Sample records for single bubble sonoluminescence

  1. Bubble levitation and translation under single-bubble sonoluminescence conditions.

    PubMed

    Matula, Thomas J

    2003-08-01

    Bubble levitation in an acoustic standing wave is re-examined for conditions relevant to single-bubble sonoluminescence. Unlike a previous examination [Matula et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1522-1527 (1997)], the stable parameter space [Pa,R0] is accounted for in this realization. Forces such as the added mass force and drag are included, and the results are compared with a simple force balance that equates the Bjerknes force to the buoyancy force. Under normal sonoluminescence conditions, the comparison is quite favorable. A more complete accounting of the forces shows that a stably levitated bubble does undergo periodic translational motion. The asymmetries associated with translational motion are hypothesized to generate instabilities in the spherical shape of the bubble. A reduction in gravity results in reduced translational motion. It is hypothesized that such conditions may lead to increased light output from sonoluminescing bubbles.

  2. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Manas

    In recent years considerable attention has been directed to the phenomenon of single bubble sonoluminescence, SBSL in which a single, stable, acoustically levitated bubble is made to oscillate with sufficiently large amplitude so as to emit picosecond light pulses in each cycle of the acoustic drive pressure. Remarkably, the phenomenon represents about twelve orders of magnitude of energy focusing. SBSL has been carefully and thoroughly studied in part of parameter space by previous authors. In the present work, the experimental observation of the influence of another important parameter namely the ambient pressure will be presented. It is the first complete and controlled study of the modifications of the bubble dynamics and SL emission due to the variation of the ambient pressure. It has been observed that the equilibrium radius as well as the maximum radius increase as the ambient pressure is decreased at constant driving pressure. Furthermore the expansion ratio (Rmax/ Rmin) increases as the ambient pressure is decreased, resulting in a change in the SL radiation. The intensity of SL emission increases about seven times for only a fifteen percent decrease of ambient pressure at constant driving pressure. However, it is not possible to push SL radiation beyond a certain limit by continuously decreasing the ambient pressure. On the other hand increasing the ambient pressure decreases the equilibrium radius, as well as the expansion ratio leading to a decrease of SL intensity. Amongst the SBSL emissions the light emission has been investigated rather elaborately. The other single bubble emission is the acoustic emission, AE. Here a detailed study of AE will be presented. The AE has been measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone in different regimes of bubble motion. The hydrophone response shows a large amplitude AE pulse which corresponds to the principal collapse, along with smaller amplitude pulses which can be associated with the after bounces of the bubble

  3. Bremsstrahlung of nitrogen and noble gases in single-bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ning; Wang, Long; Hu, Xiwei

    2000-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model, discussing neutral gases as well as plasmas, is applied to simulate single-bubble sonoluminescence. In this model, thermal conduction and various inelastic impact processes such as dissociation, ionization, and recombination are considered. Bremsstrahlung is assumed as the mechanism of the picosecond light pulse in sonoluminescence. Diatomic nitrogen and noble gas bubbles are studied. The results show that the sonoluminescing bubbles are completely optically thin for bremsstrahlung. The calculated spectra agree with previous observations, and can explain the observed differences in spectra of different gases.

  4. Single-bubble sonoluminescence in sulfuric acid and water: bubble dynamics, stability, and continuous spectra.

    PubMed

    Puente, Gabriela F; García-Martínez, Pablo; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2007-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations of an argon bubble in a liquid solution of 85%wt sulfuric acid and 15%wt water in single-bubble sonoluminescence. We used a model without free parameters to be adjusted. We predict from first principles the region in parameter space for stable bubble evolution, the temporal evolution of the bubble radius, the maximum temperature, pressures, and the light spectra due to thermal emissions. We also used a partial differential equation based model (hydrocode) to compute the temperature and pressure evolutions at the center of the bubble during maximum compression. We found the behavior of this liquid mixture to be very different from water in several aspects. Most of the models in sonoluminescence were compared with water experimental results.

  5. Buoyancy-Driven Instabilities in Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matula, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study are to determine how gravity affects the emission of light from single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), and whether or not the bubble extinction is directly related to gravity. Our experimental task involves designing glass or quartz spherical levitation cells that generate very stable SL bubbles. The cells must have minimized vibration, and some temperature control. The experimental system will reside in a light-tight enclosure. Aside from acceleration, the frequency, pressure amplitude, and light intensity must be measured. A computer program will be constructed to perform all aspects of the experiment.

  6. Single-bubble sonoluminescence as Dicke superradiance at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio Alcalde, M.; Quevedo, H.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2014-12-01

    Sonoluminescence is a process in which a strong sound field is used to produce light in liquids. We explain sonoluminescence as a phase transition from ordinary fluorescence to a superradiant phase. We consider a spin-boson model composed of a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms. We assume that the whole system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature β-1. We show that, in a ultrastrong-coupling regime, between the two-level atoms and the electromagnetic field it is possible to have a cooperative interaction of the molecules of the gas in the interior of the bubble with the field, generating sonoluminescence.

  7. Acoustical stability of a sonoluminescing bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzfuss, Joachim; Rüggeberg, Matthias; Holt, R. Glynn

    2002-10-01

    In the parameter region for sonoluminescence of a single levitated bubble in a water-filled resonator it is observed that the bubble may have an enormous spatial stability leaving it ``pinned'' in the fluid and allowing it to emit light pulses of picosecond accuracy. We report here observations of a complex harmonic structure in the acoustic field surrounding a sonoluminescing bubble. We show that this complex sound field determines the position of the bubble and may either increase or decrease its spatial stability. The acoustic environment of the bubble is the result of the excitation of high-order normal modes of the resonator by the outgoing shock wave generated by the bubble collapse.

  8. The Spectrum of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Robert Anthony

    1995-01-01

    An acoustically levitated bubble in a liquid may be driven to produce short flashes of light synchronous with the sound field in a process called sonoluminescence. The spectrum of the emitted light is measured with a grating monochromator and calibrated for absolute spectral radiance. The spectrum has been measured for various gases dissolved in pure water and heavy water, and alcohols and other hydrocarbon liquids. At a bandpass of 10nm EWHM the spectra are broad -band, showing no sign of lines or absorptions, with a peak in the ultraviolet. The experimental apparatus, including a system for producing sonoluminescence in a sealed container, is described.

  9. Effects of fluid viscosity on a moving sonoluminescing bubble.

    PubMed

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Mirheydari, Mona; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa

    2011-08-01

    Based on the quasi-adiabatic model, the parameters of the bubble interior for a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in water, adiponitrile, and N-methylformamide are calculated for various fluid viscosities. By using a complete form of the hydrodynamic force, the bubble trajectory is calculated for a moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m-SBSL). It is found that as the fluid viscosity increases, the unique circular path changes to an ellipsoidal and then linear form and along this incrementally increase of viscosity the light intensity increases. By using the Bremsstrahlung model to describe the bubble radiation, gradual increase of the viscosity results in brighter emissions. It is found that in fluids with higher viscosity the light intensity decreases as time passes.

  10. Analytical study of the acoustic field in a spherical resonator for single bubble sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Dellavale, Damián; Urteaga, Raúl; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic field in the liquid within a spherical solid shell is calculated. The proposed model takes into account Stoke's wave equation in the viscous fluid, the membrane theory to describe the solid shell motion and the energy loss through the external couplings of the system. A point source at the resonator center is included to reproduce the acoustic emission of a sonoluminescence bubble. Particular calculations of the resulting acoustic field are performed for viscous liquids of interest in single bubble sonoluminescence. The model reveals that in case of radially symmetric modes of low frequency, the quality factor is mainly determined by the acoustic energy flowing through the mechanical coupling of the resonator. Alternatively, for high frequency modes the quality factor is mainly determined by the viscous dissipation in the liquid. Furthermore, the interaction between the bubble acoustic emission and the resonator modes is analyzed. It was found that the bubble acoustic emission produces local maxima in the resonator response. The calculated amplitudes and relative phases of the harmonics constituting the bubble acoustic environment can be used to improve multi-frequency driving in sonoluminescence.

  11. The analytical measurement of fluorescein, quinine and trace metal concentrations in solution using single bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P.; McCallum, K.; Barnard, C. L. R.; Clement, C.; Marshall, J.; Carroll, J.

    2007-03-01

    A single bubble was generated and levitated in a high-intensity sound field within a spherical flask excited in its fundamental mode. Under optimum experimental conditions the bubble was observed to emit light in the form of short flashes. This phenomenon is known as single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). Using this process, the emitted light from the bubble was monitored when solutions containing fluorescein, quinine and sodium, potassium and copper salts were placed in the cell. The results obtained indicated that reproducible signals related directly to the concentration of the species present in solution could be achieved using single bubble sonoluminescence. The results for the molecular species were compared with those obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy and, in the case of quinine, parallel determinations of concentration in a test solution were performed with consistent results. SBSL signals were also observed to exhibit a linear correlation with the concentration of several trace metal salts introduced to the solution in the measurement cell. However, it was not possible to demonstrate that the SBSL signals were derived from stimulated atomic emission or fluorescence, and it was concluded that the effect may result from an indirect effect involving the bubble excitation mechanism.

  12. Observation of Mass Transport Stability and Faraday Instability: Why Stable Single Bubble Sonoluminescence is Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, R. G.; Gaitan, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Teh region of parameter space (acoustic pressure P(sub a), bubble radius R(sub 0)) in which stable single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) occurs in an air-water system is a small fraction of that which is accesible. This is due ot the existence of an island of dissolution at high P(sub a) and small R(sub 0).

  13. Modelling of Spherical Gas Bubble Oscillations and Sonoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosperetti, A.; Hao, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of single-bubble sonoluminescence has led to a renewed interest in the forced radial oscillations of gas bubbles. Many of the more recent studies devoted to this topic have used several simplifications in the modelling, and in particular in accounting for liquid compressibility and thermal processes in the bubble. In this paper the significance of these simplifications is explored by contrasting the results of Lohse and co-workers with those of a more detailed model. It is found that, even though there may be little apparent difference between the radius-versus time behaviour of the bubble as predicted by the two models, quantities such as the spherical stability boundary and the threshold for rectified diffusion are affected in a quantitatively significant way. These effects are a manifestation of the subtle dependence upon dissipative processes of the phase of radial motion with respect to the driving sound field. The parameter space region, where according to the theory of Lohse and co-workers, sonoluminescence should be observable, is recalculated with the new model and is found to be enlarged with respect to the earlier estimate. The dependence of this parameter region on sound frequency is also illustrated.

  14. Phase Transition to an Opaque Plasma in a Sonoluminescing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Chakravarty, Avik; Putterman, Seth

    2011-06-01

    Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10000K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10 000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.

  15. Physical conditions and chemical processes during single-bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannigan, David J.

    In order to gain insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes associated with single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), nonvolatile liquids such as concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO 4) were explored. The SBSL radiant powers from H2SO 4 aqueous solutions were found to be over 103 times larger than those typically observed for SBSL from water. In addition, the emission spectra contain extensive bands and lines from molecules, atoms, and ions. The population of high-energy states of atoms (20 eV) and ions (37 eV) provides definitive experimental evidence of the formation of a plasma. By using various techniques (e.g., small molecules and atoms as intra-cavity probes, standard methods of plasma diagnostics, and spectrometric methods of pyrometry), it was possible to quantify the heavy particle temperatures (15,000 K), heavy particle densities (1021 cm-3) and pressures (4,000 bar), and plasma electron densities (1018 cm -3) generated during SBSL from H2SO4. It was also found that SBSL from H2SO4 containing mixtures of noble gas and air was quenched up to a critical acoustic pressure, above which the radiant powers increased by 104. From the spectral profiles it was determined that the air limited heating and plasma formation by endothermic chemical reactions and energy-transfer reactions. Simultaneous stroboscopic and spectroscopic studies of SBSL in H2SO4 containing alkali-metal sulfates showed that dramatic changes in the bubble dynamics correlated with the onset of emission from nonvolatile species such as Na and K atoms. These effects were attributed to the development of interfacial instabilities with increasing translational velocity of the bubble.

  16. Phase transition to an opaque plasma in a sonoluminescing bubble.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Chakravarty, Avik; Putterman, Seth

    2011-06-10

    Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10 000  K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10 000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.

  17. The acoustic environment of a sonoluminescing bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzfuss, Joachim; Rüggeberg, Matthias; Holt, R. Glynn

    2000-07-01

    A bubble is levitated in water in a cylindrical resonator which is driven by ultrasound. It has been shown that in a certain region of parameter space the bubble is emitting light pulses (sonoluminescence). One of the properties observed is the enormous spatial stability leaving the bubble "pinned" in space allowing it to emit light with a timing of picosecond accuracy. We argue that the observed stability is due to interactions of the bubble with the resonator. A shock wave emitted at collapse time together with a self generated complex sound field, which is experimentally mapped with high resolution, is responsible for the observed effects.

  18. Single Bubble Sonoluminescence in Low Gravity and Optical Radiation Pressure Positioning of the Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiessen, D. B.; Young, J. E.; Marr-Lyon, M. J.; Richardson, S. L.; Breckon, C. D.; Douthit, S. G.; Jian, P. S.; Torruellas, W. E.; Marston, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Several groups of researchers have demonstrated that high frequency sound in water may be used to cause the regular repeated compression and luminescence of a small bubble of gas in a flask. The phenomenon is known as single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). It is potentially important because light emitted by the bubble appears to be associated with a significant concentration of energy within the volume of the bubble. Unfortunately, the detailed physical mechanisms causing the radiation of light by oscillating bubbles are poorly understood and there is some evidence that carrying out experiments in a weightless environment may provide helpful clues. In addition, the radiation pressure of laser beams on the bubble may provide a way of simulating weightless experiments in the laboratory. The standard model of SBSL attributes the light emission to heating within the bubble by a spherically imploding shock wave to achieve temperatures of 50,000 K or greater. In an alternative model, the emission is attributed to the impact of a jet of water which is required to span the bubble and the formation of the jet is linked to the buoyancy of the bubble. The coupling between buoyancy and jet formation is a consequence of the displacement of the bubble from a velocity node (pressure antinode) of the standing acoustic wave that drives the radial bubble oscillations. One objective of this grant is to understand SBSL emission in reduced buoyancy on KC-135 parabolic flights. To optimize the design of those experiments and for other reasons which will help resolve the role of buoyancy, laboratory experiments are planned in simulated low gravity in which the radiation pressure of laser light will be used to position the bubble at the acoustic velocity node of the ultrasonic standing wave. Laser light will also be used to push the bubble away from the velocity node, increasing the effective buoyancy. The original experiments on the optical levitation and radiation pressure on bubbles

  19. Calculation of Thermodynamic Parameters and Degree of Ionization of Nitrogen and Its Mixtures with Argon in Typical Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenok, V. A.; Medvedev, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of the behavior of a system consisting of a spherical bubble filled with nitrogen or its mixtures with argon and surrounding water under external influence typical of experimental study of single-bubble sonoluminescence are presented. Comparison of the results of calculations and experiments shows that gas heated at the bubble compression stage cannot be regarded as the only source of radiation. This circumstance requires the presence of other, basic, sources. In the polarization model, this is the channel of electrical breakdown in a liquid. Possible electrical effects accompanying the liquid-solid phase transformation in water near the moment of the maximum compression of the bubble are assumed.

  20. 100-watt sonoluminescence generated by 2.5-atmosphere-pressure pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Putterman, Seth

    2011-05-01

    A Xenon gas bubble introduced into a vertically suspended steel cylinder is driven to sonoluminescence by impacting the apparatus against a solid steel base. This produces a 150-ns flash of broadband light that exceeds 100-W peak intensity and has a spectral temperature of 10 200 K. This bubble system, which yields light with a single shot, emits very powerful sonoluminescence. A jet is visible following bubble collapse, which demonstrates that spherical symmetry is not necessary to produce sonoluminescence.

  1. Inside a Collapsing Bubble: Sonoluminescence and the Conditions During Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslick, Kenneth S.; Flannigan, David J.

    2008-05-01

    Acoustic cavitation, the growth and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid irradiated with ultrasound, is a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions with sound, a process known as sonochemistry. Another consequence of acoustic cavitation is the emission of light [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Spectroscopic analyses of SL from single bubbles as well as a cloud of bubbles have revealed line and band emission, as well as an underlying continuum arising from a plasma. Application of spectrometric methods of pyrometry as well as tools of plasma diagnostics to relative line intensities, profiles, and peak positions have allowed the determination of intracavity temperatures and pressures. These studies have shown that extraordinary conditions (temperatures up to 20,000 K; pressures of several thousand bar; and heating and cooling rates of >1012 K s1) are generated within an otherwise cold liquid.

  2. 100-Watt sonoluminescence generated by 2.5-atmosphere-pressure pulses.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Putterman, Seth

    2011-05-01

    A Xenon gas bubble introduced into a vertically suspended steel cylinder is driven to sonoluminescence by impacting the apparatus against a solid steel base. This produces a 150-ns flash of broadband light that exceeds 100-W peak intensity and has a spectral temperature of 10,200 K. This bubble system, which yields light with a single shot, emits very powerful sonoluminescence. A jet is visible following bubble collapse, which demonstrates that spherical symmetry is not necessary to produce sonoluminescence. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Dynamics of a Sonoluminescing Bubble in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Stephen D.; Putterman, Seth J.; Kappus, Brian A.; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Camara, Carlos G.

    2005-12-01

    The spectral shape and observed sonoluminescence emission from Xe bubbles in concentrated sulfuric acid is consistent only with blackbody emission from a spherical surface that fills the bubble. The interior of the observed 7000 K blackbody must be at least 4 times hotter than the emitting surface in order that the equilibrium light-matter interaction length be smaller than the radius. Bright emission is correlated with long emission times (˜10ns), sharp thresholds, unstable translational motion, and implosions that are sufficiently weak that contributions from the van der Waals hard core are small.

  4. Dynamics of a sonoluminescing bubble in sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Stephen D; Putterman, Seth J; Kappus, Brian A; Suslick, Kenneth S; Camara, Carlos G

    2005-12-16

    The spectral shape and observed sonoluminescence emission from Xe bubbles in concentrated sulfuric acid is consistent only with blackbody emission from a spherical surface that fills the bubble. The interior of the observed 7000 K blackbody must be at least 4 times hotter than the emitting surface in order that the equilibrium light-matter interaction length be smaller than the radius. Bright emission is correlated with long emission times (approximately 10 ns), sharp thresholds, unstable translational motion, and implosions that are sufficiently weak that contributions from the van der Waals hard core are small.

  5. Numerical and experimental study of dissociation in an air-water single-bubble sonoluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Puente, Gabriela F; Urteaga, Raúl; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2005-10-01

    We performed a comprehensive numerical and experimental analysis of dissociation effects in an air bubble in water acoustically levitated in a spherical resonator. Our numerical approach is based on suitable models for the different effects considered. We compared model predictions with experimental results obtained in our laboratory in the whole phase parameter space, for acoustic pressures from the bubble dissolution limit up to bubble extinction. The effects were taken into account simultaneously to consider the transition from nonsonoluminescence to sonoluminescence bubbles. The model includes (1) inside the bubble, transient and spatially nonuniform heat transfer using a collocation points method, dissociation of O2 and N2, and mass diffusion of vapor in the noncondensable gases; (2) at the bubble interface, nonequilibrium evaporation and condensation of water and a temperature jump due to the accommodation coefficient; (3) in the liquid, transient and spatially nonuniform heat transfer using a collocation points method, and mass diffusion of the gas in the liquid. The model is completed with a Rayleigh-Plesset equation with liquid compressible terms and vapor mass transfer. We computed the boundary for the shape instability based on the temporal evolution of the computed radius. The model is valid for an arbitrary number of dissociable gases dissolved in the liquid. We also obtained absolute measurements for R(t) using two photodetectors and Mie scattering calculations. The robust technique used allows the estimation of experimental results of absolute R0 and P(a). The technique is based on identifying the bubble dissolution limit coincident with the parametric instability in (P(a),R0) parameter space. We take advantage of the fact that this point can be determined experimentally with high precision and replicability. We computed the equilibrium concentration of the different gaseous species and water vapor during collapse as a function of P(a) and R0. The

  6. Dynamics of sonoluminescing bubbles within a liquid hammer device.

    PubMed

    Urteaga, Raúl; García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of a single sonoluminescing bubble (SBSL) in a liquid hammer device. In particular, we investigated the phosphoric acid-xenon system, in which pulses up to four orders of magnitude brighter than SBSL in water systems (about 10;{12} photons per pulse) have been previously reported [Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066317 (2004)]. We used stroboscopic photography and a Mie scattering technique in order to measure the radius evolution of the bubbles. Under adequate conditions we may position a bubble at the bottom of the tube (cavity) and a second bubble trapped at the middle of the tube (upper bubble). During its collapse, the cavity produces the compression of the liquid column. This compression drives impulsively the dynamics of the upper bubble. Our measurements reveal that the observed light emissions produced by the upper bubble are generated at its second collapse. We employed a simple numerical model to investigate the conditions that occur during the upper bubble collapse. We found good agreement between numerical and experimental values for the light intensity (fluence) and light pulse widths. Results from the model show that the light emission is increased mainly due to an increase in noble gas ambient radius and not because the maximum temperature increases. Even for the brightest pulses obtained ( 2x10;{13} photons, about 20W of peak power) the maximum temperatures computed for the upper bubble are always lower than 20000K .

  7. Sonoluminescence at Carthage: Sound into Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Lukas K.; Arion, D.; Crosby, K.

    2006-12-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is a phenomenon in which acoustic energy traps and compresses a bubble resulting in the emission of light through an, as of yet, unidentified mechanism. Mathematical modeling of the single bubble system allows for theoretical predictions of the bubbles interior atmosphere such as radius, pressure and temperature as a function of time. Profiling of the light through polarization measurements, wavelength specific filter imaging as well as raw image analysis may give further insight as to the dynamics of the trapped bubble and a possible mechanism. Results of the linear polarization measurements indicate that the light emitted is not linearly polarized. Long exposures of the light clearly reproduce previously reported data of the high energy, short wavelength end of the visible spectrum by the bluish-violet glow emanating from the bubble. The procedure and design improvements of the apparatus that were made make the phenomenon of sonoluminescence more accessible to study as an undergraduate. My AAPT sponsors are Prof. Douglas Arion and Prof. Kevin Crosby.

  8. Understanding Sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Sonoluminescence is the transformation of sound into light. To most who know how to do sonoluminescence, it's just a little glowing bubble levitating in a flask of water. But it holds some surprises that have been overlooked. This book looks to reform our scientific understanding of sonoluminescence and explore the practical applications as an energy source.

  9. Dynamics of single-bubble sonoluminescence. An alternative approach to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Ana L. F.; Nogueira, Álvaro L. M. A.; Paschoal, Ricardo C.; Portes, Dirceu, Jr.; Rodrigues, Hilario

    2018-03-01

    Sonoluminescence is the phenomenon in which acoustic energy is (partially) transformed into light as a bubble of gas collapses inside a liquid medium. One particular model used to explain the motion of the bubble’s wall forced by acoustic pressure is expressed by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, which can be obtained from the Navier-Stokes equation. In this article, we describe an alternative approach to derive the Rayleigh-Plesset equation based on Lagrangian mechanics. This work is addressed mainly to undergraduate students and teachers. It requires knowledge of calculus and of many concepts from various fields of physics at the intermediate level.

  10. Experimental investigations of the parameter space of sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weninger, Keith Roger

    Sonoluminescence is the process in which a gas bubble levitated within an ensonicated liquid converts sound energy into brief flashes of light. Hydrophone and pulsed light scattering measurements of the runaway collapse of the bubble which leads to the emission of light show bubble wall speeds greater than 1.5 km/sec and accelerations larger than 1011 g. The parameter space for sonoluminescence is expanded to include host fluids other than water. Measurements are reported of the sensitivity of sonoluminescence to small quantities of organic impurities. Sonoluminescence has been obtained from a hemispherical bubble on a solid surface and the light emitted is shown to be similar to the usual sonoluminescence from a bubble in the bulk of a liquid although the surface bubbles are about 10 times larger.

  11. Sonoluminescence in Space: The Critical Role of Buoyancy in Stability and Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Charles R.; Holt, R. Glynn; Roy, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is the term used to describe the emission of light from a violently collapsing bubble. Sonoluminescence ("light from sound") is the result of extremely nonlinear pulsations of gas/vapor bubbles in liquids when subject to sufficiently high amplitude acoustic pressures. In a single collapse, a bubble's volume can be compressed more than a thousand-fold in the span of less than a microsecond. Even the simplest consideration of the thermodynamics yields pressures on the order of 10,000 ATM, and temperatures of at least 10,000K. On the face of things, it is not surprising that light should be emitted from such an extreme process. Since 1990 (the year that Gaitan discovered light from a single bubble) there has been a tremendous amount of experimental and theoretical research in stable, single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), yet there remain at least four unexplained phenomena associated with SBSL in 1g: the light emission mechanism itself, the existence of anisotropies in the emitted light, the disappearance of the bubble at some critical acoustic pressure, and the appearance of quasiperiodic and chaotic oscillations in the flash timing. Gravity, in the context of the buoyant force, is implicated in all four of these. We are developing KC-135 experiments probing the effect of gravity on single bubble sonoluminescence. By determining the stability boundaries experimentally in microgravity, and measuring not only light emission but mechanical bubble response, we will be able to directly test the predictions of existing theories.

  12. Energy Balance for a Sonoluminescence Bubble Yields a Measure of Ionization Potential Lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappus, B.; Bataller, A.; Putterman, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Application of energy conservation between input sound and the microplasma which forms at the moment of sonoluminescence places bounds on the process, whereby the gas is ionized. Detailed pulsed Mie scattering measurements of the radius versus time for a xenon bubble in sulfuric acid provide a complete characterization of the hydrodynamics and minimum radius. For a range of emission intensities, the blackbody spectrum emitted during collapse matches the minimum bubble radius, implying opaque conditions are attained. This requires a degree of ionization >36%. Analysis reveals only 2.1±0.6eV/atom of energy available during light emission. In order to unbind enough charge, collective processes must therefore reduce the ionization potential by at least 75%. We interpret this as evidence that a phase transition to a highly ionized plasma is occurring during sonoluminescence.

  13. Energy balance for a sonoluminescence bubble yields a measure of ionization potential lowering.

    PubMed

    Kappus, B; Bataller, A; Putterman, S J

    2013-12-06

    Application of energy conservation between input sound and the microplasma which forms at the moment of sonoluminescence places bounds on the process, whereby the gas is ionized. Detailed pulsed Mie scattering measurements of the radius versus time for a xenon bubble in sulfuric acid provide a complete characterization of the hydrodynamics and minimum radius. For a range of emission intensities, the blackbody spectrum emitted during collapse matches the minimum bubble radius, implying opaque conditions are attained. This requires a degree of ionization >36%. Analysis reveals only 2.1±0.6  eV/atom of energy available during light emission. In order to unbind enough charge, collective processes must therefore reduce the ionization potential by at least 75%. We interpret this as evidence that a phase transition to a highly ionized plasma is occurring during sonoluminescence.

  14. Numerical study of electronic impact and radiation in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ning; Wang, Long; Hu, Xiwei

    1998-02-01

    A hydrodynamic simulation of pure argon single-bubble sonoluminescence including electron collisional ionization, recombination, and radiative energy loss has been performed. We find that near the moment that the bubble reaches its minimum radius the atoms inside a very thin layer around the origin of the bubble are strongly ionized, and the light emission occurs nearly simultaneously. Therefore we conclude that multiple ionization and recombination, which mainly occur in the thin layer of plasma, play a dramatically important role in the noble gas sonoluminescence. We also find that the temperature and the intensity of luminescence are not so high as those predicted by previous models, which consider only neutral gases.

  15. Sonoluminescence in Space: The Critical Role of Buoyancy in Stability and Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, R. Glynn; Roy, Ronald A.

    1999-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is the term used to describe the emission of light from a violently collapsing bubble. Sonoluminescence ("light from sound") is the result of extremely nonlinear pulsations of gas/vapor bubbles in liquids when subject to sufficiently high amplitude acoustic pressures. In a single collapse, a bubble's volume can be compressed more than a thousand-fold in the span of less than a microsecond. Even the simplest consideration of the thermodynamics yields pressures on the order of 10,000 ATM. and temperatures of at least 10,000 K. On the face of things, it is not surprising that light should be emitted from such an extreme process. Since 1990 (the year that Gaitan discovered light from a single bubble) there has been a tremendous amount of experimental and theoretical research in stable, single-bubble sonoluminescence. Yet there remain four fundamental mysteries associated with this phenomenon: 1) the light emission mechanism itself; 2) the mechanism for anomalous mass flux stability; 3) the disappearance of the bubble at some critical acoustic pressure; and 4) the appearance of quasiperiodic and chaotic oscillations in the flash timing. Gravity, in the context of the buoyant force, is implicated in all four of these unexplained phenomena. We are developing microgravity experiments probing the effect of gravity on single bubble sonoluminescence. By determining the stability boundaries experimentally in microgravity, and measuring not only light emission but mechanical bubble response, we will be able to directly test the unambiguous predictions of existing theories. By exploiting the microgravity environment we will gain new knowledge impossible to obtain in earth-based labs which will enable explanations for the above mysteries. We will also be in a position to make new discoveries about bubbles which emit light.

  16. Single bubble perturbation in cavitation proximity of solid glass: hot spot versus distance.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Suslick, Kenneth

    2014-02-28

    A systematic study of the energy loss of a cavitation bubble in a close proximity of a glass surface is introduced for the first time in a low acoustic field (1.2-2.4 bar). Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is used as a tool to predict the temperature and pressure decrease of bubble (μm) versus surface distance. A glass as a model system is used to imitate the boundary conditions relevant for nano- or micromaterials. SBSL preequilibrated with 5% argon is perturbed by a glass rod with the tip (Z-perturbation) and with the long axis (X-perturbation) at a defined distance. From 2 mm to 500 μm argon-SBSL lines monotonically narrow and the effective emission temperature decreases from 9000 K to 6800 K comparable to multiple bubbles. The electron density decreases by two orders of magnitude in Z-perturbation and is by a factor of two higher in X-perturbation than the unperturbed cavitating bubble. The perturbed single bubble sonoluminescence pressure decreases from 2700 atm to 1200 atm at 2.4 bar. In water new non-SBSL SiO molecular emission lines are observed and OH emission disappears.

  17. Perturbation of a radially oscillating single-bubble by a micron-sized object.

    PubMed

    Montes-Quiroz, W; Baillon, F; Louisnard, O; Boyer, B; Espitalier, F

    2017-03-01

    A single bubble oscillating in a levitation cell is acoustically monitored by a piezo-ceramics microphone glued on the cell external wall. The correlation of the filtered signal recorded over distant cycles on one hand, and its harmonic content on the other hand, are shown to carry rich information on the bubble stability and existence. For example, the harmonic content of the signal is shown to increase drastically once air is fully dissociated in the bubble, and the resulting pure argon bubble enters into the upper branch of the sonoluminescence regime. As a consequence, the bubble disappearance can be unambiguously detected by a net drop in the harmonic content. On the other hand, we perturb a stable sonoluminescing bubble by approaching a micron-sized fiber. The bubble remains unperturbed until the fiber tip is approached within a critical distance, below which the bubble becomes unstable and disappears. This distance can be easily measured by image treatment, and is shown to scale roughly with 3-4 times the bubble maximal radius. The bubble disappearance is well detected by the drop of the microphone harmonic content, but several thousands of periods after the bubble actually disappeared. The delay is attributed to the slow extinction of higher modes of the levitation cell, excited by the bubble oscillation. The acoustic detection method should however allow the early detection and imaging of non-predictable perturbations of the bubble by foreign micron-sized objects, such as crystals or droplets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental study of transient paths to the extinction in sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Urteaga, Raúl; Dellavale, Damián; Puente, Gabriela F; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2008-09-01

    An experimental study of the extinction threshold of single bubble sonoluminescence in an air-water system is presented. Different runs from 5% to 100% of air concentrations were performed at room pressure and temperature. The intensity of sonoluminescence (SL) and time of collapse (t(c)) with respect to the driving were measured while the acoustic pressure was linearly increased from the onset of SL until the bubble extinction. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions for shape and position instability thresholds. It was found that the extinction of the bubble is determined by different mechanisms depending on the air concentration. For concentrations greater than approximately 30%-40% with respect to the saturation, the parametric instability limits the maximum value of R(0) that can be reached. On the other hand, for lower concentrations, the extinction appears as a limitation in the time of collapse. Two different mechanisms emerge in this range, i.e., the Bjerknes force and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The bubble acoustic emission produces backreaction on the bubble itself. This effect occurs in both mechanisms and is essential for the correct prediction of the extinction threshold in the case of low air dissolved concentration.

  19. Proposed method to estimate the liquid-vapor accommodation coefficient based on experimental sonoluminescence data.

    PubMed

    Puente, Gabriela F; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2005-05-01

    We used the temporal evolution of the bubble radius in single-bubble sonoluminescence to estimate the water liquid-vapor accommodation coefficient. The rapid changes in the bubble radius that occur during the bubble collapse and rebounds are a function of the actual value of the accommodation coefficient. We selected bubble radius measurements obtained from two different experimental techniques in conjunction with a robust parameter estimation strategy and we obtained that for water at room temperature the mass accommodation coefficient is in the confidence interval [0.217,0.329].

  20. Positional stability as the light emission limit in sonoluminescence with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Urteaga, Raúl; Dellavale, Damián H; Puente, Gabriela F; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2007-11-01

    We studied a single bubble sonoluminescence system consisting of an argon bubble in a sulfuric acid aq. solution. We experimentally determined the relevant variables of the system. We also measured the bubble position, extent of the bubble orbits, and light intensity as a function of acoustic pressure for different argon concentrations. We find that the Bjerknes force is responsible for the bubble mean position and this imposes a limitation in the maximum acoustic pressure that can be applied to the bubble. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not play a role in this system and, at a given gas concentration, the SL intensity depends more on the bubble time of collapse than any other investigated parameter.

  1. Measured pulse width of sonoluminescence flashes in the form of resonance radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Asis; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the measured flash widths from single and multibubble sonoluminescence are in subnanosecond or even picosecond regime. Here, we provide conclusive evidence for the existence of nanosecond multibubble sonoluminescence. This has become possible by our ability to find a medium from which exclusive sodium D line resonance radiation as a form of sonoluminescence is possible. The measured flash width of this emission is found to be in the range of tens of nanoseconds and is sensitively dependent on experimental parameters. Our finding is important since all the earlier pulse width measurements have been limited to emission with the physical source or species responsible for observed optical radiation not being clearly identified. We propose that the presently observed resonance radiation is from ``soft'' bubble collapse as analyzed by V. Kamath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 248 (1993)].

  2. The Investigation of the Effects of Gravity on Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzikowicz, Ben; Thiessen, David B.; Marston, Philip

    2000-01-01

    In single bubble following it's rapid collapse each cycle of oscillation of an ultrasonic field. Since widely varying length and time scales affect the bubble dynamics and optical emission processes, it is difficult to anticipate the importance of the effects of gravity present for observations on earth. Our bubble is driven in an acoustically resonating cavity at it's first harmonic mode. The acoustical radiation pressure (Bjerknes force) will then keep it suspended in the center near the pressure antinode. When driven in a region where the diffusive processes balance the bubble it acts in a nonlinear but regular way, emitting a short (approx. 200ps) burst of light each acoustic cycle. Balancing the Bjerknes force with buoyancy, as in, we can see that the bubble should be displaced from the velocity node approximately 20m at normal gravity. Therefore, water flows past the bubble at the time of collapse. Gravitation also changes the ambient pressure at the bubble's location, as Delta.P = rho.g.h this gives a change of approximately -0.5% in our experiment when going from 1.8g to 0g. Studies of ambient pressure changes were also done in order to assess these effects. Inside a pressure sealed chamber a spherical glass cell is filled with distilled water which has been degassed to 120mmHg. A bubble is then trapped in the center and driven by a piezoelectric transducer at 32.2kHz attached to the side of the cell. An optical system is then set up to take strobbed video images along and light emission data simultaneously. Temperature, pressure, drive voltage, and listener voltage are also monitored. PMT output in Volts The radii of the bubbles for both experiment s are fit using the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the acoustic drive amplitude and the ambient bubble radius are found. There is little change in the acoustic drive amplitude as we expect, since we are not varying the drive voltage. However. the ambient bubble radius goes up considerably. These changes

  3. Dielectric polarization in the Planck theory of sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Prevenslik, T V

    1998-11-01

    Sonoluminescence observed in the cavitation of liquid H2O may be explained by the Planck theory of SL, which treats the bubbles as collapsing miniature masers having optical waves standing in resonance with the dimensions of the bubble cavity. Microwaves are shown to be created from the Planck energy of the standing waves, provided the bubble wall can be treated as a perfect blackbody surface. Liquid H2O is strongly absorbent in the ultraviolet and there the bubble approaches a Planck blackbody enclosure. The microwaves are created at frequencies proportional to the bubble collapse velocity only to be promptly absorbed by the rotation quantum states of the H2O and other bubble wall molecules. The microwaves are absorbed discretely at rotation line frequencies, or continuously by dipole rotation at frequencies from 1 to 30 GHz. In the liquid state, molecular rotation of the H2O molecule is hindered and the microwave energy is rapidly turned into bending energy by intermolecular collisions. Subsequently, the bubble wall molecules may thereby ionize and produce visible photons. The microwaves create intense electrical fields in the bubble wall by dielectric polarization. If the gases adjacent to the bubble wall undergo electrical breakdown, free electrons are created, thereby providing sonoluminescence with a magnetic field effect.

  4. Sonoluminescence in an Acoustically Levitated Water Filled Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, P. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Jones, J. P.

    1998-11-01

    The possibility of using shells levitated by acoustic waves to improve the conditions to study sonoluminescence was conducted. Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) was generated using a 2 mm diameter water filled plastic shell, supported in air with 1 MHz sound waves. The bubble was generated and compressed with a separate transducer emitting pulsed 5 MHz acoustic waves which were focussed on the center of the suspended shell. This approach is considerably different from the typical generation technique of SBSL in that the acoustic power is coupled through the air rather than by a solid bond to the container. With this configuration, the water container can be substantially reduced in size and the luminescence pulse rate is probably not connected with cavity resonances. As a result, optical access to the spark is improved, water attenuation is reduced (water thickness ~1 mm), and repetition rate can be considerably higher. This geometry presents problems and opportunities in controlling the gas content and temperature of the water. It might also be sensitive to the perfection of the enclosing plastic shell, so success is erratic. Details will be discussed.

  5. Stable sonoluminescence within a water hammer tube.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Avik; Georghiou, Theo; Phillipson, Tacye E; Walton, Alan J

    2004-06-01

    The sonoluminescence (SL) from the collapse of a single gas bubble within a liquid can be produced repetitively using an acoustic resonator. An alternative technique using a water hammer tube, producing SL from bubbles of greater size, is described here. A sealed vertical tube partly filled with a liquid and a gas at low pressure is subjected to vertical vibrations. The oscillation of the pressure within the liquid column, due to inertial forces, excites cavitation bubbles to grow and collapse. Rotation is used to confine the bubbles to the axis of the tube. Bright SL emissions were observed in a number of liquids. Repetitive emission was produced from bubbles in condensed phosphoric acid. Bubbles of 0.4 mm ambient radius (containing 2x 10(14) xenon atoms) were excited by vibration at 35 Hz. Approximately 10(12) photons were emitted per collapse in the range 400-700 nm (over four orders of magnitude greater than the brightest SL reported previously), corresponding to a 1% efficiency of the conversion of mechanical energy into light.

  6. Sonoluminescence: A Galaxy of Nanostars Created in a Beaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    As part of basic and applied research on advanced instrumentation technologies, the NASA Glenn Research Center is examining applications for sonoluminescence: ultrasonically produced glowing bubbles that are hotter than the Sun. In the last decade, those outside of the ultrasonic community have become interested in understanding sonoluminescence and in using some of its more interesting properties. First discovered in the 1930s as a byproduct of early work on sonar, the phenomenon is defined as the generation of light energy from sound waves. This glow, which was originally thought to be a form of static electricity, was found to be generated in flashes of much less than a billionth of a second that result when microscopic bubbles of air collapse. The temperature generated in the collapsing bubbles is at least 4 times that of the surface of the Sun.

  7. Sonoluminescence Explained by the Standpoint of Coherent Quantum Vacuum Dynamics and its Prospects for Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxmilian Caligiuri, Luigi; Musha, Takaaki

    Sonoluminescence, or its more frequently studied version known as Single Bubble Sonoluminescence, consisting in the emission of light by a collapsing bubble in water under ultrasounds, represents one of the most challenging and interesting phenomenon in theoretical physics. In fact, despite its relatively easy reproducibility in a simple laboratory, its understanding within the commonly accepted picture of condensed matter remained so far unsatisfactory. On the other hand, the possibility to control the physical process involved in sonoluminescence, representing a sort of nuclear fusion on small scale, could open unthinkable prospects of free energy production from water. Different explanations has been proposed during the past years considering, in various way, the photoemission to be related to electromagnetic Zero Point Field energy dynamics, by considering the bubble surface as a Casimir force boundary. More recently a model invoking Cherenkov radiation emission from superluminal photons generated in quantum vacuum has been successfully proposed. In this paper it will be shown that the same results can be more generally explained and quantitative obtained within a QED coherent dynamics of quantum vacuum, according to which the electromagnetic energy of the emitted photons would be related to the latent heat involved in the phase transition from water's vapor to liquid phase during the bubble collapse. The proposed approach could also suggest an explanation of a possible mechanism of generation of faster than light (FTL) photons required to start Cherenkov radiation as well as possible applications to energy production from quantum vacuum.

  8. Opacity and transport measurements reveal that dilute plasma models of sonoluminescence are not valid.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Shahzad; Kappus, Brian; Weninger, Keith; Putterman, Seth

    2012-03-09

    A strong interaction between a nanosecond laser and a 70 μm radius sonoluminescing plasma is achieved. The overall response of the system results in a factor of 2 increase in temperature as determined by its spectrum. Images of the interaction reveal that light energy is absorbed and trapped in a region smaller than the sonoluminescence emitting region of the bubble for over 100 ns. We interpret this opacity and transport measurement as demonstrating that sonoluminescencing bubbles can be 1000 times more opaque than what follows from the Saha equation of statistical mechanics in the ideal plasma limit. To address this discrepancy, we suggest that the effects of strong Coulomb interactions are an essential component of a first principles theory of sonoluminescence.

  9. Opacity and Transport Measurements Reveal That Dilute Plasma Models of Sonoluminescence Are Not Valid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Shahzad; Kappus, Brian; Weninger, Keith; Putterman, Seth

    2012-03-01

    A strong interaction between a nanosecond laser and a 70 μm radius sonoluminescing plasma is achieved. The overall response of the system results in a factor of 2 increase in temperature as determined by its spectrum. Images of the interaction reveal that light energy is absorbed and trapped in a region smaller than the sonoluminescence emitting region of the bubble for over 100 ns. We interpret this opacity and transport measurement as demonstrating that sonoluminescencing bubbles can be 1000 times more opaque than what follows from the Saha equation of statistical mechanics in the ideal plasma limit. To address this discrepancy, we suggest that the effects of strong Coulomb interactions are an essential component of a first principles theory of sonoluminescence.

  10. Positional stability and radial dynamics of sonoluminescent bubbles under bi-harmonic driving: Effect of the high-frequency component and its relative phase.

    PubMed

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2016-07-01

    The use of bi-frequency driving in sonoluminescence has proved to be an effective way to avoid the spatial instability (pseudo-orbits) developed by bubbles in systems with high viscous liquids like sulfuric or phosphoric acids. In this work, we present extensive experimental and numerical evidence in order to assess the effect of the high frequency component (PAc(HF)) of a bi-harmonic acoustic pressure field on the dynamic of sonoluminescent bubbles in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. The present study is mainly focused on the role of the harmonic frequency (Nf0) and the relative phase between the two frequency components (φb) of the acoustic field on the spatial, positional and diffusive stability of the bubbles. The results presented in this work were analyzed by means of three different approaches. First, we discussed some qualitative considerations about the changes observed in the radial dynamics, and the stability of similar bubbles under distinct bi-harmonic drivings. Later, we have investigated, through a series of numerical simulations, how the use of high frequency harmonic components of different order N, affects the positional stability of the SL bubbles. Furthermore, the influence of φb in their radius temporal evolution is systematically explored for harmonics ranging from the second to the fifteenth harmonic (N=2-15). Finally, a multivariate analysis based on the covariance method is performed to study the dependences among the parameters characterizing the SL bubble. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the impact of PAc(HF) on the positional instability and the radial dynamics turns to be progressively negligible as the order of the high frequency harmonic component grows (i.e. N ≫ 1), however its effectiveness on the reduction of the spatial instability remains unaltered or even improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sonoluminescence and acoustic cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Pak-Kon

    2017-07-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL) is light emission under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions of a cavitating bubble under intense ultrasound in liquid. In this review, the fundamentals of the interactions between the sound field and the bubble, and between bubbles are explained. Experimental results on high-speed shadowgraphy of bubble dynamics and multibubble SL are shown, demonstrating that the SL intensity is closely related to the bubble dynamics. SL studies of alkali-metal atom (Na and K) emission are summarized. The spectral measurements in solutions with different noble-gas dissolutions and in surfactant solutions, and the results of spatiotemporal separation of SL distribution strongly suggested that the site of alkali-metal atom emission is the gas phase inside bubbles. The spectral studies indicated that alkali-metal atom lines are composed of two kinds of lines: a component that is broadened and shifted from the original D lines arises from van der Waals molecules formed between alkali-metal atoms and noble-gas atoms under extreme conditions at bubble collapse. The other spectral component exhibiting no broadening and no shift was suggested to originate from higher temperature bubbles than those producing the broadened component.

  12. Quantum Optical Heating in Sonoluminescence Experiments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kurcz, Andreas; Capolupo, Antonio; Beige, Almut

    2009-03-30

    Sonoluminescence occurs when tiny bubbles rilled with noble gas atoms are driven by a sound wave. Each cycle of the driving field is accompanied by a collapse phase in which the bubble radius decreases rapidly until a short but very strong light flash is emitted. The spectrum of the light corresponds to very high temperatures and hints at the presence of a hot plasma core. While everyone accepts that the effect is real, the main energy focussing mechanism is highly controversial. Here we suggest that the heating of the bubble might be due to a weak but highly inhomogeneous electricmore » field as it occurs during rapid bubble deformations [A. Kurcz et al.(submitted)]. It is shown that such a field couples the quantised motion of the atoms to their electronic states, thereby resulting in very high heating rates.« less

  13. Resolving the shape of a sonoluminescence pulse in sulfuric acid by the use of streak camera.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Weizhong; Cui, Weicheng

    2009-06-01

    A streak camera is used to measure the shape of sonoluminescence pulses from a cavitation bubble levitated stably in a sulfuric acid solution. The shape and response to an acoustic pressure field of the sonoluminescence pulse in 85% by weight sulfuric acid are qualitatively similar to those in water. However, the pulse width in sulfuric acid is wider than that in water by over one order of magnitude. The width of the sonoluminescence pulse is strongly dependent on the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution, while the skewed distribution of the shape remains unchanged.

  14. Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2004-06-01

    Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas: bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, and many others. Some recent results on a "blinking bubble" micropump and vapor bubbles in sound fields are outlined. The last section describes Leonardo da Vinci's observation of the non-rectlinear ascent of buoyant bubbles and justifies the name Leonardo's paradox recently attributed to this phenomenon.

  15. What are the limits of energy focusing in sonoluminescence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putterman, Seth; Camara, C.; Kappus, B.; Su, C. K.; Kirilov, E.

    2003-04-01

    Sonoluminescence [SL] is amazing for the extraordinary degree by which ultrasonic energy can be focused by a cavitating bubble. Local energy dissipation exceeds Kirkhoff's law by 1E15 and the acoustic energy density concentrates by 12 orders of magnitude to create picosecond flashes of broadband ultraviolet light. At the minimum bubble radius, the acceleration exceeds 1E11 g and a megabar level shock wave is emitted into the surrounding fluid. For single bubbles driven at 30 KHz, SL is nature's smallest blackbody. This implies that the bubble's interior is such a dense plasma that the photon-matter mean free path is shorter than the wavelength of light, and suggests that SL originates in an unusual state of matter. Excitation of a vertical column of fluid [~10 Hz] so as to create a water hammer leads to the upscaling of SL and generation of flashes of light with 3E8 photons and peak powers approaching 1 W. At 1 MHz, the spectrum resembles bremsstrahlung from a transparent plasma with a temperature ~1 MK. At 10 MHz the collapsed size of the SL bubble approaches 10 nm, which raises the possibility that the SL parameter space may extend to the domain of quantum mechanics. [Research supported by DARPA and DOE.

