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Sample records for single european market

  1. Pharmaceutical regulation in the single European market.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Wilson, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of new EU-wide drug authorisation procedures. The paper examines various attempts to introduce harmonised market authorisation routes for pharmaceuticals including the establishment of the multi-state, concentration, decentralised and centralised procedures. The paper considers the current role of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the likelihood that its powers will be increased in the future. Finally, the paper assesses whether EU regulation has created beneficial market conditions for pharmaceutical companies operating in the single European market. PMID:9922630

  2. Pharmaceutical regulation in the single European market.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Wilson, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of new EU-wide drug authorisation procedures. The paper examines various attempts to introduce harmonised market authorisation routes for pharmaceuticals including the establishment of the multi-state, concentration, decentralised and centralised procedures. The paper considers the current role of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the likelihood that its powers will be increased in the future. Finally, the paper assesses whether EU regulation has created beneficial market conditions for pharmaceutical companies operating in the single European market.

  3. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    PubMed

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  4. Pharmaceutical regulation in the European Community: barriers to single market integration.

    PubMed

    Orzack, L H; Kaitin, K I; Lasagna, L

    1992-01-01

    The European Community (EC) plans to create a single market for pharmaceutical medicines, but the drug industry is closely linked to cultural and societal values concerning health; to the national regulatory agencies responsible for the evaluation of safety, quality, and efficacy of new drugs; to multinational and domestic companies competing in national and international markets; and to varied interest groups of professionals and consumers organized along national and multinational lines. We review the history of the EC's policy proposals, examine reactions from all these interested parties, and assess the prospects for integration into a single market. The contentious debate that continues among the parties over national prerogatives, industrial interests, professional mandates, and consumer concerns clouds the prospects for a system of centralized drug registration that will be acceptable to all EC member states.

  5. The Single European Market and Its Implications for Educational and Vocational Guidance Services. CRAC Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, J. A. G.; And Others

    By 1992, the Single or Common Market in Europe will provide freedom of movement of goods, persons, services, and capital. From the viewpoint of educational and vocational guidance services, the most important effect of the Single Market is its likely impact on educational and occupational mobility. The two major obstacles toward freedom of…

  6. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  7. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future. PMID:15802158

  8. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.

  9. Global integration of European tuna markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  10. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    . In the meantime, open skies agreements have been concluded between the USA and most of the EU member states to facilitate strategic alliances between airlines of the states involved. As a result of this on-going liberalization the model of the single 'national' carrier using the national home base as its single hub for the designated third, fourth and sixth freedom operations will stepwise disappear. Within the EU the concept of the national carrier has already been replaced by that of the community carrier. State ownership in more and more European carriers is reduced. On the longer run mergers or even bankruptcy will further undermine the "single national carrier - single national hub" model in Europe. In the meantime, strategic alliances between national carriers in Europe will already reduce the airlines' loyalty to a single airport. Profit maximization and accountability to share holders will supersede the loyalty of these newly emerging alliances, probably looking for the opportunities of a multiple hub network to adequately cover the whole European market. As a consequence, some European airports might see a substantial decline in arriving, departing and transfer traffic, thus in revenues and financial solvency, as well as in their connection to other inter-continental and intra-European destinations. At the same time, other airports might realize a significant increase in traffic as they will be sought after by the profit maximizing airlines as their major gateway hubs. Which will be the losing airports and which will be the winning ones? Can airports anticipate the actions of airlines in deregulated markets and utilize policies which will improve their relative position? If so, what should be these anticipatory policies? These questions become the more urgent, since an increasing number of major European airports will be privatized in the near future. Although increasing airport congestion in Europe will also be reflected in a growing demand pressure for

  11. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  12. Barriers Impact U.S. Marketing to the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leila

    For a quarter of a century, the United States has been gradually losing market share in the European Community, which accounts for about one-fifth of world trade. The European Community consumes about one-fourth of United States exports, but this represents only about eight percent of its total imports. Three of the barriers contributing to…

  13. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  14. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    PubMed

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  15. Investing in European market real property through reits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuscin, A.

    2010-03-01

    For institutional and private investors, investing in real estate represents an attractive form of the consignment of their money. Real estate provides a regular source of income in the form of the rent from or interest on the credit provided. At the same time, real estate is a good investment instrument, because it provides diversified contributions and security against inflation for investors. In their efforts to diversify risk, investors are expressing growing interest in investing in the whole European Union. The success of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the U.S. also opened the door for investing in this market for small investors, which is the reason for the development of this type of investment company in the European arena. One problem concerning the development of European real estate investment funds is the unsolved issue of the harmonization of the legislation and regulatory safety measures, which would enable the creation of a common market for new investment products in Europe.

  16. European cogeneration market estimated at $12 billion by 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    A new study by an international market research firm projects that European companies will install some $12 billion worth of cogeneration equipment by 1995. Products for waste heat recovery, steam and turbine generators made up a $993 million cogeneration market in 1986 in Europe. West Germany is expected to account for nearly a quarter of all volume throughout the 1986-95 period. In 1986, industry there spent some $218 million on cogeneration equipment. France and the U.K. are expected to account for another 17% and 16% of sales, respectively. The report discusses the various industrial end users, and on average finds that commercial/institutional establishments; food, beverage and tobacco producers; fuels processors; and the pulp and paper industry each represent between 10% and 15% of cogeneration purchases.

  17. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  18. The Role of Marketization in the Europeanization of Defense Industry Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britz, Malena

    2010-01-01

    European integration has increased to encompass security-related policies. One such policy is defense industry policy, which traditionally has been a national concern rooted in defense and security policy. Efforts have been made since the 1990s to create a European defense industry market. However, there have been different ideas of how this goal…

  19. Time-varying long term memory in the European Union stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new efficiency index to model time-varying inefficiency in stock markets. We focus on European stock markets and show that they have different degrees of time-varying efficiency. We observe that the 2008 global financial crisis has an adverse effect on almost all EU stock markets. However, the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has a significant adverse effect only on the markets in France, Spain and Greece. For the late members, joining EU does not have a uniform effect on stock market efficiency. Our results have important implications for policy makers, investors, risk managers and academics.

  20. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context

    PubMed Central

    Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M.; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. Although many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare, economic productivity of the chain remains an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. The European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. Abstract This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. PMID:26479535

  1. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  2. The Media, Marketing, and Single Sex Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Australian media's interest in education, as in many Anglophone countries, is frequently dominated by concerns about boys in schools. In 2002, in a country region of the Australian State of Queensland, this concern was evident in a debate on the merits of single sex schooling that took place in a small local newspaper. The debate was fuelled…

  3. The Benefit of Educational Inclusiveness for Early School Leavers in the European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Alphen, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…

  4. Teaching Media and Methods in Marketing: European and North American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…

  5. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context.

    PubMed

    Ingenbleek, Paul T M; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-08-14

    This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society.

  6. Governance Models of University Systems--towards Quasi-Markets? Tendencies and Perspectives: A European Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Catalano, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The results of an in-depth study into the university systems of the main countries of the European Union are presented in this paper. The objective is to define theoretical models of the market forms of university education and to apply them in a comparative international study. The analysis shows a general tendency to organise these systems…

  7. Competencies for Young European Higher Education Graduates: Labor Market Mismatches and Their Payoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Van der Velden, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Labor market rewards based on competencies are analyzed using a sample of young European higher education (HE) graduates. Estimates of monetary rewards are obtained from conventional earnings regressions, while estimates total rewards are based on job satisfaction and derived through ordered probit regressions. Results for income show that jobs…

  8. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  9. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  10. Evidence of multifractality from emerging European stock markets.

    PubMed

    Caraiani, Petre

    2012-01-01

    We test for the presence of multifractality in the daily returns of the three most important stock market indices from Central and Eastern Europe, Czech PX, Hungarian BUX and Polish WIG using the Empirical Mode Decomposition based Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We found that the global Hurst coefficient varies with the q coefficient and that there is multifractality evidenced through the multifractal spectrum. The exercise is replicated for the sample around the high volatility period corresponding to the last global financial crisis. Although no direct link has been found between the crisis and the multifractal spectrum, the crisis was found to influence the overall shape as quantified through the norm of the multifractal spectrum.

