyl polyoxyethylene. The new tail transfer energy describes the nonmonotonic behavior of CMC versus temperature. In the DTAB-water system, we redefine the head size by including the methylene group, next to the nitrogen, in the head. The change in the head size along with our modified tail transfer energy improves the CMC and aggregation size prediction significantly. Tail transfer is a dominant energy contribution in micellar and microemulsion systems. It also promotes the adsorption of surfactants at fluid-fluid interfaces and affects the formation of adsorbed layer at fluid-solid interfaces. Our proposed modifications have direct applications in the thermodynamic modeling of the effect of temperature on molecular aggregation, both in the bulk and at the interfaces.
Paris basin petroleum systems revisited by two-dimensional modeling
Gaulier, J.M.; Burrus, J.; Poulet, M. ); Barlier, J. , Pau )
1991-03-01
The authors investigate the history of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration along two E-W and N-W cross sections in the Paris basin. Source rocks, represented by Liassic marine shales (merely Hetangian-Sinemurian and Toarcian) reach the top of the oil window around 2,000 m and begin effective expulsion around 2,400 m. Reservoirs are essentially found in the subtle structures in the Dogger (carbonates) and Triassic (sandstones). These levels are normally separated from the source rocks by several hundred meters of impervious marls or shales. Regional faults are often viewed as major conduits that allow both expulsion and migration to the reservoirs. This petroleum system is seen by the use of two-dimensional modeling techniques: (1) The generation history is derived from an investigation of thermal history and kinetic modeling. They show that the present subsurface temperatures are influenced by regional convective discharge linked to the uplift of eastern and southeastern basin edges and that this cooling postdates the maturity. They also show that, in the eastern basin, the basement heat flow could have been increased since the Tertiary, at a time when Tertiary erosion had nearly frozen the maturity development. (2) The expulsion and migration are analyzed by coupling numerically the compaction history, the generation history, and the regional hydrodynamics. They show that expulsion efficiency is very much dependent on parameters not well constrained, but a sensitivity analysis confirms the prominent role of vertical faults as well as the influence of regional water flow on the distribution of accumulations.
Specificity in Transition State Binding: The Pauling Model Revisited
Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.
2013-01-01
Linus Pauling proposed that the large rate accelerations for enzymes are due to the high specificity of the protein catalyst for binding the reaction transition state. The observation that stable analogs of the transition states for enzymatic reactions often act as tight-binding binding inhibitors provided early support for this simple and elegant proposal. We review experimental results which support the proposal that Pauling’s model provides a satisfactory explanation for the rate accelerations for many heterolytic enzymatic reactions through high energy reaction intermediates, such as proton transfer and decarboxylation. Specificity in transition state binding is obtained when the total intrinsic binding energy of the substrate is significantly larger than the binding energy observed at the Michaelis complex. The results of recent studies to characterize the specificity in binding of the enolate oxygen at the transition state for the 1,3-isomerization reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase are reviewed. Interactions between pig heart succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) and the nonreacting portions of CoA are responsible for a rate increase of 3 × 1012-fold, which is close to the estimated total 5 × 1013-fold enzymatic rate acceleration. Studies that partition the interactions between SCOT and CoA into their contributing parts are reviewed. Interactions of the protein with the substrate phosphodianion group provide a ca. 12 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for the reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase, orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase and α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The interactions of these enzymes with the substrate piece phosphite dianion provide a 6 – 8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for reaction of the appropriate truncated substrate. Enzyme activation by phosphite dianion reflects the higher dianion affinity for binding to the enzyme-transition state complex compared
Nonlinear system modeling with random matrices: echo state networks revisited.
Zhang, Bai; Miller, David J; Wang, Yue
2012-01-01
Echo state networks (ESNs) are a novel form of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that provide an efficient and powerful computational model approximating nonlinear dynamical systems. A unique feature of an ESN is that a large number of neurons (the "reservoir") are used, whose synaptic connections are generated randomly, with only the connections from the reservoir to the output modified by learning. Why a large randomly generated fixed RNN gives such excellent performance in approximating nonlinear systems is still not well understood. In this brief, we apply random matrix theory to examine the properties of random reservoirs in ESNs under different topologies (sparse or fully connected) and connection weights (Bernoulli or Gaussian). We quantify the asymptotic gap between the scaling factor bounds for the necessary and sufficient conditions previously proposed for the echo state property. We then show that the state transition mapping is contractive with high probability when only the necessary condition is satisfied, which corroborates and thus analytically explains the observation that in practice one obtains echo states when the spectral radius of the reservoir weight matrix is smaller than 1.
Revisiting B→ϕπ decays in the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying; Lü, Cai-Dian; Wang, Wei
2009-07-01
In the standard model, we reinvestigate the rare decay B→ϕπ, which is viewed as an ideal probe to detect the new physics signals. We find that the tiny branching ratio in the naive factorization can be dramatically enhanced by the radiative corrections and the ω-ϕ mixing effect, while the long-distance contributions are negligibly small. Assuming the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle γ=(58.6±10)° and the mixing angle θ=-(3.0±1.0)°, we obtain the branching ratios of B→ϕπ as Br(B±→ϕπ±)=(3.2-0.7+1.8+0.8-1.2)×10-8 and Br(B0→ϕπ0)=(6.8-0.3+1.0+0.3-0.7)×10-9. If the future experiment reports a branching ratio of (0.2-0.5)×10-7 for B-→ϕπ- decay, it may not be a clear signal for any new physics scenario. In order to discriminate the large new physics contributions from those due to the ω-ϕ mixing, we propose to measure the ratio of branching fractions of the charged and neutral B decay channel. We also study the direct CP asymmetries of these two channels: (-8.0-1.0-0.1+0.9+1.5)% and (-6.3+0.7-2.5-0.5+2.5)% for B±→ϕπ± and B0→ϕπ0, respectively. These asymmetries are dominated by the mixing effect.
Yukawa Meson, Sakata Model and Baryon-Lepton Symmetry Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshak, R. E.
It is difficult for me to grasp that this symposium is celebrating the jubilee of meson theory since I was a junior at Columbia College in 1935. I recall hearing a colloquium by Paul Dirac that year telling an enraptured audience about the infinite sea of negative energy states but I do not recall any special note being taken of the birth of an equally revolutionary concept, the Yukawa meson. Perhaps the reason was the publication of Hideki Yukawa's paper in an inaccessible Japanese journal, perhaps Dirac's electron theory was dealing with the well-known electromagnetic force whereas Yukawa' meson theory was put forth to understand the nature of two new forces - the nuclear and the weak. Whatever the reason, the situation changed drastically when I migrated to Cornell (to do my thesis under Hans Bethe during the years 1937sim39) and found a deep interest in meson theory. Thus, my own scientific career has almost spanned the period since the birth of meson theory but, what is more to the point, it has been strongly influenced by the work of Yukawa and his collaborators. It therefore gives me great pleasure to be able to talk at this MESON 50 symposium. As one of the oldest speakers, I shall respond in a loose way to Professor Maki's invitation to cover ``topics concerning the historical developments of hadron physics''. I shall select several major themes from the Japanese work that have had special interest for me. My remarks will fall under the four headings: (A) Yukawa Meson; (B) Sakata Model; (C) Baryon-Lepton Symmetry; and (D) Extensions of Baryon-Lepton Symmetry.
Revisiting food-based models of territoriality in solitary predators.
López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José M; Calzada, Javier; Ferreras, Pablo; Palomares, Francisco
2014-07-01
Food availability is considered a major factor determining spacing behaviour in territorial species, especially for females. Theoretically, spatial overlap (considered the opposite of territoriality) and food availability are related in a nonlinear manner (hypothesized inverted-U function), with high overlap levels at the extremes of a food availability gradient and low overlap at intermediate levels of this gradient. Similar patterns are expected for encounter frequencies owing to its expected correlation with spatial overlap. However, these predictions have rarely been tested in highly structured social systems on a broad gradient of food availability, which implicitly requires experimental manipulation. We test these predictions in a solitary, territorial and trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, taking advantage of a three-decade data set of spatial behaviour in different scenarios of food availability (i.e. rabbit density). In contrast with expectations, home range overlap among resident females was low (median overlap index = 0.08, range 0-0.57) and core area overlap was nearly nil (median overlap index = 0, range 0-0.22) throughout the entire gradient of prey availability. Furthermore, spatial associations between pairs of females were negligible regardless marked variation in prey availability. Therefore, we did not find support for a model of flexible lynx territoriality driven by food availability. Our results suggest that the exclusive use of space in the Iberian lynx was not related to food. Lack of influence of prey availability on lynx territoriality may be adaptive to cope with the consequences of frequent drought-induced periods of prey scarcity or other disturbance typically affecting wild rabbit populations in Mediterranean environments. Thus, lynx would adopt an obstinate strategy of territoriality that consists in defending exclusive areas across a broad range of resource availability ensuring an exclusive access to the minimum
Mindless reading revisited: an analysis based on the SWIFT model of eye-movement control.
Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf
2009-02-01
In this article, we revisit the mindless reading paradigm from the perspective of computational modeling. In the standard version of the paradigm, participants read sentences in both their normal version as well as the transformed (or mindless) version where each letter is replaced with a z. z-String scanning shares the oculomotor requirements with reading but none of the higher-level lexical and semantic processes. Here we use the z-string scanning task to validate the SWIFT model of saccade generation [Engbert, R., Nuthmann, A., Richter, E., & Kliegl, R. (2005). SWIFT: A dynamical model of saccade generation during reading. Psychological Review, 112(4), 777-813] as an example for an advanced theory of eye-movement control in reading. We test the central assumption of spatially distributed processing across an attentional gradient proposed by the SWIFT model. Key experimental results like prolonged average fixation durations in z-string scanning compared to normal reading and the existence of a string-length effect on fixation durations and probabilities were reproduced by the model, which lends support to the model's assumptions on visual processing. Moreover, simulation results for patterns of regressive saccades in z-string scanning confirm SWIFT's concept of activation field dynamics for the selection of saccade targets.
Revisiting Verhulst and Monod models: analysis of batch and fed-batch cultures.
Shirsat, Nishikant; Mohd, Avesh; Whelan, Jessica; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed
2015-05-01
The paper re-evaluates Verhulst and Monod models. It has been claimed that standard logistic equation cannot describe the decline phase of mammalian cells in batch and fed-batch cultures and in some cases it fails to fit somatic growth data. In the present work Verhulst, population-based mechanistic growth model was revisited to describe successfully viable cell density (VCD) in exponential and decline phases of batch and fed-batch cultures of three different CHO cell lines. Verhulst model constants, K, carrying capacity (VCD/ml or μg/ml) and r, intrinsic growth factor (h(-1)) have physical meaning and they are of biological significance. These two parameters together define the course of growth and productivity and therefore, they are valuable in optimisation of culture media, developing feeding strategies and selection of cell lines for productivity. The Verhulst growth model approach was extended to develop productivity models for batch and fed-batch cultures. All Verhulst models were validated against blind data (R(2) > 0.95). Critical examination of theoretical approaches concluded that Monod parameters have no physical meaning. Monod-hybrid (pseudo-mechanistic) batch models were validated against specific growth rates of respective bolus and continuous fed-batch cultures (R(2) ≈ 0.90). The reduced form of Monod-hybrid model CL/(KL + CL) describes specific growth rate during metabolic shift (R(2) ≈ 0.95). Verhulst substrate-based growth models compared favourably with Monod-hybrid models. Thus, experimental evidence implies that the constants in the Monod-hybrid model may not have physical meaning but they behave similarly to the biological constants in Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, the basis of the Monod growth model.
A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits
Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reina, Borja; Vera, Raül
2015-08-01
Hartle's model describes the equilibrium configuration of a rotating isolated compact body in perturbation theory up to second order in general relativity. The interior of the body is a perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state, no convective motions and rigid rotation. That interior is matched across its surface to an asymptotically flat vacuum exterior. Perturbations are taken to second order around a static and spherically symmetric background configuration. Apart from the explicit assumptions, the perturbed configuration is constructed upon some implicit premises, in particular the continuity of the functions describing the perturbation in terms of some background radial coordinate. In this work we revisit the model within a modern general and consistent theory of perturbative matchings to second order, which is independent of the coordinates and gauges used to describe the two regions to be joined. We explore the matching conditions up to second order in full. The main particular result we present is that the radial function m0 (in the setting of the original work) of the second order perturbation tensor, contrary to the original assumption, presents a jump at the surface of the star, which is proportional to the value of the energy density of the background configuration there. As a consequence, the change in mass δ M needed by the perturbed configuration to keep the value of the central energy density unchanged must be amended. We also discuss some subtleties that arise when studying the deformation of the star.
Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E; Embury, Janon F
2008-11-01
We introduced a two-dimensional radiative transfer model for aerosols in the thermal infrared [Appl. Opt.45, 6860-6875 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.006860]. In that paper we superimposed two orthogonal plane-parallel layers to compute the radiance due to a two-dimensional (2D) rectangular aerosol cloud. In this paper we revisit the model and correct an error in the interaction of the two layers. We derive new expressions relating to the signal content of the radiance from an aerosol cloud based on the concept of five directional thermal contrasts: four for the 2D diffuse radiance and one for direct radiance along the line of sight. The new expressions give additional insight on the radiative transfer processes within the cloud. Simulations for Bacillus subtilis var. niger (BG) bioaerosol and dustlike kaolin aerosol clouds are compared and contrasted for two geometries: an airborne sensor looking down and a ground-based sensor looking up. Simulation results suggest that aerosol cloud detection from an airborne platform may be more challenging than for a ground-based sensor and that the detection of an aerosol cloud in emission mode (negative direct thermal contrast) is not the same as the detection of an aerosol cloud in absorption mode (positive direct thermal contrast).
Konevskikh, Tatiana; Ponossov, Arkadi; Blümel, Reinhold; Lukacs, Rozalia; Kohler, Achim
2015-06-21
The appearance of fringes in the infrared spectroscopy of thin films seriously hinders the interpretation of chemical bands because fringes change the relative peak heights of chemical spectral bands. Thus, for the correct interpretation of chemical absorption bands, physical properties need to be separated from chemical characteristics. In the paper at hand we revisit the theory of the scattering of infrared radiation at thin absorbing films. Although, in general, scattering and absorption are connected by a complex refractive index, we show that for the scattering of infrared radiation at thin biological films, fringes and chemical absorbance can in good approximation be treated as additive. We further introduce a model-based pre-processing technique for separating fringes from chemical absorbance by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). The technique is validated by simulated and experimental FTIR spectra. It is further shown that EMSC, as opposed to other suggested filtering methods for the removal of fringes, does not remove information related to chemical absorption. PMID:25893226
Guterl, Jerome Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2015-07-28
Desorption phase of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) experiments performed on tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion relevant conditions is analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model describing hydrogen retention in material bulk. Two regimes of hydrogen desorption are identified depending on whether hydrogen trapping rate is faster than hydrogen diffusion rate in material during TDS experiments. In both regimes, a majority of hydrogen released from material defects is immediately outgassed instead of diffusing deeply in material bulk when the evolution of hydrogen concentration in material is quasi-static, which is the case during TDS experiments performed with tungsten samples exposed to flux of hydrogen isotopes in fusion related conditions. In this context, analytical expressions of the hydrogen outgassing flux as a function of the material temperature are obtained with sufficient accuracy to describe main features of thermal desorption spectra (TDSP). These expressions are then used to highlight how characteristic temperatures of TDSP depend on hydrogen retention parameters, such as trap concentration or activation energy of detrapping processes. The use of Arrhenius plots to characterize retention processes is then revisited when hydrogen trapping takes place during TDS experiments. Retention processes are also characterized using the shape of desorption peaks in TDSP, and it is shown that diffusion of hydrogen in material during TDS experiment can induce long desorption tails visible aside desorption peaks at high temperature in TDSP. These desorption tails can be used to estimate activation energy of diffusion of hydrogen in material.
Revisiting discrete dark matter model: θ 13 ≠ 0 and ν R dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ogasahara, Atsushi; Omura, Yuji; Takayama, Fumihiro; Yasuhara, Daiki
2014-10-01
We revisit the discrete dark matter model with the A 4 flavor symmetry originally introduced by M.Hirsch et.al. We show that radiative corrections can lead to non-zero θ 13 and the non-zero mass for the lightest neutrino. We find an interesting relation among neutrino mixing parameters and it indicates the sizable deviation of s 23 from the maximal angle s {23/2} = 1/2 and the degenerate mass spectrum for neutrinos. Also we study the possibilities that the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate. Assuming that the thermal freeze-out explains observed dark matter abundance, TeV-scale right-handed neutrino and flavored scalar bosons are required. In such a case, the flavor symmetry plays an important role for the suppression of lepton flavor violating processes as well as for the stability of dark matter. We show that this scenario is viable within currently existing constraints from collider, low energy experiments and cosmological observations.
A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits.
Wright, Wilson J; Irvine, Kathryn M; Rodhouse, Thomas J
2016-08-01
Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodness-of-fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie-Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie-Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and
Revisiting the monopole components of effective interactions for the shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X. B.; Dong, G. X.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we revisit the monopole components of effective interactions for the shell model. Without going through specific nuclei or shell gaps, universal roles of central, tensor, and spin-orbit forces can be proved, reflecting the intrinsic features of shell model effective interactions. For monopole matrix elements, even and odd channels of central force often have a canceling effect. However, for the contributions to the shell evolution, its even and odd channels could have both positive or negative contributions, enhancing the role of central force on the shell structure. Tensor force is generally weaker than central force. However, for the effect on shell evolutions, tensor force can dominate or play a competitive role. A different systematics has been discovered between T = 1 and 0 channels. For example, tensor force, well established in the T = 0 channel, becomes uncertain in the T = 1 channel. We calculate the properties of neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes in order to study T = 1 channel interactions further. It is learned that the main improvements of empirical interactions are traced to the central force. For non-central forces, antisymmetric spin-orbit (ALS) force, originated from many-body perturbations or three-body force, could also play an explicit role. T = 1 tensor forces are less constrained so their effect can differ in different empirical interactions. The influence of tensor force may sometimes be canceled by many-body effects. For T = 0 channels of effective interactions, which is the main source of neutron-proton correlations, central and tensor forces are the leading components. For T = 1 channels, which can act between like-particles, the request for many-body correlations could be more demanding, so that the monopole anomaly of the T = 1 channel might be more serious.
Making Productive Use of Four Models of School English: A Case Study Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macken-Horarik, Mary
2014-01-01
At a time when political leaders and media pundits seek to narrow the English curriculum and reduce its knowledge structure to the "basics," it is helpful to revisit the potential of different approaches to learning in English that have evolved over time. In this paper I reflect on the semantic features of personal growth, cultural…
Casas, Laura; Szűcs, Réka; Vij, Shubha; Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Németh, Sándor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsényi, Miklós; Orbán, László
2013-01-01
The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland
2016-04-01
Interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasingly important role in global change research. Also, in the field of water resources interdisciplinarity as well as cooperation with stakeholders from outside academia have been recognized as important. In this contribution, we revisit an integrated regional modelling system (DANUBIA), which was developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and relied on stakeholder participation in the framework of the GLOWA-Danube project from 2001 to 2011 (Mauser and Prasch 2016). As the model was developed before the current increase in literature on participatory modelling and interdisciplinarity, we ask how a socio-hydrology approach would have helped and in what way it would have made the work different. The present contribution firstly presents the interdisciplinary concept of DANUBIA, mainly with focus on the integration of human behaviour in a spatially explicit, process-based numerical modelling system (Roland Barthel, Janisch, Schwarz, Trifkovic, Nickel, Schulz, and Mauser 2008; R. Barthel, Nickel, Meleg, Trifkovic, and Braun 2005). Secondly, we compare the approaches to interdisciplinarity in GLOWA-Danube with concepts and ideas presented by socio-hydrology. Thirdly, we frame DANUBIA and a review of key literature on socio-hydrology in the context of a survey among hydrologists (N = 184). This discussion is used to highlight gaps and opportunities of the socio-hydrology approach. We show that the interdisciplinary aspect of the project and the participatory process of stakeholder integration in DANUBIA were not entirely successful. However, important insights were gained and important lessons were learnt. Against the background of these experiences we feel that in its current state, socio-hydrology is still lacking a plan for knowledge integration. Moreover, we consider necessary that socio-hydrology takes into account the lessons learnt from these earlier examples of knowledge integration
Soliton models for thick branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2016-05-01
In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w^2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrödinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ ^4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ ^6 branes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Court, Deborah
1999-01-01
Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social sciences as…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bašic, Ivan; Nadramija, Damir; Flajšlik, Mario; Amić, Dragan; Lučić, Bono
2007-12-01
Several quantitative structure-activity studies for this data set containing 107 HEPT derivatives have been performed since 1997, using the same set of molecules by (more or less) different classes of molecular descriptors. Multivariate Regression (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed and in each study the authors concluded that ANN models are superior to MR ones. We re-calculated multivariate regression models for this set of molecules using the same set of descriptors, and compared our results with the previous ones. Two main reasons for overestimation of the quality of the ANN models in previous studies comparing with MR models are: (1) wrong calculation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated (CV) correlation coefficient for MR models in Luco et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37 392-401 (1997), and (2) incorrect estimation/interpretation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated and predictive performance and power of ANN models. More precise and fairer comparison of fit and LOO CV statistical parameters shows that MR models are more stable. In addition, MR models are much simpler than ANN ones. For real testing the predictive performance of both classes of models we need more HEPT derivatives, because all ANN models that presented results for external set of molecules used experimental values in optimization of modeling procedure and model parameters.
Basic, Ivan; Nadramija, Damir; Flajslik, Mario; Amic, Dragan; Lucic, Bono
2007-12-26
Several quantitative structure-activity studies for this data set containing 107 HEPT derivatives have been performed since 1997, using the same set of molecules by (more or less) different classes of molecular descriptors. Multivariate Regression (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed and in each study the authors concluded that ANN models are superior to MR ones. We re-calculated multivariate regression models for this set of molecules using the same set of descriptors, and compared our results with the previous ones. Two main reasons for overestimation of the quality of the ANN models in previous studies comparing with MR models are: (1) wrong calculation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated (CV) correlation coefficient for MR models in Luco et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37 392-401 (1997), and (2) incorrect estimation/interpretation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated and predictive performance and power of ANN models. More precise and fairer comparison of fit and LOO CV statistical parameters shows that MR models are more stable. In addition, MR models are much simpler than ANN ones. For real testing the predictive performance of both classes of models we need more HEPT derivatives, because all ANN models that presented results for external set of molecules used experimental values in optimization of modeling procedure and model parameters.
Borza, Liana Rada; Gavrilovici, Cristina; Stockman, René
2015-01-01
The present paper revisits the ethical models of patient--physician relationship from the perspective of patient autonomy and values. It seems that the four traditional models of physician--patient relationship proposed by Emanuel & Emanuel in 1992 closely link patient values and patient autonomy. On the other hand, their reinterpretation provided by Agarwal & Murinson twenty years later emphasizes the independent expression of values and autonomy in individual patients. Additionally, patient education has been assumed to join patient values and patient autonomy. Moreover, several authors have noted that, over the past few decades, patient autonomy has gradually replaced the paternalistic approach based on the premise that the physician knows what is best for the patient. Neither the paternalistic model of physician-patient relationship, nor the informative model is considered to be satisfactory, as the paternalistic model excludes patient values from decision making, while the informative model excludes physician values from decision making. However, the deliberative model of patient-physician interaction represents an adequate alternative to the two unsatisfactory approaches by promoting shared decision making between the physician and the patient. It has also been suggested that the deliberative model would be ideal for exercising patient autonomy in chronic care and that the ethical role of patient education would be to make the deliberative model applicable to chronic care. In this regard, studies have indicated that the use of decision support interventions might increase the deliberative capacity of chronic patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.
2014-12-01
Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.
Local conformational perturbations of the DNA molecule in the SG-model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnobaeva, L. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.
2015-11-01
Within the formalism of the Fokker-Planck equation, the influence of nonstationary external force, random force, and dissipation effects on dynamics local conformational perturbations (kink) propagating along the DNA molecule is investigated. Such waves have an important role in the regulation of important biological processes in living systems at the molecular level. As a dynamic model of DNA was used a modified sine-Gordon equation, simulating the rotational oscillations of bases in one of the chains DNA. The equation of evolution of the kink momentum is obtained in the form of the stochastic differential equation in the Stratonovich sense within the framework of the well-known McLaughlin and Scott energy approach. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the momentum distribution function coincides with the equation describing the Ornstein-Uhlenbek process with a regular nonstationary external force. The influence of the nonlinear stochastic effects on the kink dynamics is considered with the help of the Fokker- Planck nonlinear equation with the shift coefficient dependent on the first moment of the kink momentum distribution function. Expressions are derived for average value and variance of the momentum. Examples are considered which demonstrate the influence of the external regular and random forces on the evolution of the average value and variance of the kink momentum. Within the formalism of the Fokker-Planck equation, the influence of nonstationary external force, random force, and dissipation effects on the kink dynamics is investigated in the sine-Gordon model. The equation of evolution of the kink momentum is obtained in the form of the stochastic differential equation in the Stratonovich sense within the framework of the well-known McLaughlin and Scott energy approach. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the momentum distribution function coincides with the equation describing the Ornstein-Uhlenbek process with a regular nonstationary
Ising tricriticality in the extended Hubbard model with bond dimerization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejima, Satoshi; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Lange, Florian; Fehske, Holger
2016-06-01
We explore the quantum phase transition between Peierls and charge-density-wave insulating states in the one-dimensional, half-filled, extended Hubbard model with explicit bond dimerization. We show that the critical line of the continuous Ising transition terminates at a tricritical point, belonging to the universality class of the tricritical Ising model with central charge c =7 /10 . Above this point, the quantum phase transition becomes first order. Employing a numerical matrix-product-state based (infinite) density-matrix renormalization group method we determine the ground-state phase diagram, the spin and two-particle charge excitations gaps, and the entanglement properties of the model with high precision. Performing a bosonization analysis we can derive a field description of the transition region in terms of a triple sine-Gordon model. This allows us to derive field theory predictions for the power-law (exponential) decay of the density-density (spin-spin) and bond-order-wave correlation functions, which are found to be in excellent agreement with our numerical results.
Shao, Mingyu; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong
2015-08-01
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are crucial for organisms. Many research efforts have thus been devoted to the study on the topological properties and models of PPI networks. However, existing studies did not always report consistent results on the topological properties of PPI networks. Although a number of PPI network models have been introduced, yet in the literature there is no convincing conclusion on which model is best for describing PPI networks. This situation is primarily caused by the incompleteness of current PPI datasets. To solve this problem, in this study, the authors propose to revisit the topological properties and models of PPI networks from the perspective of PPI dataset evolution. Concretely, they used 12 PPI datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana and 10 PPI datasets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) database versions, and compared the topological properties of these datasets and the fitting capabilities of five typical PPI network models over these datasets. PMID:26243826
Benzophenone Ultrafast Triplet Population: Revisiting the Kinetic Model by Surface-Hopping Dynamics
2016-01-01
The photochemistry of benzophenone, a paradigmatic organic molecule for photosensitization, was investigated by means of surface-hopping ab initio molecular dynamics. Different mechanisms were found to be relevant within the first 600 fs after excitation; the long-debated direct (S1 → T1) and indirect (S1 → T2 → T1) mechanisms for population of the low-lying triplet state are both possible, with the latter being prevalent. Moreover, we established the existence of a kinetic equilibrium between the two triplet states, never observed before. This fact implies that a significant fraction of the overall population resides in T2, eventually allowing one to revisit the usual spectroscopic assignment proposed by transient absorption spectroscopy. This finding is of particular interest for photocatalysis as well as for DNA damages studies because both T1 and T2 channels are, in principle, available for benzophenone-mediated photoinduced energy transfer toward DNA. PMID:26821061
Tibayrenc, Michel; Ayala, Francisco J
2015-11-01
Comparing the population structure of Trypanosoma cruzi with that of other pathogens, including parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses, shows that the agent of Chagas disease shares typical traits with many other species, related to a predominant clonal evolution (PCE) pattern: statistically significant linkage disequilibrium, overrepresented multilocus genotypes, near-clades (genetic subdivisions somewhat blurred by occasional genetic exchange/hybridization) and "Russian doll" patterns (PCE is observed, not only at the level of the whole species, but also, within the near-clades). Moreover, T. cruzi population structure exhibits linkage with the diversity of several strongly selected genes, with gene expression profiles, and with some major phenotypic traits. We discuss the evolutionary significance of these results, and their implications in terms of applied research (molecular epidemiology/strain typing, analysis of genes of interest, vaccine and drug design, immunological diagnosis) and of experimental evolution. Lastly, we revisit the long-term debate of describing new species within the T. cruzi taxon.
Revisiting a model of ontogenetic growth: estimating model parameters from theory and data.
Moses, Melanie E; Hou, Chen; Woodruff, William H; West, Geoffrey B; Nekola, Jeffery C; Zuo, Wenyun; Brown, James H
2008-05-01
The ontogenetic growth model (OGM) of West et al. provides a general description of how metabolic energy is allocated between production of new biomass and maintenance of existing biomass during ontogeny. Here, we reexamine the OGM, make some minor modifications and corrections, and further evaluate its ability to account for empirical variation on rates of metabolism and biomass in vertebrates both during ontogeny and across species of varying adult body size. We show that the updated version of the model is internally consistent and is consistent with other predictions of metabolic scaling theory and empirical data. The OGM predicts not only the near universal sigmoidal form of growth curves but also the M(1/4) scaling of the characteristic times of ontogenetic stages in addition to the curvilinear decline in growth efficiency described by Brody. Additionally, the OGM relates the M(3/4) scaling across adults of different species to the scaling of metabolic rate across ontogeny within species. In providing a simple, quantitative description of how energy is allocated to growth, the OGM calls attention to unexplained variation, unanswered questions, and opportunities for future research.
Revisiting the scaling of the specific heat of the three-dimensional random-field Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Hartmann, Alexander K.
2016-09-01
We revisit the scaling behavior of the specific heat of the three-dimensional random-field Ising model with a Gaussian distribution of the disorder. Exact ground states of the model are obtained using graph-theoretical algorithms for different strengths 𝒩 = 268 3 spins. By numerically differentiating the bond energy with respect to h, a specific-heat-like quantity is obtained whose maximum is found to converge to a constant in the thermodynamic limit. Compared to a previous study following the same approach, we have studied here much larger system sizes with an increased statistical accuracy. We discuss the relevance of our results under the prism of a modified Rushbrooke inequality for the case of a saturating specific heat. Finally, as a byproduct of our analysis, we provide high-accuracy estimates of the critical field h c = 2.279(7) and the critical exponent of the correlation exponent ν = 1.37(1), in excellent agreement to the most recent computations in the literature.
Kink topology control by high-frequency external forces in nonlinear Klein-Gordon models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez-Nodarse, R.; Quintero, N. R.; Mertens, F. G.
2014-10-01
A method of averaging is applied to study the dynamics of a kink in the damped double sine-Gordon equation driven by both external (nonparametric) and parametric periodic forces at high frequencies. This theoretical approach leads to the study of a double sine-Gordon equation with an effective potential and an effective additive force. Direct numerical simulations show how the appearance of two connected π kinks and of an individual π kink can be controlled via the frequency. An anomalous negative mobility phenomenon is also predicted by theory and confirmed by simulations of the original equation.
Kink topology control by high-frequency external forces in nonlinear Klein-Gordon models.
Alvarez-Nodarse, R; Quintero, N R; Mertens, F G
2014-10-01
A method of averaging is applied to study the dynamics of a kink in the damped double sine-Gordon equation driven by both external (nonparametric) and parametric periodic forces at high frequencies. This theoretical approach leads to the study of a double sine-Gordon equation with an effective potential and an effective additive force. Direct numerical simulations show how the appearance of two connected π kinks and of an individual π kink can be controlled via the frequency. An anomalous negative mobility phenomenon is also predicted by theory and confirmed by simulations of the original equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdin, P. A.; Nakamura, T.; Narita, Y.
2015-12-01
Electromagnetic Parcile-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are widely used to study plasma phenomena where kinetic scales are coupled to fluid scales. One of these phenomena is the evolution of magnetic reconnection. Switch-on effects have been described earlier for magneto-/hydrodynamic (MHD and HD) simulations, where oscillations are ignited by the initial condition and the usual instantaneous way of starting a simulation run. Here we revisit the GEM setup (a Harris current sheet) and demonstrate the immediate generation of oscillations propagating perpendicular to the magnetic shear layer (in Bz). Also we show how these oscillations do not dissipate quickly and will later be mode-converted to generate wave power, first in By, much later also in Bx (pointing along the shear direction). One needs to take care not to interpret these oscillations as physical wave modes associated with the nature of reconnection. We propose a method to prevent such switch-on effects from the beginning, that should be considered for implementation in other PIC simulation codes as well.
Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4 from perturbed W minimal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji
2013-02-01
We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in {N} = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU( n - 4)4 /U(1) n-5 generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n = 6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS3 case.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Paul; Crawford, Claire; Steele, Fiona; Vignoles, Anna
2015-01-01
The use of fixed (FE) and random effects (RE) in two-level hierarchical linear regression is discussed in the context of education research. We compare the robustness of FE models with the modelling flexibility and potential efficiency of those from RE models. We argue that the two should be seen as complementary approaches. We then compare both…
Revisiting single photon avalanche diode current-voltage modeling and transient characteristics
Javitt, M.; Savuskan, V. Merhav, T.; Nemirovsky, Y.
2014-05-28
A model for the current-voltage and transient behavior of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) based on device physics is presented. The results of the model are compared to actual measurements and a reasonable fit is seen. Additionally, the model provides a useful tool for designing quenching circuitry and determining optimal operation conditions of the SPAD.
Revisiting a Statistical Shortcoming When Fitting the Langmuir Model to Sorption Data
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The Langmuir model is commonly used for describing sorption behavior of reactive solutes to surfaces. Fitting the Langmuir model to sorption data requires either the use of nonlinear regression or, alternatively, linear regression using one of the linearized versions of the model. Statistical limit...
Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee
2016-09-14
Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model.
Revisiting Aerosol Effects in Global Climate Models Using an Aerosol Lidar Simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, P. L.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D. M.; Ghan, S.; Rasch, P. J.
2015-12-01
Aerosol effects are considered a major source of uncertainty in global climate models and the direct and indirect radiative forcings have strong model dependency. These forcings are routinely evaluated (and calibrated) against observations, among them satellite retrievals are greatly used for their near-global coverage. However, the forcings calculated from model output are not directly comparable with those computed from satellite retrievals since sampling and algorithmic differences (such as cloud screening, noise reduction, and retrieval) between models and observations are not accounted for. It is our hypothesis that the conventional model validation procedures for comparing satellite observations and model simulations can mislead model development and introduce biases. Hence, we have developed an aerosol lidar simulator for global climate models that simulates the CALIOP lidar signal at 532nm. The simulator uses the same algorithms as those used to produce the "GCM-oriented CALIPSO Aerosol Product" to (1) objectively sample lidar signal profiles; and (2) derive aerosol fields (e.g., extinction profile, aerosol type, etc) from lidar signals. This allows us to sample and derive aerosol fields in the model and real atmosphere in identical ways. Using the Department of Energy's ACME model simulations, we found that the simulator-retrieved aerosol distribution and aerosol-cloud interactions are significantly different from those computed from conventional approaches, and that the model is much closer to satellite estimates than previously believed.
Perfect plastic approximation revisited: a flowline network model for calving glaciers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ultee, E.; Bassis, J. N.
2015-12-01
Accurate modeling of outlet glacier dynamics requires knowledge of many factors—ice thickness, bed topography, air/ocean temperature, precipitation rate—specific to individual glaciers, and for which only limited data exists. Furthermore, key processes such as iceberg calving remain poorly understood and difficult to include in models. In light of these challenges to even the most sophisticated models, there is great value in simple, computationally efficient models that can capture first-order effects. Many of the simplest models currently in use produce glacier profiles along a central flowline, either ignoring the contribution of tributaries or relying on a measure of "equivalent width" to handle those contributions. Here, we present a simple model that generalizes Nye's 1953 perfect plastic approximation so that it also predicts the position of the glacier terminus based on the yield strength. Moreover, our model simulates not only a central flowline, but the interactions of a network of tributaries. The model requires only minimal information: glacier geometry (network structure and bed topography, available from observation for select glaciers) and basal shear strength (a reasonably-constrained parameter). We apply the model to Columbia Glacier, Alaska and show that, despite its simplicity, the model is able to reproduce observed centerline profiles and terminus retreat for the main branch as well as selected tributaries. Finally, we illustrate how our model can be applied to constrain the calving contribution of individual glaciers to 21st century sea level rise.
Re-visiting projections of PCBs in Lower Hudson River fish using model emulation.
Field, L Jay; Kern, John W; Rosman, Lisa B
2016-07-01
Remedial decision making at large contaminated sediment sites with bioaccumulative contaminants often relies on complex mechanistic models to forecast future concentrations and compare remedial alternatives. Remedial decision-making for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund site involved predictions of future levels of PCBs in Upper Hudson River (UHR) and Lower Hudson River (LHR) fish. This study applied model emulation to evaluate the impact of updated sediment concentrations on the original mechanistic model projections of time to reach risk-based target thresholds in fish in the LHR under Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and the selected dredging remedy. The model emulation approach used a combination of nonlinear and linear regression models to estimate UHR water PCBs as a function of UHR sediment PCBs and to estimate fish concentrations in the LHR as a function of UHR water PCBs, respectively. Model emulation captured temporal changes in sediment, water, and fish PCBs predicted by the mechanistic model over the emulation period. The emulated model, using updated sediment concentrations and a revised estimate of recovery rate, matched the trend in annual monitoring data for white perch and largemouth bass in the LHR between 1997 and 2014. Our best predictions based on the emulated model indicate that the projected time to reach fish tissue risk-based thresholds in the LHR will take decades longer than the original mechanistic model projections. PMID:27017079
Revisiting Gaussian Process Regression Modeling for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks.