  16. Controlled vesicle deformation and lysis by single oscillating bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2003-05-01

    The ability of collapsing (cavitating) bubbles to focus and concentrate energy, forces and stresses is at the root of phenomena such as cavitation damage, sonochemistry or sonoluminescence. In a biomedical context, ultrasound-driven microbubbles have been used to enhance contrast in ultrasonic images. The observation of bubble-enhanced sonoporation-acoustically induced rupture of membranes-has also opened up intriguing possibilities for the therapeutic application of sonoporation as an alternative to cell-wall permeation techniques such as electroporation and particle guns. However, these pioneering experiments have not been able to pinpoint the mechanism by which the violently collapsing bubble opens pores or larger holes in membranes. Here we present an experiment in which gentle (linear) bubble oscillations are sufficient to achieve rupture of lipid membranes. In this regime, the bubble dynamics and the ensuing sonoporation can be accurately controlled. The use of microbubbles as focusing agents makes acoustics on the micrometre scale (microacoustics) a viable tool, with possible applications in cell manipulation and cell-wall permeation as well as in microfluidic devices.

  17. Collision Time Measurements in a Sonoluminescing Microplasma with a Large Plasma Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, A.; Kappus, B.; Camara, C.; Putterman, S.

    2014-07-01

    The plasma which forms inside of a micron-sized sonoluminescing bubble in water for under a nanosecond has been probed with 3 ns long laser pulses. A comparison of the response to 532 and 1064 nm light indicates that the plasma number density is about 2×1021 cm-3 and that transport properties are dominated by strong screening and correlation effects. The spherical shape, well-defined atomic density, and blackbody temperature make the sonoluminescing plasma a test bed for theories of strongly coupled plasmas. The plasma in this experiment distinguishes between competing theories of strong, intermediate, and weak effective screening.

  18. Collision time measurements in a sonoluminescing microplasma with a large plasma parameter.

    PubMed

    Bataller, A; Kappus, B; Camara, C; Putterman, S

    2014-07-11

    The plasma which forms inside of a micron-sized sonoluminescing bubble in water for under a nanosecond has been probed with 3 ns long laser pulses. A comparison of the response to 532 and 1064 nm light indicates that the plasma number density is about 2×10(21)  cm(-3) and that transport properties are dominated by strong screening and correlation effects. The spherical shape, well-defined atomic density, and blackbody temperature make the sonoluminescing plasma a test bed for theories of strongly coupled plasmas. The plasma in this experiment distinguishes between competing theories of strong, intermediate, and weak effective screening.

  19. Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    ``Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas": bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, many others. Ultimately, diffusive processes govern much of the physics, and the difference between the diffusivity of heat and dissolved gases in ordinary liquids holds the key to the striking differences between gas and vapor bubbles.

  20. Bubbles in an acoustic field: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Lee, Judy; Kentish, Sandra; Grieser, Franz

    2007-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation is the fundamental process responsible for the initiation of most of the sonochemical reactions in liquids. Acoustic cavitation originates from the interaction between sound waves and bubbles. In an acoustic field, bubbles can undergo growth by rectified diffusion, bubble-bubble coalescence, bubble dissolution or bubble collapse leading to the generation of primary radicals and other secondary chemical reactions. Surface active solutes have been used in association with a number of experimental techniques in order to isolate and understand these activities. A strobe technique has been used for monitoring the growth of a single bubble by rectified diffusion. Multibubble sonoluminescence has been used for monitoring the growth of the bubbles as well as coalescence between bubbles. The extent of bubble coalescence has also been monitored using a newly developed capillary technique. An overview of the various experimental results has been presented in order to highlight the complexities involved in acoustic cavitation processes, which on the other hand arise from a simple, mechanical interaction between sound waves and bubbles.

  1. Characterization of an acoustic cavitation bubble structure at 230 kHz.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Andrea; Nowak, Till; Mettin, Robert; Holsteyns, Frank; Lippert, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    A generic bubble structure in a 230 kHz ultrasonic field is observed in a partly developed standing wave field in water. It is characterized by high-speed imaging, sonoluminescence recordings, and surface cleaning tests. The structure has two distinct bubble populations. Bigger bubbles (much larger than linear resonance size) group on rings in planes parallel to the transducer surface, apparently in locations of driving pressure minima. They slowly rise in a jittering, but synchronous way, and they can have smaller satellite bubbles, thus resembling the arrays of bubbles observed by Miller [D. Miller, Stable arrays of resonant bubbles in a 1-MHz standing-wave acoustic field, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62 (1977) 12]. Smaller bubbles (below and near linear resonance size) show a fast "streamer" motion perpendicular to and away from the transducer surface. While the bigger bubbles do not emit light, the smaller bubbles in the streamers show sonoluminescence when they pass the planes of high driving pressure. Both bubble populations exhibit cleaning potential with respect to micro-particles attached to a glass substrate. The respective mechanisms of particle removal, though, might be different. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Path suppression of strongly collapsing bubbles at finite and low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Rechiman, Ludmila M; Dellavale, Damián; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2013-06-01

    We study, numerically and experimentally, three different methods to suppress the trajectories of strongly collapsing and sonoluminescent bubbles in a highly viscous sulfuric acid solution. A new numerical scheme based on the window method is proposed to account for the history force acting on a spherical bubble with variable radius. We could quantify the history force, which is not negligible in comparison with the primary Bjerknes force in this type of problem, and results are in agreement with the classical primary Bjerknes force trapping threshold analysis. Moreover, the present numerical implementation reproduces the spatial behavior associated with the positional and path instability of sonoluminescent argon bubbles in strongly gassed and highly degassed sulfuric acid solutions. Finally, the model allows us to demonstrate that spatially stationary bubbles driven by biharmonic excitation could be obtained with a different mode from the one used in previous reported experiments.

  3. Sonoluminescence and sonochemiluminescence study of cavitation field in a 1.2MHz focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hui; Qiao, Yangzi; Cao, Hua; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    An intensified CCD (ICCD) and an electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) were employed to observe the spatial distribution of sonoluminescence (SL) and sonochemiluminescence (SCL) generated by cavitation bubbles in a 1.2MHz HIFU field. Various sonication conditions, which are free field and focal region near a water-parenchyma interface, were studied. In addition, the differences of two shells coated UCAs were also investigated. In this study, an acoustic radiation force (ARF) counterbalance appliance was added to reduce bubble displacement. Cavitation mapping in this situation was also operated through SCL recording. SCL was also employed to measure cavitation does and map the spatial distribution of cavitation near a boundary of parenchyma.

  4. First-Principles Investigation to Ionization of Argon Under Conditions Close to Typical Sonoluminescence Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Q. F.; He, Xian-Tu

    2016-01-01

    Mott effect, featured by a sharp increase of ionization, is one of the unique properties of partially ionized plasmas, and thus of great interest to astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Recent experiments of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) revealed that strong ionization took place at a density two orders lower than usual theoretical expectation. We show from the perspective of electronic structures that the strong ionization is unlikely the result of Mott effect in a pure argon plasma. Instead, first-principles calculations suggest that other ion species from aqueous environments can energetically fit in the gap between the continuum and the top of occupied states of argon, making the Mott effect possible. These results would help to clarify the relationship between SBSL and Mott effect, and further to gain an better understanding of partially ionized plasmas. PMID:26853107

  5. Investigation of a Method to Reduce Cavitation in Diesel Engine Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Honaker, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is the effect of producing light from sound and occurs when a gas bubble is trapped in a fluid filled cavity and is forced to collapse under a barrage of sound waves. Frenzel and Schultes discovered this phenomenon in 1934 while exposing acoustic waves to photographic plates. This effect was not well understood until 1988 when Crum and Gaitan discovered the necessary conditions for producing single bubble sonoluminescence in the laboratory. The luminescence is a result of the bubble violently collapsing from sound waves and this shares a close association with vibratory cavitation. Cavitation erosion is known to cause damage to rotational machinery when the collapse is near to surfaces due to the high pressures associated with bubble collapse. With these high pressures and temperatures there is a considerable amount of damage to the outside layer of a bearing, thereby, reducing its useful life. An experiment was constructed to generate sonoluminescence in the laboratory in order to obtain a greater understanding of this phenomenon and its association with bubble cavitation. Most of the research was done to investigate how to obtain single bubble sonoluminescence under different conditions and to determine how to detect it. Success in this has inspired several theories on how to use the methods for generating sonoluminescence to control cavitation in fluids under industrial conditions.

  6. Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.

  7. The recreation of a unique shrimp's mechanically induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Dougherty, Christopher; Eliasson, Veronica; Khanolkar, Gauri

    2014-11-01

    The Alpheus heterochaelis, appropriately nicknamed the ``pistol shrimp,'' possesses an oversized claw that creates a cavitation bubble upon rapid closure. The implosion of this bubble results in a shock wave that can stun or even kill the shrimp's prey (Versluis et al., 2000). Additionally, the implosion is so violent that sonoluminescence may occur. This light implies extreme temperatures, which have been recorded to reach as high as 10,000 K (Roach, 2001). By developing an analogous mechanism to the oversized claw, the goal of this experiment is to verify that cavitation can be produced similar to that of the pistol shrimp in nature as well as to analyze the resulting shock wave and sonoluminescence. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to observe the shock dynamics. Furthermore, results on cavitation collapse and light emission will be presented. USC Provost Undergraduate Research Fellowship/Rose Hills Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  8. Defining the unknowns of sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Bradley P.; Hiller, Robert A.; Löfstedt, Ritva; Putterman, Seth J.; Weninger, Keith R.

    1997-03-01

    As the intensity of a standing sound wave is increased the pulsations of a bubble of gas trapped at a velocity node attain sufficient amplitude so as to emit picosecond flashes of light with a broadband spectrum that increases into the ultraviolet. The acoustic resonator can be tuned so that the flashes of light occur with a clocklike regularity: one flash for each cycle of sound with a jitter in the time between flashes that is also measured in picoseconds. This phenomenon (sonoluminescence or “SL”) is remarkable because it is the only means of generating picosecond flashes of light that does not use a laser and the input acoustic energy density must be concentrated by twelve orders of magnitude in order to produce light. Light scattering measurements indicate that the bubble wall is collapsing at more than 4 times the ambient speed of sound in the gas just prior to the light emitting moment when the gas has been compressed to a density determined by its van der Waals hard core. Experiments indicate that the collapse is remarkably spherical, water is the best fluid for SL, some noble gas is essential for stable SL, and that the light intensity increases as the ambient temperature is lowered. In the extremely stable experimental configuration consisting of an air bubble in water, measurements indicate that the bubble chooses an ambient radius that is not explained by mass diffusion. Experiments have not yet been able to map out the complete spectrum because above 6 eV it is obscured by the cutoff imposed by water, and furthermore experiments have only determined an upper bound on the flash widths. In addition to the above puzzles, the theory for the light emitting mechanism is still open. The scenario of a supersonic bubble collapse launching an imploding shock wave which ionizes the bubble contents so as to cause it to emit Bremsstrahlung radiation is the best candidate theory but it has not been shown how to extract from it the richness of this phenomenon

  9. The effect of KZK1 pressure equation on the sonoluminescence in water and fat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, M.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Ghadirifar, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the produced light flashes from sonoluminescence (SL) on the fat tissue and water is studied. By using KZK equation as an essential equation for calculating the thermal source in bio-liquids, the effective bubble parameters in quasi-adiabatic model are calculated and compared in these systems. It is noticed that the temperature and the intensity for fat tissue are about 30% and 38% less than the ones for water respectively. These results are almost in good agreement with the only experimental measurement denoting less SL temperature in bio-liquids which present more suitable condition for using SL in such applications.

  10. Dynamics of Single Hydrogen Bubbles at a Platinum Microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuegeng; Karnbach, Franziska; Uhlemann, Margitta; Odenbach, Stefan; Eckert, Kerstin

    2015-07-28

    Bubble dynamics, including the formation, growth, and detachment, of single H2 bubbles was studied at a platinum microelectrode during the electrolysis of 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. The bubbles were visualized through a microscope by a high-speed camera. Electrochemical measurements were conducted in parallel to measure the transient current. The periodic current oscillations, resulting from the periodic formation and detachment of single bubbles, allow the bubble lifetime and size to be predicted from the transient current. A comparison of the bubble volume calculated from the current and from the recorded bubble image shows a gas evolution efficiency increasing continuously with the growth of the bubble until it reaches 100%. Two different substrates, glass and epoxy, were used to embed the Pt wire. While nearly no difference was found with respect to the growth law for the bubble radius, the contact angle differs strongly for the two types of cell. Data provided for the contact point evolution further complete the image of single hydrogen bubble growth. Finally, the velocity field driven by the detached bubble was measured by means of PIV, and the effects of the convection on the subsequent bubble were evaluated.

  11. The Experimental Study of Dynamics of Scaled Gas-Filled Bubble Collapse in Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    The article provides results of analyzing special features of the single-bubble sonoluminescence, developing the special apparatus to investigate this phenomenon on a larger-scale basis. Certain very important effects of high energy density physics, i.e. liquid compressibility, shock-wave formation under the collapse of the gas cavity in liquid, shock-wave focusing in the gas-filled cavity, occurrence of hot dense plasma in the focusing area, and high-temperature radiation yield are observed in this phenomenon. Specificity of the process is conditioned by the ``ideal'' preparation and sphericity of the gas-and-liquid contact boundary what makes the collapse process efficient due to the reduced influence of hydrodynamic instabilities. Results of experimental investigations; results of developing the facilities, description of methods used to register parameters of facilities and the system under consideration; analytical estimates how gas-filled bubbles evolve in liquid with the regard for scale effects; results of preliminary 1-D gas dynamic calculations of the gas bubble evolution are presented. The work supported by ISTC Project #2116.

  12. {open_quotes}Bubble fusion{close_quotes}: Preliminary estimates of spherical micro-implosions in cavitating liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Liquids irradiated with intense ultrasonic waves can generate small cavities or bubbles. Upon nonlinear expansion to a state of disequilibrium, wherein the externally imposed hydrostatic pressure far exceeds that of entrapped non-condensable gas, these bubbles undergo a rapid and violent collapse. This collapse, if symmetric, can generate high pressures and temperatures through a number of possible mechanisms. The simplest and oldest explanation suggests a focusing of the kinetic energy of all the surrounding liquid onto the collapsing bubble and the subsequent heating of entrapped gases under either adiabatic or isothermal conditions. Although induced by externally imposed millisecond pressure oscillations, thesemore » collapses can occur on sub-microsecond timescales and are accompanied by picosecond light emissions; this combination of sound and light is called sonoluminescence. Recent explanations of observed high temperatures and picosecond radiation pulses accompanying such collapses are based on the interaction of multiple shock waves that are launched off the inward cavity wall. Other potential explanations invoke dipole emissions induced by intermolecular collisions or the release of Casimir energy when a dielectric hole is filled. Conjectures have been made that the processes responsible for sonoluminescence may be extended to generated conditions where thermonuclear fusion might occur. Such an achievement would extend scientific interest in sonoluminescence out of a purely chemical context to include the study of matter subjected to more extreme conditions. The main goal of this {open_quotes}scoping{close_quotes} study is to understand better conditions where deuterium-tritium fusion might be observed in conjunction with micro-implosions in cavitating liquids; prognoses of fusion application at this point are unintended.« less

  13. A millisecond micromixer via single-bubble-based acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-09-21

    We present ultra-fast homogeneous mixing inside a microfluidic channel via single-bubble-based acoustic streaming. The device operates by trapping an air bubble within a "horse-shoe" structure located between two laminar flows inside a microchannel. Acoustic waves excite the trapped air bubble at its resonance frequency, resulting in acoustic streaming, which disrupts the laminar flows and triggers the two fluids to mix. Due to this technique's simple design, excellent mixing performance, and fast mixing speed (a few milliseconds), our single-bubble-based acoustic micromixer may prove useful for many biochemical studies and applications.

  14. A new class of strongly coupled plasmas inspired by sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, Alexander; Plateau, Guillaume; Kappus, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2014-10-01

    Sonoluminescence originates in a strongly coupled plasma with a near liquid density and a temperature of ~10,000 K. This plasma is in LTE and therefore, it should be a general thermodynamic state. To test the universality of sonoluminescence, similar plasma conditions were generated using femtosecond laser breakdown in high pressure gases. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals both transport and thermodynamic properties of a strongly coupled plasma. A blackbody spectrum, which persists long after the exciting laser has turned off, indicates the presence of a highly ionized LTE microplasma. In parallel with sonoluminescence, this thermodynamic state is achieved via a considerable reduction in the ionization potential. We gratefully acknowledge support from DARPA MTO for research on microplasmas. We thank Brian Naranjo, Keith Weninger, Carlos Camara, Gary Williams, and John Koulakis for valuable discussions.

  15. Experimental study on wake structure of single rising clean bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ayaka; Takedomi, Yuta; Shirota, Minori; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Wake structure of clean bubble rising in quiescent silicone oil solution of photochromic dye is experimentally studied. A single bubble is generated, immediately after UV sheet light illuminates the part of the liquid just above the bubble generation nozzle in order to activate photochromic dye. Once the bubble passes across the colored part of the liquid, the bubble is accompanied by some portion of activated dye tracers; hence the flow structure in the rear of the single rising bubble is visualized. We capture stereo images of both wake structure and bubble motion. We study how wake structure changes with the increase in bubble size. We observe the stable axisymmetric wake structure, which is called `standing eddy' when bubble size is relatively small, and then wake structure becomes unstable and starts to oscillate with the increase in bubble size. With further increase in bubble size, a pair of streamwise vortices, which is called `double thread', is observed. We discuss in detail this transition from the steady wake to unsteady wake structure, especially double thread wake development and hairpin vortices shedding, in relation to the transition from rectilinear to spiral or zigzag bubble motions.

  16. Shock wave interaction with laser-generated single bubbles.

    PubMed

    Sankin, G N; Simmons, W N; Zhu, S L; Zhong, P

    2005-07-15

    The interaction of a lithotripter shock wave (LSW) with laser-generated single vapor bubbles in water is investigated using high-speed photography and pressure measurement via a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The interaction leads to nonspherical collapse of the bubble with secondary shock wave emission and microjet formation along the LSW propagation direction. The maximum pressure amplification is produced during the collapse phase of the bubble oscillation when the compressive pulse duration of the LSW matches with the forced collapse time of the bubble.

  17. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  18. Development of Techniques to Investigate Sonoluminescence as a Source of Energy Harvesting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2007-01-01

    Instrumentation techniques are being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to measure optical, radiation, and thermal properties of the phenomena of sonoluminescence, the light generated using acoustic cavitation. Initial efforts have been directed to the generation of the effect and the imaging of the glow in water and solvents. Several images have been produced of the effect showing the location within containers, without the additions of light enhancers to the liquid. Evidence of high energy generation in the modification of thin films from sonoluminescence in heavy water was seen that was not seen in light water. Bright, localized sonoluminescence was generated using glycerin for possible applications to energy harvesting. Issues to be resolved for an energy harvesting concept will be addressed.

  19. Single-transducer dual-frequency ultrasound generation to enhance acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsieh, Chao-Ming

    2009-03-01

    Dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound stimulation is capable of effectively enhancing the acoustic cavitation effect over single-frequency ultrasound. Potential application of this sonoreactor design has been widely proposed such as on sonoluminescence, sonochemistry enhancement, and transdermal drug release enhancement. All currently available sonoreactor designs employed multiple piezoelectric transducers for generating single-frequency ultrasonic waves separately and then these waves were mixed and interfered in solutions. The purpose of this research is to propose a novel design of generating dual-frequency ultrasonic waves with single piezoelectric elements, thereby enhancing acoustic cavitation. Macroscopic bubbles were detected optically, and they were quantified at either a single-frequency or for different frequency combinations for determining their efficiency for enhancing acoustic cavitation. Visible bubbles were optically detected and hydrogen peroxide was measured to quantify acoustic cavitation. Test water samples with different gas concentrations and different power levels were used to determine the efficacy of enhancing acoustic cavitation of this design. The spectrum obtained from the backscattered signals was also recorded and examined to confirm the occurrence of stable cavitation. The results confirmed that single-element dual-frequency ultrasound stimulation can enhance acoustic cavitation. Under certain testing conditions, the generation of bubbles can be enhanced up to a level of five times higher than the generation of bubbles in single-frequency stimulation, and can increase the hydrogen peroxide production up to an increase of one fold. This design may serve as a useful alternative for future sonoreactor design owing to its simplicity to produce dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound.

  20. Controlled permeation of cell membrane by single bubble acoustic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y.; Yang, K.; Cui, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2011-01-01

    Sonoporation is the membrane disruption generated by ultrasound and has been exploited as a non-viral strategy for drug and gene delivery. Acoustic cavitation of microbubbles has been recognized to play an important role in sonoporation. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques for precise control of cavitation activities and real-time assessment of the resulting sub-micron process of sonoporation, limited knowledge has been available regarding the detail processes and correlation of cavitation with membrane disruption at the single cell level. In the current study, we developed a combined approach including optical, acoustic, and electrophysiological techniques to enable synchronized manipulation, imaging, and measurement of cavitation of single bubbles and the resulting cell membrane disruption in real-time. Using a self-focused femtosecond laser and high frequency (7.44 MHz) pulses, a single microbubble was generated and positioned at a desired distance from the membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Cavitation of the bubble was achieved by applying a low frequency (1.5 MHz) ultrasound pulse (duration 13.3 or 40 µs) to induce bubble collapse. Disruption of the cell membrane was assessed by the increase in the transmembrane current (TMC) of the cell under voltage clamp. Simultaneous high-speed bright field imaging of cavitation and measurements of the TMC were obtained to correlate the ultrasound-generated bubble activities with the cell membrane poration. The change in membrane permeability was directly associated with the formation of a sub-micrometer pore from a local membrane rupture generated by bubble collapse or bubble compression depending on ultrasound amplitude and duration. The impact of the bubble collapse on membrane permeation decreased rapidly with increasing distance (D) between the bubble (diameter d) and the cell membrane. The effective range of cavitation impact on membrane poration was determined to be D/d = 0.75. The maximum mean radius of the

  1. Single-bubble and multibubble cavitation in water triggered by laser-driven focusing shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, D.; Gutiérrez-Hernández, U.; Dresselhaus-Cooper, L.; De Colle, F.; Kooi, S.; Nelson, K. A.; Quinto-Su, P. A.; Pezeril, T.

    2018-05-01

    In this study a single laser pulse spatially shaped into a ring is focused into a thin water layer, creating an annular cavitation bubble and cylindrical shock waves: an outer shock that diverges away from the excitation laser ring and an inner shock that focuses towards the center. A few nanoseconds after the converging shock reaches the focus and diverges away from the center, a single bubble nucleates at the center. The inner diverging shock then reaches the surface of the annular laser-induced bubble and reflects at the boundary, initiating nucleation of a tertiary bubble cloud. In the present experiments, we have performed time-resolved imaging of shock propagation and bubble wall motion. Our experimental observations of single-bubble cavitation and collapse and appearance of ring-shaped bubble clouds are consistent with our numerical simulations that solve a one-dimensional Euler equation in cylindrical coordinates. The numerical results agree qualitatively with the experimental observations of the appearance and growth of large bubble clouds at the smallest laser excitation rings. Our technique of shock-driven bubble cavitation opens interesting perspectives for the investigation of shock-induced single-bubble or multibubble cavitation phenomena in thin liquids.

  2. Interaction of lithotripter shockwaves with single inertial cavitation bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Klaseboer, Evert; Fong, Siew Wan; Turangan, Cary K.; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Szeri, Andrew J.; Calvisi, Michael L.; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of a shockwave (modelled as a pressure pulse) with an initially spherically oscillating bubble is investigated. Upon the shockwave impact, the bubble deforms non-spherically and the flow field surrounding the bubble is determined with potential flow theory using the boundary-element method (BEM). The primary advantage of this method is its computational efficiency. The simulation process is repeated until the two opposite sides of the bubble surface collide with each other (i.e. the formation of a jet along the shockwave propagation direction). The collapse time of the bubble, its shape and the velocity of the jet are calculated. Moreover, the impact pressure is estimated based on water-hammer pressure theory. The Kelvin impulse, kinetic energy and bubble displacement (all at the moment of jet impact) are also determined. Overall, the simulated results compare favourably with experimental observations of lithotripter shockwave interaction with single bubbles (using laser-induced bubbles at various oscillation stages). The simulations confirm the experimental observation that the most intense collapse, with the highest jet velocity and impact pressure, occurs for bubbles with intermediate size during the contraction phase when the collapse time of the bubble is approximately equal to the compressive pulse duration of the shock wave. Under this condition, the maximum amount of energy of the incident shockwave is transferred to the collapsing bubble. Further, the effect of the bubble contents (ideal gas with different initial pressures) and the initial conditions of the bubble (initially oscillating vs. non-oscillating) on the dynamics of the shockwave–bubble interaction are discussed. PMID:19018296

  3. Interaction of lithotripter shockwaves with single inertial cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Klaseboer, Evert; Fong, Siew Wan; Turangan, Cary K; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Szeri, Andrew J; Calvisi, Michael L; Sankin, Georgy N; Zhong, Pei

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of a shockwave (modelled as a pressure pulse) with an initially spherically oscillating bubble is investigated. Upon the shockwave impact, the bubble deforms non-spherically and the flow field surrounding the bubble is determined with potential flow theory using the boundary-element method (BEM). The primary advantage of this method is its computational efficiency. The simulation process is repeated until the two opposite sides of the bubble surface collide with each other (i.e. the formation of a jet along the shockwave propagation direction). The collapse time of the bubble, its shape and the velocity of the jet are calculated. Moreover, the impact pressure is estimated based on water-hammer pressure theory. The Kelvin impulse, kinetic energy and bubble displacement (all at the moment of jet impact) are also determined. Overall, the simulated results compare favourably with experimental observations of lithotripter shockwave interaction with single bubbles (using laser-induced bubbles at various oscillation stages). The simulations confirm the experimental observation that the most intense collapse, with the highest jet velocity and impact pressure, occurs for bubbles with intermediate size during the contraction phase when the collapse time of the bubble is approximately equal to the compressive pulse duration of the shock wave. Under this condition, the maximum amount of energy of the incident shockwave is transferred to the collapsing bubble. Further, the effect of the bubble contents (ideal gas with different initial pressures) and the initial conditions of the bubble (initially oscillating vs. non-oscillating) on the dynamics of the shockwave-bubble interaction are discussed.

  4. Optical pulse characteristics of sonoluminescence at low acoustic drive levels.

    PubMed

    Arakeri, V H; Giri, A

    2001-06-01

    From a nonaqueous alkali-metal salt solution, it is possible to observe sonoluminescence (SL) at low acoustic drive levels with the ratio of the acoustic pressure amplitude to the ambient pressure being about 1. In this case, the emission has a narrowband spectral content and consists of a few flashes of light from a levitated gas bubble going through an unstable motion. A systematic statistical study of the optical pulse characteristics of this form of SL is reported here. The results support our earlier findings [Phys. Rev. E 58, R2713 (1998)], but in addition we have clearly established a variation in the optical pulse duration with certain physical parameters such as the gas thermal conductivity. Quantitatively, the SL optical pulse width is observed to vary from 10 ns to 165 ns with the most probable value being 82 ns, for experiments with krypton-saturated sodium salt ethylene glycol solution. With argon, the variation is similar to that of krypton but the most probable value is reduced to 62 ns. The range is significantly smaller with helium, being from 22 ns to 65 ns with the most probable value also being reduced to 42 ns. The observed large variation, for example with krypton, under otherwise fixed controllable experimental parameters indicates that it is an inherent property of the observed SL process, which is transient in nature. It is this feature that necessitated our statistical study. Numerical simulations of the SL process using the bubble dynamics approach of Kamath, Prosperetti, and Egolfopoulos [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 248 (1993)] suggest that a key uncontrolled parameter, namely the initial bubble radius, may be responsible for the observations. In spite of the fact that certain parameters in the numerical computations have to be fixed from a best fit to one set of experimental data, the observed overall experimental trends of optical pulse characteristics are predicted reasonably well.

  5. Optical pulse characteristics of sonoluminescence at low acoustic drive levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakeri, Vijay H.; Giri, Asis

    2001-06-01

    From a nonaqueous alkali-metal salt solution, it is possible to observe sonoluminescence (SL) at low acoustic drive levels with the ratio of the acoustic pressure amplitude to the ambient pressure being about 1. In this case, the emission has a narrowband spectral content and consists of a few flashes of light from a levitated gas bubble going through an unstable motion. A systematic statistical study of the optical pulse characteristics of this form of SL is reported here. The results support our earlier findings [Phys. Rev. E 58, R2713 (1998)], but in addition we have clearly established a variation in the optical pulse duration with certain physical parameters such as the gas thermal conductivity. Quantitatively, the SL optical pulse width is observed to vary from 10 ns to 165 ns with the most probable value being 82 ns, for experiments with krypton-saturated sodium salt ethylene glycol solution. With argon, the variation is similar to that of krypton but the most probable value is reduced to 62 ns. The range is significantly smaller with helium, being from 22 ns to 65 ns with the most probable value also being reduced to 42 ns. The observed large variation, for example with krypton, under otherwise fixed controllable experimental parameters indicates that it is an inherent property of the observed SL process, which is transient in nature. It is this feature that necessitated our statistical study. Numerical simulations of the SL process using the bubble dynamics approach of Kamath, Prosperetti, and Egolfopoulos [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 248 (1993)] suggest that a key uncontrolled parameter, namely the initial bubble radius, may be responsible for the observations. In spite of the fact that certain parameters in the numerical computations have to be fixed from a best fit to one set of experimental data, the observed overall experimental trends of optical pulse characteristics are predicted reasonably well.

  6. Modeling of single film bubble and numerical study of the plateau structure in foam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhong-guo; Ni, Ni; Sun, Yi-jie; Xi, Guang

    2018-02-01

    The single-film bubble has a special geometry with a certain amount of gas shrouded by a thin layer of liquid film under the surface tension force both on the inside and outside surfaces of the bubble. Based on the mesh-less moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, a single-film double-gas-liquid-interface surface tension (SDST) model is established for the single-film bubble, which characteristically has totally two gas-liquid interfaces on both sides of the film. Within this framework, the conventional surface free energy surface tension model is improved by using a higher order potential energy equation between particles, and the modification results in higher accuracy and better symmetry properties. The complex interface movement in the oscillation process of the single-film bubble is numerically captured, as well as typical flow phenomena and deformation characteristics of the liquid film. In addition, the basic behaviors of the coalescence and connection process between two and even three single-film bubbles are studied, and the cases with bubbles of different sizes are also included. Furthermore, the classic plateau structure in the foam system is reproduced and numerically proved to be in the steady state for multi-bubble connections.

  7. Numerical simulation of single bubble dynamics under acoustic travelling waves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojian; Huang, Biao; Li, Yikai; Chang, Qing; Qiu, Sicong; Su, Zheng; Fu, Xiaoying; Wang, Guoyu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply CLSVOF method to investigate the single bubble dynamics in acoustic travelling waves. The Naiver-Stokes equation considering the acoustic radiation force is proposed and validated to capture the bubble behaviors. And the CLSVOF method, which can capture the continuous geometric properties and satisfies mass conservation, is applied in present work. Firstly, the regime map, depending on the dimensionless acoustic pressure amplitude and acoustic wave number, is constructed to present different bubble behaviors. Then, the time evolution of the bubble oscillation is investigated and analyzed. Finally, the effect of the direction and the damping coefficient of acoustic wave propagation on the bubble behavior are also considered. The numerical results show that the bubble presents distinct oscillation types in acoustic travelling waves, namely, volume oscillation, shape oscillation, and splitting oscillation. For the splitting oscillation, the formation of jet, splitting of bubble, and the rebound of sub-bubbles may lead to substantial increase in pressure fluctuations on the boundary. For the shape oscillation, the nodes and antinodes of the acoustic pressure wave contribute to the formation of the "cross shape" of the bubble. It should be noted that the direction of the bubble translation and bubble jet are always towards the direction of wave propagation. In addition, the damping coefficient causes bubble in shape oscillation to be of asymmetry in shape and inequality in size, and delays the splitting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  9. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  10. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. III - Dissolution and growth of a rising bubble containing a single gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Weinberg, M. C.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of the mass transport equations governing the dissolution (growth) of a rising gas bubble, containing a single gas, in a glassmelt were obtained. These solutions were compared with those obtained from an approximate procedure for a range of the controlling parameters. Applications were made to describe various aspects of O2 and CO2 gas-bubble behavior in a soda-lime-silicate melt.

  11. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.036304], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013), 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.10.080]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  12. Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.

  13. Interaction between shock wave and single inertial bubbles near an elastic boundary.

    PubMed

    Sankin, G N; Zhong, P

    2006-10-01

    The interaction of laser-generated single inertial bubbles (collapse time = 121 mus) near a silicon rubber membrane with a shock wave (55 MPa in peak pressure and 1.7 mus in compressive pulse duration) is investigated. The interaction leads to directional, forced asymmetric collapse of the bubble with microjet formation toward the surface. Maximum jet penetration into the membrane is produced during the bubble collapse phase with optimal shock wave arrival time and stand-off distance. Such interaction may provide a unique acoustic means for in vivo microinjection, applicable to targeted delivery of macromolecules and gene vectors to biological tissues.

  14. Theory of warm ionized gases: equation of state and kinetic Schottky anomaly.

    PubMed

    Capolupo, A; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F

    2013-10-01

    Based on accurate Lennard-Jones-type interaction potentials, we derive a closed set of state equations for the description of warm atomic gases in the presence of ionization processes. The specific heat is predicted to exhibit peaks in correspondence to single and multiple ionizations. Such kinetic analog in atomic gases of the Schottky anomaly in solids is enhanced at intermediate and low atomic densities. The case of adiabatic compression of noble gases is analyzed in detail and the implications on sonoluminescence are discussed. In particular, the predicted plasma electron density in a sonoluminescent bubble turns out to be in good agreement with the value measured in recent experiments.

  15. Single bubble of an electronegative gas in transformer oil in the presence of an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Il'ichev, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the electric field on a single air bubble in transformer oil has been studied. It has been shown that, depending on its size, the bubble may initiate breakdown. The sizes of air and sulfur hexafluoride bubbles at which breakdown will not be observed have been estimated based on the condition for the avalanche-to-streamer transition.

  16. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

  17. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  18. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul, E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir; Gheshlaghi, Maryam; Laser and optics research school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute

    2016-03-15

    The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in Deuterated acetone (C{sub 3}D{sub 6}O) using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and −28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 10{sup 6} K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 10{sup 6} K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 10{sup 7} K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  19. How many bubbles in your glass of bubbly?

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2014-03-20

    The issue about how many carbon dioxide bubbles are likely to nucleate in a glass of champagne (or bubbly) is of concern for sommeliers, wine journalists, experienced tasters, and any open minded physical chemist wondering about complex phenomena at play in a glass of bubbly. The whole number of bubbles likely to form in a single glass is the result of the fine interplay between dissolved CO2, tiny gas pockets trapped within particles acting as bubble nucleation sites, and ascending bubble dynamics. Based on theoretical models combining ascending bubble dynamics and mass transfer equations, the falsely naı̈ve question of how many bubbles are likely to form per glass is discussed in the present work. A theoretical relationship is derived, which provides the whole number of bubbles likely to form per glass, depending on various parameters of both the wine and the glass itself.

  20. Study on characteristics of single cavitation bubble considering condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam under ultrasonic vibration honing.

    PubMed

    Ye, Linzheng; Zhu, Xijing; Wang, Lujie; Guo, Ce

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonic vibration honing technology is an effective means for materials difficult to machine, where cavitation occurs in grinding fluid under the action of ultrasound. To investigate the changes of single cavitation bubble characteristics in the grinding area and how honing parameters influence bubble characteristics, a dynamic model of single cavitation bubble in the ultrasonic vibration honing grinding area was established. The model was based on the bubble dynamics and considered the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam and honing processing environment. The change rules of bubble radius, temperature, pressure and number of kerosene steam molecules inside the bubble were numerically simulated in the process of bubble moving. The results show that the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam can help to explain the changes of temperature and pressure inside the bubble. Compared with ultrasonic vibration, the amplitude of bubble radius is greatly suppressed in the ultrasonic honing environment. However, the rate of movement of the bubble is faster. Meanwhile, the minimum values of pressure and temperature are larger, and the number of kerosene steam molecules is less. By studying the effect of honing factors on the movement of the cavitation bubble, it is found that honing pressure has a greater influence on bubble evolution characteristics, while rotation speed of honing head has a minor effect and the reciprocating speed of honing head has little impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-bubble boiling under Earth's and low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian; Tang, John; Shen, Yueyang

    2017-11-01

    Miniaturization of electronic systems in terrestrial and space applications is challenged by a dramatic increase in the power dissipation per unit volume with the occurrence of localized hot spots where the heat flux is much higher than the average. Cooling by forced gas or liquid flow appears insufficient to remove high local heat fluxes. Boiling that involves evaporation of liquid in a hot spot and condensation of vapor in a cold region can remove a significantly larger amount of heat through the latent heat of vaporization than force-flow cooling can carry out. Traditional methods for enhancing boiling heat transfer in terrestrial and space applications focus on removal of bubbles from the heating surface. In contrast, we unexpectedly observed a new boiling regime of water under Earth's gravity and low gravity in which a bubble was pinned on a small heater up to 270°C and delivered a heat flux up to 1.2 MW/m2 that was as high as the critical heat flux in the classical boiling regime on Earth .Low gravity measurements conducted in parabolic flights in NASA Boeing 727. The heat flux in flight and Earth's experiments was found to rise linearly with increasing the heater temperature. We will discuss physical mechanisms underlying heat transfer in single-bubble boiling. The work supported by NASA Grants NNX12AM26G and NNX09AK06G.

  2. Gas depletion through single gas bubble diffusive growth and its effect on subsequent bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Soto, Alvaro; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj; Physics of Fluid Group Collaboration; MCEC Netherlands CenterMultiscale Catalytic Energy Conversion Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    In weakly supersaturated mixtures, bubbles are known to grow quasi-statically as diffusion-driven mass transfer governs the process. In the final stage of the evolution, before detachment, there is an enhancement of mass transfer, which changes from diffusion to natural convection. Once the bubble detaches, it leaves behind a gas-depleted area. The diffusive mass transfer towards that region cannot compensate for the amount of gas which is taken away by the bubble. Consequently, the consecutive bubble will grow in an environment which contains less gas than for the previous one. This reduces the local supersaturation of the mixture around the nucleation site, leading to a reduced bubble growth rate. We present quantitative experimental data on this effect and the theoretical model for depletion during the bubble growth rate. This work was supported by the Netherlands Center for Multiscale Catalytic Energy Conversion (MCEC), an NWO Gravitation programme funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of the government of the Netherlands.

  3. Conformational heterogeneity and bubble dynamics in single bacterial transcription initiation complexes

    PubMed Central

    Duchi, Diego; Gryte, Kristofer; Robb, Nicole C; Morichaud, Zakia; Sheppard, Carol; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Transcription initiation is a major step in gene regulation for all organisms. In bacteria, the promoter DNA is first recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) to yield an initial closed complex. This complex subsequently undergoes conformational changes resulting in DNA strand separation to form a transcription bubble and an RNAP-promoter open complex; however, the series and sequence of conformational changes, and the factors that influence them are unclear. To address the conformational landscape and transitions in transcription initiation, we applied single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) on immobilized Escherichia coli transcription open complexes. Our results revealed the existence of two stable states within RNAP–DNA complexes in which the promoter DNA appears to adopt closed and partially open conformations, and we observed large-scale transitions in which the transcription bubble fluctuated between open and closed states; these transitions, which occur roughly on the 0.1 s timescale, are distinct from the millisecond-timescale dynamics previously observed within diffusing open complexes. Mutational studies indicated that the σ70 region 3.2 of the RNAP significantly affected the bubble dynamics. Our results have implications for many steps of transcription initiation, and support a bend-load-open model for the sequence of transitions leading to bubble opening during open complex formation. PMID:29177430

  4. Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Lee, Judy; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a simple and effective experimental approach to measuring the interaction forces between two small bubbles (approximately 80-140 microm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions on the scale of micrometers to nanometers. The colloidal probe technique using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles of various sizes. By using an ultrasonic source, we generated numerous small bubbles on a mildly hydrophobic surface of a glass slide. A single bubble picked up with a strongly hydrophobized V-shaped cantilever was used as the colloidal probe. Sample force measurements were used to evaluate the pure water bubble cleanliness and the general consistency of the measurements.

  5. Controlled single bubble cavitation collapse results in jet-induced injury in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Canchi, Saranya; Kelly, Karen; Hong, Yu; King, Michael A; Subhash, Ghatu; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2017-10-01

    Multiscale damage due to cavitation is considered as a potential mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with explosion. In this study, we employed a TBI relevant hippocampal ex vivo slice model to induce bubble cavitation. Placement of single reproducible seed bubbles allowed control of size, number, and tissue location to visualize and measure deformation parameters. Maximum strain value was measured at 45 µs after bubble collapse, presented with a distinct contour and coincided temporally and spatially with the liquid jet. Composite injury maps combined this maximum strain value with maximum measured bubble size and location along with histological injury patterns. This facilitated the correlation of bubble location and subsequent jet direction to the corresponding regions of high strain which overlapped with regions of observed injury. A dynamic threshold strain range for tearing of cerebral cortex was estimated to be between 0.5 and 0.6. For a seed bubble placed underneath the hippocampus, cavitation induced damage was observed in hippocampus (local), proximal cerebral cortex (marginal) and the midbrain/forebrain (remote) upon histological evaluation. Within this test model, zone of cavitation injury was greater than the maximum radius of the bubble. Separation of apposed structures, tissue tearing, and disruption of cellular layers defined early injury patterns that were not detected in the blast-exposed half of the brain slice. Ultrastructural pathology of the neurons exposed to cavitation was characterized by disintegration of plasma membrane along with loss of cellular content. The developed test system provided a controlled experimental platform to study cavitation induced high strain deformations on brain tissue slice. The goal of the future studies will be to lower underpressure magnitude and cavitation bubble size for more sensitive evaluation of injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental study on bubble dynamics and wall heat transfer arising from a single nucleation site at subcooled flow boiling conditions – Part 2: Data analysis on sliding bubble characteristics and associated wall heat transfer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yooa, Junsoo; Estrada-Perez, Carlos E.; Hassan, Yassin A.

    In this second of two companion papers presents an analysis of sliding bubble and wall heat transfer parameters measured during subcooled boiling in a square, vertical, upward flow channel. Bubbles were generated only from a single nucleation site for better observation of both the sliding bubbles’ characteristics and their impact on wall heat transfer through optical measurement techniques. Specific interests include: (i) bubbles departure and subsequent growth while sliding, (ii) bubbles release frequency, (iii) coalescence of sliding bubbles, (iv) sliding bubbles velocity, (v) bubbles size distribution and (vi) wall heat transfer influenced by sliding bubbles. Our results showed that slidingmore » bubbles involve two distinct growth behaviors: (i) at low mass fluxes, sliding bubbles grew fast near the nucleation site, subsequently shrank, and then grew again, (ii) as mass flux increased, however, sliding bubbles grew more steadily. The bubbles originating from the single nucleation site coalesced frequently while sliding, which showed close relation with bubbles release frequency. The sliding bubble velocity near the nucleation site consistently decreased by increasing mass flux, while the observation often became reversed as the bubbles slid downstream due to the effect of interfacial drag. The sliding bubbles moved faster than the local liquid (i.e., ur<0) at low mass flux conditions, but it became reversed as the mass flux increased. The size distribution of sliding bubbles followed Gaussian distribution well both near and far from the nucleation site. The standard deviation of bubble size varied insignificantly through sliding compared to the changes in mean bubble size. Lastly, the sliding bubbles enhanced the wall heat transfer and the effect became more noticeable as inlet subcooling/mass flux decreased or wall heat flux increased. Particularly, the sliding bubble characteristics such as bubble growth behavior observed near the nucleation site played

  7. Experimental study on bubble dynamics and wall heat transfer arising from a single nucleation site at subcooled flow boiling conditions – Part 2: Data analysis on sliding bubble characteristics and associated wall heat transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Yooa, Junsoo; Estrada-Perez, Carlos E.; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2016-04-28

    In this second of two companion papers presents an analysis of sliding bubble and wall heat transfer parameters measured during subcooled boiling in a square, vertical, upward flow channel. Bubbles were generated only from a single nucleation site for better observation of both the sliding bubbles’ characteristics and their impact on wall heat transfer through optical measurement techniques. Specific interests include: (i) bubbles departure and subsequent growth while sliding, (ii) bubbles release frequency, (iii) coalescence of sliding bubbles, (iv) sliding bubbles velocity, (v) bubbles size distribution and (vi) wall heat transfer influenced by sliding bubbles. Our results showed that slidingmore » bubbles involve two distinct growth behaviors: (i) at low mass fluxes, sliding bubbles grew fast near the nucleation site, subsequently shrank, and then grew again, (ii) as mass flux increased, however, sliding bubbles grew more steadily. The bubbles originating from the single nucleation site coalesced frequently while sliding, which showed close relation with bubbles release frequency. The sliding bubble velocity near the nucleation site consistently decreased by increasing mass flux, while the observation often became reversed as the bubbles slid downstream due to the effect of interfacial drag. The sliding bubbles moved faster than the local liquid (i.e., ur<0) at low mass flux conditions, but it became reversed as the mass flux increased. The size distribution of sliding bubbles followed Gaussian distribution well both near and far from the nucleation site. The standard deviation of bubble size varied insignificantly through sliding compared to the changes in mean bubble size. Lastly, the sliding bubbles enhanced the wall heat transfer and the effect became more noticeable as inlet subcooling/mass flux decreased or wall heat flux increased. Particularly, the sliding bubble characteristics such as bubble growth behavior observed near the nucleation site played

  8. Cell perforation mediated by plasmonic bubbles generated by a single near infrared femtosecond laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Bergeron, Eric; Meunier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on transient membrane perforation of living cancer cells using plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhanced single near infrared (NIR) femtosecond (fs) laser pulse. Under optimized laser energy fluence, single pulse treatment (τ = 45 fs, λ = 800 nm) resulted in 77% cell perforation efficiency and 90% cell viability. Using dark field and ultrafast imaging, we demonstrated that the generation of submicron bubbles around the AuNPs is the necessary condition for the cell membrane perforation. AuNP clustering increased drastically the bubble generation efficiency, thus enabling an effective laser treatment using low energy dose in the NIR optical therapeutical window. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-01-01

    An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

  10. The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2012-12-01

    An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

  11. Freezing Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.

  12. Formation and evolution of bubbly screens in confined oscillating bubbly liquids.

    PubMed

    Shklyaev, Sergey; Straube, Arthur V

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of dilute monodisperse bubbly liquid confined by two plane solid walls and subject to small-amplitude high-frequency oscillations normal to the walls. The initial state corresponds to the uniform distribution of bubbles and motionless liquid. The period of external driving is assumed much smaller than typical relaxation times for a single bubble but larger than the period of volume eigenoscillations. The time-averaged description accounting for the two-way coupling between the liquid and the bubbles is applied. We show that the model predicts accumulation of bubbles in thin sheets parallel to the walls. These singular structures, which are formally characterized by infinitely thin width and infinitely high concentration, are referred to as bubbly screens. The formation of a bubbly screen is described analytically in terms of a self-similar solution, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. We study the evolution of bubbly screens and detect a one-dimensional stationary state, which is shown to be unconditionally unstable.

  13. Formation and evolution of bubbly screens in confined oscillating bubbly liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyaev, Sergey; Straube, Arthur V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of dilute monodisperse bubbly liquid confined by two plane solid walls and subject to small-amplitude high-frequency oscillations normal to the walls. The initial state corresponds to the uniform distribution of bubbles and motionless liquid. The period of external driving is assumed much smaller than typical relaxation times for a single bubble but larger than the period of volume eigenoscillations. The time-averaged description accounting for the two-way coupling between the liquid and the bubbles is applied. We show that the model predicts accumulation of bubbles in thin sheets parallel to the walls. These singular structures, which are formally characterized by infinitely thin width and infinitely high concentration, are referred to as bubbly screens. The formation of a bubbly screen is described analytically in terms of a self-similar solution, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. We study the evolution of bubbly screens and detect a one-dimensional stationary state, which is shown to be unconditionally unstable.

  14. Cavitation luminescence in a water hammer: Upscaling sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C.-K.; Camara, C.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S. J.