  11. Patient mobility in the European Union: pushing for EU internal health market.

    PubMed

    Lang, Iris Goldner

    2009-12-01

    Having access to high-quality healthcare is a priority issue for European citizens and is recognised by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. The right to healthcare also encompasses situations where patients travel from one EU Member State to another and receive treatment there. This paper will explore the contradictory relation between the competence of EU Member States to regulate their health systems on their own, on the one hand, and free movement of services in the European Union, on the other hand. It will discuss the consequences of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this field and the provisions of the Proposal for a Directive on Patients' Rights in Cross-Border Healthcare, especially in the light of opening up of EU Member States' healthcare markets, the need to control national healthcare expenditures and to protect the welfare state and the population of the host state. PMID:20157977

  12. Sensitivity of Earth Wheat Markets to Space Weather: Comparative Analysis based on data from Medieval European Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We consider a problem of the possible influence of unfavorable states of the space weather on agriculture markets through the chain of connections: "space weather"-"earth weather"- "agriculture crops"-"price reaction". We show that new manifestations of "space weather"- "earth weather" relations discovered in the recent time allow revising a wide range of the expected solar-terrestrial connections. In the previous works we proposed possible mechanisms of wheat market reaction on the specific unfavorable states of space weather in the form of price bursts and price asymmetry. We point out that implementation of considered "price reaction scenarios" is possible only for the case of simultaneous realization of several necessary conditions: high sensitivity of local earth weather in the selected region to space weather; the state of "high risk agriculture" in the selected agriculture zone; high sensitivity of agricultural market to a possible deficit of yield. Results of our previous works (I, II), including application of this approach to the Medieval England wheat market (1250-1700) and to the modern USA durum market (1910-1992), showed that connection between wheat price bursts and space weather state in these cases was absolutely real. The aim of the present work is to answer the question why wheat markets in one selected region may be sensitive to a space weather factor, while in other regions wheat markets demonstrate absolutely indifferent reaction on the space weather. For this aim, we consider dependence of sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather as a function of their location in different climatic zones of Europe. We analyze a database of 95 European wheat markets from 14 countries for the 600-year period (1260-1912). We show that the observed sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather effects is controlled, first of all, by a type of predominant climate in different zones of agricultural production. Wheat markets in the Northern and, partly, in

  13. The impact of a deregulated European electricity market on Volvo in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, S.

    1998-07-01

    The member countries within the European Union (EU) have agreed to open all national electricity markets for competition, starting January 1, 1999. The electricity market in Sweden is deregulated since January 1, 1996. The deregulation of the electricity markets will gradually shift the electricity price levels in different countries towards an equal price level, which will most likely be close to the levels on the Continental Europe. A deregulated European electricity market may change the competition situation for Swedish industries dramatically. The capacity in electric generation with low operating costs in Sweden has led to very low electricity prices and high usage level compared to other EU countries. The consumption level of electric energy per capita is nearly three times higher in Sweden than the average per capita EU usage. The high level of electricity consumption is typical also of industrial customers in Sweden. Studies of Volvo Car Corporation have shown that the Volvo car plant in Torslanda, Sweden utilizes substantially more electric energy per manufactured car than the Volvo car plant in Gent, Belgium. A method is developed to transform the Torslanda plant from a low energy efficiency state to a higher energy efficiency state by modeling. The method is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and includes optimization models of the two plants with mixed integer linear programming (MILP).

  14. Implications of 1992 for European Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jurgen

    This paper analyzes the effect of the unified single market of 1992 on European telecommunications. The major policy aspects of the European Economic Commission's Green Paper on "The Development of the Common Market for Telecommunications Services and Equipment" are highlighted, and the effects of these policies in the equipment market are…

  15. Stock Market Indices and Investment Funds. An Empirical Approach in the Spanish and European Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferruz, Luis; Marco, Isabel; Rivas, Francisco Javier

    This paper analyses changes in the levels of volatility of the Ibex 35 index over the past decade, as a representative index and benchmark for the Spanish equities market and the performance of the leading European stock market indices, Eurotop 100 and Euro Stoxx 50. We also consider the increasing importance and acceptance of mutual funds as the ideal instrument for the financial diversification of investment portfolios. The paper links mutual funds and benchmarks to focus on the analysis of a sample of equity investment funds, comparing their performance in terms of both returns and historical homocedastic volatility over various time periods (250, 100 and 20 days) with that of the most representative indices in the Spanish and European markets using the same parameters. These indices serve as a benchmark against which to assess the extent to which investment in funds is in fact rational in financial terms. We illustrate our approach using a sample of domestically and internationally diversified mutual funds, as well as three benchmarks, the Ibex 35, Eurotop 100 and Euro Stoxx 50 indices. Minimum quadratic linear models are applied to series of daily returns and to volatilities within the homocedastic framework and their correlation.

  16. Florbetapir (18F) for brain amyloid positron emission tomography: highlights on the European marketing approval.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Blanco, Anabel; Prieto-Yerro, Concha; Martinez-Lazaro, Raul; Zamora, Javier; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Haberkamp, Marion; Pohly, Johannes; Enzmann, Harald; Zinserling, Jörg; Strassmann, Valerie; Broich, Karl

    2014-10-01

    Florbetapir (18F) for brain amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been recently approved in Europe to estimate β-amyloid neuritic plaque density in the brain when the subject is still alive. Such density is one of the key issues for the definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at autopsy. This capability of florbetapir (18F) is regarded as a significant improvement in the diagnostic procedures for adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for AD and other causes of cognitive impairment. The current paper highlights the specific characteristics of the European marketing authorization of florbetapir (18F).

  17. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  18. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets.

  19. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. PMID:25064651

  20. [Availability of services for the aged in Germany and the European inland market].

    PubMed

    Blosser-Reisen, L

    1995-01-01

    Due to the Contract of Maastricht, the members of the European Community are obliged to an open-market system with free competition. Essential for the system is the freedom of movement for goods, persons, services, and capital. The consequences of the realization of the contract for institutionalized help for the elderly are tested. Objects of the investigation are the "four basic freedoms", as well as the positions of the institutions for the elderly in the market. Changes are to be expected for the free trade in pharmaceuticals, medicine technology, goods for production and consumption, and capital. The structure of personnel, of junior staff, and of the clients of the institutions for the elderly will be affected. The open-door policy for commercial activities promotes the establishment of profitable nursing care, senior homes, etc. Nevertheless, the institutions for the elderly in the Federal Republic of Germany and in all other member states of the European Community are, because of their special situation, only in limited areas open to free competition. Conclusions are drawn from the expected changes for owners, management, and staff of the institutions for the elderly, as well as for their representatives in social and economic policy. PMID:7664196

  1. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  2. Market access of cancer drugs in European countries: improving resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Kim; Huys, Isabelle; Casteels, Minne; De Nys, Katelijne; Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Public health systems need to make well-founded choices in order to distribute their scarce resources in the most efficient way. Given the number of cancer patients, public/private investments in oncology research, the growing number of new anti-cancer agents and consequent budget impact of cancer care, market access of cancer drugs has become delicate over the last decade. Furthermore, decision makers are challenged by ethical objections and endeavour to provide fair and equal access to treatments for cancer patients. The aim of this study is to generate an overview of market access procedures for cancer drugs in eight European countries and formulate advice for improvement of resource allocation. Results are obtained through a literature review and a qualitative questionnaire and validated by experts with proven knowledge about procedures for price setting and reimbursement of drugs. Diverse measures are applied in the studied countries to optimize reimbursement of cancer drugs such as adjusted cost-effectiveness threshold, regulations for off-label use and new market access agreements. Additionally, innovative cancer drugs are excluded from explicit cost control measures such as payback of budget excess by pharmaceutical companies and lump-sum payments per diagnostic related groups (DRG) in the hospital. The results suggest that cancer is prioritized above other disease areas. Further research is necessary to address the question if society attaches higher value to cancer drugs than to treatments for other diseases.