Richter, Philipp; Toledano-Ayala, Manuel
2015-01-01
Signal strength-based positioning in wireless sensor networks is a key technology for seamless, ubiquitous localization, especially in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals propagate poorly. To enable wireless local area network (WLAN) location fingerprinting in larger areas while maintaining accuracy, methods to reduce the effort of radio map creation must be consolidated and automatized. Gaussian process regression has been applied to overcome this issue, also with auspicious results, but the fit of the model was never thoroughly assessed. Instead, most studies trained a readily available model, relying on the zero mean and squared exponential covariance function, without further scrutinization. This paper studies the Gaussian process regression model selection for WLAN fingerprinting in indoor and outdoor environments. We train several models for indoor/outdoor- and combined areas; we evaluate them quantitatively and compare them by means of adequate model measures, hence assessing the fit of these models directly. To illuminate the quality of the model fit, the residuals of the proposed model are investigated, as well. Comparative experiments on the positioning performance verify and conclude the model selection. In this way, we show that the standard model is not the most appropriate, discuss alternatives and present our best candidate. PMID:26370996
Revisiting Gaussian Process Regression Modeling for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Richter, Philipp; Toledano-Ayala, Manuel
2015-01-01
Signal strength-based positioning in wireless sensor networks is a key technology for seamless, ubiquitous localization, especially in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals propagate poorly. To enable wireless local area network (WLAN) location fingerprinting in larger areas while maintaining accuracy, methods to reduce the effort of radio map creation must be consolidated and automatized. Gaussian process regression has been applied to overcome this issue, also with auspicious results, but the fit of the model was never thoroughly assessed. Instead, most studies trained a readily available model, relying on the zero mean and squared exponential covariance function, without further scrutinization. This paper studies the Gaussian process regression model selection for WLAN fingerprinting in indoor and outdoor environments. We train several models for indoor/outdoor- and combined areas; we evaluate them quantitatively and compare them by means of adequate model measures, hence assessing the fit of these models directly. To illuminate the quality of the model fit, the residuals of the proposed model are investigated, as well. Comparative experiments on the positioning performance verify and conclude the model selection. In this way, we show that the standard model is not the most appropriate, discuss alternatives and present our best candidate. PMID:26370996
Nosofsky, Robert M; Zaki, Safa R
2002-09-01
J. D. Smith and colleagues (J. P. Minda & J. D. Smith, 2001; J. D. Smith & J. P. Minda, 1998,2000; J. D. Smith, M. J. Murray, & J. P. Minda, 1997) presented evidence that they claimed challenged the predictions of exemplar models and that supported prototype models. In the authors' view, this evidence confounded the issue of the nature of the category representation with the type of response rule (probabilistic vs. deterministic) that was used. Also, their designs did not test whether the prototype models correctly predicted generalization performance. The present work demonstrates that an exemplar model that includes a response-scaling mechanism provides a natural account of all of Smith et al.'s experimental results. Furthermore, the exemplar model predicts classification performance better than the prototype models when novel transfer stimuli are included in the experimental designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Paiva, Milena M.
2012-03-01
We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α1 and α2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent.
The Two-Capacitor Problem Revisited: A Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator Model Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Keeyung
2009-01-01
The well-known two-capacitor problem, in which exactly half the stored energy disappears when a charged capacitor is connected to an identical capacitor, is discussed based on the mechanical harmonic oscillator model approach. In the mechanical harmonic oscillator model, it is shown first that "exactly half" the work done by a constant applied…
Revisiting the Model of Creative Destruction: St. Jacobs, Ontario, a Decade Later
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Clare J. A.; de Waal, Sarah B.
2009-01-01
Ten years ago, the model of creative destruction was developed to predict the fate of communities that base their development on the commodification of rural heritage (Mitchell, C.J.A., 1998. Entrepreneurialism, commodification and creative destruction: a model of post-modern community development. Journal of Rural Studies 14, 273-286). Its…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.
2016-01-01
Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.
Revisit of the Global Surface Energy Balance Using the MEP Model of Surface Heat Fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Wang, J.; Park, T. W.; Ming, Y.
2015-12-01
The recently proposed model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used to estimate the global evapotranspiration (ET) and heat fluxes. Compared to bulk transfer models, the MEP model has several remote-sensing-friendly features including fewer input variables, automatic closure of surface energy budget, being independent of bulk gradients of temperature and water vapor, not using wind speed and surface roughness as model parameters, and being less sensitive to uncertainties of input variables and model parameters. The MEP model is formulated for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over the land surfaces and has even more advantages over water-snow-ice surfaces compared to traditional methods due to its independence of surface humidity data. The MEP model provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as conductive heat fluxes at snow/ice covered polar regions. Ten years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products supplemented (when needed) by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) surface specific humidity data are used to test the MEP model by comparing the MEP based global annual ET and heat fluxes with existing products. The MEP based fluxes over land surfaces agree closely with previous studies. Over the oceans, the MEP modeled ET tends to be lower than previous estimates while those of sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with previous studies. A counterpart, "off-line" analysis is also carried out using the NOAA GFDL climate model output from a control experiment and a "warming" experiment. Substantial differences in the warming-related changes of ET and Bowen ratio are found over regions such as North Africa and the southwestern U.S. The implications of these differences for understanding trends and variability in regional energy and
BrainSignals Revisited: Simplifying a Computational Model of Cerebral Physiology
Caldwell, Matthew; Hapuarachchi, Tharindi; Highton, David; Elwell, Clare; Smith, Martin; Tachtsidis, Ilias
2015-01-01
Multimodal monitoring of brain state is important both for the investigation of healthy cerebral physiology and to inform clinical decision making in conditions of injury and disease. Near-infrared spectroscopy is an instrument modality that allows non-invasive measurement of several physiological variables of clinical interest, notably haemoglobin oxygenation and the redox state of the metabolic enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Interpreting such measurements requires the integration of multiple signals from different sources to try to understand the physiological states giving rise to them. We have previously published several computational models to assist with such interpretation. Like many models in the realm of Systems Biology, these are complex and dependent on many parameters that can be difficult or impossible to measure precisely. Taking one such model, BrainSignals, as a starting point, we have developed several variant models in which specific regions of complexity are substituted with much simpler linear approximations. We demonstrate that model behaviour can be maintained whilst achieving a significant reduction in complexity, provided that the linearity assumptions hold. The simplified models have been tested for applicability with simulated data and experimental data from healthy adults undergoing a hypercapnia challenge, but relevance to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions will require specific testing. In conditions where the simplified models are applicable, their greater efficiency has potential to allow their use at the bedside to help interpret clinical data in near real-time. PMID:25961297
Revisiting node-based SIR models in complex networks with degree correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi; Cao, Jinde; Alofi, Abdulaziz; AL-Mazrooei, Abdullah; Elaiw, Ahmed
2015-11-01
In this paper, we consider two growing networks which will lead to the degree-degree correlations between two nearest neighbors in the network. When the network grows to some certain size, we introduce an SIR-like disease such as pandemic influenza H1N1/09 to the population. Due to its rapid spread, the population size changes slowly, and thus the disease spreads on correlated networks with approximately fixed size. To predict the disease evolution on correlated networks, we first review two node-based SIR models incorporating degree correlations and an edge-based SIR model without considering degree correlation, and then compare the predictions of these models with stochastic SIR simulations, respectively. We find that the edge-based model, even without considering degree correlations, agrees much better than the node-based models incorporating degree correlations with stochastic SIR simulations in many respects. Moreover, simulation results show that for networks with positive correlation, the edge-based model provides a better upper bound of the cumulative incidence than the node-based SIR models, whereas for networks with negative correlation, it provides a lower bound of the cumulative incidence.
The Goodwin model revisited: Hopf bifurcation, limit-cycle, and periodic entrainment.
Woller, Aurore; Gonze, Didier; Erneux, Thomas
2014-08-01
The three-variable Goodwin oscillator is a minimal model demonstrating the emergence of oscillations in simple biochemical feedback systems. As a prototypical oscillator, this model was extensively studied from a theoretical point of view and applied to various biological systems, including circadian clocks. Here, we reexamine this model, derive analytically the amplitude equation near the Hopf bifurcation and investigate the effect of a periodic modulation of the oscillator. In particular, we compare the entrainment performance when the free oscillator displays either self-sustained or damped oscillations. We discuss the results in the context of circadian oscillators.
Open/closed topological mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^{{1}}} sigma model revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elitzur, Shmuel; Oz, Yaron; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Walcher, Johannes
2012-01-01
We consider the topological sigma-model on Riemann surfaces with genus g and h holes, and target space mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^1} \\cong {S^2} . We calculate the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators, and study the symmetries of the model and its most general deformation. We study the open/closed topological field theory (TFT) correspondence by summing up the boundaries. We argue that this summation can be understood as a renormalization of the closed TFT. We couple the model to topological gravity and derive constitutive relations between the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators.
The Goodwin model revisited: Hopf bifurcation, limit-cycle, and periodic entrainment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woller, Aurore; Gonze, Didier; Erneux, Thomas
2014-08-01
The three-variable Goodwin oscillator is a minimal model demonstrating the emergence of oscillations in simple biochemical feedback systems. As a prototypical oscillator, this model was extensively studied from a theoretical point of view and applied to various biological systems, including circadian clocks. Here, we reexamine this model, derive analytically the amplitude equation near the Hopf bifurcation and investigate the effect of a periodic modulation of the oscillator. In particular, we compare the entrainment performance when the free oscillator displays either self-sustained or damped oscillations. We discuss the results in the context of circadian oscillators.
Revisiting the Cape Cod Bacteria Injection Experiment Using a Stochastic Modeling Approach
Maxwell, R M; Welty, C; Harvey, R W
2006-11-22
Bromide and resting-cell bacteria tracer tests carried out in a sand and gravel aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod site in 1987 were reinterpreted using a three-dimensional stochastic approach and Lagrangian particle tracking numerical methods. Bacteria transport was strongly coupled to colloid filtration through functional dependence of local-scale colloid transport parameters on hydraulic conductivity and seepage velocity in a stochastic advection-dispersion/attachment-detachment model. Information on geostatistical characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field from a nearby plot was utilized as input that was unavailable when the original analysis was carried out. A finite difference model for groundwater flow and a particle-tracking model of conservative solute transport was calibrated to the bromide-tracer breakthrough data using the aforementioned geostatistical parameters. An optimization routine was utilized to adjust the mean and variance of the lnK field over 100 realizations such that a best fit of a simulated, average bromide breakthrough curve is achieved. Once the optimal bromide fit was accomplished (based on adjusting the lnK statistical parameters in unconditional simulations), a stochastic particle-tracking model for the bacteria was run without adjustments to the local-scale colloid transport parameters. Good predictions of the mean bacteria breakthrough data were achieved using several approaches for modeling components of the system. Simulations incorporating the recent Tufenkji and Elimelech [1] equation for estimating single collector efficiency were compared to those using the Rajagopalan and Tien [2] model. Both appeared to work equally well at predicting mean bacteria breakthrough using a constant mean bacteria diameter for this set of field conditions, with the Rajagopalan and Tien model yielding approximately a 30% lower peak concentration and less tailing than the Tufenkji and Elimelech formulation. Simulations using a distribution
A NEW APPROACH TO HYDROLOGIC MODELING: DERIVED DISTRIBUTIONS REVISITED. (R824780)
A fractal geometric procedure to model hydrologic (geophysical) phenomena is introduced. The method consists of using derived distributions, obtained by transforming arbitrary multinomial multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, to represent observed hydrologic ...
Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas-solids transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeleke, Najeem; Adewumi, Michael; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus
2016-08-01
Two-phase gas-solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas-solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe-Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.
Revisiting Turbulence Model Validation for High-Mach Number Axisymmetric Compression Corner Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Huang, George P.
2015-01-01
Two axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) cases are used to benchmark one- and two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. This validation exercise was executed in the philosophy of the NASA Turbulence Modeling Resource and the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group. Both SWBLI cases are from the experiments of Kussoy and Horstman for axisymmetric compression corner geometries with SWBLI inducing flares of 20 and 30 degrees, respectively. The freestream Mach number was approximately 7. The RANS closures examined are the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the Menter family of kappa - omega two equation models including the Baseline and Shear Stress Transport formulations. The Wind-US and CFL3D RANS solvers are employed to simulate the SWBLI cases. Comparisons of RANS solutions to experimental data are made for a boundary layer survey plane just upstream of the SWBLI region. In the SWBLI region, comparisons of surface pressure and heat transfer are made. The effects of inflow modeling strategy, grid resolution, grid orthogonality, turbulent Prandtl number, and code-to-code variations are also addressed.
Revisit of the interacting holographic dark energy model after Planck 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xin
2016-08-01
We investigate the observational constraints on the interacting holographic dark energy model. We consider five typical interacting models with the interaction terms Q = 3βHρde, Q = 3βHρc, Q = 3βH(ρde+ρc), Q = 3βH√ρdeρc, and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc, respectively, where β is a dimensionless coupling constant. The observational data we use in this paper include the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae data, the Planck 2015 distance priors data of cosmic microwave background observation, the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, and the Hubble constant direct measurement. We make a comparison for these five interacting holographic dark energy models by employing the information criteria, and we find that, within the framework of holographic dark energy, the Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc model is most favored by current data, and the Q = 3βHρc model is relatively not favored by current data. For the Q = 3βHρde and Q = 3βHρdeρc/ρde+ρc models, a positive coupling β can be detected at more than 2σ significance.
Single-file diffusion and neurotransmitter transporters: Hodgkin and Keynes model revisited.
DeFelice, L J; Adams, S V; Ypey, D L
2001-01-01
Norepinephrine transporters (NETs) use the Na gradient to remove norepinephrine (NE) from the synaptic cleft of adrenergic neurons following NE release from the presynaptic terminal. By coupling NE to the inwardly directed Na gradient, it is possible to concentrate NE inside cells. This mechanism, which is referred to as co-transport or secondary transport (Läuger, 1991, Electrogenic Ion Pumps, Sinauer Associates) is apparently universal: Na coupled transport applies to serotonin transporters (SERTs), dopamine transporters (DATs), glutamate transporters, and many others, including transporters for osmolites, metabolites and substrates such as sugar. Recently we have shown that NETs and SERTs transport norepinephrine or serotonin as if Na and the transmitter permeated through an ion channel together 'Galli et al., 1998, PNAS 95, 13260-13265; Petersen and DeFelice, 1999, Nature Neurosci. 2, 605-610'. These data are paradoxical because it has been difficult to envisage how NE, for example, would couple to Na if these ions move passively through an open pore. An 'alternating access' model is usually evoked to explain coupling: in such models NE and Na bind to NET, which then undergoes a conformational change to release NE and Na on the inside. The empty transporter then turns outward to complete the cycle. Alternating-access models never afford access to an open channel. Rather, substrates and co-transported ions are occluded in the transporter and carried across the membrane. The coupling mechanism we propose is fundamentally different than the coupling mechanism evoked in the alternating access model. To explain coupling in co-transporters, we use a mechanism first evoked by 'Hodgkin and Keynes (1955) J. Physiol. 128, 61-88' to explain ion interactions in K-selective channels. In the Hodgkin and Keynes model, K ions move single-file through a long narrow pore. Their model accounted for the inward/outward flux ratio if they assumed that two K ions queue within the
18 Years Later: Revisiting a Groundwater Model of the Cambric Site at NTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Considine, E. J.; Wheatcraft, S. W.; Meerschaert, M. M.
2004-12-01
Since its advent in 1974, the Radionuclide Migration Project at the Nevada Test Site has spawned several interesting groundwater modeling ventures. Of interest to this research is the Cambric detonation site, where a tracer test was conducted from 1975 to 1991. Burbey and Wheatcraft (1986) built a groundwater/transport model of the Cambric site and at the time of calibration had achieved a good match to the measured data. Since then the predicted concentrations have diverged from the measured concentrations, which exhibit classic heavy-tailed behavior. It has been hypothesized that the Fractional Advection Dispersion Equation (FADE) will better predict these late-time high concentrations; this research will apply the FADE to the Cambric problem and aims to reach a more complete understanding of the physical significance of the coefficients contained in the FADE. We first built a preliminary groundwater model, employing the traditional Advection Dispersion Equation, in the hopes of duplicating Burbey's predicted concentrations. Burbey used the Deep Well Disposal Model, whereas this investigation used MODFLOW and MT3D. While the new model has produced a breakthrough curve fitting the peak concentration, it too fails to produce the heavy tail seen in the measured data. Also of concern is the nonuniqueness of the new model's solution; the best-fit breakthrough curve can be produced by changing either one of at least two parameters. We believe that both of these shortcomings (under predicted late-time concentrations and non-uniqueness) may be resolved by using the FADE. Not only does fractional theory permit heavy tails, but also it effectively replaces aquifer heterogeneity with fractional derivatives, thereby reducing the probability of a nonunique solution. Future work includes modeling the Cambric problem with Tadjeran and Meerschaert's numerical, fractional, radial-flow transport code (2003) and evaluating the code's applicability to varied flow and transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C.; Wen, H.; Liu, J.; Ko, M.; Yan, H.; Chang, L.
2012-12-01
translative offset between two similar images to be rapidly estimated. To meet the requirements in remote sensing and biomedical imaging, the technology of phase correlation has been extended to the sub-pixel level. Liu and Yan (2008) developed a robust phase correlation model using the based feature matching for image co-registration and DEM generation. Considering the fact that the Formosat-2 consecutive images are intrinsically stereo pairs with very narrow baselines, this innovative stereo-matching algorithm based on SPPC technique is employed to process Formosat-2 daily revisit stereo pairs with very narrow baselines. The detailed accuracy and efficiency analysis is investigated for the study area, Namasha, Kaohsiung, using the 50cm resolution aerial photo and the 2m resolution DEM derived from airborne LiDAR data. The archive of Formosat-2 images in Taiwan area collected from 2005 to 2012 was screened out, with the intention to select the consecutive pairs of those areas where major slope disasters occurred in the past eight years. This research encourages the repeated topography surveys of geomorphic changes using digital surface models deriving from Formosat-2 daily revisit stereo pair with very narrow baseline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Lukas P.; Peter, Toni; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost
2015-08-01
The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and Langevin molecular dynamics scheme for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. This technique has been used in many simulation studies on the behavior of colloids. However, there are fundamental questions with regards to the use of this model. In this paper, we examine the accuracy with which the raspberry method is able to reproduce Stokes-level hydrodynamic interactions when compared to analytic expressions for solid spheres in simple-cubic crystals. To this end, we consider the quality of numerical experiments that are traditionally used to establish these properties and we discuss their shortcomings. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobility reproduced by the simple raspberry model and present a way to numerically remedy this problem by adding internal coupling points. Finally, we examine a non-convex shape, namely, a colloidal dumbbell, and show that the filled raspberry model replicates the desired hydrodynamic behavior in bulk for this more complicated shape. Our investigation is continued in de Graaf et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084108 (2015)], wherein we consider the raspberry model in the confining geometry of two parallel plates.
Fischer, Lukas P; Peter, Toni; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost
2015-08-28
The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and Langevin molecular dynamics scheme for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. This technique has been used in many simulation studies on the behavior of colloids. However, there are fundamental questions with regards to the use of this model. In this paper, we examine the accuracy with which the raspberry method is able to reproduce Stokes-level hydrodynamic interactions when compared to analytic expressions for solid spheres in simple-cubic crystals. To this end, we consider the quality of numerical experiments that are traditionally used to establish these properties and we discuss their shortcomings. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobility reproduced by the simple raspberry model and present a way to numerically remedy this problem by adding internal coupling points. Finally, we examine a non-convex shape, namely, a colloidal dumbbell, and show that the filled raspberry model replicates the desired hydrodynamic behavior in bulk for this more complicated shape. Our investigation is continued in de Graaf et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084108 (2015)], wherein we consider the raspberry model in the confining geometry of two parallel plates. PMID:26328818
Multidimensional patterns of change in outpatient psychotherapy: the phase model revisited.
Stulz, Niklaus; Lutz, Wolfgang
2007-09-01
In this study, groups of psychotherapy outpatients were identified on the basis of shared change patterns in the three dimensions of the phase model of psychotherapeutic outcome: well-being, symptom distress, and life functioning. Treatment courses provided by a national provider network of a managed care company in the United States (N = 1128) were analyzed using growth mixture models. Several initial patient characteristics (treatment expectations, amount of prior psychotherapy, and global assessment of functioning) allowed for the discrimination between three patient groups of shared change patterns. Those patterns can be classified into three groups as phase model consistent, partial rapid responders, or symptomatically highly impaired patients with each having typical change patterns. PMID:17674397
Two-ball problem revisited: limitations of event-driven modeling.
Müller, Patric; Pöschel, Thorsten
2011-04-01
The main precondition of simulating systems of hard particles by means of event-driven modeling is the assumption of instantaneous collisions. The aim of this paper is to quantify the deviation of event-driven modeling from the solution of Newton's equation of motion using a paradigmatic example: If a tennis ball is held above a basketball with their centers vertically aligned, and the balls are released to collide with the floor, the tennis ball may rebound at a surprisingly high speed. We show in this article that the simple textbook explanation of this effect is an oversimplification, even for the limit of perfectly elastic particles. Instead, there may occur a rather complex scenario including multiple collisions which may lead to a very different final velocity as compared with the velocity resulting from the oversimplified model. PMID:21599150
Chiu, Weisheng; Rodriguez, Fernando M; Won, Doyeon
2016-10-01
This study examines the factor structure of the shortened version of the Leadership Scale for Sport, through a survey of 201 collegiate swimmers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III institutions, using both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five-factor solution fit the data adequately. The sizes of factor loadings on target factors substantially differed between the confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling solutions. In addition, the inter-correlations between factors of the Leadership Scale for Sport and the correlations with athletes' satisfaction were found to be inflated in the confirmatory factor analysis solution. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the factorial validity of the shortened Leadership Scale for Sport.
Two-ball problem revisited: Limitations of event-driven modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Patric; Pöschel, Thorsten
2011-04-01
The main precondition of simulating systems of hard particles by means of event-driven modeling is the assumption of instantaneous collisions. The aim of this paper is to quantify the deviation of event-driven modeling from the solution of Newton’s equation of motion using a paradigmatic example: If a tennis ball is held above a basketball with their centers vertically aligned, and the balls are released to collide with the floor, the tennis ball may rebound at a surprisingly high speed. We show in this article that the simple textbook explanation of this effect is an oversimplification, even for the limit of perfectly elastic particles. Instead, there may occur a rather complex scenario including multiple collisions which may lead to a very different final velocity as compared with the velocity resulting from the oversimplified model.
Revisiting the Concept of Level of Detail in 3d City Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biljecki, F.; Zhao, J.; Stoter, J.; Ledoux, H.
2013-09-01
This review paper discusses the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling, and is a first step towards a foundation for a standardised definition. As an introduction, a few level of detail specifications, outlooks and approaches are given from the industry. The paper analyses the general uncertainties and shortcomings around the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling such as ordinality and inconsistencies, and identifies factors that constitute a specific level of detail. The paper proposes a framework for a new consistent LoD definition which would consolidate present and future LoD paradigms, gives an example of an LoD specification, discusses open questions such as the contexts for which 3D city models are used in practice, and gives prospects for a future quantification and sorting of levels of detail.
Two-ball problem revisited: limitations of event-driven modeling.
Müller, Patric; Pöschel, Thorsten
2011-04-01
The main precondition of simulating systems of hard particles by means of event-driven modeling is the assumption of instantaneous collisions. The aim of this paper is to quantify the deviation of event-driven modeling from the solution of Newton's equation of motion using a paradigmatic example: If a tennis ball is held above a basketball with their centers vertically aligned, and the balls are released to collide with the floor, the tennis ball may rebound at a surprisingly high speed. We show in this article that the simple textbook explanation of this effect is an oversimplification, even for the limit of perfectly elastic particles. Instead, there may occur a rather complex scenario including multiple collisions which may lead to a very different final velocity as compared with the velocity resulting from the oversimplified model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roustan, Yelva; Duhanyan, Nora; Bocquet, Marc; Winiarek, Victor
2013-04-01
A sensitivity study of the numerical model, as well as, an inverse modelling approach applied to the atmospheric dispersion issues after the Chernobyl disaster are both presented in this paper. On the one hand, the robustness of the source term reconstruction through advanced data assimilation techniques was tested. On the other hand, the classical approaches for sensitivity analysis were enhanced by the use of an optimised forcing field which otherwise is known to be strongly uncertain. The POLYPHEMUS air quality system was used to perform the simulations of radionuclide dispersion. Activity concentrations in air and deposited to the ground of iodine-131, caesium-137 and caesium-134 were considered. The impact of the implemented parameterizations of the physical processes (dry and wet depositions, vertical turbulent diffusion), of the forcing fields (meteorology and source terms) and of the numerical configuration (horizontal resolution) were investigated for the sensitivity study of the model. A four dimensional variational scheme (4D-Var) based on the approximate adjoint of the chemistry transport model was used to invert the source term. The data assimilation is performed with measurements of activity concentrations in air extracted from the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database. For most of the investigated configurations (sensitivity study), the statistics to compare the model results to the field measurements as regards the concentrations in air are clearly improved while using a reconstructed source term. As regards the ground deposited concentrations, an improvement can only be seen in case of satisfactorily modelled episode. Through these studies, the source term and the meteorological fields are proved to have a major impact on the activity concentrations in air. These studies also reinforce the use of reconstructed source term instead of the usual estimated one. A more detailed parameterization of the deposition process seems also to be
Rheological modelling of complex fluids. I. The concept of effective volume fraction revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quemada, D.
1998-01-01
Number of complex fluids (as slurries, drilling muds, paints and coatings, many foods, cosmetics, biofluids...) can approximately be described as concentrated dispersions of Structural Units (SUs). Due to shear forces, SUs are assumed to be approximately spherical in shape and uniform in size under steady flow conditions, so that a complex fluid can be considered as a roughly monodisperse dispersion of roughly spherical SUs (with a shear-dependent mean radius), what allows to generalize hard sphere models of monodisperse suspensions to complex fluids. A rheological model of such dispersions of SUs is based on the concept of the effective volume fraction, φ_{eff} which depends on flow conditions. Indeed, in competition with particle interactions, hydrodynamic forces can modify (i) S, the number fraction of particles that all SUs contain, (ii) both SUs arrangements and their internal structure, especially the SU's compactness, \\varphi. As a structural variable, S is governed by a kinetic equation. Through the shear-dependent kinetic rates involved in the latter, the general solution S depends on Γ, a dimensionless shear variable, leading to φ_{eff}(t, Γ; \\varphi). The structural modelling is achieved by introducing this expression of φ_{eff} into a well-established viscosity model of hard sphere suspensions. Using the steady state solution of the kinetic equation, S_{eq}(Γ ), allows to model non-Newtonian behaviors of complex fluids under steady shear conditions, as pseudo-plastic, plastic, dilatant ... ones. In this model, the ratio of high shear to low shear limiting viscosities appears as a key variable. Different examples of application will be discussed.
Revisiting the cape cod bacteria injection experiment using a stochastic modeling approach
Maxwell, R.M.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.
2007-01-01
Bromide and resting-cell bacteria tracer tests conducted in a sandy aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod site in 1987 were reinterpreted using a three-dimensional stochastic approach. Bacteria transport was coupled to colloid filtration theory through functional dependence of local-scale colloid transport parameters upon hydraulic conductivity and seepage velocity in a stochastic advection - dispersion/attachment - detachment model. Geostatistical information on the hydraulic conductivity (K) field that was unavailable at the time of the original test was utilized as input. Using geostatistical parameters, a groundwater flow and particle-tracking model of conservative solute transport was calibrated to the bromide-tracer breakthrough data. An optimization routine was employed over 100 realizations to adjust the mean and variance ofthe natural-logarithm of hydraulic conductivity (InK) field to achieve best fit of a simulated, average bromide breakthrough curve. A stochastic particle-tracking model for the bacteria was run without adjustments to the local-scale colloid transport parameters. Good predictions of mean bacteria breakthrough were achieved using several approaches for modeling components of the system. Simulations incorporating the recent Tufenkji and Elimelech (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 529-536) correlation equation for estimating single collector efficiency were compared to those using the older Rajagopalan and Tien (AIChE J. 1976, 22, 523-533) model. Both appeared to work equally well at predicting mean bacteria breakthrough using a constant mean bacteria diameter for this set of field conditions. Simulations using a distribution of bacterial cell diameters available from original field notes yielded a slight improvement in the model and data agreement compared to simulations using an average bacterial diameter. The stochastic approach based on estimates of local-scale parameters for the bacteria-transport process reasonably captured
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.
2007-07-01
Twenty years ago, the results of climate model simulations of the response to smoke and dust from a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers could be summarized as "nuclear winter," with rapid temperature, precipitation, and insolation drops at the surface that would threaten global agriculture for at least a year. The global nuclear arsenal has fallen by a factor of three since then, but there has been an expansion of the number of nuclear weapons states, with additional states trying to develop nuclear arsenals. We use a modern climate model to reexamine the climate response to a range of nuclear wars, producing 50 and 150 Tg of smoke, using moderate and large portions of the current global arsenal, and find that there would be significant climatic responses to all the scenarios. This is the first time that an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model has been used for such a simulation and the first time that 10-year simulations have been conducted. The response to the 150 Tg scenario can still be characterized as "nuclear winter," but both produce global catastrophic consequences. The changes are more long-lasting than previously thought, however, because the new model, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, is able to represent the atmosphere up to 80 km, and simulates plume rise to the middle and upper stratosphere, producing a long aerosol lifetime. The indirect effects of nuclear weapons would have devastating consequences for the planet, and continued nuclear arsenal reductions will be needed before the threat of nuclear winter is removed from the Earth.
Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Freyer, Gilles; Iliadis, Athanassios
2016-08-01
Controlling effects of drugs administered in combination is particularly challenging with a densified regimen because of life-threatening hematological toxicities. We have developed a mathematical model to optimize drug dosing regimens and to redesign the dose intensification-dose escalation process, using densified cycles of combined anticancer drugs. A generic mathematical model was developed to describe the main components of the real process, including pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy pharmacodynamics, and non-hematological toxicity risk. This model allowed for computing the distribution of the total drug amount of each drug in combination, for each escalation dose level, in order to minimize the average tumor mass for each cycle. This was achieved while complying with absolute neutrophil count clinical constraints and without exceeding a fixed risk of non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity. The innovative part of this work was the development of densifying and intensifying designs in a unified procedure. This model enabled us to determine the appropriate regimen in a pilot phase I/II study in metastatic breast patients for a 2-week-cycle treatment of docetaxel plus epirubicin doublet, and to propose a new dose-ranging process. In addition to the present application, this method can be further used to achieve optimization of any combination therapy, thus improving the efficacy versus toxicity balance of such a regimen.
Revisiting Precede-Proceed: A Leading Model for Ecological and Ethical Health Promotion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Christine M.
2016-01-01
Background: The Precede-Proceed model has provided moral and practical guidance for the fields of health education and health promotion since Lawrence Green first developed Precede in 1974 and Green and Kreuter added Proceed in 1991. Precede-Proceed today remains the most comprehensive and one of the most used approaches to promoting health.…
The Raspberry model for hydrodynamic interactions revisited. II. The effect of confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Graaf, Joost; Peter, Toni; Fischer, Lukas P.; Holm, Christian
2015-08-01
The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and Langevin molecular dynamics schemes for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. In this paper, we present a follow up to our study of the effectiveness of the raspberry model in reproducing hydrodynamic interactions in the Stokes regime for spheres arranged in a simple-cubic crystal [Fischer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084107 (2015)]. Here, we consider the accuracy with which the raspberry model is able to reproduce such interactions for particles confined between two parallel plates. To this end, we compare our LB simulation results to established theoretical expressions and finite-element calculations. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobilities when only surface coupling points are used, as also found in Part I of our joint publication. We demonstrate that adding internal coupling points to the raspberry can be used to correct said discrepancy in confining geometries as well. Finally, we show that the raspberry model accurately reproduces hydrodynamic interactions between a spherical colloid and planar walls up to roughly one LB lattice spacing.
Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong
2010-01-01
An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…
The Structure of Academic Self-Concepts Revisited: The Nested Marsh/Shavelson Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunner, Martin; Keller, Ulrich; Dierendonck, Christophe; Reichert, Monique; Ugen, Sonja; Fischbach, Antoine; Martin, Romain
2010-01-01
The nested Marsh/Shavelson (NMS) model integrates structural characteristics of academic self-concepts that have proved empirically incompatible in previous studies. Specifically, it conceives of academic self-concepts to be subject specific, strongly separated across domains, and hierarchically organized, with general academic self-concept at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elander, Kelly; Cronje, Johannes C.
2016-01-01
While learning interventions were traditionally classified as either objectivist or constructivist there has been an increasing tendency for practitioners to use elements of both paradigms in a consolidated fashion. This has meant a re-think of the two perspectives as diametrically opposite. A four-quadrant model, first proposed in this journal…
Revisiting the Home Literacy Model of Reading Development in an Orthographically Consistent Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manolitsis, George; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno
2011-01-01
We examined the applicability of the Home Literacy Model in an orthographically transparent language (Greek). Seventy Greek children were followed from kindergarten until grade 4. In kindergarten they were tested in non-verbal intelligence, vocabulary, phonological sensitivity, rapid naming, and letter knowledge. The parents of the children also…
The Raspberry model for hydrodynamic interactions revisited. II. The effect of confinement.
de Graaf, Joost; Peter, Toni; Fischer, Lukas P; Holm, Christian
2015-08-28
The so-called "raspberry" model refers to the hybrid lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and Langevin molecular dynamics schemes for simulating the dynamics of suspensions of colloidal particles, originally developed by Lobaskin and Dünweg [New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004)], wherein discrete surface points are used to achieve fluid-particle coupling. In this paper, we present a follow up to our study of the effectiveness of the raspberry model in reproducing hydrodynamic interactions in the Stokes regime for spheres arranged in a simple-cubic crystal [Fischer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 084107 (2015)]. Here, we consider the accuracy with which the raspberry model is able to reproduce such interactions for particles confined between two parallel plates. To this end, we compare our LB simulation results to established theoretical expressions and finite-element calculations. We show that there is a discrepancy between the translational and rotational mobilities when only surface coupling points are used, as also found in Part I of our joint publication. We demonstrate that adding internal coupling points to the raspberry can be used to correct said discrepancy in confining geometries as well. Finally, we show that the raspberry model accurately reproduces hydrodynamic interactions between a spherical colloid and planar walls up to roughly one LB lattice spacing. PMID:26328819
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen
2010-01-01
Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…
Restructuring a Teacher Education Unit with P-12 Partner Schools. A Collaborative Model Revisited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hegler, Kay L.; Forester, Lyn C.
This paper explores some of the many reasons to restructure, suggests the participants in restructuring, responds to Goodlad's (1990) postulates and essentials of restructuring and describes a model for restructuring between a teacher preparation program and P-12 schools. Reasons for restructuring can be classified into three categories: changes…
Social Mobility and Post-Compulsory Education: Revisiting Boudon's Model of Social Opportunity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Ron; Simmons, Robin
2013-01-01
This paper uses Raymond Boudon's model of educational expansion to examine the relationship between education and social mobility, paying particular attention to post-compulsory education--an important site of social differentiation in England. The paper shows how Boudon focuses explicitly on the consequences of educational expansion, and…
Localization-Delocalization in Bridged Mixed-Valence Metal Clusters: Vibronic PKS Model Revisited.
Palii, A; Tsukerblat, B; Clemente-Juan, J M; Aldoshin, S M
2015-09-24
Here we describe a new vibronic model of mixed valence (MV) dimer inspired by the conventional Piepho, Krausz, and Schatz (PKS) approach. We attempted to partially lift the main restriction of the PKS model dealing with the vibronically independent moieties of a MV molecule. The refined version of the PKS model in which the bridging ligands are included deals with the three main interactions: electron transfer (integral t0) related to the high-symmetric ligand configuration, on-site vibronic coupling (parameter υ) arising from the modulation of the crystal field on the metal sites by the breathing displacements of their nearest ligand surroundings, and intercenter vibronic coupling (parameter ζ) describing the dependence of the electron transfer on ligand positions in the course of their breathing movement. We apply the modified model to the analysis of the adiabatic potentials and electronic density distributions in the minima of their lower sheets for the cases of one-electron MV dimer with long and short bridges and for the two-electron MV dimer exhibiting a valence disproportionation effect. The inclusion of the intercenter interaction in addition to the conventional PKS coupling is shown to produce a strong effect on the degree of localization in MV dimers and, in particular, on the assignments to the Robin and Day classes and on the conditions of stabilization of valence disproportionated states in bielectron transfer systems. PMID:26305153
The PANAS Structure Revisited: On the Validity of a Bifactor Model in Community and Forensic Samples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leue, Anja; Beauducel, Andre
2011-01-01
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used inventory for the assessment of affect in psychology and other applied sciences. Despite its popularity, the structure of the PANAS is still under debate. On the one hand, there is evidence of the traditional 2-factor model with Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) as…
Holland in Iceland revisited: an emic approach to evaluating U.S. vocational interest models.
Einarsdóttir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong
2010-07-01
An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdóttir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data included an indigenous pool of occupations and work-task items representing Iceland's world of work that had been administered to a sample of 597 upper secondary school students. Multidimensional scaling analysis and property vector fitting using Prediger's (1981) work-task dimensions were applied to the item responses to test if the RIASEC model could be identified. The results indicated that a 4-dimensional solution better explains the interest space in Iceland than Holland's 2-dimensional RIASEC representation. The work-task dimension of People-Things and the Sex-Type and Prestige dimensions were located in the 1st and 2nd dimensions of the multidimensional scaling solution, but Data-Ideas, a dimension critical to the RIASEC model, was not. The 3rd and 4th dimensions did not correspond to any dimensions previously detected in structural studies in the United States and seem to be related to specific ecological, cultural, and political forces in Iceland. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting representative indigenous occupations and work tasks when evaluating the RIASEC model. The present study is an example of the next step in a comprehensive cross-cultural research program on vocational interests, an emic investigation.