    2003-06-01

    Oscillatory acceleration and deceleration of a column of water leads to a pipe hammer as well as cavitation. With a small amount of xenon gas dissolved in the water, we can detect a stream of predominantly ultraviolet subnanosecond flashes of light which are attributed to collapsing bubbles. The observed emission can exceed 108 photons for a single collapse and has a peak power over 0.4 W.

  15. Blackbody emission from laser breakdown in high-pressure gases.

    PubMed

    Bataller, A; Plateau, G R; Kappus, B; Putterman, S

    2014-08-15

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities-in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  16. Blackbody Emission from Laser Breakdown in High-Pressure Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, A.; Plateau, G. R.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S.

    2014-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities—in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  17. Interaction mechanism of double bubbles in hydrodynamic cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengchao; Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Liu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Bubble-bubble interaction is an important factor in cavitation bubble dynamics. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors of double cavitation bubbles driven by varying pressure field downstream of an orifice plate in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor are examined. The bubble-bubble interaction between two bubbles with different radii is considered. We have shown the different dynamic behaviors between double cavitation bubbles and a single bubble by solving two coupling nonlinear equations using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control. The simulation results indicate that, when considering the role of the neighbor smaller bubble, the oscillation of the bigger bubble gradually exhibits a lag in comparison with the single-bubble case, and the extent of the lag becomes much more obvious as time goes by. This phenomenon is more easily observed with the increase of the initial radius of the smaller bubble. In comparison with the single-bubble case, the oscillation of the bigger bubble is enhanced by the neighbor smaller bubble. Especially, the pressure pulse of the bigger bubble rises intensely when the sizes of two bubbles approach, and a series of peak values for different initial radii are acquired when the initial radius ratio of two bubbles is in the range of 0.9˜1.0. Although the increase of the center distance between two bubbles can weaken the mutual interaction, it has no significant influence on the enhancement trend. On the one hand, the interaction between two bubbles with different radii can suppress the growth of the smaller bubble; on the other hand, it also can enhance the growth of the bigger one at the same time. The significant enhancement effect due to the interaction of multi-bubbles should be paid more attention because it can be used to reinforce the cavitation intensity for various potential applications in future.

  18. Cohesion of Bubbles in Foam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sydney

    1978-01-01

    The free-energy change, or binding energy, of an idealized bubble cluster is calculated on the basis of one mole of gas, and on the basis of a single bubble going from sphere to polyhedron. Some new relations of bubble geometry are developed in the course of the calculation. (BB)

  19. Energy Flow in Dense Off-Equilibrium Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-15

    akT e in our system100 i e T T Teller 1966 Smoking Gun Experiment: Laser Breakdown in COLD gas In going from room to liquid Nitrogen temperature...oflaser breakdown have revealed a new phase of off-equilibrium plasma that has a tensile strength similar to a liquid , and reduced ion-electron...approved for public release. Part 1: Energy Balance in Sonoluminescing Dense Plasma Sonoluminescence occurs from rapid implosion of gas bubbles caused to

  20. Electrochemistry of single nanobubbles. Estimating the critical size of bubble-forming nuclei for gas-evolving electrode reactions.

    PubMed

    German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Chen, Qianjin; Liu, Yuwen; Luo, Long; White, Henry S

    2016-12-12

    In this article, we address the fundamental question: "What is the critical size of a single cluster of gas molecules that grows and becomes a stable (or continuously growing) gas bubble during gas evolving reactions?" Electrochemical reactions that produce dissolved gas molecules are ubiquitous in electrochemical technologies, e.g., water electrolysis, photoelectrochemistry, chlorine production, corrosion, and often lead to the formation of gaseous bubbles. Herein, we demonstrate that electrochemical measurements of the dissolved gas concentration, at the instant prior to nucleation of an individual nanobubble of H 2 , N 2 , or O 2 at a Pt nanodisk electrode, can be analyzed using classical thermodynamic relationships (Henry's law and the Young-Laplace equation - including non-ideal corrections) to provide an estimate of the size of the gas bubble nucleus that grows into a stable bubble. We further demonstrate that this critical nucleus size is independent of the radius of the Pt nanodisk employed (<100 nm radius), and weakly dependent on the nature of the gas. For example, the measured critical surface concentration of H 2 of ∼0.23 M at the instant of bubble formation corresponds to a critical H 2 nucleus that has a radius of ∼3.6 nm, an internal pressure of ∼350 atm, and contains ∼1700 H 2 molecules. The data are consistent with stochastic fluctuations in the density of dissolved gas, at or near the Pt/solution interface, controlling the rate of bubble nucleation. We discuss the growth of the nucleus as a diffusion-limited process and how that process is affected by proximity to an electrode producing ∼10 11 gas molecules per second. Our study demonstrates the advantages of studying a single-entity, i.e., an individual nanobubble, in understanding and quantifying complex physicochemical phenomena.

  1. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    , a computational model developed at Glenn, that simulates the cavitational collapse of a single bubble in a liquid (water) and the subsequent combustion of the gaseous contents inside the bubble. The model solves the time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in one-dimension with finite-rate chemical kinetics using the CHEMKIN package. Specifically, parameters such as frequency, pressure, bubble radius, and the equivalence ratio were varied while examining their effect on the maximum temperature, radius, and chemical species. These studies indicate that the radius of the bubble is perhaps the most critical parameter governing bubble combustion dynamics and its efficiency. Based on the results of the parametric studies, we plan on conducting experiments to study the effect of ultrasonic perturbations on the bubble generation process with respect to the bubble radius and size distribution.

  2. Nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kang Yuan; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Venugopalan, Vasan; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The generation of arbitrarily shaped nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles is demonstrated with a optical technique. The nonspherical bubbles are formed using laser intensity patterns shaped by a spatial light modulator using linear absorption inside a liquid gap with a thickness of 40μm . In particular we demonstrate the dynamics of elliptic, toroidal, square, and V-shaped bubbles. The bubble dynamics is recorded with a high-speed camera at framing rates of up to 300000 frames per second. The observed bubble evolution is compared to predictions from an axisymmetric boundary element simulation which provides good qualitative agreement. Interesting dynamic features that are observed in both the experiment and simulation include the inversion of the major and minor axis for elliptical bubbles, the rotation of the shape for square bubbles, and the formation of a unidirectional jet for V-shaped bubbles. Further we demonstrate that specific bubble shapes can either be formed directly through the intensity distribution of a single laser focus, or indirectly using secondary bubbles that either confine the central bubble or coalesce with the main bubble. The former approach provides the ability to generate in principle any complex bubble geometry.

  3. Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 2; Evolution of Thermally Controlled Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The previously developed dynamic theory of growth and detachment of vapour bubbles under conditions of nucleate pool boiling is applied to study motion and deformation of a bubble evolving at a single nucleation site. The bubble growth is presumed to be thermally controlled, and two components of heat transfer to the bubble are accounted of: the one from the bulk of surrounding liquid and the one due to heat conduction across a liquid microlayer formed underneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is governed by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force, both the forces making the bubble centre of mass move away from the wall and, thus, assisting its detachment. Buoyancy-controlled and surface-tension-controlled regimes are considered separately in a meticulous way. The duration of the whole process of bubble evolution till detachment, the rate of growth, and the bubble departure size are found as functions of time and physical and operating parameters. Some repeatedly observed phenomena, such as an influence of gravity on the growth rate, are explained. Inferences of the model agree qualitatively with available experimental evidence, and conclusions pertaining to the dependence on gravity of the bubble radius at detachment and the whole time of the bubble development when being attached to the wall are confirmed quantitatively.

  4. A derivation of the stable cavitation threshold accounting for bubble-bubble interactions.

    PubMed

    Guédra, Matthieu; Cornu, Corentin; Inserra, Claude

    2017-09-01

    The subharmonic emission of sound coming from the nonlinear response of a bubble population is the most used indicator for stable cavitation. When driven at twice their resonance frequency, bubbles can exhibit subharmonic spherical oscillations if the acoustic pressure amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Although various theoretical derivations exist for the subharmonic emission by free or coated bubbles, they all rest on the single bubble model. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression of the subharmonic threshold for interacting bubbles in a homogeneous, monodisperse cloud. This theory predicts a shift of the subharmonic resonance frequency and a decrease of the corresponding pressure threshold due to the interactions. For a given sonication frequency, these results show that an optimal value of the interaction strength (i.e. the number density of bubbles) can be found for which the subharmonic threshold is minimum, which is consistent with recently published experiments conducted on ultrasound contrast agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The buoyancy-driven motion of a single skirted bubble or drop rising through a viscous liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Sussman, Mark

    2012-11-01

    The buoyancy-driven motion of a single skirted bubble or drop rising through a viscous liquid is computationally explored by way of 3d-axisymmetric computations. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible two-fluid flow are solved numerically in which the coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid method is used to simulate the deforming bubble/drop boundary and the interface jump conditions on the deforming boundary are enforced through a sharp interface numerical treatment. Dynamic, block structured adaptive grid refinement is employed in order to sufficiently resolve the thin skirts. Results on the sensitivity of the thickness of trailing bubble/drop skirts to the density ratio and viscosity ratio are reported. It is shown that both the density ratio (not the density difference) and the viscosity ratio effect the skirt thickness. Previous theory for predicting skirt thickness can be refined as a result of our calculations. It is also discovered that the formation of thin skirts for bubbles and drops have little effect on the rise velocity. In other words, the measured Re number for cases without skirt formation have almost the same values for Re as cases with a thin skirt.

  6. Bubble propagation on a rail: a concept for sorting bubbles by size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Gómez, Andrés; Thompson, Alice B.; Hazel, Andrew L.; Juel, Anne

    We demonstrate experimentally that the introduction of a rail, a small height constriction, within the cross-section of a rectangular channel could be used as a robust passive sorting device in two-phase fluid flows. Single air bubbles carried within silicone oil are generally transported on one side of the rail. However, for flow rates marginally larger than a critical value, a narrow band of bubble sizes can propagate (stably) over the rail, while bubbles of other sizes segregate to the side of the rail. The width of this band of bubble sizes increases with flow rate and the size of the most stable bubble can be tuned by varying the rail width. We present a complementary theoretical analysis based on a depth-averaged theory, which is in qualitative agreement with the experiments. The theoretical study reveals that the mechanism relies on a non-trivial interaction between capillary and viscous forces that is fully dynamic, rather than being a simple modification of capillary static solutions.

  7. Constraining the GENIE model of neutrino-induced single pion production using reanalyzed bubble chamber data

    DOE PAGES

    Rodrigues, Philip; Wilkinson, Callum; McFarland, Kevin

    2016-08-24

    The longstanding discrepancy between bubble chamber measurements of ν μ-induced single pion production channels has led to large uncertainties in pion production cross section parameters for many years. We extend the reanalysis of pion production data in deuterium bubble chambers where this discrepancy is solved to include the ν μn → μ –pπ 0 and ν μn→μ –nπ + channels, and use the resulting data to fit the parameters of the GENIE pion production model. We find a set of parameters that can describe the bubble chamber data better than the GENIE default parameters, and provide updated central values andmore » reduced uncertainties for use in neutrino oscillation and cross section analyses which use the GENIE model. Here, we find that GENIE’s non-resonant background prediction has to be significantly reduced to fit the data, which may help to explain the recent discrepancies between simulation and data observed by the MINERνA coherent pion and NOνA oscillation analyses.« less

  8. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-06

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.

  9. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed ‘acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics–bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave–bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the ‘resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave–bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead. PMID:26442143

  10. Theoretical model of ice nucleation induced by acoustic cavitation. Part 1: Pressure and temperature profiles around a single bubble.

    PubMed

    Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Peczalski, R; Louisnard, O; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the inertial cavitation of a single gas bubble in a liquid submitted to an ultrasonic wave. The aim was to calculate accurately the pressure and temperature at the bubble wall and in the liquid adjacent to the wall just before and just after the collapse. Two different approaches were proposed for modeling the heat transfer between the ambient liquid and the gas: the simplified approach (A) with liquid acting as perfect heat sink, the rigorous approach (B) with liquid acting as a normal heat conducting medium. The time profiles of the bubble radius, gas temperature, interface temperature and pressure corresponding to the above models were compared and important differences were observed excepted for the bubble size. The exact pressure and temperature distributions in the liquid corresponding to the second model (B) were also presented. These profiles are necessary for the prediction of any physical phenomena occurring around the cavitation bubble, with possible applications to sono-crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The dynamics of histotripsy bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2011-09-01

    Histotripsy describes treatments in which high-amplitude acoustic pulses are used to excite bubbles and erode tissue. Though tissue erosion can be directly attributed to bubble activity, the genesis and dynamics of bubbles remain unclear. Histotripsy lesions that show no signs of thermal coagulative damage have been generated with two different acoustic protocols: relatively long acoustic pulses that produce local boiling within milliseconds and relatively short pulses that are higher in amplitude but likely do not produce boiling. While these two approaches are often distinguished as `boiling' versus `cavitation', such labels can obscure similarities. In both cases, a bubble undergoes large changes in radius and vapor is transported into and out of the bubble as it oscillates. Moreover, observations from both approaches suggest that bubbles grow to a size at which they cease to collapse violently. In order to better understand the dynamics of histotripsy bubbles, a single-bubble model has been developed that couples acoustically excited bubble motions to the thermodynamic state of the surrounding liquid. Using this model for bubbles exposed to histotripsy sound fields, simulations suggest that two mechanisms can act separately or in concert to lead to the typically observed bubble growth. First, nonlinear acoustic propagation leads to the evolution of shocks and an asymmetry in the positive and negative pressures that drive bubble motion. This asymmetry can have a rectifying effect on bubble oscillations whereby the bubble grows on average during each acoustic cycle. Second, vapor transport to/from the bubble tends to produce larger bubbles, especially at elevated temperatures. Vapor transport by itself can lead to rectified bubble growth when the ambient temperature exceeds 100 °C (`boiling') or local heating in the vicinity of the bubble leads to a superheated boundary layer.

  12. Numerical Study of Single Bubble Growth on and Departure from a Horizontal Superheated Wall by Three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Li, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Kai-Kai; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Wang, Tai

    2018-05-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate the progress of a single bubble's growth and departure from a horizontal superheated wall. The evolutionary process of the bubble shapes and also the temperature fields during pool nucleate boiling were obtained and the influence of the gravitational acceleration on the bubble departure diameter (BDD), the bubble release frequency (BRF) and the heat flux on the superheated wall was analyzed. The simulation results obtained by the present three-dimensional numerical studies demonstrate that the BDD is proportional to g^{-0.301}, the BRF is proportional to g^{-0.58}, and the averaged wall heat flux is proportional to g^{0.201}, where g is the gravitational acceleration. These results are in good agreement with the common-used experimental correlations, indicating the rationality of the present numerical model and results.

  13. Bubble-induced microstreaming: guiding and destroying lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2002-11-01

    Micron-sized bubbles respond with strong oscillations when submitted to ultrasound. This has led to their use as echographic contrast enhancers. The large energy and force densities generated by the collapsing bubbles also make them non-invasive mechanical tools: Recently, it has been reported that the interaction of cavitating bubbles with nearby cells can render the latter permeable to large molecules (sonoporation), suggesting prospects for drug delivery and gene transfection. We have developed a laboratory setup that allows for a controlled study of the interaction of single microbubbles with single lipid bilayer vesicles. Substituting vesicles for cell membranes is advantageous because the mechanical properties of vesicles are well-known. Microscopic observations reveal that vesicles near a bubble follow the vivid streaming motion set up by the bubble. The vesicles "bounce" off the bubble, being periodically accelerated towards and away from it, and undergo well-defined shape deformations along their trajectory in accordance with fluid-dynamical theory. Break-up of vesicles could also be observed.

  14. Sonoluminescence and acoustic emission spectra at different stages of cavitation zone development.

    PubMed

    Dezhkunov, N V; Francescutto, A; Serpe, L; Canaparo, R; Cravotto, G

    2018-01-01

    The way in which a cavitation zone develops in a focused pulsed ultrasound field is studied in this work. Sonoluminescence (SL), total hydrophone output and cavitation noise spectra have been recorded across a gradual, smooth increase in applied voltage. It is shown that the cavitation zone passes through a number of stages of evolution, according to increasing ultrasound intensity, decreasing pulse period and increasing ultrasound pulse duration. Sonoluminescence is absent in the first phase and the hydrophone output spectra consists of a main line with two or three harmonics whose intensity is much lower than that of the main (fundamental) line. The second stage sees the onset of SL whose intensity increases smoothly and is accompanied by the appearance of higher harmonics and subharmonics in the cavitation noise spectra. In some cases, the wide-band (WBN) component can be seen in noise spectra during the final part of the second stage. In the third stage, SL intensity increases significantly and often quite sharply, while WBN intensity increases in the same manner. This is accompanied by a synchronous increase in the absorption of ultrasound by the cavitation zone, which is manifested in a sharp decrease in the hydrophone output. In the fourth stage, both SL and WBN intensities tend to decrease despite the increased voltage applied to the transducer. Furthermore, the fundamental line tends to decrease in strength as well, despite the increasing ultrasound intensity. The obtained results clearly identify the different stages of cavitation zone development using cavitation noise spectra analyses. We then hypothesize that three of the above stages may be responsible for three known types of ultrasound action on biological cells: damping viability, reversible cell damage (sonoporation) and irreversible damage/cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oscillatory Dynamics of Single Bubbles and Agglomeration in a Sound Field in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Depew, Jon; Asaki, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A dual-frequency acoustic levitator containing water was developed for studying bubble and drop dynamics in low gravity. It was flown on USML-1 where it was used in the Glovebox facility. High frequency (21 or 63 kHz) ultrasonic waves were modulated by low frequencies to excite shape oscillations on bubbles and oil drops ultrasonically trapped in the water. Bubble diameters were typically close to 1 cm or larger. When such large bubbles are acoustically trapped on the Earth, the acoustic radiation pressure needed to overcome buoyancy tends to shift the natural frequency for quadrupole (n = 2) oscillations above the prediction of Lamb's equation. In low gravity, a much weaker trapping force was used and measurements of n = 2 and 3 mode frequencies were closer to the ideal case. Other video observations in low gravity include: (i) the transient reappearance of a bulge where a small bubble has coalesced with a large one, (ii) observations of the dynamics of bubbles coated by oil indicating that shape oscillations can shift a coated bubble away from the oil-water interface of the coating giving a centering of the core, and (iii) the agglomeration of bubbles induced by the sound field.

  16. Capillarity-Driven Bubble Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark; Dreyer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Techniques for phase separation in the absence of gravity continue to be sought after 5 decades of space flight. This work focuses on the fundamental problem of gas bubble separation in bubbly flows through open wedge-shaped channel in a microgravity environment. The bubbles appear to rise in the channel and coalesce with the free surface. Forces acting on the bubble are the combined effects of surface tension, wetting conditions, and geometry; not buoyancy. A single dimensionless group is identified that characterizes the bubble behavior and supportive experiments are conducted in a terrestrial laboratory, in a 2.1 second drop tower, and aboard the International Space Station as part of the Capillary Channel Flow (CCF) experiments. The data is organized into regime maps that provide insight on passive phase separations for applications ranging from liquid management aboard spacecraft to lab-on-chip technologies. NASA NNX09AP66A, NASA Oregon Space Grant NNX10AK68H, NASA NNX12AO47A, DLR 50WM0535/0845/1145

  17. Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-06-01

    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis for bubble proliferation when SWs are delivered at fast rate. Bubbles were studied using a high-speed camera (Imacon 200). Experiments were conducted in a test tank filled with nondegassed tap water at room temperature. Acoustic pulses were generated with an electromagnetic lithotripter (DoLi-50). In the focus of the lithotripter the pulses consisted of a ˜60 MPa positive-pressure spike followed by up to -8 MPa negative-pressure tail, all with a total duration of about 7 μs. Nonlinear propagation steepened the shock front of the pulses to become sufficiently thin (˜0.03 μm) to impose differential pressure across even microscopic bubbles. High-speed camera movies showed that the SWs forced preexisting microbubbles to collapse, jet, and break up into daughter bubbles, which then grew rapidly under the negative-pressure phase of the pulse, but later coalesced to re-form a single bubble. Subsequent bubble growth was followed by inertial collapse and, usually, rebound. Most, if not all, cavitation bubbles emitted micro-jets during their first inertial collapse and re-growth. After jetting, these rebounding bubbles could regain a spherical shape before undergoing a second inertial collapse. However, either upon this second inertial collapse, or sometimes upon the first inertial collapse, the rebounding bubble emerged from the collapse as a cloud of smaller bubbles rather than a single bubble. These daughter bubbles could continue to rebound and collapse for a few cycles, but did not coalesce. These observations show that the positive-pressure phase of SWs fragments preexisting bubbles but this initial

  18. Interaction of a vortex ring and a bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Narsing K.; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-bubble injection in to boundary layers is one possible method for reducing frictional drag of ships. Although this has been studied for some time, the physical mechanisms responsible for drag reduction using microbubbles in turbulent boundary layers is not yet fully understood. Previous studies suggest that bubble-vortical structure interaction seems to be one of the important physical mechanisms for frictional drag reduction using microbubbles. In the present work, we study a simplification of this problem, namely, the interaction of a single vortical structure, in particular a vortex ring, with a single bubble for better understanding of the physics. The vortex ring is generated using a piston-cylinder arrangement and the bubble is generated by connecting a capillary to an air pump. The bubble dynamics is directly visualized using a high speed camera, while the vorticity modification is measured using time resolved PIV. The results show that significant deformations can occur of both the bubble and the vortex ring. Effect of different non-dimensional parameters on the interaction will be presented in the meeting.

  19. Dynamic Nucleation of Ice Induced by a Single Stable Cavitation Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, Kenichi; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic nucleation of ice induced by caviation bubble in undercooled water is observed using an acoustic levitation technique. The observation indicates that a high pressure pulse associated with a collapsing bubble is indeed responsible for the nucleation of a high pressure phase of ice.

  20. Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects. PMID:24747272

  1. Bubble gate for in-plane flow control.

    PubMed

    Oskooei, Ali; Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel

    2013-07-07

    We introduce a miniature gate valve as a readily implementable strategy for actively controlling the flow of liquids on-chip, within a footprint of less than one square millimetre. Bubble gates provide for simple, consistent and scalable control of liquid flow in microchannel networks, are compatible with different bulk microfabrication processes and substrate materials, and require neither electrodes nor moving parts. A bubble gate consists of two microchannel sections: a liquid-filled channel and a gas channel that intercepts the liquid channel to form a T-junction. The open or closed state of a bubble gate is determined by selecting between two distinct gas pressure levels: the lower level corresponds to the "open" state while the higher level corresponds to the "closed" state. During closure, a gas bubble penetrates from the gas channel into the liquid, flanked by a column of equidistantly spaced micropillars on each side, until the flow of liquid is completely obstructed. We fabricated bubble gates using single-layer soft lithographic and bulk silicon micromachining procedures and evaluated their performance with a combination of theory and experimentation. We assessed the dynamic behaviour during more than 300 open-and-close cycles and report the operating pressure envelope for different bubble gate configurations and for the working fluids: de-ionized water, ethanol and a biological buffer. We obtained excellent agreement between the experimentally determined bubble gate operational envelope and a theoretical prediction based on static wetting behaviour. We report case studies that serve to illustrate the utility of bubble gates for liquid sampling in single and multi-layer microfluidic devices. Scalability of our strategy was demonstrated by simultaneously addressing 128 bubble gates.

  2. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-27

    calculate liquid jet formation with collapse of an empty spherical bubble due to the high surrounding fluid pressure 18. Experimental evidence of...maximum collapse pressures over a wide range between 8 MPa 13 to 2.5 GPa 11 have also been calculated . 5 A fundamental problem in the study of...and a digital image correlation (DIC) technique was used to calculate strain fields during bubble growth and collapse. The subsequent response of the

  3. Comment on "Acoustical observation of bubble oscillations induced by bubble popping"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, É.; Ollivier, F.; Antkowiak, A.; Wunenburger, R.

    2015-03-01

    We have reproduced the experiment of acoustic monitoring of spontaneous popping of single soap bubbles standing in air reported by Ding et al. [2aa Phys. Rev. E 75, 041601 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.041601]. By using a single microphone and two different signal acquisition systems recording in parallel the signal at the microphone output, among them the system used by Ding et al., we have experimentally evidenced that the acoustic precursors of bubble popping events detected by Ding et al. actually result from an acausal artifact of the signal processing performed by their acquisition system which lies outside of its prescribed working frequency range. No acoustic precursor of popping could be evidenced with the microphone used in these experiments, whose sensitivity is 1 V Pa-1 and frequency range is 500 Hz-100 kHz.

  4. Predawn plasma bubble cluster observed in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsunoda, Roland; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Ishii, Mamoru; Yatini, Clara

    2016-06-01

    Predawn plasma bubble was detected as deep plasma depletion by GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network and in situ measurement onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 (DMSPF15) satellite and was confirmed by sparse GPS network in Southeast Asia. In addition to the deep depletion, the GPS network revealed the coexisting submesoscale irregularities. A deep depletion is regarded as a primary bubble. Submesoscale irregularities are regarded as secondary bubbles. Primary bubble and secondary bubbles appeared together as a cluster with zonal wavelength of 50 km. An altitude of secondary bubbles happened to be lower than that of the primary bubble in the same cluster. The observed pattern of plasma bubble cluster is consistent with the simulation result of the recent high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model. This event is only a single event out of 76 satellite passes at nighttime during 3-25 March 2012 that significantly shows plasma depletion at plasma bubble wall. The inside structure of the primary bubble was clearly revealed from the in situ density data of DMSPF15 satellite and the ground-based GRBR total electron content.

  5. Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McLaughlin, J.B.

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface,more » one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.« less

  6. Vapor bubble generation around gold nano-particles and its application to damaging of cells

    PubMed Central

    Kitz, M.; Preisser, S.; Wetterwald, A.; Jaeger, M.; Thalmann, G. N.; Frenz, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vapor bubbles generated upon irradiation of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses. Bubble formation was studied both with optical and acoustic means on supported single gold nanoparticles and single nanoparticles in suspension. Formation thresholds determined at different wavelengths indicate a bubble formation efficiency increasing with the irradiation wavelength. Vapor bubble generation in Bac-1 cells containing accumulations of the same particles was also investigated at different wavelengths. Similarly, they showed an increasing cell damage efficiency for longer wavelengths. Vapor bubbles generated by single laser pulses were about half the cell size when inducing acute damage. PMID:21339875

  7. A Microfluidic System with Surface Patterning for Investigating Cavitation Bubble(s)-Cell Interaction and the Resultant Bioeffects at the Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fenfang; Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Yang, Chen; Zhong, Pei

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, we first describe the fabrication protocol of a microfluidic chip, with gold dots and fibronectin-coated regions on the same glass substrate that precisely controls the generation of tandem bubbles and individual cells patterned nearby with well-defined locations and shapes. We then demonstrate the generation of tandem bubbles by using two pulsed lasers illuminating a pair of gold dots with a few-microsecond time delay. We visualize the bubble-bubble interaction and jet formation by high-speed imaging and characterize the resultant flow field using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Finally, we present some applications of this technique for single cell analysis, including cell membrane poration with macromolecule uptake, localized membrane deformation determined by the displacements of attached integrin-binding beads, and intracellular calcium response from ratiometric imaging. Our results show that a fast and directional jetting flow is produced by the tandem bubble interaction, which can impose a highly-localized shear stress on the surface of a cell grown in close proximity. Furthermore, different bioeffects can be induced by altering the strength of the jetting flow by adjusting the standoff distance from the cell to the tandem bubbles. PMID:28117807

  8. A Microfluidic System with Surface Patterning for Investigating Cavitation Bubble(s)-Cell Interaction and the Resultant Bioeffects at the Single-cell Level.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfang; Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Yang, Chen; Zhong, Pei

    2017-01-10

    In this manuscript, we first describe the fabrication protocol of a microfluidic chip, with gold dots and fibronectin-coated regions on the same glass substrate, that precisely controls the generation of tandem bubbles and individual cells patterned nearby with well-defined locations and shapes. We then demonstrate the generation of tandem bubbles by using two pulsed lasers illuminating a pair of gold dots with a few-microsecond time delay. We visualize the bubble-bubble interaction and jet formation by high-speed imaging and characterize the resultant flow field using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Finally, we present some applications of this technique for single cell analysis, including cell membrane poration with macromolecule uptake, localized membrane deformation determined by the displacements of attached integrin-binding beads, and intracellular calcium response from ratiometric imaging. Our results show that a fast and directional jetting flow is produced by the tandem bubble interaction, which can impose a highly localized shear stress on the surface of a cell grown in close proximity. Furthermore, different bioeffects can be induced by altering the strength of the jetting flow by adjusting the standoff distance from the cell to the tandem bubbles.

  9. The effect of gravity-induced pressure gradient on bubble luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Tinguely, Marc; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    The violent collapse of a bubble can heat up its gaseous contents to temperatures exceeding those on the sun's surface, resulting in a short luminescence flash. Occurring at the very moment of the collapse, luminescence must be highly sensitive to the bubble geometry at the preceding final stage. This represents an important feature as any pressure anisotropy in the surrounding liquid will result in a deformation of an initially spherical bubble, inducing a micro-jet that pierces the bubble and makes it experience a toroidal collapse. We therefore present these as complementary phenomena by investigating the link between jets and luminescence of laser-generated single bubbles. Through ultra-high-speed imaging, the micro-jet formation and evolution of a single bubble are observed with unprecedented detail, whilst the bubble light emission is analyzed by means of a spectrometer. The bubble energy and the micro-jet size are controlled by adjusting the laser-pulse and by varying the gravity level aboard ESA parabolic flights, respectively. We here provide systematic evidence on how bubble-jets suppress luminescence in a considerable manner, even in normal gravity where the jet is barely observable. We conclude that gravity must be accounted for in accurate models of luminescence.

  10. Comparison of cavitation bubbles evolution in viscous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasikova, Darina; Schovanec, Petr; Kotek, Michal; Kopecky, Vaclav

    2018-06-01

    There have been tried many types of liquids with different ranges of viscosity values that have been tested to form a single cavitation bubble. The purpose of these experiments was to observe the behaviour of cavitation bubbles in media with different ranges of absorbance. The most of the method was based on spark to induced superheat limit of liquid. Here we used arrangement of the laser-induced breakdown (LIB) method. There were described the set cavitation setting that affects the size bubble in media with different absorbance. We visualized the cavitation bubble with a 60 kHz high speed camera. We used here shadowgraphy setup for the bubble visualization. There were observed time development and bubble extinction in various media, where the size of the bubble in the silicone oil was extremely small, due to the absorbance size of silicon oil.

  11. Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Ultrasound in Liquids with Gas Bubble Agglomerates: Examples of Bubbly-Liquid-Type Acoustic Metamaterials (BLAMMs)

    PubMed Central

    Vanhille, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with a theoretical analysis about the possibility of using linear and nonlinear acoustic properties to modify ultrasound by adding gas bubbles of determined sizes in a liquid. We use a two-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the effect that one and several monodisperse bubble populations confined in restricted areas of a liquid have on ultrasound by calculating their nonlinear interaction. The filtering of an input ultrasonic pulse performed by a net of bubbly-liquid cells is analyzed. The generation of a low-frequency component from a single cell impinged by a two-frequency harmonic wave is also studied. These effects rely on the particular dispersive character of attenuation and nonlinearity of such bubbly fluids, which can be extremely high near bubble resonance. They allow us to observe how gas bubbles can change acoustic signals. Variations of the bubbly medium parameters induce alterations of the effects undergone by ultrasound. Results suggest that acoustic signals can be manipulated by bubbles. This capacity to achieve the modification and control of sound with oscillating gas bubbles introduces the concept of bubbly-liquid-based acoustic metamaterials (BLAMMs). PMID:28106748

  12. Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Ultrasound in Liquids with Gas Bubble Agglomerates: Examples of Bubbly-Liquid-Type Acoustic Metamaterials (BLAMMs).

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian

    2017-01-17

    This work deals with a theoretical analysis about the possibility of using linear and nonlinear acoustic properties to modify ultrasound by adding gas bubbles of determined sizes in a liquid. We use a two-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the effect that one and several monodisperse bubble populations confined in restricted areas of a liquid have on ultrasound by calculating their nonlinear interaction. The filtering of an input ultrasonic pulse performed by a net of bubbly-liquid cells is analyzed. The generation of a low-frequency component from a single cell impinged by a two-frequency harmonic wave is also studied. These effects rely on the particular dispersive character of attenuation and nonlinearity of such bubbly fluids, which can be extremely high near bubble resonance. They allow us to observe how gas bubbles can change acoustic signals. Variations of the bubbly medium parameters induce alterations of the effects undergone by ultrasound. Results suggest that acoustic signals can be manipulated by bubbles. This capacity to achieve the modification and control of sound with oscillating gas bubbles introduces the concept of bubbly-liquid-based acoustic metamaterials (BLAMMs).

  13. Characterisation of bubbles in liquids using acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramble, David Gary

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the characterisation of air bubbles in a liquid through the use of a range of acoustic techniques, with the ultimate aim of minimising the ambiguity of the result and the complexity of the task. A bubble is particularly amenable to detection by using acoustical methods because there usually exists a large acoustic impedance mismatch between the gas/vapour inside the bubble and that of the surrounding liquid. The bubble also behaves like a single degree-of-freedom oscillator when excited, and as such exhibits a well-defined resonance frequency which is related to its radius. Though techniques which exploit this resonance property of the bubble are straightforward to apply, the results are prone to ambiguities as larger bubbles can geometrically scatter more sound than a smaller resonant bubble. However, these drawbacks can be overcome by using acoustical methods which make use of the nonlinear behaviour of bubbles. A particular nonlinear technique monitors the second harmonic emission of the bubble which is a global maximum at resonance. In addition, a two- frequency excitation technique is used which involves exciting the bubble with a fixed high frequency signal (the imaging signal, ωi) of the order of megahertz, and a lower variable frequency (the pumping signal, ωp) which is tuned to the bubble's resonance. The bubble couples these two sound fields together to produce sum-and-difference terms which peak at resonance. The two most promising combination frequency signals involve the coupling of the bubble's fundamental with the imaging frequency to give rise to a ωi+ωp signal, and the coupling of a subharmonic signal at half the resonance frequency of the bubble to give rise to a ωi/pmωp/2 signal. Initially, theory is studied which outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each of the acoustic techniques available. Experiments are then conducted in a large tank of water on simple bubble populations, ranging from stationary

  14. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  15. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-02-28

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications.

  16. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm2 V−1 s−1 under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications. PMID:22426220

  17. Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Abdul Aziz, A R; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bursting the Taylor cone bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    A soap bubble fixed on a surface and placed in an electric field will take on the shape of a cone rather than constant curvature (dome) when the electrical field is not present. The phenomenon was introduced by J. Zeleny (1917) and studied extensively by C.T. Wilson & G.I. Taylor (1925). We revisit the Taylor cone problem by studying the deformation and bursting of soap bubbles in a point charge electric field. A single bubble takes on the shape of a cone in the electric field and a high-speed camera equipped with a micro-lens is used to observe the unsteady dynamics at the tip. Rupture occurs as a very small piece of the tip is torn away from the bubble toward the point charge. Based on experiments, a theoretical model is developed that predicts when rupture should occur. This study may help in the design of foam-removal techniques in engineering and provide a better understanding of an electrified air-liquid interface.

  19. Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Leal, L. Gary; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Free drops and bubbles are weakly nonlinear mechanical systems that are relatively simple to characterize experimentally in 1-G as well as in microgravity. The understanding of the details of their motion contributes to the fundamental study of nonlinear phenomena and to the measurement of the thermophysical properties of freely levitated melts. The goal of this Glovebox-based experimental investigation is the low-gravity assessment of the capabilities of a modular apparatus based on ultrasonic resonators and on the pseudo- extinction optical method. The required experimental task is the accurate measurements of the large-amplitude dynamics of free drops and bubbles in the absence of large biasing influences such as gravity and levitation fields. A single-axis levitator used for the positioning of drops in air, and an ultrasonic water-filled resonator for the trapping of air bubbles have been evaluated in low-gravity and in 1-G. The basic feasibility of drop positioning and shape oscillations measurements has been verified by using a laptop-interfaced automated data acquisition and the optical extinction technique. The major purpose of the investigation was to identify the salient technical issues associated with the development of a full-scale Microgravity experiment on single drop and bubble dynamics.

  20. Bubbles, Gating, and Anesthetics in Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Roland; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Eisenberg, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that bubbles are the bistable hydrophobic gates responsible for the on-off transitions of single channel currents. In this view, many types of channels gate by the same physical mechanism—dewetting by capillary evaporation—but different types of channels use different sensors to modulate hydrophobic properties of the channel wall and thereby trigger and control bubbles and gating. Spontaneous emptying of channels has been seen in many simulations. Because of the physics involved, such phase transitions are inherently sensitive, unstable threshold phenomena that are difficult to simulate reproducibly and thus convincingly. We present a thermodynamic analysis of a bubble gate using morphometric density functional theory of classical (not quantum) mechanics. Thermodynamic analysis of phase transitions is generally more reproducible and less sensitive to details than simulations. Anesthetic actions of inert gases—and their interactions with hydrostatic pressure (e.g., nitrogen narcosis)—can be easily understood by actions on bubbles. A general theory of gas anesthesia may involve bubbles in channels. Only experiments can show whether, or when, or which channels actually use bubbles as hydrophobic gates: direct observation of bubbles in channels is needed. Existing experiments show thin gas layers on hydrophobic surfaces in water and suggest that bubbles nearly exist in bulk water. PMID:18234836

  1. Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

  2. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  3. Bubble Generation in a Continuous Liquid Flow Under Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pais, Salvatore Cezar

    1999-01-01

    The present work reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations. Experiments were performed aboard the DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft at NASA Glenn Research Center, using an air-water system. Three different flow tube diameters were used: 1.27, 1.9, and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of air injection nozzle to tube diameters were considered: 0.1 and 0.2. Gas and liquid volumetric flow rates were varied from 10 to 200 ml/s. It was experimentally observed that with increasing superficial liquid velocity, the bubbles generated decreased in size. The bubble diameter was shown to increase with increasing air injection nozzle diameters. As the tube diameter was increased, the size of the detached bubbles increased. Likewise, as the superficial liquid velocity was increased, the frequency of bubble formation increased and thus the time to detach forming bubbles decreased. Independent of the flow configuration (for either single nozzle or multiple nozzle gas injection), void fraction and hence flow regime transition can be controlled in a somewhat precise manner by solely varying the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. On the other hand, it is observed that uniformity of bubble size can be controlled more accurately by using single nozzle gas injection than by using multiple port injection, since this latter system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. A theoretical model, based on an overall force balance, is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic and bubbly flow regime. Under conditions of reduced gravity, the gas momentum flux enhances bubble detachment; however, the surface tension forces at the nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. Liquid drag and inertia can act either as attaching or detaching force, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with performed

  4. Anti-Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2003-08-01

    An anti-bubble is a striking kind of bubble in liquid that seemingly does not comply the buoyancy, and after few minutes it disappears suddenly inside the liquid. Different from a simple air bubble that rises directly to the liquid surface, an anti-bubble wanders around in the fluid due to its slightly lesser density than the surrounding liquid. In spite of this odd behavior, an anti-bubble can be understood as the opposite of a conventional soap bubble in air, which is a shell of liquid surrounding air, and an anti-bubble is a shell of air surrounding a drop of the liquid inside the liquid. Two-phase flow has been a subject of interest due to its relevance to process equipment for contacting gases and liquids applied in industry. A chain of bubbles rising in a liquid formed from a nozzle is a two-phase flow, and there are certain conditions in which spherical air shells, called anti-bubbles, are produced. The purpose of this work is mainly to note the existence of anti-bubbling regime as a sequel of a bubbling system. We initially have presented the experimental apparatus. After this we have described the evolution of the bubbling regimes, and emulated the effect of bubbling coalescence with simple maps. Then is shown the inverted dripping as a consequence of the bubble coalescence, and finally the conditions for anti-bubble formation.

  5. Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  6. Evolution of a Collection of Bubbles with Application to Wakes, Bubble Screens, and Cloud Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Hydrodynamics", Santa Barbara, CA, August 1994.. 2. G.L. CHAIIINE, "Bubble Interactions with Vortices," in "Vortex Flows," S. GREEN , ed., to be published by...2. G.L. CHAHINE, "Bubble Interactions with Vortices," in "Vortex Flows," S. GREEN , ed., to be published by Klttwer Academic, (1993). 3. G.L. CHAHINE...Tip Vortei, ASME Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Forum, Washington D.C., FED-VoL 153, pp. 93-99. (24] Green , S.I., 1991, "Correlatiag Single Phase Flow

  7. Time-resolved imaging of electrical discharge development in underwater bubbles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tu, Yalong; Xia, Hualei; Yang, Yong, E-mail: yangyong@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: luxinpei@hust.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    The formation and development of plasma in single air bubbles submerged in water were investigated. The difference in the discharge dynamics and the after-effects on the bubble were investigated using a 900 000 frame per second high-speed charge-coupled device camera. It was observed that depending on the position of the electrodes, the breakdown could be categorized into two modes: (1) direct discharge mode, where the high voltage and ground electrodes were in contact with the bubble, and the streamer would follow the shortest path and propagate along the axis of the bubble and (2) dielectric barrier mode, where the groundmore » electrode was not in touch with the bubble surface, and the streamer would form along the inner surface of the bubble. The oscillation of the bubble and the development of instabilities on the bubble surface were also discussed.« less

  8. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  9. Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Microparticles and Micromotors with Single Holes Templated by Colloidal Silica-Assisted Gas Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Tao; Asefa, Tewodros

    2017-07-01

    A simple, new synthetic method that produces hollow, mesoporous carbon microparticles, each with a single hole on its surface, is reported. The synthesis involves unique templates, which are composed of gaseous bubbles and colloidal silica, and poly(furfuryl alcohol) as a carbon precursor. The conditions that give these morphologically unique carbon microparticles are investigated, and the mechanisms that result in their unique structures are proposed. Notably, the amount of colloidal silica and the type of polymer are found to hugely dictate whether or not the synthesis results in hollow asymmetrical microparticles, each with a single hole. The potential application of the particles as self-propelled micromotors is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bubble breakup phenomena in a venturi tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Akiko

    2005-11-01

    Microbubble has distinguished characteristics of large surface area to unit volume and small buoyancy, and it has advantages in many engineering fields. Recently microbubble generators with low energy and high performance are required to wide applications. In the present study, we propose one new effective technique to generate tiny bubbles with less than 200 μm diameter utilizing venturi tube under high void fraction condition. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism of bubble breakup phenomena in the venturi tube and to clarify the effects of parameters which are necessary to realize an optimum system experimentally. Experiment was conducted with void fraction of 4% and variation of liquid velocity from 9 to 26 m/s at the throat. Under low velocity condition, bubbles which were observed with a high speed camera parted gradually in a wide region. On the contrary under high velocity condition, bubbles expanded after passing through the throat and shrank rapidly. Since the speed of sound in gas-liquid system is extremely lower than that of single-phase flow, the bubble breakup phenomenon in the venturi tube is explained as the supersonic flow in a Laval nozzle. By rapid pressure recovery in diverging area, expanding bubbles collapse violently. The tiny bubbles are generated due to the surface instability of shrinking bubbles.

  11. Helium bubbles aggravated defects production in self-irradiated copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wu, Qiang; Li, XinZhu; Wang, Pei; Wu, HengAn

    2017-12-01

    Under the environment of high radiation, materials used in fission and fusion reactors will internally accumulate numerous lattice defects and bubbles. With extensive studies focused on bubble resolution under irradiation, the mutually effects between helium bubbles and displacement cascades in irradiated materials remain unaddressed. Therefore, the defects production and microstructure evolution under self-irradiation events in vicinity of helium bubbles are investigated by preforming large scale molecular dynamics simulations in single-crystal copper. When subjected to displacement cascades, distinguished bubble resolution categories dependent on bubble size are observed. With the existence of bubbles, radiation damage is aggravated with the increasing bubble size, represented as the promotion of point defects and dislocations. The atomic mechanisms of heterogeneous dislocation structures are attributed to different helium-vacancy cluster modes, transforming from the resolved gas trapped with vacancies to the biased absorption of vacancies by the over-pressured bubble. In both cases, helium impedes the recombination of point defects, leading to the accelerated formation of interstitial loops. The results and insight obtained here might contribute to understand the underlying mechanism of transmutant solute on the long-term evolution of irradiated materials.

  12. Acoustic levitation of soap bubbles in air: Beyond the half-wavelength limit of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Lin, Kejun; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhen; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-03-01

    We report on the behavior of levitated soap bubbles in a single-axis acoustic field. For a single bubble, its surface in the polar regions is under compression, but in the equatorial region, it is under suction. Levitation becomes unstable when the height of the bubble approaches half the wavelength of the sound wave because horizontal fluctuations lead to a negative recovery force and a negative levitation force. Vertically stacked double bubbles notably can be stable under levitation if their total vertical length is ˜5λ/6, significantly beyond λ/2 in consequence of the formation of a toroidal high-pressure region around the waist of the two bubbles. Our results provide a deeper insight into the stability of acoustic levitation and the coupling between bubbles and sound field.

  13. Further experimentation on bubble generation during transformer overload

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oommen, T.V.

    1992-03-01

    This report covers additional work done during 1990 and 1991 on gas bubble generation under overload conditions. To improve visual bubble detection, a single disc coil was used. To further improve detection, a corona device was also used which signaled the onset of corona activity in the early stages of bubble formation. A total of fourteen model tests were conducted, half of which used the Inertaire system, and the remaining, a conservator (COPS). Moisture content of paper in the coil varied from 1.0% to 8.0%; gas (nitrogen) content varied from 1.0% to 8.8%. The results confirmed earlier observations that themore » mathematical bubble prediction model was not valid for high gas content model with relatively low moisture levels in the coil. An empirical relationship was formulated to accurately predict bubble evolution temperatures from known moisture and gas content values. For low moisture content models (below 2%), the simple Piper relationship was sufficient to predict bubble evolution temperatures, regardless of gas content. Moisture in the coil appears to be the key factor in bubble generation. Gas blanketed (Inertaire) systems do not appear to be prone to premature bubble generation from overloads as previously thought. The new bubble prediction model reveals that for a coil with 2% moisture, the bubble evolution temperature would be about 140{degrees}C. Since old transformers in service may have as much as 2% moisture in paper, the 140{degrees}C bubble evolution temperature may be taken as the lower limit of bubble evolution temperature under overload conditions for operating transformers. Drier insulation would raise the bubble evolution temperature.« less

  14. Repeated bubble breakup and coalescence in perturbed Hele-Shaw channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Alice; Franco-Gomez, Andres; Hazel, Andrew; Juel, Anne

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of an axially-uniform, centred constriction in a Hele-Shaw channel leads to multiple propagation modes for both air fingers and bubbles, including symmetric and asymmetric steadily propagating modes along with oscillations. These multiple modes correspond to a non-trivial bifurcation structure, and relate to the plethora of steadily propagating bubbles and fingers which exist in the Saffman-Taylor system. In both experiments and depth-averaged computations, a very small centred occlusion can be enough to trigger bubble breakup, with a single large centred bubble splitting into two smaller bubbles which propagate along each side of the channel. We present numerical simulations for the depth-averaged model, implementing geometric criteria for pinchoff and coalescence in order to track the bubble before and beyond breakup. We find that the two-bubble state is itself unstable, with finger competition causing one bubble to move ahead; the trailing bubble then moves across the channel to merge with the leading bubble. However, the story is not always so simple, enabling complicated cascades of splitting and merging bubbles. We compare the general dynamical behaviour, basins of attraction, and the details of merging and splitting, to experimental observations.

  15. Simulation Studies on Cooling of Cryogenic Propellant by Gas Bubbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandilya, Pavitra; Saha, Pritam; Sengupta, Sonali

    Injection cooling was proposed to store cryogenic liquids (Larsen et al. [1], Schmidt [2]). When a non-condensable gas is injected through a liquid, the liquid component would evaporate into the bubble if its partial pressure in the bubble is lower than its vapour pressure. This would tend to cool the liquid. Earlier works on injection cooling was analysed by Larsen et al. [1], Schmidt [2], Cho et al. [3] and Jung et al. [4], considering instantaneous mass transfer and finite heat transfer between gas bubble and liquid. It is felt that bubble dynamics (break up, coalescence, deformation, trajectory etc.) should also play a significant role in liquid cooling. The reported work are based on simple assumptions like single bubble, zero bubble deformation, and no inter-bubble interactions. Hence in this work, we propose a lumped parameter model considering both heat and mass interactions between bubble and the liquid to gain a preliminary insight into the cooling phenomenon during gas injection through a liquid.