  3. Overcoming Barriers to the Market Access of Biosimilars in the European Union: The Case of Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moorkens, Evelien; Jonker-Exler, Clara; Huys, Isabelle; Declerck, Paul; Simoens, Steven; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, six of the top ten blockbuster medicines were monoclonal antibodies. This multibillion-dollar market with expiring patents is the main driver for the development of biosimilar mAbs. With the ever-increasing cost of healthcare and the economic pressure to reduce or sustain healthcare expenses, biosimilars could be instrumental in reducing costs for medication and increasing patient access to treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify and describe the barriers to market access of biosimilar mAbs in the European Union and to analyze how these barriers could be overcome. Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the databases PubMed, Embase, and EconLit. Studies were published in English or Dutch. Additionally, the reference list of the articles was checked for relevant studies. Articles and conference papers known to the authors were included as well. Articles were also identified by searching on the website of the Generics and Biosimilars Initiative (GaBI) journal. Results: Six barriers were identified based on available literature: The manufacturing process, the regulatory process, intellectual property rights, lack of incentive, the impossibility of substitution, and the innovator's reach. These six barriers are presented as a possible framework to study the market access of biosimilar mAbs. Based on the literature search, recommendations can be made to overcome these barriers: (i) invest initially in advanced production processes with the help of single-use technology, experience or outsourcing (ii) gain experience with the regulatory process and establish alignment between stakeholders (iii) limit patent litigation, eliminate evergreening benefits, build out further the unitary patent and unified patent litigation system within the EU (iv) create demand-side policies, disseminate objective information (v) change attitude toward biosimilar switching/substitution, starting with physician, and patient

  4. Assessment of the pharmaceutical market in Poland after accession to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Willert, Patricia L

    2007-12-01

    The Republic of Poland joined the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004. The EU accession brought new opportunities to the Polish health care system and the pharmaceutical market. However, there are still barriers to overcome such as bureaucracy, lack of transparency in pricing and reimbursement, decision-making processes, the short period of data exclusivity, respect for intellectual property rights, favorisation of local companies and low health care investment. Additionally, drug costs outpace overall economic development, a trend which is universally valid for almost all EU countries and which forms one of the most serious factors in health care expenditure. A systematic cost-effective assessment, the so-called fourth hurdle (after quality, efficacy and safety), of prescription drugs seems a necessity in most EU countries. The Polish Ministry of Health has defined aims for the future health care system in the National Drug Policy 2004-2008, including health economical criteria and instruments. However, it is to be expected that for some time there will be more a reimbursement hurdle instead of a fourth hurdle in controlling drug expenditure. This review focuses on the Polish pharmaceutical market with special consideration of the history of the Polish health care system. It will highlight the present situation of the Polish health care system after EU accession and provide an outlook to its possible future.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  6. Interdependence between Greece and other European stock markets: A comparison of wavelet and VMD copula, and the portfolio implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Ali, Sajid; Ameer, Saba

    2016-09-01

    The interdependence of Greece and other European stock markets and the subsequent portfolio implications are examined in wavelet and variational mode decomposition domain. In applying the decomposition techniques, we analyze the structural properties of data and distinguish between short and long term dynamics of stock market returns. First, the GARCH-type models are fitted to obtain the standardized residuals. Next, different copula functions are evaluated, and based on the conventional information criteria and time varying parameter, Joe-Clayton copula is chosen to model the tail dependence between the stock markets. The short-run lower tail dependence time paths show a sudden increase in comovement during the global financial crises. The results of the long-run dependence suggest that European stock markets have higher interdependence with Greece stock market. Individual country's Value at Risk (VaR) separates the countries into two distinct groups. Finally, the two-asset portfolio VaR measures provide potential markets for Greece stock market investment diversification.

  7. Incentives for market penetration of biosimilars in Belgium and in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Swartenbroekx, N; Farfan-Portet; Espín, J; Gerkens, S

    2014-12-01

    Biosimilars are products similar to a biological already authorized and no longer protected by a patent. As the biological product, they contain a biological substance produced by or derived from a living organism. Alike with generics, biosimilars are potential tool to ensure savings for health systems. The current lack of market penetration of biosimilars may be seen by national authorities as a lost opportunity in terms of cost- containment. The objective of this paper is therefore to analyze the current situation in Belgium and to identify potential measures to stimulate biosimilar uptake in Belgium through an analysis of the experience in five European countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. This international comparison was performed using a two steps analysis: a structured review of the literature followed by a validation from experts in each country. Potential incentives and constraints were identified, i.e., prescription quotas/target, clinical guidelines, primary substitution, reference price system, fixed payment and public tendering. However, the literature reviewed provided little evaluation of the effectiveness of these policies in terms of biosimilar uptake or potential savings. The impact of these policies on biosimilar related savings is currently based on expectation and assumptions. Such kind of studies is therefore essential in the future.

  8. Incentives for market penetration of biosimilars in Belgium and in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Swartenbroekx, N; Farfan-Portet; Espín, J; Gerkens, S

    2014-12-01

    Biosimilars are products similar to a biological already authorized and no longer protected by a patent. As the biological product, they contain a biological substance produced by or derived from a living organism. Alike with generics, biosimilars are potential tool to ensure savings for health systems. The current lack of market penetration of biosimilars may be seen by national authorities as a lost opportunity in terms of cost- containment. The objective of this paper is therefore to analyze the current situation in Belgium and to identify potential measures to stimulate biosimilar uptake in Belgium through an analysis of the experience in five European countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. This international comparison was performed using a two steps analysis: a structured review of the literature followed by a validation from experts in each country. Potential incentives and constraints were identified, i.e., prescription quotas/target, clinical guidelines, primary substitution, reference price system, fixed payment and public tendering. However, the literature reviewed provided little evaluation of the effectiveness of these policies in terms of biosimilar uptake or potential savings. The impact of these policies on biosimilar related savings is currently based on expectation and assumptions. Such kind of studies is therefore essential in the future. PMID:25562926

  9. Competitiveness and potentials of UCG-CCS on the European energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Nakaten, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    The world-wide coal reserves can satisfy the world's primary energy demand for several hundred years. However, deep coal deposits with seams of low thickness and structural complexity do currently not allow an economic exploitation of many deposits. Here, underground coal gasification (UCG) can offer an economical approach for coal extraction. The intended overall process relies on coal deposit exploitation using directed drillings located at the coal seam base and the subsequent in situ coal conversion into a synthesis gas. The resulting synthesis gas is used for electricity generation in a combined cycle plant at the surface. A reduction of the CO2 emissions resulting from the combined process is realized by subsequent CO2 capture and its injection into the previously gasified coal seams. The scope of the present study was the investigation of UCG-CCS competitiveness on the European energy market and the determination of the impacting factors. For that purpose, a modular model for calculation of UCG-CCS electricity generation costs was implemented and adapted to the most relevant process parameters. Furthermore, the range of energy supply coverage was estimated based on different German energy generation scenarios.

  10. [European Marketing Authorisation: a long process. Experiences of small biotech companies with the ATMP regulation].

    PubMed

    Buljovčić, Z

    2011-07-01

    On 30 December 2008, the Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) entered into force. Herewith the first EU-wide regulatory framework for ATMPs was established. It requires a central marketing authorisation application to the EMA (European Medicinal Agency). This new framework especially changes the code of regulatory practice for tissue engineered products (TEPs), as no registration procedure had been previously required for autologous TEPs. This also meant that no clinical proof of efficacy achieved by a pivotal clinical trial was necessary. Difficulties and their background as well as the vast requirements for product development that have to be addressed by small companies within a very short time frame are presented. Hereby, it is obvious that regulatory experience which is required to identify and implement the resulting implications was not in place yet and still had to be established. The lack of regulatory experience also resulted in difficulties with scientific advice preparation, expectations toward regulatory agencies, consultants, and transformation of regulatory requirements. Addressing the regulatory requirements within the transition period is even more difficult for entrepreneurs with products which are assigned for indications resulting in complex challenges to the trial design. Due to the enormous time pressure to generate data and due to the implied financial pressure, different adaptation strategies are evolving. In Germany the "hospital exemption" according to §4b AMG (German Medicinal Products Law) is of major importance. A reorientation toward acellular products and a slow down in development of new ATMP products is expected.