Re-visiting crash-speed relationships: A new perspective in crash modelling.
Imprialou, Maria-Ioanna M; Quddus, Mohammed; Pitfield, David E; Lord, Dominique
2016-01-01
Although speed is considered to be one of the main crash contributory factors, research findings are inconsistent. Independent of the robustness of their statistical approaches, crash frequency models typically employ crash data that are aggregated using spatial criteria (e.g., crash counts by link termed as a link-based approach). In this approach, the variability in crashes between links is explained by highly aggregated average measures that may be inappropriate, especially for time-varying variables such as speed and volume. This paper re-examines crash-speed relationships by creating a new crash data aggregation approach that enables improved representation of the road conditions just before crash occurrences. Crashes are aggregated according to the similarity of their pre-crash traffic and geometric conditions, forming an alternative crash count dataset termed as a condition-based approach. Crash-speed relationships are separately developed and compared for both approaches by employing the annual crashes that occurred on the Strategic Road Network of England in 2012. The datasets are modelled by injury severity using multivariate Poisson lognormal regression, with multivariate spatial effects for the link-based model, using a full Bayesian inference approach. The results of the condition-based approach show that high speeds trigger crash frequency. The outcome of the link-based model is the opposite; suggesting that the speed-crash relationship is negative regardless of crash severity. The differences between the results imply that data aggregation is a crucial, yet so far overlooked, methodological element of crash data analyses that may have direct impact on the modelling outcomes.
The chemistry of C3 and C2 in cometary comae. I. Current models revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiler, M.
2012-02-01
Context. It is widely accepted that C3 and in particular C2 play an important role in the compositional classification of comets, and the most well-established classification scheme to date is indeed based on the Haser production rates of these two radicals. A link between both C3 and C2 and their actual parent molecules would therefore be desirable to allow both a physical and chemical interpretation of the compositional classification of comets. A first detailed study was performed by Helbert and collaborators for comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), which suggested a link between these two radicals and the parent species C2H2, C2H6, and C3H4. Aims: We extend previous studies of the formation of C3 and C2 to other comets at smaller heliocentric distances. The proposed model for the formation of these two radicals is tested for these comets. Methods: We compare the observed radial column densities of C3 and C2 in the comae of the comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), and 9P/Tempel 1 with the results of a one-dimensional multi-fluid coma chemistry model. The shape of the modelled radial column density profiles are compared with the observed profiles, and the production rates of the parent species are computed by fitting the observational data with the model. Results: We do not find that C2H6 is a significant parent species of the observed cometary C2. Furthermore, electron impact reactions do not play an important role in the formation of C3. The model for the formation of C3 and C2 derived from comet Hale-Bopp is inconsistent with observations of these radicals in other comets. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO programmes 073.C-0571 and 075.C-0355).
The prototype effect revisited: Evidence for an abstract feature model of face recognition.
Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Swann, Kellie; Blanz, Volker; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
2008-01-01
Humans typically have a remarkable memory for faces. Nonetheless, in some cases they can be fooled. Experiments described in this paper provide new evidence for an effect in which observers falsely "recognize" a face that they have never seen before. The face is a chimera (prototype) built from parts extracted from previously viewed faces. It is known that faces of this kind can be confused with truly familiar faces, a result referred to as the prototype effect. However, recent studies have failed to find evidence for a full effect, one in which the prototype is regarded not only as familiar, but as more familiar than faces which have been seen before. This study sought to reinvestigate the effect. In a pair of experiments, evidence is reported for the full effect based on both an old/new discrimination task and a familiarity ranking task. The results are shown to be consistent with a recognition model in which faces are represented as combinations of reusable, abstract features. In a final experiment, novel predictions of the model are verified by comparing the size of the prototype effect for upright and upside-down faces. Despite the fundamentally piecewise nature of the model, an explanation is provided as to how it can also account for the sensitivity of observers to configural and holistic cues. This discussion is backed up with the use of an unsupervised network model. Overall, the paper describes how an abstract feature-based model can reconcile a range of results in the face recognition literature and, in turn, lessen currently perceived differences between the representation of faces and other objects. PMID:18484826
Temporal moments revisited: Why there is no better way for physically based model reduction in time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leube, P. C.; Nowak, W.; Schneider, G.
2012-11-01
Many hydro(geo)logical problems are highly complex in space and time, coupled with scale issues, variability, and uncertainty. Especially time-dependent models often consume enormous computational resources, but model reduction techniques can alleviate this problem. Temporal moments (TM) offer an approach to reduce the time demands of transient hydro(geo)logical simulations. TM reduce transient governing equations to steady state and directly simulate the temporal characteristics of the system, if the equations are linear and coefficients are time independent. This is achieved by an integral transform, projecting the dynamic system response onto monomials in time. In comparison to classical approaches of model reduction that involve orthogonal base functions, however, the monomials for TM are nonorthogonal, which might impair the quality and efficiency of model reduction. Thus, we raise the question of whether there are more suitable temporal base functions than the monomials that lead to TM. In this work, we will derive theoretically that there is only a limited class of temporal base functions that can reduce hydro(geo)logical models. By comparing those to TM we conclude that, in terms of gained efficiency versus maintained accuracy, TM are the best possible choice. While our theoretical results hold for all systems of linear partial or ordinary differential equations (PDEs, ODEs) with any order of space and time derivatives, we illustrate our study with an example of pumping tests in a confined aquifer. For that case, we demonstrate that two (four) TM are sufficient to represent more than 80% (90%) of the dynamic behavior, and that the information content strictly increases with increasing TM order.
Microscopic Car-Following Models Revisited: From Road Works to Fundamental Diagrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidel, T.; Gasser, I.; Werner, B.
2009-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of the classical optimal velocity model for the case of road works. We introduce a new viewpoint, the so-called rotation solutions, which in case of an additional symmetry leads to Ponies-on-a-Merry-Go-Round-solutions (POMs) [D. G. Aronson, M. Golubitsky, and J. Mallet-Paret, Nonlinearity, 4 (1991), p. 903]. This approach, which is also useful for the case without road works, opens the possibility of analytical and numerical bifurcation studies, which show a wide variety in the possible dynamics of this very simple model. In addition, we mimic different measurement approaches and recover the famous inverse Greek lambda structure in the fundamental diagram.
The Zee-Babu model revisited in the light of new data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Nebot, Miguel; Rius, Nuria; Santamaria, Arcadi
2014-08-01
We update previous analyses of the Zee-Babu model in the light of new data, e.g., the mixing angle θ13, the rare decay μ→eγ and the LHC results. We also analyze the possibility of accommodating the deviations in Γ(H→γγ) hinted by the LHC experiments, and the stability of the scalar potential. We find that neutrino oscillation data and low energy constraints are still compatible with masses of the extra charged scalars accessible to LHC. Moreover, if any of them is discovered, the model can be falsified by combining the information on the singly and doubly charged scalar decay modes with neutrino data. Conversely, if the neutrino spectrum is found to be inverted and the CP phase δ is quite different from π, the masses of the charged scalars will be well outside the LHC reach.
Huxley's Model for Muscle Contraction Revisited: The Importance of Microscopic Reversibility.
Astumian, R Dean
2015-01-01
Andrew Huxley's model for muscle contraction is the first mechanistic description of how an energy-providing chemical reaction, ATP hydrolysis, can be coupled by a molecule (myosin) to do work in the environment in a cyclic process. The model was originally used to fit experimentally obtained force vs velocity curves, and has served as a paradigm for understanding mechanochemical coupling ever since. Despite the remarkable success in fitting kinetic data, Huxley's model is thermodynamically inconsistent in several regards, most notably in its failure to include thermal noise in the description of the mechanical transitions by which motion occurs. This inconsistency has led subsequent workers to incorrect conclusions regarding the importance of mechanical transitions for determining the direction of motion, the efficiency of energy conversion, the ratio of forward to backward steps, and the applied force necessary to stop the motion of chemically driven molecular motors. In this chapter an extension of Huxley's model is described where the principle of microscopic reversibility provides a framework for developing a thermodynamically consistent description of a molecular machine. The results show clearly that mechanical strain and the so-called "power stroke" are irrelevant for determining the directionality and thermodynamic properties of any chemically driven molecular motor. Instead these properties are controlled entirely by the chemical specificity that describes how the relative rates of the ATP hydrolysis reaction depend, by allosteric interactions, on the mechanical state of the molecule. This mechanism has been termed an "information ratchet" in the literature. In contrast to the results for chemical driving, a power stroke can be a key component for the operation of an optically driven motor, the transitions of which do not obey microscopic reversibility. PMID:26122749
Revisiting the thermodynamic modelling of type I gas-hydroquinone clathrates.
Conde, M M; Torré, J P; Miqueu, C
2016-04-21
Under specific pressure and temperature conditions, certain gaseous species can be engaged in a host lattice of hydroquinone molecules, forming a supramolecular entity called a gas hydroquinone clathrate. This study is devoted to the thermodynamic modelling of type I hydroquinone clathrates. The gases considered in this work are argon, krypton, xenon, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide. The basic van der Waals and Platteeuw model, which is, for example, not able to predict well the phase equilibrium properties of such clathrates at high temperature, is modified and extended by considering first the solubility of the guest in solid HQ and then the mutual interactions between the gaseous molecules inside the clathrate structure (i.e. guest-guest interactions). Other improvements of the basic theory, such as the choice of the reference state, are proposed, and a unique set of thermodynamic parameters valid for all the studied guests are finally calculated. Very good agreement is obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data available in the literature. Our results clearly demonstrate that the highest level of theory is necessary to describe well both the triphasic equilibrium line (where the HQ clathrate, the native hydroquinone HQα and the gas coexist), the occupancy of the guest in the clathrate, and the intercalation enthalpy.
The Educational Model of Private Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine: Revisited for 2003-2013.
Cummings, Mark
2015-12-01
Trends in the development of new private colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) described by the author in 2003 have accelerated in the ensuing decade. During 2003 to 2013, 10 new COMs as well as 2 remote teaching sites and 4 new branch campuses at private institutions were accredited, leading to a 98% increase in the number of students enrolled in private COMs. The key features of the private COM educational model during this period were a reliance on student tuition, the establishment of health professions education programs around the medical school, the expansion of class size, the creation of branch campuses and remote teaching sites, an environment that emphasizes teaching over research, and limited involvement in facilities providing clinical services to patients. There is institutional ownership of preclinical instruction, but clinical instruction occurs in affiliated hospitals and medical institutions where students are typically taught by volunteer and/or adjunct faculty.Between 2003 and 2013, this model attracted smaller universities and organizations, which implemented the strategies of established private COMs in initiating new private COMs, branch campuses, and remote teaching sites. The new COMs have introduced changes to the osteopathic profession and private COM model by expanding to new parts of the country and establishing the first for-profit medical school accredited in the United States in modern times. They have also increased pressure on the system of osteopathic graduate medical education, as the number of funded GME positions available to their graduates is less than the need.
Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Arnold, J. G.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Bosch, David
2011-04-21
Accurate analysis of water flow pathways from rainfall to streams is critical for simulating water use, climate change impact, and contaminants transport. In this study, we developed a new scheme to simultaneously calibrate surface flow (SF) and baseflow (BF) simulations of soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) by combing evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) and BF separation techniques. The application of this scheme demonstrated pronounced trade-off of SWAT’s performance on SF and BF simulations. The simulated major water fluxes and storages variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and groundwater) using the multiple parameters from EMO span wide ranges. Uncertainty analysis was conducted by Bayesian model averaging of the Pareto optimal solutions. The 90% confidence interval (CI) estimated using all streamflows substantially overestimate the uncertainty of low flows on BF days while underestimating the uncertainty of high flows on SF days. Despite using statistical criteria calculated based on streamflow for model selection, it is important to conduct diagnostic analysis of the agreement of SWAT behaviour and actual watershed dynamics. The new calibration technique can serve as a useful tool to explore the tradeoff between SF and BF simulations and provide candidates for further diagnostic assessment and model identification.
The Educational Model of Private Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine: Revisited for 2003-2013.
Cummings, Mark
2015-12-01
Trends in the development of new private colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) described by the author in 2003 have accelerated in the ensuing decade. During 2003 to 2013, 10 new COMs as well as 2 remote teaching sites and 4 new branch campuses at private institutions were accredited, leading to a 98% increase in the number of students enrolled in private COMs. The key features of the private COM educational model during this period were a reliance on student tuition, the establishment of health professions education programs around the medical school, the expansion of class size, the creation of branch campuses and remote teaching sites, an environment that emphasizes teaching over research, and limited involvement in facilities providing clinical services to patients. There is institutional ownership of preclinical instruction, but clinical instruction occurs in affiliated hospitals and medical institutions where students are typically taught by volunteer and/or adjunct faculty.Between 2003 and 2013, this model attracted smaller universities and organizations, which implemented the strategies of established private COMs in initiating new private COMs, branch campuses, and remote teaching sites. The new COMs have introduced changes to the osteopathic profession and private COM model by expanding to new parts of the country and establishing the first for-profit medical school accredited in the United States in modern times. They have also increased pressure on the system of osteopathic graduate medical education, as the number of funded GME positions available to their graduates is less than the need. PMID:26039139
Revisiting the thermodynamic modelling of type I gas-hydroquinone clathrates.
Conde, M M; Torré, J P; Miqueu, C
2016-04-21
Under specific pressure and temperature conditions, certain gaseous species can be engaged in a host lattice of hydroquinone molecules, forming a supramolecular entity called a gas hydroquinone clathrate. This study is devoted to the thermodynamic modelling of type I hydroquinone clathrates. The gases considered in this work are argon, krypton, xenon, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide. The basic van der Waals and Platteeuw model, which is, for example, not able to predict well the phase equilibrium properties of such clathrates at high temperature, is modified and extended by considering first the solubility of the guest in solid HQ and then the mutual interactions between the gaseous molecules inside the clathrate structure (i.e. guest-guest interactions). Other improvements of the basic theory, such as the choice of the reference state, are proposed, and a unique set of thermodynamic parameters valid for all the studied guests are finally calculated. Very good agreement is obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data available in the literature. Our results clearly demonstrate that the highest level of theory is necessary to describe well both the triphasic equilibrium line (where the HQ clathrate, the native hydroquinone HQα and the gas coexist), the occupancy of the guest in the clathrate, and the intercalation enthalpy. PMID:27004460
The Rotating Morse-Pekeris Oscillator Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto
2008-01-01
The Morse-Pekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibration-rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules is revisited. This model is based on the realization of a second-order exponential expansion of the centrifugal term about the minimum of the vibrational Morse oscillator and the subsequent analytical resolution of the resulting…
Lithospheric Flexure and Sedimentary Basin Evolution: the Steer's Head Model Re-visited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, J. D. P.; Watts, A. B.
2015-12-01
Backstripping studies of biostratigraphic data from deep wells show that sediment loading is one of the main factors controlling the subsidence and uplift history of sedimentary basins. Previous studies based on single layer models of elastic and viscoelastic plates overlying an inviscid fluid have shown that sediment loading, together with a tectonic subsidence that decreases exponentially with time, can explain the large-scale 'architecture' of rift-type basins and, in some cases, details of their internal stratigraphy such as onlap and offlap patterns. One problem with these so-called 'steer's head' models is that they were based on a simple rheological model in which the long-term strength of the lithosphere increased with thermal age. Recent oceanic flexure studies, however, reveal that the long-term strength of the lithosphere depends not only on thermal age, but also load age. We have used the thermal structure based on plate cooling models, together with recent experimentally-derived flow laws, to compute the viscosity structure of the lithosphere and a new analytical model to compute the flexure of a multilayer viscoelastic plate by a trapezoid-shaped sediment load at different times since basin initiation. If we define the nondimensional number Dw = τm/τt, where τm is the Maxwell time constant and τt is the thermal time constant, we find that for Dw << 1 the flexure approximates that of an elastic plate and an onlap pattern forms at the edge of basin (Fig. 1), whereas for Dw >> 1 the flexure approximates that of a viscoelastic plate and an offlap pattern develops (Fig. 2). Interestingly Dw ~ 1 produces a basin in which onlap dominates its early evolution while offlap dominates its later evolution and an unconformity separates the two different stratal patterns (Fig. 3). Therefore, when consideration is given to the fact that the long-term strength of the lithosphere depends on both thermal and load age we are able to produce stratal geometries that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joetzjer, E.; Poulter, B.; Ciais, P.; Sala, A.; Sack, L.; Bartlett, M.
2015-12-01
In the past decade, two extreme droughts experienced by the Amazon rainforest led to a perturbation of carbon cycle dynamics and forest structure, partly through an increase in tree mortality. While there is a relatively strong consensus in CMIP5 projections for an increase in both frequency and intensity of droughts across the Amazon, the potential for forest die-off constitutes a large uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon cycle feedbacks. Two long-term through fall exclusion experiments (TFE) provided novel observations of Amazonian ecosystem responses under drought. These experiments also provided a great opportunity to evaluate and improve models' behavior under drought by comparing simulations and observations. While current DGVM use a wide array of algorithms to represent mortality, most are associated with large uncertainty for representing drought-induced mortality, and require updating to include current information of physiological processes. During very strong droughts, the leaves desiccate and stems may undergo catastrophic embolism. However, even before that point, stomata close, to minimize excessive water loss and risk of hydraulic failure, which reduces carbon assimilation. To maintain respiration and other functions, plants may eventually deplete stored non-structural carbon compounds (NSC), which may have negative impacts on plant and eventually increase the probability of mortality.Here, we describe a new parameterization of the mortality process induced by drought using the ORCHIDEE-CAN dynamic vegetation model and test it using the two TFE results. We first updated and evaluated both the representation of hydraulic architecture and the NSC pool dynamics using in situ data. We implemented a direct climate effect on mortality through catastrophic stem embolism, based on hydraulic vulnerability curves. In addition, we explored the role of NSC on hydraulic failure and mortality by coupling in the model
Revisiting the infrared spectra of active galactic nuclei with a new torus emission model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, J.; Franceschini, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.
2006-03-01
We describe improved modelling of the emission by dust in a toroidal-like structure heated by a central illuminating source within active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have chosen a simple but realistic torus geometry, a flared disc, and a dust grain distribution function including a full range of grain sizes. The optical depth within the torus is computed in detail taking into account the different sublimation temperatures of the silicate and graphite grains, which solves previously reported inconsistencies in the silicate emission feature in type 1 AGNs. We exploit this model to study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 58 extragalactic (both type 1 and type 2) sources using archival optical and infrared data. We find that both AGN and starburst contributions are often required to reproduce the observed SEDs, although in a few cases they are very well fitted by a pure AGN component. The AGN contribution to the far-infrared luminosity is found to be higher in type 1 sources, with all the type 2 requiring a substantial contribution from a circumnuclear starburst. Our results appear in agreement with the AGN unified scheme, because the distributions of key parameters of the torus models turn out to be compatible for type 1 and type 2 AGNs. Further support to the unification concept comes from comparison with medium-resolution infrared spectra of type 1 AGNs by the Spitzer observatory, showing evidence for a moderate silicate emission around 10 μm, which our code reproduces. From our analysis we infer accretion flows in the inner nucleus of local AGNs characterized by high equatorial optical depths (AV~= 100), moderate sizes (Rmax < 100 pc) and very high covering factors (f~= 80 per cent) on average.
Chayanov revisited: A model for the economics of complex kin units
Hammel, E. A.
2005-01-01
Chayanov's model of the peasant economy is based on autarkic nuclear family households. Expansion to the more complex households and kin groups common in peasant societies shows that the sharp changes Chayanov observed in the consumer/producer ratio over the domestic cycle are smoothed by the intergenerational structure of complex households and extended kin groups. This amelioration may be retarded by competition between constituent units. Understanding the dynamics of the developmental cycle and micropolitics of domestic groups is a useful correction to Chayanov's widely used formulation, especially in developing countries where complex kin structures are common. PMID:15867158
Chayanov revisited: a model for the economics of complex kin units.
Hammel, E A
2005-05-10
Chayanov's model of the peasant economy is based on autarkic nuclear family households. Expansion to the more complex households and kin groups common in peasant societies shows that the sharp changes Chayanov observed in the consumer/producer ratio over the domestic cycle are smoothed by the intergenerational structure of complex households and extended kin groups. This amelioration may be retarded by competition between constituent units. Understanding the dynamics of the developmental cycle and micropolitics of domestic groups is a useful correction to Chayanov's widely used formulation, especially in developing countries where complex kin structures are common.
Spectral function of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model revisited: Power laws and universality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markhof, L.; Meden, V.
2016-02-01
We reinvestigate the momentum-resolved single-particle spectral function of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model. In particular, we focus on the role of the momentum dependence of the two-particle interaction V (q ) . Usually, V (q ) is assumed to be a constant and integrals are regularized in the ultraviolet "by hand" employing an ad hoc procedure. As the momentum dependence of the interaction is irrelevant in the renormalization group sense, this does not affect the universal low-energy properties of the model, e.g., exponents of power laws, if all energy scales are sent to zero. If, however, the momentum k is fixed away from the Fermi momentum kF, with |k - kF| setting a nonvanishing energy scale, the details of V (q ) start to matter. We provide strong evidence that any curvature of the two-particle interaction at small transferred momentum q destroys power-law scaling of the momentum-resolved spectral function as a function of energy. Even for |k - kF| much smaller than the momentum-space range of the interaction the spectral line shape depends on the details of V (q ) . The significance of our results for universality in the Luttinger liquid sense, for experiments on quasi-one-dimensional metals, and for recent results on the spectral function of one-dimensional correlated systems taking effects of the curvature of the single-particle dispersion into account ("nonlinear LL phenomenology") is discussed.
Columella cells revisited: novel structures, novel properties, and a novel gravisensing model.
Staehelin, L A; Zheng, H Q; Yoder, T L; Smith, J D; Todd, P
2000-06-01
A hundred years of research has not produced a clear understanding of the mechanism that transduces the energy associated with the sedimentation of starch-filled amyloplast statoliths in root cap columella cells into a growth response. Most models postulate that the statoliths interact with microfilaments (MF) to transmit signals to the plasma membrane (or ER), or that sedimentation onto these organelles produces the signals. However, no direct evidence for statolith-MF links has been reported, and no asymmetric structures of columella cells have been identified that might explain how a root turned by 90 degrees knows which side is up. To address these and other questions, we have (1) quantitatively examined the effects of microgravity on the size, number, and spatial distribution of statoliths; (2) re-evaluated the ultrastructure of columella cells in high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted roots; and (3) followed the sedimentation dynamics of statolith movements in reoriented root tips. The findings have led to the formulation of a new model for the gravity-sensing apparatus of roots, which envisages the cytoplasm pervaded by an actin-based cytoskeletal network. This network is denser in the ER-devoid central region of the cell than in the ER-rich cell cortex and is coupled to receptors in the plasma membrane. Statolith sedimentation is postulated to disrupt the network and its links to receptors in some regions of the cell cortex, while allowing them to reform in other regions and thereby produce a directional signal. PMID:11543286
Haber, James E; Ira, Gregorz; Malkova, Anna; Sugawara, Neal
2004-01-01
Since the pioneering model for homologous recombination proposed by Robin Holliday in 1964, there has been great progress in understanding how recombination occurs at a molecular level. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one can follow recombination by physically monitoring DNA after the synchronous induction of a double-strand break (DSB) in both wild-type and mutant cells. A particularly well-studied system has been the switching of yeast mating-type (MAT) genes, where a DSB can be induced synchronously by expression of the site-specific HO endonuclease. Similar studies can be performed in meiotic cells, where DSBs are created by the Spo11 nuclease. There appear to be at least two competing mechanisms of homologous recombination: a synthesis-dependent strand annealing pathway leading to noncrossovers and a two-end strand invasion mechanism leading to formation and resolution of Holliday junctions (HJs), leading to crossovers. The establishment of a modified replication fork during DSB repair links gene conversion to another important repair process, break-induced replication. Despite recent revelations, almost 40 years after Holliday's model was published, the essential ideas he proposed of strand invasion and heteroduplex DNA formation, the formation and resolution of HJs, and mismatch repair, remain the basis of our thinking. PMID:15065659
Urban Morphology Influence on Urban Albedo: A Revisit with the S olene Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groleau, Dominique; Mestayer, Patrice G.
2013-05-01
This heuristic study of the urban morphology influence on urban albedo is based on some 3,500 simulations with the S olene model. The studied configurations include square blocks in regular and staggered rows, rectangular blocks with different street widths, cross-shaped blocks, infinite street canyons and several actual districts in Marseilles, Toulouse and Nantes, France. The scanned variables are plan density, facade density, building height, layout orientation, latitude, date and time of the day. The sky-view factors of the ground and canopy surfaces are also considered. This study demonstrates the significance of the facade density, in addition to the built plan density, as the explanatory geometrical factor to characterize the urban morphology, rather than building height. On the basis of these albedo calculations the puzzling results of Kondo et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 100:225-242, 2001) for the influence of building height are explained, and the plan density influence is quantitatively assessed. It is shown that the albedo relationship with plan and facade densities obtained with the regular square plot configuration may be considered as a reference for all other configurations, with the exception of the infinite street canyon that shows systematic differences for the lower plan densities. The curves representing this empirical relationship may be used as a sort of abacus for all other geometries while an approximate simple mathematical model is proposed, as well as relationships between the albedo and sky-view factors.
Limited fetch revisited: Comparison of wind input terms, in surface wave modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushkarev, Andrei; Zakharov, Vladimir
2016-07-01
Results pertaining to numerical solutions of the Hasselmann kinetic equation (HE), for wind driven sea spectra, in the fetch limited geometry, are presented. Five versions of source functions, including the recently introduced ZRP model (Zakharov et al., 2012), have been studied, for the exact expression of Snl and high-frequency implicit dissipation, due to wave-breaking. Four of the five experiments were done in the absence of spectral peak dissipation for various Sin terms. They demonstrated the dominance of quadruplet wave-wave interaction, in the energy balance, and the formation of self-similar regimes, of unlimited wave energy growth, along the fetch. Between them was the ZRP model, which strongly agreed with dozens of field observations performed in the seas and lakes, since 1947. The fifth, the WAM3 wind input term experiment, used additional spectral peak dissipation and reproduced the results of a previous, similar, numerical simulation described in Komen et al. (1994), but only supported the field experiments for moderate fetches, demonstrating a total energy saturation at half of that of the Pierson-Moscowits limit. The alternative framework for HE numerical simulation is proposed, along with a set of tests, allowing one to select physically-justified source terms.
Columella cells revisited: novel structures, novel properties, and a novel gravisensing model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staehelin, L. A.; Zheng, H. Q.; Yoder, T. L.; Smith, J. D.; Todd, P.
2000-01-01
A hundred years of research has not produced a clear understanding of the mechanism that transduces the energy associated with the sedimentation of starch-filled amyloplast statoliths in root cap columella cells into a growth response. Most models postulate that the statoliths interact with microfilaments (MF) to transmit signals to the plasma membrane (or ER), or that sedimentation onto these organelles produces the signals. However, no direct evidence for statolith-MF links has been reported, and no asymmetric structures of columella cells have been identified that might explain how a root turned by 90 degrees knows which side is up. To address these and other questions, we have (1) quantitatively examined the effects of microgravity on the size, number, and spatial distribution of statoliths; (2) re-evaluated the ultrastructure of columella cells in high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted roots; and (3) followed the sedimentation dynamics of statolith movements in reoriented root tips. The findings have led to the formulation of a new model for the gravity-sensing apparatus of roots, which envisages the cytoplasm pervaded by an actin-based cytoskeletal network. This network is denser in the ER-devoid central region of the cell than in the ER-rich cell cortex and is coupled to receptors in the plasma membrane. Statolith sedimentation is postulated to disrupt the network and its links to receptors in some regions of the cell cortex, while allowing them to reform in other regions and thereby produce a directional signal.
Haber, James E; Ira, Gregorz; Malkova, Anna; Sugawara, Neal
2004-01-29
Since the pioneering model for homologous recombination proposed by Robin Holliday in 1964, there has been great progress in understanding how recombination occurs at a molecular level. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one can follow recombination by physically monitoring DNA after the synchronous induction of a double-strand break (DSB) in both wild-type and mutant cells. A particularly well-studied system has been the switching of yeast mating-type (MAT) genes, where a DSB can be induced synchronously by expression of the site-specific HO endonuclease. Similar studies can be performed in meiotic cells, where DSBs are created by the Spo11 nuclease. There appear to be at least two competing mechanisms of homologous recombination: a synthesis-dependent strand annealing pathway leading to noncrossovers and a two-end strand invasion mechanism leading to formation and resolution of Holliday junctions (HJs), leading to crossovers. The establishment of a modified replication fork during DSB repair links gene conversion to another important repair process, break-induced replication. Despite recent revelations, almost 40 years after Holliday's model was published, the essential ideas he proposed of strand invasion and heteroduplex DNA formation, the formation and resolution of HJs, and mismatch repair, remain the basis of our thinking.
Cats protecting birds revisited.
Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan
2005-09-01
In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496
Intuitive logic revisited: new data and a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis.
Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Kellen, David
2014-01-01
Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via differences in conceptual fluency between logically valid and invalid syllogisms when participants are asked to rate how much they like a conclusion following from a syllogism (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). These claims of an intuitive logic are at odds with most theories on syllogistic reasoning which posit that detecting the logical status of difficult syllogisms requires effortful and deliberate cognitive processes. We present new data replicating the effects reported by Morsanyi and Handley, but show that this effect is eliminated when controlling for a possible confound in terms of conclusion content. Additionally, we reanalyze three studies (n = 287) without this confound with a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis (i.e., controlling for participant and item effects) which provides evidence for the null-hypothesis and against Morsanyi and Handley's claim.
Ehrenfest urn revisited: Playing the game on a realistic fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalas, Enrico; Martin, Edgar; Germano, Guido
2007-07-01
The Ehrenfest urn process, also known as the dogs and fleas model, is realistically simulated by molecular dynamics of the Lennard-Jones fluid. The key variable is Δz —i.e., the absolute value of the difference between the number of particles in one half of the simulation box and in the other half. This is a pure-jump stochastic process induced, under coarse graining, by the deterministic time evolution of the atomic coordinates. We discuss the Markov hypothesis by analyzing the statistical properties of the jumps and the waiting times between the jumps. In the limit of a vanishing integration time step, the distribution of waiting times becomes closer to an exponential and, therefore, the continuous-time jump stochastic process is Markovian. The random variable Δz behaves as a Markov chain and, in the gas phase, the observed transition probabilities follow the predictions of the Ehrenfest theory.
Quesenberry, Peter J.; Dooner, Mark S.; Aliotta, Jason M.
2010-01-01
The phenotype of marrow hematopoietic stem cells is determined by cell cycle state and microvesicle entry into the stem cells. The stem cell population is continually changing based on cell cycle transit and thus can only be defined on a population basis. Purification of marrow stem cells only addresses the heterogeneity of these populations. When whole marrow is studied, the long-term repopulating stem cells are in active cell cycle. However, with some variability, when highly purified stem cells are studied, the cells appear to be dormant. Thus, the study of purified stem cells is intrinsically misleading. Tissue-derived microvesicles enhanced by injury effect the phenotype of different cell classes. We propose that previously described stem cell plasticity is due to microvesicle modulation. We further propose a stem cell population model in which the individual cell phenotypes continually changes, but the population phenotype is relatively stable. This, in turn, is modulated by microvesicle and microenvironmental influences. PMID:20382199
Intuitive Logic Revisited: New Data and a Bayesian Mixed Model Meta-Analysis
Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Kellen, David
2014-01-01
Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via differences in conceptual fluency between logically valid and invalid syllogisms when participants are asked to rate how much they like a conclusion following from a syllogism (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). These claims of an intuitive logic are at odds with most theories on syllogistic reasoning which posit that detecting the logical status of difficult syllogisms requires effortful and deliberate cognitive processes. We present new data replicating the effects reported by Morsanyi and Handley, but show that this effect is eliminated when controlling for a possible confound in terms of conclusion content. Additionally, we reanalyze three studies () without this confound with a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis (i.e., controlling for participant and item effects) which provides evidence for the null-hypothesis and against Morsanyi and Handley's claim. PMID:24755777
Pathways from adult education to well-being: The Tuijnman model revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Andrew; Wiggins, Richard D.
2015-02-01
There is a growing interest among researchers and policy-makers in the influence of adult learning on a range of outcomes, notably health and well-being. Much of the research to date has tended to focus on younger adults and the immediate benefits of course participation. The longer-term outcomes, such as the potential of accumulated learning experience for enriching later life, have been neglected. The study presented in this article adopts a lifecourse approach to participation in learning and the potential benefits of learning. The authors concentrate on adult education in mid-life, that is between the ages of 33 and 50, as the measure of learning participation. Their research draws upon previous work conducted by Albert Tuijnman which used Swedish data and which was published a quarter of a century ago in the pages of the International Review of Education. The authors of this paper seek to replicate and extend his pioneering work, using data from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a large-scale survey containing information on all those born in Britain in one week in 1958. Follow-up data were collected at various points in childhood and adulthood, most recently when the cohort reached the age of 50, thus enabling insights into long-term developments. The authors analyse well-being at age 50 as an outcome in structural equation models (SEM). This approach helps to understand the pathways through which adult education has an impact on well-being. The estimated models show how adult education in mid-life has an influence on the type and quality of jobs which are accessible to individuals, and how this in turn can contribute to higher well-being at age 50.
Revisiting classic water erosion models in drylands: The strong impact of biological soil crusts
Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Bala, Chaudhary V.; Johnson, N.C.
2008-01-01
Soil erosion and subsequent degradation has been a contributor to societal collapse in the past and is one of the major expressions of desertification in arid regions. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) models soil lost to water erosion as a function of climate erosivity (the degree to which rainfall can result in erosion), topography, soil erodibility, and land use/management. The soil erodibility factor (K) is primarily based upon inherent soil properties (those which change slowly or not at all) such as soil texture and organic matter content, while the cover/management factor (C) is based on several parameters including biological soil crust (BSC) cover. We examined the effect of two more precise indicators of BSC development, chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharides (EPS), upon soil stability, which is closely inversely related to soil loss in an erosion event. To examine the relative influence of these elements of the C factor to the K factor, we conducted our investigation across eight strongly differing soils in the 0.8 million ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. We found that within every soil group, chlorophyll a was a moderate to excellent predictor of soil stability (R2 = 0.21-0.75), and consistently better than EPS. Using a simple structural equation model, we explained over half of the variance in soil stability and determined that the direct effect of chlorophyll a was 3?? more important than soil group in determining soil stability. Our results suggest that, holding the intensity of erosive forces constant, the acceleration or reduction of soil erosion in arid landscapes will primarily be an outcome of management practices. This is because the factor which is most influential to soil erosion, BSC development, is also among the most manageable, implying that water erosion in drylands has a solution. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Sulfur in the Early Martian Atmosphere Revisited: Experiments with a 3-D Global Climate Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerber, L.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.
2013-09-01
Data returned from the surface of Mars during the 1970s revealed intriguing geological evidence for a warmer and wetter early martian climate. Dendritic valley networks were discovered by Mariner 9 on ancient Noachian terrain [1], indicating that liquid water had flowed across the surface in the distant past. Since this time, geological investigations into early Martian history have attempted to ascertain the nature and level of activity of the early Martian hydrological cycle [e.g. 2-5] while atmospheric modeling efforts have focused on how the atmosphere could be warmed to temperatures great enough to sustain such activity [see 6-7 for reviews]. Geological and spectroscopic investigations have refined the history and chronology of Noachian Mars over time, and circulation of liquid water has been invoked to explain several spatially and temporally distinct morphological and chemical signatures found in the geological record. Detections of iron and magnesium-rich clays are widespread in the oldest Martian terrains, suggesting a period of pH-neutral aqueous alteration [e.g., 8]. Valley network incision also took place during the Noachian period [9]. Some chains of river valleys and craters lakes extend for thousands of kilometers, suggesting temperatures at least clement enough for sustained ice-covered flow [3,10]. The commencement of valley network incision is not well constrained, but the period of Mg/Fe clay formation appears to have ended before the termination of valley network formation, as the visible fluvial systems appear to have remobilized existing clays rather than forming them [5,8]. There is also evidence that the cessation of valley network formation was abrupt [11]. Towards the end of the Noachian, erosion rates appear to have been significantly higher than during subsequent periods, a process that has also been attributed to aqueous processes [12]. A period of sulfate formation followed, likely characterized by acidic, evaporitic playa environments
Chatterjee, Ankita; Kundu, Sudip
2015-01-01
Chlorophyll is one of the most important pigments present in green plants and rice is one of the major food crops consumed worldwide. We curated the existing genome scale metabolic model (GSM) of rice leaf by incorporating new compartment, reactions and transporters. We used this modified GSM to elucidate how the chlorophyll is synthesized in a leaf through a series of bio-chemical reactions spanned over different organelles using inorganic macronutrients and light energy. We predicted the essential reactions and the associated genes of chlorophyll synthesis and validated against the existing experimental evidences. Further, ammonia is known to be the preferred source of nitrogen in rice paddy fields. The ammonia entering into the plant is assimilated in the root and leaf. The focus of the present work is centered on rice leaf metabolism. We studied the relative importance of ammonia transporters through the chloroplast and the cytosol and their interlink with other intracellular transporters. Ammonia assimilation in the leaves takes place by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) which is present in the cytosol (GS1) and chloroplast (GS2). Our results provided possible explanation why GS2 mutants show normal growth under minimum photorespiration and appear chlorotic when exposed to air. PMID:26443104
Chatterjee, Ankita; Kundu, Sudip
2015-01-01
Chlorophyll is one of the most important pigments present in green plants and rice is one of the major food crops consumed worldwide. We curated the existing genome scale metabolic model (GSM) of rice leaf by incorporating new compartment, reactions and transporters. We used this modified GSM to elucidate how the chlorophyll is synthesized in a leaf through a series of bio-chemical reactions spanned over different organelles using inorganic macronutrients and light energy. We predicted the essential reactions and the associated genes of chlorophyll synthesis and validated against the existing experimental evidences. Further, ammonia is known to be the preferred source of nitrogen in rice paddy fields. The ammonia entering into the plant is assimilated in the root and leaf. The focus of the present work is centered on rice leaf metabolism. We studied the relative importance of ammonia transporters through the chloroplast and the cytosol and their interlink with other intracellular transporters. Ammonia assimilation in the leaves takes place by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) which is present in the cytosol (GS1) and chloroplast (GS2). Our results provided possible explanation why GS2 mutants show normal growth under minimum photorespiration and appear chlorotic when exposed to air. PMID:26443104
Salis, Andrea; Ninham, Barry W
2014-11-01
Specific effects of electrolytes have posed a challenge since the 1880's. The pioneering work was that of Franz Hofmeister who studied specific salt induced protein precipitation. These effects are the rule rather the exception and are ubiquitous in chemistry and biology. Conventional electrostatic theories (Debye-Hückel, DLVO, etc.) cannot explain such effects. Over the past decades it has been recognised that additional quantum mechanical dispersion forces with associated hydration effects acting on ions are missing from theory. In parallel Collins has proposed a phenomenological set of rules (the law of matching water affinities, LMWA) which explain and bring to order the order of ion-ion and ion-surface site interactions at a qualitative level. The two approaches appear to conflict. Although the need for inclusion of quantum dispersion forces in one form or another is not questioned, the modelling has often been misleading and inappropriate. It does not properly describe the chemical nature (kosmotropic/chaotropic or hard/soft) of the interacting species. The success of the LMWA rules lies in the fact that they do. Here we point to the way that the two apparently opposing approaches might be reconciled. Notwithstanding, there are more challenges, which deal with the effect of dissolved gas and its connection to 'hydrophobic' interactions, the problem of water at different temperatures and 'water structure' in the presence of solutes. They take us to another dimension that requires the rebuilding of theoretical foundations.