  16. Measurement of diffusion coefficients from solution rates of bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of solution of a stationary bubble is limited by the diffusion of dissolved gas molecules away from the bubble surface. Diffusion coefficients computed from measured rates of solution give mean values higher than accepted literature values, with standard errors as high as 10% for a single observation. Better accuracy is achieved with sparingly soluble gases, small bubbles, and highly viscous liquids. Accuracy correlates with the Grashof number, indicating that free convection is the major source of error. Accuracy should, therefore, be greatly increased in a gravity-free environment. The fact that the bubble will need no support is an additional important advantage of Spacelab for this measurement.

  17. Bubble migration in a compacting crystal-liquid mush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Recent theoretical models have suggested that bubbles are unlikely to undergo significant migration in a compaction crystal mush by capillary invasion while the system remains partly molten. To test this, experiments of bubble migration during compaction in a crystal-liquid mush were modeled using deformable foam crystals in corn syrup in a volumetric burette, compacted with rods of varying weights. A bubble source was provided by sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer®). Large bubbles (>several crystal sizes) are pinched by the compacting matrix and become overpressured and deformed as the bubbles experience a load change from hydrostatic to lithostatic. Once they begin to move, they move much faster than the compaction-driven liquid. Bubbles that are about the same size as the crystals but larger than the narrower pore throats move by deformation or breaking into smaller bubbles as they are forced through pore restrictions. Bubbles that are less than the typical pore diameter generally move with the liquid: The liquid + bubble mixture behaves as a single phase with a lower density than the bubble-free liquid, and as a consequence it rises faster than bubble-free liquid and allows for faster compaction. The overpressure required to force a bubble through the matrix (max grain size = 5 mm) is modest, about 5 %, and it is estimated that for a grain size of 1 mm, the required overpressure would be about 25 %. Using apatite distribution in a Stillwater olivine gabbro as an analog for bubble nucleation and growth, it is suggested that relatively large bubbles initially nucleate and grow in liquid-rich channels that develop late in the compaction history. Overpressure from compaction allows bubbles to rise higher into hotter parts of the crystal pile, where they redissolve and increase the volatile content of the liquid over what it would have without the bubble migration, leading to progressively earlier vapor saturation during crystallization of the interstitial liquid

  18. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of a bubble wake using PIV and Galilean decomposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1999-07-01

    Bubbly flow plays a key role in a variety of natural and industrial processes. An accurate and complete description of the phase interactions in two-phase bubbly flow is not available at this time. These phase interactions are, in general, always three-dimensional and unsteady. Therefore, measurement techniques utilized to obtain qualitative and quantitative data from two-phase flow should be able to acquire transient and three-dimensional data, in order to provide information to test theoretical models and numerical simulations. Even for dilute bubble flows, in which bubble interaction is at a minimum, the turbulent motion of the liquid generated by the bubblemore » is yet to be completely understood. For many years, the design of systems with bubbly flows was based primarily on empiricism. Dilute bubbly flows are an extension of single bubble dynamics, and therefore improvements in the description and modeling of single bubble motion, the flow field around the bubble, and the dynamical interactions between the bubble and the flow will consequently improve bubbly flow modeling. The improved understanding of the physical phenomena will have far-reaching benefits in upgrading the operation and efficiency of current processes and in supporting the development of new and innovative approaches. A stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurement of the flow generated by the passage of a single air-bubble rising in stagnant water, in a circular pipe is presented. Three-dimensional velocity fields within the measurement zone were obtained. Ensemble-averaged instantaneous velocities for a specific bubble path were calculated and interpolated to obtain mean three-dimensional velocity fields. A Galilean velocity decomposition is used to study the vorticity generated in the flow.« less

  19. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  20. Laser-generated Micro-bubbles for Molecular Delivery to Adherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, Suzanne Lee

    We examine the use of optical breakdown in aqueous media as a means to deliver molecules into live adherent cell cultures. This process, called optoinjection (OI), is affected both by the media composition and the cellular exposure to hydrodynamic stresses associated with the cavitation bubble formed by the optical breakdown process. Here we explore the possibility of performing OI using laser microbeams focused at low numerical aperture to provide conditions where OI can be performed at high-throughput. We first investigate the effect of media composition on plasma and cavitation bubble formation. We make the discovery that irradiation of minimal essential media, supports the formation of low-density plasmas (LDP) resulting in the generation of small (2--20 mum radius) cavitation bubbles. This provides gentle specific hydrodynamic perturbations to single or small groups of cells. The addition of supplemental fetal bovine serum to the medium prevents the formation LDPs and the resulting avalanche ionization generates larger (> 100 mum radius) bubbles and more violent hydrodynamic effects. Second, using high-speed photography we provide the first visualization of LDP-generated cavitation bubbles at precise offset locations relative to a boundary on which a cell monolayer can be cultured. These images depict the cellular exposure to different hydrodynamic conditions depending on the normalized offset distance (gamma = s/Rmax) and show how it affects the cellular exposure to shear stresses upon bubble expansion and different distributions of bubble energy upon collapse. Lastly, we examine the effects of pulse energy, parameters, and single vs. multiple laser exposures on the ability to deliver 3-5 kDa dextrans into adherent cells using both small (< 20 mum) and large (100mu m) radius bubbles. For single exposures, we identify several conditions under which OI can be optimized: (a) conditions where cell viability is maximized (˜90%) but optoinjection of viable cells

  1. Bubble dynamics in a standing sound field: the bubble habitat.

    PubMed

    Koch, P; Kurz, T; Parlitz, U; Lauterborn, W

    2011-11-01

    Bubble dynamics is investigated numerically with special emphasis on the static pressure and the positional stability of the bubble in a standing sound field. The bubble habitat, made up of not dissolving, positionally and spherically stable bubbles, is calculated in the parameter space of the bubble radius at rest and sound pressure amplitude for different sound field frequencies, static pressures, and gas concentrations of the liquid. The bubble habitat grows with static pressure and shrinks with sound field frequency. The range of diffusionally stable bubble oscillations, found at positive slopes of the habitat-diffusion border, can be increased substantially with static pressure.

  2. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  3. Air bubble migration is a random event post embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Confino, E; Zhang, J; Risquez, F

    2007-06-01

    Air bubble location following embryo transfer (ET) is the presumable placement spot of embryos. The purpose of this study was to document endometrial air bubble position and migration following embryo transfer. Multicenter prospective case study. Eighty-eight embryo transfers were performed under abdominal ultrasound guidance in two countries by two authors. A single or double air bubble was loaded with the embryos using a soft, coaxial, end opened catheters. The embryos were slowly injected 10-20 mm from the fundus. Air bubble position was recorded immediately, 30 minutes later and when the patient stood up. Bubble marker location analysis revealed a random distribution without visible gravity effect when the patients stood up. The bubble markers demonstrated splitting, moving in all directions and dispersion. Air bubbles move and split frequently post ET with the patient in the horizontal position, suggestive of active uterine contractions. Bubble migration analysis supports a rather random movement of the bubbles and possibly the embryos. Standing up changed somewhat bubble configuration and distribution in the uterine cavity. Gravity related bubble motion was uncommon, suggesting that horizontal rest post ET may not be necessary. This report challenges the common belief that a very accurate ultrasound guided embryo placement is mandatory. The very random bubble movement observed in this two-center study suggests that a large "window" of embryo placement maybe present.

  4. Black holes as bubble nucleation sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.; Withers, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    We consider the effect of inhomogeneities on the rate of false vacuum decay. Modelling the inhomogeneity by a black hole, we construct explicit Euclidean instantons which describe the nucleation of a bubble of true vacuum centred on the inhomogeneity. We find that inhomogeneity significantly enhances the nucleation rate over that of the Coleman-de Luccia instanton — the black hole acts as a nucleation site for the bubble. The effect is larger than previously believed due to the contributions to the action from conical singularities. For a sufficiently low initial mass, the original black hole is replaced by flat space during this process, as viewed by a single causal patch observer. Increasing the initial mass, we find a critical value above which a black hole remnant survives the process. This resulting black hole can have a higher mass than the original black hole, but always has a lower entropy. We compare the process to bubble-to-bubble transitions, where there is a semi-classical Lorentzian description in the WKB approximation.

  5. Sonar gas flux estimation by bubble insonification: application to methane bubble flux from seep areas in the outer Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, Ira; Chernykh, Denis; Shakhova, Natalia; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Sonar surveys provide an effective mechanism for mapping seabed methane flux emissions, with Arctic submerged permafrost seepage having great potential to significantly affect climate. We created in situ engineered bubble plumes from 40 m depth with fluxes spanning 0.019 to 1.1 L s-1 to derive the in situ calibration curve (Q(σ)). These nonlinear curves related flux (Q) to sonar return (σ) for a multibeam echosounder (MBES) and a single-beam echosounder (SBES) for a range of depths. The analysis demonstrated significant multiple bubble acoustic scattering - precluding the use of a theoretical approach to derive Q(σ) from the product of the bubble σ(r) and the bubble size distribution where r is bubble radius. The bubble plume σ occurrence probability distribution function (Ψ(σ)) with respect to Q found Ψ(σ) for weak σ well described by a power law that likely correlated with small-bubble dispersion and was strongly depth dependent. Ψ(σ) for strong σ was largely depth independent, consistent with bubble plume behavior where large bubbles in a plume remain in a focused core. Ψ(σ) was bimodal for all but the weakest plumes. Q(σ) was applied to sonar observations of natural arctic Laptev Sea seepage after accounting for volumetric change with numerical bubble plume simulations. Simulations addressed different depths and gases between calibration and seep plumes. Total mass fluxes (Qm) were 5.56, 42.73, and 4.88 mmol s-1 for MBES data with good to reasonable agreement (4-37 %) between the SBES and MBES systems. The seepage flux occurrence probability distribution function (Ψ(Q)) was bimodal, with weak Ψ(Q) in each seep area well described by a power law, suggesting primarily minor bubble plumes. The seepage-mapped spatial patterns suggested subsurface geologic control attributing methane fluxes to the current state of subsea permafrost.

  6. Bubbling in delay-coupled lasers.

    PubMed

    Flunkert, V; D'Huys, O; Danckaert, J; Fischer, I; Schöll, E

    2009-06-01

    We theoretically study chaos synchronization of two lasers which are delay coupled via an active or a passive relay. While the lasers are synchronized, their dynamics is identical to a single laser with delayed feedback for a passive relay and identical to two delay-coupled lasers for an active relay. Depending on the coupling parameters the system exhibits bubbling, i.e., noise-induced desynchronization, or on-off intermittency. We associate the desynchronization dynamics in the coherence collapse and low-frequency fluctuation regimes with the transverse instability of some of the compound cavity's antimodes. Finally, we demonstrate how, by using an active relay, bubbling can be suppressed.

  7. A hydrodynamical model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Meliani, Z.; Marcowith, A.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Numerical models of the wind-blown bubble of massive stars usually only account for the wind of a single star. However, since massive stars are usually formed in clusters, it would be more realistic to follow the evolution of a bubble created by several stars. Aims: We develop a two-dimensional (2D) model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars, a 40 M⊙ star and a 25 M⊙ star, and follow its evolution. The stars are separated by approximately 16 pc and surrounded by a cold medium with a density of 20 particles per cm3. Methods: We use the MPI-AMRVAC hydrodynamics code to solve the conservation equations of hydrodynamics on a 2D cylindrical grid using time-dependent models for the wind parameters of the two stars. At the end of the stellar evolution (4.5 and 7.0 million years for the 40 and 25 M⊙ stars, respectively), we simulate the supernova explosion of each star. Results: Each star initially creates its own bubble. However, as the bubbles expand they merge, creating a combined, aspherical bubble. The combined bubble evolves over time, influenced by the stellar winds and supernova explosions. Conclusions: The evolution of a wind-blown bubble created by two stars deviates from that of the bubbles around single stars. In particular, once one of the stars has exploded, the bubble is too large for the wind of the remaining star to maintain and the outer shell starts to disintegrate. The lack of thermal pressure inside the bubble also changes the behavior of circumstellar features close to the remaining star. The supernovae are contained inside the bubble, which reflects part of the energy back into the circumstellar medium. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Mathematical and experimental modelling of the dynamic bubble processes occurring in a two-phase cyclonic separation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrage, Dean Stewart

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation presents a combined mathematical and experimental analysis of the fluid dynamics of a gas- liquid, dispersed-phase cyclonic separation device. The global objective of this research is to develop a simulation model of separation process in order to predict the void fraction field within a cyclonic separation device. The separation process is approximated by analyzing the dynamic motion of many single-bubbles, moving under the influence of the far-field, interacting with physical boundaries and other bubbles. The dynamic motion of the bubble is described by treating the bubble as a point-mass and writing an inertial force balance, equating the force applied to the bubble-point-location to the inertial acceleration of the bubble mass (also applied to the point-location). The forces which are applied to the bubble are determined by an integration of the surface pressure over the bubble. The surface pressure is coupled to the intrinsic motion of the bubble, and is very difficult to obtain exactly. However, under moderate Reynolds number, the wake trailing a bubble is small and the near-field flow field can be approximated as an inviscid flow field. Unconventional potential flow techniques are employed to solve for the surface pressure; the hydrodyamic forces are described as a hydrodynamic mass tensor operating on the bubble acceleration vector. The inviscid flow model is augmented with adjunct forces which describe: drag forces, dynamic lift, far-field pressure forces. The dynamic equations of motion are solved both analytically and numerically for the bubble trajectory in specific flow field examples. A validation of these equations is performed by comparing to an experimentally-derived trajectory of a single- bubble, which is released into a cylindrical Couette flow field (inner cylinder rotating) at varying positions. Finally, a simulation of a cyclonic separation device is performed by extending the single-bubble dynamic model to a multi-bubble

  9. Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

  10. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  11. Bubble number saturation curve and asymptotics of hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures.

    PubMed

    Wienke, B R

    1991-12-01

    Within bubble number limits of the varying permeability and reduced gradient bubble models, it is shown that a linear form of the saturation curve for hyperbaric exposures and a nearly constant decompression ratio for hypobaric exposures are simultaneously recovered from the phase volume constraint. Both limits are maintained within a single bubble number saturation curve. A bubble term, varying exponentially with inverse pressure, provides closure. Two constants describe the saturation curve, both linked to seed numbers. Limits of other decompression models are also discussed and contrasted for completeness. It is suggested that the bubble number saturation curve thus provides a consistent link between hypobaric and hyperbaric data, a link not established by earlier decompression models.

  12. Air bubble location inside the uterus after transfer: is the embryo really there?

    PubMed

    Soares, Sérgio Reis; Godinho, Catarina; Nunes, Sofia; Pellicer, António

    2008-08-01

    To demonstrate that the location of the air bubble after embryo transfer (ET) does not necessarily indicate the final embryo location. Case report. Private clinic. A couple with primary infertility for whom a diagnosis of bicornuate uterus with a very open angle between horns was confirmed. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were performed before an IVF cycle in which a single embryo was replaced. Air bubble image immediately after ET and gestational sac location 3 weeks later. Immediately after a single ET, the air bubble was seen in the left uterine horn. Three weeks later, a gestational sac was seen in the right uterine horn. The location of the air bubble immediately after ET does not necessarily indicate the final embryo location.

  13. Air bubbles induce a critical continuous stress to prevent marine biofouling accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belden, Jesse; Menesses, Mark; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Significant shear stresses are needed to remove established hard fouling organisms from a ship hull. Given that there is a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. One approach to mitigate marine biofouling is to continuously introduce a curtain of air bubbles under a submerged surface; it is believed that this aeration exploits the small stresses induced by rising bubbles to continuously prevent accumulation. Although curtains of rising bubbles have successfully prevented biofouling accumulation, it is unclear if a single stream of bubbles could maintain a clean surface. In this talk, we show that single bubble stream aeration can prevent biofouling accumulation in regions for which the average wall stress exceeds approximately 0.01 Pa. This value is arrived at by comparing observations of biofouling growth and prevention from field studies with laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. We also relate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow to the size and frequency of the rising bubbles, which informs the basic operating conditions required for aeration to continuously prevent biofouling accumulation.

  14. Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single-collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range, 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure, and perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spherical bubble collapses. Luminescence was detected for bubbles of maximum radii within the previously uncovered range, R0=1.5 -6 mm, for laser-induced bubbles. The relative luminescence energy was found to rapidly decrease as a function of the bubble asymmetry quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ , which is the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. As established previously, ζ also dictates the characteristic parameters of bubble-driven microjets. The threshold of ζ beyond which no luminescence is observed in our experiment closely coincides with the threshold where the microjets visibly pierce the bubble and drive a vapor jet during the rebound. The individual fitted blackbody temperatures range between Tlum=7000 and Tlum=11 500 K but do not show any clear trend as a function of ζ . Time-resolved measurements using a high-speed photodetector disclose multiple luminescence events at each bubble collapse. The averaged full width at half-maximum of the pulse is found to scale with R0 and to range between 10 and 20 ns.

  15. Numerical studies of cavitation erosion on an elastic-plastic material caused by shock-induced bubble collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turangan, C. K.; Ball, G. J.; Jamaluddin, A. R.; Leighton, T. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of shock-induced collapse of single bubbles near/attached to an elastic-plastic solid using the free-Lagrange method, which forms the latest part of our shock-induced collapse studies. We simulated the collapse of 40 μm radius single bubbles near/attached to rigid and aluminium walls by a 60 MPa lithotripter shock for various scenarios based on bubble-wall separations, and the collapse of a 255 μm radius bubble attached to aluminium foil with a 65 MPa lithotripter shock. The coupling of the multi-phases, compressibility, axisymmetric geometry and elastic-plastic material model within a single solver has enabled us to examine the impingement of high-speed liquid jets from the shock-induced collapsing bubbles, which imposes an extreme compression in the aluminium that leads to pitting and plastic deformation. For certain scenarios, instead of the high-speed jet, a radially inwards flow along the aluminium surface contracts the bubble to produce a `mushroom shape'. This work provides methods for quantifying which parameters (e.g. bubble sizes and separations from the solid) might promote or inhibit erosion on solid surfaces.

  16. Morphological bubble evolution induced by air diffusion on submerged hydrophobic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Pengyu; Xiang, Yaolei; Xue, Yahui; Lin, Hao; Duan, Huiling

    2017-03-01

    Bubbles trapped in the cavities always play important roles in the underwater applications of structured hydrophobic surfaces. Air exchange between bubbles and surrounding water has a significant influence on the morphological bubble evolution, which in turn frequently affects the functionalities of the surfaces, such as superhydrophobicity and drag reduction. In this paper, air diffusion induced bubble evolution on submerged hydrophobic micropores under reduced pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The morphological behaviors of collective and single bubbles are observed using confocal microscopy. Four representative evolution phases of bubbles are captured in situ. After depressurization, bubbles will not only grow and coalesce but also shrink and split although the applied pressure remains negative. A diffusion-based model is used to analyze the evolution behavior and the results are consistent with the experimental data. A criterion for bubble growth and shrinkage is also derived along with a phase diagram, revealing that the competition of effective gas partial pressures across the two sides of the diffusion layer dominates the bubble evolution process. Strategies for controlling the bubble evolution behavior are also proposed based on the phase diagram. The current work provides a further understanding of the general behavior of bubble evolution induced by air diffusion and can be employed to better designs of functional microstructured hydrophobic surfaces.

  17. Double bubble with the big-bubble technique during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wise, Stephanie; Dubord, Paul; Yeung, Sonia N

    2017-04-28

    To report a case of intraoperative double bubble that formed during big-bubble DALK surgery in a patient with corneal scarring secondary to herpetic stromal keratitis. Case report. A 22 year old woman presented with a large corneal scar, likely secondary to previous herpetic stromal keratitis. She underwent big-bubble DALK surgery for visual rehabilitation. Intraoperatively, a mixed bubble with persistent type 2 bubble postoperatively was noted. The second bubble resorbed with clearance of the graft and good visual outcome after 6 weeks. This case report describes the unusual development of a mixed bubble during big-bubble DALK surgery. This graft cleared with resolution of the second bubble postoperatively without further surgical intervention.

  18. A parallel bubble column system for the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Havel, Jan; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    An incubator with up to 16 parallel bubble columns was equipped with artificial light sources assuring a light supply with a homogenous light spectrum directly above the bioreactors. Cylindrical light reflecting tubes were positioned around every single bubble column to avoid light scattering effects and to redirect the light from the top onto the cylindrical outer glass surface of each bubble column. The light reflecting tubes were equipped with light intensity filters to control the total light intensity for every single photo-bioreactor. Parallel cultivations of the unicellular obligate phototrophic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942, were studied under different constant light intensities ranging from 20 to 102 microE m(-2)s(-1) at a constant humidified air flow rate supplemented with CO(2).

  19. Bubble propagation in a pipe filled with sand.

    PubMed

    Gendron, D; Troadec, H; Måløy, K J; Flekkøy, E G

    2001-08-01

    Granular flow with strong hydrodynamic interactions has been studied experimentally. Experiments have been carried out to study the movement of a single bubble in an inclined tube filled with glass beads and air. A maximum bubble velocity was found at an inclined angle straight theta(m). The density variations in the sand were measured by capacitance measurements, and a decompactification zone was observed just above the bubble when the inclination angle straight theta was larger than straight theta(m). The length of the decompactification front increased with increasing inclination angle and disappeared for angles smaller than straight theta(m). Both pressure and visualization experiments were carried out and compared with the density measurements.

  20. Bubble diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  1. Cavitation bubble dynamics during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored for lithotripsy. TFL parameters differ from standard Holmium:YAG laser in several ways, including smaller fiber delivery, more strongly absorbed wavelength, low pulse energy/high pulse rate operation, and more uniform temporal pulse structure. High speed imaging of cavitation bubbles was performed at 105,000 fps and 10 μm spatial resolution to determine influence of these laser parameters on bubble formation. TFL was operated at 1908 nm with pulse energies of 5-75 mJ, and pulse durations of 200-1000 μs, delivered through 100-μm-core fiber. Cavitation bubble dynamics using Holmium laser at 2100 nm with pulse energies of 200-1000 mJ and pulse duration of 350 μs was studied, for comparison. A single, 500 μs TFL pulse produced a bubble stream extending 1090 +/- 110 μm from fiber tip, and maximum bubble diameters averaged 590 +/- 20 μm (n=4). These observations are consistent with previous studies which reported TFL ablation stallout at working distances < 1.0 mm. TFL bubble dimensions were five times smaller than for Holmium laser due to lower pulse energy, higher water absorption coefficient, and smaller fiber diameter used.

  2. How are soap bubbles blown? Fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Lambert, Lori; Sherman, Erica; Wei, Timothy; Ryu, Sangjin

    2013-11-01

    Soap bubbles are a common interfacial fluid dynamics phenomenon having a long history of delighting not only children and artists but also scientists. In contrast to the dynamics of liquid droplets in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, the dynamics of soap bubbles has not been well documented. This is possibly because studying soap bubbles is more challenging due to there existing two gas-liquid interfaces. Having the thin-film interface seems to alter the characteristics of the bubble/drop creation process since the interface has limiting factors such as thickness. Thus, the main objective of this study is to determine how the thin-film interface differentiates soap bubbles from gas bubbles and liquid drops. To investigate the creation process of soap bubbles, we constructed an experimental model consisting of air jet flow and a soap film, which consistently replicates the conditions that a human produces when blowing soap bubbles, and examined the interaction between the jet and the soap film using the high-speed videography and the particle image velocimetry.

  3. Resonant Frequency Shifts of a Fluid Filled Cavity Caused by a Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailan; Wang, Xiuming; Chen, Dehua; Che, Chengxuan

    2009-03-01

    In the previous studies for estimating acoustic wave velocities and attenuations of a rock specimen in a low frequency range using an acoustic resonance spectroscopy method, it was found that bubbles in a fluid filled cavity reduce the resonant frequency of the cavity significantly, which makes the measurement unstable. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained by using a simple model of a spherical fluid filled cavity with a single air bubble. It is pointed out that air bubble effects are caused by the vibration of the bubble coupled with the vibration of the cavity and, therefore, the measurement must be carefully prepared to prevent any air bubbles from entering the cavity.

  4. Further experimentation on bubble generation during transformer overload. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oommen, T.V.

    1992-03-01

    This report covers additional work done during 1990 and 1991 on gas bubble generation under overload conditions. To improve visual bubble detection, a single disc coil was used. To further improve detection, a corona device was also used which signaled the onset of corona activity in the early stages of bubble formation. A total of fourteen model tests were conducted, half of which used the Inertaire system, and the remaining, a conservator (COPS). Moisture content of paper in the coil varied from 1.0% to 8.0%; gas (nitrogen) content varied from 1.0% to 8.8%. The results confirmed earlier observations that themore » mathematical bubble prediction model was not valid for high gas content model with relatively low moisture levels in the coil. An empirical relationship was formulated to accurately predict bubble evolution temperatures from known moisture and gas content values. For low moisture content models (below 2%), the simple Piper relationship was sufficient to predict bubble evolution temperatures, regardless of gas content. Moisture in the coil appears to be the key factor in bubble generation. Gas blanketed (Inertaire) systems do not appear to be prone to premature bubble generation from overloads as previously thought. The new bubble prediction model reveals that for a coil with 2% moisture, the bubble evolution temperature would be about 140{degrees}C. Since old transformers in service may have as much as 2% moisture in paper, the 140{degrees}C bubble evolution temperature may be taken as the lower limit of bubble evolution temperature under overload conditions for operating transformers. Drier insulation would raise the bubble evolution temperature.« less

  5. A Study of Bubble and Slug Gas-Liquid Flow in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of gravity on the two-phase flow dynamics is obvious.As the gravity level is reduced,there is a new balance between inertial and interfacial forces, altering the behavior of the flow. In bubbly flow,the absence of drift velocity leads to spherical-shaped bubbles with a rectilinear trajectory.Slug flow is a succession of long bubbles and liquid slug carrying a few bubbles. There is no flow reversal in the thin liquid film as the long bubble and liquid slug pass over the film. Although the flow structure seems to be simpler than in normal gravity conditions,the models developed for the prediction of flow behavior in normal gravity and extended to reduced gravity flow are unable to predict the flow behavior correctly.An additional benefit of conducting studies in microgravity flows is that these studies aide the development of understanding for normal gravity flow behavior by removing the effects of buoyancy on the shape of the interface and density driven shear flows between the gas and the liquid phases. The proposal calls to study specifically the following: 1) The dynamics of isolated bubbles in microgravity liquid flows will be analyzed: Both the dynamics of spherical isolated bubbles and their dispersion by turbulence, their interaction with the pipe wall,the behavior of the bubbles in accelerated or decelerated flows,and the dynamics of isolated cylindrical bubbles, their deformation in accelerated/decelerated flows (in converging or diverging channels), and bubble/bubble interaction. Experiments will consist of the use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimeters (LDV) to study single spherical bubble and single and two cylindrical bubble behavior with respect to their influence on the turbulence of the surrounding liquid and on the wall 2) The dynamics of bubbly and slug flow in microgravity will be analyzed especially for the role of the coalescence in the transition from bubbly to slug flow (effect of fluid properties and

  6. Cryosurgery Planning Using Bubble Packing in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Daigo; Shimada, Kenji; Rossi, Michael R.; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to develop automated tools for cryosurgery planning, the current study focuses on the development of a 3D bubble packing method. A proof-of-concept for the new method is demonstrated on five prostate models, reconstructed from ultrasound images. The new method is a modification of an established method in 2D. Ellipsoidal bubbles are packed in the volume of the prostate in the current study; such bubbles can be viewed as a first-order approximation of a frozen region around a single cryoprobe. When all cryoprobes are inserted to the same depth, optimum planning was found to occur at about 60% of the length of the prostate (measured from its apex), which leads to cooling of approximately 75% of the prostate volume below a specific temperature threshold of −22°C. Bubble packing has the potential to dramatically reduce the run time for automated planning. PMID:17963095

  7. Cryosurgery planning using bubble packing in 3D.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daigo; Shimada, Kenji; Rossi, Michael R; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-04-01

    As part of an ongoing project to develop automated tools for cryosurgery planning, the current study focuses on the development of a 3D bubble packing method. A proof-of-concept for the new method is demonstrated on five prostate models, reconstructed from ultrasound images. The new method is a modification of an established method in 2D. Ellipsoidal bubbles are packed in the volume of the prostate in the current study; such bubbles can be viewed as a first-order approximation of a frozen region around a single cryoprobe. When all cryoprobes are inserted to the same depth, optimum planning was found to occur at about 60% of the length of the prostate (measured from its apex), which leads to cooling of approximately 75% of the prostate volume below a specific temperature threshold of - 22 degrees C. Bubble packing has the potential to dramatically reduce the run time for automated planning.

  8. On the Physics of Fizziness: How liquid properties control bursting bubble aerosol production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Josserand, Christophe; Seon, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Either in a champagne glass or at the oceanic scales, the tiny capillary bubbles rising at the surface burst in ejecting myriads of droplets. Focusing on the ejected droplets produced by a single bubble, we investigate experimentally how liquid properties and bubble size affect their characteristics: number, ejection velocities, sizes and ejection heights. These results allow us to finely tune the bursting bubble aerosol production. In the context of champagne industry, aerosols play a major role by spreading wine aroma above the glass. We demonstrate that this champagne fizz can be enhanced by selecting the wine viscosity and the bubble size, thanks to specially designed glass.

  9. In vivo bubble nucleation probability in sheep brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gateau, J; Aubry, J-F; Chauvet, D; Boch, A-L; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2011-11-21

    Gas nuclei exist naturally in living bodies. Their activation initiates cavitation activity, and is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude. However, little is known about the nuclei population in vivo, and therefore about the rarefaction pressure required to form bubbles in tissue. A novel method dedicated to in vivo investigations was used here that combines passive and active cavitation detection with a multi-element linear ultrasound probe (4-7 MHz). Experiments were performed in vivo on the brain of trepanated sheep. Bubble nucleation was induced using a focused single-element transducer (central frequency 660 kHz, f-number = 1) driven by a high power (up to 5 kW) electric burst of two cycles. Successive passive recording and ultrafast active imaging were shown to allow detection of a single nucleation event in brain tissue in vivo. Experiments carried out on eight sheep allowed statistical studies of the bubble nucleation process. The nucleation probability was evaluated as a function of the peak negative pressure. No nucleation event could be detected with a peak negative pressure weaker than -12.7 MPa, i.e. one order of magnitude higher than the recommendations based on the mechanical index. Below this threshold, bubble nucleation in vivo in brain tissues is a random phenomenon.

  10. In-situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2013-12-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in-situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1100 to 1240 °C and 1 bar, obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (<20 MPa in basalt and andesite, ca. 100 MPa in rhyodacite), probably due to heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate (GR) ranges from 3.4*10-6 to 5.2*10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density (NB) at nucleation ranges from 1.8*108 to 7.9*107 cm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble-size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSD's of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSD's may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow bubble nucleation already at

  11. In situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2014-02-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1,100 to 1,240 °C and 0.1 MPa (1 bar), obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (<60 MPa in basalt and andesite, 200 MPa in rhyodacite), probably due to heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate ( G R) ranges from 3.4 × 10-6 to 5.2 × 10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density ( N B) at nucleation ranges from 7.9 × 104 mm-3 to 1.8 × 105 mm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSDs of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSDs may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow

  12. Dynamics of Two Interactive Bubbles in An Acoustic Field - Part II: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashgriz, Nasser; Barbat, Tiberiu; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-11-01

    The motion of two air bubbles levitated in water, in the presence of a high-frequency acoustic field is experimentally studied. The interaction force between them is named "secondary Bjerknes force" and may be significant in microgravity environments; in our experiments the buoyancy effect is compensated through the action of the "primary Bjerknes forces" - interaction between each bubble oscillation and external sound field. The stationary sound field is produced by a piezoceramic tranducer, in the range of 22-24 kHz. The experiments succesfully demonstrate the existence of three patterns of interaction between bubbles of various sizes: attraction, repulsion and oscillation. Bubbles attraction is quantitatively studied using a high speed video, for "large" bubbles (in the range 0.5-2 mm radius); bubbles repulsion and oscillations are only observed with a regular video, for "small" bubbles (around the resonance size at these frequencies, 0.12 mm). Velocities and accelerations of each bubble are computed from the time history of the motion. The theoretical equations of motion are completed with a drag force formula for single bubbles and solved numerically. Experimental results, for the case of two attracting bubbles, are in good agreement with the numerical model, especially for values of the mutual distance greater than 3 large bubble radii.

  13. Numerical study of the impact of a drop containing a bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    The impact of a drop has many applications from inkjet printing to the spreading of crops diseases. This fundamental phenomenon has therefore attracted a lot of interest from different fields. However, they have mostly focused on the simplest case of a drop containing a single fluid. In inkjet printing and in the deposition process of thermal barrier coatings, some bubbles can be present in the drop when it impacts on the solid surface. The presence of the bubble can produce some additional splashing, and affect the quality of the deposited material. Only a few studies have looked at this problem, and many questions still need to be investigated. Generally, there are three possibilities when a drop containing a bubble impacts onto a solid surface, namely the bubble stays in drop, the bubble bursts and a counter jet forms. We have performed axisymmetric numerical simulations with the open source code Gerris to study this vertical jet. We have systematically varied several parameters, including the impact velocity, the bubble size, the vertical position of the bubble, and the liquid properties. We were thus able to characterize under which condition the bubble leads to splashing and the velocity of the produced jet.

  14. Thermodynamic stability of nanosized multicomponent bubbles/droplets: the square gradient theory and the capillary approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Reguera, David

    2014-01-14

    Formation of nanosized droplets/bubbles from a metastable bulk phase is connected to many unresolved scientific questions. We analyze the properties and stability of multicomponent droplets and bubbles in the canonical ensemble, and compare with single-component systems. The bubbles/droplets are described on the mesoscopic level by square gradient theory. Furthermore, we compare the results to a capillary model which gives a macroscopic description. Remarkably, the solutions of the square gradient model, representing bubbles and droplets, are accurately reproduced by the capillary model except in the vicinity of the spinodals. The solutions of the square gradient model form closed loops, which shows the inherent symmetry and connected nature of bubbles and droplets. A thermodynamic stability analysis is carried out, where the second variation of the square gradient description is compared to the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix in the capillary description. The analysis shows that it is impossible to stabilize arbitrarily small bubbles or droplets in closed systems and gives insight into metastable regions close to the minimum bubble/droplet radii. Despite the large difference in complexity, the square gradient and the capillary model predict the same finite threshold sizes and very similar stability limits for bubbles and droplets, both for single-component and two-component systems.

  15. Thermodynamic stability of nanosized multicomponent bubbles/droplets: The square gradient theory and the capillary approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind, E-mail: oivind.wilhelmsen@ntnu.no; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    Formation of nanosized droplets/bubbles from a metastable bulk phase is connected to many unresolved scientific questions. We analyze the properties and stability of multicomponent droplets and bubbles in the canonical ensemble, and compare with single-component systems. The bubbles/droplets are described on the mesoscopic level by square gradient theory. Furthermore, we compare the results to a capillary model which gives a macroscopic description. Remarkably, the solutions of the square gradient model, representing bubbles and droplets, are accurately reproduced by the capillary model except in the vicinity of the spinodals. The solutions of the square gradient model form closed loops, which showsmore » the inherent symmetry and connected nature of bubbles and droplets. A thermodynamic stability analysis is carried out, where the second variation of the square gradient description is compared to the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix in the capillary description. The analysis shows that it is impossible to stabilize arbitrarily small bubbles or droplets in closed systems and gives insight into metastable regions close to the minimum bubble/droplet radii. Despite the large difference in complexity, the square gradient and the capillary model predict the same finite threshold sizes and very similar stability limits for bubbles and droplets, both for single-component and two-component systems.« less

  16. Oceanic Gas Bubble Measurements Using an Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. J.; Baschek, B.; Deane, G.

    2008-12-01

    Gas bubble injection by breaking waves contributes significantly to the exchange of gases between atmosphere and ocean at high wind speeds. In this respect, CO2 is primarily important for the global ocean and climate, while O2 is especially relevant for ecosystems in the coastal ocean. For measuring oceanic gas bubble size distributions, a commercially available Dynaflow Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer (ABS) has been modified. Two hydrophones transmit and receive selected frequencies, measuring attenuation and absorption. Algorithms are then used to derive bubble size distributions. Tank test were carried out in order to test the instrument performance.The software algorithms were compared with Commander and Prosperetti's method (1989) of calculating sound speed ratio and attenuation for a known bubble distribution. Additional comparisons with micro-photography were carried out in the lab and will be continued during the SPACE '08 experiment in October 2008 at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory. The measurements of gas bubbles will be compared to additional parameters, such as wind speed, wave height, white cap coverage, or dissolved gases.

  17. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  18. 3D bubble reconstruction using multiple cameras and space carving method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yucheng; Liu, Yang

    2018-07-01

    An accurate measurement of bubble shape and size has a significant value in understanding the behavior of bubbles that exist in many engineering applications. Past studies usually use one or two cameras to estimate bubble volume, surface area, among other parameters. The 3D bubble shape and rotation angle are generally not available in these studies. To overcome this challenge and obtain more detailed information of individual bubbles, a 3D imaging system consisting of four high-speed cameras is developed in this paper, and the space carving method is used to reconstruct the 3D bubble shape based on the recorded high-speed images from different view angles. The proposed method can reconstruct the bubble surface with minimal assumptions. A benchmarking test is performed in a 3 cm  ×  1 cm rectangular channel with stagnant water. The results show that the newly proposed method can measure the bubble volume with an error of less than 2% compared with the syringe reading. The conventional two-camera system has an error around 10%. The one-camera system has an error greater than 25%. The visualization of a 3D bubble rising demonstrates the wall influence on bubble rotation angle and aspect ratio. This also explains the large error that exists in the single camera measurement.

  19. Light Scattering by Ice Crystals Containing Air Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Panetta, R. L.; Yang, P.; Bi, L.

    2014-12-01

    The radiative effects of ice clouds are often difficult to estimate accurately, but are very important for interpretation of observations and for climate modeling. Our understanding of these effects is primarily based on scattering calculations, but due to the variability in ice habit it is computationally difficult to determine the required scattering and absorption properties, and the difficulties are only compounded by the need to include consideration of air and carbon inclusions of the sort frequently observed in collected samples. Much of the previous work on effects of inclusions in ice particles on scattering properties has been conducted with variants of geometric optics methods. We report on simulations of scattering by ice crystals with enclosed air bubbles using the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) and improved geometric optics method (IGOM). A Bouncing Ball Model (BBM) is proposed as a parametrization of air bubbles, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that air inclusions lead to a smoothing of variations in the phase function, weakening of halos, and a reduction of backscattering. We extend these studies by examining the effects of the particular arrangement of a fixed number of bubbles, as well as the effects of splitting a given number of bubbles into a greater number of smaller bubbles with the same total volume fraction. The result shows that the phase function will not change much for stochastic distributed air bubbles. It also shows that local maxima of phase functions are smoothed out for backward directions, when we break bubbles into small ones, single big bubble scatter favors more forward scattering than multi small internal scatters.

  20. Experimental investigation of hydrodynamics and heat exchange in the ring channel with heat exchangers in the modes of single-phase convection and bubble boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agishev, B. Y.; Boltenko, E. A.; Varava, A. N.; Dedov, A. V.; Zakharenkov, A. V.; Komov, A. T.; Smorchova, Y. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effectiveness of the heat exchange intensifier “rib-twisted wire” is considered in this paper. The main goal is to study the influence of the wire coiling step t on heat transfer and hydraulic resistance for different values Ḣ of the dimensionless height of the edge Ḣ, as well as some results on heat exchange during bubbly boiling in an annular channel. Show: • a brief description and an image of the heat exchange intensifier “rib-twisted wire” • generalized results of studies of heat exchange and hydraulic resistance in the annular channel in the single-phase convection with different geometric characteristics of the intensifier; • empirical correlations of the generalized experimental results that allow to calculating the coefficient of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer in the range of regime parameters in the single-phase convection that is being studied. • some results of experiments in bubbly boiling regimes and near-critical thermal loads.

  1. An assembly of steadily translating bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for any finite number of bubbles steadily translating along a Hele-Shaw channel. This constitutes a nonlinear free boundary problem. The solutions can be written down explicitly in terms of a special transcendental function called the Schottky-Klein prime function. This work generalizes the exact solutions for a single bubble in a channel found by Tanveer (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 651-8) as well as the solutions for streams of bubbles aligned along the channel centreline due to Vasconcelos (1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 R3306-9).

  2. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    PubMed

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  3. Observation of vapor bubble of non-azeotropic binary mixture in microgravity with a two-wavelength interferometer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    1999-07-01

    Although non-azeotropic mixtures are considered to be promising working fluids in advanced energy conversion systems, the primary technical problems in the heat transfer degradation in phase change processes cause economical handicap to wide-spread applications. The boiling behavior of mixtures still remains a number of basic questions being not answered yet, and the present authors believe that the most essential information for the boiling process in non-azeotropic mixtures is how temperature and concentration profiles are developed around the bubbles. The present study attempts at understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer mechanisms in nucleate pool boiling of non-azeotropic binary mixtures, and withmore » the knowledge to develop a passive boiling heat transfer enhancement eventually. To this end, the authors have employed microgravity environment for rather detailed observation around vapor bubbles in the course of boiling inception and bubble growth. A two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been developed, which withstands mechanical shock caused by gravity change from very low gravity of the order of 10{sup {minus}5} g to relatively high gravity of approximately 8 g exposed during deceleration period. A series of experiments on single vapor bubbles for CFC113 single component and CFC12/CFC112 non-azeotropic binary mixture have been conducted under a high quality microgravity conditions available in 10-second free-fall facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The results for single component liquid showed a strong influence due to Marangoni effect caused by the temperature profile around the bubble. The results for non-azeotropic binary mixture showed, however, considerably different behavior from single component liquid. Both temperature and concentration profiles around a single vapor bubble were evaluated from the interferograms. The temperature and concentration layers established around the bubbles were nearly one order of

  4. Eco-friendly sonoluminescent determination of free glycerol in biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Band, Beatriz Susana Fernández

    2013-09-30

    This paper proposes a flow-batch methodology for the determination of free glycerol in biodiesel that is notably eco-friendly, since non-chemical reagents are used. Deionized water (the solvent) was used alone for glycerol (sample) extractions from the biodiesel. The same water was used to generate water-cavitation sonoluminescence signals, which were modulated by the quenching effect associated with the amount of extracted glycerol. The necessarily reproducible signal generation was achieved by using a simple and inexpensive piezoelectric device. A linear response was observed for glycerol within the 0.001-100 mg/L range, equivalent to 0.004-400 mg/kg free glycerol in biodiesel. The lowest measurable concentration of free glycerol was estimated at 1.0 µg/L. The selectivity of the proposed method was confirmed by comparing the shape and retention of both real and calibration samples to standard solution chromatograms, presenting no peaks other than glycerol. All samples (after extraction) are greatly diluted; this minimizes (toward non-detectability) potential interference effects. The methodology was successfully applied to biodiesel analysis at a high sampling rate, with neither reagent nor solvent (other than water), and with minimum waste generation. The results agreed with the reference method (ASTM D6584-07), at a 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment.

    PubMed

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel

    2014-05-21

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.

  6. Dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (800 × 21 μm, W × H) have been investigated using high-speed photography, with resultant fluid motion characterized by particle imaging velocimetry. A single or tandem bubble is produced reliably via laser absorption by micron-sized gold dots (6 μm in diameter with 40 μm in separation distance) coated on a glass surface of the microfluidic channel. Using two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at λ = 1064 nm and ∼10 μJ/pulse, the dynamics of tandem bubble interaction (individual maximum bubble diameter of 50 μm with a corresponding collapse time of 5.7 μs) are examined at different phase delays. In close proximity (i.e., interbubble distance = 40 μm or γ = 0.8), the tandem bubbles interact strongly with each other, leading to asymmetric deformation of the bubble walls and jet formation, as well as the production of two pairs of vortices in the surrounding fluid rotating in opposite directions. The direction and speed of the jet (up to 95 m/s), as well as the orientation and strength of the vortices can be varied by adjusting the phase delay. PMID:22088007

  7. Dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei

    2011-11-01

    The dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (800  ×  21 μm, W × H) have been investigated using high-speed photography, with resultant fluid motion characterized by particle imaging velocimetry. A single or tandem bubble is produced reliably via laser absorption by micron-sized gold dots (6 μm in diameter with 40 μm in separation distance) coated on a glass surface of the microfluidic channel. Using two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at λ = 1064 nm and ∼10 μJ/pulse, the dynamics of tandem bubble interaction (individual maximum bubble diameter of 50 μm with a corresponding collapse time of 5.7 μs) are examined at different phase delays. In close proximity (i.e., interbubble distance = 40 μm or γ = 0.8), the tandem bubbles interact strongly with each other, leading to asymmetric deformation of the bubble walls and jet formation, as well as the production of two pairs of vortices in the surrounding fluid rotating in opposite directions. The direction and speed of the jet (up to 95 m/s), as well as the orientation and strength of the vortices can be varied by adjusting the phase delay.

  8. Cavitation bubble nucleation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a gelatin gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2018-05-01

    An optical visualization technique is developed to study cavitation bubble nucleation that results from interaction between a laser-induced shock and a preexisting gas bubble in a 10 wt. % gelatin gel; images of the nucleated cavitation bubbles are captured and the cavitation inception pressure is determined based on Euler flow simulation. A spherical gas cavity is generated by focusing an infrared laser pulse into a gas-supersaturated gel and the size of the laser-generated bubble in mechanical equilibrium is tuned via mass transfer of the dissolved gas into the bubble. A spherical shock is then generated, through rapid expansion of plasma induced by the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gel under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble interface interacting with the shock. We measure the probability of cavitation inception from a series of the repeated experiments, by varying the bubble radius and the standoff distance. The threshold pressure is defined at the cavitation inception probability equal to one half and is calculated, through comparisons to Euler flow simulation, at -24.4 MPa. This threshold value is similar to that from shock-bubble interaction experiments using water, meaning that viscoelasticity of the 10 wt. % gelatin gel has a limited impact on bubble nucleation dynamics.

  9. Bubble Point Measurements with Liquid Methane of a Screen Channel Capillary Liquid Acquisition Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; McQuillen, John B.; Gaby, Joseph D., Jr.; Sinacore, Steven A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid acquisition devices (LADs) can be utilized within a propellant tank in space to deliver single-phase liquid to the engine in low gravity. One type of liquid acquisition device is a screened gallery whereby a fine mesh screen acts as a 'bubble filter' and prevents the gas bubbles from passing through until a crucial pressure differential condition across the screen, called the bubble point, is reached. This paper presents data for LAD bubble point data in liquid methane (LCH4) for stainless steel Dutch twill screens with mesh sizes of 325 by 2300. These tests represent the first known nonproprietary effort to collect bubble point data for LCH4.

  10. Displacement of particles in microfluidics by laser-generated tandem bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy; Yuan, Fang; Zhong, Pei

    2010-11-01

    The dynamic interaction between laser-generated tandem bubble and individual polystyrene particles of 2 and 10 μm in diameter is studied in a microfluidic channel (25 μm height) by high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry. The asymmetric collapse of the tandem bubble produces a pair of microjets and associated long-lasting vortices that can propel a single particle to a maximum velocity of 1.4 m/s in 30 μs after the bubble collapse with a resultant directional displacement up to 60 μm in 150 μs. This method may be useful for high-throughput cell sorting in microfluidic devices.

  11. Dynamics and noise emission of laser induced cavitation bubbles in a vortical flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; Choi, Jaehyug; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2004-03-01

    The sound produced by the collapse of discrete cavitation bubbles was examined. Laser-generated cavitation bubbles were produced in both a quiescent and a vortical flow. The sound produced by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles was recorded, and its spectral content was determined. It was found that the risetime of the sound pulse produced by the collapse of single, spherical cavitation bubbles in quiescent fluid exceeded that of the slew rate of the hydrophone, which is consistent with previously published results. It was found that, as collapsing bubbles were deformed by the vortical flow, the acoustic impulse of the bubbles was reduced. Collapsing nonspherical bubbles often created a sound pulse with a risetime that exceeded that of the hydrophone slew rate, although the acoustic impulse created by the bubbles was influenced largely by the degree to which the bubbles became nonspherical before collapse. The noise produced by the slow growth of cavitation bubbles in the vortex core was not detectable. These results have implications for the interpretation of hydrodynamic cavitation noise produced by vortex cavitation.