  11. Modeling Flood Insurance Penetration in the European Non-Life Market: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.

    2012-04-01

    Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies

  12. The Impact of New Execution Venues on European Equity Markets' Liquidity - The Case of Chi-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlistalla, Michael; Lutat, Marco

    With the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in effect since November 2007, new trading venues have emerged in European equities trading, among them Chi-X. This paper analyzes the impact of this new market entrant on the home market as well as on consolidated liquidity of French blue chip equities, newly tradable on Chi-X. Our findings suggest that owing to this new competition the home market’s liquidity has enhanced. This is apparently due to the battle for order flow which results in narrower spreads and increased market depth. These results imply that overall liquidity in a virtually consolidated order book is in the French case higher than without the new competitor.

  13. Perspectives for imaging single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL.

    PubMed

    Ayyer, Kartik; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zagorodnov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules & Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. Here, we propose a cost-effective proof-of-principle experiment, aiming to demonstrate the actual feasibility of a single molecule diffraction experiment at the European XFEL. To this end, we assume self-seeding capabilities at SASE1 and we suggest to make use of the baseline European XFEL accelerator complex-with the addition of a slotted-foil setup-and of the SPB/SFX instrument. As a first step towards the realization of an actual experiment, we developed a complete package of computational tools for start-to-end simulations predicting its performance. Single biomolecule imaging capabilities at the European XFEL can be reached by exploiting special modes of operation of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator. The output peak power can be increased up to more than 1.5 TW, which allows to relax the requirements on the focusing efficiency of the optics and to reach the required fluence without changing the present design of the SPB/SFX instrument. Explicit simulations are presented using the 15-nm size RNA Polymerase II molecule as a case study. Noisy diffraction patterns were generated and they were processed to generate the 3D intensity distribution. We discuss requirements to the signal-to-background ratio needed to obtain a correct pattern orientation. When these are fulfilled, our results indicate that one can achieve diffraction without destruction with about 0.1 photons per Shannon pixel per shot at 4 Å resolution with 10(13) photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 0.3 μm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 10(14) photons/μm(2). We assume negligible structured

  14. The European post-marketing observational sertindole study: an investigation of the safety of antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hale, Anthony

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the European Post-marketing Observational Serdolect((R)) (EPOS) Study was to compare the safety of treatment with Serdolect (sertindole) with that of usual treatment in patients with schizophrenia, in normal European clinical practice. The EPOS was a multicentre, multinational, referenced, cohort study. Patients were enrolled at 226 centres in ten European countries. The study was prematurely terminated in 1998 as a result of the temporary market suspension of sertindole. Termination of the study reduced the number of patients recruited from the planned 12,000 to 2,321. While the power of the study was weakened, it did provide useful mortality information, which may be useful for future long-term studies. Crude mortality in the sertindole and non-sertindole groups was 1.45 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.53-3.16) and 1.50 (CI 0.72-2.76) deaths/100 patient-years exposed, respectively. There were no more cardiac deaths in the sertindole group than in the non-sertindole group. QT interval prolongation did not translate into an increased risk of death. Sertindole was well tolerated and caused few extrapyramidal symptoms. Although CIs remained large, this post-marketing study does not provide any evidence against the use of sertindole under normal conditions. Sertindole was well tolerated and posed no significant safety problems.

  15. Genome-wide single-generation signatures of local selection in the panmictic European eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Als, T D; Frydenberg, J; Munch, K; Jónsson, B; Jian, J B; Cheng, L; Maes, G E; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2014-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide data allow identifying adaptive variation and footprints of directional selection. Using a large SNP data set from 259 RAD-sequenced European eel individuals (glass eels) from eight locations between 34 and 64(o) N, we examined the patterns of genome-wide genetic diversity across locations. We tested for local selection by searching for increased population differentiation using F(ST) -based outlier tests and by testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables. The overall low genetic differentiation found (F(ST) = 0.0007) indicates that most of the genome is homogenized by gene flow, providing further evidence for genomic panmixia in the European eel. The lack of genetic substructuring was consistent at both nuclear and mitochondrial SNPs. Using an extensive number of diagnostic SNPs, results showed a low occurrence of hybrids between European and American eel, mainly limited to Iceland (5.9%), although individuals with signatures of introgression several generations back in time were found in mainland Europe. Despite panmixia, a small set of SNPs showed high genetic differentiation consistent with single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection acting on glass eels. After screening 50 354 SNPs, a total of 754 potentially locally selected SNPs were identified. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including calcium signalling, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and circadian rhythm. Remarkably, one of the candidate genes identified is PERIOD, possibly related to differences in local photoperiod associated with the >30° difference in latitude between locations. Genes under selection were spread across the genome, and there were no large regions of increased differentiation as expected when selection occurs within just a single generation due to panmixia. This supports the conclusion that most of the genome is

  16. The UK relative to other single payer-dominated healthcare markets for regenerative medicine therapies.

    PubMed

    Rose, James B; Williams, David J

    2012-05-01

    The UK has for many years been considered by businesses, including those based in the UK, as at best a second market for the launch of innovative medical technology products. Historically, this has been attributed to the slow pace of adoption in its National Health Service (NHS). The NHS is perceived to be subject to cost containment, high levels of fragmentation and a lack of strategic incentives to resolve its key failings as a market. Canada and Sweden offer examples of different operating models of healthcare delivery in a single payer-dominated market, and as a consequence, have evolved with different market characteristics. Together, these economies represent an important subsection of healthcare markets that are predominantly publically funded. This report examines the barriers to market entry for regenerative medicine products in these economies and attempts to evaluate the upcoming UK healthcare reforms in terms of impact on the regenerative medicine industry sector.

  17. The UK relative to other single payer-dominated healthcare markets for regenerative medicine therapies.

    PubMed

    Rose, James B; Williams, David J

    2012-05-01

    The UK has for many years been considered by businesses, including those based in the UK, as at best a second market for the launch of innovative medical technology products. Historically, this has been attributed to the slow pace of adoption in its National Health Service (NHS). The NHS is perceived to be subject to cost containment, high levels of fragmentation and a lack of strategic incentives to resolve its key failings as a market. Canada and Sweden offer examples of different operating models of healthcare delivery in a single payer-dominated market, and as a consequence, have evolved with different market characteristics. Together, these economies represent an important subsection of healthcare markets that are predominantly publically funded. This report examines the barriers to market entry for regenerative medicine products in these economies and attempts to evaluate the upcoming UK healthcare reforms in terms of impact on the regenerative medicine industry sector. PMID:22594333

  18. The influence of the European paediatric regulation on marketing authorisation of orphan drugs for children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug development for rare diseases is challenging, especially when these orphan drugs (OD) are intended for children. In 2007 the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation was enacted to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children through the establishment of Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). The effect of the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation on the marketing authorisation (MA) of drugs for children with rare diseases was studied. Methods Data on all designated orphan drugs, their indication, MA, PIPs and indication group (adult or child) were obtained from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The outcome and duration of the process from orphan drug designation (ODD) to MA, was compared, per indication, by age group. The effect of the Paediatric Drug Regulation, implemented in 2007, on the application process was assessed with survival analysis. Results Eighty-one orphan drugs obtained MA since 2000 and half are authorised for (a subgroup of) children; another 34 are currently undergoing further investigations in children through agreed PIPs. The Paediatric Drug Regulation did not significantly increase the number of ODDs with potential paediatric indications (58% before vs 64% after 2007 of ODDs, p = 0.1) and did not lead to more MAs for ODs with paediatric indications (60% vs 43%, p = 0.22). ODs authorised after 2007 had a longer time to MA than those authorised before 2007 (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 2.80 (1.84-4.28), p < 0.001); potential paediatric use did not influence the time to MA (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.14 (0.77-1.70), p = 0.52). Conclusions The EU Paediatric Drug Regulation had a minor impact on development and availability of ODs for children, was associated with a longer time to MA, but ensured the further paediatric development of drugs still off-label to children. The impact of the Paediatric Drug Regulation on research quantity and quality in children through PIPs is not yet clear. PMID