Chatterjee, Ankita; Kundu, Sudip
2015-10-07
Chlorophyll is one of the most important pigments present in green plants and rice is one of the major food crops consumed worldwide. We curated the existing genome scale metabolic model (GSM) of rice leaf by incorporating new compartment, reactions and transporters. We used this modified GSM to elucidate how the chlorophyll is synthesized in a leaf through a series of bio-chemical reactions spanned over different organelles using inorganic macronutrients and light energy. We predicted the essential reactions and the associated genes of chlorophyll synthesis and validated against the existing experimental evidences. Further, ammonia is known to be the preferred source of nitrogen in rice paddy fields. The ammonia entering into the plant is assimilated in the root and leaf. The focus of the present work is centered on rice leaf metabolism. We studied the relative importance of ammonia transporters through the chloroplast and the cytosol and their interlink with other intracellular transporters. Ammonia assimilation in the leaves takes place by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) which is present in the cytosol (GS1) and chloroplast (GS2). Our results provided possible explanation why GS2 mutants show normal growth under minimum photorespiration and appear chlorotic when exposed to air.
THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS
Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran; Winebarger, Amy R.; Mok, Yung E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov
2013-08-20
The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops.
EQUATION OF STATE AND HUGONIOT LOCUS FOR POROUS MATERIALS: P-ALPHA MODEL REVISITED
R. MENIKOFF; ET AL
1999-08-01
Foams, porous solids and granular materials have a characteristic Hugoniot locus that for weak shocks is concave in the (particle velocity, shock velocity)-plane. An equation of state (EOS) that has this property can be constructed implicitly from a Helmholtz free energy of the form {Psi}{sub s}(V,T,{phi}) = {Psi}{sub s}(V,T)+B({phi}) where the equilibrium volume fraction {phi}{sub eq} is determined by minimizing {Psi}, i.e., the condition {partial_derivative}{sub {psi}} {Psi} = 0. For many cases, a Hayes EOS for the pure solid {Psi}{sub s}(V,T) is adequate. This provides a thermodynamically consistent framework for the P-{alpha} model. For this form of EOS the volume fraction has a similar effect to an endothermic reaction in that the partial Hugoniot loci with fixed {psi} are shifted to the left in the (V,P)-plane with increasing f. The equilibrium volume fraction can then be chosen to match the concavity of the principal Hugoniot locus. An example is presented for the polymer estane. A small porosity of only 1.4 percent is required to match the experimental concavity in the Hugoniot data. This type of EOS can also be used to obtain the so-called ''universal'' Hugoniot for liquids.
Revisiting 2D numerical models for the 19th century outbursts of η Carinae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, R. F.; Villa, A. M.; Gómez, G. C.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; de La Fuente, E.
2010-02-01
We present here new results of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the eruptive events of the 1840s (the great) and the 1890s (the minor) eruptions suffered by the massive star η Carinae (Car). The two bipolar nebulae commonly known as the Homunculus and the little Homunculus (LH) were formed from the interaction of these eruptive events with the underlying stellar wind. We assume here an interacting, non-spherical multiple-phase wind scenario to explain the shape and the kinematics of both Homunculi, but adopt a more realistic parametrization of the phases of the wind. During the 1890s eruptive event, the outflow speed decreased for a short period of time. This fact suggests that the LH is formed when the eruption ends, from the impact of the post-outburst η Car wind (that follows the 1890s event) with the eruptive flow (rather than by the collision of the eruptive flow with the pre-outburst wind, as claimed in previous models; González et al.). Our simulations reproduce quite well the shape and the observed expansion speed of the large Homunculus. The LH (which is embedded within the large Homunculus) becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and develop filamentary structures that resemble the spatial features observed in the polar caps. In addition, we find that the interior cavity between the two Homunculi is partially filled by material that is expelled during the decades following the great eruption. This result may be connected with the observed double-shell structure in the polar lobes of the η Car nebula. Finally, as in previous work, we find the formation of tenuous, equatorial, high-speed features that seem to be related to the observed equatorial skirt of η Car.
The global polytropic model for the solar and jovian systems revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geroyannis, V.; Valvi, F.; Dallas, T.
2013-09-01
The "global polytropic model" (Geroyannis) 1993 [P1]; Geroyannis and Valvi 1994 [P2]) is based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium for the solar/jovian system, described by the Lane-Emden differential equation. A polytropic sphere of polytropic index n and radius R1 represents the central component S1 (Sun/Jupiter) of a polytropic configuration with further components the polytropic spherical shells S2, S3, ..., defined by the pairs of radii (R1,R2), (R2,R3), ..., respectively. R1, R2, R3, ..., are the roots of the real part Re(theta(R)) of the complex Lane-Emden function theta(R). Each polytropic shell is assumed to be an appropriate place for a planet/satellite to be "born" and "live". This scenario has been studied numerically for the case of the solar system (P1) and the jovian system (P2). In the present paper, the Lane-Emden differential equation is solved numerically in the complex plane by using the Fortran code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012; modified Runge-Kutta- Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). We include in our numerical study some trans-Neptunian objects. We emphasize on computing distances and comparing with previous results. REFERENCES: V.S. Geroyannis 1993, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 61, 131-139. V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 1994, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 64, 217-225. V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.
Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modelling Revisited: Controlling for Activation Base Rates
Langner, Robert; Rottschy, Claudia; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.
2014-01-01
Co-activation of distinct brain regions is a measure of functional interaction, or connectivity, between those regions. The co-activation pattern of a given region can be investigated using seed-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data stored in databases such as BrainMap. This method reveals inter-regional functional connectivity by determining brain regions that are consistently co-activated with a given region of interest (the “seed”) across a broad range of experiments. In current implementations of this meta-analytic connectivity modelling (MACM), significant spatial convergence (i.e. consistent co-activation) is distinguished from noise by comparing it against an unbiased null-distribution of random spatial associations between experiments according to which all grey-matter voxels have the same chance of convergence. As the a priori probability of finding activation in different voxels markedly differs across the brain, computing such a quasi-rectangular null-distribution renders the detection of significant convergence more likely in those voxels that are frequently activated. Here, we propose and test a modified MACM approach that takes this activation frequency bias into account. In this new specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE) algorithm, a null-distribution is generated that reflects the base rate of reporting activation in any given voxel and thus equalizes the a priori chance of finding across-study convergence in each voxel of the brain. Using four exemplary seed regions (right visual area V4, left anterior insula, right intraparietal sulcus, and subgenual cingulum), our tests corroborated the enhanced specificity of the modified algorithm, indicating that SCALE may be especially useful for delineating distinct core networks of co-activation. PMID:24945668
Stereochemical recognition revisited: A step-specific model for shape control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dove, P.; de Yoreo, J.; Orme, C.; Noy, A.; Davis, K.; Qiu, R.; Kurimoto, M.; Talley, C.; Kahr, B.
2002-12-01
By utilizing small molecules, peptides, and proteins to modulate crystal nucleation and growth, living organisms produce single crystals and crystal composites that provide materials solutions to their functional requirements. In doing so, they exhibit control over the location, phase and crystallographic orientation of the nuclei, as well as the morphology and kinetics of the growing crystals. A common paradigm for interpreting this phenomenon is that the stereochemistry of the growth modifiers is matched to that of a particular crystallographic plane that would not naturally be expressed during nucleation and growth in pure environments. This paradigm is generally referred to as "stereochemical recognition". Using in situ AFM, we have investigated growth in a number of crystal-impurity systems. Our results suggest that, while control over nucleation can be understood within this paradigm, to understand the controls on growth kinetics and morphology it should be rejected in favor of a model that emphasizes the importance of step-specific impurity interactions on existing faces. The systems examined include carbonates, phosphates, oxalates, and pthalates, grown in the presence of inorganic ions, amino acids, organic dyes, and proteins. We show that, in all of these systems, the growth kinetics and resulting crystal habit are defined by modifications to existing atomic steps and that these modifications vary dramatically depending on the step direction, even on a single crystal face. Furthermore, we show that the addition of chiral molecules can be used to break the natural crystal symmetry and produce right- and left-handed crystals. We show that while the exact mechanism of growth modification is different in each system we have examined, the one feature that these systems have in common is that the important molecular-scale interaction that gives rise to growth modulation is between the impurity and a specific set of steps. This work was performed under the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.
2016-03-01
Solar wind observational studies have emphasized that the solar wind plasma data is bounded by the mirror and firehose instabilities, and it is often believed that these instabilities are of a purely kinetic nature. The simplest fluid model that generalizes magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic temperatures is the Chew-Goldberger-Low model (CGL). Here we briefly revisit the CGL description and discuss its (otherwise well-documented) linear firehose and mirror instability thresholds; namely that the firehose instability threshold is identical to the one found from linear kinetic theory and that the mirror threshold contains a factor of 6 error. We consider a simple higher-order fluid model with time dependent heat flux equations and show that the mirror instability threshold is correctly reproduced. We also present fully nonlinear three-dimensional simulations of freely decaying turbulence for the Hall-CGL model with isothermal electrons. The spatial resolution of these simulations is 5123 and the formation of a spectral break in magnetic and velocity field spectra around the proton inertial length is found.
Revisiting the climate impacts of cool roofs around the globe using an Earth system model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George
2016-08-01
Solar reflective ‘cool roofs’ absorb less sunlight than traditional dark roofs, reducing solar heat gain, and decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the atmosphere. Widespread adoption of cool roofs could therefore reduce temperatures in urban areas, partially mitigating the urban heat island effect, and contributing to reversing the local impacts of global climate change. The impacts of cool roofs on global climate remain debated by past research and are uncertain. Using a sophisticated Earth system model, the impacts of cool roofs on climate are investigated at urban, continental, and global scales. We find that global adoption of cool roofs in urban areas reduces urban heat islands everywhere, with an annual- and global-mean decrease from 1.6 to 1.2 K. Decreases are statistically significant, except for some areas in Africa and Mexico where urban fraction is low, and some high-latitude areas during wintertime. Analysis of the surface and TOA energy budget in urban regions at continental-scale shows cool roofs causing increases in solar radiation leaving the Earth–atmosphere system in most regions around the globe, though the presence of aerosols and clouds are found to partially offset increases in upward radiation. Aerosols dampen cool roof-induced increases in upward solar radiation, ranging from 4% in the United States to 18% in more polluted China. Adoption of cool roofs also causes statistically significant reductions in surface air temperatures in urbanized regions of China (‑0.11 ± 0.10 K) and the United States (‑0.14 ± 0.12 K); India and Europe show statistically insignificant changes. Though past research has disagreed on whether widespread adoption of cool roofs would cool or warm global climate, these studies have lacked analysis on the statistical significance of global temperature changes. The research presented here indicates that adoption of cool roofs around the globe would lead to statistically insignificant reductions in
Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian
2016-08-01
In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ˜25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ˜10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ˜30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.
The Ti-Mn system revisited: experimental investigation and thermodynamic modelling.
Khan, A U; Brož, P; Premović, M; Pavlů, J; Vřeštál, J; Yan, X; Maccio, D; Saccone, A; Giester, G; Rogl, P
2016-08-17
As the Ti-Mn phase diagram is part of numerous ternary and higher order systems of technological importance, the present paper defines phase relations which have been experimentally established throughout this work from 800 °C to the melting range based on Differential Thermal Analyses (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction, metallography and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) techniques on ∼50 alloys, which were prepared by arc melting or high frequency melting under high purity argon starting from freshly cleaned metal ingots. Novel compounds were identified and reaction isotherms were redefined accordingly. In the Ti-rich region a novel compound TiMn was detected, sandwiched between the known phases: TiMn1-x (∼45 at% Mn) and TiMn1+x (∼55 at% Mn). In the Mn-rich region the hitherto unknown crystal structure of TiMn∼3 was solved from X-ray single crystal diffraction data and found to be of a unique structure type Ti6(Ti1-xMnx)6Mn25 (x = 0.462; space group Pbam (#55); a = 0.79081(3) nm, b = 2.58557(9) nm, c = 0.47931(2) nm), which consists of two consecutive layers of the hexagonal MgZn2-type Laves phase (TiMn2) and a combined layer of alternate structure blocks of MgZn2 type and Zr4Al3 type. Whereas TiMn can be considered as a line compound (solubility range <∼1 at%), the homogeneity regions of the Ti-Mn compounds are significant (determined by EPMA): TiMn1-x (44.0 to 46.6 at% Mn), TiMn1+x (54.6 to 56.3 at% Mn), Ti1+xMn2-x (MgZn2-type, 59 to 69 at% Mn at 1000 °C: -0.08 < x < 0.23), TiMn∼3 (unique type; 74 to 76.5 at% Mn) and TiMn∼4 (R-phase: Ti8(TixMn1-x)6Mn39, 80 to 84 at% Ti). Supported by ab initio calculations of the ground state energy for the Laves phase, the new experimental results enabled thermodynamic modelling of the entire Ti-Mn phase diagram providing a complete and novel set of thermodynamic data thus providing a sound basis for future thermodynamic predictions of higher order Ti-Mn-X-Y systems. PMID:27498605
Revisiting the climate impacts of cool roofs around the globe using an Earth system model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George
2016-08-01
Solar reflective ‘cool roofs’ absorb less sunlight than traditional dark roofs, reducing solar heat gain, and decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the atmosphere. Widespread adoption of cool roofs could therefore reduce temperatures in urban areas, partially mitigating the urban heat island effect, and contributing to reversing the local impacts of global climate change. The impacts of cool roofs on global climate remain debated by past research and are uncertain. Using a sophisticated Earth system model, the impacts of cool roofs on climate are investigated at urban, continental, and global scales. We find that global adoption of cool roofs in urban areas reduces urban heat islands everywhere, with an annual- and global-mean decrease from 1.6 to 1.2 K. Decreases are statistically significant, except for some areas in Africa and Mexico where urban fraction is low, and some high-latitude areas during wintertime. Analysis of the surface and TOA energy budget in urban regions at continental-scale shows cool roofs causing increases in solar radiation leaving the Earth-atmosphere system in most regions around the globe, though the presence of aerosols and clouds are found to partially offset increases in upward radiation. Aerosols dampen cool roof-induced increases in upward solar radiation, ranging from 4% in the United States to 18% in more polluted China. Adoption of cool roofs also causes statistically significant reductions in surface air temperatures in urbanized regions of China (-0.11 ± 0.10 K) and the United States (-0.14 ± 0.12 K); India and Europe show statistically insignificant changes. Though past research has disagreed on whether widespread adoption of cool roofs would cool or warm global climate, these studies have lacked analysis on the statistical significance of global temperature changes. The research presented here indicates that adoption of cool roofs around the globe would lead to statistically insignificant reductions in global mean
Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian
2016-08-01
In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ∼25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ∼10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ∼30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.
The Ti-Mn system revisited: experimental investigation and thermodynamic modelling.
Khan, A U; Brož, P; Premović, M; Pavlů, J; Vřeštál, J; Yan, X; Maccio, D; Saccone, A; Giester, G; Rogl, P
2016-08-17
As the Ti-Mn phase diagram is part of numerous ternary and higher order systems of technological importance, the present paper defines phase relations which have been experimentally established throughout this work from 800 °C to the melting range based on Differential Thermal Analyses (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction, metallography and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) techniques on ∼50 alloys, which were prepared by arc melting or high frequency melting under high purity argon starting from freshly cleaned metal ingots. Novel compounds were identified and reaction isotherms were redefined accordingly. In the Ti-rich region a novel compound TiMn was detected, sandwiched between the known phases: TiMn1-x (∼45 at% Mn) and TiMn1+x (∼55 at% Mn). In the Mn-rich region the hitherto unknown crystal structure of TiMn∼3 was solved from X-ray single crystal diffraction data and found to be of a unique structure type Ti6(Ti1-xMnx)6Mn25 (x = 0.462; space group Pbam (#55); a = 0.79081(3) nm, b = 2.58557(9) nm, c = 0.47931(2) nm), which consists of two consecutive layers of the hexagonal MgZn2-type Laves phase (TiMn2) and a combined layer of alternate structure blocks of MgZn2 type and Zr4Al3 type. Whereas TiMn can be considered as a line compound (solubility range <∼1 at%), the homogeneity regions of the Ti-Mn compounds are significant (determined by EPMA): TiMn1-x (44.0 to 46.6 at% Mn), TiMn1+x (54.6 to 56.3 at% Mn), Ti1+xMn2-x (MgZn2-type, 59 to 69 at% Mn at 1000 °C: -0.08 < x < 0.23), TiMn∼3 (unique type; 74 to 76.5 at% Mn) and TiMn∼4 (R-phase: Ti8(TixMn1-x)6Mn39, 80 to 84 at% Ti). Supported by ab initio calculations of the ground state energy for the Laves phase, the new experimental results enabled thermodynamic modelling of the entire Ti-Mn phase diagram providing a complete and novel set of thermodynamic data thus providing a sound basis for future thermodynamic predictions of higher order Ti-Mn-X-Y systems.
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization II: Massive fermions
Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2008-11-15
We consider the perturbative computation of the N-point function of chiral densities of massive free fermions at finite temperature within the thermofield dynamics approach. The infinite series in the mass parameter for the N-point functions are computed in the fermionic formulation and compared with the corresponding perturbative series in the interaction parameter in the bosonized thermofield formulation. Thereby we establish in thermofield dynamics the formal equivalence of the massive free fermion theory with the sine-Gordon thermofield model for a particular value of the sine-Gordon parameter. We extend the thermofield bosonization to include the massive Thirring model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Han, Min Cheol; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Han Sung; Grazia Pia, Maria; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg
2014-06-01
A systematic review of methods and data for the Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions is in progress: it concerns a wide set of theoretical modeling approaches and data libraries available for this purpose. Models and data libraries are assessed quantitatively with respect to an extensive collection of experimental measurements documented in the literature to determine their accuracy; this evaluation exploits rigorous statistical analysis methods. The computational performance of the associated modeling algorithms is evaluated as well. An overview of the assessment of photon interaction models and results of the experimental validation are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbach, Ingo; Plapp, Mathis
2012-11-01
Zener's model of pearlite transformation in steels can be viewed as the prototype of many microstructure evolution models in materials science. It links principles of thermodynamics and kinetics to the scale of the microstructure. In addition it solves a very practical problem: How the hardness of steel is correlated to the conditions of processing. Although the model is well established since the 1950s, quantitative explanation of growth kinetics was missing until very recently. The present paper will shortly review the classical model of pearlite transformation. Zener's conjecture of maximum entropy production will be annotated by modern theoretical and experimental considerations of a band of stable (sometimes oscillating) states around the state of maximum entropy production. Finally, an explanation of the growth kinetics observed in experiments is proposed based on diffusion fluxes driven by stress gradients due to large transformation strain.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richert, Alex; Binder, P. -M.
2011-01-01
The siphon is a very useful example of early technology, the operation of which has long been well understood. A recent article makes the claim that established beliefs regarding this device are incorrect and proposes a "chain model" in which intermolecular forces within the fluid play a large role while atmospheric pressure does not. We have…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christiansen, H. R.; Cunha, M. S.; Tahim, M. O.
2010-10-01
We analytically find the exact propagation modes of the electromagnetic and the Kalb-Ramond fields together in a five-dimensional curved space-time. The existence and localization of gauge particles into our four-dimensional world (4D) is studied in detail on a brane-world scenario in which two gauge fields interact with a dilaton and a gravitational background. The coupling to the dilaton is different in each case causing the splitting between gauge spectra. The gauge-field zero-modes and an infinite tower of Kaluza-Klein massive states are analytically obtained. Relevant conditions on the dilaton coupling constant are found in order to identify with precision every finite tensor and vector eigenstate in the theory. An exact quantization condition on the whole mass spectrum, depending on the dilaton coupling constant and the bulk Planck mass, is inherited from the extra-dimension. This allows finding an exact rule to prevent tachyons in the theory and, by the same token, predicting a possible tensor zero-mode in 4D world. We also show that KK massive-modes contributions onto 4D physics are strongly suppressed.
P., Henry
2008-11-20
A recent article in which John Searle claims to refute dualism is examined from a scientific perspective. John Searle begins his recent article 'Dualism Revisited' by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective. Scientific physical theories contain two kinds of descriptions: (1) Descriptions of our empirical findings, expressed in an every-day language that allows us communicate to each other our sensory experiences pertaining to what we have done and what we have learned; and (2) Descriptions of a theoretical model, expressed in a mathematical language that allows us to communicate to each other certain ideas that exist in our mathematical imaginations, and that are believed to represent, within our streams of consciousness, certain aspects of reality that we deem to exist independently of their being perceived by any human observer. These two parts of our scientific description correspond to the two aspects of our general contemporary dualistic understanding of the total reality in which we are imbedded, namely the empirical-mental aspect and the theoretical-physical aspect. The duality question is whether this general dualistic understanding of ourselves should be regarded as false in some important philosophical or scientific sense.
Lorentz violation naturalness revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano
2016-06-01
We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.
Multinomial pattern matching revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.
2015-05-01
Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.
Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee
2016-09-14
Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model. PMID:27506245
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
2013-01-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick [Psychological Review, 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve remote associative elements, which can be combined to form creative ideas. This study aimed at revisiting Mednick’s model and providing an extensive test of its hypotheses. A continuous free association task was employed and association performance was compared between groups high and low in creativity, as defined by divergent thinking ability and self-report measures. We found that associative hierarchies do not differ between low and high creative people, but creative people showed higher associative fluency and more uncommon responses. This suggests that creativity may not be related to a special organization of associative memory, but rather to a more effective way of accessing its contents. The findings add to the evidence associating creativity with highly adaptive executive functioning. PMID:24532853
Chaos and order in non-integrable model field theories
Campbell, D.K.; Peyrard, M.
1989-01-01
We illustrate the presence of chaos and order in non-integrable, classical field theories, which we view as many-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian nonlinear dynamical systems. For definiteness, we focus on the {chi}{sup 4} theory and compare and contrast it with the celebrated integrable sine-Gordon equation. We introduce and investigate two specific problems: the interactions of solitary kink''-like waves in non-integrable theories; and the existence of stable breather'' solutions -- spatially-localized, time-periodic nonlinear waves -- in the {chi}{sup 4} theory. For the former problem we review the rather well developed understanding, based on a combination of computational simulations and heuristic analytic models, of the presence of a sequence of resonances in the kink-antikink interactions as a function of the relative velocity of the interaction. For the latter problem we discuss first the case of the continuum {chi}{sup 4} theory. We discuss the multiple-scale asymptotic perturbation theory arguments which first suggested the existence of {chi}{sup 4} breathers, then the subsequent discovery of terms beyond-all-orders'' in the perturbation expansion which destroy the putative breather, and finally, the recent rigorous proofs of the non-existence of breathers in the continuum theory. We then present some very recent numerical results on the existence of breathers in discrete {chi}{sup 4} theories which show an intricate interweaving of stable and unstable breather solutions on finite discrete lattices. We develop a heuristic theoretical explanation of the regions of stability and instability.
Model of Deep Non-Volcanic Tremor in Episodic Tremor and Slip Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershenzon, N. I.; Bambakidis, G.
2014-12-01
Bursts of tremor accompany a moving slip pulse in Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events. The sources of this non-volcanic tremor (NVT) are largely unknown. We have developed a model describing the mechanism of NTV generation. According to this model, NTV is a reflection of resonant-type oscillations excited in a fault at certain depth ranges. From a mathematical viewpoint, tremor (phonons) and slip pulses (solitons) are two different solutions of the sine-Gordon equation describing frictional processes inside a fault. In an ETS event, a moving slip pulse generates tremor due to interaction with structural heterogeneities in a fault and to failures of small asperities (see Figure). Observed tremor parameters, such as central frequency and frequency attenuation curve, are associated with fault parameters and conditions, such as elastic modulus, effective normal stress, penetration hardness and friction. Model prediction of NTV frequency content is consistent with observations. In the framework of this model it is possible to explain the complicated pattern of tremor migration, including rapid tremor propagation and reverse tremor migration. Migration along the strike direction is associated with movement of the slip pulse. Rapid tremor propagation in the slip-parallel direction is associated with movement of kinks along a 2D slip pulse. A slip pulse, pinned in some places, can fragment into several pulses, causing tremor associated with some of these pulse fragments to move opposite to the main propagation direction. The model predicts that the frequency content of tremor during an ETS event is slightly different from the frequency content of ambient tremor and tremor triggered by earthquakes. Figure 1. The slip velocity w of a slip pulse in time-space (x-t) coordinates moving in (a) ideal substrate and (b) substrate with a structural heterogeneity. Pulse is driven by constant external shear stress. Figure 1(b) shows that the pulse oscillates about an obstacle
Reflection Relations and Fermionic Basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negro, S.; Smirnov, F.
2013-12-01
There are two approaches to computing the one-point functions for sine-Gordon model in infinite volume. One is based on the use of the reflection relations, this is a bootstrap type procedure. Another is based on using the fermionic basis which originated in the study of lattice model. We show that the two procedures are deeply interrelated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezer, Tal
2016-08-01
The difficulty of simulating a realistic Gulf Stream (GS) that separates from the coast at Cape Hatteras has troubled numerical ocean modelers for a long time, and the problem is evident in different models, from the early models of the 1980s to the modern models of today. The source of the problem is not completely understood yet, since GS simulations are sensitive to many different factors, such as numerical parameterization, model grid, treatment of topography and forcing fields. A curious result of early models is that models with terrain-following vertical grids (e.g., "sigma" or "s" coordinates) seem to achieve a better GS separation than z-level models of similar resolution, so the impact of the vertical grid type on GS simulations is revisited here. An idealized generalized coordinate numerical model is used to compare between a sigma-coordinate grid and a z-level grid while maintaining the same numerical code and model parameters. Short-term diagnostic-prognostic calculations focus on the initial dynamic adjustment of the GS from a given initial condition and imposed boundary conditions. In diagnostic calculations, wherein the three-dimensional flow field is adjusted to time-invariant temperature and salinity data, the GS is quite realistic independent of the grid type. However, when switching to prognostic calculations, the GS in the z-level model tends to immediately develop an unrealistic GS branch that continues along the continental slope instead of separating from the coast at Cape Hatteras. The GS is more realistic in either a sigma-coordinate model or in a z-level model with a vertical wall replacing the continental slope. Increasing the vertical resolution in the z-level model reduces numerical noise, but it does not solve the GS separation problem. Vorticity balance analysis shows that the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity and bottom Relief (JEBAR) and its associated bottom pressure torque are very sensitive to the choice of vertical grid. A stepped
The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Busch, Brigitta
2012-01-01
This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic…
A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ganci, Salvatore
2012-01-01
This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…
Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bolozky, Shmuel
2009-01-01
In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…
Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria
The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...
Revisiting Curriculum Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deng, Zongyi
2011-01-01
This article analyzes the notion of curriculum potential by revisiting the ideas of Miriam Ben-Peretz and Joseph Schwab. Invoking the German "Didaktik" tradition and by way of a curriculum-making framework, the paper argues that interpreting curriculum materials for curriculum potential requires a careful analysis and unpacking of the meanings and…
Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin
2013-01-01
An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, J. A.; Sharma, I.
2000-10-01
Motivated by the recent detection of complex rotational states for several asteroids and comets, as well as by the ongoing and planned spacecraft missions to such bodies, which should allow their rotational states to be accurately determined, we revisit the problem of the nutational damping of small solar system bodies. The nutational damping of asteroids has been approximately analyzed by Prendergast (1958), Burns and Safronov (1973), and Efroimsky and Lazarian (2000). Many other similar dynamical studies concern planetary wobble decay (e.g., Peale 1973; Yoder and Ward 1979), interstellar dust grain alignment (e.g., Purcell 1979; Lazarian and Efroimsky 1999) and damping of Earth's Chandler wobble (Lambeck 1980). Recall that rotational energy loss for an isolated body aligns the body's angular momentum vector with its axis of maximum inertia. Assuming anelastic dissipation, simple dimensional analysis determines a functional form of the damping timescale, on which all the above authors agree. However, the numerical coefficients of published results are claimed to differ by orders of magnitude. Differences have been ascribed to absent physics, to solutions that fail to satisfy boundary conditions perfectly, and to unphysical choices for the Q parameter. The true reasons for the discrepancy are unclear since, despite contrary claims, the full 3D problem (nutational damping of an anelastic ellipsoid) is analytically intractable so far. To move the debate forward, we compare the solution of a related 2D problem to the expressions found previously, and we present results from a finite element model. On this basis, we feel that previous rates for the decay of asteroidal tumbling (Harris 1994), derived from Burns and Safronov (1973), are likely to be accurate, at least to a factor of a few. Funded by NASA.
Quasi-integrability in the modified defocusing non-linear Schrödinger model and dark solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blas, H.; Zambrano, M.
2016-03-01
The concept of quasi-integrability has been examined in the context of deformations of the defocusing non-linear Schrödinger model (NLS). Our results show that the quasi-integrability concept, recently discussed in the context of deformations of the sine-Gordon, Bullough-Dodd and focusing NLS models, holds for the modified defocusing NLS model with dark soliton solutions and it exhibits the new feature of an infinite sequence of alternating conserved and asymptotically conserved charges. For the special case of two dark soliton solutions, where the field components are eigenstates of a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved in the scattering process of the solitons. Such results are obtained through analytical and numerical methods, and employ adaptations of algebraic techniques used in integrable field theories. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the scattering of dark solitons for the cubic-quintic NLS model with potential V=η {I}^2-in /6{I}^3 and the saturable type potential satisfying [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], with a deformation parameter ɛ ∈ [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and I = | ψ|2. The issue of the renormalization of the charges and anomalies, and their (quasi)conservation laws are properly addressed. The saturable NLS supports elastic scattering of two soliton solutions for a wide range of values of { η, ɛ, q}. Our results may find potential applications in several areas of non-linear science, such as the Bose-Einstein condensation.
Asymptotic behavior of dispersive waves in a spiral structure at large times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, V. V.
2016-04-01
In the framework of the sine-Gordon integrable model for spiral magnetic structures, we investigate the behavior at large times of a weakly nonlinear dispersive wave field generated by a spatially local initial excitation of the structure. The method used is based on a direct asymptotic analysis of the corresponding matrix of the Riemann problem on the torus.
Orthopaedic service lines-revisited.
Patterson, Cheryl
2008-01-01
This article revisits the application of orthopaedic service lines from early introduction and growth of this organizational approach in the 1980s, through the 1990s, and into the current decade. The author has experienced and worked in various service-line structures through these three decades, as well as the preservice-line era of 1970s orthopaedics. Past lessons learned during earlier phases and then current trends and analysis by industry experts are summarized briefly, with indication given of the future for service lines. Variation versus consistency of certain elements in service-line definitions and in operational models is discussed. Main components of service-line structures and typical processes are described briefly, along with a more detailed section on the service-line director/manager role. Current knowledge contained here will help guide the reader to more "out-of-the-box" thinking toward comprehensive orthopaedic centers of excellence.
Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kvernbekk, Tone
2012-01-01
In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathi, Albert
2015-07-01
In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.
Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark
2001-01-01
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moresi, Louis
2015-04-01
Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The
Enceladus' tidal dissipation revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobie, Gabriel; Behounkova, Marie; Choblet, Gael; Cadek, Ondrej; Soucek, Ondrej
2016-10-01
A series of chemical and physical evidence indicates that the intense activity at Enceladus' South Pole is related to a subsurface salty water reservoir underneath the tectonically active ice shell. The detection of a significant libration implies that this water reservoir is global and that the average ice shell thickness is about 20-25km (Thomas et al. 2016). The interpretation of gravity and topography data further predicts large variations in ice shell thickness, resulting in a shell potentially thinner than 5 km in the South Polar Terrain (SPT) (Cadek et al. 2016). Such an ice shell structure requires a very strong heat source in the interior, with a focusing mechanism at the SPT. Thermal diffusion through the ice shell implies that at least 25-30 GW is lost into space by passive diffusion, implying a very efficient dissipation mechanism in Enceladus' interior to maintain such an ocean/ice configuration thermally stable.In order to determine in which conditions such a large dissipation power may be generated, we model the tidal response of Enceladus including variable ice shell thickness. For the rock core, we consider a wide range of rheological parameters representative of water-saturated porous rock materials. We demonstrate that the thinning toward the South Pole leads to a strong increase in heat production in the ice shell, with a optimal thickness obtained between 1.5 and 3 km, depending on the assumed ice viscosity. Our results imply that the heat production in the ice shell within the SPT may be sufficient to counterbalance the heat loss by diffusion and to power eruption activity. However, outside the SPT, a strong dissipation in the porous core is required to counterbalance the diffusive heat loss. We show that about 20 GW can be generated in the core, for an effective viscosity of 1012 Pa.s, which is comparable to the effective viscosity estimated in water-saturated glacial tills on Earth. We will discuss the implications of this revisited tidal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich
2008-01-01
The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…
Revisiting Feminist Identity Development Theory, Research, and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moradi, Bonnie; Subich, Linda Mezydlo; Phillips, Julia C.
2002-01-01
The model of feminist identity development proposed by Downing and Roush in 1985 is revisited as a potentially useful framework in counseling psychology theory, research, and practice. An examination of the historical context from which the model arose illustrates how it advanced theory in the psychology of women. A critical review of the extant…
Revisiting the Continua of Biliteracy: International and Critical Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hornberger, Nancy H.; Skilton-Sylvester, Ellen
2000-01-01
The continua model of biliteracy offers a framework to situate research, teaching, and language planning in linguistically diverse settings. The continua model is revisited from the perspective of international cases of educational policy and practice in linguistically diverse settings, and from a critical perspective that seeks to make explicit…
Radiolytic Cryovolcanism Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Wesenberg, R. P.
2013-12-01
Active geysers of water vapor and ice grains from the south pole of Enceladus are not yet definitively explained in terms of energy sources and processes. Other instances of hot (Io) and cold (Mars, Triton) volcanism beyond Earth are known if not fully understood. We revisit, in comparison to other models, the 'Old Faithful' theory of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism first proposed by Cooper et al. [Plan. Sp. Sci. 2009]. In the energetic electron irradiation environment of Enceladus within Saturn's magnetosphere, a 10-percent duty cycle could be maintained for current geyser activity driven by gases from oxidation of ammonia to N2 and methane to CO2 in the thermal margins of a south polar sea. Much shorter duty cycles down to 0.01 percent would be required to account for thermal power output up to 16 GW, Steady accumulation of oxidant energy over four billion years could have powered all Enceladus emissions over the past four hundred thousand to four hundred million years. There could be separate energy sources driving mass flow and thermal emission over vastly different time scales. Since episodic tidal dissipation on 10 Myr time scales at 0.1 - 1 Gyr intervals [O'Neill and Nimmo, Nature 2010], and thus duty cycles 1 - 10 percent, could heat the polar sea to the current level, the radiolytic energy source could easily power and modulate the geyser mass flow on million-year time scales. Maximum thermal emission temperature 223 K [Abramov and Spencer, Icarus 2009] hints at thermal buffering in the basal and vent wall layers by a 1:1 H2O:H2O2 radiolytic eutectic, assuming deep ice crust saturation with H2O2 from long cumulative surface irradiation and downward ice convection. Due to density stratification the peroxide eutectic and salt water layers could separate, so that the denser peroxide layer (1.2 g/cc) descends to the polar sea while the lighter salt water (1.05 g/cc) rises along separate channels. Methane reservoirs could be found dissolved into the polar
42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... surveys conducted during the time period for which authority to levy a revisit user fee exists. (e... of the revisit user fee, such as clerical errors, billing for a fee already paid, or assessment of a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys....
Reframing in dentistry: revisited.
Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath
2013-01-01
The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice. PMID:24021326
Multicomponent diffusion revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, S. H.
2006-07-01
The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.
Nilsen, Vegard; Wyller, John
2016-01-01
Dose-response models are essential to quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), providing a link between levels of human exposure to pathogens and the probability of negative health outcomes. In drinking water studies, the class of semi-mechanistic models known as single-hit models, such as the exponential and the exact beta-Poisson, has seen widespread use. In this work, an attempt is made to carefully develop the general mathematical single-hit framework while explicitly accounting for variation in (1) host susceptibility and (2) pathogen infectivity. This allows a precise interpretation of the so-called single-hit probability and precise identification of a set of statistical independence assumptions that are sufficient to arrive at single-hit models. Further analysis of the model framework is facilitated by formulating the single-hit models compactly using probability generating and moment generating functions. Among the more practically relevant conclusions drawn are: (1) for any dose distribution, variation in host susceptibility always reduces the single-hit risk compared to a constant host susceptibility (assuming equal mean susceptibilities), (2) the model-consistent representation of complete host immunity is formally demonstrated to be a simple scaling of the response, (3) the model-consistent expression for the total risk from repeated exposures deviates (gives lower risk) from the conventional expression used in applications, and (4) a model-consistent expression for the mean per-exposure dose that produces the correct total risk from repeated exposures is developed.
Nilsen, Vegard; Wyller, John
2016-01-01
Dose-response models are essential to quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), providing a link between levels of human exposure to pathogens and the probability of negative health outcomes. In drinking water studies, the class of semi-mechanistic models known as single-hit models, such as the exponential and the exact beta-Poisson, has seen widespread use. In this work, an attempt is made to carefully develop the general mathematical single-hit framework while explicitly accounting for variation in (1) host susceptibility and (2) pathogen infectivity. This allows a precise interpretation of the so-called single-hit probability and precise identification of a set of statistical independence assumptions that are sufficient to arrive at single-hit models. Further analysis of the model framework is facilitated by formulating the single-hit models compactly using probability generating and moment generating functions. Among the more practically relevant conclusions drawn are: (1) for any dose distribution, variation in host susceptibility always reduces the single-hit risk compared to a constant host susceptibility (assuming equal mean susceptibilities), (2) the model-consistent representation of complete host immunity is formally demonstrated to be a simple scaling of the response, (3) the model-consistent expression for the total risk from repeated exposures deviates (gives lower risk) from the conventional expression used in applications, and (4) a model-consistent expression for the mean per-exposure dose that produces the correct total risk from repeated exposures is developed. PMID:26812257
Daly, Aidan C.; Holmes, Chris
2015-01-01
As cardiac cell models become increasingly complex, a correspondingly complex ‘genealogy’ of inherited parameter values has also emerged. The result has been the loss of a direct link between model parameters and experimental data, limiting both reproducibility and the ability to re-fit to new data. We examine the ability of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to infer parameter distributions in the seminal action potential model of Hodgkin and Huxley, for which an immediate and documented connection to experimental results exists. The ability of ABC to produce tight posteriors around the reported values for the gating rates of sodium and potassium ion channels validates the precision of this early work, while the highly variable posteriors around certain voltage dependency parameters suggests that voltage clamp experiments alone are insufficient to constrain the full model. Despite this, Hodgkin and Huxley's estimates are shown to be competitive with those produced by ABC, and the variable behaviour of posterior parametrized models under complex voltage protocols suggests that with additional data the model could be fully constrained. This work will provide the starting point for a full identifiability analysis of commonly used cardiac models, as well as a template for informative, data-driven parametrization of newly proposed models. PMID:27019736
Daly, Aidan C; Gavaghan, David J; Holmes, Chris; Cooper, Jonathan
2015-12-01
As cardiac cell models become increasingly complex, a correspondingly complex 'genealogy' of inherited parameter values has also emerged. The result has been the loss of a direct link between model parameters and experimental data, limiting both reproducibility and the ability to re-fit to new data. We examine the ability of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to infer parameter distributions in the seminal action potential model of Hodgkin and Huxley, for which an immediate and documented connection to experimental results exists. The ability of ABC to produce tight posteriors around the reported values for the gating rates of sodium and potassium ion channels validates the precision of this early work, while the highly variable posteriors around certain voltage dependency parameters suggests that voltage clamp experiments alone are insufficient to constrain the full model. Despite this, Hodgkin and Huxley's estimates are shown to be competitive with those produced by ABC, and the variable behaviour of posterior parametrized models under complex voltage protocols suggests that with additional data the model could be fully constrained. This work will provide the starting point for a full identifiability analysis of commonly used cardiac models, as well as a template for informative, data-driven parametrization of newly proposed models. PMID:27019736
Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin
2016-10-01
The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.
Vellela, Melissa; Qian, Hong
2009-10-01
Schlögl's model is the canonical example of a chemical reaction system that exhibits bistability. Because the biological examples of bistability and switching behaviour are increasingly numerous, this paper presents an integrated deterministic, stochastic and thermodynamic analysis of the model. After a brief review of the deterministic and stochastic modelling frameworks, the concepts of chemical and mathematical detailed balances are discussed and non-equilibrium conditions are shown to be necessary for bistability. Thermodynamic quantities such as the flux, chemical potential and entropy production rate are defined and compared across the two models. In the bistable region, the stochastic model exhibits an exchange of the global stability between the two stable states under changes in the pump parameters and volume size. The stochastic entropy production rate shows a sharp transition that mirrors this exchange. A new hybrid model that includes continuous diffusion and discrete jumps is suggested to deal with the multiscale dynamics of the bistable system. Accurate approximations of the exponentially small eigenvalue associated with the time scale of this switching and the full time-dependent solution are calculated using Matlab. A breakdown of previously known asymptotic approximations on small volume scales is observed through comparison with these and Monte Carlo results. Finally, in the appendix section is an illustration of how the diffusion approximation of the chemical master equation can fail to represent correctly the mesoscopically interesting steady-state behaviour of the system.
Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C; Kuchenbecker, James A; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay
2010-01-01
In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a 'multi-stage color model' to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson's Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined in a later opponent organization, which has been the accepted dogma in color vision. DeValois' model attempts to satisfy the long-remaining question of how the visual system separates luminance information from color, but what are the cellular mechanisms that establish the complicated neural wiring and higher-order operations required by the Multi-stage Model? During the last decade and a half, results from molecular biology have shed new light on the evolution of primate color vision, thus constraining the possibilities for the visual circuits. The evolutionary constraints allow for an extension of DeValois' model that is more explicit about the biology of color vision circuitry, and it predicts that human red-green colorblindness can be cured using a retinal gene therapy approach to add the missing photopigment, without any additional changes to the post-synaptic circuitry.
Martinson, Liisa; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Warfvinge, Per
2005-05-01
Soil chemistry under the Solling clean-rain roof was simulated using the dynamic multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE, including sulfate adsorption. Soil was sampled in order to parameterize the pH and sulfate concentration dependent sulfate adsorption isotherm used in SAFE. Modeled soil solution chemistry was compared to the 14 year long time-series of monthly measurements of soil solution data at 10 and 100cm depth. The deposition of N and S under the roof has been reduced by 68% and 53%, respectively, compared to the surrounding area. Despite this the soil solution concentrations of sulfate are still high (a median of 420mumol(c)/L at 100cm depth between 2000 and 2002) and the soil base saturation low (approximately 3% in the whole profile in 1998). Sulfate adsorption is an important process in Solling. The soil capacity to adsorb sulfate is large, the modeled adsorbed pool in 2003 down to 100cm was 1030kg S/ha, and the measured sulfate concentration is high, due to release of adsorbed sulfate. The addition of sulfate adsorption improved the modeled sulfate dynamics although the model still slightly underestimated the sulfate concentration at 100cm. Model predictions show no recovery, based on the criteria of Bc/Al ratio above 1 in the rooting zone, before the year 2050, independent of future deposition cuts.
A practical method of predicting client revisit intention in a hospital setting.
Lee, Kyun Jick
2005-01-01
Data mining (DM) models are an alternative to traditional statistical methods for examining whether higher customer satisfaction leads to higher revisit intention. This study used a total of 906 outpatients' satisfaction data collected from a nationwide survey interviews conducted by professional interviewers on a face-to-face basis in South Korea, 1998. Analyses showed that the relationship between overall satisfaction with hospital services and outpatients' revisit intention, along with word-of-mouth recommendation as intermediate variables, developed into a nonlinear relationship. The five strongest predictors of revisit intention were overall satisfaction, intention to recommend to others, awareness of hospital promotion, satisfaction with physician's kindness, and satisfaction with treatment level.
A practical method of predicting client revisit intention in a hospital setting.
Lee, Kyun Jick
2005-01-01
Data mining (DM) models are an alternative to traditional statistical methods for examining whether higher customer satisfaction leads to higher revisit intention. This study used a total of 906 outpatients' satisfaction data collected from a nationwide survey interviews conducted by professional interviewers on a face-to-face basis in South Korea, 1998. Analyses showed that the relationship between overall satisfaction with hospital services and outpatients' revisit intention, along with word-of-mouth recommendation as intermediate variables, developed into a nonlinear relationship. The five strongest predictors of revisit intention were overall satisfaction, intention to recommend to others, awareness of hospital promotion, satisfaction with physician's kindness, and satisfaction with treatment level. PMID:15923917
Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schultz, Rachel A.
2015-01-01
At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…
Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C.; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay
2011-01-01
In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a “multi-stage color model” to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson’s Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined in a later opponent organization, which has been the accepted dogma in color vision. DeValois’ model attempts to satisfy the long-remaining question of how the visual system separates luminance information from color, but what are the cellular mechanisms that establish the complicated neural wiring and higher-order operations required by the Multi-stage Model? During the last decade and a half, results from molecular biology have shed new light on the evolution of primate color vision, thus constraining the possibilities for the visual circuits. The evolutionary constraints allow for an extension of DeValois' model that is more explicit about the biology of color vision circuitry, and it predicts that human red-green colorblindness can be cured using a retinal gene therapy approach to add the missing photopigment, without any additional changes to the post-synaptic circuitry. PMID:20238067
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leube, P.; Nowak, W.; Schneider, G.
2011-12-01
Many hydrogeological problems are highly complex in space and time, coupled with scale issues, variability and uncertainty. Especially time-dependent models often consume enormous computational resources. Model reduction techniques make stochastic modeling, probabilistic risk assessment and inverse problems more accessible to large-scale realistic applications. Temporal Moments (TM) are a promising approach to reduce the time demands and complexity of transient hydrogeological simulations. They reduce transient governing equations to steady-state and directly simulate the temporal characteristics of the system, if the equations are linear and coefficients are time-independent. This is achieved by an integral transform, projecting the dynamic system response onto monomials in time. In comparison to classical approaches of model reduction that involve orthogonal base functions, however, the monomials used for TM are non-orthogonal base functions, and this might impair the quality and efficiency of model reduction. Thus, we raise the question if there are more suitable temporal base-functions than the monomials that lead to TM. In this work, we will derive theoretically that there is only a limited class of temporal base functions that can reduce hydrogeological models. By comparing those to TM we conclude that, in terms of gained efficiency versus maintained accuracy, TM are the best possible choice. While our theoretical results hold for all systems of linear PDEs with any order of time derivations, we illustrate our study with an example on pumping tests in a confined aquifer. For that, we demonstrate that using two or three TM is sufficient to represent more than 90 % of the dynamic behavior.
Can an Opportunity to Learn at Work Reduce Stress?: A Revisitation of the Job Demand-Control Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Panari, Chiara; Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Depolo, Marco
2010-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to extend the stress-buffering hypothesis of the demand-control model. In addition to the control variable, it seeks to analyse the role of an opportunity for learning and development (L&D) in the workplace as a moderator variable between increased demands and need for recovery. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.
2011-01-01
The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazem, Mohsen; Trépanier, Martin; Morency, Catherine
2015-01-01
An Enhanced Intervening Opportunities Model (EIOM) is developed for Public Transit (PT). This is a distribution supply dependent model, with single constraints on trip production for work trips during morning peak hours (6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.) within the Island of Montreal, Canada. Different data sets, including the 2008 Origin-Destination (OD) survey of the Greater Montreal Area, the 2006 Census of Canada, GTFS network data, along with the geographical data of the study area, are used. EIOM is a nonlinear model composed of socio-demographics, PT supply data and work location attributes. An enhanced destination ranking procedure is used to calculate the number of spatially cumulative opportunities, the basic variable of EIOM. For comparison, a Basic Intervening Opportunities Model (BIOM) is developed by using the basic destination ranking procedure. The main difference between EIOM and BIOM is in the destination ranking procedure: EIOM considers the maximization of a utility function composed of PT Level Of Service and number of opportunities at the destination, along with the OD trip duration, whereas BIOM is based on a destination ranking derived only from OD trip durations. Analysis confirmed that EIOM is more accurate than BIOM. This study presents a new tool for PT analysts, planners and policy makers to study the potential changes in PT trip patterns due to changes in socio-demographic characteristics, PT supply, and other factors. Also it opens new opportunities for the development of more accurate PT demand models with new emergent data such as smart card validations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bielawa, Richard L.
1988-01-01
In response to a systematic methodology assessment program directed to the aeroelastic stability of hingeless helicopter rotor blades, improved basic aeroelastic reformulations and new formulations relating to structural sweep were achieved. Correlational results are presented showing the substantially improved performance of the G400 aeroelastic analysis incorporating these new formulations. The formulations pertain partly to sundry solutions to classic problem areas, relating to dynamic inflow with vortex-ring state operation and basic blade kinematics, but mostly to improved physical modeling of elastic axis offset (structural sweep) in the presence of nonlinear structural twist. Specific issues addressed are an alternate modeling of the delta EI torsional excitation due to compound bending using a force integration approach, and the detailed kinematic representation of an elastically deflected point mass of a beam with both structural sweep and nonlinear twist.
Murray, Christian J; Lipfert, Frederick W
2010-05-01
Epidemiological studies find that elderly, susceptible, and previously impaired individuals are more sensitive to transient air pollution exposures than healthy persons. However, any associated changes in life expectancy remain largely unresolved. Murray and Nelson published a model of daily mortality and air pollution that addresses mortality displacement or harvesting by directly considering population dynamics on the basis of the assumption that a period of illness or frailty precedes most elderly deaths. The underlying concept is that a person's response to an environmental exposure also depends on his/her physiological ability to withstand stress at that time. They used Kalman filtering to estimate an unobservable quantity--the size of the frail subpopulation from which elderly (ages > or = 65 yr) nontraumatic deaths are assumed to derive. They found a small subpopulation, relatively robust to environmental variations over 14 yr, with remaining life expectancies of 8-31 days in this frail status. Here, this model and dataset are expanded to examine the ramifications in more detail (including seasonality), to consider peak ozone as an additional pollutant, and to consider remaining life expectancies of the this frail subpopulation on a daily basis. Previous studies of mortality displacement and of Philadelphia mortality-air-pollution associations are also summarized in general, and agreement with the Murray-Nelson model was found, thus supporting its validity. The estimated additional mortality associated with a given environmental exposure persists for a few days at most but is not always compensated by subsequent mortality deficits. It is concluded that the pollution-associated mortality increases of a few percent in this dataset are consistent with losses of remaining life expectancy of up to a few days. It is also recommended that a more complex population-dynamic model be implemented to examine the extent to which previous short-term environmental
Engel, Benjamin D.; Ludington, William B.
2009-01-01
The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly. PMID:19805630
Fee, Michale S.
2012-01-01
In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartalev, M.; Keremidarska, V.; Dryer, M.
2016-04-01
Earlier developed single fluid gas-dynamic model of solar wind-comet ionosphere interaction is applied to reveal some specifics in the morphology of the shocked "contaminated" solar wind region (cometosheath). The model is based on the Euler equations with added mass-loading, mass-loss and frictional force terms. Numerous reactions are taken into account in these terms including photoionization, charge transfer, dissociative recombination and ion-neutral frictional force. The electromagnetic terms are omitted, thus reducing the MHD single-fluid system of equations to gas-dynamic one. The used shock-fitting numerical scheme allows the separation of distinct areas formed by the considered interaction and exploration of their properties in detail. Attention is focused on the region between the shock wave and the contact surface as well as on the positions of these boundaries. Accurate examination of the distribution of density, temperature and velocity reveals spatial variations that resemble the variations registered by a number of spacecraft in the vicinity of comets. No specific comparisons with data are made at this stage. Two very first events of the Rosetta spacecraft's crossing of the magnetic cavity boundary around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are discussed using a "faux-transient" application of our steady-state model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloemen, S.; Hu, H.; Aerts, C.; Dupret, M. A.; Østensen, R. H.; Degroote, P.; Müller-Ringat, E.; Rauch, T.
2014-09-01
We have computed a new grid of evolutionary subdwarf B star (sdB) models from the start of central He burning, taking into account atomic diffusion due to radiative levitation, gravitational settling, concentration diffusion, and thermal diffusion. We have computed the non-adiabatic pulsation properties of the models and present the predicted p-mode and g-mode instability strips. In previous studies of the sdB instability strips, artificial abundance enhancements of Fe and Ni were introduced in the pulsation driving layers. In our models, the abundance enhancements of Fe and Ni occur naturally, eradicating the need to use artificial enhancements. We find that the abundance increases of Fe and Ni were previously underestimated and show that the instability strip predicted by our simulations solves the so-called blue edge problem of the subdwarf B star g-mode instability strip. The hottest known g-mode pulsator, KIC 10139564, now resides well within the instability strip even when only modes with low spherical degrees (l ≤ 2) are considered. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, N. G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, A.; Kato, S.; Fasullo, J.; Xu, K. M.; Allan, R. P.
2015-12-01
Recent studies have shown strong linkages between hemispheric asymmetries in atmospheric and oceanic energy budgets, tropical precipitation and the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The energetics framework has been used to explain why the mean position of the ITCZ is in the Northern Hemisphere and to study large-scale circulation and precipitation responses to changes in the hemispheric distribution of heating. Here, we expand upon these earlier studies by also considering estimates of hemispheric asymmetry in surface and atmospheric radiation budget derived from satellite observations, which enables a decomposition of cross-equatorial heat transport in terms of radiative and non-radiative (i.e., combined latent and sensible heat) components. Satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiation Budget (CERES) are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Observed radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports are compared with simulations from 30 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that most CMIP5 models that overestimate tropical precipitation in the SH have too much net downward surface radiation and combined latent and sensible heat flux in the SH relative to the NH. In addition, many of the models also underestimate atmospheric radiative cooling in the SH compared to the NH. Consequently, the models have excessive heating of the SH atmosphere and anomalous SH to NH cross-equatorial heat transport. The anomalous northward heat transport occurs via the upper branch of the northern Hadley Cell, while anomalous NH to SH moisture transport occurs in the lower branch of the northern
Gregory, Sonia M.; Pokorny, Antje; Almeida, Paulo F.F.
2009-01-01
Abstract The all-or-none kinetic model that we recently proposed for the antimicrobial peptide cecropin A is tested here for magainin 2. In mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 50:50 and 70:30, release of contents from lipid vesicles occurs in an all-or-none fashion and the differences between PC/PG 50:50 and 70:30 can be ascribed mainly to differences in binding, which was determined independently and is ∼20 times greater to PC/PG 50:50 than to 70:30. Only one variable parameter, β, corresponding to the ratio of the rates of pore opening to pore closing, is used to fit dye release kinetics from these two mixtures, for several peptide/lipid ratios ranging from 1:25 to 1:200. However, unlike for cecropin A where it stays almost constant, β increases five times as the PG content of the vesicles increases from 30 to 50%. Thus, magainin 2 is more sensitive to anionic lipid content than cecropin A. But overall, magainin follows the same all-or-none kinetic model as cecropin A in these lipid mixtures, with slightly different parameter values. When the PG content is reduced to 20 mol %, dye release becomes very low; the mechanism appears to change, and is consistent with a graded kinetic model. We suggest that the peptide may be inducing formation of PG domains. In either mechanism, no peptide oligomerization occurs and magainin catalyzes dye release in proportion to its concentration on the membrane in a peptide state that we call a pore. We envision this structure as a chaotic or stochastic type of pore, involving both lipids and peptides, not a well-defined, peptide-lined channel. PMID:19134472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakış, H.; Bakış, V.; Eker, Z.; Demircan, O.
2016-05-01
The spectral lines of the secondary component of the active binary system R Ara were uncovered for the first time, which allowed directly to determine the parameters of the spectroscopic orbit. The mass ratio of the system is updated to a new observational value of M2/M1 = 0.305 ± 0.005 which is ˜20 per cent smaller than the literature value (M2/M1 = 0.39). Modelling the reconstructed component spectra yielded the equatorial rotational velocities of the components as vrot1 = 202 km s-1 and vrot2 = 73 km s-1 indicating a very fast rotation (˜5 times faster than the synchronous rotation velocity) for the primary and synchronous rotation for the secondary component. The circumstellar material in the system was investigated using the Hipparcossatellite data and the high-resolution (R ˜ 41 000) spectral data. According to our model, there is always material transferring from the secondary component on to the primary causing a hot region on its surface. The structural difference between the spectra taken at the same orbital phase but at different epochs proved that the density and the velocity of the transferring material are variable. There are three main trends in the light curve and spectral line variations suggesting the activity cycles for the system, namely quiescent, moderate and, active cycles. It was estimated that the circumstellar material around could be extended to large distances up to 40 R⊙ from the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Toudal Pedersen, Leif
2016-04-01
The thickness of snow covering sea ice is a crucial parameter in any algorithm deriving sea-ice thickness from satellite-measured sea-ice freeboard. Here we investigate whether such snow thickness can robustly be estimated by assuming a simple correlation between snow thickness and sea-ice thickness. Such correlation is sometimes applied in schemes that aim at correcting the multi-year Warren snow climatology for the more recent past. In order to quantify the relationship between sea-ice thickness and snow depth, we analyse the correlation of ice thickness and snow depth in a multi-century pre-industrial model simulation and in a transient historical simulation performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We find correlation coefficients to be low in the central Arctic, while they show substantial regional and temporal variations in the vicinity of the ice edge. Our results point towards possibly substantial errors in algorithms that assume too simplistic a relationship between sea-ice thickness and snow depth.
Saint-Cyr, Manuel Jimmy; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Manceau, Jacqueline; Houée, Paméla; Delmas, Jean-Michel; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Laurentie, Michel
2015-01-01
Due to its toxic properties, high stability, and prevalence, the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the food chain is a major threat to food safety and therefore a health risk for both humans and animals. In this study, experiments were carried out with sows and female rats to examine the kinetics of DON after intravenous and oral administration at 100 µg/kg of body weight. After intravenous administration of DON in pigs, a two-compartment model with rapid initial distribution (0.030 ± 0.019 h) followed by a slower terminal elimination phase (1.53 ± 0.54 h) was fitted to the concentration profile of DON in pig plasma. In rats, a short elimination half-life (0.46 h) and a clearance of 2.59 L/h/kg were estimated by sparse sampling non-compartmental analysis. Following oral exposure, DON was rapidly absorbed and reached maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 42.07 ± 8.48 and 10.44 ± 5.87 µg/L plasma after (tmax) 1.44 ± 0.52 and 0.17 h in pigs and rats, respectively. The mean bioavailability of DON was 70.5% ± 25.6% for pigs and 47.3% for rats. In the framework of DON risk assessment, these two animal models could be useful in an exposure scenario in two different ways because of their different bioavailability. PMID:26633505
Saint-Cyr, Manuel Jimmy; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Manceau, Jacqueline; Houée, Paméla; Delmas, Jean-Michel; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Laurentie, Michel
2015-12-01
Due to its toxic properties, high stability, and prevalence, the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the food chain is a major threat to food safety and therefore a health risk for both humans and animals. In this study, experiments were carried out with sows and female rats to examine the kinetics of DON after intravenous and oral administration at 100 µg/kg of body weight. After intravenous administration of DON in pigs, a two-compartment model with rapid initial distribution (0.030 ± 0.019 h) followed by a slower terminal elimination phase (1.53 ± 0.54 h) was fitted to the concentration profile of DON in pig plasma. In rats, a short elimination half-life (0.46 h) and a clearance of 2.59 L/h/kg were estimated by sparse sampling non-compartmental analysis. Following oral exposure, DON was rapidly absorbed and reached maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 42.07 ± 8.48 and 10.44 ± 5.87 µg/L plasma after (t(max)) 1.44 ± 0.52 and 0.17 h in pigs and rats, respectively. The mean bioavailability of DON was 70.5% ± 25.6% for pigs and 47.3% for rats. In the framework of DON risk assessment, these two animal models could be useful in an exposure scenario in two different ways because of their different bioavailability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.
2016-05-01
Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-equatorial heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and ocean (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerak, Ernie
2012-12-01
In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izzo, Dario
2015-01-01
The orbital boundary value problem, also known as Lambert problem, is revisited. Building upon Lancaster and Blanchard approach, new relations are revealed and a new variable representing all problem classes, under L-similarity, is used to express the time of flight equation. In the new variable, the time of flight curves have two oblique asymptotes and they mostly appear to be conveniently approximated by piecewise continuous lines. We use and invert such a simple approximation to provide an efficient initial guess to an Householder iterative method that is then able to converge, for the single revolution case, in only two iterations. The resulting algorithm is compared, for single and multiple revolutions, to Gooding's procedure revealing to be numerically as accurate, while having a significantly smaller computational complexity.
Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Gautheret, Daniel; Leclerc, Fabrice
2015-01-01
A structural and functional classification of H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs is obtained from the analysis of the H/ACA guide RNAs which have been identified previously in the genomes of Euryarchaea (Pyrococcus) and Crenarchaea (Pyrobaculum). A unified structure/function model is proposed based on the common structural determinants shared by H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs in both Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea. Using a computational approach, structural and energetic rules for the guide:target RNA-RNA interactions are derived from structural and functional data on the H/ACA RNP particles. H/ACA(-like) motifs found in Pyrococcus are evaluated through the classification and their biological relevance is discussed. Extra-ribosomal targets found in both Pyrococcus and Pyrobaculum might support the hypothesis of a gene regulation mediated by H/ACA(-like) guide RNAs in archaea. PMID:26240384
Zhong, Bojian; Xi, Zhenxiang; Goremykin, Vadim V; Fong, Richard; McLenachan, Patricia A; Novis, Philip M; Davis, Charles C; Penny, David
2014-01-01
The phylogenetic branching order of the green algal groups that gave rise to land plants remains uncertain despite its fundamental importance to understanding plant evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that land plants evolved from streptophyte algae, but different lineages of streptophytes have been suggested to be the sister group of land plants. To better understand the evolutionary history of land plants and to determine the potential effects of "long-branch attraction" in phylogenetic reconstruction, we analyzed a chloroplast genome data set including three new chloroplast genomes from streptophyte algae: Coleochaetae orbicularis (Coleochaetales), Nitella hookeri (Charales), and Spirogyra communis (Zygnematales). We further applied a site pattern sorting method together with site- and time-heterogeneous models to investigate the branching order among streptophytes and land plants. Our chloroplast phylogenomic analyses support previous hypotheses based on nuclear data in placing Zygnematales alone, or a clade consisting of Coleochaetales plus Zygnematales, as the closest living relatives of land plants.
Willis, Rudolph E
2012-01-01
An important assumption of our current understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis has been the belief that clarification of the cancer process would inevitably reveal some of the crucial mechanisms of normal human gene regulation. Since the momentous work of Bishop and Varmus, both the molecular and the biochemical processes underlying the events in the development of cancer have become increasingly clear. The identification of cellular signaling pathways and the role of protein kinases in the events leading to gene activation have been critical to our understanding not only of normal cellular gene control mechanisms, but also have clarified some of the important molecular and biochemical events occurring within a cancer cell. We now know that oncogenes are dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and that dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes contribute to the cancer process. Furthermore, Weinstein and others have hypothesized the phenomenon of oncogene addiction as a distinct characteristic of the malignant cell. It can be assumed that cancer cells, indeed, become dependent on such vital oncogenes. The products of these vital oncogenes, such as c-myc, may well be the Achilles heel by which targeted molecular therapy may lead to truly personalized cancer therapy. The remaining problem is the need to introduce relevant molecular diagnostic tests such as genome microarray analysis and proteomic methods, especially protein kinase identification arrays, for each individual patient. Genome wide association studies on cancers with gene analysis of single nucleotide and other mutations in functional proto-oncogenes will, hopefully, identify dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and allow the development of more specific targeted drugs directed against the protein products of these vital oncogenes. In 1984 Willis proposed a molecular and biochemical model for eukaryotic gene regulation suggesting how proto-oncogenes might function within the normal cell. That model predicted the
Revisiting R-invariant direct gauge mediation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2016-03-01
We revisit a special model of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, the " R-invariant direct gauge mediation." We pay particular attention to whether the model is consistent with the minimal model of the μ-term, i.e., a simple mass term of the Higgs doublets in the superpotential. Although the incompatibility is highlighted in view of the current experimental constraints on the superparticle masses and the observed Higgs boson mass, the minimal μ-term can be consistent with the R-invariant gauge mediation model via a careful choice of model parameters. We derive an upper limit on the gluino mass from the observed Higgs boson mass. We also discuss whether the model can explain the 3 σ excess of the Z + jets + E T miss events reported by the ATLAS collaboration.
Turrone, Peter; Remington, Gary; Nobrega, José N
2002-05-01
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a late side effect of long-term antipsychotic use in humans, and the vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model has been used routinely to study this movement disorder in rats. Recent receptor occupancy studies in humans and rats have found that antipsychotics given in doses which lead to moderate levels of D(2) receptor blockade can achieve optimal clinical response while minimizing the emergence of acute motor side effects. This suggests that clinicians may have been using inappropriately high doses of antipsychotics. A review of the existing VCM literature indicates that most animal studies have similarly employed antipsychotic doses that are high, i.e. doses that lead to near complete D(2) receptor saturation. To verify whether the incidence or severity of VCMs would decrease with lower antipsychotic doses, we conducted initial experiments with different doses of haloperidol (HAL) given either as repeated daily injections or as depot injections over the course of several weeks. Our results demonstrate that (1) the incidence of VCMs is significantly related to HAL dose, and (2) significant levels of VCMs only emerge when haloperidol is continually present. These findings are consistent with the possibility that total D(2) occupancy, as well as 'transience' of receptor occupation, may be important in the development of late-onset antipsychotic-induced dyskinetic syndromes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Maolin; Chen, Guofang
2013-11-01
The early reported pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics of the polymer-supported metallic nanocatalysts for the model reaction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP)/NaBH4 were probably oversimplified. Here a detailed study of p-NP reduction by NaBH4 in the presence of the raspberry-like poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-modified polymer poly(glycidyl methacrylate) composite sub-microspheres with tunable gold nanoparticles (PGMA@PAH@AuNPs) was presented. Effects of polyelectrolyte concentration, the ratio of polymer spheres to gold nanoparticles, and the solution pH value for composite synthesis on the induction period, reaction time, average reaction rate and average turnover frequency were systematically investigated. Experimental results in all cases of our study revealed an nth order (n > 1) of the p-NP/NaBH4 catalytic reaction by the prepared polymer composite particles. The apparent order of reaction, n, is dependent on the total surface area of the coated gold nanoparticles on the polymer spheres, which can be closely correlated with the tunable gold nanoparticle surface coverage. The mechanism of the observed catalytic activity enhancement was proposed based on active epoxy groups of the polymer spheres and a large adsorption of p-nitrophenolate anions onto the positively-charged spheres.
Bohr's 1913 molecular model revisited.
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A; Scully, Marlan O; Herschbach, Dudley R
2005-08-23
It is generally believed that the old quantum theory, as presented by Niels Bohr in 1913, fails when applied to few electron systems, such as the H(2) molecule. Here, we find previously undescribed solutions within the Bohr theory that describe the potential energy curve for the lowest singlet and triplet states of H(2) about as well as the early wave mechanical treatment of Heitler and London. We also develop an interpolation scheme that substantially improves the agreement with the exact ground-state potential curve of H(2) and provides a good description of more complicated molecules such as LiH, Li(2), BeH, and He(2).
Revisiting caspases in sepsis.
Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P
2014-01-01
Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304
Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P
2014-01-01
Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304
Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.
2001-09-01
In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.
The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia
2013-01-01
A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…
Benjamin Franklin and Mesmerism, revisited.
McConkey, Kevin M; Perry, Campbell
2002-10-01
The authors revisit and update their previous historiographical note (McConkey & Perry, 1985) on Benjamin Franklin's involvement with and investigation of animal magnetism or mesmerism. They incorporate more recent literature and offer additional comment about Franklin's role in and views about mesmerism. Franklin had a higher degree of personal involvement with and a more detailed opinion of mesmerism than has been previously appreciated.
Revisiting the 1761 Transatlantic Tsunami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baptista, Maria Ana; Wronna, Martin; Miranda, Jorge Miguel
2016-04-01
The tsunami catalogs of the Atlantic include two transatlantic tsunamis in the 18th century the well known 1st November 1755 and the 31st March 1761. The 31st March 1761 earthquake struck Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. The earthquake occurred around noontime in Lisbon alarming the inhabitants and throwing down ruins of the past 1st November 1755 earthquake. According to several sources, the earthquake was followed by a tsunami observed as far as Cornwall (United Kingdom), Cork (Ireland) and Barbados (Caribbean). The analysis of macroseismic information and its compatibility with tsunami travel time information led to a source area close to the Ampere Seamount with an estimated epicenter circa 34.5°N 13°W. The estimated magnitude of the earthquake was 8.5. In this study, we revisit the tsunami observations, and we include a report from Cadiz not used before. We use the results of the compilation of the multi-beam bathymetric data, that covers the area between 34°N - 38°N and 12.5°W - 5.5°W and use the recent tectonic map published for the Southwest Iberian Margin to select among possible source scenarios. Finally, we use a non-linear shallow water model that includes the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme to solve the shallow water equations in the spherical or Cartesian coordinate to compute tsunami waveforms and tsunami inundation and check the results against the historical descriptions to infer the source of the event. This study received funding from project ASTARTE- Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe a collaborative project Grant 603839, FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3
Dynamical spin structure factor of one-dimensional interacting fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyuzin, Vladimir A.; Maslov, Dmitrii L.
2015-02-01
We revisit the dynamic spin susceptibility χ (q ,ω ) of one-dimensional interacting fermions. To second order in the interaction, backscattering results in a logarithmic correction to χ (q ,ω ) at q ≪kF , even if the single-particle spectrum is linearized near the Fermi points. Consequently, the dynamic spin structure factor Im χ (q ,ω ) is nonzero at frequencies above the single-particle continuum. In the boson language, this effect results from the marginally irrelevant backscattering operator of the sine-Gordon model. Away from the threshold, the high-frequency tail of Im χ (q ,ω ) due to backscattering is larger than that due to finite mass by a factor of kF/q . We derive the renormalization group equations for the coupling constants of the g -ology model at finite ω and q and find the corresponding expression for χ (q ,ω ) , valid to all orders in the interaction but not in the immediate vicinity of the continuum boundary, where the finite-mass effects become dominant.
Oxidative phosphorylation revisited.
Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John
2015-03-01
The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic explanation for the energy coupling and ATP synthesis carried out in mitochondria and chloroplast thylakoids. The mechanism does not suffer from the flaws in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory that have been pointed out in many studies since its first appearance 50 years ago, when it was hailed as a ground-breaking mechanistic explanation of what is perhaps the most important process in cellular energetics. The new findings fit very well with the predictions of Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis. It is argued that this mechanism, based on at least 15 years of experimental and theoretical work by Sunil Nath, constitutes a fundamentally different theory of the energy conversion process that eliminates all the inconsistencies in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory pointed out by other authors. It is concluded that the energy-transducing complexes in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis are proton-dicarboxylic acid anion cotransporters and not simply electrogenic proton translocators. These results necessitate revision of previous theories of biological energy transduction, coupling, and ATP synthesis. The novel molecular mechanism is extended to cover ATP synthesis in prokaryotes, in particular to alkaliphilic and haloalkaliphilic bacteria, essentially making it a complete theory addressing mechanistic, kinetic, and thermodynamic details. Finally, based on the new interpretation of oxidative phosphorylation, quantitative values for the P/O ratio, the amount of ATP generated per redox package of the reduced substrates, are calculated and compared with experimental values for fermentation on different substrates. It is our hope that the presentation of
Hénin, Emilie; Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; You, Benoit; Guitton, Jérôme; Iliadis, Athanassios; Freyer, Gilles
2016-04-01
The MODEL1 trial is the first model-driven phase I/II dose-escalation study of densified docetaxel plus epirubicin administration in metastatic breast cancer patients, a regimen previously known to induce unacceptable life-threatening toxicities. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of this densified regimen. Study of the efficacy was a secondary objective. Her2-negative, hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients were treated with escalating doses of docetaxel plus epirubicin every 2 weeks for six cycles with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support. A total of 16 patients were treated with total doses ranging from 85 to 110 mg of docetaxel plus epirubicin per cycle. Dose escalation was controlled by a non-hematological toxicity model. Dose densification was guided by a model of neutrophil kinetics, able to optimize docetaxel plus epirubicin dosing with respect to pre-defined acceptable levels of hematological toxicity while ensuring maximal efficacy. The densified treatment was safe since hematological toxicity was much lower compared to previous findings, and other adverse events were consistent with those observed with this regimen. The maximal tolerated dose was 100 mg given every 2 weeks. The response rate was 45 %; median progression-free survival was 10.4 months, whereas 54.6 months of median overall survival was achieved. The optimized docetaxel plus epirubicin dosing regimen led to fewer toxicities associated with higher efficacy as compared with standard or empirical densified dosing. This study suggests that model-driven dosage adjustment can lead to improved efficacy-toxicity balance in patients with cancer when several anticancer drugs are combined.
Electron heating in capacitively coupled plasmas revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Booth, J. P.