  12. Optimal conditions for particle-bubble attachment in flotation: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Yanez, Aaron; Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2017-11-01

    Mineral flotation is a process used in the mining industry for separating solid particles of different sizes and densities. The separation is done by injecting bubbles into a slurry where the particles attach to them, forming floating aggregates. The attachment depends mainly on the bubbles and particles sizes as well as the hydrophobicity and roughness of the particles. We simplified the collective behavior in the industrial process to a single free particle-bubble collision, in contrast with previous studies where one of the two was kept fixed. We experimentally investigated the collision of spherical solid particles of a fixed diameter with bubbles of different sizes. By controlling the initial relative offset of the bubble and the particle, we conducted experiments observing their interaction. Recording with two synchronized high-speed cameras, perpendicular to each other, we can reconstruct the tridimensional trajectories of the bubble, the solid particle, and the aggregate. We describe the conditions for which the attachment happens in terms of dimensionless parameters such as the Ohnesorge number, the relative particle-bubble offset and the hydrophobicity of the particle surface. We furthermore investigate the role of the surface roughness in the attachment.

  13. Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  14. Aerobic exercise before diving reduces venous gas bubble formation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dujić, Željko; Duplančic, Darko; Marinovic-Terzić, Ivana; Baković, Darija; Ivančev, Vladimir; Valic, Zoran; Eterović, Davor; Petri, Nadan M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown in a rat model that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise 20h before a simulated dive reduces bubble formation and after the dive protects from lethal decompression sickness. The present study investigated the importance of these findings in man. Twelve healthy male divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 280kPa at a rate of 100kPamin−1 breathing air and remaining at pressure for 80min. The ascent rate was 9mmin−1 with a 7min stop at 130kPa. Each diver underwent two randomly assigned simulated dives, with or without preceding exercise. A single interval exercise performed 24h before the dive consisted of treadmill running at 90% of maximum heart rate for 3min, followed by exercise at 50% of maximum heart rate for 2min; this was repeated eight times for a total exercise period of 40min. Venous gas bubbles were monitored with an ultrasonic scanner every 20min for 80min after reaching surface pressure. The study demonstrated that a single bout of strenuous exercise 24h before a dive to 18 m of seawater significantly reduced the average number of bubbles in the pulmonary artery from 0.98 to 0.22 bubbles cm−2(P= 0.006) compared to dives without preceding exercise. The maximum bubble grade was decreased from 3 to 1.5 (P= 0.002) by pre-dive exercise, thereby increasing safety. This is the first report to indicate that pre-dive exercise may form the basis for a new way of preventing serious decompression sickness. PMID:14755001

  15. Magnetic bubbles and domain evolution in Fe/Gd multilayer nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. T.; Liu, W.; Dai, Z. M.; Zhao, X. T.; Zhao, X. G.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of magnetic bubbles and the domain-evolution processes, induced by a perpendicular magnetic field in Fe/Gd multilayer films and nanodots, have been investigated. At room temperature, the stripe domains in a continuous film transform into magnetic bubbles in an external field, while bubbles form spontaneously in nanodots due to the existence of shape anisotropy. When the temperature decreases to 20 K, the enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the samples results in an increase of the domain size in the continuous film and the magnetization-reversal behavior of each nanodot becomes independent, and most reversed dots do not depend on each other, indicating the magnetic characteristics of a single domain. The present research provides further understanding of the evolution of magnetic bubbles in the Fe/Gd system and suggests their promising applications in patterned recording materials.

  16. Numerical simulation of bubble plumes and an analysis of their seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Canping; Gou, Limin; You, Jiachun

    2017-04-01

    To study the bubble plume's seismic response characteristics, the model of a plume water body has been built in this article using the bubble-contained medium acoustic velocity model and the stochastic medium theory based on an analysis of both the acoustic characteristics of a bubble-contained water body and the actual features of a plume. The finite difference method is used for forward modelling, and the single-shot seismic record exhibits the characteristics of a scattered wave field generated by a plume. A meaningful conclusion is obtained by extracting seismic attributes from the pre-stack shot gather record of a plume. The values of the amplitude-related seismic attributes increase greatly as the bubble content goes up, and changes in bubble radius will not cause seismic attributes to change, which is primarily observed because the bubble content has a strong impact on the plume's acoustic velocity, while the bubble radius has a weak impact on the acoustic velocity. The above conclusion provides a theoretical reference for identifying hydrate plumes using seismic methods and contributes to further study on hydrate decomposition and migration, as well as on distribution of the methane bubble in seawater.

  17. Numerical modeling of Stokes flows over a superhydrophobic surface containing gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, A. I.; Golubkina, I. V.; Osiptsov, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    This paper continues the numerical modeling of Stokes flows near cavities of a superhydrophobic surface, occupied by gas bubbles, based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The aim of the present study is to estimate the friction reduction (pressure drop) in a microchannel with a bottom superhydrophobic surface, the texture of which is formed by a periodic system of striped rectangular microcavities containing compressible gas bubbles. The model proposed takes into account the streamwise variation of the bubble shift into the cavities, caused by the longitudinal pressure gradient in the channel flow. The solution for the macroscopic (averaged) flow in the microchannel, constructed using an effective slip boundary condition on the superhydrophobic bottom wall, is matched with the solution of the Stokes problem at the microscale of a single cavity containing a gas bubble. The 2D Stokes problems of fluid flow over single cavities containing curved phase interfaces with the condition of zero shear stress are reduced to the boundary integral equations which are solved using the BEM method.

  18. The Role of Contact Line (Pinning) Forces on Bubble Blockage in Microchannels.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mahshid; Sharp, Kendra V

    2015-03-01

    This paper highlights the influence of contact line (pinning) forces on the mobility of dry bubbles in microchannels. Bubbles moving at velocities less than the dewetting velocity of liquid on the surface are essentially dry, meaning that there is no thin liquid film around the bubbles. For these "dry" bubbles, contact line forces and a possible capillary pressure gradient induced by pinning act on the bubbles and resist motion. Without sufficient driving force (e.g., external pressure), a dry bubble is brought to stagnation. For the first time, a bipartite theoretical model that estimates the required pressure difference across the length of stagnant bubbles with concave and convex back interfaces to overcome the contact line forces and stimulate motion is proposed. To validate our theory, the pressure required to move a single dry bubble in square microchannels exhibiting contact angle hysteresis has been measured. The working fluid was deionized water. The experiments have been conducted on coated glass channels with different surface hydrophilicities that resulted in concave and convex back interfaces for the bubbles. The experimental results were in agreement with the model's predictions for square channels. The predictions of the concave and convex back models were within 19% and 27% of the experimental measurements, respectively.

  19. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  20. Nonlinear bubble nucleation and growth following filament and white-light continuum generation induced by a single-shot femtosecond laser pulse into dielectrics based on consideration of the time scale

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki, E-mail: saito.takayuki@shizuoka.ac.jp

    Bubble nucleation and growth following plasma channeling (filament) and white-light continuum in liquid irradiated by a single-shot fs-pulse were experimentally investigated with close observation of the time scale. Making full use of a new confocal system and time-resolved visualization techniques, we obtained evidence suggestive of a major/minor role of the non-linear/thermal effects during the fs-pulse-induced bubble's fountainhead (10{sup −13} s) and growth (10{sup −7} s), which was never observed with the use of the ns-pulse (i.e., optic cavitation). In this context, the fs-pulse-induced bubble is not an ordinary optic cavitation but rather is nonlinear-optic cavitation. We present the intrinsic differencesmore » in the dominant-time domain of the fs-pulse and ns-pulse excitation, and intriguingly, a mere hundred femtoseconds' excitation predetermines the size of the bubble appearing several microseconds after irradiation. That is, the nucleation happens temporally beyond a six-order-of-magnitude difference.« less

  1. Inhibition of bubble coalescence: effects of salt concentration and speed of approach.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Lorena A; Ohnishi, Satomi; Horn, Roger G

    2011-04-01

    Bubble coalescence experiments have been performed using a sliding bubble apparatus, in which mm-sized bubbles in an aqueous electrolyte solution without added surfactant rose toward an air meniscus at different speeds obtained by varying the inclination of a closed glass cylinder containing the liquid. The coalescence times of single bubbles contacting the meniscus were monitored using a high speed camera. Results clearly show that stability against coalescence of colliding air bubbles is influenced by both the salt concentration and the approach speed of the bubbles. Contrary to the widespread belief that bubbles in pure water are unstable, we demonstrate that bubbles formed in highly purified water and colliding with the meniscus at very slow approach speeds can survive for minutes or even hours. At higher speeds, bubbles in water only survive for a few seconds, and at still higher speeds they coalesce instantly. Addition of a simple electrolyte (KCl) removes the low-speed stability and shifts the transition between transient stability and instant coalescence to higher approach speeds. At high electrolyte concentration no bubbles were observed to coalesce instantly. These observations are consistent with recent results of Yaminsky et al. (Langmuir 26 (2010) 8061) and the transitions between different regions of behavior are in semi-quantitative agreement with Yaminsky's model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bubble Dynamics and Resulting Noise from Traveling Bubble Cavitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    proportional to the gas content. The subjectivity of visual cavitation determination is evidenced by the maximum standard deviation. As mentioned before...bubble radii at the maximum radius position on the model. The point on the model where the bubble will be at its maximum volume was determined by...48 3.7 Recording Bubble Dynamics . • . * . . . . 52 3.8 Measurement of Gas Nuclei in Water 0 • 52 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Paqe

  3. Magnetite Scavenging and the Buoyancy of Bubbles in Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    below which the adhesion force will be strong enough to keep the pair together. Using the available experimental data, we show that crystals as large as 1 mm in diameter could be attached to bubbles and form neutrally buoyant pairs. The presence of multiple crystals in a single bubble would allow bubbles larger than the critical size to become neutrally buoyant. Under the limiting assumption that all magnetite crystals form neutrally buoyant pairs with bubbles, it is possible to compute the maximum gas volume fraction that can be stored as neutrally buoyant bubble-magnetite aggregates. The total abundance of magnetite is only ca. 0.1 vol. %, which yields maximum gas volume fractions on the order of 0.1-0.2 vol. %. About 2-3 vol % of gas can be accounted for if all minerals form neutrally-buoyant aggregates. These values are orders of magnitude lower than the abundance of exsolved gas inferred from melt inclusions in the Bishop magma. Nonetheless, our recent observation of one such aggregate in the early-erupted Bishop Tuff suggests that this is indeed a viable mechanism for storing exsolved gas in magmas. The inevitable conclusion is that a range of pre-eruptive bubbles existed, from magnetite-free, but only a very small fraction of them could have magnetite crystals attached to them. Our treatment shows that there should be an intrinsic association between magnetite crystals and bubbles. However, study our tomography datasets shows that most magnetite crystals are free of bubbles. Not only is this surprising; the puzzling conclusion is that nucleation away from crystals (homogeneous nucleation?) is favored over heterogeneous nucleation on crystal substrates.

  4. FERMI BUBBLES AND BUBBLE-LIKE EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC PLANE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    De Boer, Wim; Weber, Markus, E-mail: wim.de.boer@kit.edu, E-mail: markus.weber2@kit.edu

    2014-10-10

    The diffuse gamma-ray sky revealed ''bubbles'' of emission above and below the Galactic plane, symmetric around the center of the Milky Way, with a height of 10 kpc in both directions. At present, there is no convincing explanation for the origin. To understand the role of the Galactic center, one has to study the bubble spectrum inside the disk, a region that has been excluded from previous analyses because of the large foreground. From a novel template fit, which allows a simultaneous determination of the signal and foreground in any direction, we find that bubble-like emission is not only found inmore » the halo, but in the Galactic plane as well, with a width in latitude coinciding with the molecular clouds. The longitude distribution has a width corresponding to the Galactic bar with an additional contribution from the Scutum-Centaurus arm. The energy spectrum of the bubbles coincides with the predicted contribution from CRs trapped in sources (SCRs). Also, the energetics fits well. Hence, we conclude that the bubble-like emission has a hadronic origin that arises from SCRs, and the bubbles in the halo arise from hadronic interactions in advected gas. Evidence for advection is provided by the ROSAT X-rays of hot gas in the bubble region.« less

  5. Wall function treatment for bubbly boundary layers at low void fractions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniel V; Bitencourt, Marcelo C; Loureiro, Juliana B R; Silva Freire, Atila P

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the role of different treatments of the lower boundary condition on the numerical prediction of bubbly flows. Two different wall function formulations are tested against experimental data obtained for bubbly boundary layers: (i) a new analytical solution derived through asymptotic techniques and (ii) the previous formulation of Troshko and Hassan (IJHMT, 44, 871-875, 2001a). A modified k-e model is used to close the averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the hypothesis that turbulence can be modelled by a linear superposition of bubble and shear induced eddy viscosities. The work shows, in particular, how four corrections must the implemented in the standard single-phase k-e model to account for the effects of bubbles. The numerical implementation of the near wall functions is made through a finite elements code.

  6. Investigation of the properties of laser-induced cavitation bubble collapse and sound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengyong; Ai, Xiaochuan; Wu, Ronghua; Cao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The theoretical model of single bubble movement in an ideal solution, to carry on the numerical simulation of the process of cavitation in the liquid, the liquid in different laser energy, laser induced cavitation rules and acoustic characteristics were studied by high-speed camera, high frequency measurements of the hydrophone. The results show that with the increase of laser energy, the period of bubble pulsation and the maximum bubble radius increase gradually, and the amplitude of the laser acoustic signal becomes larger.

  7. Electrowetting of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-07-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture—the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometer thick films of Teflon®. Voltages less than 40 V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g., laboratory-on-a-chip)—the potential gains in terms of volume, speed, and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  8. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities III: the role of oscillons in three-dimensional bubble collisions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bond, J. Richard; Braden, Jonathan; Mersini-Houghton, Laura, E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: j.braden@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: mersini@physics.unc.edu

    2015-09-01

    We study collisions between pairs of bubbles nucleated in an ambient false vacuum. For the first time, we include the effects of small initial (quantum) fluctuations around the instanton profiles describing the most likely initial bubble profile. Past studies of this problem neglect these fluctuations and work under the assumption that the collisions posess an exact SO(2,1) symmetry. We use three-dimensional lattice simulations to demonstrate that for double-well potentials, small initial perturbations to this symmetry can be amplified as the system evolves. Initially the amplification is well-described by linear perturbation theory around the SO(2,1) background, but the onset of strongmore » nonlinearities amongst the fluctuations quickly leads to a drastic breaking of the original SO(2,1) symmetry and the production of oscillons in the collision region. We explore several single-field models, and we find it is hard to both realize inflation inside of a bubble and produce oscillons in a collision. Finally, we extend our results to a simple two-field model. The additional freedom allowed by the second field allows us to construct viable inflationary models that allow oscillon production in collisions. The breaking of the SO(2,1) symmetry allows for a new class of observational signatures from bubble collisions that do not posess azimuthal symmetry, including the production of gravitational waves which cannot be supported by an SO(2,1) spacetime.« less

  9. Cavitation clouds created by shock scattering from bubbles during histotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Cain, Charles A.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Xu, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Histotripsy is a therapy that focuses short-duration, high-amplitude pulses of ultrasound to incite a localized cavitation cloud that mechanically breaks down tissue. To investigate the mechanism of cloud formation, high-speed photography was used to observe clouds generated during single histotripsy pulses. Pulses of 5−20 cycles duration were applied to a transparent tissue phantom by a 1-MHz spherically focused transducer. Clouds initiated from single cavitation bubbles that formed during the initial cycles of the pulse, and grew along the acoustic axis opposite the propagation direction. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that clouds form as a result of large negative pressure generated by the backscattering of shockwaves from a single bubble. The positive-pressure phase of the wave inverts upon scattering and superimposes on the incident negative-pressure phase to create this negative pressure and cavitation. The process repeats with each cycle of the incident wave, and the bubble cloud elongates toward the transducer. Finite-amplitude propagation distorts the incident wave such that the peak-positive pressure is much greater than the peak-negative pressure, which exaggerates the effect. The hypothesis was tested with two modified incident waves that maintained negative pressure but reduced the positive pressure amplitude. These waves suppressed cloud formation which supported the hypothesis. PMID:21973343

  10. Perturbations of the magnetic induction in a bubbly liquid metal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichou, Rafael; Tordjeman, Philippe; Bergez, Wladimir; Zamansky, Remi; Paumel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The presence of bubbles in liquid metal flow subject to AC magnetic field modifies the distribution of eddy currents in the fluid. This situation is encountered in metallurgy and nuclear industry for Sodium Fast Reactors. We will show that the perturbation of the eddy currents can be measured by an Eddy Current Flowmeter coupled with a lock-in amplifier. The experiments point out that the demodulated signal allows to detect the presence of a single bubble in the flow. The signal is sensitive both to the diameter and the relative position of the bubble. Then, we will present a model of a potential perturbation of the current density caused by a bubble and the distortion of the magnetic field. The eddy current distribution is calculated from the induction equation. This model is derived from a potential flow around a spherical particle. The total vector potential is the sum of the vector potential in the liquid metal flow without bubbles and the perturbated vector potential due to the presence of a bubble. The model is then compared to the experimental measurements realized with the eddy current flow meter for various bubble diameters in galinstan. The very good agreement between model and experiments validates the relevance of the perturbative approach.

  11. Multifocal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Toytman, I; Silbergleit, A; Simanovski, D; Palanker, D

    2010-10-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency, by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 times greater than that required in sequential approach. Simultaneous focusing of the laser in multiple spots along the line of intended cut can extend this ratio to 1.7. Counterpropagating jets forming during collapse of two bubbles in materials with low viscosity can further extend the cutting zone-up to approximately a factor of 1.5.

  12. A Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Rising Taylor Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scammell, Alexander David

    2016-01-01

    Practical application of flow boiling to ground- and space-based thermal management systems hinges on the ability to predict the systems heat removal capabilities under expected operating conditions. Research in this field has shown that the heat transfer coefficient within two-phase heat exchangers can be largely dependent on the experienced flow regime. This finding has inspired an effort to develop mechanistic heat transfer models for each flow pattern which are likely to outperform traditional empirical correlations. As a contribution to the effort, this work aimed to identify the heat transfer mechanisms for the slug flow regime through analysis of individual Taylor bubbles.An experimental apparatus was developed to inject single vapor Taylor bubbles into co-currently flowing liquid HFE 7100. The heat transfer was measured as the bubble rose through a 6 mm inner diameter heated tube using an infrared thermography technique. High-speed flow visualization was obtained and the bubble film thickness measured in an adiabatic section. Experiments were conducted at various liquid mass fluxes (43-200 kgm2s) and gravity levels (0.01g-1.8g) to characterize the effect of bubble drift velocityon the heat transfer mechanisms. Variable gravity testing was conducted during a NASA parabolic flight campaign.Results from the experiments showed that the drift velocity strongly affects the hydrodynamics and heat transfer of single elongated bubbles. At low gravity levels, bubbles exhibited shapes characteristic of capillary flows and the heat transfer enhancement due to the bubble was dominated by conduction through the thin film. At moderate to high gravity, traditional Taylor bubbles provided small values of enhancement within the film, but large peaks in the wake heat transfer occurred due to turbulent vortices induced by the film plunging into the trailing liquid slug. Characteristics of the wake heat transfer profiles were analyzed and related to the predicted velocity field

  13. Numerical investigation of shock induced bubble collapse in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apazidis, N.

    2016-04-01

    A semi-conservative, stable, interphase-capturing numerical scheme for shock propagation in heterogeneous systems is applied to the problem of shock propagation in liquid-gas systems. The scheme is based on the volume-fraction formulation of the equations of motion for liquid and gas phases with separate equations of state. The semi-conservative formulation of the governing equations ensures the absence of spurious pressure oscillations at the material interphases between liquid and gas. Interaction of a planar shock in water with a single spherical bubble as well as twin adjacent bubbles is investigated. Several stages of the interaction process are considered, including focusing of the transmitted shock within the deformed bubble, creation of a water-hammer shock as well as generation of high-speed liquid jet in the later stages of the process.

  14. Measurements in a separation bubble on an airfoil using laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, Edward J.; Mueller, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the reverse flow within the transitional separation bubble that forms on an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. Measurements were used to determine the effect of the reverse flow on integrated boundary-layer parameters often used to model the bubble. Velocity profile data were obtained on an NACA 663-018 airfoil at angle of attack of 12 deg and a chord Reynolds number of 140,000 using laser Doppler and single-sensor hot-wire anemometry. A new correlation is proposed based on zero velocity position, since the Schmidt (1986) correlations fail in the turbulent portion of the bubble.

  15. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  16. Electromagnetically actuated micromanipulator using an acoustically oscillating bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. O.; Yang, J. S.; Lee, S. J.; Rhee, K.; Chung, S. K.

    2011-11-01

    A novel non-invasive micromanipulation technique has been developed where a microrobot swimming in an aqueous medium manipulates micro-objects, through electromagnetic actuation using an acoustically oscillating bubble attached to the microrobot as a grasping tool. This micromanipulation concept was experimentally verified; an investigation of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation was also performed. Two-dimensional propulsion of a magnetic piece was demonstrated through electromagnetic actuation, using three pairs of electric coils surrounding the water chamber, and confirming that the propulsion speed of the magnetic piece was linearly proportional to the applied current intensity. Micro-object manipulation was separately demonstrated using an air bubble with glass beads (80 µm diameter) and a steel ball (800 µm diameter) in an aqueous medium. Upon acoustic excitation of the bubble by a piezo-actuator around its resonant frequency, the generated radiation force attracted and captured the neighboring glass beads and steel ball. The grasping force was indirectly measured by exposing the glass beads captured by the oscillating bubble to a stream generated by an auto-syringe pump in a mini-channel. By measuring the maximum speed of the streaming flow when the glass beads detached from the oscillating bubble and flowed downstream, the grasping force was calculated as 50 nN, based on Stokes' drag approximation. Finally, a fish egg was successfully manipulated with the integration of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation, using a mini-robot consisting of a millimeter-sized magnetic piece with a bubble attached to its bottom. This novel micromanipulation may be an efficient tool for both micro device assembly and single-cell manipulation.

  17. Vortex dynamics of collapsing bubbles: Impact on the boundary layer measured by chronoamperometry.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Cairós, Carlos; Mettin, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation bubbles collapsing in the vicinity to a solid substrate induce intense micro-convection at the solid. Here we study the transient near-wall flows generated by single collapsing bubbles by chronoamperometric measurements synchronously coupled with high-speed imaging. The individual bubbles are created at confined positions by a focused laser pulse. They reach a maximum expansion radius of approximately 425μm. Several stand-off distances to the flat solid boundary are investigated and all distances are chosen sufficiently large that no gas phase of the expanding and collapsing bubble touches the solid directly. With a microelectrode embedded into the substrate, the time-resolved perturbations in the liquid shear layer are probed by means of a chronoamperometric technique. The measurements of electric current are synchronized with high-speed imaging of the bubble dynamics. The perturbations of the near-wall layer are found to result mainly from ring vortices created by the jetting bubble. Other bubble induced flows, such as the jet and flows following the radial bubble oscillations are perceptible with this technique, but show a minor influence at the stand-off distances investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Helium-filled soap bubbles tracing fidelity in wall-bounded turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiros, David Engler; Tuinstra, Marthijn; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    The use of helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSB) as flow tracers for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to measure the properties of turbulent boundary layers is investigated in the velocity range from 30 to 50 m/s. The experiments correspond to momentum thickness-based Reynolds numbers of 3300 and 5100. A single bubble generator delivers nearly neutrally buoyant HFSB to seed the air flow developing over the flat plate. The HFSB motion analysis is performed by PTV using single-frame multi-exposure recordings. The measurements yield the local velocity and turbulence statistics. Planar two-component-PIV measurements with micron-sized droplets (DEHS) conducted under the same conditions provide reference data for the quantities of interest. In addition, the behavior of air-filled soap bubbles is studied where the effect of non-neutral buoyancy is more pronounced. The mean velocity profiles as well as the turbulent stresses obtained with HFSB are in good agreement with the flow statistics obtained with DEHS particles. The study illustrates that HFSB tracers can be used to determine the mean velocity and the turbulent fluctuations of turbulent boundary layers above a distance of approximately two bubble diameters from the wall. This work broadens the current range of application of HFSB from external aerodynamics of large-scale-PIV experiments towards wall-bounded turbulence.

  19. Letter: Entrapment and interaction of an air bubble with an oscillating cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Y. S.; Karri, Badarinath; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of the formation of an air bubble due to an oscillating cavitation bubble in its vicinity is reported from an experimental study using high-speed imaging. The cavitation bubble is created close to the free surface of water using a low-voltage spark circuit comprising two copper electrodes in contact with each other. Before the bubble is created, a third copper wire is positioned in contact with the free surface of water close to the two crossing electrodes. Due to the surface tension at the triple point (wire-water-air) interface, a small dip is observed in the free surface at the point where the wire is immersed. When the cavitation bubble is created, the bubble pushes at the dip while expanding and pulls at it while collapsing. The collapse phase leads to the entrapment of an air bubble at the wire immersion point. During this phase, the air bubble undergoes a "catapult" effect, i.e., it expands to a maximum size and then collapses with a microjet at the free surface. To the best of our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported so far. A parametric study is also conducted to understand the effects of wire orientation and bubble distance from the free surface.

  20. Bubble Point Measurements with Liquid Methane of a Screen Capillary Liquid Acquisition Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; McQuillen, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid acquisition devices (LADs) can be utilized within a propellant tank in space to deliver single-phase liquid to the engine in low gravity. One type of liquid acquisition device is a screened gallery whereby a fine mesh screen acts as a bubble filter and prevents the gas bubbles from passing through until a crucial pressure differential condition across the screen, called the bubble point, is reached. This paper presents data for LAD bubble point data in liquid methane (LCH4) for stainless steel Dutch twill screens with mesh sizes of 325 by 2300 and 200 by 1400 wires per inch. Data is presented for both saturated and sub-cooled LCH4, and is compared with predicted values.

  1. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  2. Annealing helicase HARP closes RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles non-processively

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Daniel R.; Nijholt, Bas; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quan, Jinhua; Yusufzai, Timur

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigate the mechanistic nature of the Snf2 family protein HARP, mutations of which are responsible for Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. Using a single-molecule magnetic tweezers assay, we construct RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles within torsionally constrained DNA to investigate the annealing action of HARP on a physiologically relevant substrate. We find that HARP closes RPA-stabilized bubbles in a slow reaction, taking on the order of tens of minutes for ∼600 bp of DNA to be re-annealed. The data indicate that DNA re-anneals through the removal of RPA, which is observed as clear steps in the bubble-closing traces. The dependence of the closing rate on both ionic strength and HARP concentration indicates that removal of RPA occurs via an association-dissociation mechanism where HARP does not remain associated with the DNA. The enzyme exhibits classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics and acts cooperatively with a Hill coefficient of 3 ± 1. Our work also allows the determination of some important features of RPA-bubble structures at low supercoiling, including the existence of multiple bubbles and that RPA molecules are mis-registered on the two strands. PMID:28334870

  3. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  4. The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites.

    PubMed

    Jordt, Anne; Zelenka, Claudius; von Deimling, Jens Schneider; Koch, Reinhard; Köser, Kevin

    2015-12-05

    Several acoustic and optical techniques have been used for characterizing natural and anthropogenic gas leaks (carbon dioxide, methane) from the ocean floor. Here, single-camera based methods for bubble stream observation have become an important tool, as they help estimating flux and bubble sizes under certain assumptions. However, they record only a projection of a bubble into the camera and therefore cannot capture the full 3D shape, which is particularly important for larger, non-spherical bubbles. The unknown distance of the bubble to the camera (making it appear larger or smaller than expected) as well as refraction at the camera interface introduce extra uncertainties. In this article, we introduce our wide baseline stereo-camera deep-sea sensor bubble box that overcomes these limitations, as it observes bubbles from two orthogonal directions using calibrated cameras. Besides the setup and the hardware of the system, we discuss appropriate calibration and the different automated processing steps deblurring, detection, tracking, and 3D fitting that are crucial to arrive at a 3D ellipsoidal shape and rise speed of each bubble. The obtained values for single bubbles can be aggregated into statistical bubble size distributions or fluxes for extrapolation based on diffusion and dissolution models and large scale acoustic surveys. We demonstrate and evaluate the wide baseline stereo measurement model using a controlled test setup with ground truth information.

  5. The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites

    PubMed Central

    Jordt, Anne; Zelenka, Claudius; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Koch, Reinhard; Köser, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Several acoustic and optical techniques have been used for characterizing natural and anthropogenic gas leaks (carbon dioxide, methane) from the ocean floor. Here, single-camera based methods for bubble stream observation have become an important tool, as they help estimating flux and bubble sizes under certain assumptions. However, they record only a projection of a bubble into the camera and therefore cannot capture the full 3D shape, which is particularly important for larger, non-spherical bubbles. The unknown distance of the bubble to the camera (making it appear larger or smaller than expected) as well as refraction at the camera interface introduce extra uncertainties. In this article, we introduce our wide baseline stereo-camera deep-sea sensor bubble box that overcomes these limitations, as it observes bubbles from two orthogonal directions using calibrated cameras. Besides the setup and the hardware of the system, we discuss appropriate calibration and the different automated processing steps deblurring, detection, tracking, and 3D fitting that are crucial to arrive at a 3D ellipsoidal shape and rise speed of each bubble. The obtained values for single bubbles can be aggregated into statistical bubble size distributions or fluxes for extrapolation based on diffusion and dissolution models and large scale acoustic surveys. We demonstrate and evaluate the wide baseline stereo measurement model using a controlled test setup with ground truth information. PMID:26690168

  6. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  7. Bubble motion in a rotating liquid body. [ground based tests for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of a single gas bubble inside a rotating liquid-filled sphere has been investigated analytically and experimentally as part of ground-based investigations aimed at aiding in the design and interpretation of Shuttle experiments. In the analysis, a quasi-static description of the motion of a bubble was developed in the limit of small values of the Taylor number. A series of rotation experiments using air bubbles and silicone oils were designed to match the conditions specified in the analysis, i.e., the bubble size, sphere rotation rate, and liquid kinematic viscosity were chosen such that the Taylor number was much less than unity. The analytical description predicts the bubble velocity and its asymptotic location. It is shown that the asymptotic position is removed from the axis of rotation.

  8. The cavitation induced Becquerel effect and the hot spot theory of sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Prevenslik, T V

    2003-06-01

    Over 150 years ago, Becquerel discovered the ultraviolet illumination of one of a pair of identical electrodes in liquid water produced an electric current, the phenomenon called the Becquerel effect. Recently, a similar effect was observed if the water surrounding one electrode is made to cavitate by focused acoustic radiation, which by similarity is referred to as the cavitation induced Becquerel effect. The current in the cavitation induced Becquerel effect was found to be semi-logarithmic with the standard electrode potential that is consistent with the oxidation of the electrode surface by the photo-decomposition theory of photoelectrochemistry. But oxidation of the electrode surface usually requires high temperatures, say as in cavitation. Absent high bubble temperatures, cavitation may produce vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that excites water molecules in the electrode film to higher H(2)O(*) energy states, the excited states oxidizing the electrode surface by chemical reaction. Solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation during bubble collapse that include the condensation of water vapor show any increase in temperature or pressure of the water vapor by compression heating is compensated by the condensation of vapor to the bubble wall, the bubbles collapsing almost isothermally. Hence, the cavitation induced Becquerel effect is likely caused by cavitation induced VUV light at ambient temperature.

  9. Converting acoustic energy into useful other energy forms

    DOEpatents

    Putterman, Seth J.; Barber, Bradley Paul; Hiller, Robert Anthony; Lofstedt, Ritva Maire Johanna

    1997-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is an off-equilibrium phenomenon in which the energy of a resonant sound wave in a liquid is highly concentrated so as to generate flashes of light. The conversion of sound to light represents an energy amplification of eleven orders of magnitude. The flashes which occur once per cycle of the audible or ultrasonic sound fields can be comprised of over one million photons and last for less 100 picoseconds. The emission displays a clocklike synchronicity; the jitter in time between consecutive flashes is less than fifty picoseconds. The emission is blue to the eye and has a broadband spectrum increasing from 700 nanometers to 200 nanometers. The peak power is about 100 milliWatts. The initial stage of the energy focusing is effected by the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble trapped in the liquid. For sufficiently high drive pressures an imploding shock wave is launched into the gas by the collapsing bubble. The reflection of the shock from its focal point results in high temperatures and pressures. The sonoluminescence light emission can be sustained by sensing a characteristic of the emission and feeding back changes into the driving mechanism. The liquid is in a sealed container and the seeding of the gas bubble is effected by locally heating the liquid after sealing the container. Different energy forms than light can be obtained from the converted acoustic energy. When the gas contains deuterium and tritium there is the feasibility of the other energy form being fusion, namely including the generation of neutrons.

  10. From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation in the context of champagne aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Thomas; Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2015-11-01

    As champagne or sparkling wine is poured into a glass, a myriad of ascending bubbles collapse and therefore radiate a multitude of tiny droplets above the free surface into the form of very characteristic and refreshing aerosols. Because these aerosols have been found to hold the organoleptic ``essence'' of champagne they are believed to play a crucial role in the flavor release in comparison with that from a flat wine for example. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the velocity, radius and maximum height of the first jet drop following bubble collapse have been characterized, with varying bubble size and liquid properties in the context of champagne aerosols. Using the experimental results and simple theoretical models for drop and surface evaporation, we show that bubble bursting aerosols drastically enhance the transfer of liquid in the atmosphere with respect to a flat liquid surface. Contrary to popular opinion, we exhibit that small bubbles are negative in terms of aroma release, and we underline bubble radii enabling to optimize the droplet height and evaporation in the whole range of champagne properties. These results pave the road to the fine tuning of champagne aroma diffusion, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  11. Modeling of Vapor Bubble Growth Under Nucleate Boiling Conditions in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic model is developed to describe the evolution of a vapor bubble growing at a nucleation site on a superheated surface under arbitrary gravity. The bubble is separated from the surface by a thin microlayer and grows due to the evaporation from the microlayer interface. The average thickness of the microlayer increases as the bubble expands along the surface if the evaporation rate is lower than some critical value. The corresponding threshold value of the surface temperature has to be associated with the burn-out crisis. Two main reasons make for bubble separation, which are the buoyancy force and a force caused by the vapor momentum that comes to the bubble with vapor molecules. The latter force is somewhat diminished if condensation takes place at the upper bubble surface in subcooled liquids. The action of the said forces is opposed by inertia of the additional mass of liquid as the bubble center rises above the surface and by inertia of liquid being expelled by the growing bubble in radial directions. An extra pressure force arises due to the liquid inflow into the microlayer with a finite velocity. The last force helps in holding the bubble close to the surface during an initial stage of bubble evolution. Two limiting regimes with distinctly different properties can be singled out, depending on which of the forces that favor bubble detachment dominates. Under conditions of moderately reduced gravity, the situation is much the same as in normal gravity, although the bubble detachment volume increases as gravity diminishes. In microgravity, the buoyancy force is negligible. Then the bubble is capable of staying near the surface for a long time, with intensive evaporation from the microlayer. It suggests a drastic change in the physical mechanism of heat removal as gravity falls below a certain sufficiently low level. Inferences of the model and conclusions pertaining to effects caused on heat transfer processes by changes in bubble hydrodynamics induced

  12. The effect of surface tension on steadily translating bubbles in an unbounded Hele-Shaw cell

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    New numerical solutions to the so-called selection problem for one and two steadily translating bubbles in an unbounded Hele-Shaw cell are presented. Our approach relies on conformal mapping which, for the two-bubble problem, involves the Schottky-Klein prime function associated with an annulus. We show that a countably infinite number of solutions exist for each fixed value of dimensionless surface tension, with the bubble shapes becoming more exotic as the solution branch number increases. Our numerical results suggest that a single solution is selected in the limit that surface tension vanishes, with the scaling between the bubble velocity and surface tension being different to the well-studied problems for a bubble or a finger propagating in a channel geometry. PMID:28588410

  13. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J.; Noack, J.

    1999-03-01

    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightlymore » from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.« less

  14. Towards classification of the bifurcation structure of a spherical cavitation bubble.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Sohrab; Sojahrood, Amin Jafari; Soltanpoor, Wiria; Sarkhosh, Leila

    2009-12-01

    We focus on a single cavitation bubble driven by ultrasound, a system which is a specimen of forced nonlinear oscillators and is characterized by its extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions. The driven radial oscillations of the bubble are considered to be implicated by the principles of chaos physics and owing to specific ranges of control parameters, can be periodic or chaotic. Despite the growing number of investigations on its dynamics, there is not yet an inclusive yardstick to sort the dynamical behavior of the bubble into classes; also, the response oscillations are so complex that long term prediction on the behavior becomes difficult to accomplish. In this study, the nonlinear dynamics of a bubble oscillator was treated numerically and the simulations were proceeded with bifurcation diagrams. The calculated bifurcation diagrams were compared in an attempt to classify the bubble dynamic characteristics when varying the control parameters. The comparison reveals distinctive bifurcation patterns as a consequence of driving the systems with unequal ratios of R(0)lambda (where R(0) is the bubble initial radius and lambda is the wavelength of the driving ultrasonic wave). Results indicated that systems having the equal ratio of R(0)lambda, share remarkable similarities in their bifurcating behavior and can be classified under a unit category.

  15. A study of the accuracy of neutrally buoyant bubbles used as flow tracers in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been performed to determine the accuracy of neutrally buoyant and near neutrally buoyant bubbles used as flow tracers in air. Theoretical, computational, and experimental results are presented to evaluate the dynamics of bubble trajectories and factors affecting their ability to trace flow-field streamlines. The equation of motion for a single bubble was obtained and evaluated using a computational scheme to determine the factors which affect a bubble's trajectory. A two-dimensional experiment was also conducted to experimentally determine bubble trajectories in the stagnation region of NACA 0012 airfoil at 0 deg angle of attack using a commercially available helium bubble generation system. Physical properties of the experimental bubble trajectories were estimated using the computational scheme. These properties included the density ratio and diameter of the individual bubbles. the helium bubble system was then used to visualize and document the flow field about a 30 deg swept semispan wing with simulated glaze ice. Results were compared to Navier-Stokes calculations and surface oil flow visualization. The theoretical and computational analysis have shown that neutrally buoyant bubbles will trace even the most complex flow patterns. Experimental analysis revealed that the use of bubbles to trace flow patterns should be limited to qualitative measurements unless care is taken to ensure neutral buoyancy. This is due to the difficulty in the production of neutrally buoyant bubbles.

  16. Fermi Bubble: Giant Gamma-Ray Bubbles in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    Data from the Fermi-LAT reveal two gigantic gamma-ray emitting bubble structures (known as the Fermibubbles), extending˜50° above and below the Galactic center symmetric about the Galactic plane, with a width of˜40∘ in longitude. The gamma-ray emission associated with these bubbles has a significantly harder spectrum ({dN}/{dE} ˜ {E}^{-2}) than the inverse Compton emission from known cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk, or the gamma-rays produced by decay of pions from proton-ISM collisions. The bubbles are spatially correlated with the hard-spectrum microwave excess known as the WMAPhaze; the edges of the bubbles also line up with features in the ROSATsoft X-ray maps at 1.5-2keV. The Fermibubble is most likely created by some large episode of energy injection in the Galactic center, such as past accretion events onto the central massive black hole, or a nuclear starburst in the last˜10Myr. Study of the origin and evolution of the bubbles also has the potential to improve our understanding of recent energetic events in the inner Galaxy and the high-latitude cosmic ray population.

  17. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor); Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  18. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  19. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixedmore » blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.« less

  20. Visualizing the Histotripsy Process: Bubble Cloud-Cancer Cell Interactions in a Tissue-Mimicking Environment.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Maxwell, Adam; Mancia, Lauren; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasonic ablation method that uses cavitation to mechanically fractionate tissue into acellular debris. With a sufficient number of pulses, histotripsy can completely fractionate tissue into a liquid-appearing homogenate with no cellular structures. The location, shape and size of lesion formation closely match those of the cavitation cloud. Previous work has led to the hypothesis that the rapid expansion and collapse of histotripsy bubbles fractionate tissue by inducing large stress and strain on the tissue structures immediately adjacent to the bubbles. In the work described here, the histotripsy bulk tissue fractionation process is visualized at the cellular level for the first time using a custom-built 2-MHz transducer incorporated into a microscope stage. A layer of breast cancer cells were cultured within an optically transparent fibrin-based gel phantom to mimic cells inside a 3-D extracellular matrix. To test the hypothesis, the cellular response to single and multiple histotripsy pulses was investigated using high-speed optical imaging. Bubbles were always generated in the extracellular space, and significant cell displacement/deformation was observed for cells directly adjacent to the bubble during both bubble expansion and collapse. The largest displacements were observed during collapse for cells immediately adjacent to the bubble, with cells moving more than 150-300 μm in less than 100 μs. Cells often underwent multiple large deformations (>150% strain) over multiple pulses, resulting in the bisection of cells multiple times before complete removal. To provide theoretical support to the experimental observations, a numerical simulation was conducted using a single-bubble model, which indicated that histotripsy exerts the largest strains and cell displacements in the regions immediately adjacent to the bubble. The experimental and simulation results support our hypothesis, which helps to explain the formation of the

  1. BLOWING COSMIC BUBBLES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals an expanding shell of glowing gas surrounding a hot, massive star in our Milky Way Galaxy. This shell is being shaped by strong stellar winds of material and radiation produced by the bright star at the left, which is 10 to 20 times more massive than our Sun. These fierce winds are sculpting the surrounding material - composed of gas and dust - into the curve-shaped bubble. Astronomers have dubbed it the Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635). The nebula is 10 light-years across, more than twice the distance from Earth to the nearest star. Only part of the bubble is visible in this image. The glowing gas in the lower right-hand corner is a dense region of material that is getting blasted by radiation from the Bubble Nebula's massive star. The radiation is eating into the gas, creating finger-like features. This interaction also heats up the gas, causing it to glow. Scientists study the Bubble Nebula to understand how hot stars interact with the surrounding material. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  2. A Bubble Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    RCW 79 is seen in the southern Milky Way, 17,200 light-years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. The bubble is 70-light years in diameter, and probably took about one million years to form from the radiation and winds of hot young stars.

    The balloon of gas and dust is an example of stimulated star formation. Such stars are born when the hot bubble expands into the interstellar gas and dust around it. RCW 79 has spawned at least two groups of new stars along the edge of the large bubble. Some are visible inside the small bubble in the lower left corner. Another group of baby stars appears near the opening at the top.

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope easily detects infrared light from the dust particles in RCW 79. The young stars within RCW 79 radiate ultraviolet light that excites molecules of dust within the bubble. This causes the dust grains to emit infrared light that is detected by Spitzer and seen here as the extended red features.

  3. Hydrophilic strips for preventing air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Munseok; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    In a microfluidic chamber, unwanted formation of air bubbles is a critical problem. Here, we present a hydrophilic strip array that prevents air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber. The array is located on the top surface of the chamber, which has a large variation in width, and consists of a repeated arrangement of super- and moderately hydrophilic strips. This repeated arrangement allows a flat meniscus (i.e. liquid front) to form when various solutions consisting of a single stream or two parallel streams with different hydrophilicities move through the chamber. The flat meniscus produced by the array completely prevents the formation of bubbles. Without the array in the chamber, the meniscus shape is highly convex, and bubbles frequently form in the chamber. This hydrophilic strip array will facilitate the use of a microfluidic chamber with a large variation in width for various microfluidic applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bubble nucleation and inflationary perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Jazayeri, Sadra; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the imprints of bubble nucleation on primordial inflationary perturbations. We assume that the bubble is formed via the tunneling of a spectator field from the false vacuum of its potential to its true vacuum. We consider the configuration in which the observable CMB sphere is initially outside of the bubble. As the bubble expands, more and more regions of the exterior false vacuum, including our CMB sphere, fall into the interior of the bubble. The modes which leave the horizon during inflation at the time when the bubble wall collides with the observable CMB sphere are affected the most. The bubble wall induces non-trivial anisotropic and scale dependent corrections in the two point function of the curvature perturbation. The corrections in the curvature perturbation and the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of CMB power spectrum are estimated.

  5. Annealing helicase HARP closes RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles non-processively.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Daniel R; Nijholt, Bas; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quan, Jinhua; Yusufzai, Timur; Dekker, Cees

    2017-05-05

    We investigate the mechanistic nature of the Snf2 family protein HARP, mutations of which are responsible for Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. Using a single-molecule magnetic tweezers assay, we construct RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles within torsionally constrained DNA to investigate the annealing action of HARP on a physiologically relevant substrate. We find that HARP closes RPA-stabilized bubbles in a slow reaction, taking on the order of tens of minutes for ∼600 bp of DNA to be re-annealed. The data indicate that DNA re-anneals through the removal of RPA, which is observed as clear steps in the bubble-closing traces. The dependence of the closing rate on both ionic strength and HARP concentration indicates that removal of RPA occurs via an association-dissociation mechanism where HARP does not remain associated with the DNA. The enzyme exhibits classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and acts cooperatively with a Hill coefficient of 3 ± 1. Our work also allows the determination of some important features of RPA-bubble structures at low supercoiling, including the existence of multiple bubbles and that RPA molecules are mis-registered on the two strands. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction measurements in a multiphase flow using fiber optic reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ho-Joon; Chang, Kuang-An; Su, Chin B.; Chen, Chi-Yueh

    2008-12-01

    A fiber optic reflectometer (FOR) technique featuring a single fiber probe is investigated for its feasibility of measuring the bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction in a multiphase flow. The method is based on the interference of the scattered signal from the bubble surface with the Fresnel reflection signal from the tip of the optical fiber. Void fraction is obtained with a high accuracy if an appropriate correction is applied to compensate the underestimated measurement value. Velocity information is accurately obtained from the reflected signals before the fiber tip touches the bubble surface so that several factors affecting the traditional dual-tip probes such as blinding, crawling, and drifting effects due to the interaction between the probe and bubbles can be prevented. The coherent signals reflected from both the front and rear ends of a bubble can provide velocity information. Deceleration of rising bubbles and particles due to the presence of the fiber probe is observed when they are very close to the fiber tip. With the residence time obtained, the bubble chord length can be determined by analyzing the coherent signal for velocity determination before the deceleration starts. The bubble diameters are directly obtained from analyzing the signals of the bubbles that contain velocity information. The chord lengths of these bubbles measured by FOR represent the bubble diameters when the bubble shape is spherical or represent the minor axes when the bubble shape is ellipsoidal. The velocity and size of bubbles obtained from the FOR measurements are compared with those obtained simultaneously using a high speed camera.

  7. Bubble Transport through Micropillar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Omer

    2012-11-01

    In current energy research, artificial photosynthetic devices are being designed to split water and harvest hydrogen gas using energy from the sun. In one such design, hydrogen gas bubbles evolve on the catalytic surfaces of arrayed micropillars. If these bubbles are not promptly removed from the surface, they can adversely affect gas evolution rates, water flow rates, sunlight capture, and heat management of the system. Therefore, an efficient method of collecting the evolved gas bubbles is crucial. Preliminary flow visualization has been conducted of bubbles advecting through dense arrays of pillars. Bubbles moving through square and hexagonal arrays are tracked, and the results are qualitatively described. Initial attempts to correlate bubble motion with relevant lengthscales and forces are also presented. These observations suggest how bubble transport within such pillar arrays can be managed, as well as guide subsequent experiments that investigate bubble evolution and collection. This material is based upon work performed by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993.

  8. Gas bubble detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

  9. Behavior of Rapidly Sheared Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangani, A. S.; Kushch, V. I.; Hoffmann, M.; Nahra, H.; Koch, D. L.; Tsang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment to be carried out aboard the International Space Station is described. A suspension consisting of millimeter-sized bubbles in water containing some dissolved salt, which prevents bubbles from coalescing, will be sheared in a Couette cylindrical cell. Rotation of the outer cylinder will produce centrifugal force which will tend to accumulate the bubbles near the inner wall. The shearing will enhance collisions among bubbles creating thereby bubble phase pressure that will resist the tendency of the bubbles to accumulate near the inner wall. The bubble volume fraction and velocity profiles will be measured and compared with the theoretical predictions. Ground-based research on measurement of bubble phase properties and flow in vertical channel are described.