  19. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products. PMID:25920234

  20. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending. PMID:10175989

  1. Transatlantic Moves to the Market: The United States and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Cantwell, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    The theory of academic capitalism is used to explore US and EU marketization trajectories. Comparisons are made along the following dimensions: creation and expansion of intermediating organizations external to universities that promote closer relations between universities and markets; interstitial organizations that emerge from within…

  2. European Study Tour Applications of Experiential Learning Processes in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an application of Kolb's (1981; 1984) experiential learning cycle in the context of international marketing education. Two study tours, in which International Marketing students at a U.S. college visited various cities in Europe, are described, with an emphasis on the ways in which differences in the structure of the tours…

  3. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Objectives Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980–2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. Materials and Methods New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. Results During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. Conclusion FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination. PMID:26469277

  4. European Labor Market in Critical Times: The Importance of Flexicurity Confirmed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The midterm impact of the economic crisis on the employment situation in the EU member states varied largely (European Commission, 2010a, Chapter 1). Whereas the Baltic States, Ireland, and above all Spain registered job losses of more than 10 percent from immediately before to after the crisis, that is, between the second quarter of 2008 and the…

  5. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  6. The Single-Breath Diffusing Capacity of CO and NO in Healthy Children of European Descent

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L.; Buchvald, Frederik; Mortensen, Jann; Nielsen, Kim G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8–10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values. Objectives The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. Methods DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5–17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements and Main Results A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio. Conclusion These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients. PMID:25514246

  7. Labour Market Relevance of European University Education. From Enrolment to Professional Employment in 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the education policy which puts human capital at its heart, higher education is expected to produce marketable competent professionals in response to the needs of an expansive knowledge-based economy. In one reading, to support competitive knowledge-based economy, higher education students should graduate as young and fast as…

  8. Constructing a European healthcare market: the private healthcare company Capio and the strategic aspect of the drive for transparency.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Maria; Sundén, Eva

    2008-11-01

    This article analyses the private healthcare company Capio and its participation in the drive for transparency in the European healthcare field. An important point of departure for the paper is that technologies for transparency, such as accounting and auditing, are not neutral devices for increased openness, but carry with them programmatic dimensions that affect our norms and rules of how healthcare is to be organized and controlled. The drive for transparency engages different actors with various motives. To investigate this we carried out semi-structured interviews with 11 persons, mainly management members of Capio. We show that transparency in healthcare has been put forward by a private actor for strategic reasons. We argue that Capio's involvement in the drive for transparency should be seen as a 'second-order strategy' with the aim to create advantageous opportunities in a future European healthcare market. We show that Capio, through its propagation of various transparency technologies, has put forward programmatic ideals of industrialisation, marketisation and Europeanisation in healthcare. The main conclusion is that although Capio has engaged in the drive for transparency for business reasons, the company has also furthered certain political ideals in the field. This study contributes to the literature which problematizes the division between private and public, and between business and politics in healthcare, and is of interest to a broad health policy audience.

  9. Constructing a European healthcare market: the private healthcare company Capio and the strategic aspect of the drive for transparency.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Maria; Sundén, Eva

    2008-11-01

    This article analyses the private healthcare company Capio and its participation in the drive for transparency in the European healthcare field. An important point of departure for the paper is that technologies for transparency, such as accounting and auditing, are not neutral devices for increased openness, but carry with them programmatic dimensions that affect our norms and rules of how healthcare is to be organized and controlled. The drive for transparency engages different actors with various motives. To investigate this we carried out semi-structured interviews with 11 persons, mainly management members of Capio. We show that transparency in healthcare has been put forward by a private actor for strategic reasons. We argue that Capio's involvement in the drive for transparency should be seen as a 'second-order strategy' with the aim to create advantageous opportunities in a future European healthcare market. We show that Capio, through its propagation of various transparency technologies, has put forward programmatic ideals of industrialisation, marketisation and Europeanisation in healthcare. The main conclusion is that although Capio has engaged in the drive for transparency for business reasons, the company has also furthered certain political ideals in the field. This study contributes to the literature which problematizes the division between private and public, and between business and politics in healthcare, and is of interest to a broad health policy audience. PMID:18703262

  10. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  11. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  12. Getting ready for the marriage market? The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nystedt, Paul; Lindgren, Björn

    2007-07-01

    This article explores to what extent married middle-aged individuals in Europe are governed by the risk of experiencing divorce, when shaping their physical appearance. The main result is that divorce risks, proxied by national divorce rates, are negatively connected to body mass index (BMI) among married individuals but unrelated to BMI among singles. Hence, it seems that married people in societies where divorce risks are high are more inclined to invest in their outer appearance. One interpretation is that high divorce rates make married people prepare for a potential divorce and future return to the marriage market.

  13. Reimbursement of licensed cell and gene therapies across the major European healthcare markets

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jesper; Kefalas, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research is to identify the pricing, reimbursement, and market access (P&R&MA) considerations most relevant to advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in the Big5EU, and to inform their manufacturers about the key drivers for securing adoption at a commercially viable reimbursed price. Methodology The research was structured following three main steps: 1) Identifying the market access pathways relevant to ATMPs through secondary research; 2) Validating the secondary research findings and addressing any data gaps in primary research, by qualitative interviews with national, regional, and local-level payers and their clinical and economic advisors; 3) Collating of primary and secondary findings to compare results across countries. Results The incremental clinical benefit forms the basis for all P&R&MA processes. Budget impact is a key consideration, regardless of geography. Cost-effectiveness analyses are increasingly applied; however, only the United Kingdom has a defined threshold that links the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) specifically and methodologically to the reimbursed price. Funding mechanisms to enable adoption of new and more expensive therapies exist in all countries, albeit to varying extents. Willingness to pay is typically higher in smaller patient populations, especially in populations with high disease burden. Outcomes modelling and risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) provide strategies to address the data gap and uncertainties often associated with trials in niche populations. Conclusions The high cost of ATMPs, coupled with the uncertainty at launch around their long-term claims, present challenges for their adoption at a commercially viable reimbursed price. Targeting populations of high disease burden and unmet needs may be advantageous, as the potential for improvement in clinical benefit is greater, as well as the potential for capitalising on healthcare cost offsets. Also, targeting small populations can

  14. Deodorants on the European market: quantitative chemical analysis of 21 fragrances.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P; Menné, T; Bruze, M; Lepoittevin, J P; Dreier, B; Andersen, K E; White, I R

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently used types of cosmetics and side-effects from them are common. Recent studies relate perfume allergy to this type of product. 73 deodorants were analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry for the determination of the contents of 7 wellknown fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants, with hedione and benzyl acetate the most frequently found substances. The concentration of these 14 substances ranged from 0.0001-2.7%. It is concluded that the levels of cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol found in the deodorants could prove to be relevant for elicitation of contact dermatitis. No conclusions could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems with sensitization to these fragrance materials is largely unknown.

  15. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Saeed, Munazza; Knäbel, Mareike; Kim, YoonKyeong; Troggio, Michela; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo; Won, KyungHo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Perchepied, Laure; Schaffer, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Bus, Vincent; Brewer, Lester; Gardiner, Susan E; Crowhurst, Ross N; Chagné, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey') and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  16. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  17. Products containing microorganisms as a tool in integrated pest management and the rules of their market placement in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Products containing microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) can be used in plant production as an intervention as well as a prevention method for pest control. Their utilisation is strictly in line with the principles of integrated pest management, provided that they are effective and safe. The rules of registration of microorganisms for crop production in the European Union differ, depending on whether they are placed on the market as plant protection products or not. For over 20 years, uniform rules for registration of plant protection products have been in force. Currently, 36 microorganisms marked up to the strain are approved for use in pest control in the Community. The decision concerning market placement of plant protection products containing approved microorganisms is issued for each member state separately. The approaches to market placement of other products with microorganisms differ within the EU, ranging from a complete lack of requirements to long and costly registration procedures.