2014-06-01
We revisit the problem of electron heating in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), and propose a method for quantifying the level of collisionless and collisional heating in plasma simulations. The proposed procedure, based on the electron mechanical energy conservation equation, is demonstrated with particle-in-cell simulations of a number of single and multi-frequency CCPs operated in regimes of research and industrial interest. In almost all cases tested, the total electron heating is comprised of collisional (ohmic) and pressure heating parts. This latter collisionless component is in qualitative agreement with the mechanism of electron heating predicted from the recent re-evaluation of theoretical models. Finally, in very electrically asymmetric plasmas produced in multi-frequency discharges, we observe an additional collisionless heating mechanism associated with electron inertia.
Re-visiting the electrophysiology of language.
Obleser, Jonas
2015-09-01
This editorial accompanies a special issue of Brain and Language re-visiting old themes and new leads in the electrophysiology of language. The event-related potential (ERP) as a series of characteristic deflections ("components") over time and their distribution on the scalp has been exploited by speech and language researchers over decades to find support for diverse psycholinguistic models. Fortunately, methodological and statistical advances have allowed human neuroscience to move beyond some of the limitations imposed when looking at the ERP only. Most importantly, we currently witness a refined and refreshed look at "event-related" (in the literal sense) brain activity that relates itself more closely to the actual neurobiology of speech and language processes. It is this imminent change in handling and interpreting electrophysiological data of speech and language experiments that this special issue intends to capture.
Vortex operator and BKT transition in Abelian duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chern, Tong
2016-04-01
We give a new simple derivation for the sine-Gordon description of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Our derivation is simpler than traditional derivations. Besides, our derivation is a continuous field theoretic derivation by using path integration, different from the traditional derivations which are based on lattice theory or based on Coulomb gas model. Our new derivation relies on Abelian duality of two dimensional quantum field theory. By utilizing this duality in path integration, we find that the vortex configurations are naturally mapped to exponential operators in dual description. Since these operators are the vortex operators that can create vortices, the sine-Gordon description then naturally follows. Our method may be useful for the investigation to the BKT physics of superconductors.
Local conformational perturbations of the DNA molecule in the SG-model
Krasnobaeva, L. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.
2015-11-17
Within the formalism of the Fokker–Planck equation, the influence of nonstationary external force, random force, and dissipation effects on dynamics local conformational perturbations (kink) propagating along the DNA molecule is investigated. Such waves have an important role in the regulation of important biological processes in living systems at the molecular level. As a dynamic model of DNA was used a modified sine-Gordon equation, simulating the rotational oscillations of bases in one of the chains DNA. The equation of evolution of the kink momentum is obtained in the form of the stochastic differential equation in the Stratonovich sense within the framework of the well-known McLaughlin and Scott energy approach. The corresponding Fokker–Planck equation for the momentum distribution function coincides with the equation describing the Ornstein–Uhlenbek process with a regular nonstationary external force. The influence of the nonlinear stochastic effects on the kink dynamics is considered with the help of the Fokker– Planck nonlinear equation with the shift coefficient dependent on the first moment of the kink momentum distribution function. Expressions are derived for average value and variance of the momentum. Examples are considered which demonstrate the influence of the external regular and random forces on the evolution of the average value and variance of the kink momentum. Within the formalism of the Fokker–Planck equation, the influence of nonstationary external force, random force, and dissipation effects on the kink dynamics is investigated in the sine–Gordon model. The equation of evolution of the kink momentum is obtained in the form of the stochastic differential equation in the Stratonovich sense within the framework of the well-known McLaughlin and Scott energy approach. The corresponding Fokker–Planck equation for the momentum distribution function coincides with the equation describing the Ornstein–Uhlenbek process with a regular
Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, V. V.; Raskovalov, A. A.
2016-06-01
The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of "precursors" and "tails" in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.
Noise characteristics and instabilities of long Josephson junctions
Han, B.S.; Lee, B.; Symko, O.G.; Yeh, W.J.; Zheng, D.J.
1989-03-01
In a magnetic field, current biased long Josephson junctions exhibit the dynamics of fluxon motion which are affected by fluctuations. These consist of telegraph noise at voltage steps and instabilities due to chaotic behavior. Results on long junctions with McCumber number ..beta../sub c/ ranging from 10 to 100 show such behavior. The telegraph noise is driven by thermal fluctuations. Modeling of our junctions using a perturbed sine-Gordon equation shows the chaotic regions and the periodic ones.
The Discipline Controversy Revisited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baumrind, Diana
1996-01-01
Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…
Lithium in the Pleiades Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. R.; Hobbs, L. M.; Schuler, S. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.
2003-12-01
New Li abundances have been derived for some 15-20 Pleiades dwarfs using new high-resolution and high S/N spectroscopy from HET/HRS. Previous studies suggested that our objects, all modest (projected) rotators, evinced considerable scatter in their Li abundances. We revisit the question of this scatter and its origin. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST 00-86576 and 02-39518, a South Carolina Space Grant Scholarship award, a generous donation from the Curry Foundation of Seneca, SC, and the NOAO Public Access Program.
Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.
2012-02-16
We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.
Chao, Alex; /SLAC
2008-07-25
An early, but at the time illuminating, piece of work on how to deal with a general, linearly coupled accelerator lattice is revisited. This work is based on the SLIM formalism developed in 1979-1981.
Johansen, Øistein; Reed, Mark; Bodsberg, Nils Rune
2015-04-15
This paper presents a new semi-empirical model for oil droplet size distributions generated by single breaking wave events. Empirical data was obtained from laboratory experiments with different crude oils at different stages of weathering. The paper starts with a review of the most commonly used model for natural dispersion, which is followed by a presentation of the laboratory study on oil droplet size distributions formed by breaking waves conducted by SINTEF on behalf of the NOAA/UNH Coastal Response Research Center. The next section presents the theoretical and empirical foundation for the new model. The model is based on dimensional analysis and contains two non-dimensional groups; the Weber and Reynolds number. The model was validated with data from a full scale experimental oil spill conducted in the Haltenbanken area offshore Norway in July 1982, as described in the last section of the paper.
The Sakharov Experiment Revisited for Granular Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogler, Tracy
2013-06-01
Sakharov and co-workers in 1965 proposed an experiment in which a sinusoidal perturbation in a planar wave evolves as it travels through a material. More recent, Liu and co-workers utilized gas gun techniques rather than explosives to drive the shock wave, resulting in a better defined input. The technique has been applied to liquids such as water and mercury as well as solids such as aluminum. All analyses of the experiments conducted to date have utilized a viscous fluid approach, even for the solids. Here, the concept of the decay of a perturbation in a shock wave is revisited and applied to granular materials. Simulations utilizing continuum models for the granular materials as well as mesoscale models in which individual particles are resolved are utilized. It is found that the perturbation decay is influenced by the strength (deviatoric behavior) used in the continuum model. In the mesocale calculations, the simulation parameters as well as the computational approach influence the results. Finally, initial experimental results for the technique using granular tungsten carbide are presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Scaling Relationships for Spherical Polymer Brushes Revisited.
Chen, Guang; Li, Hao; Das, Siddhartha
2016-06-16
In this short paper, we revisit the scaling relationships for spherical polymer brushes (SPBs), i.e., polymer brushes grafted to rigid, spherical particles. Considering that the brushes can be described to be encased in a series of hypothetical spherical blobs, we identify significant physical discrepancies in the model of Daoud and Cotton (Journal of Physics, 1982), which is considered to be the state of the art in scaling modeling of SPBs. We establish that the "brush" configuration of the polymer molecules forming the SPBs is possible only if the swelling ratio (which is the ratio of the end-to-end length of the blob-encased polymer segment to the corresponding coil-like polymer segment) is always less than unity-a notion that has been erroneously overlooked in the model of Daoud and Cotton. We also provide new scaling arguments that (a) establish this swelling (or more appropriately shrinking) ratio as a constant (less than unity) for the case of "good" solvent, (b) recover the scaling predictions for blob dimension and monomer number and monomer concentration distributions within the blob, and
Games among relatives revisited.
Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A
2015-08-01
We present a simple model for the evolution of social behavior in family-structured, finite sized populations. Interactions are represented as evolutionary games describing frequency-dependent selection. Individuals interact more frequently with siblings than with members of the general population, as quantified by an assortment parameter r, which can be interpreted as "relatedness". Other models, mostly of spatially structured populations, have shown that assortment can promote the evolution of cooperation by facilitating interaction between cooperators, but this effect depends on the details of the evolutionary process. For our model, we find that sibling assortment promotes cooperation in stringent social dilemmas such as the Prisoner's Dilemma, but not necessarily in other situations. These results are obtained through straightforward calculations of changes in gene frequency. We also analyze our model using inclusive fitness. We find that the quantity of inclusive fitness does not exist for general games. For special games, where inclusive fitness exists, it provides less information than the straightforward analysis.
Sunday School Revisited: An Alternative to Christian Education of the Church Today?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Song, Nam Soon
2013-01-01
This article attempts to demonstrate similarities between the socioeconomic, cultural, and religious contexts of 18th-century England and 21st-century Canada. Revisiting the Sunday School movement in 18th-century England provides insights for the development of renewed Sunday School models in the current Canadian context of transnational…
Atmospheric Entry Heating of Micrometeorites Revisited: Higher Temperatures and Potential Biases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Love, S.; Alexander, C. M. OD.
2001-01-01
The atmospheric entry heating model of Love and Brownlee appears to have overestimated evaporation rates by as much as two orders of magnitude. Here we revisit the issue of atmospheric entry heating, using a revised prescription for evaporation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Framing the Future: Revisiting the Place of Educational Expectations in Status Attainment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bozick, Robert; Alexander, Karl; Entwisle, Doris; Dauber, Susan; Kerr, Kerri
2010-01-01
This study revisits the Wisconsin model of status attainment from a life course developmental perspective. Fixed-effects regression analyses lend strong support to the Wisconsin framework's core proposition that academic performance and significant others' influence shape educational expectations. However, investigating the process of expectation…
Greenberg, J. M.
2003-07-16
In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.
The Arrhenius equation revisited.
Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D; Corradini, Maria G
2012-01-01
The Arrhenius equation has been widely used as a model of the temperature effect on the rate of chemical reactions and biological processes in foods. Since the model requires that the rate increase monotonically with temperature, its applicability to enzymatic reactions and microbial growth, which have optimal temperature, is obviously limited. This is also true for microbial inactivation and chemical reactions that only start at an elevated temperature, and for complex processes and reactions that do not follow fixed order kinetics, that is, where the isothermal rate constant, however defined, is a function of both temperature and time. The linearity of the Arrhenius plot, that is, Ln[k(T)] vs. 1/T where T is in °K has been traditionally considered evidence of the model's validity. Consequently, the slope of the plot has been used to calculate the reaction or processes' "energy of activation," usually without independent verification. Many experimental and simulated rate constant vs. temperature relationships that yield linear Arrhenius plots can also be described by the simpler exponential model Ln[k(T)/k(T(reference))] = c(T-T(reference)). The use of the exponential model or similar empirical alternative would eliminate the confusing temperature axis inversion, the unnecessary compression of the temperature scale, and the need for kinetic assumptions that are hard to affirm in food systems. It would also eliminate the reference to the Universal gas constant in systems where a "mole" cannot be clearly identified. Unless proven otherwise by independent experiments, one cannot dismiss the notion that the apparent linearity of the Arrhenius plot in many food systems is due to a mathematical property of the model's equation rather than to the existence of a temperature independent "energy of activation." If T+273.16°C in the Arrhenius model's equation is replaced by T+b, where the numerical value of the arbitrary constant b is substantially larger than T and T
Friston, Karl J.; Bastos, André M.; Oswal, Ashwini; van Wijk, Bernadette; Richter, Craig; Litvak, Vladimir
2014-01-01
This technical paper offers a critical re-evaluation of (spectral) Granger causality measures in the analysis of biological timeseries. Using realistic (neural mass) models of coupled neuronal dynamics, we evaluate the robustness of parametric and nonparametric Granger causality. Starting from a broad class of generative (state-space) models of neuronal dynamics, we show how their Volterra kernels prescribe the second-order statistics of their response to random fluctuations; characterised in terms of cross-spectral density, cross-covariance, autoregressive coefficients and directed transfer functions. These quantities in turn specify Granger causality — providing a direct (analytic) link between the parameters of a generative model and the expected Granger causality. We use this link to show that Granger causality measures based upon autoregressive models can become unreliable when the underlying dynamics is dominated by slow (unstable) modes — as quantified by the principal Lyapunov exponent. However, nonparametric measures based on causal spectral factors are robust to dynamical instability. We then demonstrate how both parametric and nonparametric spectral causality measures can become unreliable in the presence of measurement noise. Finally, we show that this problem can be finessed by deriving spectral causality measures from Volterra kernels, estimated using dynamic causal modelling. PMID:25003817
Friston, Karl J; Bastos, André M; Oswal, Ashwini; van Wijk, Bernadette; Richter, Craig; Litvak, Vladimir
2014-11-01
This technical paper offers a critical re-evaluation of (spectral) Granger causality measures in the analysis of biological timeseries. Using realistic (neural mass) models of coupled neuronal dynamics, we evaluate the robustness of parametric and nonparametric Granger causality. Starting from a broad class of generative (state-space) models of neuronal dynamics, we show how their Volterra kernels prescribe the second-order statistics of their response to random fluctuations; characterised in terms of cross-spectral density, cross-covariance, autoregressive coefficients and directed transfer functions. These quantities in turn specify Granger causality - providing a direct (analytic) link between the parameters of a generative model and the expected Granger causality. We use this link to show that Granger causality measures based upon autoregressive models can become unreliable when the underlying dynamics is dominated by slow (unstable) modes - as quantified by the principal Lyapunov exponent. However, nonparametric measures based on causal spectral factors are robust to dynamical instability. We then demonstrate how both parametric and nonparametric spectral causality measures can become unreliable in the presence of measurement noise. Finally, we show that this problem can be finessed by deriving spectral causality measures from Volterra kernels, estimated using dynamic causal modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atakishiyeva, Mesuma K.; Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2014-05-01
The study of irreducible representations of Lie algebras and groups has traditionally considered their action on functions of a continuous manifold (e.g. the 'rotation' Lie algebra so(3) on functions on the sphere). Here we argue that functions of a discrete variable -Kravchuk functions- are on equal footing for that study in the case of so(3). They lead to a discrete quantum model of the harmonic oscillator, and offer a corresponding set of special function relations. The technique is applicable to other special function families of a discrete variable, which stem from low-dimensional Lie algebras and are stationary solutions for the corresponding discrete quantum models.
No-scale ripple inflation revisited
Li, Tianjun; Li, Zhijin; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: lizhijin@physics.tamu.edu
2014-04-01
We revisit the no-scale ripple inflation model, where no-scale supergravity is modified by an additional term for the inflaton field in the Kähler potential. This term not only breaks one SU(N,1) symmetry explicitly, but also plays an important role for inflation. We generalize the superpotential in the no-scale ripple inflation model slightly. There exists a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry/parity in the scalar potential in general, which can be preserved or violated by the non-canonical nomalized inflaton kinetic term. Thus, there are three inflation paths: one parity invariant path, and the left and right paths for parity violating scenario. We show that the inflations along the parity invariant path and right path are consistent with the Planck results. However, the gavitino mass for the parity invariant path is so large that the inflation results will be invalid if we consider the inflaton supersymmetry breaking soft mass term. Thus, only the inflation along the right path gives the correct and consistent results. Notably, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such case can be large, with a value around 0.05, which may be probed by the future Planck experiment.
The drive revisited: Mastery and satisfaction.
Denis, Paul
2016-06-01
Starting from the theory of the libido and the notions of the experience of satisfaction and the drive for mastery introduced by Freud, the author revisits the notion of the drive by proposing the following model: the drive takes shape in the combination of two currents of libidinal cathexis, one which takes the paths of the 'apparatus for obtaining mastery' (the sense-organs, motricity, etc.) and strives to appropriate the object, and the other which cathects the erotogenic zones and the experience of satisfaction that is experienced through stimulation in contact with the object. The result of this combination of cathexes constitutes a 'representation', the subsequent evocation of which makes it possible to tolerate for a certain period of time the absence of a satisfying object. On the basis of this conception, the author distinguishes the representations proper, vehicles of satisfaction, from imagos and traumatic images which give rise to excitation that does not link up with the paths taken by the drives. This model makes it possible to conciliate the points of view of the advocates of 'object-seeking' and of those who give precedence to the search for pleasure, and, further, to renew our understanding of object-relations, which can then be approached from the angle of their relations to infantile sexuality. Destructiveness is considered in terms of "mastery madness" and not in terms of the late Freudian hypothesis of the death drive.
Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sims, Rod
2015-01-01
Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Arpit; Kaplan, David E.; Zorawski, Tom
2013-11-01
Most generic models of hidden sector supersymmetry breaking do not feature singlets, and gauginos obtain masses from anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. If one desires a natural model, then the dominant contribution to scalar masses should be of the same order, i.e. also from AMSB. However, pure AMSB models suffer from the tachyonic slepton problem. Moreover, there is a large splitting between the gluino and the wino LSP masses resulting in tight exclusion limits from typical superpartner searches. We introduce messenger fields into this framework to obtain a hybrid theory of gauge and anomaly mediation, solving both problems simultaneously. Specifically, we find any number of vector-like messenger fields (allowed by GUT unification) compress the predicted gaugino spectrum when their masses come from the Giudice-Masiero mechanism. This more compressed spectrum is less constrained by LHC searches and allows for lighter gluinos. In addition to the model, we present gaugino pole mass equations that differ from (and correct) the original literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, William J.
2001-01-01
An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble political…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, F.
1972-01-01
The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.
Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri; Unnikrishnan, Sanil E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: sanil@lnmiit.ac.in
2014-07-01
We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result in a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.
Chialva, Diego; Danielsson, Ulf H E-mail: ulf.danielsson@fysast.uu.se
2008-10-15
This paper represents an in-depth treatment of the chain inflation scenario. We fully determine the evolution of the universe in the model, the conditions necessary in order to have a successful inflationary period, and the matching with the observational results regarding the cosmological perturbations. We study in great detail, and in general, the dynamics of the background, as well as the mechanism of generation of the perturbations. We also find an explicit formula for the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations. Our results prove that chain inflation is a viable model for solving the horizon, entropy and flatness problems of standard cosmology and for generating the right amount of adiabatic cosmological perturbations. The results are radically different from those found in previous works on the subject. Finally, we argue that there is a natural way to embed chain inflation into flux compactified string theory. We discuss the details of the implementation and how to fit observations.
Which String Breaks? Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frye, Christopher
2011-03-01
Many have seen the common introductory physics demonstration in which a heavy ball hangs from a string, with another identical string hanging freely from the ball. When the instructor pulls the bottom string slowly, the top string breaks. However, when the instructor pulls the bottom string very rapidly, the bottom string breaks. This simple experiment is used to demonstrate inertia and Newton's laws. In The Physics Teacher of November 1996, there is an article in which the authors create a model of this problem in an attempt to explain the outcomes quantitatively. However, their analysis gave strange results. Using an improved model, I will show that the results of this demonstration can be obtained using only simple calculations. This work was funded by a RAMP grant from the University of Central Florida.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre
1996-08-01
All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.
Allostery and cooperativity revisited
Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin
2008-01-01
Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.
2011-11-01
The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.
Parental overprotection revisited.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
1993-01-01
Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:8287694
Twisted Crab fingers revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlqvist, Per
2015-05-01
Narrowband images of the Crab Nebula captured by the Hubble Space Telescope have earlier shown that the nebula does not only present a network of broad, bright filaments crossing the nebula but also numerous so-called fingers mostly pointing inwards. Using archival Hubble images we have in some detail studied the morphology of a great number of such fingers. This scrutiny has revealed that practically all the fingers are made up of filaments. Most of the larger fingers show overall shapes that are similar to either of the two letters V and Y. In many of these fingers it is also possible to see internal details. Interestingly, a number of the larger, Y-shaped fingers turn out to have a stem that consists of intertwined filaments. By contrast with this, the smaller fingers usually appear only as diffuse and sometimes incomplete pegs. In none of the smaller fingers is it possible to find any plain, internal structure. The observational results obtained are compared with the properties of a previously proposed model of the fingers. The model suggests that the fingers have evolved out of magnetized filaments. The evolution should lead to fingers with overall shapes that are similar to either a V or a Y, very much in agreement with the observations. In addition to this, the model prescribes that the stems of the Y-shaped fingers should be made up of intertwined filaments. From all these points of agreement we conclude that the properties of the fingers observed lend strong support to the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linnell, Albert P.; Kallrath, Josef
1986-01-01
New analysis tools and additional unanalyzed observations justify a reanalysis of MR Cygni. The reanalysis applied successively more restrictive physical models, each with an optimization program. The final model assigned separate first and second order limb darkening coefficients, from model atmospheres, to individual grid points. Proper operation of the optimization procedure was tested on simulated observational data, produced by light synthesis with assigned system parameters, and modulated by simulated observational error. The iterative solution converged to a weakly-determined mass ratio of 0.75. Assuming the B3 primary component is on the main sequence, the HR diagram location of the secondary from the light ratio (ordinate) and adjusted T sub eff (abscissa) was calculated. The derived mass ratio, together with a main-sequence mass for the B3 component, implies a main-sequence secondary spectral type of B4. The photometrically-determined secondary radii agree with this spectral type, in marginal disagreement with the B7 type from the HR diagram analysis. The individual masses, derived from the radial velocity curve of the primary component, the photometrically-determined i, and alternative values of derived mass ratio are seriously discrepant with main sequence objects. The imputed physical status of the system is in disagreement with representations that have appeared in the literature.
Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth
2015-03-16
Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target.
Mores, Robert
2016-08-01
Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745
Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth
2015-01-01
Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063
Axisymmetric multiwormholes revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clément, Gérard
2016-06-01
The construction of stationary axisymmetric multiwormhole solutions to gravitating field theories admitting toroidal reductions to three-dimensional gravitating sigma models is reviewed. We show that, as in the multi-black hole case, strut singularities always appear in this construction, except for very special configurations with an odd number of centers. We also review the analytical continuation of the multicenter solution across the n cuts associated with the wormhole mouths. The resulting Riemann manifold has 2^n sheets interconnected by 2^{n-1}n wormholes. We find that the maximally extended multicenter solution can never be asymptotically locally flat in all the Riemann sheets.
Scadron, M. D.
2008-08-31
A model-independent chiral soft-pion theorem (SPT) shields the now observed scalar-meson ground-state isoscalar {sigma}(600) and isospinor {kappa}(800) resonances from detection in a{sub 1}{yields}{pi}({pi}{pi}){sub S-wave}, {gamma}{gamma}{yields}2{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup -}P{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}n, and K{sup -}P{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}n processes. Moreover, for pseudoscalar-to-vector-vector (PVV) decays, quark loops only are required.
Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.
2001-06-01
We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.
Acute Kidney Injury: Controversies Revisited
Yong, Kenneth; Dogra, Gursharan; Boudville, Neil; Pinder, Mary; Lim, Wai
2011-01-01
This paper addresses the epidemiology of AKI specifically in relation to recent changes in AKI classification and revisits the controversies regarding the timing of initiation of dialysis and the use of peritoneal dialysis as a renal replacement therapy for AKI. In summary, the new RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI have facilitated more uniform diagnosis of AKI and clinically significant risk stratification. Regardless, the issue of timing of dialysis initiation still remains unanswered and warrants further examination. Furthermore, peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality for AKI remains underutilised in spite of potential beneficial effects. Future research should be directed at identifying early reliable biomarkers of AKI, which in conjunction with RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI could facilitate well-designed large randomised controlled trials of early versus late initiation of dialysis in AKI. In addition, further studies of peritoneal dialysis in AKI addressing dialysis dose and associated complications are required for this therapy to be accepted more widely by clinicians. PMID:21660314
a Field-Theoretical Investigation of 2-D Coulomb Systems with Short-Range Yukawa Repulsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jargocki, Krzysztof Piotr
The two-dimensional Coulomb gas, consisting of positive and negative charges, is an important system which, on one hand, is equivalent to the vortex sector of the planar X-Y model, and, on the other, to the sine-Gordon field theory. In most treatments the charged particles are assumed to have a repulsive hard core which prevents arbitrarily close approaches. In the present work a new regularization scheme based on a soft short-range Yukawa repulsion between the Coulomb gas particles is presented. This formulation is transcribed into a local sine-Gordon-like field theory involving two Bose fields, one the original massless sine -Gordon field corresponding to the long-range Coulomb interaction and an auxiliary massive field corresponding to the short -range Yukawa repulsion. The resulting Lagrangian is not Hermitian. Using the techniques of functional integration, an effective field theory involving the Coulomb field alone is obtained by integrating out the massive field. The resulting Lagrangian is now Hermitian. Then a generalization of Peierls' inequality is used to make a variational calculation of the ground state energy of the Coulomb system. Unlike in the pure sine-Gordon case the theory has a well-defined ground state energy for (beta)q('2) > 2 (or (beta)c('2) > 8(pi)). A new method is used to derive the Kosterlitz -Thouless renormalization group equations, starting with the original sine-Gordon-like theory. The equations are identical to those found previously by other authors. A wave function renormalization is found to be necessary in addition to the normal ordering discussed by Coleman. A fermionized version of the theory is obtained, using the dictionary provided by Kogut and Susskind, which involves two Fermi fields and an electromagnetic potential. Position -space correlation functions are calculated at the critical point. The effective potential is computed in the one -loop approximation. A nonlinear field theory with derivative couplings is found to
The climate continuum revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emile-Geay, J.; Wang, J.; Partin, J. W.
2015-12-01
A grand challenge of climate science is to quantify the extent of natural variability on adaptation-relevant timescales (10-100y). Since the instrumental record is too short to adequately estimate the spectra of climate measures, this information must be derived from paleoclimate proxies, which may harbor a many-to-one, non-linear (e.g. thresholded) and non-stationary relationship to climate. In this talk, I will touch upon the estimation of climate scaling behavior from climate proxies. Two case studies will be presented: an investigation of scaling behavior in a reconstruction of global surface temperature using state-of- the-art data [PAGES2K Consortium, in prep] and methods [Guillot et al., 2015]. Estimating the scaling exponent β in spectra derived from this reconstruction, we find that 0 < β < 1 in most regions, suggesting long-term memory. Overall, the reconstruction-based spectra are steeper than the ones based on an instrumental dataset [HadCRUT4.2, Morice et al., 2012], and those estimated from PMIP3/CMIP5 models, suggesting the climate system is more energetic at multidecadal to centennial timescales than can be inferred from the short instrumental record or from the models developed to reproduce it [Laepple and Huybers, 2014]. an investigation of scaling behavior in speleothems records of tropical hydroclimate. We will make use of recent advances in proxy system modeling [Dee et al., 2015] and investigate how various aspects of the speleothem system (karst dynamics, age uncertainties) may conspire to bias the estimate of scaling behavior from speleothem timeseries. The results suggest that ignoring such complications leads to erroneous inferences about hydroclimate scaling. References Dee, S. G., J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, Allam, A., D. M. Thompson, and E. J. Steig (2015), J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., 07, doi:10.1002/2015MS000447. Guillot, D., B. Rajaratnam, and J. Emile-Geay (2015), Ann. Applied. Statist., pp. 324-352, doi:10.1214/14-AOAS794. Laepple, T
Nazaret, Christine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre
2008-06-01
We revisit an old Russian paper by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov (1980a,b) describing: "A mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load". We analyse the model mathematically and calculate the control coefficients as a function of ATPase loads. We also evaluate the structure of the metabolic network in terms of elementary flux modes. We show how this model can respond to an ATPase load as well as to the glucose supply. We also show how this simple model can help in understanding the articulation between the major blocks of energetic metabolism, i.e. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles.
GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED
Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu
2009-07-20
A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Mauro; Zintzaras, Elias; Szathmáry, Eörs
2003-10-01
Why did sex ever arise in the first place? Why it does not disappear in view of the greater efficiency of asexuals? These are clearly two different questions, and we suggest here that the solution for the origin of sex does not necessarily come from theoretical considerations based on currently existing genetic systems. Thus, while we agree with a number of authors in that the emergence of sex (understood as the exchange of genetic material between genomes) is deeply rooted in the origin of life and happened during the very early stages in the transition from individual genes (`replicators') to bacteria-like cells (`reproducers'), we challenge the idea that recombinational repair was the major selective force for the emergence of sex. Taking the stochastic corrector model as a starting point, we provide arguments that question the putative costs of redundancy in primitive protocells. In addition, if genes that cause intragenomic conflict (i.e., parasites) are taken into account, it is certainly wrong to suggest that cellular fusion would be beneficial at the population level (although this strong claim needs some qualifications). However, when a continuous input of deleterious mutations that impair the fitness of the protocell as a whole is considered in the model (in the realistic range in which stable mutant distributions of quasi-species within compartments are established), there are circumstances when sex could be beneficial as a side effect of the dynamic equilibrium between cellular fusion-mutation-selection. The scenario we have explored numerically is fully consistent with the idea that the universal ancestor was not a discrete entity but an ensemble of proto-organisms that exchanged much genetic information.
Solar Forbidden Oxygen, Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayres, Thomas R.
2008-10-01
Recent large reductions in the solar oxygen abundance, based on synthesis of photospheric O I, OH, and CO absorptions with 3D convection models, have provoked consternation in the helioseismology community: the previous excellent agreement between measured p-mode oscillation frequencies and predictions based on the recommended epsilonO of a decade ago (680 parts per million [ppm] relative to hydrogen) unravels at the new low value (460 ppm). In an attempt to reconcile these conflicting results, the formation of pivotal [O I] λ6300, which is blended with a weak Ni I line, has been reconsidered, exploiting an alternative 3D model (albeit only a single temporal snapshot). And while there are several areas of agreement with the earlier [O I] studies of Allende Prieto, Asplund, and others, there is one crucial point of disagreement: the epsilonO derived here is significantly larger, 650 +/- 65 ppm (although at the expense of a ~30% weaker Ni I line than expected from the recommended nickel abundance). One innovation is a more robust treatment of the solar wavelengths: the balance between the components of the [O I] + Ni I blend is sensitive to velocity errors of only a few hundred m s-1. A second improvement is enforcement of a "continuum calibration" to ensure a self-consistent 3D temperature scale. Because of the renewed agreement between the linchpin tracer [O I] and seismic oxygen, the proposed downward slump of the solar metallicity and the perceived "oxygen crisis" now can be said to rest on less secure footings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Scott D.; Adam, Claudia
2014-10-01
The first attempts to quantify the width and height of hotspot swells were made more than 30 years ago. Since that time, topography, ocean-floor age, and sediment thickness datasets have improved considerably. Swell heights and widths have been used to estimate the heat flow from the core-mantle boundary, constrain numerical models of plumes, and as an indicator of the origin of hotspots. In this paper, we repeat the analysis of swell geometry and buoyancy flux for 54 hotspots, including the 37 considered by Sleep (1990) and the 49 considered by Courtillot et al. (2003), using the latest and most accurate data. We are able to calculate swell geometry for a number of hotspots that Sleep was only able to estimate by comparison with other swells. We find that in spite of the increased resolution in global bathymetry models there is significant uncertainty in our calculation of buoyancy fluxes due to differences in our measurement of the swells’ width and height, the integration method (volume integration or cross-sectional area), and the variations of the plate velocities between HS2-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 1990) and HS3-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 2002). We also note that the buoyancy flux for Pacific hotspots is in general larger than for Eurasian, North American, African and Antarctic hotspots. Considering that buoyancy flux is linearly related to plate velocity, we speculate that either the calculation of buoyancy flux using plate velocity over-estimates the actual vertical flow of material from the deep mantle or that convection in the Pacific hemisphere is more vigorous than the Atlantic hemisphere.
Targeting Cancer Metabolism - Revisiting the Warburg Effects
Tran, Quangdon; Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jisoo; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Park, Jongsun
2016-01-01
After more than half of century since the Warburg effect was described, this atypical metabolism has been standing true for almost every type of cancer, exhibiting higher glycolysis and lactate metabolism and defective mitochondrial ATP production. This phenomenon had attracted many scientists to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of, and reason for, this effect. Several models based on oncogenic studies have been proposed, such as the accumulation of mitochondrial gene mutations, the switch from oxidative phosphorylation respiration to glycolysis, the enhancement of lactate metabolism, and the alteration of glycolytic genes. Whether the Warburg phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or the cause of cancer remains unknown. Moreover, the exact reasons and physiological values of this peculiar metabolism in cancer remain unclear. Although there are some pharmacological compounds, such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, dichloroacetic acid, and 3-bromopyruvate, therapeutic strategies, including diet, have been developed based on targeting the Warburg effect. In this review, we will revisit the Warburg effect to determine how much scientists currently understand about this phenomenon and how we can treat the cancer based on targeting metabolism. PMID:27437085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, Richard; Van Der Avoird, Ad
2012-06-01
The conclusion from microwave spectra by Nelson, Fraser, and Klemperer that the ammonia dimer has a nearly cyclic structure led to much debate about the issue of whether (NH_3)_2 is hydrogen bonded. This structure was surprising because most {ab initio} calculations led to a classical, nearly linear, hydrogen-bonded structure. An obvious explanation of the discrepancy between the outcome of these calculations and the microwave data which led Nelson {et al.} to their ``surprising structure'' might be the effect of vibrational averaging: the electronic structure calculations focus on finding the minimum of the intermolecular potential, the experiment gives a vibrationally averaged structure. Isotope substitution studies seemed to indicate, however, that the complex is nearly rigid. Additional data became available from high-resolution molecular beam far-infrared spectroscopy in the Saykally group. These spectra, displaying large tunneling splittings, indicate that the complex is very floppy. The seemingly contradictory experimental data were explained when it became possible to calculate the vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) states of the complex on a six-dimensional intermolecular potential surface. The potential used was a simple model potential, with parameters fitted to the far-infrared data. Now, for the first time, a six-dimensional potential was computed by high level {ab initio} methods and this potential will be used in calculations of the VRT states of (NH_3)_2 and (ND_3)_2. So, we will finally be able to answer the question whether the conclusions from the model calculations are indeed a valid explanation of the experimental data. D. Nelson, G. T. Fraser, and W. Klemperer J. Chem. Phys. 83 6201 (1985) J. G. Loeser, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, R. C. Cohen, M. J. Elrod, D. W. Steyert, R. J. Saykally, R. E. Bumgarner, and G. A. Blake J. Chem. Phys. 97 4727 (1992) E. H. T. Olthof, A. van der Avoird, and P. E. S. Wormer J. Chem. Phys. 101 8430 (1994) E. H. T. Olthof
Fechner's aesthetics revisited.
Phillips, Flip; Norman, J Farley; Beers, Amanda M
2010-01-01
Gustav Fechner is widely respected as a founding father of experimental psychology and psychophysics but fewer know of his interests and work in empirical aesthetics. In the later 1800s, toward the end of his career, Fechner performed experiments to empirically evaluate the beauty of rectangles, hypothesizing that the preferred shape would closely match that of the so-called 'golden rectangle'. His findings confirmed his suspicions, but in the intervening decades there has been significant evidence pointing away from that finding. Regardless of the results of this one study, Fechner ushered in the notion of using a metric to evaluate beauty in a psychophysical way. In this paper, we recreate the experiment using more naturalistic stimuli. We evaluate subjects' preferences against models that use various types of object complexity as metrics. Our findings that subjects prefer either very simple or very complex objects runs contrary to the hypothesized results, but are systematic none the less. We conclude that there are likely to be useful measures of aesthetic preference but they are likely to be complicated by the difficulty in defining some of their constituent parts.
Economics of vaccines revisited.
Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A
2013-05-01
Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maynard, N. C.; Gebowsky, J. M.
1976-01-01
Saturation of the dc double probe instrument on Explorer 45 was used to identify the plasmapause. A data base was developed to statistically study the average position of the plasmapause over 14.5 hours of magnetic local time under differing magnetic conditions. The afternoon-evening bulge in the L coordinate of the plasmapause versus local time was found centered between 20 and 21 hours MLT during magnetically quiet periods and shifted toward dusk as activity increased, but always post dusk. During quiet periods a bulge in the L coordinate near noon was also seen, which disappeared as activity increased. The average local time distribution plasmapause position during high magnetic activity was irregular in the afternoon region where large scale convection models predict the creation of plasmatails or detached plasma regions from increases in the solar wind induced convection. The results suggest that solar wind induced convection is partially shielded from the dayside. As the intensity of the convection is increased, it more effectively penetrates the dayside, which shifts the post dusk bulge nearer to dusk and eliminates the quiet-time bulge near noon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahni, Varun
2016-07-01
The Phantom brane is based on the normal branch of the DGP braneworld. It possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, but no big-rip future singularity. In this braneworld, the cosmological constant is dynamically screened at late times. Consequently it provides a good fit to SDSS DR11 measurements of H(z) at high redshifts. We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations on the brane. Perturbations of radiation, matter and the Weyl fluid are self-consistently evolved until the present epoch. We find that the late time growth of density perturbations on the brane proceeds at a faster rate than in ΛCDM. Additionally, the gravitational potentials φ, Ψ evolve differently on the brane than in ΛCDM, for which φ = Ψ. On the Brane, by contrast, the ratio φ/Ψ exceeds unity during the late matter dominated epoch (z ≤ 50). These features emerge as smoking gun tests of phantom brane cosmology and allow predictions of this scenario to be tested against observations of galaxy clustering and large scale structure. The phantom brane also displays a pole in its equation of state, which provides a key test of this dark energy model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milone, E. F.; Schiller, S. J.; Munari, U.; Kallrath, J.