  10. Bubble Proliferation or Dissolution of Cavitation Nuclei in the Beam Path of a Shock-Wave Lithotripter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Spencer; Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy N.; Szeri, Andrew J.; Zhong, Pei

    2015-03-01

    It is hypothesized that the decreased treatment efficiency in contemporary shock-wave lithotripters is related to tensile wave attenuation due to cavitation in the prefocal beam path. Utilizing high-speed imaging of the beam path and focal pressure waveform measurements, tensile attenuation is associated with bubble proliferation. By systematically testing different combinations of pulse-repetition frequency and gas concentration, we modulate the bubble-dissolution time to identify which conditions lead to bubble proliferation and show that reducing bubble proliferation in the beam path significantly improves acoustic transmission and stone comminution efficiency in vitro. In addition to experiments, a bubble-proliferation model is developed that takes gas diffusion across the bubble wall and bubble fragmentation into account. By aligning the model with experimental observations, the number of daughter bubbles produced after a single lithotripter bubble collapse is estimated to be in the range of 253 ˜510 . This finding is on the same order of magnitude with previous measurements of an isolated bubble collapse in a lithotripter field by Pishchalnikov, McAteer, and Williams [BJU Int. 102, 1681 (2008), 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07896.x], and this estimate improves the general understanding of lithotripsy bubble dynamics in the beam path.

  11. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V=L(3)/6π(2), and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V<αL(3)/6π(2), with α≈0.21, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V<αL(3)/6π(2) cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  12. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  13. Bubble generation during transformer overload

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oommen, T.V.

    1990-03-01

    Bubble generation in transformers has been demonstrated under certain overload conditions. The release of large quantities of bubbles would pose a dielectric breakdown hazard. A bubble prediction model developed under EPRI Project 1289-4 attempts to predict the bubble evolution temperature under different overload conditions. This report details a verification study undertaken to confirm the validity of the above model using coil structures subjected to overload conditions. The test variables included moisture in paper insulation, gas content in oil, and the type of oil preservation system. Two aged coils were also tested. The results indicated that the observed bubble temperatures weremore » close to the predicted temperatures for models with low initial gas content in the oil. The predicted temperatures were significantly lower than the observed temperatures for models with high gas content. Some explanations are provided for the anomalous behavior at high gas levels in oil. It is suggested that the dissolved gas content is not a significant factor in bubble evolution. The dominant factor in bubble evolution appears to be the water vapor pressure which must reach critical levels before bubbles can be released. Further study is needed to make a meaningful revision of the bubble prediction model. 8 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.« less

  14. Propagation of a finite bubble in a Hele-Shaw channel of variable depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juel, Anne; Franco-Gomez, Andres; Thompson, Alice; Hazel, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    We study the propagation of finite bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel, where a centred rail is introduced to provide a small axially-uniform depth constriction. We demonstrate experimentally that this channel geometry can be used as a passive sorting device. Single air bubbles carried within silicone oil are generally transported on one side of the rail. However, for flow rates marginally larger than a critical value, a narrow band of bubble sizes on the order of the rail width can propagate over the rail, while bubbles of other sizes segregate to the side of the rail. The width of this band of bubble sizes increases with flow rate and the size of the most stable bubble can be tuned by varying the rail width. We present a depth-averaged theory which reveals that the mechanism relies on a non-trivial interaction between capillary and viscous forces that is fully dynamic, rather than being a simple modification of capillary static solutions. In contrast, for larger bubbles and sufficiently large imposed flow rates, we find that initially centred bubbles do not converge onto a steady mode of propagation. Instead they transiently explore weakly unstable steady modes, an evolution which results in their break-up and eventual settling into a steady state of changed topology. The financial support of CONICYT and the Leverhulme Trust are gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  16. THE AGE OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR BUBBLE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abt, Helmut A., E-mail: abt@noao.edu

    2011-05-15

    The Local Interstellar Bubble is an irregular region from 50 to 150 pc from the Sun in which the interstellar gas density is 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} of that outside the bubble and the interstellar temperature is 10{sup 6} K. Evidently most of the gas was swept out by one or more supernovae. I explored the stellar contents and ages of the region from visual double stars, spectroscopic doubles, single stars, open clusters, emission regions, X-ray stars, planetary nebulae, and pulsars. The bubble has three sub-regions. The region toward the galactic center has stars as early as O9.5 V and withmore » ages of 2-4 M yr. It also has a pulsar (PSRJ1856-3754) with a spin-down age of 3.76 Myr. That pulsar is likely to be the remnant of the supernova that drove away most of the gas. The central lobe has stars as early as B7 V and therefore an age of about 160 Myr or less. The Pleiades lobe has stars as early as B3 and therefore an age of about 50 Myr. There are no obvious pulsars that resulted from the supernovae that cleared out those areas. As found previously by Welsh and Lallement, the bubble has five B stars along its perimeter that show high-temperature ions of O VI and C II along their lines of sight, confirming its high interstellar temperature.« less

  17. Compressible bubbles in Stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren G.

    2003-02-01

    The problem of a two-dimensional inviscid compressible bubble evolving in Stokes flow is considered. By generalizing the work of Tanveer & Vasconcelos (1995) it is shown that for certain classes of initial condition the quasi-steady free boundary problem for the bubble shape evolution is reducible to a finite set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, the form of which depends on the equation of state governing the relationship between the bubble pressure and its area. Recent numerical calculations by Pozrikidis (2001) using boundary integral methods are retrieved and extended. If the ambient pressures are small enough, it is shown that bubbles can expand significantly. It is also shown that a bubble evolving adiabatically is less likely to expand than an isothermal bubble.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of drops and bubbles and chaotic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Leal, L. G.; Feng, Z. C.; Holt, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena associated with the dynamics of free drops and bubbles are investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Although newly developed levitation and measurement techniques have been implemented, the full experimental validation of theoretical predictions has been hindered by interfering artifacts associated with levitation in the Earth gravitational field. The low gravity environment of orbital space flight has been shown to provide a more quiescent environment which can be utilized to better match the idealized theoretical conditions. The research effort described in this paper is a closely coupled collaboration between predictive and guiding theoretical activities and a unique experimental program involving the ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation of single droplets and bubbles. The goal is to develop and to validate methods based on nonlinear dynamics for the understanding of the large amplitude oscillatory response of single drops and bubbles to both isotropic and asymmetric pressure stimuli. The first specific area on interest has been the resonant coupling between volume and shape oscillatory modes isolated gas or vapor bubbles in a liquid host. The result of multiple time-scale asymptotic treatment, combined with domain perturbation and bifurcation methods, has been the prediction of resonant and near-resonant coupling between volume and shape modes leading to stable as well as chaotic oscillations. Experimental investigations of the large amplitude shape oscillation modes of centimeter-size single bubbles trapped in water at 1 G and under reduced hydrostatic pressure, have suggested the possibility of a low gravity experiment to study the direct coupling between these low frequency shape modes and the volume pulsation, sound-radiating mode. The second subject of interest has involved numerical modeling, using the boundary integral method, of the large amplitude shape oscillations of charged and uncharged drops in the presence

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of drops and bubbles and chaotic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Leal, L. G.; Feng, Z. C.; Holt, R. G.

    1994-08-01

    Nonlinear phenomena associated with the dynamics of free drops and bubbles are investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Although newly developed levitation and measurement techniques have been implemented, the full experimental validation of theoretical predictions has been hindered by interfering artifacts associated with levitation in the Earth gravitational field. The low gravity environment of orbital space flight has been shown to provide a more quiescent environment which can be utilized to better match the idealized theoretical conditions. The research effort described in this paper is a closely coupled collaboration between predictive and guiding theoretical activities and a unique experimental program involving the ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation of single droplets and bubbles. The goal is to develop and to validate methods based on nonlinear dynamics for the understanding of the large amplitude oscillatory response of single drops and bubbles to both isotropic and asymmetric pressure stimuli. The first specific area on interest has been the resonant coupling between volume and shape oscillatory modes isolated gas or vapor bubbles in a liquid host. The result of multiple time-scale asymptotic treatment, combined with domain perturbation and bifurcation methods, has been the prediction of resonant and near-resonant coupling between volume and shape modes leading to stable as well as chaotic oscillations. Experimental investigations of the large amplitude shape oscillation modes of centimeter-size single bubbles trapped in water at 1 G and under reduced hydrostatic pressure, have suggested the possibility of a low gravity experiment to study the direct coupling between these low frequency shape modes and the volume pulsation, sound-radiating mode. The second subject of interest has involved numerical modeling, using the boundary integral method, of the large amplitude shape oscillations of charged and uncharged drops in the presence

  20. Evolution of Helium Bubbles and Discs in Irradiated 6H-SiC during Post-Implantation Annealing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Ran, Guang; Li, Ruixiang; Feng, Qijie; Li, Ning

    2017-01-24

    The single crystal 6H-SiC with [0001] crystal direction irradiated by 400 keV He⁺ ions with 1 × 10 17 ions/cm² fluence at 400 °C were annealed at 600, 900, 1200 and 1400 °C for different durations. The evolution of helium bubbles and discs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. An irradiated layer distributed with fine helium bubbles was formed with a width of ~170 nm after helium ion irradiation. The size of gas bubbles increased with increasing annealing time and temperature and finally reached stable values at a given annealing temperature. According to the relationship between the bubble radii and annealing time, an empirical formula for calculating the bubble radii at the annealing temperature ranged from 600 to 1400 °C was given by fitting the experiment data. Planar bubble clusters (discs) were found to form on (0001) crystal plane at both sides of the bubble layer when the annealing temperature was at the range of 800-1200 °C. The mechanism of bubble growth during post-implantation annealing and the formation of bubble discs were also analyzed and discussed.

  1. Bubble technique for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty tissue preparation in an eye bank: air or liquid?

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Alessandro; Parekh, Mohit; Salvalaio, Gianni; Ferrari, Stefano; Camposampiero, Davide; Amoureux, Marie-Claude; Busin, Massimo; Ponzin, Diego

    2015-03-01

    To compare the big-bubble method using air and liquid as medium of separation for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) lenticule preparation in an eye bank. Donor corneas (n=20) were immersed in liquid [tissue culture medium (TCM)]. Air and liquid was injected using a 25-gauge needle in the posterior stroma or as near to the stroma-Descemet membrane (DM) phase as possible to create a complete bubble of larger diameter. The endothelial cell density and mortality were checked pre- and postbubble after deflating the tissue. Four pairs of tissues were used to analyse the intracellular tight junctions and three pairs for histological examination and DNA integrity studies, respectively. The yield obtained using air was 80%, whereas that with liquid was 100%. Single injection was required in six cases; twice in two cases; three and four times in one case each with air bubble, whereas seven cases required single injection; twice in two cases; and thrice in just one case with liquid bubble. The average diameter of the final lenticule was 9.12 (±1.71) mm for air bubble and 9.78 (±1.75) mm for liquid bubble with p=0.4362 (no statistical significance). Endothelial cell mortality postbubble preparation was 8.9 (±12.38)% for air and 6.25 (±9.57)% for liquid (p=0.6268). DM and endothelium could be separated exclusively using air or liquid bubble. However, liquid bubble seems to have certain advantages over air such as the generation of yield, larger diameter and higher maintenance of endothelial cell density and integrity. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transformer overload characteristics---Bubble evolution

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Woods, E.E.; Wendel, R.C.; Dresser, R.D.

    1988-08-01

    Project RP1289-3 explores significant parameters affecting bubble evolution from transformer oil under high temperature operating conditions to address the question: Does ''real life'' operation of a transformer cause harmful bubbling conditions. Studies outlined in the project are designed to determine when bubbling occurs in transformers and if bubbling can be harmful during the normal operation of these transformers. Data obtained from these studies should provide a basis for utilities to perform risk assessments in relation to their loading practices. The program is designed to demonstrate those conditions under which bubbling occurs in transformers by using controlled models and actual signalmore » phase transformers that were designed to give access to both high and low voltage windings for the purpose of viewing bubble generation. Results and observations from tests on the full-size transformers, thermal models, and electrical models have led to the conclusion that bubbles can occur under operating conditions. The electrical models show that dielectric strength can be reduced by as much as 40 percent due to the presence of bubbles. Because of factory safety considerations, the transformers could not be tested at hot spot temperatures greater than 140/degree/C. Therefore, there is no information on the dielectric strength of the full-size transformers under bubbling conditions. 4 refs., 28 figs., 45 tabs.« less

  3. A Micro Bubble Structure Based Fabry–Perot Optical Fiber Strain Sensor with High Sensitivity and Low-Cost Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Gui, Zhiguo; Wang, Guanjun; An, Yongquan; Gu, Jinyu; Zhang, Meiqin; Liu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Gao; Jia, Pinggang

    2017-01-01

    A high-sensitivity, low-cost, ultrathin, hollow fiber micro bubble structure was proposed; such a bubble can be used to develop a high-sensitivity strain sensor based on a Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI). The micro bubble is fabricated at the fiber tip by splicing a glass tube to a single mode fiber (SMF) and then the glass tube is filled with gas in order to expand and form a micro bubble. The sensitivity of the strain sensor with a cavity length of about 155 μm and a bubble wall thickness of about 6 μm was measured to be up to 8.14 pm/με. PMID:28282960

  4. A Micro Bubble Structure Based Fabry-Perot Optical Fiber Strain Sensor with High Sensitivity and Low-Cost Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lu; Gui, Zhiguo; Wang, Guanjun; An, Yongquan; Gu, Jinyu; Zhang, Meiqin; Liu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Gao; Jia, Pinggang

    2017-03-09

    A high-sensitivity, low-cost, ultrathin, hollow fiber micro bubble structure was proposed; such a bubble can be used to develop a high-sensitivity strain sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The micro bubble is fabricated at the fiber tip by splicing a glass tube to a single mode fiber (SMF) and then the glass tube is filled with gas in order to expand and form a micro bubble. The sensitivity of the strain sensor with a cavity length of about 155 μm and a bubble wall thickness of about 6 μm was measured to be up to 8.14 pm/μϵ.

  5. An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    PubMed

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  7. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  8. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  9. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.

    2017-01-01

    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  10. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2016-09-01

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong ["Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube," Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221-228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  11. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P., E-mail: spvanka@illinois.edu

    2016-09-15

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gasmore » bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.« less

  12. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  13. Macroscopic Ensembles of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in Bubble Imprints Studied by Polarized Raman Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Ushiba, Shota; Hoyt, Jordan; Masui, Kyoko; ...

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in bubble imprints through polarized Raman microscopy. A hemispherical bubble containing SWCNTs is pressed against a glass substrate, resulting in an imprint of the bubble membrane with a coffee ring on the substrate. We find that macroscopic ensembles of aligned SWCNTs are obtained in the imprints, in which there are three patterns of orientations: (i) azimuthal alignment on the coffee ring, (ii) radial alignment at the edge of the membrane, and (iii) random orientation at the center of the membrane. We also find that the alignment of SWCNTs in the imprintsmore » can be manipulated by spinning bubbles. The orientation of SWCNTs on the coffee ring is directed radially, which is orthogonal to the case of unspun bubbles. This approach enables one to align SWCNTs in large quantities and in a short time, potentially opening up a wide range of CNT-based electronic and optical applications.« less

  14. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  15. Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.

    1999-01-01

    The present investigation reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions, using both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. This study may be used in the conceptual design of a space-based thermal management system. Ensuing two-phase flow void fraction can be accurately monitored using a single nozzle gas injection system within a continuous liquid flow conduit, as utilized in the present investigation. Accurate monitoring of void fraction leads to precise control of heat and mass transfer coefficients related to a thermal management system; hence providing an efficient and highly effective means of removing heat aboard spacecraft or space stations. Our experiments are performed in parabolic flight aboard the modified DC-9 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft at NASA Lewis Research Center, using an air-water system. For the purpose of bubble dispersion in a flowing liquid, we use both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. In the co-flow geometry, air is introduced through a nozzle in the same direction with the liquid flow. On the other hand, in the cross-flow configuration, air is injected perpendicular to the direction of water flow, via a nozzle protruding inside the two-phase flow conduit. Three different flow conduit (pipe) diameters are used, namely, 1.27 cm, 1.9 cm and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of nozzle to pipe diameter (D(sub N))sup * are considered, namely (D(sub N))sup * = 0.1 and 0.2, while superficial liquid velocities are varied from 8 to 70 cm/s depending on flow conduit diameter. It is experimentally observed that by holding all other flow conditions and geometry constant, generated bubbles decrease in size with increase in superficial liquid velocity. Detached bubble diameter is shown to increase with air injection nozzle diameter. Likewise, generated bubbles grow in size with increasing pipe diameter. Along the same lines, it is shown that bubble frequency of formation increases and hence the time to detachment of a

  16. Simulating the universe(s) III: observables for the full bubble collision spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Wainwright, Carroll L.; Aguirre, Anthony; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-07-01

    This is the third paper in a series establishing a quantitative relation between inflationary scalar field potential landscapes and the relic perturbations left by the collision between bubbles produced during eternal inflation. We introduce a new method for computing cosmological observables from numerical relativity simulations of bubble collisions in one space and one time dimension. This method tiles comoving hypersurfaces with locally-perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker coordinate patches. The method extends previous work, which was limited to the spacetime region just inside the future light cone of the collision, and allows us to explore the full bubble-collision spacetime. We validate our new methods against previous work, and present a full set of predictions for the comoving curvature perturbation and local negative spatial curvature produced by identical and non-identical bubble collisions, in single scalar field models of eternal inflation. In both collision types, there is a non-zero contribution to the spatial curvature and cosmic microwave background quadrupole. Some collisions between non-identical bubbles excite wall modes, giving extra structure to the predicted temperature anisotropies. We comment on the implications of our results for future observational searches. For non-identical bubble collisions, we also find that the surfaces of constant field can readjust in the presence of a collision to produce spatially infinite sections that become nearly homogeneous deep into the region affected by the collision. Contrary to previous assumptions, this is true even in the bubble into which the domain wall is accelerating.

  17. Computer modeling movement of biomass in the bioreactors with bubbling mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschev, L. A.; Suslov, D. Yu; Alifanova, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Recently in the Russian Federation there is an observation of the development of biogas technologies which are used in organic waste conversion of agricultural enterprises, consequently improving the ecological environment. To intensify the process and effective outstanding performance of the acquisition of biogas the application of systems of mixing of bubbling is used. In the case of bubbling mixing of biomass in the bioreactor two-phase portions consisting of biomass and bubbles of gas are formed. The bioreactor computer model with bubble pipeline has been made in a vertical spiral form forming a cone type turned upside down. With the help of computing program of OpenFVM-Flow, an evaluation experiment was conducted to determine the key technological parameters of process of bubbling mixing and to get a visual picture of biomass flows distribution in the bioreactor. For the experimental bioreactor the following equation of V=190 l, speed level, the biomass circulation, and the time of a single cycle of uax =0,029 m/s; QC =0,00087 m3/s, Δtbm .=159 s. In future, we plan to conduct a series of theoretical and experimental researches into the mixing frequency influence on the biogas acquisition process effectiveness.

  18. Bubble-free on-chip continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction: concept and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenming; Kang, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2011-06-07

    Bubble formation inside a microscale channel is a significant problem in general microfluidic experiments. The problem becomes especially crucial when performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a chip which is subject to repetitive temperature changes. In this paper, we propose a bubble-free sample injection scheme applicable for continuous-flow PCR inside a glass/PDMS hybrid microfluidic chip, and attempt to provide a theoretical basis concerning bubble formation and elimination. Highly viscous paraffin oil plugs are employed in both the anterior and posterior ends of a sample plug, completely encapsulating the sample and eliminating possible nucleation sites for bubbles. In this way, internal channel pressure is increased, and vaporization of the sample is prevented, suppressing bubble formation. Use of an oil plug in the posterior end of the sample plug aids in maintaining a stable flow of a sample at a constant rate inside a heated microchannel throughout the entire reaction, as compared to using an air plug. By adopting the proposed sample injection scheme, we demonstrate various practical applications. On-chip continuous-flow PCR is performed employing genomic DNA extracted from a clinical single hair root sample, and its D1S80 locus is successfully amplified. Also, chip reusability is assessed using a plasmid vector. A single chip is used up to 10 times repeatedly without being destroyed, maintaining almost equal intensities of the resulting amplicons after each run, ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of the proposed sample injection scheme. In addition, the use of a commercially-available and highly cost-effective hot plate as a potential candidate for the heating source is investigated.

  19. A deep-sea, high-speed, stereoscopic imaging system for in situ measurement of natural seep bubble and droplet characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2015-10-01

    Development, testing, and application of a deep-sea, high-speed, stereoscopic imaging system are presented. The new system is designed for field-ready deployment, focusing on measurement of the characteristics of natural seep bubbles and droplets with high-speed and high-resolution image capture. The stereo view configuration allows precise evaluation of the physical scale of the moving particles in image pairs. Two laboratory validation experiments (a continuous bubble chain and an airstone bubble plume) were carried out to test the calibration procedure, performance of image processing and bubble matching algorithms, three-dimensional viewing, and estimation of bubble size distribution and volumetric flow rate. The results showed that the stereo view was able to improve the individual bubble size measurement over the single-camera view by up to 90% in the two validation cases, with the single-camera being biased toward overestimation of the flow rate. We also present the first application of this imaging system in a study of natural gas seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. The high-speed images reveal the rigidity of the transparent bubble interface, indicating the presence of clathrate hydrate skins on the natural gas bubbles near the source (lowest measurement 1.3 m above the vent). We estimated the dominant bubble size at the seep site Sleeping Dragon in Mississippi Canyon block 118 to be in the range of 2-4 mm and the volumetric flow rate to be 0.2-0.3 L/min during our measurements from 17 to 21 July 2014.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Each Bubble Behavior in Coarsening of Cavitation Bubbles in a Finite Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Shin-Ichi; Nakano, Yuta; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    Recently, several studies using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation have been conducted for investigation of Ostwald ripening of cavitation bubbles in a finite space. The previous studies focused a characteristic length of bubbles as one of the spatially-averaged quantities, but each bubble behavior was not been investigated in detail. The objective of this study is clarification of the characteristics of each bubble behavior in Ostwald ripening, and we conducted MD simulation of a Lennard-Jones fluid in a semi-confined space. As a result, the time dependency of the characteristic length of bubbles as a spatially-averaged quantity suggested that the driving force of the Ostwald ripening is Evaporation/Condensation (EC) across liquid-vapor surface, which is the same result as the previous works. The radius change of the relatively larger bubbles also showed the same tendency to a classical EC model. However, the sufficiently smaller bubbles than the critical size, e.g., the bubbles just before collapsing, showed a different characteristic from the classical EC model. Those smaller bubbles has a tendency to be limited by mechanical non-equilibrium in which viscosity of liquid is dominant rather than by EC across liquid-vapor surface. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K06085.

  1. Bubble memory module for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, P. J.; Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers an all-solid-state alternative for data storage in onboard data systems. A versatile modular bubble memory concept was developed. The key module is the bubble memory module which contains all of the storage devices and circuitry for accessing these devices. This report documents the bubble memory module design and preliminary hardware designs aimed at memory module functional demonstration with available commercial bubble devices. The system architecture provides simultaneous operation of bubble devices to attain high data rates. Banks of bubble devices are accessed by a given bubble controller to minimize controller parts. A power strobing technique is discussed which could minimize the average system power dissipation. A fast initialization method using EEPROM (electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory) devices promotes fast access. Noise and crosstalk problems and implementations to minimize these are discussed. Flight memory systems which incorporate the concepts and techniques of this work could now be developed for applications.

  2. Consistent cosmic bubble embeddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, S. Shajidul; Underwood, Bret

    2017-05-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation for null rays is a powerful tool for finding consistent embeddings of cosmological bubbles in a background spacetime in a way that is largely independent of the matter content. We find that spatially flat or positively curved thin wall bubbles surrounded by a cosmological background must have a Hubble expansion that is either contracting or expanding slower than the background, which is a more stringent constraint than those obtained by the usual Israel thin-wall formalism. Similarly, a cosmological bubble surrounded by Schwarzschild space, occasionally used as a simple "swiss cheese" model of inhomogenities in an expanding universe, must be contracting (for spatially flat and positively curved bubbles) and bounded in size by the apparent horizon.

  3. Sinking bubbles in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; Kaar, S.; O'Brien, S. B. G.

    2018-04-01

    A surprising phenomenon witnessed by many is the sinking bubbles seen in a settling pint of stout beer. Bubbles are less dense than the surrounding fluid so how does this happen? Previous work has shown that the explanation lies in a circulation of fluid promoted by the tilted sides of the glass. However, this work has relied heavily on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Here, we show that the phenomenon of sinking bubbles can be predicted using a simple analytic model. To make the model analytically tractable, we work in the limit of small bubbles and consider a simplified geometry. The model confirms both the existence of sinking bubbles and the previously proposed mechanism.

  4. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-07

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  5. Physical data measurements and mathematical modelling of simple gas bubble experiments in glass melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1986-01-01

    In this work consideration is given to the problem of the extraction of physical data information from gas bubble dissolution and growth measurements. The discussion is limited to the analysis of the simplest experimental systems consisting of a single, one component gas bubble in a glassmelt. It is observed that if the glassmelt is highly under- (super-) saturated, then surface tension effects may be ignored, simplifying the task of extracting gas diffusivity values from the measurements. If, in addition, the bubble rise velocity is very small (or very large) the ease of obtaining physical property data is enhanced. Illustrations are given for typical cases.

  6. Computational investigations of streamers in a single bubble suspended in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water at the atmospheric pressure conditions. The model is based on the self-consistent, multispecies and the continuum description of plasma and takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for a more accurate description of the kinetics of the discharge. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are completely different at low and high over voltages. We observe that the polarity of the trigger voltage has a substantial effect on initiation, transition and evolution stages of streamers with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages due to the presence of multiple streamers. We also find that the presence of water vapor significantly influences the distribution of the dominant species in the streamer trail and has a profound effect on the flux of the dominant species to the bubble wall. The research reported in this publication was supported by Competitive Research Funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

  7. On the dynamics of a shock-bubble interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, James J.; Karni, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of the interaction of a weak shock wave with an isolated cylindrical gas inhomogenity. Such interactions have been studied experimentally in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms whereby shock waves propagating through random media enhance mixing. Our study concentrates on the early phases of the interaction process which are dominated by repeated refractions of acoustic fronts at the bubble interface. Specifically, we have reproduced two of the experiments performed by Haas and Sturtevant : M(sub s) = 1.22 planar shock wave, moving through air, impinges on a cylindrical bubble which contains either helium or Refrigerant 22. These flows are modelled using the two-dimensional, compressible Euler equations for a two component fluid (air-helium or air-Refrigerant 22). Although simulations of shock wave phenomena are now fairly commonplace, they are mostly restricted to single component flows. Unfortunately, multi-component extensions of successful single component schemes often suffer from spurious oscillations which are generated at material interfaces. Here we avoid such problems by employing a novel, nonconservative shock-capturing scheme. In addition, we have utilized a sophisticated adaptive mesh refinement algorithm which enables extremely high resolution simulations to be performed relatively cheaply. Thus we have been able to reproduce numerically all the intricate mechanisms that were observed experimentally (e.g., transitions from regular to irregular refraction, cusp formation and shock wave focusing, multi-shock and Mach shock structures, jet formation, etc.), and we can now present an updated description for the dynamics of a shock-bubble interaction.

  8. Bubble bursting at an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  9. Impact of boundaries on velocity profiles in bubble rafts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhong; Krishan, Kapilanjan; Dennin, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Under conditions of sufficiently slow flow, foams, colloids, granular matter, and various pastes have been observed to exhibit shear localization, i.e., regions of flow coexisting with regions of solidlike behavior. The details of such shear localization can vary depending on the system being studied. A number of the systems of interest are confined so as to be quasi two-dimensional, and an important issue in these systems is the role of the confining boundaries. For foams, three basic systems have been studied with very different boundary conditions: Hele-Shaw cells (bubbles confined between two solid plates); bubble rafts (a single layer of bubbles freely floating on a surface of water); and confined bubble rafts (bubbles confined between the surface of water below and a glass plate on top). Often, it is assumed that the impact of the boundaries is not significant in the "quasistatic limit," i.e., when externally imposed rates of strain are sufficiently smaller than internal kinematic relaxation times. In this paper, we directly test this assumption for rates of strain ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-2) s(-1). This corresponds to the quoted rate of strain that had been used in a number of previous experiments. It is found that the top plate dramatically alters both the velocity profile and the distribution of nonlinear rearrangements, even at these slow rates of strain. When a top is present, the flow is localized to a narrow band near the wall, and without a top, there is flow throughout the system.

  10. Void fraction, bubble size and interfacial area measurements in co-current downflow bubble column reactor with microbubble dispersion

    DOE PAGES

    Hernandez-Alvarado, Freddy; Kalaga, Dinesh V.; Turney, Damon; ...

    2017-05-06

    Micro-bubbles dispersed in bubble column reactors have received great interest in recent years, due to their small size, stability, high gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations and longer residence times. The high gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations lead to high mass transfer rates compared to conventional bubble column reactors. In the present work, experiments have been performed in a down-flow bubble column reactor with micro-bubbles generated and dispersed by a novel mechanism to determine the gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations by measuring the void fraction and bubble size distributions. Gamma-ray densitometry has been employed to determine the axial and radial distributions of void fractionmore » and a high speed camera equipped with a borescope is used to measure the axial and radial variations of bubble sizes. Also, the effects of superficial gas and liquid velocities on the two-phase flow characteristics have been investigated. Further, reconstruction techniques of the radial void fraction profiles from the gamma densitometry's chordal measurements are discussed and compared for a bubble column reactor with dispersed micro-bubbles. The results demonstrate that the new bubble generation technique offers high interfacial area concentrations (1,000 to 4,500 m 2/m 3) with sub-millimeter bubbles (500 to 900 µm) and high overall void fractions (10% – 60%) in comparison with previous bubble column reactor designs. The void fraction data was analyzed using slip velocity model and empirical correlation has been proposed to predict the Sauter mean bubble diameter.« less

  11. Void fraction, bubble size and interfacial area measurements in co-current downflow bubble column reactor with microbubble dispersion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hernandez-Alvarado, Freddy; Kalaga, Dinesh V.; Turney, Damon

    Micro-bubbles dispersed in bubble column reactors have received great interest in recent years, due to their small size, stability, high gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations and longer residence times. The high gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations lead to high mass transfer rates compared to conventional bubble column reactors. In the present work, experiments have been performed in a down-flow bubble column reactor with micro-bubbles generated and dispersed by a novel mechanism to determine the gas-liquid interfacial area concentrations by measuring the void fraction and bubble size distributions. Gamma-ray densitometry has been employed to determine the axial and radial distributions of void fractionmore » and a high speed camera equipped with a borescope is used to measure the axial and radial variations of bubble sizes. Also, the effects of superficial gas and liquid velocities on the two-phase flow characteristics have been investigated. Further, reconstruction techniques of the radial void fraction profiles from the gamma densitometry's chordal measurements are discussed and compared for a bubble column reactor with dispersed micro-bubbles. The results demonstrate that the new bubble generation technique offers high interfacial area concentrations (1,000 to 4,500 m 2/m 3) with sub-millimeter bubbles (500 to 900 µm) and high overall void fractions (10% – 60%) in comparison with previous bubble column reactor designs. The void fraction data was analyzed using slip velocity model and empirical correlation has been proposed to predict the Sauter mean bubble diameter.« less

  12. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2013-01-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones. PMID:24336410

  13. Desulfurization kinetics of molten copper by gas bubbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaka, Y.; Nishikawa, K.; Sohn, H. S.; Asaki, Z.

    1991-02-01

    Molten copper with 0.74 wt pct sulfur content was desulfurized at 1523 K by bubbling Ar-O2 gas through a submerged nozzle. The reaction rate was significantly influenced not only by the oxygen partial pressure but also by the gas flow rate. Little evolution of SO2 gas was observed in the initial 10 seconds of the oxidation; however, this was followed by a period of high evolution rate of SO2 gas. The partial pressure of SO2 gas decreased with further progress of the desulfurization. The effect of the immersion depth of the submerged nozzle was negligible. The overall reaction is decomposed to two elementary reactions: the desulfurization and the dissolution rate of oxygen. The assumptions were made that these reactions are at equilibrium and that the reaction rates are controlled by mass transfer rates within and around the gas bubble. The time variations of sulfur and oxygen contents in the melt and the SO2 partial pressure in the off-gas under various bubbling conditions were well explained by the mathematical model combined with the reported thermodynamic data of these reactions. Based on the present model, it was anticipated that the oxidation rate around a single gas bubble was mainly determined by the rate of gas-phase mass transfer, but all oxygen gas blown into the melt was virtually consumed to the desulfurization and dissolution reactions before it escaped from the melt surface.

  14. Between soap bubbles and vesicles: The dynamics of freely floating smectic bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; May, Kathrin; Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of droplets and bubbles, particularly on microscopic scales, are of considerable importance in biological, environmental, and technical contexts. We introduce freely floating bubbles of smectic liquid crystals and report their unique dynamic properties. Smectic bubbles can be used as simple models for dynamic studies of fluid membranes. In equilibrium, they form minimal surfaces like soap films. However, shape transformations of closed smectic membranes that change the surface area involve the formation and motion of molecular layer dislocations. These processes are slow compared to the capillary wave dynamics, therefore the effective surface tension is zero like in vesicles. Freely floating smectic bubbles are prepared from collapsing catenoid films and their dynamics is studied with optical high-speed imaging. Experiments are performed under normal gravity and in microgravity during parabolic flights. Supported by DLR within grant OASIS-Co.

  15. Liter-scale production of uniform gas bubbles via parallelization of flow-focusing generators.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Yadavali, Sagar; Issadore, David; Lee, Daeyeon

    2017-07-25

    Microscale gas bubbles have demonstrated enormous utility as versatile templates for the synthesis of functional materials in medicine, ultra-lightweight materials and acoustic metamaterials. In many of these applications, high uniformity of the size of the gas bubbles is critical to achieve the desired properties and functionality. While microfluidics have been used with success to create gas bubbles that have a uniformity not achievable using conventional methods, the inherently low volumetric flow rate of microfluidics has limited its use in most applications. Parallelization of liquid droplet generators, in which many droplet generators are incorporated onto a single chip, has shown great promise for the large scale production of monodisperse liquid emulsion droplets. However, the scale-up of monodisperse gas bubbles using such an approach has remained a challenge because of possible coupling between parallel bubbles generators and feedback effects from the downstream channels. In this report, we systematically investigate the effect of factors such as viscosity of the continuous phase, capillary number, and gas pressure as well as the channel uniformity on the size distribution of gas bubbles in a parallelized microfluidic device. We show that, by optimizing the flow conditions, a device with 400 parallel flow focusing generators on a footprint of 5 × 5 cm 2 can be used to generate gas bubbles with a coefficient of variation of less than 5% at a production rate of approximately 1 L h -1 . Our results suggest that the optimization of flow conditions using a device with a small number (e.g., 8) of parallel FFGs can facilitate large-scale bubble production.

  16. Simulating the universe(s) III: observables for the full bubble collision spacetime

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5; Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2016-07-14

    This is the third paper in a series establishing a quantitative relation between inflationary scalar field potential landscapes and the relic perturbations left by the collision between bubbles produced during eternal inflation. We introduce a new method for computing cosmological observables from numerical relativity simulations of bubble collisions in one space and one time dimension. This method tiles comoving hypersurfaces with locally-perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker coordinate patches. The method extends previous work, which was limited to the spacetime region just inside the future light cone of the collision, and allows us to explore the full bubble-collision spacetime. We validate our new methodsmore » against previous work, and present a full set of predictions for the comoving curvature perturbation and local negative spatial curvature produced by identical and non-identical bubble collisions, in single scalar field models of eternal inflation. In both collision types, there is a non-zero contribution to the spatial curvature and cosmic microwave background quadrupole. Some collisions between non-identical bubbles excite wall modes, giving extra structure to the predicted temperature anisotropies. We comment on the implications of our results for future observational searches. For non-identical bubble collisions, we also find that the surfaces of constant field can readjust in the presence of a collision to produce spatially infinite sections that become nearly homogeneous deep into the region affected by the collision. Contrary to previous assumptions, this is true even in the bubble into which the domain wall is accelerating.« less

  17. Leverage bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  18. The Early Years: Blowing Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Blowing bubbles is not only a favorite summer activity for young children. Studying bubbles that are grouped together, or "foam," is fun for children and fascinating to many real-world scientists. Foam is widely used--from the bedroom (mattresses) to outer space (insulating panels on spacecraft). Bubble foam can provide children a…

  19. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO - 60 C 3 F 8 Bubble Chamber

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Arnquist, I. J.

    2017-06-01

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C 3F 8 located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60C 3F 8 exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month.

  20. Nanoparticle coated optical fibers for single microbubble generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2011-09-01

    The study of bubbles and bubbly flows is important in various fields such as physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, and even the food industry. A wide variety of mechanical and acoustic techniques have been reported for bubble generation. Although a single bubble may be generated with these techniques, controlling the size and the mean lifetime of the bubble remains a difficult task. Most of the optical methods for generation of microbubbles involve high-power pulsed laser sources focused in absorbing media such as liquids or particle solutions. With these techniques, single micron-sized bubbles can be generated with typical mean lifetimes ranging from nano to microseconds. The main problem with these bubbles is their abrupt implosion: this produces a shock wave that can potentially produce damages on the surroundings. These effects have to be carefully controlled in biological applications and in laser surgery, but thus far, not many options are available to effectively control micron-size bubble growth. In this paper, we present a new technique to generate microbubbles in non-absorbing liquids. In contrast to previous reports, the proposed technique uses low-power and a CW radiation from a laser diode. The laser light is guided through an optical fiber whose output end has been coated with nanostructures. Upon immersing the tip of the fiber in ethanol or water, micron-size bubbles can be readily generated. With this technique, bubble growth can be controlled through adjustments on the laser power. We have obtained micron-sized bubbles with mean lifetimes in the range of seconds. Furthermore, the generated bubbles do not implode, as verified with a high-speed camera and flow visualization techniques.

  1. Infinite stream of Hele--Shaw bubbles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burgess, D.; Tanveer, S.

    1991-03-01

    Exact solutions are presented for a steady stream of bubbles in a Hele--Shaw cell when the effect of surface tension is neglected. These solutions form a three-parameter family. For specified area and distance between bubbles, the speed of the bubble remains arbitrary when surface tension is neglected. However, numerical and analytical evidence indicates that this arbitrariness is removed by the effect of surface tension. The branch of solutions that corresponds to the McLean--Saffman finger solution were primarily studied. A dramatic increase was observed in bubble speeds when the distance between bubbles is on the order of a bubble diameter, whichmore » may have relevance to experiments done by Maxworthy (J. Fluid Mech. {bold 173}, 95 (1986)).« less

  2. Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2000-10-01

    This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble through experiments that can be performed by undergraduate students. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. It is observed that the change in thickness of a typical shampoo bubble film enclosed in a container is gradual and slow, and the hydrocarbon components of the bubble drain from the bubble much more slowly than water. An additional agent, such as acetonitrile, strikingly alters the dynamics of evolution of such a bubble.

  3. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Filho, Walter Duarte de Araujo; Schneider, Fábio Kurt; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2012-09-20

    Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical applications even when regular air is used as the gas phase. Improved

  4. Bubble baths: just splashing around?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Wesley; Speirs, Nathan; Sharker, Saberul Islam; Hurd, Randy; Williams, Bj; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-11-01

    Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers induce cavity formation by wetting the sphere prior to liquid impact, causing them to form cavities similar to those created by hydrophobic spheres. Droplets present on a pre-wetted sphere disrupt the flow of the advancing liquid during entry, pushing it away from the impacting body to form an entrained air cavity. This phenomena was noted by Worthington with pre-wetted stone marbles, and suggests that the application of a bubble layer is generally ineffective as a means of splash suppression.

  5. Effect of disjoining pressure on terminal velocity of a bubble sliding along an inclined wall.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Lorena A; Ohnishi, Satomi; White, Lee R; Carnie, Steven L; Horn, Roger G

    2011-12-15

    The influence of salt concentration on the terminal velocities of gravity-driven single bubbles sliding along an inclined glass wall has been investigated, in an effort to establish whether surface forces acting between the wall and the bubble influence the latter's mobility. A simple sliding bubble apparatus was employed to measure the terminal velocities of air bubbles with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 mm sliding along the interior wall of an inclined Pyrex glass cylinder with inclination angles between 0.6 and 40.1°. Experiments were performed in pure water, 10 mM and 100 mM KCl solutions. We compared our experimental results with a theory by Hodges et al. which considers hydrodynamic forces only, and with a theory developed by two of us which considers surface forces to play a significant role. Our experimental results demonstrate that the terminal velocity of the bubble not only varies with the angle of inclination and the bubble size but also with the salt concentration, particularly at low inclination angles of ∼1-5°, indicating that double-layer forces between the bubble and the wall influence the sliding behavior. This is the first demonstration that terminal velocities of sliding bubbles are affected by disjoining pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of disjoining pressure on terminal velocity of a bubble sliding along an inclined wall

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, Lorena A.; Ohnishi, Satomi; White, Lee R.; Carnie, Steven L.; Horn, Roger G.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of salt concentration on the terminal velocities of gravity-driven single bubbles sliding along an inclined glass wall has been investigated, in an effort to establish whether surface forces acting between the wall and the bubble influence the latter’s mobility. A simple sliding bubble apparatus was employed to measure the terminal velocities of air bubbles with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 mm sliding along the interior wall of an inclined Pyrex glass cylinder with inclination angles between 0.6 and 40.1°. Experiments were performed in pure water, 10 mM and 100 mM KCl solutions. We compared our experimental results with a theory by Hodges et al. [1] which considers hydrodynamic forces only, and with a theory developed by two of us [2] which considers surface forces to play a significant role. Our experimental results demonstrate that the terminal velocity of the bubble not only varies with the angle of inclination and the bubble size but also with the salt concentration, particularly at low inclination angles of ∼1–5°, indicating that double-layer forces between the bubble and the wall influence the sliding behavior. This is the first demonstration that terminal velocities of sliding bubbles are affected by disjoining pressure. PMID:21924429

  7. Shock-induced collapse of a gas bubble in shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Eric; Colonius, Tim

    2008-10-01

    The shock-induced collapse of a pre-existing nucleus near a solid surface in the focal region of a lithotripter is investigated. The entire flow field of the collapse of a single gas bubble subjected to a lithotripter pulse is simulated using a high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing scheme, and the wall pressure is considered as an indication of potential damage. Results from the computations show the same qualitative behavior as that observed in experiments: a re-entrant jet forms in the direction of propagation of the pulse and penetrates the bubble during collapse, ultimately hitting the distal side and generating a water-hammer shock. As a result of the propagation of this wave, wall pressures on the order of 1 GPa may be achieved for bubbles collapsing close to the wall. The wall pressure decreases with initial stand-off distance and pulse width and increases with pulse amplitude. For the stand-off distances considered in the present work, the wall pressure due to bubble collapse is larger than that due to the incoming shockwave; the region over which this holds may extend to ten initial radii. The present results indicate that shock-induced collapse is a mechanism with high potential for damage in shockwave lithotripsy.

  8. Shock-induced collapse of a gas bubble in shockwave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Eric; Colonius, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The shock-induced collapse of a pre-existing nucleus near a solid surface in the focal region of a lithotripter is investigated. The entire flow field of the collapse of a single gas bubble subjected to a lithotripter pulse is simulated using a high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing scheme, and the wall pressure is considered as an indication of potential damage. Results from the computations show the same qualitative behavior as that observed in experiments: a re-entrant jet forms in the direction of propagation of the pulse and penetrates the bubble during collapse, ultimately hitting the distal side and generating a water-hammer shock. As a result of the propagation of this wave, wall pressures on the order of 1 GPa may be achieved for bubbles collapsing close to the wall. The wall pressure decreases with initial stand-off distance and pulse width and increases with pulse amplitude. For the stand-off distances considered in the present work, the wall pressure due to bubble collapse is larger than that due to the incoming shockwave; the region over which this holds may extend to ten initial radii. The present results indicate that shock-induced collapse is a mechanism with high potential for damage in shockwave lithotripsy. PMID:19062841

  9. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  11. Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on destruction of encapsulated microbubbles under ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Lee, Judy; Tuziuti, Toru; Towata, Atsuya; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo

    2009-09-01

    Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on the pulsation of encapsulated microbubbles has been studied by numerical simulations under the condition of the experiment reported by Chang et al. [IEEE Trans. Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 161 (2001)]. It has been shown that the natural (resonance) frequency of a microbubble decreases considerably as the microbubble concentration increases to relatively high concentrations. At some concentration, the natural frequency may coincide with the driving frequency. Microbubble pulsation becomes milder as the microbubble concentration increases except at around the resonance condition due to the stronger bubble-bubble interaction. This may be one of the reasons why the threshold of acoustic pressure for destruction of an encapsulated microbubble increases as the microbubble concentration increases. A theoretical model for destruction has been proposed.

  12. The production of drops by the bursting of a bubble at an air liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrozes, J. S.; Ligneul, P.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism arising during the bursting of a bubble at an air-liquid interface is described. A single bubble was followed from an arbitrary depth in the liquid, up to the creation and motion of the film and jet drops. Several phenomena were involved and their relative order of magnitude was compared in order to point out the dimensionless parameters which govern each step of the motion. High-speed cinematography is employed. The characteristic bubble radius which separates the creation of jet drops from cap bursting without jet drops is expressed mathematically. The corresponding numerical value for water is 3 mm and agrees with experimental observations.

  13. Dissolving Bubbles in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.; Oronato, P. I.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical expression used to calculate time it takes for stationary bubbles of oxygen and carbon dioxide to dissolve from glass melt. Technique based on analytical expression for bubble radius as function time, with consequences of surface tension included.

  14. Effect of dissolved gases in water on acoustic cavitation and bubble growth rate in 0.83 MHz megasonic of interest to wafer cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong-Kyun; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Jin-Goo

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the cavitation intensity of gases dissolved in water, including H2, N2, and Ar, have been established in studies of acoustic bubble growth rates under ultrasonic fields. Variations in the acoustic properties of dissolved gases in water affect the cavitation intensity at a high frequency (0.83 MHz) due to changes in the rectified diffusion and bubble coalescence rate. It has been proposed that acoustic bubble growth rates rapidly increase when water contains a gas, such as hydrogen faster single bubble growth due to rectified diffusion, and a higher rate of coalescence under Bjerknes forces. The change of acoustic bubble growth rate in rectified diffusion has an effect on the damping constant and diffusivity of gas at the acoustic bubble and liquid interface. It has been suggested that the coalescence reaction of bubbles under Bjerknes forces is a reaction determined by the compressibility and density of dissolved gas in water associated with sound velocity and density in acoustic bubbles. High acoustic bubble growth rates also contribute to enhanced cavitation effects in terms of dissolved gas in water. On the other hand, when Ar gas dissolves into water under ultrasound field, cavitation behavior was reduced remarkably due to its lower acoustic bubble growth rate. It is shown that change of cavitation intensity in various dissolved gases were verified through cleaning experiments in the single type of cleaning tool such as particle removal and pattern damage based on numerically calculated acoustic bubble growth rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Blowing magnetic skyrmion bubbles

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Wanjun; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Zhang, Wei; ...

    2015-06-11

    The formation of soap bubbles from thin films is accompanied by topological transitions. In this paper, we show how a magnetic topological structure, a skyrmion bubble, can be generated in a solid-state system in a similar manner. Using an inhomogeneous in-plane current in a system with broken inversion symmetry, we experimentally “blow” magnetic skyrmion bubbles from a geometrical constriction. The presence of a spatially divergent spin-orbit torque gives rise to instabilities of the magnetic domain structures that are reminiscent of Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities in fluid flows. We determine a phase diagram for skyrmion formation and reveal the efficient manipulation of thesemore » dynamically created skyrmions, including depinning and motion. Finally, the demonstrated current-driven transformation from stripe domains to magnetic skyrmion bubbles could lead to progress in skyrmion-based spintronics.« less

  16. Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-04-15

    Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble.

  17. MR-based detection of individual histotripsy bubble clouds formed in tissues and phantoms.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven P; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Cain, Charles A; Hall, Timothy L

    2016-11-01

    To demonstrate that MR sequences can detect individual histotripsy bubble clouds formed inside intact tissues. A line-scan and an EPI sequence were sensitized to histotripsy by inserting a bipolar gradient whose lobes bracketed the lifespan of a histotripsy bubble cloud. Using a 7 Tesla, small-bore scanner, these sequences monitored histotripsy clouds formed in an agar phantom and in vitro porcine liver and brain. The bipolar gradients were adjusted to apply phase with k-space frequencies of 10, 300 or 400 cm -1 . Acoustic pressure amplitude was also varied. Cavitation was simultaneously monitored using a passive cavitation detection system. Each image captured local signal loss specific to an individual bubble cloud. In the agar phantom, this signal loss appeared only when the transducer output exceeded the cavitation threshold pressure. In tissues, bubble clouds were immediately detected when the gradients created phase with k-space frequencies of 300 and 400 cm -1 . When the gradients created phase with a k-space frequency of 10 cm -1 , individual bubble clouds were not detectable until many acoustic pulses had been applied to the tissue. Cavitation-sensitive MR-sequences can detect single histotripsy bubble clouds formed in biologic tissue. Detection is influenced by the sensitizing gradients and treatment history. Magn Reson Med 76:1486-1493, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Sonochemical and high-speed optical characterization of cavitation generated by an ultrasonically oscillating dental file in root canal models.