  18. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  19. Core Elements of the European (Higher) Education Policy: Market-Driven Restructuring or Impetus for Intercultural Rapprochement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkie, Elisa Gavari

    2008-01-01

    For many years there has been a debate about the existence or not, of a common European education policy. In this article I argue that there has been a real European education policy since the approval of the Maastricht Treaty, with a proper content and which offers many new possibilities to students. The core of this policy is the setting up of…

  20. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  1. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  2. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 2: Traffic analysis and market demand for the land mobile communications system in the European scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseable in the 1995-2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. The presence of gaps in the terrestrial system and reasonable traffic extrapolations suggest a very attractive role for a land mobile satellite communications mission.

  3. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. We demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design. PMID:27109208

  4. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2016-01-01

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. We demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design. PMID:27109208

  5. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; et al

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  6. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy and incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. We demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.

  7. 75 FR 12252 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for Fiscal Year 2010; Revised Correction AGENCY: Office of...

  8. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program Fiscal Year 2012...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring...

  9. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program Fiscal Year 2013; Notice... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... each year. This notice publishes the FMRs for the Housing Choice Voucher, the Moderate...

  10. An Interactive Microcomputer Program for Teaching the Impacts of Alternative Policy Sets in the Market for a Single Commodity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Elton; Stoecker, Arthur

    1995-01-01

    Describes a computer software program where students define alternative policy sets and compare their effects on the welfare of consumers, producers, and the public sector. Policy sets may be a single tax or quota or a mix of taxes, subsidies, and/or price supports implemented in the marketing chain. (MJP)

  11. "Into the Melting Pot": The Development of a European Dimension in a 4-Year Programme in Languages and International Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, R. Leslie

    In response to the need for improved international trade in Ireland, an undergraduate program of applied languages and international marketing was developed at the National Institute for Higher Education, a unique Irish technological university in Dublin. In the first year, students study French and German and four business subjects (marketing,…

  12. Single-particle speciation of alkylamines in ambient aerosol at five European sites.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robert M; Evans, Greg J; Murphy, Michael; Sierau, Berko; Arndt, Jovanna; McGillicuddy, Eoin; O'Connor, Ian P; Sodeau, John R; Wenger, John C

    2015-08-01

    Alkylamines are associated with both natural and anthropogenic sources and have been detected in ambient aerosol in a variety of environments. However, little is known about the ubiquity or relative abundance of these species in Europe. In this work, ambient single-particle mass spectra collected at five sampling sites across Europe have been analysed for their alkylamine content. The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) data used were collected in Ireland (Cork), France (Paris, Dunkirk and Corsica) and Switzerland (Zurich) between 2008 and 2013. Each dataset was queried for mass spectral marker ions associated with the following ambient alkylamines: dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), diethylamine (DEA), triethylamine (TEA), dipropylamine (DPA) and tripropylamine (TPA). The fraction of ambient particles that contained detectable alkylamines ranged from 1 to 17 % depending on location, with the highest fractions observed in Paris and Zurich in the winter months. The lowest fractions were observed at coastal sites, where the influence of animal husbandry-related alkylamine emissions is also expected to be lowest. TMA was the most ubiquitous particle phase alkylamine detected and was observed at all locations. Alkylamines were found to be internally mixed with both sulphate and nitrate for each dataset, suggesting that aminium salt formation may be important at all sites investigated. Interestingly, in Corsica, all alkylamine particles detected were also found to be internally mixed with methanesulphonic acid (MSA), indicating that aminium methanesulphonate salts may represent a component of marine ambient aerosol in the summer months. Internal mixing of alkylamines with sea salt was not observed, however. Alkylamine-containing particle composition was found to be reasonably homogeneous at each location, with the exception of the Corsica and Dunkirk sites, where two and four distinct mixing states were observed, respectively.

  13. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. PMID:26849107

  14. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  15. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014: a market basket investigation in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change in presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in six countries in South-eastern Europe from 2012 to 2014, including two members of the European Union (Slovenia and Croatia). Design Three large supermarkets were visited in each of the six capitals in 2012. Pre-packaged biscuits/cakes/wafers were bought if the products contained more than 15 g of total fat per 100 g of product and if partially hydrogenated oil or a similar term was disclosed at the beginning of the ingredients list. These same supermarkets were revisited in 2014 and the same collection procedure was followed. All foods were subsequently analysed for total fat and trans fat in the same laboratory. Results The number of packages bought in the six countries taken together was 266 in 2012 and 643 in 2014. Some were identical, and therefore only 226 were analysed in 2012 and 434 in 2014. Packages with less than 2% of fat from I-TF went up from 69 to 235, while products with more than 2% (illegal in Denmark) doubled from an average of 33 to an average of 68 products for the six countries, with considerable variation across countries. The per cent of I-TF in total fat decreased slightly, from a mean (SD) of 22 (13) in 2012 to 18 (9) in 2014. Conclusions The findings suggest that voluntary reduction of I-TF in foods with high amounts is an ineffective strategy in several European countries. Alternative strategies both within and outside the European Union are necessary to protect all subgroups of the populations against an increased risk of CHD. PMID:26975938

  16. Exploring the Governance of Polish Public Higher Education: Balancing Restored Historical Legacies with Europeanization and Market Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article places developments in Polish public higher education (HE) in the broader context of the literature on HE governance and, in particular, marketization. The Polish case stands out due to the parallel existence of prestigious large universities with long histories of scientific advancement and the largest number of private HE…

  17. Potential relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms used in forensic genetics and diseases or other traits in European population.

    PubMed

    Pombar-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Elixabet; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad Carles, Africa; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an interesting option to facilitate the analysis of highly degraded DNA by allowing the reduction of the size of the DNA amplicons. The SNPforID 52-plex panel is a clear example of the use of non-coding SNPs in forensic genetics. However, nonstop advances in studies of genetic polymorphisms are leading to the discovery of new associations between SNPs and diseases. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the state of association between the 52 SNPs in the 52-plex panel and diseases or other traits related to their treatment, such as drug response characters. In order to achieve this goal, we have conducted a bioinformatic search for each SNP included in the panel and the SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with them in the European population (r (2)  > 0.8). A total of 424 SNPs (52 in the panel and 372 in LD) were investigated in PubMed, Scopus, and dbSNP databases. Our results show that three SNPs in the SNPforID 52-plex panel (rs2107612, rs1979255, rs1463729) have been associated with diseases such as hypertension or macular degeneration, as well as drug response. Similarly, three out of the 372 SNPs in LD (rs2107614, r (2)  = 0.859; rs765250, r (2)  = 0.858; rs11064560, r (2)  = 0,887) are also associated with various pathologies. In view of these results, we propose the need for a periodic review of the SNPs used in forensic genetics in order to keep their associations with diseases or related phenotypes updated and to evaluate their continuity in forensic panels for avoiding legal and ethical conflicts.

  18. On the dynamic dependence and asymmetric co-movement between the US and Central and Eastern European transition markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubaker, Heni; Raza, Syed Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the time-varying and asymmetric co-movement of CEE equity markets with the US stock markets around the subprime crisis and the resulting global financial crisis. The econometric approach adopted is based on recent development of time-varying copulas. For that, we propose a new class of time-varying copulas that allows for long memory behavior in both marginal and joint distributions. Our empirical approach relies on the flexibility and usefulness of bivariate copulas that allow to model not only the dynamic co-movement through time but also to account for any extreme interaction, nonlinearity and asymmetry in the co-movement patterns. The time-varying dependence structure can be also modeled conditionally on the economic policy uncertainty index of the crisis country. Empirical results show strong evidence of co-movement between the US and CEE equity markets and find that the co-movement exhibits large time-variations and asymmetry in the tails of the return distributions.