1999-05-01
We have evidence confirming changes in light curve amplitude of the former eclipsing and current SB2 system SS Lac in the open cluster NGC 7209. Remeasured Harvard plate data and published and compiled data sets reveal that the depth of the primary minimum increased between the 1890s and early 1900s and decreased in the 1920s and 1930s. Peak fittings of the amplitude with phase suggests a peak amplitude centered ca. 1911.5, with eclipse onset at about 1885 and effective eclipse cessation late in 1937. We thus concur with the findings of Lehmann (IBVS 3610, 1991), that the apparent inclination varies with time and that a central eclipse occurred about 1911, and of Mossakovskaya (Astron. Lett., 19, 35, 1993), that eclipses ceased prior to 1940. Estimates of SS Lac from plates taken at Tashkent between 1937 and 1940 serve to confirm these results. We have completed now an exhaustive study of the radial velocity curves of Tomasella & Munari (1998, A&A, 335, 561) and all three potentially useful archival light curves available to us, and will discuss the implications of the solutions for models of the system and the cluster to which it belongs. This work was supported in part by grants to Milone from NSERC of Canada, and the URGC of the University of Calgary.
Lupus erythematosus revisited.
Kuhn, Annegret; Wenzel, Joerg; Bijl, Marc
2016-01-01
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of differing severity. The exact pathomechanisms and interactions resulting in the inflammatory and immunological processes of this heterogeneous disease remain elusive. Approaches in the understanding of the pathomechanisms revealed that the clinical expression of LE is predisposed by susceptibility genes and that various environmental factors are responsible for an abnormal immune response. Several studies demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Standardized photoprovocation in patients with LE has been shown to be a safe and efficient model for evaluating the underlying pathomechanisms which lead to the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes. In particular, interferons were defined as important players in the early activation of the immune system and were observed to play a specific role in the immunological interface between the innate and the adaptive immune system. Abnormalities or disturbances in the different processes of cell death, such as apoptosis or necrosis, have also been recognized as crucial in the pathogenesis of LE. Although each process is different and characterized by unique features, the processes are interrelated and result in a complex disease.
Ancient deforestation revisited.
Hughes, J Donald
2011-01-01
The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.
Fechner's aesthetics revisited.
Phillips, Flip; Norman, J Farley; Beers, Amanda M
2010-01-01
Gustav Fechner is widely respected as a founding father of experimental psychology and psychophysics but fewer know of his interests and work in empirical aesthetics. In the later 1800s, toward the end of his career, Fechner performed experiments to empirically evaluate the beauty of rectangles, hypothesizing that the preferred shape would closely match that of the so-called 'golden rectangle'. His findings confirmed his suspicions, but in the intervening decades there has been significant evidence pointing away from that finding. Regardless of the results of this one study, Fechner ushered in the notion of using a metric to evaluate beauty in a psychophysical way. In this paper, we recreate the experiment using more naturalistic stimuli. We evaluate subjects' preferences against models that use various types of object complexity as metrics. Our findings that subjects prefer either very simple or very complex objects runs contrary to the hypothesized results, but are systematic none the less. We conclude that there are likely to be useful measures of aesthetic preference but they are likely to be complicated by the difficulty in defining some of their constituent parts. PMID:20819476
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglas, A.
2007-01-01
contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The
The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited
Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.
2007-04-19
A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.
MEG source detection revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Tianhu; Roberts, Timothy P. L.
2010-04-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel imaging technique. It uses an array composed of a large number of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to measure the magnetic fields produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain. The measured spatio-temporal magnetic fields are then used to estimate the locations and strengths of these electric currents, often known as MEG sources. The estimated quantities are finally superimposed with the images generated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The combination of information from MEG and MRI forms the magnetic source image (MSI). A great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques such as Inverse problem, Subspace approach, Independent component analysis (ICA) method, and Beamforming (BF) are used to estimate these sources. The first three approaches require the number of sources be detected a priori. Several shortcomings exist in the currently used methods for detecting the source number. First, the source detection is completed only after - not before - MSI is generated. Secondly, the detection methods are somewhat subjective. In order to provide a solution to the problem of detecting MEG source number for all these approaches, a novel method is developed. The covariance matrix of MEG measurements over all channels is decomposed into the signal and the noise subspaces. The number of sources is shown to be equal to the dimension of the signal subspace. The selection of this dimension is translated into a problem of determining the order of the underlying statistics. This statistical identification is resolved by using Information theoretic criteria which are derived based on Kullback-Leibler divergence. Because the method utilizes originally acquired MEG measurements and implemented before magnetic source images are generated, it is an entirely data-driven approach, more efficient, and less likely to be subjective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
2013-01-01
Fifty years ago, Mednick ["Psychological Review", 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenner, Howard
2006-10-01
Öttinger's recent nontraditional incorporation of fluctuations into the formulation of the friction matrix appearing in the phenomenological GENERIC theory of nonequilibrium irreversible processes is shown to furnish transport equations for single-component gases and liquids undergoing heat transfer which support the view that revisions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (N-S-F) momentum/energy equation set are necessary, as empirically proposed by the author on the basis of an experimentally supported theory of diffuse volume transport. The hypothesis that the conventional N-S-F equations prevail without modification only in the case of “incompressible” fluids, where the density ρ of the fluid is uniform throughout, serves to determine the new phenomenological parameter α‧ appearing in the GENERIC friction matrix. In the case of ideal gases the consequences of this constitutive hypothesis are shown to yield results identical to those derived theoretically by Öttinger on the basis of a “proper” coarse-graining of Boltzmann's kinetic equation. A major consequence of the present work is that the fluid's specific momentum density v is equal to its volume velocity vv, rather than to its mass velocity vm, contrary to current views dating back 250 years to Euler. In the case of rarefied gases the proposed modifications are also observed to agree with those resulting from Klimontovich's molecularly based, albeit ad hoc, self-diffusion addendum to Boltzmann's collision integral. Despite the differences in their respective physical models-molecular vs. phenomenological-the role played by Klimontovich's collisional addition to Boltzmann's equation in modifying the N-S-F equations is noted to constitute a molecular counterpart of Öttinger's phenomenological fluctuation addition to the GENERIC friction matrix. Together, these two theories collectively recognize the need to address multiple- rather than single- encounter collisions between a test molecule and its
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haq, Bilal U.
2014-02-01
Eustatic sea-level changes of the Cretaceous are reevaluated based on a synthesis of global stratigraphic data. A new terminology for local/regional or relative sea-level changes (eurybatic shifts) is proposed to distinguish them from global (eustatic) sea-level changes, with the observation that all measures of sea-level change in any given location are eurybatic, even when they include a strong global signal. Solid-earth factors that influence inherited regional topography and thus modify physical measures of amplitude of the sea-level rises and falls locally are reviewed. One of these factors, dynamic topography (surface expression of mass flow in the upper mantle on land- and seascapes), is considered most pertinent in altering local measures of amplitude of sea-level events on third-order time scales (0.5-3.0 Myr). Insights gained from these models have led to the reconciliation of variance between amplitude estimates of eurybatic shifts in any given region and global measures of eustatic changes. Global estimates of third-order events can only be guesstimated at best by averaging the eurybatic data from widely distributed time-synchronous events. Revised curves for both long-term and short-term sea-level variations are presented for the Cretaceous Period. The curve representing the long-term envelope shows that average sea levels throughout the Cretaceous remained higher than the present day mean sea level (75-250 m above PDMSL). Sea level reached a trough in mid Valanginian (~ 75 m above PDMSL), followed by two high points, the first in early Barremian (~ 160-170 m above PDMSL) and the second, the highest peak of the Cretaceous, in earliest Turonian (~ 240-250 m above PDMSL). The curve also displays two ~ 20 Myr-long periods of relatively high and stable sea levels (Aptian through early Albian and Coniacian through Campanian). The short-term curve identifies 58 third-order eustatic events in the Cretaceous, most have been documented in several basins, while
Nakagome, Shigeki; Sato, Takehiro; Ishida, Hajime; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Ryosuke; Mano, Shuhei; Oota, Hiroki
2015-06-01
Various hypotheses for the peopling of the Japanese archipelago have been proposed, which can be classified into three models: transformation, replacement, and hybridization. In recent years, one of the hybridization models ("dual-structure model") has been widely accepted. According to this model, Neolithic hunter-gatherers known as Jomon, who are assumed to have originated in southeast Asia and lived in the Japanese archipelago greater than 10,000 years ago, admixed with an agricultural people known as Yayoi, whom were migrants from the East Asian continent 2,000-3,000 years ago. Meanwhile, some anthropologists propose that rather, morphological differences between the Jomon and Yayoi people can be explained by microevolution following the lifestyle change. To resolve this controversy, we compared three demographic models by approximate Bayesian computation using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (gwSNP) data from the Ainu people who are thought to be direct descendants of indigenous Jomon. If we assume Chinese people sampled in Beijing from HapMap have the same ancestry as Yayoi, then the hybridization model is predicted to be between 29 and 63 times more likely than the replacement and transformation models, respectively. Furthermore, our data provide strong support for a model in which the Jomon lineages had population structure diversified in local areas before the admixture event. Initial divergence between the Jomon and Yayoi ancestries was dated to late Pleistocene, followed by the divergence of Jomon lineages at early Holocene. These results suggest gwSNP data provides a detailed picture of the complex hybridization model for Japanese population history.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglas, A.
2007-01-01
contrast simple, comprising one or two cycles of large amplitude followed by a low-amplitude coda. Earthquake signals on the other hand were often complex with numerous arrivals of similar amplitude spread over 35 s or more. It therefore appeared that earthquakes could be recognised on complexity. Later however, complex explosion signals were observed which reduced the apparent effectiveness of complexity as a criterion for identifying earthquakes. Nevertheless, the AWE Group concluded that for many paths to teleseismic distances, Earth is transparent for P signals and this provides a window through which source differences will be most clearly seen. Much of the research by the Group has focused on understanding the influence of source type on P seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances. Consequently the paper concentrates on teleseismic methods of distinguishing between explosions and earthquakes. One of the most robust criteria for discriminating between earthquakes and explosions is the m b : M s criterion which compares the amplitudes of the SP P waves as measured by the body-wave magnitude m b, and the long-period (LP: ˜0.05 Hz) Rayleigh-wave amplitude as measured by the surface-wave magnitude M s; the P and Rayleigh waves being the main wave types used in forensic seismology. For a given M s, the m b for explosions is larger than for most earthquakes. The criterion is difficult to apply however, at low magnitude (say m b < 4.5) and there are exceptions—earthquakes that look like explosions. A difficulty with identification criteria developed in the early days of forensic seismology was that they were in the main empirical—it was not known why they appeared to work and if there were test sites or earthquakes where they would fail. Consequently the AWE Group in cooperation with the University of Cambridge used seismogram modelling to try and understand what controls complexity of SP P seismograms, and to put the m b : M s criterion on a theoretical basis. The
Ryan, James; Hendler, James; Bennett, Kristin P
2015-12-01
Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) have the potential to improve healthcare quality and to decrease costs by providing quality metrics, discovering actionable insights, and supporting decision-making to improve future outcomes. Within the United States Medicaid Program, rates of recidivism among emergency department (ED) patients serve as metrics of hospital performance that help ensure efficient and effective treatment within the ED. We analyze ED Medicaid patient data from 1,149,738 EHRs provided by a hospital over a 2-year period to understand the characteristics of the ED return visits within a 72-hour time frame. Frequent flyer patients with multiple revisits account for 47% of Medicaid patient revisits over this period. ED encounters by frequent flyer patients with prior 72-hour revisits in the last 6 months are thrice more likely to result in a readmit than those of infrequent patients. Statistical L1-logistic regression and random forest analyses reveal distinct patterns of ED usage and patient diagnoses between frequent and infrequent patient encounters, suggesting distinct opportunities for interventions to improve efficacy of care and streamline ED workflow. This work forms a foundation for future development of predictive models, which could flag patients at high risk of revisiting.
Hofman, Abe D; Visser, Ingmar; Jansen, Brenda R J; van der Maas, Han L J
2015-01-01
We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children's responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM) following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779), and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808). For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development. PMID:26505905
Hofman, Abe D.; Visser, Ingmar; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
2015-01-01
We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children’s responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM) following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779), and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808). For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development. PMID:26505905
Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel
2013-09-21
We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chou, Chien; Wu, Huan-Chueh; Chen, Chao-Hsiu
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to propose a 6-T model (Tool, Toy, Telephone, Territory, Treasure of Information, and Trade) to explore college students' Internet-related attitudes, and to examine whether gender and grade level make any difference in their attitudes. Data from 1069 participants were collected from 96 Taiwanese universities and…
Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu
2016-02-01
Pd/ZnO is a promising catalyst studied for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and the 1 : 1 PdZn alloy is demonstrated to be the active component. It is believed that MSR starts from methanol dehydrogenation to methoxy. Previous studies of methanol dehydrogenation on the ideal PdZn(111) surface show that methanol adsorbs weakly on the PdZn(111) surface and it is hard for methanol to transform into methoxy because of the high dehydrogenation barrier, indicating that the catalyst model is not appropriate for investigating the first step of MSR. Using the model derived from our recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the process CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO. Compared with the ideal model, methanol adsorbs much more strongly and the barrier from CH3OH → CH3O is much lower on the kMC model. On the other hand, the C-H bond breaking of CH3O, CH2O and CHO becomes harder. We show that co-adsorbed water is important for refreshing the active sites. The present study shows that the first MSR step most likely takes place on three-fold hollow sites formed by Zn atoms, and the inhomogeneity of the PdZn alloy may exert significant influences on reactions. PMID:26771029
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, W. Alex
2001-01-01
Studied the relationship between self-esteem and delinquency using latent growth curve modeling. Analyses of panel data for 2,213 adolescent boys from the Youth in Transition Study supported Kaplan's self-derogation theory of delinquency (H. Kaplan, 1978) by showing that delinquency was positively associated with growth in self-esteem among…
Chan, Raymond C K; Dai, Shan; Lui, Simon S Y; Ho, Karen K Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Wang, Ya; Geng, Fu-lei; Li, Zhi; Cheung, Eric F C
2015-07-02
The present study examined different types of neurological signs in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relationships with neurocognitive functions. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were adopted with the use of the abridged Cambridge Neurological Inventory which comprises items capturing motor coordination, sensory integration and disinhibition. A total of 157 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and 101 of them were re-assessed at six-month interval. A structural equation model (SEM) with invariance model across time was used for data analysis. The model fitted well with the data at baseline assessment, X^2(21) = 21.78, p = 0.413, NFI = 0.95, NNFI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, IFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.015. Subsequent SEM analysis with invariance model at six-month interval also demonstrated the same stable pattern across time and showed strong measurement invariance and structure invariance across time. Our findings suggest that neurological signs capture more or less the same construct captured by conventional neurocognitive tests in patients with schizophrenia. The measurement and structure of these relationships appear to be stable over time.
Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu
2016-02-01
Pd/ZnO is a promising catalyst studied for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and the 1 : 1 PdZn alloy is demonstrated to be the active component. It is believed that MSR starts from methanol dehydrogenation to methoxy. Previous studies of methanol dehydrogenation on the ideal PdZn(111) surface show that methanol adsorbs weakly on the PdZn(111) surface and it is hard for methanol to transform into methoxy because of the high dehydrogenation barrier, indicating that the catalyst model is not appropriate for investigating the first step of MSR. Using the model derived from our recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the process CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO. Compared with the ideal model, methanol adsorbs much more strongly and the barrier from CH3OH → CH3O is much lower on the kMC model. On the other hand, the C-H bond breaking of CH3O, CH2O and CHO becomes harder. We show that co-adsorbed water is important for refreshing the active sites. The present study shows that the first MSR step most likely takes place on three-fold hollow sites formed by Zn atoms, and the inhomogeneity of the PdZn alloy may exert significant influences on reactions.
Hiatt, JR; Rivard, MJ
2014-06-01
Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft was characterized in 2006 by Rivard et al. The source design was modified in 2006 to include a plastic centering insert at the source tip to more accurately position the anode. The objectives of the current study were to establish an accurate Monte Carlo source model for simulation purposes, to dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and to determine dose differences between the source with and without the centering insert. Methods: Design information from dissected sources and vendor-supplied CAD drawings were used to devise the source model for radiation transport simulations of dose distributions in a water phantom. Collision kerma was estimated as a function of radial distance, r, and polar angle, θ, for determination of reference TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.03% at r=1 cm and 0.08% at r=10 cm. Results: The dose rate distribution the transverse plane did not change beyond 2% between the 2006 model and the current study. While differences exceeding 15% were observed near the source distal tip, these diminished to within 2% for r>1.5 cm. Differences exceeding a factor of two were observed near θ=150° and in contact with the source, but diminished to within 20% at r=10 cm. Conclusions: Changes in source design influenced the overall dose rate and distribution by more than 2% over a third of the available solid angle external from the source. For clinical applications using balloons or applicators with tissue located within 5 cm from the source, dose differences exceeding 2% were observed only for θ>110°. This study carefully examined the current source geometry and presents a modern reference TG-43 dosimetry dataset for the model S700 source.
Babitsch, Birgit; Gohl, Daniela; von Lengerke, Thomas
2012-01-01
Objective: This systematic review aims to assess the use and implementation of the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use developed by Ronald M. Andersen in recent studies explicity using this model. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed in April 2011. The search strategy aimed to identify all articles in which the Andersen model had been applied and which had been published between 1998 and March 2011 in English or German. The search yielded a total of 328 articles. Two researchers independently reviewed the retrieved articles for possible inclusion using a three-step selection process (1. title/author, 2. abstract, 3. full text) with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria for each step. 16 studies met all of the inclusion criteria and were used for analysis. A data extraction form was developed to collect information from articles on 17 categories including author, title, population description, aim of the study, methodological approach, use of the Andersen model, applied model version, and main results. The data collected were collated into six main categories and are presented accordingly. Results: Andersen’s Behavioral Model (BM) has been used extensively in studies investigating the use of health services. The studies identified for this review showed that the model has been used in several areas of the health care system and in relation to very different diseases. The 1995 version of the BM was the version most frequently applied in the studies. However, the studies showed substantial differences in the variables used. The majority of the reviewed studies included age (N=15), marital status (N=13), gender/sex (N=12), education (N=11), and ethnicity (N=10) as predisposing factors and income/financial situation (N=10), health insurance (N=9), and having a usual source of care/family doctor (N=9) as enabling factors. As need factors, most of the studies included evaluated health status (N=13) and self-reported/perceived health (N=9
Nicu, Valentin Paul
2016-08-01
Motivated by the renewed interest in the coupled oscillator (CO) model for VCD, in this work a generalised coupled oscillator (GCO) expression is derived by introducing the concept of a coupled oscillator origin. Unlike the standard CO expression, the GCO expression is exact within the harmonic approximation. Using two illustrative example molecules, the theoretical concepts introduced here are demonstrated by performing a GCO decomposition of the rotational strengths computed using DFT. This analysis shows that: (1) the contributions to the rotational strengths that are normally neglected in the standard CO model can be comparable to or larger than the CO contribution, and (2) the GCO mechanism introduced here can affect the VCD intensities of all types of modes in symmetric and asymmetric molecules.
Li, Xia; Cheng, Jin; Zhou, Zhiguang
2016-07-01
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a chronic autoimmune process that leads to β-cell destruction and exogenous insulin dependence. The natural history of T1D proposed by Eisenbarth suggested six relatively independent stages over the course of the entire disease process, which was considered to be linear and chronic. Based on this classical theory, immunotherapies aim to prevent or reverse all these periods of β-cell loss. Over the past 30 years, much novel information about the pathogenesis of T1D proved that there are complex metabolic changes occurring throughout the entire disease process. Therefore, new possible models for the natural history of the disease have been proposed; these models, in turn, may help facilitate fresh avenues for the prevention and cure of T1D. Herein, we briefly review recent findings in this field of research, with the aim of providing a better theoretical basis for clinical practice.
Li, Xia; Cheng, Jin; Zhou, Zhiguang
2016-07-01
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a chronic autoimmune process that leads to β-cell destruction and exogenous insulin dependence. The natural history of T1D proposed by Eisenbarth suggested six relatively independent stages over the course of the entire disease process, which was considered to be linear and chronic. Based on this classical theory, immunotherapies aim to prevent or reverse all these periods of β-cell loss. Over the past 30 years, much novel information about the pathogenesis of T1D proved that there are complex metabolic changes occurring throughout the entire disease process. Therefore, new possible models for the natural history of the disease have been proposed; these models, in turn, may help facilitate fresh avenues for the prevention and cure of T1D. Herein, we briefly review recent findings in this field of research, with the aim of providing a better theoretical basis for clinical practice. PMID:26754489
Revisiting Bohr's semiclassical quantum theory.
Ben-Amotz, Dor
2006-10-12
Bohr's atomic theory is widely viewed as remarkable, both for its accuracy in predicting the observed optical transitions of one-electron atoms and for its failure to fully correspond with current electronic structure theory. What is not generally appreciated is that Bohr's original semiclassical conception differed significantly from the Bohr-Sommerfeld theory and offers an alternative semiclassical approximation scheme with remarkable attributes. More specifically, Bohr's original method did not impose action quantization constraints but rather obtained these as predictions by simply matching photon and classical orbital frequencies. In other words, the hydrogen atom was treated entirely classically and orbital quantized emerged directly from the Planck-Einstein photon quantization condition, E = h nu. Here, we revisit this early history of quantum theory and demonstrate the application of Bohr's original strategy to the three quintessential quantum systems: an electron in a box, an electron in a ring, and a dipolar harmonic oscillator. The usual energy-level spectra, and optical selection rules, emerge by solving an algebraic (quadratic) equation, rather than a Bohr-Sommerfeld integral (or Schroedinger) equation. However, the new predictions include a frozen (zero-kinetic-energy) state which in some (but not all) cases lies below the usual zero-point energy. In addition to raising provocative questions concerning the origin of quantum-chemical phenomena, the results may prove to be of pedagogical value in introducing students to quantum mechanics.
Roumelioti, Maria Eleni; Nolin, Thomas; Unruh, Mark L.; Argyropoulos, Christos
2016-01-01
Background Beta-2 Microglobulin (β2M) is a prototypical “middle molecule” uremic toxin that has been associated with a higher risk of death in hemodialysis patients. A quantitative description of the relative importance of factors determining β2M concentrations among patients with impaired kidney function is currently lacking. Methods Herein we undertook a systematic review of existing studies reporting patient level data concerning generation, elimination and distribution of β2M in order to develop a population model of β2M kinetics. We used this model and previously determined relationships between predialysis β2M concentration and survival, to simulate the population distribution of predialysis β2M and the associated relative risk (RR) of death in patients receiving conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis with low flux (LF) and high flux (HF) dialyzers, short (SD) and long daily (LD) HF hemodialysis sessions and on-line hemodiafiltration at different levels of residual renal function (RRF). Results We identified 9 studies of 106 individuals and 156 evaluations of or more compartmental kinetic parameters of β2M. These studies used a variety of experimental methods to determine β2M kinetics ranging from isotopic dilution to profiling of intra/inter dialytic concentration changes. Most of the patients (74/106) were on dialysis with minimal RRF, thus facilitating the estimation of non-renal elimination kinetics of β2M. In large scale (N = 10000) simulations of individuals drawn from the population of β2M kinetic parameters, we found that, higher dialytic removal materially affects β2M exposures only when RRF (renal clearance of β2M) was below 2 ml/min. In patients initiating conventional HF hemodialysis, total loss of RRF was predicted to be associated with a RR of death of more than 20%. Hemodiafiltration and daily dialysis may decrease the high risk of death of anuric patients by 10% relative to conventional, thrice weekly HF dialysis. Only daily
Topological string theory revisited I: The stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Bei
2016-08-01
In this paper, we reformulate topological string theory using supermanifolds and supermoduli spaces, following the approach worked out by Witten (Superstring perturbation theory revisited, arXiv:1209.5461). We intend to make the construction geometrical in nature, by using supergeometry techniques extensively. The goal is to establish the foundation of studying topological string amplitudes in terms of integration over appropriate supermoduli spaces.
Revisiting the Regenerative Possibilities of Ortiz
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duques, Matthew
2004-01-01
The author of this article revisits Simon Ortiz's poem, "From Sand Creek," in which the latter can in so few words convey both the horrific tragedy of conquest and colonization, while at the same time find a space for possibility, a means for recovery that is never about forgetting but always occurs as a kind of recuperative remembering. Ortiz…
The Future of Engineering Education--Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wankat, Phillip C.; Bullard, Lisa G.
2016-01-01
This paper revisits the landmark CEE series, "The Future of Engineering Education," published in 2000 (available free in the CEE archives on the internet) to examine the predictions made in the original paper as well as the tools and approaches documented. Most of the advice offered in the original series remains current. Despite new…
Revisiting separation properties of convex fuzzy sets
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Separation of convex sets by hyperplanes has been extensively studied on crisp sets. In a seminal paper separability and convexity are investigated, however there is a flaw on the definition of degree of separation. We revisited separation on convex fuzzy sets that have level-wise (crisp) disjointne...
Revisiting Basic Counseling Skills with Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Velsor, Patricia
2004-01-01
Counseling with children can be challenging for counselors whose training focused on adult clients. The purpose of this article is to offer information to counselors seeking to improve their skills with children, revisiting a topic discussed in an earlier Journal of Counseling & Development article by P. Erdman and R. Lampe (1996). Examples of…
Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited
Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.
2015-05-22
We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydin, Murat G.; Engelder, Terry
2014-12-01
Both bedding-parallel slickensides and cleavage duplexes are forms of mesoscopic-scale detachment faulting populating black (Marcellus and Geneseo/Burket) and intervening gray (Mahantango) shales of the Middle Devonian, a section known for abnormal pore pressure below the Appalachian Plateau. The abundance and the orientation of slickensides and cleavage duplexes in the more organic-rich black shale relative to gray shale suggests that maturation-related abnormal pore pressure facilitates detachment, a mesoscopic manifestation of the Hubbert-Rubey pore pressure model for overthrust faulting. The former are discrete slip surfaces whereas the latter consists of nested, anastomosing slip surfaces, either cutting through bedding or on disrupted bedding surfaces stacked as mesoscopic versions of thrust duplexes. Cleavage duplexes are between a few cm and over 1 m thick with their hanging walls commonly transported toward the Appalachian foreland, regardless of local limb dip. Cleavage duplexes are most common near the stratigraphic maximum flooding surface, the organic-rich section most prone to develop maturation-related pore pressure in the Middle Devonian gas shales. Bedding-parallel slickensides are somewhat more evenly distributed in the black shale but also found in overlying gray shale. In both black and gray shales, slickensides are more abundant on the limbs of folds, an indication of pore-pressure-related flexural-slip folding. On the macroscopic scale, the Pine Mountain Block of the Southern Appalachian Mountains was enabled by a basal detachment cutting along the Upper Devonian Chattanooga black shale which has a thermal maturity sufficient for the generation of abnormal pore pressure. The Pine Mountain block is a large-scale overthrust showing little evidence of collapse of the hinterland side, a credible example of a pore-pressure-aided overthrust fault block of the type envisioned by the Hubbert-Rubey model.
Pauluhn, Juergen
2016-10-01
Contemporary emergency response planning guidelines are stratified to consider the threshold for serious toxicity and/or impairment of escape, relative to the potentially lethal level above this threshold and the lower level at which individuals should not experience or develop effects more serious than mild irritation. While harmonized testing guidelines and risk assessment paradigms are available for the quantification of thresholds for lethality or establishing no adverse effect levels, the quantification of 'impairment of escape' appears to be a more elusive goal. Approaches were explored in context with CO and HCN in past experimental combustion toxicology studies to estimate the time available for escape. This point of departure (POD) was compared with the non-lethal threshold (LC01) and one third thereof from published recent acute inhalation studies in rats examining the Cxt-matrix of both CO and HCN. The findings from this analysis suggest that the rat delivers the most consistent data. However, it remains challenging yet to bridge the behavioral variables of human behavior typical of escape to any surrogate animal model. For the asphyxiant gases examined, the PODs characterizing 'impairment of escape' were difficult to distinguish from those indicative of impending death. No specific modeled carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level could be linked to onset of incapacitation. In summary, the higher ventilation of rats (kg body weight adjusted) renders this species even more susceptible than heavy breathing humans. LCt01 × 1/3 values derived from the comprehensive Cxt matrix of rat inhalation studies are considered to be most suitable and robust to estimate the human equivalent threshold (POD) of 'impairment of escape'. PMID:27346845
Lipinski, Kamil A; Puchta, Olga; Surendranath, Vineeth; Kudla, Marek; Golik, Pawel
2011-10-01
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the largest known RNA-binding protein family, and are found in all eukaryotes, being particularly abundant in higher plants. PPR proteins localize mostly to mitochondria and chloroplasts, and many were shown to modulate organellar genome expression on the posttranscriptional level. Although the genomes of land plants encode hundreds of PPR proteins, only a few have been identified in Fungi and Metazoa. As the current PPR motif profiles are built mainly on the basis of the predominant plant sequences, they are unlikely to be optimal for detecting fungal and animal members of the family, and many putative PPR proteins in these genomes may remain undetected. In order to verify this hypothesis, we designed a hidden Markov model-based bioinformatic tool called Supervised Clustering-based Iterative Phylogenetic Hidden Markov Model algorithm for the Evaluation of tandem Repeat motif families (SCIPHER) using sequence data from orthologous clusters from available yeast genomes. This approach allowed us to assign 12 new proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the PPR family. Similarly, in other yeast species, we obtained a 5-fold increase in the detection of PPR motifs, compared with the previous tools. All the newly identified S. cerevisiae PPR proteins localize in the mitochondrion and are a part of the RNA processing interaction network. Furthermore, the yeast PPR proteins seem to undergo an accelerated divergent evolution. Analysis of single and double amino acid substitutions in the Dmr1 protein of S. cerevisiae suggests that cooperative interactions between motifs and pseudoreversion could be the force driving this rapid evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Wade A.; Randall, Robert B.
2016-10-01
Operational modal analysis (OMA) seeks to determine a structure's dynamic characteristics from response-only measurements, which comprise both excitation and transmission path effects. The cepstrum has been used successfully in a number of applications to separate these source and path effects, after which the poles and zeros of the transfer function can be obtained via a curve-fitting process. The contributions from the individual poles and zeros can then be added (in log magnitude) to regenerate the frequency response function (FRF). Cepstrum-based OMA was originally developed in the 1980s and 90s, but there have been a number of recent developments that warrant discussion and explanation, and this is the basis of the present paper, which focusses on the FRF regeneration process and on a number of broader points explaining FRFs from a pole-zero perspective. The FRF regenerated from identified poles and zeros is subject to magnitude distortion from the effects of truncation, i.e., from the residual effects of out-of-band poles and zeros. As long as a reference FRF is available - for example from conventional experimental modal analysis or from a finite element model - this distortion can be corrected for using a magnitude equalisation curve. This paper discusses the nature of this equalisation curve, and gives recommendations on how best to obtain it. Other topics covered in the discussion are: the required distribution of poles and zeros for the successful regeneration of FRFs; node points and weak modes in a pole-zero model; the differences in pole-zero distribution between receptance, mobility and accelerance FRF forms; and, how to deal with the very low frequency region when regenerating FRFs. Special consideration is given to the identification of zeros - often masked by noise in response measurements - using transmissibility estimation. It is hoped that the discussion will assist in the application of cepstrum-based OMA methods and will lead to improved
Finite frequency tomography: the checkerboard test revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercerat, E. D.; Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.
2011-12-01
We address some consequences of the application of finite frequency theory for seismic tomography by revisiting the classical checkerboard test. We use a simple borehole-to-borehole experiment set-up in order to have complete control of the situation and to avoid complicating factors such as crustal corrections that still hamper global tomography. We are particularly interested in the feasibility of using ray-based finite frequency kernels in the inversion of travel time perturbations measured by crosscorrelation, in the cross-dependence between S wave velocity perturbations and the measured P travel times, and in the benefits of using finite-frequency theory on one or multiple frequency bands. We have done a 3D checkerboard test to assess the influence of these issues. Full-waveform synthetic seismograms are calculated using the spectral elements method up to 2 kHz maximum frequency. The computational domain extends 200 m x 120 m x 120 m and the target velocity model is a checkerboard with 12 m x 12 m x 12 m blocks of velocities 5% slower and faster than the background (homogeneous, Vp=6 km/s) model. First, we make a comparison between finite-frequency kernels calculated by ray theory with those based on the spectral elements method (adjoint technique), in terms of resolution, accuracy, but also computational cost. From synthetic seismograms calculated for the 3D checkerboard model as well as for the homogeneous model, we measure crosscorrelation travel times at different frequency bands and invert them with classical ray theory as well as with finite frequency theory. Several interesting features are highlighted in our multi-band data set, such as the wavefront healing effect. For instance, we observe that the delay times, in absolute value, are usually larger at short (0.5 ms) than long (4 ms) periods. This can be explained by the presence of the "doughnut hole" along the geometrical ray path in the sensitivity kernels, whose diameter is proportional to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasuoka, Masaki; Kato, Kazumi
2015-11-01
There are two major categories in a thermoacoustic prime-mover. One is the traveling-wave type and the other is the standing-wave type. A simple analytical model of a standing-wave thermoacoustic prime-mover is proposed at relatively low heat-flux for a stack much shorter than the acoustic wavelength, which approximately describes the Brayton cycle. Numerical simulations of Rott's equations have revealed that the work flow (acoustic power) increases by increasing of the amplitude of the particle velocity (| U|) for the traveling-wave type and by increasing cosΦ for the standing-wave type, where Φ is the phase difference between the particle velocity and the acoustic pressure. In other words, the standing-wave type is a phase-dominant type while the traveling-wave type is an amplitude-dominant one. The ratio of the absolute value of the traveling-wave component (| U|cosΦ) to that of the standing-wave component (| U|sinΦ) of any thermoacoustic engine roughly equals the ratio of the absolute value of the increasing rate of | U| to that of cosΦ. The different mechanism between the traveling-wave and the standing-wave type is discussed regarding the dependence of the energy efficiency on the acoustic impedance of a stack as well as that on ωτα, where ω is the angular frequency of an acoustic wave and τα is the thermal relaxation time. While the energy efficiency of the traveling-wave type at the optimal ωτα is much higher than that of the standing-wave type, the energy efficiency of the standing-wave type is higher than that of the traveling-wave type at much higher ωτα under a fixed temperature difference between the cold and the hot ends of the stack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; Petereit, C.; Nissling, A.; Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.
2016-04-01
In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first-feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cod's physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred in the Bornholm Basin, followed by the Gdansk Deep, while relatively low habitat suitability was obtained for the Arkona and the Gotland Basin. During drift egg and yolk sac larval survival is to a large extent affected by sedimentation. Eggs initially released in the western spawning grounds (Arkona and Bornholm Basin) were more affected by sedimentation than those released in the eastern spawning grounds (Gdansk Deep and Gotland Basin). Highest relative survival of eastern Baltic cod eggs occurred in the Bornholm Basin, with a pronounced decrease towards the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin. Relatively low survival rates in the Gdansk Deep and in the Gotland Basin were attributable to oxygen-dependent mortality. Low oxygen content had almost no impact on survival in the Arkona Basin. For all spawning areas temperature dependent mortality was only evident after severe winters. Egg buoyancy in relation to topographic features like bottom sills and strong bottom slopes
Dark matter relic density in scalar-tensor gravity revisited
Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B. E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au
2015-12-01
We revisit the calculation of dark matter relic abundances in scalar-tensor gravity using a generic form A(φ{sub *}) = e{sup βφ{sub *}{sup 2/2}} for the coupling between the scalar field φ{sub *} and the metric, for which detailed Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are available. We find that BBN constraints restrict the modified expansion rate in these models to be almost degenerate with the standard expansion history at the time of dark matter decoupling. In this case the maximum level of enhancement of the dark matter relic density was found to be a factor of ∼ 3, several orders of magnitude below that found in previous investigations.
Revisiting the Scattering Greenhouse Effect of CO2 Ice Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitzmann, D.
2016-02-01
Carbon dioxide ice clouds are thought to play an important role for cold terrestrial planets with thick CO2 dominated atmospheres. Various previous studies showed that a scattering greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide ice clouds could result in a massive warming of the planetary surface. However, all of these studies only employed simplified two-stream radiative transfer schemes to describe the anisotropic scattering. Using accurate radiative transfer models with a general discrete ordinate method, this study revisits this important effect and shows that the positive climatic impact of carbon dioxide clouds was strongly overestimated in the past. The revised scattering greenhouse effect can have important implications for the early Mars, but also for planets like the early Earth or the position of the outer boundary of the habitable zone.
Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows
Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane
2012-07-01
In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.
The flow along an external corner revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denier, Jim; Jewell, Nathaniel
2013-11-01
We revisit the problem of the flow of an almost inviscid fluid along an external corner made from the junction of two quarter infinite plates joined at an angle 0 < α < π / 2 . The structure of the boundary layer which develops along the corner is explored using a computational approach based upon a spectral element discretisation of the steady two-dimensional boundary-layer equations. We pay particular attention to the case when the angle α is small, thus approximating the semi-infinte quarter plate problem considered by Stewartson (1961) and recently revisited by Duck & Hewitt (2012). Our results, which demonstrate a thickening of the boundary-layer near the sharp corner, will be discussed in the context of the asymptotic theory developed in the aforementioned papers.
The Actinide Transition Revisited by Gutzwiller Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wenhu; Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yongxin; Kotliar, Gabriel
2015-03-01
We revisit the problem of the actinide transition using the Gutzwiller approximation (GA) in combination with the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, we compute the equilibrium volumes of the actinide series and reproduce the abrupt change of density found experimentally near plutonium as a function of the atomic number. We discuss how this behavior relates with the electron correlations in the 5 f states, the lattice structure, and the spin-orbit interaction. Our results are in good agreement with the experiments.