    PubMed

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Fernandez Rivas, D; Gardeniers, J G E; van der Sluis, L W M; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation makes use of an ultrasonically oscillating file in order to improve the cleaning of the root canal during a root canal treatment. Cavitation has been associated with these oscillating files, but the nature and characteristics of the cavitating bubbles were not yet fully elucidated. Using sensitive equipment, the sonoluminescence (SL) and sonochemiluminescence (SCL) around these files have been measured in this study, showing that cavitation occurs even at very low power settings. Luminol photography and high-speed visualizations provided information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the cavitation bubbles. A large bubble cloud was observed at the tip of the files, but this was found not to contribute to SCL. Rather, smaller, individual bubbles observed at antinodes of the oscillating file with a smaller amplitude were leading to SCL. Confinements of the size of bovine and human root canals increased the amount of SL and SCL. The root canal models also showed the occurrence of air entrainment, resulting in the generation of stable bubbles, and of droplets, near the air-liquid interface and leading eventually to a loss of the liquid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  20. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  1. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  2. Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.

  3. Bubbles in Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    saturated poroelastic medium. The transition matrix scattering formalism was used to develop the scattered acoustic field(s) such that appropriate...sediment increases from a fluid model (simplest) to a fluid-saturated poroelastic model (most complex). Laboratory experiments in carefully quantified...of a linear acoustic field from a bubble, collection of bubbles, or other targets embedded in a fluid-saturated sediment are not well known. This

  4. Acoustic Methods Remove Bubbles From Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two acoustic methods applied to molten glass or other viscous liquids to remove bubbles. Bubbles are either absorbed or brought to surface by applying high-intensity Sonic field at resonant frequency. Sonic oscillation increases surface area of bubbles and causes them to dissipate.

  5. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2012-02-01

    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  7. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yan, R.; Aluie, H.; Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  8. First Demonstration of a Scintillating Xenon Bubble Chamber for Detecting Dark Matter and Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, D.; Chen, C. J.; Crisler, M.; Cwiok, T.; Dahl, C. E.; Grimsted, A.; Gupta, J.; Jin, M.; Puig, R.; Temples, D.; Zhang, J.

    2017-06-01

    A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events. We report on data from this chamber for thermodynamic "Seitz" thresholds from 4.2 to 15.0 keV. The observed single- and multiple-bubble rates when exposed to a Cf 252 neutron source indicate that, for an 8.3-keV thermodynamic threshold, the minimum nuclear recoil energy required to nucleate a bubble is 19 ±6 keV (1 σ uncertainty). This is consistent with the observed scintillation spectrum for bubble-nucleating events. We see no evidence for bubble nucleation by gamma rays at any of the thresholds studied, setting a 90% C.L. upper limit of 6.3 ×10-7 bubbles per gamma interaction at a 4.2-keV thermodynamic threshold. This indicates stronger gamma discrimination than in CF3 I bubble chambers, supporting the hypothesis that scintillation production suppresses bubble nucleation by electron recoils, while nuclear recoils nucleate bubbles as usual. These measurements establish the noble-liquid bubble chamber as a promising new technology for the detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  9. First demonstration of a scintillating xenon bubble chamber for detecting dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Baxter, D.; Chen, C. J.; Crisler, M.; ...

    2017-06-08

    A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events. We report on data from this chamber for thermodynamic "Seitz" thresholds from 4.2 to 15.0 keV. The observed single- and multiple-bubble rates when exposed to amore » $$^{252}$$Cf neutron source indicate that, for an 8.3-keV thermodynamic threshold, the minimum nuclear recoil energy required to nucleate a bubble is $$19\\pm6$$ keV (1$$\\sigma$$ uncertainty). This is consistent with the observed scintillation spectrum for bubble-nucleating events. We see no evidence for bubble nucleation by gamma rays at any of the thresholds studied, setting a 90% C.L. upper limit of $$6.3\\times10^{-7}$$ bubbles per gamma interaction at a 4.2-keV thermodynamic threshold. This indicates stronger gamma discrimination than in CF$$_3$$I bubble chambers, supporting the hypothesis that scintillation production suppresses bubble nucleation by electron recoils while nuclear recoils nucleate bubbles as usual. Finally, these measurements establish the noble-liquid bubble chamber as a promising new technology for the detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.« less

  10. Surfactants for Bubble Removal against Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Md. Qaisar; Kumar, Nirbhay; Raj, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    The common phenomenon of buoyancy-induced vapor bubble lift-off from a heated surface is of importance to many areas of science and technology. In the absence of buoyancy in zero gravity of space, non-departing bubbles coalesce to form a big dry patch on the heated surface and heat transfer deteriorates despite the high latent heat of vaporization of water. The situation is worse on an inverted heater in earth gravity where both buoyancy and surface tension act upwards to oppose bubble removal. Here we report a robust passive technique which uses surfactants found in common soaps and detergents to avoid coalescence and remove bubbles downwards, away from an inverted heater. A force balance model is developed to demonstrate that the force of repulsion resulting from the interaction of surfactants adsorbed at the neighboring liquid-vapor interfaces of the thin liquid film contained between bubbles is strong enough to overcome buoyancy and surface tension. Bubble removal frequencies in excess of ten Hz resulted in more than twofold enhancement in heat transfer in comparison to pure water. We believe that this novel bubble removal mechanism opens up opportunities for designing boiling-based systems for space applications.

  11. Surfactants for Bubble Removal against Buoyancy

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Md. Qaisar; Kumar, Nirbhay; Raj, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    The common phenomenon of buoyancy-induced vapor bubble lift-off from a heated surface is of importance to many areas of science and technology. In the absence of buoyancy in zero gravity of space, non-departing bubbles coalesce to form a big dry patch on the heated surface and heat transfer deteriorates despite the high latent heat of vaporization of water. The situation is worse on an inverted heater in earth gravity where both buoyancy and surface tension act upwards to oppose bubble removal. Here we report a robust passive technique which uses surfactants found in common soaps and detergents to avoid coalescence and remove bubbles downwards, away from an inverted heater. A force balance model is developed to demonstrate that the force of repulsion resulting from the interaction of surfactants adsorbed at the neighboring liquid-vapor interfaces of the thin liquid film contained between bubbles is strong enough to overcome buoyancy and surface tension. Bubble removal frequencies in excess of ten Hz resulted in more than twofold enhancement in heat transfer in comparison to pure water. We believe that this novel bubble removal mechanism opens up opportunities for designing boiling-based systems for space applications. PMID:26743179

  12. Gas Diffusion in Fluids Containing Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical model describes movement of gases in fluid containing many bubbles. Model makes it possible to predict growth and shrink age of bubbles as function of time. New model overcomes complexities involved in analysis of varying conditions by making two simplifying assumptions. It treats bubbles as point sources, and it employs approximate expression for gas concentration gradient at liquid/bubble interface. In particular, it is expected to help in developing processes for production of high-quality optical glasses in space.

  13. A multi-functional bubble-based microfluidic system

    PubMed Central

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Almansouri, Abdullah; Albloushi, Hamad; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the bubble-based systems have offered a new paradigm in microfluidics. Gas bubbles are highly flexible, controllable and barely mix with liquids, and thus can be used for the creation of reconfigurable microfluidic systems. In this work, a hydrodynamically actuated bubble-based microfluidic system is introduced. This system enables the precise movement of air bubbles via axillary feeder channels to alter the geometry of the main channel and consequently the flow characteristics of the system. Mixing of neighbouring streams is demonstrated by oscillating the bubble at desired displacements and frequencies. Flow control is achieved by pushing the bubble to partially or fully close the main channel. Patterning of suspended particles is also demonstrated by creating a large bubble along the sidewalls. Rigorous analytical and numerical calculations are presented to describe the operation of the system. The examples presented in this paper highlight the versatility of the developed bubble-based actuator for a variety of applications; thus providing a vision that can be expanded for future highly reconfigurable microfluidics. PMID:25906043

  14. The life and death of film bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, S.; Villermaux, E.; Bourouiba, L.

    2017-11-01

    Following its burst, the fragmentation of a large bubble (film bubble) at the air-water interface can release hundreds of micrometer-sized film-drops in the air we breathe. This mechanism of droplet formation is one of the most prominent sources of sea spray. Indoor or outdoor, pathogens from contaminated water are transported by these droplets and have also been linked to respiratory infection. The lifetime and thickness of bubbles govern the number and size of the droplets they produce. Despite these important implications, little is known about the factors influencing the life and death of surface film bubbles. In particular, the fundamental physical mechanisms linking bubble aging, thinning, and lifetime remain poorly understood. To address this gap, we present the results of an extensive investigation of the aging of film-drop-producing bubbles in various ambient air, water composition, and temperature conditions. We present and validate a generalized physical picture and model of bubble cap thickness evolution. The model and physical picture are linked to the lifetime of bubbles via a series of cap rupture mechanisms of increasing efficiency.

  15. Analysis of a deflating soap bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David P.; Sleyman, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    A soap bubble on the end of a cylindrical tube is seen to deflate as the higher pressure air inside the bubble escapes through a tube. We perform an experiment to measure the radius of the slowly deflating bubble and observe that the radius decreases to a minimum before quickly increasing. This behavior reflects the fact that the bubble ends up as a flat surface over the end of the tube. A theoretical analysis reproduces this behavior and compares favorably with the experimental data.

  16. Agitation, Mixing, and Transfers Induced by Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risso, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Bubbly flows involve bubbles randomly distributed within a liquid. At large Reynolds number, they experience an agitation that can combine shear-induced turbulence (SIT), large-scale buoyancy-driven flows, and bubble-induced agitation (BIA). The properties of BIA strongly differ from those of SIT. They have been determined from studies of homogeneous swarms of rising bubbles. Regarding the bubbles, agitation is mainly caused by the wake-induced path instability. Regarding the liquid, two contributions must be distinguished. The first one corresponds to the anisotropic flow disturbances generated near the bubbles, principally in the vertical direction. The second one is the almost isotropic turbulence induced by the flow instability through a population of bubbles, which turns out to be the main cause of horizontal fluctuations. Both contributions generate a k-3 spectral subrange and exponential probability density functions. The subsequent issue will be to understand how BIA interacts with SIT.

  17. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  18. Liquid Oxygen Liquid Acquisition Device Bubble Point Tests with High Pressure LOX at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2011-01-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth s gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMD) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122K) as part of NASA s continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  19. Transient bubbles, bublets and breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Giles; Blake, John

    1999-11-01

    The non-spherical nature of the collapse of bubbles has important ramifications in many practical situations such as ultrasonic cleaning, tanning of leather, and underwater explosions. In particular the high speed liquid jet that can thread a collapsing bubble is central to the functional performance. An impressive photographic record of a liquid jet was obtained by Crum using a bubble situated in the vicinity of a platform oscillating vertically at a frequency of 60 Hz. A boundary integral method is used to model this situation and is found to closely mimic some of the observations. However, a slight variation of parameters or a change in the phase of the driving frequency can lead to dramatically different bubble behaviour, a feature also observed by Crum.

  20. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speedmore » of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.« less

  1. Let Them Blow Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenic, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities and demonstrations involving the science of soap bubbles. Starts with a recipe for bubble solution and gives instructions for several activities on topics such as density, interference colors, optics, static electricity, and galaxy formation. Contains some background information to help explain some of the effects.…

  2. MOBI: Microgravity Observations of Bubble Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Donald L.; Sangani, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties affecting the design of multiphase flow technologies for space exploration is the spatial distribution of phases that will arise in microgravity or reduced gravity. On Earth, buoyancy-driven motion predominates whereas the shearing of the bubble suspension controls its behavior in microgravity. We are conducting a series of ground-based experiments and a flight experiment spanning the full range of ratios of buoyancy to shear. These include: (1) bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid in a vertical channel; (2) weak shear flow induced by slightly inclining the channel; (3) moderate shear flow in a terrestrial vertical pipe flow; and (4) shearing of a bubble suspension in a cylindrical Couette cell in microgravity. We consider nearly monodisperse suspensions of 1 to 1.8 mm diameter bubbles in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The liquid velocity disturbance produced by bubbles in this size range can often be described using an inviscid analysis. Electrolytic solutions lead to hydrophilic repulsion forces that stabilize the bubble suspension without causing Marangoni stresses. We will discuss the mechanisms that control the flow behavior and phase distribution in the ground-based experiments and speculate on the factors that may influence the suspension flow and bubble volume fraction distribution in the flight experiment.

  3. Average properties of bidisperse bubbly flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-García, J. C.; Mendez-Díaz, S.; Zenit, R.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the properties of a bubbly flow composed of two distinct bubble size species. Bubbles were produced using a capillary bank with tubes with two distinct inner diameters; the flow through each capillary size was controlled such that the amount of large or small bubbles could be controlled. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, a wide range of Reynolds and Weber number ranges were investigated. The gas volume fraction ranged between 0.5% and 6%. The measurements of the mean bubble velocity of each species and the liquid velocity variance were obtained and contrasted with the monodisperse flows with equivalent gas volume fractions. We found that the bidispersity can induce a reduction of the mean bubble velocity of the large species; for the small size species, the bubble velocity can be increased, decreased, or remain unaffected depending of the flow conditions. The liquid velocity variance of the bidisperse flows is, in general, bound by the values of the small and large monodisperse values; interestingly, in some cases, the liquid velocity fluctuations can be larger than either monodisperse case. A simple model for the liquid agitation for bidisperse flows is proposed, with good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  4. Influences of non-uniform pressure field outside bubbles on the propagation of acoustic waves in dilute bubbly liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Du, Xiaoze

    2015-09-01

    Predictions of the propagation of the acoustic waves in bubbly liquids is of great importance for bubble dynamics and related applications (e.g. sonochemistry, sonochemical reactor design, biomedical engineering). In the present paper, an approach for modeling the propagation of the acoustic waves in dilute bubbly liquids is proposed through considering the non-uniform pressure field outside the bubbles. This approach is validated through comparing with available experimental data in the literature. Comparing with the previous models, our approach mainly improves the predictions of the attenuation of acoustic waves in the regions with large kR0 (k is the wave number and R0 is the equilibrium bubble radius). Stability of the oscillating bubbles under acoustic excitation are also quantitatively discussed based on the analytical solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.

  6. Bifurcation scenarios for bubbling transition.

    PubMed

    Zimin, Aleksey V; Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical systems with chaos on an invariant submanifold can exhibit a type of behavior called bubbling, whereby a small random or fixed perturbation to the system induces intermittent bursting. The bifurcation to bubbling occurs when a periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor in the invariant manifold becomes unstable to perturbations transverse to the invariant manifold. Generically the periodic orbit can become transversely unstable through a pitchfork, transcritical, period-doubling, or Hopf bifurcation. In this paper a unified treatment of the four types of bubbling bifurcation is presented. Conditions are obtained determining whether the transition to bubbling is soft or hard; that is, whether the maximum burst amplitude varies continuously or discontinuously with variation of the parameter through its critical value. For soft bubbling transitions, the scaling of the maximum burst amplitude with the parameter is derived. For both hard and soft transitions the scaling of the average interburst time with the bifurcation parameter is deduced. Both random (noise) and fixed (mismatch) perturbations are considered. Results of numerical experiments testing our theoretical predictions are presented.

  7. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. As a result, the vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  8. Thermal stability of bubble domains in ferromagnetic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrkac, G.; Bance, S.; Goncharov, A.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.

    2007-05-01

    The transition and thermal stability of disc-shaped ferromagnetic particles at the temperature of T = 300 K with a uniaxial anisotropy along the symmetry axis from a bi-domain to a single domain state has been studied. The nudge elastic band method was used to map the energy landscape and to calculate the energy barrier between the transition states. For single FePt disc-shaped particles with perpendicular anisotropy three transition configurations have been found: single domain, stripe- and stable bubble domains at zero applied field. The single domain configuration along the positive anisotropy axis is reached by an annihilation process of the domain wall and the all-down state by a complex domain expansion process. Magnetization configurations in two interacting discs show an increase in thermal stability compared with single disc systems, which is attributed to the interacting magnetostatic energy between the two particles.

  9. The Minnaert bubble: an acoustic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaud, Martin; Hocquet, Thierry; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Leroy, Valentin

    2008-11-01

    We propose an ab initio introduction to the well-known Minnaert pulsating bubble at graduate level. After a brief recall of the standard stuff, we begin with a detailed discussion of the radial movements of an air bubble in water. This discussion is managed from an acoustic point of view, and using the Lagrangian rather than the Eulerian variables. In unbounded water, the air-water system has a continuum of eigenmodes, some of them correspond to regular Fabry-Pérot resonances. A singular resonance, the lowest one, is shown to coincide with that of Minnaert. In bounded water, the eigenmodes spectrum is discrete, with a finite fundamental frequency. A spectacular quasi-locking of the latter occurs if it happens to exceed the Minnaert frequency, which provides an unforeseen one-bubble alternative version of the famous 'hot chocolate effect'. In the (low) frequency domain in which sound propagation inside the bubble reduces to a simple 'breathing' (i.e. inflation/deflation), the light air bubble can be 'dressed' by the outer water pressure forces, and is turned into the heavy Minnaert bubble. Thanks to this unexpected renormalization process, we demonstrate that the Minnaert bubble definitely behaves like a true harmonic oscillator of the spring-bob type, but with a damping term and a forcing term in apparent disagreement with those commonly admitted in the literature. Finally, we underline the double role played by the water. In order to tell the water motion associated with water compressibility (i.e. the sound) from the simple incompressible accompaniment of the bubble breathing, we introduce a new picture analogous to the electromagnetic radiative picture in Coulomb gauge, which naturally leads us to split the water displacement in an instantaneous and a retarded part. The Minnaert renormalized mass of the dressed bubble is then automatically recovered.

  10. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  11. Fearless versus fearful speculative financial bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. V.; Sornette, D.

    2004-06-01

    Using a recently introduced rational expectation model of bubbles, based on the interplay between stochasticity and positive feedbacks of prices on returns and volatility, we develop a new methodology to test how this model classifies nine time series that have been previously considered as bubbles ending in crashes. The model predicts the existence of two anomalous behaviors occurring simultaneously: (i) super-exponential price growth and (ii) volatility growth, that we refer to as the “fearful singular bubble” regime. Out of the nine time series, we find that five pass our tests and can be characterized as “fearful singular bubbles”. The four other cases are the information technology Nasdaq bubble and three bubbles of the Hang Seng index ending in crashes in 1987, 1994 and 1997. According to our analysis, these four bubbles have developed with essentially no significant increase of their volatility. This paper thus proposes that speculative bubbles ending in crashes form two groups hitherto unrecognized, namely those accompanied by increasing volatility (reflecting increasing risk perception) and those without change of volatility (reflecting an absence of risk perception).

  12. Simulations of Bubble Motion in an Oscillating Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraynik, A. M.; Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    Finite-element simulations are used to investigate the motion of a gas bubble in a liquid undergoing vertical vibration. The effect of bubble compressibility is studied by comparing "compressible" bubbles that obey the ideal gas law with "incompressible" bubbles that are taken to have constant volume. Compressible bubbles exhibit a net downward motion away from the free surface that does not exist for incompressible bubbles. Net (rectified) velocities are extracted from the simulations and compared with theoretical predictions. The dependence of the rectified velocity on ambient gas pressure, bubble diameter, and bubble depth are in agreement with the theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Time-evolving bubbles in two-dimensional stokes flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, Saleh; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.

    1994-01-01

    A general class of exact solutions is presented for a time evolving bubble in a two-dimensional slow viscous flow in the presence of surface tension. These solutions can describe a bubble in a linear shear flow as well as an expanding or contracting bubble in an otherwise quiescent flow. In the case of expanding bubbles, the solutions have a simple behavior in the sense that for essentially arbitrary initial shapes the bubble will asymptote an expanding circle. Contracting bubbles, on the other hand, can develop narrow structures ('near-cusps') on the interface and may undergo 'break up' before all the bubble-fluid is completely removed. The mathematical structure underlying the existence of these exact solutions is also investigated.

  14. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gumerov, N. A., E-mail: gumerov@umiacs.umd.edu; Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076; Akhatov, I. S.

    Experiments with water–air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ∼100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ∼30 μm in diameter can be “pushed” away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.

  15. Hubble's Cosmic Bubbles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This entrancing image shows a few of the tenuous threads that comprise Sh2-308, a faint and wispy shell of gas located 5,200 light-years away in the constellation of Canis Major (The Great Dog). Sh2-308 is a large bubble-like structure wrapped around an extremely large, bright type of star known as a Wolf-Rayet Star — this particular star is called EZ Canis Majoris. These type of stars are among the brightest and most massive stars in the Universe, tens of times more massive than our own sun, and they represent the extremes of stellar evolution. Thick winds continually poured off the progenitors of such stars, flooding their surroundings and draining the outer layers of the Wolf-Rayet stars. The fast wind of a Wolf-Rayet star therefore sweeps up the surrounding material to form bubbles of gas. EZ Canis Majoris is responsible for creating the bubble of Sh2-308 — the star threw off its outer layers to create the strands visible here. The intense and ongoing radiation from the star pushes the bubble out farther and farther, blowing it bigger and bigger. Currently the edges of Sh2-308 are some 60 light-years apart! Beautiful as these cosmic bubbles are, they are fleeting. The same stars that form them will also cause their death, eclipsing and subsuming them in violent supernova explosions. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Bubbly Little Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this processed Spitzer Space Telescope image, baby star HH 46/47 can be seen blowing two massive 'bubbles.' The star is 1,140 light-years away from Earth.

    The infant star can be seen as a white spot toward the center of the Spitzer image. The two bubbles are shown as hollow elliptical shells of bluish-green material extending from the star. Wisps of green in the image reveal warm molecular hydrogen gas, while the bluish tints are formed by starlight scattered by surrounding dust.

    These bubbles formed when powerful jets of gas, traveling at 200 to 300 kilometers per second, or about 120 to 190 miles per second, smashed into the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that surrounds HH 46/47. The red specks at the end of each bubble show the presence of hot sulfur and iron gas where the star's narrow jets are currently crashing head-on into the cosmic cloud's gas and dust material.

    Whenever astronomers observe a star, or snap a stellar portrait, through the lens of any telescope, they know that what they are seeing is slightly blurred. To clear up the blurring in Spitzer images, astronomers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed an image processing technique for Spitzer called Hi-Res deconvolution.

    This process reduces blurring and makes the image sharper and cleaner, enabling astronomers to see the emissions around forming stars in greater detail. When scientists applied this image processing technique to the Spitzer image of HH 46/47, they were able to see winds from the star and jets of gas that are carving the celestial bubbles.

    This infrared image is a three-color composite, with data at 3.6 microns represented in blue, 4.5 and 5.8 microns shown in green, and 24 microns represented as red.

  17. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  18. The influence of medium elasticity on the prediction of histotripsy-induced bubble expansion and erythrocyte viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.

    2018-05-01

    Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy). No bubble expansion was computed for either form of histotripsy when the elastic modulus was greater than 20 MPa and the peak negative pressure was less than 50 MPa. Strain in the medium due to the expansion of a single bubble was also tabulated. The viability of red blood cells was calculated as a function of distance from the bubble wall based on empirical data of impulsive stretching of erythrocytes. Red blood cells remained viable at distances further than 44 µm from the bubble wall. As the medium elasticity increased, the distance over which bubble expansion-induced strain influenced red blood cells was found to decrease sigmoidally. These results highlight the relationship between tissue elasticity and the efficacy of histotripsy. In addition, an upper medium elasticity limit was identified, above which histotripsy may not be effective for tissue liquefaction.

  19. Bubble Dynamics in Polymer Solutions Undergoing Shear.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    cavitation bubble in water has been established as the fundamental theoretical approach to understanding this phenomenon. LA_ Laser -induced...cavitation inception. 1-2 Polymer effects on cavity appearance. 2-1 Spherical laser -induced bubble dynamics. 2-2 Vapor cavity jet formation. 2-3 Bubble...distilled water. 2-6B Nonspherical bubble dynamics in dilute polymer. 3-1 Closed-loop hydraulic cavitation tunnel. 3-2 Laser system optical components. 3-3

  20. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  1. What selects the velocity of fingers and bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Giovani; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark; Brum, Arthur

    2017-11-01

    It has been widely accepted that surface tension is responsible for the selection of a single pattern out of a continuum of steady solutions for the interface dynamics. Recently, however, it was demonstrated by using time-dependent solutions that surface tension is not required for velocity selection in a Hele-Shaw cell: the velocity is selected entirely within the zero surface tension dynamics, as the selected pattern is the only attractor of the dynamics. These works changed the paradigm regarding the necessity of surface tension for selection, but were limited to a single interface. Here we show that the same selection mechanism holds for any number of interfaces. We present a new class of exact solutions for multiple time-evolving bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. The solution is given by a conformal mapping from a multiply connected domain and is written in closed form in terms of certain special functions (the secondary Schottky-Klein prime functions). We demonstrate that the bubbles reach an asymptotic steady velocity, U, which is twice greater than the velocity, V, of the uniform background flow, i.e., U = 2 V . The result does not depend on the number of bubbles. This confirms the prediction that contrary to common belief velocity selection does not require surface tension

  2. Bubble contraction in free-boundary Hele-Shaw flow with surface tension and kinetic undercooling regularisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallaston, Michael; McCue, Scott

    2012-11-01

    When an inviscid bubble expands into a viscous fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell, the bubble boundary is unstable, in general forming long fingers (the Saffman-Taylor instability). In order to make the problem well-posed, a regularising boundary effect must be included. The most widely studied of these are surface tension, which penalises high curvatures, and kinetic undercooling, which penalises high velocities. Both these effects act as a stabilising influence on the free boundary. Less attention has been paid to the case of contracting bubbles, which shrink to a single point (or points) in finite time. In this case, the two effects are in competition, as surface tension stabilises the boundary, while kinetic undercooling destabilises it. This leads to bifurcation behaviour in the asymptotic (near-extinction) shape of the bubble as the relative strengths of the two effects are varied. In particular, there is a critical range of parameter values for which both circular and slit-type bubbles are stable, with a third (unstable) oval-type shape also present. We discuss some numerical and analytic techniques for solving the full free boundary problem and for exploring this interesting extinction behaviour.

  3. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It canmore » generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.« less

  4. Lab-on-a-bubble: direct and indirect assays with portable Raman instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, Keith; Schmit, Virginia; Scott, Brandon; Martoglio, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Lab-on-a-Bubble (LoB) is a new method for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) assays that combines separationand concentration of the assay results. A direct LoB assay is comprised of gold nanoparticles coupled directly to the ~30 μm diameter buoyant silica bubble. The direct LoB method was evaluated with cyanide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). An indirect assay uses the same ~ 30 μm diameter buoyant silica bubble and a silica coated SERS reporter. Both the bubble and SERS reporter are coated with a coupling agent for the analyte. The assay measures the amount of SERS reporter coupled to the bubble through a sandwich created by the analyte. The couling agent could consist of an immunological coupling agent (antibody) or a nucleic acid coupling agent (single strand DNA). The indirect LoB method was examined with Cholera toxin (CT) and antibodies against the β subunit. An LOD of ~ 170 pptrillion was measured for cyanide and a limit of detection of 1100 ng was found for CT. Instrumentation for the assay and a novel technique of dynamic SERS (DSERS) will also be discussed. The instrument is a small hand-held Raman device called the CBEx (Chemical Biological Explosive) with a novel raster system to detect heterogeneous or light sensitive materials. DSERS is a mathematical algorithm which eliminates background interference in SERS measurements with colloidal nanoparticles.

  5. Cartilage formation in the CELLS 'double bubble' hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Arizpe, Jorge; Montufar-Solis, Dina

    1991-01-01

    The CELLS experiment scheduled to be flown on the first International Microgravity Laboratory is designed to study the effect of microgravity on the cartilage formation, by measuring parameters of growth in a differentiating cartilage cell culture. This paper investigates the conditions for this experiment by studying cartilage differentiation in the 'bubble exchange' hardware with the 'double bubble' design in which the bubbles are joined by a flange which also overlays the gasket. Four types of double bubbles (or double gas permeable membranes) were tested: injection-molded bubbles 0.01- and 0.005-in. thick, and compression molded bubbles 0.015- and 0.01-in. thick. It was found that double bubble membranes of 0.005- and 0.010-in. thickness supported cartilage differentiation, while the 0.015-in. bubbles did not. It was also found that nodule count, used in this study as a parameter, is not the best measure of the amount of cartilage differentiation.

  6. Effects of floc and bubble size on the efficiency of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschung-il; Kim, Jinho

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a method for removing particles from water using micro bubbles instead of settlement. The process has proved to be successful and, since the 1960s, accepted as an alternative to the conventional sedimentation process for water and wastewater treatment. However, limited research into the process, especially the fundamental characteristics of bubbles and particles, has been carried out. The single collector collision model is not capable of determining the effects of particular characteristics, such as the size and surface charge of bubbles and particles. Han has published a set of modeling results after calculating the collision efficiency between bubbles and particles by trajectory analysis. His major conclusion was that collision efficiency is maximum when the bubbles and particles are nearly the same size but have opposite charge. However, experimental verification of this conclusion has not been carried out yet. This paper describes a new method for measuring the size of particles and bubbles developed using computational image analysis. DAF efficiency is influenced by the effect of the recycle ratio on various average floc sizes. The larger the recycle ratio, the higher the DAF efficiency at the same pressure and particle size. The treatment efficiency is also affected by the saturation pressure, because the bubble size and bubble volume concentration are controlled by the pressure. The highest efficiency is obtained when the floc size is larger than the bubble size. These results, namely that the highest collision efficiency occurs when the particles and bubbles are about the same size, are more in accordance with the trajectory model than with the white water collector model, which implies that the larger the particles, the higher is the collision efficiency.

  7. Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.

  8. The Big-Bubble Full Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Technique in Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Buzzonetti, Luca; Petrocelli, Gianni; Valente, Paola; Iarossi, Giancarlo; Ardia, Roberta; Petroni, Sergio; Parrilla, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    To describe the big-bubble full femtosecond laser-assisted (BBFF) technique, which could be helpful in standardizing the big-bubble technique in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Ten eyes of 10 consecutive patients affected by keratoconus underwent the BBFF technique using the 150-kHz IntraLase femtosecond laser (Intra-Lase FS Laser; Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA). A 9-mm diameter metal mask with a single fissure 0.7 mm wide oriented at the 12-o'clock position was positioned into the cone, over the laser glass. The laser performed a ring lamellar cut (internal diameter = 3 mm; external diameter = 8 mm) 100 µm above the thinnest point, with the photodisruption effectively occurring only in the corneal stroma corresponding to the fissure to create a deep stromal channel; subsequently, an anterior side cut created an arcuate incision, from the corneal surface to the deep stromal channel on the mask's opening site. The mask was removed and the laser performed a full lamellar cut 200 µm above the thinnest point to create a lamella. After the removal of the lamella, the air needle was inserted into the stromal channel and air was injected to achieve a big bubble. The big bubble was achieved in 9 eyes (all type 1 bubbles) and all procedures were completed as DALK. Preliminary results suggest that the BBFF technique could help in standardizing the big-bubble technique in DALK, reducing the "learning curve" for surgeons who approach this technique and the risks of intraoperative complications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  10. Bubbling cell death: A hot air balloon released from the nucleus in the cold

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as “formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death.” When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided. PMID:27075929

  11. Anterior Chamber Air Bubble to Achieve Graft Attachment After DMEK: Is Bigger Always Better?

    PubMed

    Ćirković, Aleksandar; Beck, Christina; Weller, Julia M; Kruse, Friedrich E; Tourtas, Theofilos

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the influence of the size of the air bubble subsequent to Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery on the rate of graft detachment and need for rebubbling, the incidence of pupillary block, and the observed endothelial cell loss. This is a single-center, retrospective, consecutive case series of 74 cases undergoing DMEK and fulfilling the inclusion criteria concerning the size of the air bubble at the end of surgery. Based on the medical records, patients were divided into 2 groups (n = 37, respectively). The first group had an air bubble with a volume of approximately 50% and the second group of approximately 80% of the anterior chamber (AC) volume, respectively. Patients who did not comply with instructions to remain in the supine position until complete resorption of AC air or cases in which difficulties in graft preparation (eg, radial breaks) occurred were excluded from data analysis. The central corneal thickness and endothelial cell density were measured 6 months after surgery. Ten of 37 patients (27.0%) in the 50% air bubble group and 3 of 37 patients (8.1%) in the 80% air bubble group needed 1 rebubbling procedure (P = 0.032). There was no difference between the groups after 6 months regarding endothelial cell density and central corneal thickness. No pupillary block was observed. Larger air bubbles of 80% anterior chamber volume decrease the risk of graft detachment after DMEK with no detrimental effect on the outcome and risk for pupillary block.

  12. Remobilizing the Interface of Thermocapillary Driven Bubbles Retarded By the Adsorption of a Surfactant Impurity on the Bubble Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaparthi, Ravi; Maldarelli, Charles; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermocapillary migration is a method for moving bubbles in space in the absence of buoyancy. A temperature gradient is the continuous phase in which a bubble is situated, and the applied gradient impressed on the bubble surface causes one pole of the drop to be cooler than the opposite pole. As the surface tension is a decreasing function of temperature, the cooler pole pulls at the warmer pole, creating a flow that propels the bubble in the direction of the warmer fluid. A major impediment to the practical use of thermocapillary to direct the movement of bubbles in space is the fact that surfactant impurities, which are unavoidably present in the continuous phase, can significantly reduce the migration velocity. A surfactant impurity adsorbed onto the bubble interface is swept to the trailing end of the bubble. When bulk concentrations are low (which is the case with an impurity), diffusion of surfactant to the front end is slow relative to convection, and surfactant collects at the back end of the bubble. Collection at the back lowers the surface tension relative to the front end setting up a reverse tension gradient. (This can also be the case if kinetic desorption of surfactant at the back end of the bubble is much slower than convection.) For buoyancy driven bubble motions in the absence of a thermocapillarity, the tension gradient opposes the surface flow, and reduces the surface and terminal velocities (the interface becomes more solid-like and bubbles translate as solid particles). When thermocapillary forces are present, the reverse tension gradient set up by the surfactant accumulation reduces the temperature-induced tension gradient, and can decrease to near zero the bubble's thermocapillary velocity. The objective of our research is to develop a method for enhancing the thermocapillary migration of bubbles which have be retarded by the adsorption onto the bubble surface of a surfactant impurity. Our remobilization theory proposes to use surfactant

  13. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong

    2017-12-01

    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.

  14. Interaction dynamics of temporal and spatial separated cavitation bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2010-02-01

    The LASIK procedure is a well established laser based treatment in ophthalmology. Nowadays it includes a cutting of the corneal tissue bases on ultra short pulses which are focused below the tissue surface to create an optical breakdown and hence a dissection of the tissue. The energy of the laser pulse is absorbed by non-linear processes that result in an expansion of a cavitation bubble and rupturing of the tissue. Due to a reduction of the duration of treatment the current development of ultra short laser systems points to higher repetition rates. This in turn results in a probable interaction between different cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. We present a high-speed photography analysis of cavitation bubble interaction for two spatial separated laser-induced optical breakdowns varying the laser pulse energy as well as the spatial distance. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape, asymmetric water streams and jet formation were observed. The results of this research can be used to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra short pulse laser systems with high repetition rates (> 1 MHz).

  15. Sensitivity of a bubble growth to the cheese material properties during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua, G.; Grenier, D.; Lucas, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a model of transport phenomena describes a single bubble growth in semi-hard cheese. Carbon dioxide production, its transport to the bubble interface, equilibrium laws and mechanics were coupled. Semi-hard cheese mainly behaves as elastic when loads are quickly applied to a piece of cheese like during chewing (few seconds). However, when slowly loaded with increasing gas pressure during ripening in warm room, the mechanical cheese behavior can be simply modelled as a viscous material (Grenier et al. [9]). It is true, as long as viscosity remains low compared to the rate of gas production. This paper investigates a wider range of viscosity (from core η = 6.32 × 107 Pa.s to rind η = 2.88 × 108 Pa.s) than that used in previous studies. FEM simulations have shown that higher viscosities encountered close to the rind of a cheese block can partly explain the increase in gas pressure within bubbles from the core to the rind (up to 3.4 kPa). These results confirm that mechanics does not really control the evolution of bubble volume in cheese. However, mechanics can explain greater pressure observed close to the rind even if gas production is lower than at core.

  16. Turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air-bubbles clustered near the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakehal, D.; Métrailler, D.; Reboux, S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results of a turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air bubbles clustered near the wall (maximum void fraction of α = 8% at y+ ˜ 20). The bubbles were fully resolved using the level set approach built within the CFD/CMFD code TransAT. The fluid properties (air and water) were kept real, including density, viscosity, and surface tension coefficient. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the bubbles on near-wall turbulence, paving the way towards convective wall-boiling flow studies. The interactions between the gas bubbles and the water stream were studied through an in-depth analysis of the turbulence statistics. The near-wall flow is overall affected by the bubbles, which act like roughness elements during the early phase, prior to their departure from the wall. The average profiles are clearly altered by the bubbles dynamics near the wall, which somewhat contrasts with the findings from similar studies [J. Lu and G. Tryggvason, "Dynamics of nearly spherical bubbles in a turbulent channel upflow," J. Fluid Mech. 732, 166 (2013)], most probably because the bubbles were introduced uniformly in the flow and not concentrated at the wall. The shape of the bubbles measured as the apparent to initial diameter ratio is found to change by a factor of at least two, in particular at the later stages when the bubbles burst out from the boundary layer. The clustering of the bubbles seems to be primarily localized in the zone populated by high-speed streaks and independent of their size. More importantly, the bubbly flow seems to differ from the single-phase flow in terms of turbulent stress distribution and energy exchange, in which all the stress components seem to be increased in the region very close to the wall, by up to 40%. The decay in the energy spectra near the wall was found to be significantly slower for the bubbly flow than for a single-phase flow, which

  17. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dudik, J.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.

    We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outsidemore » of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.« less

  18. Analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics in a liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenot, L. L.; Lee, Y. C.

    1971-01-01

    General differential equations governing the dynamics of the cavitation bubbles in a liquid were derived. With the assumption of spherical symmetry the governing equations were simplified. Closed form solutions were obtained for simple cases, and numerical solutions were calculated for complicated ones. The growth and the collapse of the bubble were analyzed, oscillations of the bubbles were studied, and the stability of the cavitation bubbles were investigated. The results show that the cavitation bubbles are unstable, and the oscillation is not sinusoidal.

  19. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Single-shot characterization of enzymatic reaction constants Km and kcat by an acoustic-driven, bubble-based fast micromixer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Ahmed, Daniel; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Wang, Lin; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-09-04

    In this work we present an acoustofluidic approach for rapid, single-shot characterization of enzymatic reaction constants K(m) and k(cat). The acoustofluidic design involves a bubble anchored in a horseshoe structure which can be stimulated by a piezoelectric transducer to generate vortices in the fluid. The enzyme and substrate can thus be mixed rapidly, within 100 ms, by the vortices to yield the product. Enzymatic reaction constants K(m) and k(cat) can then be obtained from the reaction rate curves for different concentrations of substrate while holding the enzyme concentration constant. We studied the enzymatic reaction for β-galactosidase and its substrate (resorufin-β-D-galactopyranoside) and found K(m) and k(cat) to be 333 ± 130 μM and 64 ± 8 s(-1), respectively, which are in agreement with published data. Our approach is valuable for studying the kinetics of high-speed enzymatic reactions and other chemical reactions.

  1. A note on effects of rational bubble on portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-yan

    2018-02-01

    In general, demand increases in wealth and decreases in price in microeconomics. We thereby propose a completely different perspective. By establishing expected utility function of investors, this article introduces one rational bubble asset and one bubble free asset in portfolios and focuses on the effects of bubble on investment portfolios from wealth and price perspectives. All conclusions are obtained by theoretical analysis with microeconomics theory. We argue that inferior goods and Giffen behavior can occur for the bubble free asset in microeconomic fields. The results can help investors to recognize bubble assets and bubble free assets more scientifically. Both bubble and bubble free assets can be inferior goods under some conditions, so we cannot to say which asset better than the other one absolutely.

  2. Bubble nucleation in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; McKechnie, J. S.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Bubble nucleation in weakly supersaturated solutions of carbon dioxide—such as champagne, sparkling wines, and carbonated beers—is well understood. Bubbles grow and detach from nucleation sites: gas pockets trapped within hollow cellulose fibers. This mechanism appears not to be active in stout beers that are supersaturated solutions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In their canned forms these beers require additional technology (widgets) to release the bubbles which will form the head of the beer. We extend the mathematical model of bubble nucleation in carbonated liquids to the case of two gases and show that this nucleation mechanism is active in stout beers, though substantially slower than in carbonated beers and confirm this by observation. A rough calculation suggests that despite the slowness of the process, applying a coating of hollow porous fibers to the inside of a can or bottle could be a potential replacement for widgets.

  3. Using an Ultrasonic Instrument to Size Extravascular Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magari, Patrick J.; Kline-Schroder, J.; Kenton, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing development project, microscopic bubbles in extravascular tissue in a human body will be detected by use of an enhanced version of the apparatus described in Ultrasonic Bubble- Sizing Instrument (MSC-22980), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2000), page 62. To recapitulate: The physical basis of the instrument is the use of ultrasound to excite and measure the resonant behavior (oscillatory expansion and contraction) of bubbles. The resonant behavior is a function of the bubble diameter; the instrument exploits the diameter dependence of the resonance frequency and the general nonlinearity of the ultrasonic response of bubbles to detect bubbles and potentially measure their diameters. In the cited prior article, the application given most prominent mention was the measurement of gaseous emboli (essentially, gas bubbles in blood vessels) that cause decompression sickness and complications associated with cardiopulmonary surgery. According to the present proposal, the instrument capabilities would be extended to measure extravascular bubbles with diameters in the approximate range of 1 to 30 m. The proposed use of the instrument could contribute further to the understanding and prevention of decompression sickness: There is evidence that suggests that prebreathing oxygen greatly reduces the risk of decompression sickness by reducing the number of microscopic extravascular bubbles. By using the ultrasonic bubble-sizing instrument to detect and/or measure the sizes of such bubbles, it might be possible to predict the risk of decompression sickness. The instrument also has potential as a tool to guide the oxygen-prebreathing schedules of astronauts; high-altitude aviators; individuals who undertake high-altitude, low-opening (HALO) parachute jumps; and others at risk of decompression sickness. For example, an individual at serious risk of decompression sickness because of high concentrations of extravascular microscopic bubbles could be given a

  4. From Rising Bubble to RNA/DNA and Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Roman; Cieszyńska, Agata; Wereszka, Marzena; Borkowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    In this study we have focused on the movement of rising bubbles in a salty water body. Experiments reviled that free buoyancy movement of bubbles forces displacement of ions, located on the outer side of the bubble wall curvatures. During the short moment of bubble passage, all ions in the vicinity of rising bubble, are separated into anions that are gathered on the bubble upper half sphere and cations that slip along the bottom concave half-sphere of a bubble and develop a sub-bubble vortex. The principle of ions separation bases on the differences in displacement resistance. In this way, relatively heavier and larger, thus more resistant to displacement anions are gathered on the rising bubble upper half sphere, while smaller and lighter cations are assembled on the bottom half sphere and within the sub-bubble vortex. The acceleration of motion generates antiparallel rotary of bi-ionic domains, what implies that anions rotate in clockwise (CW) and cationic in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. Then, both rotational systems may undergo splicing and extreme condensing by bi-pirouette narrowing of rotary. It is suggested that such double helix motion of bi-ionic domains creates RNA/DNA molecules. Finally, when the bubble reaches the water surface it burst and the preprocessed RNA/DNA matter is ejected into the droplets. Since that stage, droplet is suspended in positively charged troposphere, thus the cationic domain is located in the droplet center, whilst negative ions are attracted to configure the outer areola. According to above, the present study implies that the rising bubbles in salty waters may incept synergistic processing of matter resulting in its rotational/spherical organization that led to assembly of RNA/DNA molecules and bacteria cells.

  5. Bubble, Drop and Particle Unit (BDPU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes the following articles entitled: (1) Oscillatory Thermocapillary Instability; (2) Thermocapillary Convection in Multilayer Systems; (3) Bubble and Drop Interaction with Solidification Front; (4) A Liquid Electrohydrodynamics Experiment; (5) Boiling on Small Plate Heaters under Microgravity and a Comparison with Earth Gravity; (6) Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops; and (7) Nonlinear Surface Tension Driven Bubble Migration

  6. Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.

  7. Quantification of Methane Gas Flux and Bubble Fate on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf Utilizing Calibrated Split-beam Echosounder Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, E. F.; Mayer, L. A.; Weber, T. C.; Jerram, K.; Jakobsson, M.; Chernykh, D.; Ananiev, R.; Mohammad, R.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2016-12-01

    On the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) subsea permafrost, shallow gas hydrates, and trapped free gas hold an estimated 1400 Gt of methane. Recent observations of methane bubble plumes and high concentrations of dissolved methane in the water column indicate methane release via ebullition. Methane gas released from the shallow ESAS (<50 m average depth) has high potential to be transported to the atmosphere. To directly and quantitatively address the magnitude of methane flux and the fate of rising bubbles in the ESAS, methane seeps were mapped with a broadband split-beam echosounder as part of the Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions program (SWERUS-C3). Acoustic measurements were made over a broad range of frequencies (16 to 29 kHz). The broad bandwidth provided excellent discrimination of individual targets in the water column, allowing for the identification of single bubbles. Absolute bubble target strength values were determined by compensating apparent target strength measurements for beam pattern effects via standard calibration techniques. The bubble size distribution of seeps with individual bubble signatures was determined by exploiting bubble target strength models over the broad range of frequencies. For denser seeps, with potential higher methane flux, bubble size distribution was determined via extrapolation from seeps in similar geomorphological settings. By coupling bubble size distributions with rise velocity measurements, which are made possible by split-beam target tracking, methane gas flux can be estimated. Of the 56 identified seeps in the SWERUS data set, individual bubbles scatterers were identified in more than half (31) of the seeps. Preliminary bubble size distribution results indicate bubble radii range from 0.75 to 3.0 mm, with relatively constant bubble size distribution throughout the water column. Initial rise velocity observations indicate bubble rise velocity increases with

  8. Jumping acoustic bubbles on lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Der Loughian, Christelle; Muleki Seya, Pauline; Pirat, Christophe; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe; Rieu, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-07

    In the context of sonoporation, we use supported lipid bilayers as a model for biological membranes and investigate the interactions between the bilayer and microbubbles induced by ultrasound. Among the various types of damage caused by bubbles on the surface, our experiments exhibit a singular dynamic interaction process where bubbles are jumping on the bilayer, forming a necklace pattern of alteration on the membrane. This phenomenon was explored with different time and space resolutions and, based on our observations, we propose a model for a microbubble subjected to the combined action of van der Waals, acoustic and hydrodynamic forces. Describing the repeated jumps of the bubble, this model explains the lipid exchanges between the bubble and bilayer.

  9. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  10. Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    González, Miguel A.; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal, E-mail: christoph.dellago@univie.ac.at, E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es

    2014-11-14

    The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguishmore » between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.« less

  11. Shape and evolution of wind-blown bubbles of massive stars: on the effect of the interstellar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Meliani, Z.; Marcowith, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The winds of massive stars create large (>10 pc) bubbles around their progenitors. As these bubbles expand they encounter the interstellar coherent magnetic field which, depending on its strength, can influence the shape of the bubble. Aims: We wish to investigate if, and how much, the interstellar magnetic field can contribute to the shape of an expanding circumstellar bubble around a massive star. Methods: We use the MPI-AMRVAC code to make magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of bubbles, using a single star model, combined with several different field strengths: B = 5, 10, and 20 μG for the interstellar magnetic field. This covers the typical field strengths of the interstellar magnetic fields found in the galactic disk and bulge. Furthermore, we present two simulations that include both a 5 μG interstellar magnetic field and a warm (10 000 K) interstellar medium (ISM) and two different ISM densities to demonstrate how the magnetic field can combine with other external factors to influence the morphology of the circumstellar bubbles. Results: Our results show that low magnetic fields, as found in the galactic disk, inhibit the growth of the circumstellar bubbles in the direction perpendicular to the field. As a result, the bubbles become ovoid, rather than spherical. Strong interstellar fields, such as observed for the galactic bulge, can completely stop the expansion of the bubble in the direction perpendicular to the field, leading to the formation of a tube-like bubble. When combined with an ISM that is both warm and high density the bubble is greatly reduced in size, causing a dramatic change in the evolution of temporary features inside the bubble such as Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae. Conclusions: The magnetic field of the interstellar medium can affect the shape of circumstellar bubbles. This effect may have consequences for the shape and evolution of circumstellar nebulae and supernova remnants, which are formed within the main wind-blown bubble

  12. Influence of reactions heats on variation of radius, temperature, pressure and chemical species amounts within a single acoustic cavitation bubble.