  19. Regulatory decision-making under uncertainty: are costs proportionate to benefits when restricting dangerous chemicals on European markets?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Roy; Cauchi, Jonathan; Verhoeven, Julia

    2014-04-01

    Since 2007 regulation 1907/2006/EC concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is in force in Europe to reduce the adverse effects of hazardous chemical substances on human health and the environment. Implementation of the regulation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is supported by a Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA) Committee, consisting of European experts who help prepare ECHA's opinion on proposals for either restricting or authorizing dangerous substances. This paper presents the outcomes of the SEA underlying the first restriction proposals. Member states proposing a restriction have to show that it will reduce the risks to an acceptable level at a cost which is proportionate to the avoided risk. What is considered proportionate is not clearly defined in REACH. The opinion making process is characterized by many uncertainties: the expert group had no previous experiences to fall back on and limited information about the expected costs and benefits of the proposed restrictions. The study provides insight into expert opinions on environmental and health risks under uncertainty in the specific context of REACH. Particular attention is paid to the confidence experts place on the estimated socio-economic benefits of the avoided risks compared to the estimated compliance costs.

  20. Regulatory decision-making under uncertainty: are costs proportionate to benefits when restricting dangerous chemicals on European markets?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Roy; Cauchi, Jonathan; Verhoeven, Julia

    2014-04-01

    Since 2007 regulation 1907/2006/EC concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is in force in Europe to reduce the adverse effects of hazardous chemical substances on human health and the environment. Implementation of the regulation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is supported by a Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA) Committee, consisting of European experts who help prepare ECHA's opinion on proposals for either restricting or authorizing dangerous substances. This paper presents the outcomes of the SEA underlying the first restriction proposals. Member states proposing a restriction have to show that it will reduce the risks to an acceptable level at a cost which is proportionate to the avoided risk. What is considered proportionate is not clearly defined in REACH. The opinion making process is characterized by many uncertainties: the expert group had no previous experiences to fall back on and limited information about the expected costs and benefits of the proposed restrictions. The study provides insight into expert opinions on environmental and health risks under uncertainty in the specific context of REACH. Particular attention is paid to the confidence experts place on the estimated socio-economic benefits of the avoided risks compared to the estimated compliance costs. PMID:24518386

  1. Effectiveness of social marketing strategies to reduce youth obesity in European school-based interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moreno-García, Carlos Francisco; Trujillo Escobar, Tamy Goretty; Giralt, Montse

    2016-01-01

    Context: The use of social marketing to modify lifestyle choices could be helpful in reducing youth obesity. Some or all of the 8 domains of the National Social Marketing Centre’s social marketing benchmark criteria (SMBC) are often used but not always defined in intervention studies. Objective: The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of European school-based interventions to prevent obesity relative to the inclusion of SMBC domains in the intervention. Data Sources: The PubMed, Cochrane, and ERIC databases were used. Study Selection: Nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials conducted from 1990 to April 2014 in participants aged 5 to 17 years were included. Data Extraction: After the study selection, the 8 domains of the SMBC were assessed in each included study. Results: Thirty-eight publications were included in the systematic review. For the meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting body mass index or prevalence of overweight and obesity were considered. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 8681 participants included at least 5 SMBC. The meta-analysis showed a small standardized mean difference in body mass index of −0.25 (95%CI, −0.45 to −0.04) and a prevalence of overweight and obesity odds ratio of 0.72 (95%CI, 0.5–0.97). Conclusion: Current evidence indicates that the inclusion of at least 5 SMBC domains in school-based interventions could benefit efforts to prevent obesity in young people. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007297. PMID:27018054

  2. Europe: A Labour Market without Frontiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The six articles in this journal issue were all designed to provide an objective presentation of the framework within which the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) is charting a course toward establishing a common training policy and creating a single market in 1993. The first article, "Information on…

  3. Comparators (medicinal and non medicinal) for marketing authorization, for public health, for payers and at the European level.

    PubMed

    Berdaï, Driss; Hotton, Jean-Michel; Lechat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Drug evaluation is based on comparison. Thus, the choice of the comparator for any new treatment becomes a key issue, especially when there are great differences in medical practice and of use conditions of the comparators depending on the geographical zones and their evolution with time. The choice of the comparators must satisfy sometimes different expectations from the registration authorities and for insurance coverage. The universal comparator that allows answering all the clinical assessment questions does not exist. Placebo, when it can be used, remains a reference for the MA (marketing authorisation) application, but does not exclude the use of the reference drug available on the market and prescribed under optimal efficacy conditions. The reference treatment is sometimes a difficult choice due to the absence of validated therapeutic recommendations or if the recommendations vary depending on the countries. The expansion and international harmonization of prescription guidelines (clinical practice guidelines) would reinforce the robustness and efficiency of clinical research efforts with respect to the relevance of the comparison to reference treatments. This principle also applies to the use of a non-drug comparator when it has been recognized as the reference comparator in the treatment of the pathology in question. In as much as possible, the search for a consensus must also aim at defining in the clinical development recommendations significant thresholds for the size of evaluated effects. Optimization of the information made available after clinical trials could also be helped by the development of use of methodologies that allow assessing superiority on secondary criteria during a non-inferiority study on the main criterion. Finally, the development of early scientific consultations by the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS, French Health Authority) would contribute to adapt phase III clinical trials better to questions concerning the assessment of the

  4. Comparators (medicinal and non medicinal) for marketing authorization, for public health, for payers and at the European level.

    PubMed

    Berdaï, Driss; Hotton, Jean-Michel; Lechat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Drug evaluation is based on comparison. Thus, the choice of the comparator for any new treatment becomes a key issue, especially when there are great differences in medical practice and of use conditions of the comparators depending on the geographical zones and their evolution with time. The choice of the comparators must satisfy sometimes different expectations from the registration authorities and for insurance coverage. The universal comparator that allows answering all the clinical assessment questions does not exist. Placebo, when it can be used, remains a reference for the MA (marketing authorisation) application, but does not exclude the use of the reference drug available on the market and prescribed under optimal efficacy conditions. The reference treatment is sometimes a difficult choice due to the absence of validated therapeutic recommendations or if the recommendations vary depending on the countries. The expansion and international harmonization of prescription guidelines (clinical practice guidelines) would reinforce the robustness and efficiency of clinical research efforts with respect to the relevance of the comparison to reference treatments. This principle also applies to the use of a non-drug comparator when it has been recognized as the reference comparator in the treatment of the pathology in question. In as much as possible, the search for a consensus must also aim at defining in the clinical development recommendations significant thresholds for the size of evaluated effects. Optimization of the information made available after clinical trials could also be helped by the development of use of methodologies that allow assessing superiority on secondary criteria during a non-inferiority study on the main criterion. Finally, the development of early scientific consultations by the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS, French Health Authority) would contribute to adapt phase III clinical trials better to questions concerning the assessment of the

  5. Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in black thermo cups and selected kitchen utensils purchased on the European market.

    PubMed

    Samsonek, J; Puype, F

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen for the presence of a recycled polymer waste stream from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), a market survey was conducted on black plastic food-contact articles (FCA). An analytical method was applied combining X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (thermal desorption GC-MS). Firstly, XRF spectrometry was applied to distinguish bromine-positive samples. Secondly, bromine-positive samples were submitted for identification by thermal desorption GC-MS. Generally, the bromine-positive samples contained mainly technical decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Newer types of BFRs such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl), ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), replacing the polybrominated diphenyleters (PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyls (PBBs), were also identified. In none of the tested samples were PBBs or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) found. Polymer identification was carried out using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy measurement (FTIR) on all samples. The results indicate that polypropylene-polyethylene copolymers (PP-PE) and mainly styrene-based food-contact materials, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) have the highest risk of containing BFRs. PMID:24040839

  6. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    PubMed

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  7. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    PubMed Central

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs. PMID:25599136

  8. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    PubMed

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs. PMID:25599136

  9. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market.