BHQ revisited (2): Texture development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée
2016-04-01
appears that grains can be unfavourably oriented for glide despite their c-axis direction falling in those positions which were used in the "classical" interpretation. Additionally, it turns out that grain-scale dispersion axes can be used to describe the kinematic behaviour in a more consistent way compared to the rotations axes obtained from intragranular misorientations in the range of 2-10°. The implications derived from the experimental data set will be compared to data obtained from natural quartz mylonites which formed in a comparable recrystallization regime. This is the companion poster to "BHQ revisited (I) looking at grain size" where the development of the dynamically recrystallized grain size is addressed. Reference cited: Heilbronner, R., and J. Tullis (2006), Evolution of c axis pole figures and grain size during dynamic recrystallization: Results from experimentally sheared quartzite, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B10202, doi:10.1029/2005JB004194.
The pollen tube paradigm revisited.
Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja
2012-12-01
The polar growth process characterizing pollen tube elongation has attracted numerous modeling attempts over the past years. While initial models focused on recreating the correct cellular geometry, recent models are increasingly based on experimentally assessed cellular parameters such as the dynamics of signaling processes and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Recent modeling attempts have therefore substantially gained in biological relevance and predictive power. Different modeling methods are explained and the power and limitations of individual models are compared. Focus is on several recent models that use closed feedback loops in order to generate limit cycles representing the oscillatory behavior observed in growing tubes. PMID:23000432
Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.
2013-12-01
We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.
Head butting sheep: kink collisions in the presence of false vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashcroft, Jennifer; Eto, Minoru; Haberichter, Mareike; Nitta, Muneto; Paranjape, M. B.
2016-09-01
We investigate numerically kink collisions in a 1 + 1 dimensional scalar field theory with multiple vacua. The domain wall model we are interested in involves two scalar fields and a potential term built from an asymmetric double well and (double) sine-Gordon potential together with an interaction term. Depending on the initial kink setup and impact velocities, the model allows for a wide range of scattering behaviours. Kinks can repel each other, annihilate, form true or false domain walls and reflect off each other.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marriner, J.
2016-05-01
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.
Revisiting the bell-jar demonstration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.; Regaya, Ma Hershey P.
2013-03-01
The familiar bell-jar demonstration, commonly used to show that sound cannot travel in a vacuum, is revisited in this study. It is suggested that by emphasizing the different media present in this set-up, sound propagation in near-vacuum conditions can be made possible. In this way, the concept of sound propagation in this set-up can be examined in a nuanced manner. In a study involving upper-secondary students, the set-up has also been found to be helpful in addressing a few alternative conceptions related to sound propagation.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited
Marriner, John; /Fermilab
2012-06-29
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.
Revisiting the naturalness problem: Who is afraid of quadratic divergences?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi
2012-07-01
It is widely believed that quadratic divergences severely restrict natural constructions of particle physics models beyond the standard model (SM). Supersymmetry provides a beautiful solution, but the recent LHC experiments have excluded large parameter regions of supersymmetric extensions of the SM. It will now be important to reconsider whether we have been misinterpreting the quadratic divergences in field theories. In this paper, we revisit the problem from the viewpoint of the Wilsonian renormalization group and argue that quadratic divergences—which can always be absorbed into a position of the critical surface—should be simply subtracted in model constructions. Such a picture gives another justification to the argument [W. A. Bardeen, Report No. FERMILAB-CONF-95-391-T] that the scale invariance of the SM, except for the soft-breaking terms, is an alternative solution to the naturalness problem. It also largely broadens possibilities of model constructions beyond the SM since we just need to take care of logarithmic divergences, which cause mixings of various physical scales and runnings of couplings.
Lorthois, Sylvie; Duru, Paul; Billanou, Ian; Quintard, Michel; Celsis, Pierre
2014-07-21
One the one hand, capillary permeability to water is a well-defined concept in microvascular physiology, and linearly relates the net convective or diffusive mass fluxes (by unit area) to the differences in pressure or concentration, respectively, that drive them through the vessel wall. On the other hand, the permeability coefficient is a central parameter introduced when modeling diffusible tracers transfer from blood vessels to tissue in the framework of compartmental models, in such a way that it is implicitly considered as being identical to the capillary permeability. Despite their simplifying assumptions, such models are at the basis of blood flow quantification by H2(15)O Positron Emission Tomgraphy. In the present paper, we use fluid dynamic modeling to compute the transfers of H2(15)O between the blood and brain parenchyma at capillary scale. The analysis of the so-obtained kinetic data by the Renkin-Crone model, the archetypal compartmental model, demonstrates that, in this framework, the permeability coefficient is highly dependent on both flow rate and capillary radius, contrarily to the central hypothesis of the model which states that it is a physiological constant. Thus, the permeability coefficient in Renkin-Crone׳s model is not conceptually identical to the physiologic permeability as implicitly stated in the model. If a permeability coefficient is nevertheless arbitrarily chosen in the computed range, the flow rate determined by the Renkin-Crone model can take highly inaccurate quantitative values. The reasons for this failure of compartmental approaches in the framework of brain blood flow quantification are discussed, highlighting the need for a novel approach enabling to fully exploit the wealth of information available from PET data. PMID:24637002
Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions
Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael
2016-01-01
Introduction Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital
Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions
Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael
2016-01-01
Introduction Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital
Radiation of scalar oscillons in 2 and 3 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Horváth, Zalán; Mezei, Márk
2009-04-01
The radiation loss of small-amplitude radially symmetric oscillons (long-living, spatially localized, time-dependent solutions) in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories is computed analytically in the small-amplitude expansion. The amplitude of the radiation is beyond all orders in perturbation theory and it is determined using matched asymptotic series expansions and Borel summation. The general results are illustrated on the case of the two- and three-dimensional sine-Gordon theory and a two-dimensional ϕ6 model. The analytic predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations of oscillons.
An(1) Toda solitons and the dressing symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Paunov, R.
1997-08-01
We present an elementary derivation of the solitonlike solutions in the An(1) Toda models which is an alternative to the previously used Hirota method. The solutions of the underlying linear problem corresponding to the N-solitons are calculated. This enables us to obtain explicit expression for the element which, by dressing group action, produces a generic soliton solution. In the particular example of monosolitons we suggest a relation to the vertex operator formalism, previously used by Olive, Turok, and Underwood. Our results can also be considered as generalization of the approach to the sine-Gordon solitons, proposed by Babelon and Bernard.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto
2014-10-01
Skyrmions can be transformed into lumps or baby Skyrmions by being trapped inside a domain wall. Here we find that they can also be transformed into sine-Gordon kinks when confined by vortices, resulting in confined Skyrmions. We show this both by an effective field theory approach and by direct numerical calculations. The existence of these trapped and confined Skyrmions does not rely on higher-derivative terms when the host solitons are flat or straight. We also construct a Skyrmion as a twisted vortex ring in a model with a sixth-order derivative term.
Standing spin waves and solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral structure
Kiselev, V. V. Raskovalov, A. A.
2013-02-15
On the basis of the sine-Gordon model, we calculated the absorption spectrum for the external pump power in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral structure of easy-plane magnets without the inversion center in the presence of a static magnetic field perpendicular to the magnetic spiral axis. It is shown that these data can be used for determining the material constants of the magnet and diagnostics of spin waves and solitons in its spiral structure. The possibility of using magnetooptical methods to observe local translations of the spiral structure during formation and motion of solitons in it is discussed.
Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.
Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel
2015-02-01
Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits.
NLTE in a Hot Hydrogen Star: Auer & Mihalas Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiersma, J.; Rutten, R. J.; Lanz, T.
2003-01-01
We pay tribute to two landmark papers published by Auer & Mihalas in 1969. They modeled hot-star NLTE-RE hydrogen-only atmospheres, using two simplified hydrogen atoms: ApJ 156, 157: H I levels 1, 2 and c, Lyman α the only line ApJ 156, 681: H I levels 1, 2, 3 and c, Balmer α the only line and computed LTE and NLTE models with the single line turned on and off. The results were extensively analyzed in the two papers. Any student of stellar line formation should take these beautiful papers to heart. The final exercise in Rutten's lecture notes ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' asks the student to work through five pages of questions concerning diagrams from the first paper alone! That exercise led to the present work in which we recompute the Auer-Mihalas hot-hydrogen-star models with TLUSTY, adding results from a complete hydrogen atom for comparison. Our motivation for this Auer-Mihalas re-visitation is twofold: 1. to add diagnostic diagrams to the ones published by Auer & Mihalas, in particular Bν, Jν, Sν graphs to illustrate the role of the radiation field, and radiative heating & cooling graphs to illustrate the radiative energy budget, 2. to see the effect of adding the rest of the hydrogen atom.
A Lenz's law experiment revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawicki, Charles A.
2000-10-01
A dipole magnet model predicts a terminal velocity VT proportional to 1/n for n attached identical cylindrical magnets dropped down a copper pipe. Experiments show that VT increases approximately linearly with n. The explanation for this difference is presented.
Supersymmetry at Finite Temperature Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, M. B.; Taormina, A.; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
1983-05-01
The authors have formulated supersymmetry at finite temperature, generalizing the recent observations by Van Hove. They find that in a two-dimensional model broken supersymmetry is not restored at high temperature.
Silicate Glass Corrosion Mechanism revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geisler, Thorsten; Lenting, Christoph; Dohmen, Lars
2015-04-01
Understanding the mechanism(s) of aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste borosilicate glasses is essential to predict their long-term aqueous durability in a geologic repository. Several observations have been made with compositionally different silicate glasses that cannot be explained by any of the established glass corrosion models. These models are based on diffusion-controlled ion exchange and subsequent structural reorganisation of a leached, hydrated residual glass, leaving behind a so-called gel layer. In fact, the common observation of lamellar to more complex pattern formation observed in experiment and nature, the porous structure of the corrosion layer, an atomically sharp boundary between the corrosion zone and the underlying pristine glass, as well as results of novel isotope tracer and in situ, real time experiments rather support an interface-coupled glass dissolution-silica reprecipitation model. In this model, the congruent dissolution of the glass is coupled in space and time to the precipitation and growth of amorphous silica at an inwardly moving reaction front. We suggest that these coupled processes have to be considered to realistically model the long-term performance of silicate glasses in aqueous environments.
Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.
2009-12-01
Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.
The Medical Excuse Game Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corson-Rikert, Janet; Christmas, William A.
2009-01-01
Academic policies that require medical excuses are based on mistrust of students and conflict with institutional honor codes. Such policies undermine the philosophical and educational foundations of higher education; namely, to model and nurture honesty, integrity, and citizenship in emerging adults. Instead, they encourage hypocrisy and…
Photonic dark matter portal revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavi, S. A.; Kazemian, F. S.
2016-05-01
In our previous paper, we studied a model of dark matter (DM) in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal (HP). We investigated the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom and obtained an upper bound for the coupling of the model as f ≤ 10-12. In this work, we study the effects of HP on two interesting exotic atoms namely muonium and positronium. We obtain a tighter upper limit on the coupling as f ≤ 10-13. We also calculate the change (shift) in the Aharonov-Bohm phase due to HP and find that the phase shift is negligibly small (for DM particles mass in the GeV range). Recently a 3.5 keV X-ray line signal observed in the spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters, reported by the XXM-Newton X-ray observatory. Since in HP model the DM particles can decay directly into photons, so we finally calculate the value of the coupling constant f using the condition ΔEDM = 3.5 keV.
Slowly rotating homogeneous masses revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reina, Borja
2016-02-01
Hartle's model for slowly rotating stars has been extensively used to compute equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating stars to second order in perturbation theory in general relativity, given a barotropic equation of state. A recent study based on the modern theory of perturbed matchings concludes that the functions in the (first and second order) perturbation tensors can always be taken as continuous at the surface of the star, except for the second-order function m0. This function presents a jump at the surface of the star proportional to the discontinuity of the energy density there. This concerns only a particular outcome of the model: the change in mass δM. In this paper, the amended change in mass is calculated for the case of constant density stars.
Gosling's Doppler pulsatility index revisited.
Michel, E; Zernikow, B
1998-05-01
In Doppler sonography, the physiological meaning of Gosling's pulsatility index (PI) as a measure of downstream resistance is still under dispute. We deliver the theoretical derivation of its physiological significance. We present a mathematical model based on the linked theories of critical closing pressure (CCP) and cerebrovascular impedance, verified in preterm neonates. Mathematical transformation results in a series of equations interrelating several physiological parameters. Instead of indicating cerebrovascular resistance, PI is linked to the ratio of cerebrovascular impedances at the heart rate and at zero frequency. Next to arterial blood pressure, CCP is the principal determinant of PI. PI is identical to the ratio of the alternate and the direct component of the effective driving force. Thus, PI has no distinctive physiological meaning by itself. At present, our model is confined to physiological conditions where the lowest velocity is the end diastolic, and always more than zero.
Long, cold, early r process? Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in He shells revisited.
Banerjee, Projjwal; Haxton, W C; Qian, Yong-Zhong
2011-05-20
We revisit a ν-driven r-process mechanism in the He shell of a core-collapse supernova, finding that it could succeed in early stars of metallicity Z ≲ 10⁻³ Z(⊙), at relatively low temperatures and neutron densities, producing A ~ 130 and 195 abundance peaks over ~10-20 s. The mechanism is sensitive to the ν emission model and to ν oscillations. We discuss the implications of an r process that could alter interpretations of abundance data from metal-poor stars, and point out the need for further calculations that include effects of the supernova shock. PMID:21668217
Revisiting the fog bottle experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.
2016-11-01
In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P–T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.
Wang Shuang; Li Xiaodong; Li Miao
2010-11-15
We investigate the cosmic age problem associated with 9 extremely old globular clusters in M31 galaxy and 1 very old high-z quasar automatic plate-measuring machine 08279+5255 at z=3.91. These 9 globular clusters have not been used to study the cosmic age problem in the previous literature. By evaluating the age of the Universe in the {Lambda} cold dark matter model with the observational constraints from the Type Ia supernovae, the baryon acoustic oscillations, the cosmic microwave background, and the independent H{sub 0} measurements, we find that the existence of 5 globular clusters and 1 high-z quasar are in tension (over 2{sigma} confidence level) with the current cosmological observations. So if the age estimates of these objects are correct, the cosmic age puzzle still remains in the standard cosmology. Moreover, we extend our investigations to the cases of the interacting dark energy models. It is found that although the introduction of the interaction between dark sectors can give a larger cosmic age, the interacting dark energy models still have difficulty to pass the cosmic age test.
Influenza A virus recycling revisited.
Dowdle, W. R.
1999-01-01
Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030
The medical excuse game revisited.
Corson-Rikert, Janet; Christmas, William A
2009-01-01
Academic policies that require medical excuses are based on mistrust of students and conflict with institutional honor codes. Such policies undermine the philosophical and educational foundations of higher education; namely, to model and nurture honesty, integrity, and citizenship in emerging adults. Instead, they encourage hypocrisy and exaggeration by requiring students to prove they are sick enough to produce temporary disability. More pragmatically, the "game" also consumes valuable clinician time. The authors describe their experiences with medical excuse policies at their respective institutions and offer suggestions for other colleges and universities.
Revisits within 48 Hours to a Thai Emergency Department
Nithimathachoke, Adisak; Tirrell, Gregory Philip; Surawongwattana, Sataporn; Liu, Shan Woo
2016-01-01
Objective. Emergency department (ED) revisits are a common ED quality measure. This study was undertaken to ascertain the contributing factors of revisits within 48 hours to a Thai ED and to explore physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors behind those revisits. Methods. This study was a chart review from one tertiary care, urban Thai hospital from October 1, 2009, to September 31, 2010. We identified patients who returned to the ED within 48 hours for the same or related complaints after their initial discharge. Three physicians classified revisit as physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors. Results. Our study included 172 ED patients' charts. 86/172 (50%) were male and the mean age was 38 ± 5.6 (SD) years. The ED revisits contributing factors were physician-related factors [86/172 (50.0%)], illness-related factors [61/172 (35.5%)], and patient-related factor [25/172 (14.5%)], respectively. Among revisits classified as physician-related factors, 40/86 (46.5%) revisits were due to misdiagnosis and 36/86 (41.9%) were due to suboptimal management. Abdominal pain [27/86 (31.4%)] was the majority of physician-related chief complaints, followed by fever [16/86 (18.6%)] and dyspnea [15/86 (17.4%)]. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and suboptimal management contributed to half of the 48-hour repeat ED visits in this Thai hospital. PMID:27478642
The isotropic radio background revisited
Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.
2014-04-01
We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.
The Foundations of Diffusion Revisited
van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul
2005-12-01
Diffusion is essentially the macroscopic manifestation of random (Brownian) microscopic motion. This idea has been generalized in the continuous time random walk formalism, which under quite general conditions leads to a generalized master equation (GME) that provides a useful modelling framework for transport. Here we review some of the basic ideas underlying this formalism from the perspective of transport in (magnetic confinement) plasmas. Under some specific conditions, the fluid limit of the GME corresponds to the Fokker-Planck (FP) diffusion equation in inhomogeneous systems, which reduces to Fick's law when the system is homogeneous. It is suggested that the FP equation may be preferable in fusion plasmas due to the inhomogeneity of the system, which would imply that part of the observed inward convection ('pinch') can be ascribed to this inhomogeneity. The GME also permits a mathematically sound approach to more complex transport issues, such as the incorporation of critical gradients and non-local transport mechanisms. A toy model incorporating these ingredients was shown to possess behaviour that bears a striking similarity to certain unusual phenomena observed in fusion plasmas.
Ebola revisited: lessons in managing global epidemics.
Boulton, Jacqueline
The latest statistics for the number of new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa point to the near containment of the virus. While the current threat will not be deemed over until 42 days after the last case to be diagnosed has twice tested negative, there is now a shift in focus from an emphasis on containment to that of policy review and capacity building in light of lessons learned. This article primarily focuses on Sierra Leone. It revisits the issues surrounding the epidemic, seeking to summarise both the negative and positive aspects of the response at local and global levels, as well as highlights fresh perspectives from healthcare workers in the field for the management of similar epidemics.
Revisiting weighted stego-image steganalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ker, Andrew D.; Böhme, Rainer
2008-02-01
This paper revisits the steganalysis method involving a Weighted Stego-Image (WS) for estimating LSB replacement payload sizes in digital images. It suggests new WS estimators, upgrading the method's three components: cover pixel prediction, least-squares weighting, and bias correction. Wide-ranging experimental results (over two million total attacks) based on images from multiple sources and pre-processing histories show that the new methods produce greatly improved accuracy, to the extent that they outperform even the best of the structural detectors, while avoiding their high complexity. Furthermore, specialised WS estimators can be derived for detection of sequentially-placed payload: they offer levels of accuracy orders of magnitude better than their competitors.
Thermocapillary instabilities in liquid bridges revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryzhkov, Ilya I.
2011-08-01
The study of convective thermocapillary instabilities in liquid bridges [J. J. Xu and S. H. Davis, Phys. Fluids 27(5), 1102 (1984)] is revisited. A new branch of neutral mode m = 1 is found. The previously reported results are confirmed in the range of low Prandtl numbers. It is shown that for large Prandtl numbers, the flow becomes unstable at much smaller values of the Marangoni number than it was reported previously. The calculations are performed for adiabatic and heat conductive free surface. In both cases, the critical mode is m = 1. The previously reported change of critical mode from m = 1 to m = 0 with increasing the Prandtl number is not confirmed. The corrected results provide a better agreement with the experimental data.
Seasonal dating of Sappho's 'Midnight Poem' revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; George, Martin
2016-04-01
Sappho was a Greek lyric poet who composed a significant array of pristine poetry. Although much of it has been lost, her reputation has endured thanks to numerous surviving fragments. One of her contributions includes the so-called 'Midnight Poem', which contains a line about the Pleiades, setting sometime before midnight, and supposedly observed from the island of Lesbos. This poem also refers to the setting of the Moon. Sappho's Midnight Poem thus represents a prime example of where ancient poetry and astronomy merge, and it also offers the possibility of seasonal dating. Previously, Herschberg and Mebius (1990) estimated that the poem was composed in late winter/early spring, a time frame that is not unusual for lyrics of an amorous nature. The aim of our paper is to revisit this earlier finding by using modern-day software. Our study confirms Herschberg and Mebius' result, but also conveys further information.
Seeing the unseen: Charles Bonnet syndrome revisited.
Nair, Aditya Gopinathan; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Shah, Bharat R; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar
2015-09-01
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a rare condition that encompasses three clinical features: complex visual hallucinations, ocular pathology causing visual deterioration, and preserved cognitive status. Common associated ocular pathologies include age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataracts. Several theories have been proposed to try to explain the visual hallucinations. However, the pathophysiology remains poorly understood, and treatment is largely based on anecdotal data. The lack of awareness of CBS among medical professionals often leads to inappropriate diagnosis and medication. In a country like India, where awareness of mental health is not widespread, cultural myths and stigma prevent patients from seeking professional help. Here we describe two cases of CBS and revisit different ocular morbidities that have been reported to occur in conjunction with CBS. Psychiatrists and ophthalmologists alike must be sensitive to this clinical condition to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment.
The Species Problem in Myxomycetes Revisited.
Walker, Laura M; Stephenson, Steven L
2016-08-01
Species identification in the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) poses particular challenges to researchers as a result of their morphological plasticity and frequent alteration between sexual and asexual life strategies. Traditionally, myxomycete morphology has been used as the primary method of species delimitation. However, with the increasing availability of genetic information, traditional myxomycete taxonomy is being increasingly challenged, and new hypotheses continue to emerge. Due to conflicts that sometimes occur between traditional and more modern species concepts that are based largely on molecular data, there is a pressing need to revisit the discussion surrounding the species concept used for myxomycetes. Biological diversity is being increasingly studied with molecular methods and data accumulates at ever-faster rates, making resolution of this matter urgent. In this review, currently used and potentially useful species concepts (biological, morphological, phylogenetic and ecological) are reviewed, and an integrated approach to resolve the myxomycete species problem is discussed. PMID:27351595
Visser's massive graviton bimetric theory revisited
Roany, Alain de; Chauvineau, Bertrand; Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. de
2011-10-15
A massive gravity theory was proposed by Visser in the late 1990s. This theory, based on a background metric b{sub {alpha}{beta}} and on an usual dynamical metric g{sub {alpha}{beta}} has the advantage of being free of ghosts as well as discontinuities present in other massive theories proposed in the past. In the present investigation, the equations of Visser's theory are revisited with particular care on the related conservation laws. It will be shown that a multiplicative factor is missing in the graviton tensor originally derived by Visser, which has no incidence on the weak field approach but becomes important in the strong field regime when, for instance, cosmological applications are considered. In this case, contrary to some previous claims found in the literature, we conclude that a nonstatic background metric is required in order to obtain a solution able to mimic the {Lambda}CDM cosmology.
Norton, Larry
2014-01-01
At the root of science lie basic rules, if we can discover or deduce them. This is not an abstract project but practical; if we can understand the why then perhaps we can rationally intervene. One of the unifying unsolved problems in physics is the hypothetical "Theory of Everything." In a similar vein, we can ask whether our own field contains such hidden fundamental truths and, if so, how we can use them to develop better therapies and outcomes for our patients. Modern oncology has developed as drugs and translational science have matured over the 50 years since ASCO's founding, but almost from that beginning tumor modeling has been a key tool. Through this general approach Norton and Simon changed our understanding of cancer biology and response to therapy when they described the fit of Gompertzian curves to both clinical and animal observations of tumor growth. The practical relevance of these insights has only grown with the development of DNA sequencing promising a raft of new targets (and drugs). In that regard, Larry Norton's contribution to this year's Educational Book reminds us to always think creatively about the fundamental problems of tumor growth and metastases as well as therapeutic response. Demonstrating the creativity and thoughtfulness that have marked his remarkable career, he now incorporates a newer concept of self-seeding to further explain why Gompertzian growth occurs and, in the process, provides a novel potential therapeutic target. As you read his elegantly presented discussion, consider how this understanding, wisely applied to the modern era of targeted therapies, might speed the availability of better treatments. But even more instructive is his personal model-not only the Norton-Simon Hypothesis-of how to live and approach science, biology, patients and their families, as well as the broader community. He shows that with energy, enthusiasm, optimism, intellect, and hard work we can make the world better. Clifford A. Hudis, MD, FACP
Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited.
Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M
2016-02-01
Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope surface. However, due to the fragility of BVs the conventional purification and electron microscopy (EM) staining methods considerably distort the native viral structure. Here, we use cryo-EM analysis to reveal the near-native morphology of two intensively studied baculoviruses, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Spodoptera exigua MNPV (SeMNPV), as models for BVs carrying GP64 and F as envelope fusion protein on the surface. The now well-preserved AcMNPV and SeMNPV BV particles have a remarkable elongated, ovoid shape leaving a large, lateral space between nucleocapsid (NC) and envelope. Consistent with previous findings the NC has a distinctive cap and base structure interacting tightly with the envelope. This tight interaction may explain the partial retaining of the envelope on both ends of the NC and the disappearance of the remainder of the BV envelope in the negative-staining EM images. Cryo-EM also reveals that the viral envelope contains two layers with a total thickness of ≈ 6-7 nm, which is significantly thicker than a usual biological membrane (<4 nm) as measured by X-ray scanning. Most spikes are densely clustered at the two apical ends of the virion although some envelope proteins are also found more sparsely on the lateral regions. The spikes on the surface of AcMNPV BVs appear distinctly different from those of SeMNPV. Based on our observations we propose a new near-native structural model of baculovirus BVs.
The furrows of Rhinolophidae revisited.
Vanderelst, Dieter; Jonas, Reijniers; Herbert, Peremans
2012-05-01
Rhinolophidae, a family of echolocating bats, feature very baroque noseleaves that are assumed to shape their emission beam. Zhuang & Muller (Zhuang & Muller 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218701 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.218701); Zhuang & Muller 2007 Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(Pt. 1), 051902 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.76.051902)) have proposed, based on finite element simulations, that the furrows present in the noseleaves of these bats act as resonance cavities. Using Rhinolophus rouxi as a model species, they reported that a resonance phenomenon causes the main beam to be elongated at a particular narrow frequency range. Virtually filling the furrows reduced the extent of the main lobe. However, the results of Zhuang & Muller are difficult to reconcile with the ecological background of R. rouxi. In this report, we replicate the study of Zhuang & Muller, and extend it in important ways: (i) we take the filtering of the moving pinnae into account, (ii) we use a model of the echolocation task faced by Rhinolophidae to estimate the effect of any alterations to the emission beam on the echolocation performance of the bat, and (iii) we validate our simulations using a physical mock-up of the morphology of R. rouxi. In contrast to Zhuang & Muller, we find the furrows to focus the emitted energy across the whole range of frequencies contained in the calls of R. rouxi (both in simulations and in measurements). Depending on the frequency, the focusing effect of the furrows has different consequences for the estimated echolocation performance. We argue that the furrows act to focus the beam in order to reduce the influence of clutter echoes. PMID:22279156
IMPULSIVE SPOT HEATING AND THERMAL EXPLOSION OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS REVISITED
Ivlev, A. V.; Röcker, T. B.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.
2015-05-20
The problem of the impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically with the aim of better understanding the leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. We rigorously show that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., the heating of mantles by cosmic rays (CRs)), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number λ. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: when λ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain—this regime is commonly known as whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, our calculations suggest that heavy CR species (e.g., iron ions) colliding with dust are able to trigger the explosion. Based on recently calculated local CR spectra, we estimate the expected rate of explosive desorption. The efficiency of the desorption, which in principle affects all solid species independent of their binding energy, is shown to be comparable to other CR desorption mechanisms typically considered in the literature. Also, the theory allows us to estimate the maximum abundances of reactive species that may be stored in the mantles, which provides important constraints on the available astrochemical models.
How to infer gene networks from expression profiles, revisited.
Penfold, Christopher A; Wild, David L
2011-12-01
Inferring the topology of a gene-regulatory network (GRN) from genome-scale time-series measurements of transcriptional change has proved useful for disentangling complex biological processes. To address the challenges associated with this inference, a number of competing approaches have previously been used, including examples from information theory, Bayesian and dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs), and ordinary differential equation (ODE) or stochastic differential equation. The performance of these competing approaches have previously been assessed using a variety of in silico and in vivo datasets. Here, we revisit this work by assessing the performance of more recent network inference algorithms, including a novel non-parametric learning approach based upon nonlinear dynamical systems. For larger GRNs, containing hundreds of genes, these non-parametric approaches more accurately infer network structures than do traditional approaches, but at significant computational cost. For smaller systems, DBNs are competitive with the non-parametric approaches with respect to computational time and accuracy, and both of these approaches appear to be more accurate than Granger causality-based methods and those using simple ODEs models.
Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases.
Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto
2015-11-01
Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today's periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482
Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases
Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto
2015-01-01
Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today’s periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482
Psychological Well-Being Revisited: Advances in Science and Practice
Ryff, Carol D.
2014-01-01
This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296
Hediger revisited: how do zoo animals see us?
Hosey, Geoff
2013-01-01
Contact with people, both familiar (e.g., caretakers) and unfamiliar (e.g., members of the public), is a significant part of the lives of nonhuman animals in zoos. The available empirical evidence shows that in many cases this contact represents a source of stress to the animals, although there is sufficient overall ambiguity in these studies to suggest that the effect of people on the animals is much more complex than this. A possible way to try to understand human-animal relationships in the zoo is to ask how the animals might perceive the humans with whom they have contact, and here this question is explored further, using a framework first published by Hediger as a starting point. Hediger suggested that zoo animals might perceive people as an enemy, as part of the inanimate environment, or as a member of the same species. He supported these categories with anecdotal evidence, which was all that was available at the time, but more empirical evidence is available now, so it is appropriate to revisit these categories. The evidence suggests that animals discriminate both conspecific and heterospecific others, rather than just viewing familiar people as members of their own species, and that additional categories (stimulating part of the environment and friendship) may be warranted. These categories are then placed in a general model that suggests how relationships of different qualities, and hence different perceptions of each other, might develop between animals and the people they are in contact with in zoos.
Friction and anchorage loading revisited.
Dholakia, Kartik D
2012-01-01
Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..
The Sinai triple junction revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtillot, Vincent; Armijo, Rolando; Tapponnier, Paul
1987-09-01
This paper is a summary of a more detailed analysis of the kinematics of the Sinai triple junction (Courtillot et al., 1987). Accurate kinematic data are lacking along the Red Sea and they can be supplemented by bathymetric, topographic and geological data pertaining to the three arms of the entirely continental Sinai triple junction. Motions across the northern Red Sea and along the Gulf of Elat are an order of magnitude larger than across the Gulf of Suez. The direction of motion there remains a major uncertainty. A possible kinematic model is highlighted, in which right-lateral strike-slip motion and small pull-apart basins occur along the Gulf of Suez, in agreement with recent field observations in Egypt. Early Miocene is marked by major geodynamical changes all along the northern boundaries of the African and Indian plates. We suggest that rifting in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and Gulf of Suez was initiated at the end of the first phase of continental extrusion of Indochina, when the Tibetan plateau began to rise and spreading in the South China Sea came to a halt.
The Holstein polaron problem revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2016-06-01
The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson–Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron–phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.
The Holstein polaron problem revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2016-06-01
The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson-Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron-phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.
The pathogenesis of measles revisited.
de Swart, Rik L
2008-10-01
Measles continues to be an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. The causative agent, measles virus (MV), is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and is spread via the respiratory route. MV was originally thought to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, followed by viremia mediated by infected monocytes. However, neither of these cell types express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150), which has been identified as the main receptor for wild-type MV. Measles has a relatively long incubation time, which makes it difficult to study the early stages of MV infection in humans. The animal models that best reflect the pathogenesis of measles are based on nonhuman primates. The use of recombinant MV strains expressing fluorescent proteins has greatly facilitated studies on viral tropism in macaques. These studies indicate that dendritic cells and lymphocytes expressing CD150 are the primary target cells for MV infection. At late stages of the infection MV also infects epithelial cells, despite the fact that these do not express CD150. Whether these cells express an as yet unidentified additional MV receptor remains unclear. On basis of these data it could be envisaged that dendritic cells are the first target cells for MV infection. These antigen-presenting cells may traffic the virus to the regional lymph nodes where they can transmit the virus to lymphocytes, which during viremia disseminate the virus throughout the body.
Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.
1994-01-01
We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.
Mantle plumes on Venus revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, Walter S.
1992-01-01
The Equatorial Highlands of Venus consist of a series of quasicircular regions of high topography, rising up to about 5 km above the mean planetary radius. These highlands are strongly correlated with positive geoid anomalies, with a peak amplitude of 120 m at Atla Regio. Shield volcanism is observed at Beta, Eistla, Bell, and Atla Regiones and in the Hathor Mons-Innini Mons-Ushas Mons region of the southern hemisphere. Volcanos have also been mapped in Phoebe Regio and flood volcanism is observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in many of these regions. It is now widely accepted that at least Beta, Atla, Eistla, and Bell Regiones are the surface expressions of hot, rising mantel plumes. Upwelling plumes are consistent with both the volcanism and the extensional tectonism observed in these regions. The geoid anomalies and topography of these four regions show considerable variation. Peak geoid anomalies exceed 90 m at Beta and Atla, but are only 40 m at Eistla and 24 m at Bell. Similarly, the peak topography is greater at Beta and Atla than at Eistla and Bell. Such a range of values is not surprising because terrestrial hotspot swells also have a side range of geoid anomalies and topographic uplifts. Kiefer and Hager used cylindrical axisymmetric, steady-state convection calculations to show that mantle plumes can quantitatively account for both the amplitude and the shape of the long-wavelength geoid and topography at Beta and Atla. In these models, most of the topography of these highlands is due to uplift by the vertical normal stress associated with the rising plume. Additional topography may also be present due to crustal thickening by volcanism and crustal thinning by rifting. Smrekar and Phillips have also considered the geoid and topography of plumes on Venus, but they restricted themselves to considering only the geoid-topography ratio and did not
Bosonized noncommutative bi-fundamental fermion and S-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blas, Harold
2005-06-01
We perform the path-integral bosonization of the recently proposed noncommutative massive Thirring model (NCMT1) [JHEP 0503 (2005) 037]. This model presents two types of current-current interaction terms related to the bi-fundamental representation of the group U(1). Firstly, we address the bosonization of a bi-fundamental free Dirac fermion defined on a noncommutative (NC) euclidean plane Bbb Rθ2. In this case we show that the fermion system is dual to two copies of the NC Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model. Next, we apply the bosonization prescription to the NCMT1 model living on Bbb Rθ2 and show that this model is equivalent to two-copies of the WZNW model and a two-field potential defined for scalar fields corresponding to the global U(1) × U(1) symmetry plus additional bosonized terms for the four fermion interactions. The bosonic sector resembles to the one proposed by Lechtenfeld et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 705 (2005) 477] as the noncommutative sine-Gordon for a pair of scalar fields. The bosonic and fermionic couplings are related by a strong-weak duality. We show that the couplings of the both sectors for some representations satisfy similar relationships up to relevant re-scalings, thus the NC bi-fundamental couplings are two times the corresponding ones of the NC fundamental (anti-fundamental) and eight times the couplings of the ordinary massive Thirring and sine-Gordon models.
Ting, Hiram; Thurasamy, Ramayah
2016-01-01
Notwithstanding the rise of trendy coffee café, little is done to investigate revisit intention towards the café in the context of developing markets. In particular, there is a lack of study which provides theoretical and practical explanation to the perceptions and behaviours of infrequent customers. Hence, the study aims to look into the subject matter by using the theory of reasoned action and social exchange theory as the underpinning basis. The framework proposed by Pine and Gilmore (Strat Leadersh 28:18-23, 2000), which asserts the importance of product quality, service quality and experience quality in a progressive manner, is used to decompose perceived value in the model so as to determine their effects on intention to revisit the café. Given the importance to gain practical insights into revisit intention of infrequent customers, pragmatism stance is assumed. Explanatory sequential mixed-method design is thus adopted whereby qualitative approach is used to confirm and complement quantitative findings. Self-administered questionnaire-based survey is first administered before personal interview is carried out at various cafés. Partial least squares structural equation modelling and content analysis are appropriated successively. In the quantitative findings, although product quality, service quality and experience quality are found to have positive effect on perceived value and revisit intention towards trendy coffee café, experience quality is found to have the greater effect than the others among the infrequent customers. The qualitative findings not only confirm their importance, but most importantly explain the favourable impressions they have at trendy coffee café based on their last in-store experience. While product and service quality might not necessary stimulate them to revisit trendy coffee café, experience quality driven by purposes of visit would likely affect their intention to revisit. As retaining customers is of utmost importance to
Ting, Hiram; Thurasamy, Ramayah
2016-01-01
Notwithstanding the rise of trendy coffee café, little is done to investigate revisit intention towards the café in the context of developing markets. In particular, there is a lack of study which provides theoretical and practical explanation to the perceptions and behaviours of infrequent customers. Hence, the study aims to look into the subject matter by using the theory of reasoned action and social exchange theory as the underpinning basis. The framework proposed by Pine and Gilmore (Strat Leadersh 28:18-23, 2000), which asserts the importance of product quality, service quality and experience quality in a progressive manner, is used to decompose perceived value in the model so as to determine their effects on intention to revisit the café. Given the importance to gain practical insights into revisit intention of infrequent customers, pragmatism stance is assumed. Explanatory sequential mixed-method design is thus adopted whereby qualitative approach is used to confirm and complement quantitative findings. Self-administered questionnaire-based survey is first administered before personal interview is carried out at various cafés. Partial least squares structural equation modelling and content analysis are appropriated successively. In the quantitative findings, although product quality, service quality and experience quality are found to have positive effect on perceived value and revisit intention towards trendy coffee café, experience quality is found to have the greater effect than the others among the infrequent customers. The qualitative findings not only confirm their importance, but most importantly explain the favourable impressions they have at trendy coffee café based on their last in-store experience. While product and service quality might not necessary stimulate them to revisit trendy coffee café, experience quality driven by purposes of visit would likely affect their intention to revisit. As retaining customers is of utmost importance to