    PubMed

    Kerboua, Kaouther; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2018-03-01

    The scientific interest toward the study of acoustic bubble is mainly explained by its practical benefit in providing a reactional media favorable to the rapid evolution of chemical mechanism. The evolution of this mechanism is related to the simultaneous and dependent variation of the volume, temperature and pressure within the bubble, retrieved by the resolution of a differential equations system, including among others the thermal balance. This last one is subject to different assumptions, some authors deem simply that the temperature varies adiabatically during the collapsing phase, without considering the reactions heat of the studied mechanism. This paper aims to evaluate the pertinence of neglecting reactions heats in the thermal balance, by analyzing their effect on the variation of radius, temperature, pressure and chemical species amounts. The results show that the introduction of reactions heats conducts to a decrease of the temperature, an increase of the pressure and a reduction of the bubble volume. As a consequence, this leads to a drop of the quantities of free radicals produced by the chemical mechanism evolving within the bubble. This paper also proved that the impact of the consideration of reactions heats is dependent of the frequency and the acoustic amplitude of the ultrasonic wave. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphology of Two-Phase Layers with Large Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vékony, Klára; Kiss, László I.

    2010-10-01

    The understanding of formation and movement of bubbles nucleated during aluminum reduction is essential for a good control of the electrolysis process. In our experiments, we filmed and studied the formation of a bubble layer under the anode in a real-size air-water electrolysis cell model. The maximum height of the bubbles was found to be up to 2 cm because of the presence of the so-called Fortin bubbles. Also, the mean height of the bubble layer was found to be much higher than published previously. The Fortin bubbles were investigated more closely, and their shape was found to be induced by a gravity wave formed at the gas-liquid interface. In addition, large bubbles were always observed to break up into smaller parts right before escaping from under the anode. This breakup and escape led to a large momentum transfer in the bath.

  14. The detachment of particles from coalescing bubble pairs.

    PubMed

    Ata, Seher

    2009-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the detachment of particles from coalescing bubble pairs. Two bubbles were generated at adjacent capillaries and coated with hydrophobic glass particles of mean diameter 66 microm. The bubbles were then positioned next to each other until the thin liquid film between them ruptured. The particles that dropped from the bubble surface during the coalescence process were collected and measured. The coalescence process was very vigorous and observations showed that particles detached from the bubble surfaces as a result of the oscillations caused by coalescence. The attached particles themselves and, to some extent the presence of the surfactant had a damping affect on the bubble oscillation, which played a decisive role on the particle detachment phenomena. The behaviour of particles on the surfaces of the bubbles during coalescence was described, and implications of results for the flotation process were discussed.

  15. Contact bubble bilayers with flush drainage.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masayuki; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-03-16

    Planar lipid bilayers have been used to form stable bilayers into which membrane proteins are reconstituted for measurements of their function under an applied membrane potential. Recently, a lipid bilayer membrane is formed by the apposition of two monolayers that line an oil-electrolyte interface. Here, a bilayer membrane system is developed with picoliter bubbles under mechanically and chemically manipulable conditions. A water bubble lined with a phospholipid monolayer is blown from a glass pipette into an oil phase. Two blowing pipettes are manipulated, and bubbles (each with a diameter of ~ 50 μm) are held side by side to form a bilayer, which is termed a contact bubble bilayer. With the electrode implemented in the blowing pipette, currents through the bilayer are readily measured. The intra-bubble pressure is varied with the pressure-controller, leading to various sizes of the bubble and the membrane area. A rapid solution exchange system is developed by introducing additional pressure-driven injection pipettes, and the blowing pipette works as a drain. The solution is exchanged within 20 ms. Also, an asymmetric membrane with different lipid composition of each leaflet is readily formed. Example applications of this versatile method are presented to characterize the function of ion channels.

  16. Contact Bubble Bilayers with Flush Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masayuki; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Planar lipid bilayers have been used to form stable bilayers into which membrane proteins are reconstituted for measurements of their function under an applied membrane potential. Recently, a lipid bilayer membrane is formed by the apposition of two monolayers that line an oil-electrolyte interface. Here, a bilayer membrane system is developed with picoliter bubbles under mechanically and chemically manipulable conditions. A water bubble lined with a phospholipid monolayer is blown from a glass pipette into an oil phase. Two blowing pipettes are manipulated, and bubbles (each with a diameter of ~ 50 μm) are held side by side to form a bilayer, which is termed a contact bubble bilayer. With the electrode implemented in the blowing pipette, currents through the bilayer are readily measured. The intra-bubble pressure is varied with the pressure-controller, leading to various sizes of the bubble and the membrane area. A rapid solution exchange system is developed by introducing additional pressure-driven injection pipettes, and the blowing pipette works as a drain. The solution is exchanged within 20 ms. Also, an asymmetric membrane with different lipid composition of each leaflet is readily formed. Example applications of this versatile method are presented to characterize the function of ion channels. PMID:25772819

  17. Flying after diving: should recommendations be reviewed? In-flight echocardiographic study in bubble-prone and bubble-resistant divers.

    PubMed

    Cialoni, Danilo; Pieri, Massimo; Balestra, Costantino; Marroni, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    Inert gas accumulated after multiple recreational dives can generate tissue supersaturation and bubble formation when ambient pressure decreases. We hypothesized that this could happen even if divers respected the currently recommended 24-hour pre-flight surface interval (PFSI). We performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) on a group of 56 healthy scuba divers (39 male, 17 female) as follows: first echo--during the outgoing flight, no recent dives; second echo--before boarding the return flight, after a multiday diving week in the tropics and a 24-hour PFSI; third echo--during the return flight at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after take-off. TTE was also done after every dive during the week's diving. Divers were divided into three groups according to their 'bubble-proneness': non-bubblers, occasional bubblers and consistent bubblers. During the diving, 23 subjects never developed bubbles, 17 only occasionally and 16 subjects produced bubbles every day and after every dive. Bubbles on the return flight were observed in eight of the 56 divers (all from the 'bubblers' group). Two subjects who had the highest bubble scores during the diving were advised not to make the last dive (increasing their PFSI to approximately 36 hours), and did not demonstrate bubbles on the return flight. Even though a 24-hour PFSI is recommended on the basis of clinical trials showing a low risk of decompression sickness (DCS), the presence of venous gas bubbles in-flight in eight of 56 divers leads us to suspect that in real-life situations DCS risk after such a PFSI is not zero.

  18. Electrochemical Generation of a Hydrogen Bubble at a Recessed Platinum Nanopore Electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianjin; Luo, Long; White, Henry S

    2015-04-21

    We report the electrochemical generation of a single hydrogen bubble within the cavity of a recessed Pt nanopore electrode. The recessed Pt electrode is a conical pore in glass that contains a micrometer-scale Pt disk (1-10 μm radius) at the nanopore base and a nanometer-scale orifice (10-100 nm radius) that restricts diffusion of electroactive molecules and dissolved gas between the nanopore cavity and bulk solution. The formation of a H2 bubble at the Pt disk electrode in voltammetric experiments results from the reduction of H(+) in a 0.25 M H2SO4 solution; the liquid-to-gas phase transformation is indicated in the voltammetric response by a precipitous decrease in the cathodic current due to rapid bubble nucleation and growth within the nanopore cavity. Finite element simulations of the concentration distribution of dissolved H2 within the nanopore cavity, as a function of the H(+) reduction current, indicate that H2 bubble nucleation at the recessed Pt electrode surface occurs at a critical supersaturation concentration of ∼0.22 M, in agreement with the value previously obtained at (nonrecessed) Pt disk electrodes (∼0.25 M). Because the nanopore orifice limits the diffusion of H2 out of the nanopore cavity, an anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of gaseous and dissolved H2 trapped in the recessed cavity is readily observed on the reverse voltammetric scan. Integration of the charge associated with the H2 oxidation peak is found to approach that of the H(+) reduction peak at high scan rates, confirming the assignment of the anodic peak to H2 oxidation. Preliminary results for the electrochemical generation of O2 bubbles from water oxidation at a recessed nanopore electrode are consistent with the electrogeneration of H2 bubbles.

  19. Numerical simulations of non-spherical bubble collapse.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Eric; Colonius, Tim

    2009-06-01

    A high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing scheme is used to simulate the collapse of a gas bubble in water. In order to better understand the damage caused by collapsing bubbles, the dynamics of the shock-induced and Rayleigh collapse of a bubble near a planar rigid surface and in a free field are analysed. Collapse times, bubble displacements, interfacial velocities and surface pressures are quantified as a function of the pressure ratio driving the collapse and of the initial bubble stand-off distance from the wall; these quantities are compared to the available theory and experiments and show good agreement with the data for both the bubble dynamics and the propagation of the shock emitted upon the collapse. Non-spherical collapse involves the formation of a re-entrant jet directed towards the wall or in the direction of propagation of the incoming shock. In shock-induced collapse, very high jet velocities can be achieved, and the finite time for shock propagation through the bubble may be non-negligible compared to the collapse time for the pressure ratios of interest. Several types of shock waves are generated during the collapse, including precursor and water-hammer shocks that arise from the re-entrant jet formation and its impact upon the distal side of the bubble, respectively. The water-hammer shock can generate very high pressures on the wall, far exceeding those from the incident shock. The potential damage to the neighbouring surface is quantified by measuring the wall pressure. The range of stand-off distances and the surface area for which amplification of the incident shock due to bubble collapse occurs is determined.

  20. Numerical simulations of non-spherical bubble collapse

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSEN, ERIC; COLONIUS, TIM

    2009-01-01

    A high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing scheme is used to simulate the collapse of a gas bubble in water. In order to better understand the damage caused by collapsing bubbles, the dynamics of the shock-induced and Rayleigh collapse of a bubble near a planar rigid surface and in a free field are analysed. Collapse times, bubble displacements, interfacial velocities and surface pressures are quantified as a function of the pressure ratio driving the collapse and of the initial bubble stand-off distance from the wall; these quantities are compared to the available theory and experiments and show good agreement with the data for both the bubble dynamics and the propagation of the shock emitted upon the collapse. Non-spherical collapse involves the formation of a re-entrant jet directed towards the wall or in the direction of propagation of the incoming shock. In shock-induced collapse, very high jet velocities can be achieved, and the finite time for shock propagation through the bubble may be non-negligible compared to the collapse time for the pressure ratios of interest. Several types of shock waves are generated during the collapse, including precursor and water-hammer shocks that arise from the re-entrant jet formation and its impact upon the distal side of the bubble, respectively. The water-hammer shock can generate very high pressures on the wall, far exceeding those from the incident shock. The potential damage to the neighbouring surface is quantified by measuring the wall pressure. The range of stand-off distances and the surface area for which amplification of the incident shock due to bubble collapse occurs is determined. PMID:19756233

  1. Optical observation of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in high intensity laser-induced shock processes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.

  2. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  3. Fast Initialization of Bubble-Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved scheme several orders of magnitude faster than normal initialization scheme. State-of-the-art commercial bubble-memory device used. Hardware interface designed connects controlling microprocessor to bubblememory circuitry. System software written to exercise various functions of bubble-memory system in comparison made between normal and fast techniques. Future implementations of approach utilize E2PROM (electrically-erasable programable read-only memory) to provide greater system flexibility. Fastinitialization technique applicable to all bubble-memory devices.

  4. Buoyancy Driven Shear Flows of Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. L.; Hill, R. J.; Chellppannair, T.; Zenit, R.; Zenit, R.; Spelt, P. D. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the gas volume fraction and the root-mean-squared fluid velocity are measured in buoyancy driven shear flows of bubble suspensions in a tall, inclined, rectangular channel. The experiments are performed under conditions where We << 1a nd Re >> 1, for which comparisons are made with kinetic theory and numerical simulations. Here Re = gamma(a(exp 2)/nu is the Reynolds number and We = rho(gamma(exp 2))a(exp 3)/sigma is the Weber number; gamma is the shear rate, a is the bubble radius, nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid, rho is the density of the liquid, and sigma is the surface tension of the gas/liquid interface. Kang et al. calculated the bubble phase pressure and velocity variance of sheared bubble suspensions under conditions where the bubbles are spherical and the liquid phase velocity field can be approximated using potential flow theory, i.e. We= 0 and Re >> 1. Such conditions can be achieved in an experiment using gas bubbles, with a radius of O(0.5mm), in water. The theory requires that there be no average relative motion of the gas and liquid phases, hence the motivation for an experimental program in microgravity. The necessity of performing preliminary, Earth based experiments, however, requires performing experiments where the gas phase rises in the liquid, which significantly complicates the comparison of experiments with theory. Rather than comparing experimental results with theory for a uniform, homogeneous shear flow, experiments can be compared directly with solutions of the averaged equations of motion for bubble suspensions. This requires accounting for the significant lift force acting on the gas phase when the bubbles rise parallel to the average velocity of the sheared suspension. Shear flows can be produced in which the bubble phase pressure gradient, arising from shear induced collisions amongst the bubbles, balances a body force (centrifugal or gravitational) on the gas phase. A steady, non-uniform gas volume fraction

  5. In-situ observation of bubble trapping in polar firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian Schaller, Christoph; Freitag, Johannes; Sowers, Todd; Vinther, Bo; Weinhart, Alexander; Eisen, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    The air trapped in polar ice cores is not a direct record of past atmospheric composition but is strongly influenced by the process of firnification as bubbles are only sealed at a certain point, when the respective horizontal layer reaches a so called "critical" porosity. In order to investigate this process, we performed high-resolution (approximately 25 μm) 3D-XCT measurements of the complete lock-in zone for two polar ice cores representing opposite extremes of the temperature and accumulation rate range: B53, close to Dome Fuji, East Antarctica and RECAP_S2, Renland, Greenland. For every 1m core segment, we scanned a minimum number of five sections of approximately 3.5cm height of the full core diameter with a focus on homogenous layers. This allows us to non-destructively deduce detailed profiles of open and closed porosity on a solid statistical basis. For each of the cores individually, we find that the trapping of bubbles in a single layer is solely determined by its total porosity and thereby independent of depth. We can confirm the existence of a distinct Schwander-type relation of closed and total porosity. Even though the two cores deviate from each other significantly in critical porosity, 0.0907 for B53 compared to 0.1025 for RECAP_S2, we observe many similarities. We hypothesize, that the determining factors of bubble trapping are the average size and variability of pore space structures. This could potentially allow the reconstruction of past close-off porosities from the remaining pore structures in deep ice, e.g. from bubble number densities.

  6. Raman Spectral Band Oscillations in Large Graphene Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Xianjue; Li, Baowen; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ming; Zhu, Chongyang; Zhang, Xuewei; Bacsa, Wolfgang S.; Ding, Feng; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2018-05-01

    Raman spectra of large graphene bubbles showed size-dependent oscillations in spectral intensity and frequency, which originate from optical standing waves formed in the vicinity of the graphene surface. At a high laser power, local heating can lead to oscillations in the Raman frequency and also create a temperature gradient in the bubble. Based on Raman data, the temperature distribution within the graphene bubble was calculated, and it is shown that the heating effect of the laser is reduced when moving from the center of a bubble to its edge. By studying graphene bubbles, both the thermal conductivity and chemical reactivity of graphene were assessed. When exposed to hydrogen plasma, areas with bubbles are found to be more reactive than flat graphene.

  7. A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. Toward this end, a computational model of the separation bubble was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. Thus far, the focus of the research was limited to the development of a model which can accurately predict situations in which the interaction between the bubble and the inviscid velocity distribution is weak, the so-called short bubble. A summary of the research performed in the past nine months is presented. The bubble model in its present form is then described. Lastly, the performance of this model in predicting bubble characteristics is shown for a few cases.

  8. Two types of nonlinear wave equations for diffractive beams in bubbly liquids with nonuniform bubble number density.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    This paper theoretically treats the weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted sound beams in nonuniform bubbly liquids. The spatial distribution of the number density of the bubbles, initially in a quiescent state, is assumed to be a slowly varying function of the spatial coordinates; the amplitude of variation is assumed to be small compared to the mean number density. A previous derivation method of nonlinear wave equations for plane progressive waves in uniform bubbly liquids [Kanagawa, Yano, Watanabe, and Fujikawa (2010). J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 5(3), 351-369] is extended to handle quasi-plane beams in weakly nonuniform bubbly liquids. The diffraction effect is incorporated by adding a relation that scales the circular sound source diameter to the wavelength into the original set of scaling relations composed of nondimensional physical parameters. A set of basic equations for bubbly flows is composed of the averaged equations of mass and momentum, the Keller equation for bubble wall, and supplementary equations. As a result, two types of evolution equations, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for high-frequency short-wavelength case, and a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation including dispersion and nonuniform effects for low-frequency long-wavelength case, are derived from the basic set.

  9. Approaching behavior of a pair of spherical bubbles in quiescent liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki; Kusuno, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Some unique motions related bubble-bubble interaction, such as equilibrium distance, wake induced lift force, have been proposed by theoretical analysis or numerical simulations. These motions are different from the solid spheres like DKT model (Drafting, Kissing and Tumbling). However, there is a lack of the experimental verification. In this study, we experimentally investigated the motion of a pair of bubbles initially positioned in-line configuration in ultrapure water or an aqueous surfactant solution. The bubble motion were observed by two high speed video cameras. The bubbles Reynolds number was ranged from 50 to 300 and bubbles hold the spherical shape in this range. In ultrapure water, initially the trailing bubble deviated from the vertical line on the leading bubble owing to the wake of the leading bubble. And then, the slight difference of the bubble radius changed the relative motion. When the trailing bubble slightly larger than the leading bubble, the trailing bubble approached to the leading bubble due to it's buoyancy difference. The bubbles attracted and collided only when the bubbles rising approximately side by side configuration. In addition, we will also discuss the motion of bubbles rising in an aqueous surfactant solution.

  10. Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Michael; Stallard, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg/m2/d) at deeper sites (greater than 7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg/m2/d) at shallow sites (less than 2 m).

  11. Orbital motions of bubbles in an acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Minori; Yamashita, Ko; Inamura, Takao

    2012-09-01

    This experimental study aims to clarify the mechanism of orbital motion of two oscillating bubbles in an acoustic field. Trajectory of the orbital motion on the wall of a spherical levitator was observed using a high-speed video camera. Because of a good repeatability in volume oscillation of bubbles, we were also able to observe the radial motion driven at 24 kHz by stroboscopic like imaging technique. The orbital motions of bubbles raging from 0.13 to 0.18 mm were examined with different forcing amplitude and in different viscous oils. As a result, we found that pairs of bubbles revolve along an elliptic orbit around the center of mass of the bubbles. We also found that the two bubbles perform anti-phase radial oscillation. Although this radial oscillation should result in a repulsive secondary Bjerknes force, the bubbles kept a constant separate distance of about 1 mm, which indicates the existence of centripetal primary Bjerknes force.

  12. Dual-frequency ultrasound for detecting and sizing bubbles.

    PubMed

    Buckey, Jay C; Knaus, Darin A; Alvarenga, Donna L; Kenton, Marc A; Magari, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    ISS construction and Mars exploration require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA), exposing crewmembers to increased decompression sickness risk. Improved bubble detection technologies could help increase EVA efficiency and safety. Creare Inc. has developed a bubble detection and sizing instrument using dual-frequency ultrasound. The device emits "pump" and "image" signals at two frequencies. The low-frequency pump signal causes an appropriately-sized bubble to resonate. When the image frequency hits a resonating bubble, mixing signals are returned at the sum and difference of the two frequencies. To test the feasibility of transcutaneous intravascular detection, intravascular bubbles in anesthetized swine were produced using agitated saline and decompression stress. Ultrasonic transducers on the chest provided the two frequencies. Mixing signals were detected transthoracically in the right atrium using both methods. A histogram of estimated bubble sizes could be constructed. Bubbles can be detected and sized transthoracically in the right atrium using dual-frequency ultrasound. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B

    2014-01-28

    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  14. Magnetic skyrmion bubble motion driven by surface acoustic waves

    DOE PAGES

    Nepal, Rabindra; Güngördü, Utkan; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-03-12

    Here, we study the dynamical control of a magnetic skyrmion bubble by using counter-propagating surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a ferromagnet. First, we determine the bubble mass and derive the force due to SAWs acting on a magnetic bubble using Thiele’s method. The force that pushes the bubble is proportional to the strain gradient for the major strain component. We then study the dynamical pinning and motion of magnetic bubbles by SAWs in a nanowire. In a disk geometry, we propose a SAWs-driven skyrmion bubble oscillator with two resonant frequencies.

  15. Magnetic skyrmion bubble motion driven by surface acoustic waves

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nepal, Rabindra; Güngördü, Utkan; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    Here, we study the dynamical control of a magnetic skyrmion bubble by using counter-propagating surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a ferromagnet. First, we determine the bubble mass and derive the force due to SAWs acting on a magnetic bubble using Thiele’s method. The force that pushes the bubble is proportional to the strain gradient for the major strain component. We then study the dynamical pinning and motion of magnetic bubbles by SAWs in a nanowire. In a disk geometry, we propose a SAWs-driven skyrmion bubble oscillator with two resonant frequencies.

  16. Dielectrophoretic levitation of droplets and bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    Uncharged droplets and bubbles can be levitated dielectrophoretically in liquids using strong, nonuniform electric fields. The general equations of motion for a droplet or bubble in an axisymmetric, divergence-free electrostatic field allow determination of the conditions necessary and sufficient for stable levitation. The design of dielectrophoretic (DEP) levitation electrode structures is simplified by a Taylor-series expansion of cusped axisymmetric electrostatic fields. Extensive experimental measurements on bubbles in insulating liquids verify the simple dielectrophoretic model. Other have extended dielectrophoretic levitation to very small particles in aqueous media. Applications of DEP levitation to the study of gas bubbles, liquid droplets, and solid particles are discussed. Some of these applications are of special interest in the reduced gravitational field of a spacecraft.

  17. Expansion of a compressible gas bubble in Stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2001-09-01

    The flow-induced deformation of an inviscid bubble occupied by a compressible gas and suspended in an ambient viscous liquid is considered at low Reynolds numbers with particular reference to the pressure developing inside the bubble. Ambient fluid motion alters the bubble pressure with respect to that established in the quiescent state, and requires the bubble to expand or contract according to an assumed equation of state. When changes in the bubble volume are prohibited by a global constraint on the total volume of the flow, the ambient pressure is modified while the bubble pressure remains constant during the deformation. A numerical method is developed for evaluating the pressure inside a two-dimensional bubble in an ambient Stokes flow on the basis of the normal component of the interfacial force balance involving the capillary pressure, the normal viscous stress, and the pressure at the free surface on the side of the liquid; the last is computed by evaluating a strongly singular integral. Dynamical simulations of bubble deformation are performed using the boundary integral method properly implemented to remove the multiplicity of solutions due to the a priori unknown rate of expansion, and three particular problems are discussed in detail: the shrinkage of a bubble at a specified rate, the deformation of a bubble subject to simple shear flow, and the deformation of a bubble subject to a purely elongational flow. In the case of shrinkage, it is found that the surface tension plays a critical role in determining the behaviour of the bubble pressure near the critical time when the bubble disappears. In the case of shear or elongational flow, it is found that the bubble contracts during an initial period of deformation from the circular shape, and then it expands to obtain a stationary shape whose area is higher than that assumed in the quiescent state. Expansion may destabilize the bubble by raising the capillary number above the critical threshold under which

  18. How Stressful Is "Deep Bubbling"?

    PubMed

    Tyrmi, Jaana; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2017-03-01

    Water resistance therapy by phonating through a tube into the water is used to treat dysphonia. Deep submersion (≥10 cm in water, "deep bubbling") is used for hypofunctional voice disorders. Using it with caution is recommended to avoid vocal overloading. This experimental study aimed to investigate how strenuous "deep bubbling" is. Fourteen subjects, half of them with voice training, repeated the syllable [pa:] in comfortable speaking pitch and loudness, loudly, and in strained voice. Thereafter, they phonated a vowel-like sound both in comfortable loudness and loudly into a glass resonance tube immersed 10 cm into the water. Oral pressure, contact quotient (CQ, calculated from electroglottographic signal), and sound pressure level were studied. The peak oral pressure P(oral) during [p] and shuttering of the outer end of the tube was measured to estimate the subglottic pressure P(sub) and the mean P(oral) during vowel portions to enable calculation of transglottic pressure P(trans). Sensations during phonation were reported with an open-ended interview. P(sub) and P(oral) were higher in "deep bubbling" and P(trans) lower than in loud syllable phonation, but the CQ did not differ significantly. Similar results were obtained for the comparison between loud "deep bubbling" and strained phonation, although P(sub) did not differ significantly. Most of the subjects reported "deep bubbling" to be stressful only for respiratory and lip muscles. No big differences were found between trained and untrained subjects. The CQ values suggest that "deep bubbling" may increase vocal fold loading. Further studies should address impact stress during water resistance exercises. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulating the universe(s) II: phenomenology of cosmic bubble collisions in full general relativity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.; Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2014-10-01

    Observing the relics of collisions between bubble universes would provide direct evidence for the existence of an eternally inflating Multiverse; the non-observation of such events can also provide important constraints on inflationary physics. Realizing these prospects requires quantitative predictions for observables from the properties of the possible scalar field Lagrangians underlying eternal inflation. Building on previous work, we establish this connection in detail. We perform a fully relativistic numerical study of the phenomenology of bubble collisions in models with a single scalar field, computing the comoving curvature perturbation produced in a wide variety of models. We also construct a setmore » of analytic predictions, allowing us to identify the phenomenologically relevant properties of the scalar field Lagrangian. The agreement between the analytic predictions and numerics in the relevant regions is excellent, and allows us to generalize our results beyond the models we adopt for the numerical studies. Specifically, the signature is completely determined by the spatial profile of the colliding bubble just before the collision, and the de Sitter invariant distance between the bubble centers. The analytic and numerical results support a power-law fit with an index 1< κ ∼< 2. For collisions between identical bubbles, we establish a lower-bound on the observed amplitude of collisions that is set by the present energy density in curvature.« less

  20. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  1. Bubbling cell death: A hot air balloon released from the nucleus in the cold.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nan-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as "formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death." When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Role of entrapped vapor bubbles during microdroplet evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Shawn A.; Byrd, Larry W.; Briones, Alejandro M.; Hanchak, Michael S.; Ervin, Jamie S.; Jones, John G.

    2012-08-01

    On superheated surfaces, the air bubble trapped during impingement grows into a larger vapor bubble and oscillates at the frequency predicted for thermally induced capillary waves. In some cases, the entrapped vapor bubble penetrates the droplet interface, leaving a micron-sized coffee-ring pattern of pure fluid. Vapor bubble entrapment, however, does not influence the evaporation rate. This is also true on laser heated surfaces, where a laser can thermally excite capillary waves and induce bubble oscillations over a broad range of frequencies, suggesting that exciting perturbations in a pinned droplets interface is not an effective avenue for enhancing evaporative heat transfer.

  3. Bubble coalescence in a Newtonian fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vishrut; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    Bubble coalescence plays a central role in the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid systems such as bubble column reactors, spargers, and foams. Two bubbles approaching each other at velocity V coalesce when the thin film between them ruptures, which is often the rate-limiting step. Experimental studies of this system are difficult, and recent works provide conflicting results on the effect of V on coalescence times. We simulate the head-on approach of two bubbles of equal radii R in an incompressible Newtonian fluid (density ρ, viscosity μ, and surface tension σ) by solving numerically the free boundary problem comprised of the Navier Stokes and continuity equations. Simulations are made challenging by the existence of highly disparate lengthscales, i.e. film thickness and drop radii, which are resolved by using the method of elliptic mesh generation. For a given liquid, the bubbles are shown to coalesce for all velocities below a critical value. The effects of Ohnesorge number Oh = μ /√{ ρσR } on coalescence time and critical velocity are also investigated.

  4. Inflation and bubbles in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna-Castillo, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.

    1986-11-01

    Following Israel's study of singular hypersurfaces and thin shells in general relativity, the complete set of Einstein's field equations in the presence of a bubble boundary SIGMA is reviewed for all spherically symmetric embedding four-geometries M+/-. The mapping that identifies points between the boundaries Σ+ and Σ- is obtained explicitly when the regions M+ and M- are described by a de Sitter and a Minkowski metric, respectively. In addition, the evolution of a bubble with vanishing surface energy density is studied in a spatially flat Robertson-Walker space-time, for region M- radiation dominated with a vanishing cosmological constant, and an energy equation in M+ determined by the matching. It is found that this type of bubble leads to a ``worm-hole'' matching; that is, an infinite extent exterior of a sphere is joined across the wall to another infinite extent exterior of a sphere. Interior-interior matches are also possible. Under this model, solutions for a bubble following a Hubble law are analyzed. Numerical solutions for bubbles with constant tension are also obtained.

  5. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with LENR Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  6. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with "LENR Phenomenon"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  7. A radio characterization of Galactic compact bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingallinera, A.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Leto, P.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Flagey, N.; Paladini, R.; Agliozzo, C.; Buemi, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    We report the radio observations of a subsample of the 428 Galactic compact bubbles discovered at 24 μm with the MIPSGAL survey. Pervasive through the entire Galactic plane, these objects are thought to be different kinds of evolved stars. The very large majority of the bubbles (˜70 per cent) are however not yet classified. We conducted radio observations with the Expanded Very Large Array at 6 and 20 cm in order to obtain the spectral index of 55 bubbles. We found that at least 70 per cent of the 31 bubbles for which we were effectively able to compute the spectral index (or its lower limit) are likely to be thermal emitters. We were also able to resolve some bubbles, obtaining that the size of the radio nebula is usually similar to the IR size, although our low resolution (with respect to IR images) did not allow further morphological studies. Comparisons between radio flux densities and IR archive data from Spitzer and IRAS suggest that at least three unclassified bubbles can be treated as planetary nebula candidates.

  8. Far-Field Noise Induced by Bubble near Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xi; Li, Jiang-tao; Liu, Jian-hua; Chen, Hai-long

    2018-03-01

    The motion of a bubble near the free surface is solved by the boundary element method based on the linear wave equation, and the influence of fluid compressibility on bubble dynamics is analyzed. Based on the solution of the bubble motion, the far-field radiation noise induced by the bubble is calculated using Kirchhoff moving boundary integral equation, and the influence of free surface on far-field noise is researched. As the results, the oscillation amplitude of the bubble is weakened in compressible fluid compared with that in incompressible fluid, and the free surface amplifies the effect of fluid compressibility. When the distance between the bubble and an observer is much larger than that between the bubble and free surface, the sharp wave trough of the sound pressure at the observer occurs. With the increment of the distance between the bubble and free surface, the time of the wave trough appearing is delayed and the value of the wave trough increase. When the distance between the observer and the bubble is reduced, the sharp wave trough at the observer disappears.

  9. Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namura, Kyoko; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji; Suzuki, Motofumi

    2015-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the temperature gradient around the bubble at a micrometer scale. When we irradiate the laser next to the bubble, a strong main flow towards the bubble and two symmetric rotation flows on either side of it develop. The shape of this rotation flow shows a significant transformation depending on the relative position of the bubble and the laser spot. Using this controllable rotation flow, we have demonstrated sorting of the polystyrene spheres with diameters of 2 μm and 0.75 μm according to their size.

  10. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` tomore » an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.« less

  11. The collapse of a cavitation bubble in a corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    The collapse of cavitation bubbles is influenced by the surrounding geometry. A classic example is the collapse of a bubble near a solid wall, where a fast jet is created towards the wall. The addition of a second wall creates a non-axisymmetric flow field, which influences the displacement and jet formation during the collapse of a bubble. In this experimental study we generate mm-sized vapor bubbles using a focused pulsed laser, giving us full control over the position of the bubble. The corner geometry is formed by two glass slides. High-speed imaging reveals the directional motion of the bubble during the collapse. We find that the bubble displacement cannot be fully described by a simple superposition of the bubble dynamics of the two walls individually. Comparison of our experimental results to a model based on potential flow shows a good agreement for the direction of displacement.

  12. Simulation and analysis of collapsing vapor-bubble clusters with special emphasis on potentially erosive impact loads at walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogloblina, Daria; Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-06-01

    Cavitation is a process where a liquid evaporates due to a pressure drop and re-condenses violently. Noise, material erosion and altered system dynamics characterize for such a process for which shock waves, rarefaction waves and vapor generation are typical phenomena. The current paper presents novel results for collapsing vapour-bubble clusters in a liquid environment close to a wall obtained by computational fluid mechanics (CFD) simulations. The driving pressure initially is 10 MPa in the liquid. Computations are carried out by using a fully compressible single-fluid flow model in combination with a conservative finite volume method (FVM). The investigated bubble clusters (referred to as "clouds") differ by their initial vapor volume fractions, initial stand-off distances to the wall and by initial bubble radii. The effects of collapse focusing due to bubble-bubble interaction are analysed by investigating the intensities and positions of individual bubble collapses, as well as by the resulting shock-induced pressure field at the wall. Stronger interaction of the bubbles leads to an intensification of the collapse strength for individual bubbles, collapse focusing towards the center of the cloud and enhanced re-evaporation. The obtained results reveal collapse features which are common for all cases, as well as case-specific differences during collapse-rebound cycles. Simultaneous measurements of maximum pressures at the wall and within the flow field and of the vapor volume evolution show that not only the primary collapse but also subsequent collapses are potentially relevant for erosion.

  13. Eternal inflation, bubble collisions, and the persistence of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Guth, Alan H.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A “bubble universe” nucleating in an eternally inflating false vacuum will experience, in the course of its expansion, collisions with an infinite number of other bubbles. In an idealized model, we calculate the rate of collisions around an observer inside a given reference bubble. We show that the collision rate violates both the homogeneity and the isotropy of the bubble universe. Each bubble has a center which can be related to “the beginning of inflation” in the parent false vacuum, and any observer not at the center will see an anisotropic bubble collision rate that peaks in the outward direction. Surprisingly, this memory of the onset of inflation persists no matter how much time elapses before the nucleation of the reference bubble.

  14. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. II - Dissolution of a stationary bubble containing a diffusing and a nondiffusing gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a foreign nondiffusing gas on the rate of shrinkage of an oxygen bubble in a soda-lime-silica melt was studied. The rate of change of bubble radius with time was computed using the quasi-stationary approximation. The effects of melt undersaturation and initial fraction of foreign gas in the bubble are considered and compared with those calculated using previously derived expressions.

  15. Bubble-Free Containers For Liquids In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Dale M.; Antar, Basil L.

    1995-01-01

    Reports discuss entrainment of gas bubbles during handling of liquids in microgravity, and one report proposes containers filled with liquids in microgravity without entraining bubbles. Bubbles are troublesome in low-gravity experiments - particularly in biological experiments. Wire-mesh cage retains liquid contents without solid wall, because in microgravity, surface tension of liquid exerts sufficient confining force.

  16. Use of a "small-bubble technique" to increase the success of Anwar's "big-bubble technique" for deep lamellar keratoplasty with complete baring of Descemet's membrane.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Anand; Por, Yong Ming; Tan, Donald T H

    2007-10-01

    To describe a quick and simple "small-bubble" technique to immediately determine the success of attaining complete Descemet's membrane (DM) separation from corneal stroma through Anwar's "big-bubble" technique of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for complete stromal removal. A partial trephination was followed by a lamellar dissection of the anterior stroma. Deep stromal air injection was then attempted to achieve the big bubble to help separate the stroma from the DM. To confirm that a big bubble had been achieved, a small air bubble was injected into the anterior chamber (AC) through a limbal paracentesis. If the small bubble is then seen at the corneal periphery, it confirms that the big-bubble separation of DM was successful because the convex nature of the bubble will cause it to protrude posteriorly, forcing the small AC bubble to the periphery. If the small AC bubble is not seen in the corneal periphery, this means that it is present in the centre, beneath the opaque corneal stroma, and therefore the big bubble has not been achieved. We used the small-bubble technique to confirm the presence of the big bubble in three (one keratoconus, one interstitial keratitis and one dense corneal scar) out of 41 patients who underwent DALK. The small-bubble technique confirmed that the big bubble was achieved in the eye of all three patients. Complete stromal removal with baring of the DM was achieved, and postoperatively all three eyes achieved best corrected vision of 6/6. The small-bubble technique can be a useful surgical tool for corneal surgeons attempting lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique. It helps in confirming the separation of DM from the deep stroma, which is important in achieving total stromal replacement. It will help to make the transition to lamellar keratoplasty smoother, enhance corneal graft success and improve visual outcomes in patients.

  17. Transformer overload and bubble evolution: Proceedings

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Addis, G.; Lindgren, S.

    1988-06-01

    The EPRI workshop on Transformer Overload Characteristics and Bubble Evolution was held to review the findings of investigations over the past 7-8 years to determine whether enough information is now available for utilities to establish safe loading practices. Sixteen papers were presented, including a utility review, physical and dielectric effects of gas and bubble formation from cellulose insulated transformers, transformer life characteristics, gas bubble studies and impulse test on distribution transformers, mathematical modeling of bubble evolution, transformer overload characteristics, variation of PD-strength for oil-paper insulation, survey on maximum safe operating hot spot temperature, and overload management. The meeting concluded withmore » a general discussion covering the existing state of knowledge and the need for additional research. Sixteen papers have been cataloged separately.« less

  18. An Analysis of Bubble Deformation by a Sphere Relevant to the Measurements of Bubble-Particle Contact Interaction and Detachment Forces.

    PubMed

    Sherman, H; Nguyen, A V; Bruckard, W

    2016-11-22

    Atomic force microscopy makes it possible to measure the interacting forces between individual colloidal particles and air bubbles, which can provide a measure of the particle hydrophobicity. To indicate the level of hydrophobicity of the particle, the contact angle can be calculated, assuming that no interfacial deformation occurs with the bubble retaining a spherical profile. Our experimental results obtained using a modified sphere tensiometry apparatus to detach submillimeter spherical particles show that deformation of the bubble interface does occur during particle detachment. We also develop a theoretical model to describe the equilibrium shape of the bubble meniscus at any given particle position, based on the minimization of the free energy of the system. The developed model allows us to analyze high-speed video captured during detachment. In the system model deformation of the bubble profile is accounted for by the incorporation of a Lagrange multiplier into both the Young-Laplace equation and the force balance. The solution of the bubble profile matched to the high-speed video allows us to accurately calculate the contact angle and determine the total force balance as a function of the contact point of the bubble on the particle surface.

  19. Bubble behavior characteristics based on virtual binocular stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ting; Xu, Ling-shuang; Zhang, Shang-zhen

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) behavior characteristics of bubble rising in gas-liquid two-phase flow are of great importance to study bubbly flow mechanism and guide engineering practice. Based on the dual-perspective imaging of virtual binocular stereo vision, the 3D behavior characteristics of bubbles in gas-liquid two-phase flow are studied in detail, which effectively increases the projection information of bubbles to acquire more accurate behavior features. In this paper, the variations of bubble equivalent diameter, volume, velocity and trajectory in the rising process are estimated, and the factors affecting bubble behavior characteristics are analyzed. It is shown that the method is real-time and valid, the equivalent diameter of the rising bubble in the stagnant water is periodically changed, and the crests and troughs in the equivalent diameter curve appear alternately. The bubble behavior characteristics as well as the spiral amplitude are affected by the orifice diameter and the gas volume flow.

  20. Visualization of the wake behind a sliding bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly Meehan, R.; Grennan, K.; Davis, I.; Nolan, K.; Murray, D. B.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, Schlieren measurements are presented for the wake of an air bubble sliding under a heated, inclined surface in quiescent water to provide new insights into the intricate sliding bubble wake structure and the associated convective cooling process. This is a two-phase flow configuration that is pertinent to thermal management solutions, where the fundamental flow physics have yet to be fully described. In this work, we present an experimental apparatus that enables high-quality Schlieren images for different bubble sizes and measurement planes. By combining these visualizations with an advanced bubble tracking technique, we can simultaneously quantify the symbiotic relationship that exists between the sliding bubble dynamics and its associated wake. An unstable, dynamic wake structure is revealed, consisting of multiple hairpin-shaped vortex structures interacting within the macroscopic area affected by the bubble. As vorticity is generated in the near wake, the bubble shape is observed to recoil and rebound. This also occurs normal to the surface and is particularly noticeable for larger bubble sizes, with a periodic ejection of material from the near wake corresponding to significant shape changes. These findings, along with their implications from a thermal management perspective, provide information on the rich dynamics of this natural flow that cannot be obtained using alternate experimental techniques.

  1. Forced convection in the wakes of impacting and sliding bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly Meehan, R.; Williams, N. P.; Donnelly, B.; Persoons, T.; Nolan, K.; Murray, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    Both vapour and gas bubbles are known to significantly increase heat transfer rates between a heated surface and the surrounding fluid, even with no phase change. The cooling structures observed are highly temporal, intricate and complex, with a full description of the surface cooling phenomena not yet available. The current study uses high speed infrared thermography to measure the surface temperature and determine the convective heat flux enhancement associated with the interaction of a single air bubble with a heated, inclined surface. This process can be discretised into the initial impact, in which enhancement levels in excess of 20 times natural convection are observed, and the subsequent sliding behaviour, with more moderate maximum enhancement levels of 8 times natural convection. In both cases, localised regions of suppressed heat transfer are also observed due to the recirculation of warm fluid displaced from the thermal boundary layer with the surface. The cooling patterns observed herein are consistent with the interaction between an undulating wake containing multiple hairpin vortex loops and the thermal boundary layer that exists under the surface, with the initial nature of this enhancement and suppression dependent on the particular point on its rising path at which the bubble impacts the surface.

  2. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  3. Shock waves from non-spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Combining simultaneous high-speed imaging and hydrophone measurements, we uncover details of the multiple shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles collapsing in a non-spherical way. For strongly deformed bubbles collapsing near a free surface, we identify the distinct shock waves caused by the jet impact onto the opposite bubble wall and by the individual collapses of the remaining bubble segments. The energy carried by each of these shocks depends on the level of bubble deformation, quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ, the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For jetting bubbles, at ζ < 0.01 , the jet impact hammer pressure is found to be the most energetic shock. Through statistical analysis of the experimental data and theoretical derivations, and by comparing bubbles deformed by different sources (variable gravity achieved on parabolic flights, and neighboring free and rigid surfaces), we find that the shock peak pressure may be approximated as the jet impact-induced water hammer as ph = 0.45 (ρc2 Δp) 1 / 2ζ-1 .

  4. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  5. Dynamics of diffusive bubble growth and pressure recovery in a bubbly rhyolitic melt embedded in an elastic solid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Nakano, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    We present a model of gas exsolution and bubble expansion in a melt supersaturated in response to a sudden pressure drop. In our model, the melt contains a suspension of gas bubbles of identical sizes and is encased in a penny-shaped crack embedded in an elastic solid. The suspension is modeled as a three-dimensional lattice of spherical cells with slight overlap, where each elementary cell consists of a gas bubble surrounded by a shell of volatile-rich melt. The melt is then subjected to a step drop in pressure, which induces gas exsolution and bubble expansion, resulting in the compression of the melt and volumetric expansion of the crack. The dynamics of diffusion-driven bubble growth and volumetric crack expansion span 9 decades in time. The model demonstrates that the speed of the crack response depends strongly on volatile diffusivity in the melt and bubble number density and is markedly sensitive to the ratio of crack thickness to crack radius and initial bubble radius but is relatively insensitive to melt viscosity. The net drop in gas concentration in the melt after pressure recovery represents only a small fraction of the initial concentration prior to the drop, suggesting the melt may undergo numerous pressure transients before becoming significantly depleted of gases. The magnitude of pressure and volume recovery in the crack depends sensitively on the size of the input-pressure transient, becoming relatively larger for smaller-size transients in a melt containing bubbles with initial radii less than 10-5 m. Amplification of the input transient may be large enough to disrupt the crack wall and induce brittle failure in the rock matrix surrounding the crack. Our results provide additional basis for the interpretation of volume changes in the magma conduit under Popocatépetl Volcano during Vulcanian degassing bursts in its eruptive activity in April–May 2000.

  6. Remobilizing the Interfaces of Thermocapillary Driven Bubbles Retarded by the Adsorption of a Surfactant Impurity on the Bubble Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaparthi, Ravi; Maldarelli, Charles; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Thermocapillary migration is a method for moving bubbles in space in the absence of buoyancy. A temperature gradient is applied to the continuous phase in which a bubble is situated, and the applied gradient impressed on the bubble surface causes one pole of the drop to be cooler than the opposite pole. As the surface tension is a decreasing function of temperature, the cooler pole pulls at the warmer pole, creating a flow which propels the bubble in the direction of the warmer fluid. A major impediment to the practical use of thermocapillarity to direct the movement of bubbles in space is the fact that surfactant impurities which are unavoidably present in the continuous phase can significantly reduce the migration velocity. A surfactant impurity adsorbed onto the bubble interface is swept to the trailing end of the bubble. When bulk concentrations are low (which is the case with an impurity), diffusion of surfactant to the front end is slow relative to convection, and surfactant collects at the back end of the bubble. Collection at the back lowers the surface tension relative to the front end setting up a reverse tension gradient. For buoyancy driven bubble motions in the absence of a thermocapillarity, the tension gradient opposes the surface flow, and reduces the surface and terminal velocities (the interface becomes more solid-like). When thermocapillary forces are present, the reverse tension gradient set up by the surfactant accumulation reduces the temperature tension gradient, and decreases to near zero the thermocapillary velocity. The objective of our research is to develop a method for enhancing the thermocapillary migration of bubbles which have been retarded by the adsorption onto the bubble surface of a surfactant impurity, Our remobilization theory proposes to use surfactant molecules which kinetically rapidly exchange between the bulk and the surface and are at high bulk concentrations. Because the remobilizing surfactant is present at much higher

  7. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  8. Probing the Mechanical Strength of an Armored Bubble and Its Implication to Particle-Stabilized Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccoen, Nicolas; Lequeux, François; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles are dynamic objects that grow and rise or shrink and disappear, often on the scale of seconds. This conflicts with their uses in foams where they serve to modify the properties of the material in which they are embedded. Coating the bubble surface with solid particles has been demonstrated to strongly enhance the foam stability, although the mechanisms for such stabilization remain mysterious. In this paper, we reduce the problem of foam stability to the study of the behavior of a single spherical bubble coated with a monolayer of solid particles. The behavior of this armored bubble is monitored while the ambient pressure around it is varied, in order to simulate the dissolution stress resulting from the surrounding foam. We find that above a critical stress, localized dislocations appear on the armor and lead to a global loss of the mechanical stability. Once these dislocations appear, the armor is unable to prevent the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding liquid, which translates into a continued reduction of the bubble volume, even for a fixed overpressure. The observed route to the armor failure therefore begins from localized dislocations that lead to large-scale deformations of the shell until the bubble completely dissolves. The critical value of the ambient pressure that leads to the failure depends on the bubble radius, with a scaling of Δ Pcollapse∝R-1 , but does not depend on the particle diameter. These results disagree with the generally used elastic models to describe particle-covered interfaces. Instead, the experimental measurements are accounted for by an original theoretical description that equilibrates the energy gained from the gas dissolution with the capillary energy cost of displacing the individual particles. The model recovers the short-wavelength instability, the scaling of the collapse pressure with bubble radius, and the insensitivity to particle diameter. Finally, we use this new microscopic understanding to predict

  9. Limits of the potential flow approach to the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprabhu, P.; Dimonte, Guy; Young, Yuan-Nan; Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.

    2006-12-01

    We report on the behavior of a single-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor flow at late times. The calculations were performed in a long square duct (λ×λ×8λ) , using four different numerical simulations. In contradiction with potential flow theories that predict a constant terminal velocity, the single-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor problem exhibits late-time acceleration. The onset of acceleration occurs as the bubble penetration depth exceeds the diameter of bubbles, and is observed for low and moderate density differences. Based on our simulations, we provide a phenomenological description of the observed acceleration, and ascribe this behavior to the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices on the bubble-spike interface that diminish the friction drag, while the associated induced flow propels the bubbles forward. For large density ratios, the formation of secondary instabilities is suppressed, and the bubbles remain terminal consistent with pote