    PubMed

    Huang, J-H; Hu, K-N; Ilgen, J; Ilgen, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in total 80 wine samples of different types and seven grape juice and 23 beer samples purchased from markets in Central Europe in order to understand the arsenic (As) speciation and help assess the potential As toxicity via intake of alcoholic beverages. Generally, total As concentrations in most samples investigated were below the drinking water limit 10 µg l(-1) published by the World Health Organization (WHO); ranging from 0.46 to 21.0 µg l(-1) As in red and white wines and from 0.75 to 13.4 µg l(-1) As in beers. In addition, concentrations of total As in rice wine and in rice beer were 0.63-6.07 and 3.69-8.23 µg l(-1) As, respectively. The total As concentrations in ice wine ranged from 7.94 to 18.8 µg l(-1) As, significantly higher than in white and red wine. Arsenite predominated as the As species in most of the wine samples, whereas arsenate was the dominant species in rice wine, beer and rice beer. Methyl As components were usually minor components in all wine and beer samples. Monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and two additional unknown As species were frequently found in grape juice, late harvest and ice wine with higher sweetness. After air exposure, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid were stable at 4°C for months, probably due to the acidic conditions of wine and beer samples. The presence of sulfite had little influence on As speciation in wine. Despite the predominance of more toxic arsenite and arsenate in wine and beer, the estimated weekly exposure to As (via consumption of beer, wine and rice wine) is low. The As intake per capita is 6.81 µg from beer, <1.93 µg from wine and 0.88 µg from rice wine, estimated using the median of total As concentration multiplied by the average consumption per capita of the corresponding beverage.

  10. Variability, polarimetry, and timing properties of single pulses from PSR J1713+0747 using the Large European Array for Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Karuppusamy, R.; McKee, J.; Kramer, M.; Lee, K. J.; Perrodin, D.; Purver, M.; Sanidas, S.; Smits, R.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-09-01

    Single pulses preserve information about the pulsar radio emission and propagation in the pulsar magnetosphere, and understanding the behaviour of their variability is essential for estimating the fundamental limit on the achievable pulsar timing precision. Here we report the findings of our analysis of single pulses from PSR J1713+0747 with data collected by the Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP). We present statistical studies of the pulse properties that include distributions of their energy, phase and width. Two modes of systematic sub-pulse drifting have been detected, with a periodicity of 7 and 3 pulse periods. The two modes appear at different ranges of pulse longitude but overlap under the main peak of the integrated profile. No evidence for pulse micro-structure is seen with a time resolution down to 140 ns. In addition, we show that the fractional polarisation of single pulses increases with their pulse peak flux density. By mapping the probability density of linear polarisation position angle with pulse longitude, we reveal the existence of two orthogonal polarisation modes. Finally, we find that the resulting phase jitter of integrated profiles caused by single pulse variability can be described by a Gaussian probability distribution only when at least 100 pulses are used for integration. Pulses of different flux densities and widths contribute approximately equally to the phase jitter, and no improvement on timing precision is achieved by using a sub-set of pulses with a specific range of flux density or width.

  11. [Transnational solidarity? Cross-border heath-care in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schmucker, R

    2010-03-01

    The responsibilities of the European Union surrounding public health are concentrated on co-ordinating and complementary practices. A mandatory European harmonization of standards and policies is in effect in only a few areas such as pharmaceutical authorization and health protection at the workplace. The implementation of single market rights over the national health-care systems (negative integration) is growing at the European level. This has ambivalent repercussions. Whilst the rights of patients on the basis of the four fundamental freedoms in the context of cross-border health-care have got stronger, national governments see themselves confronted with a limitation of scope for their health-care policies. The basic principles of the integration project place European pressure on national governments. They are subject to sanctions if their policies are not directly in accordance with the single market concept.

  12. [Transnational solidarity? Cross-border heath-care in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schmucker, R

    2010-03-01

    The responsibilities of the European Union surrounding public health are concentrated on co-ordinating and complementary practices. A mandatory European harmonization of standards and policies is in effect in only a few areas such as pharmaceutical authorization and health protection at the workplace. The implementation of single market rights over the national health-care systems (negative integration) is growing at the European level. This has ambivalent repercussions. Whilst the rights of patients on the basis of the four fundamental freedoms in the context of cross-border health-care have got stronger, national governments see themselves confronted with a limitation of scope for their health-care policies. The basic principles of the integration project place European pressure on national governments. They are subject to sanctions if their policies are not directly in accordance with the single market concept. PMID:20191439

  13. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes.

  14. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  15. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. PMID:25619949

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery and validation in high-density SNP array for genetic analysis in European white oaks.

    PubMed

    Lepoittevin, C; Bodénès, C; Chancerel, E; Villate, L; Lang, T; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Ehrenmann, F; Zelenica, D; Boland, A; Besse, C; Garnier-Géré, P; Plomion, C; Kremer, A

    2015-11-01

    An Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array was constructed for European white oaks. Six individuals of Quercus petraea and Q. robur were considered for SNP discovery using both previously obtained Sanger sequences across 676 gene regions (1371 in vitro SNPs) and Roche 454 technology sequences from 5112 contigs (6542 putative in silico SNPs). The 7913 SNPs were genotyped across the six parental individuals, full-sib progenies (one within each species and two interspecific crosses between Q. petraea and Q. robur) and three natural populations from south-western France that included two additional interfertile white oak species (Q. pubescens and Q. pyrenaica). The genotyping success rate in mapping populations was 80.4% overall and 72.4% for polymorphic SNPs. In natural populations, these figures were lower (54.8% and 51.9%, respectively). Illumina genotype clusters with compression (shift of clusters on the normalized x-axis) were detected in ~25% of the successfully genotyped SNPs and may be due to the presence of paralogues. Compressed clusters were significantly more frequent for SNPs showing a priori incorrect Illumina genotypes, suggesting that they should be considered with caution or discarded. Altogether, these results show a high experimental error rate for the Infinium array (between 15% and 20% of SNPs potentially unreliable and 10% when excluding all compressed clusters), and recommendations are proposed when applying this type of high-throughput technique. Finally, results on diversity levels and shared polymorphisms across targeted white oaks and more distant species of the Quercus genus are discussed, and perspectives for future comparative studies are proposed.

  17. ENCORE. A Pilot Project to Prepare Single Parents/Homemakers for the Job Market. Final Report from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Carolyn

    This package of instructional materials is intended for use in preparing single parents and displaced homemakers for entry into the job market. The materials were developed for the ENCORE program--a 4-week, 48-hour, 3-days-per-week program focusing on employability skills, vocational assessment, personal development, shadowing in traditional and…

  18. The EEC Electronic Information Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Jurgen

    1993-01-01

    Describes the European Information Market Observatory and its purpose of gathering and providing knowledge about the European electronic information services market. Topics include the supply and use of electronic information services, size of the market, structure and policy of market operators, and recent developments in new electronic…

  19. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  20. EGFR mutation testing on cytological and histological samples in non-small cell lung cancer: a Polish, single institution study and systematic review of European incidence.

    PubMed

    Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Olszewski, Włodzimierz T; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Kowalski, Dariusz M; Głogowski, Maciej; Krzakowski, Maciej; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Wągrodzki, Michał; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The targeted treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on confirmation of activating somatic EGFR mutation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC detected in cytological and histological material and present literature review on European EGFR mutation incidence. 273 patients with confirmed NSCLC were entered into the study: 189 histological, paraffin-embedded materials, 12 fresh and 72 fixed cytological specimens. DNA was extracted from both types of material and the EGFR mutation in exons 18-21 was analyzed by direct sequencing. In addition the EGFR gene copy number in cases with sufficient histological material (110 patients) was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The percentage of EGFR somatic mutations was 10.62%. FISH positive results (amplification or high polysomy of EGFR gene) were identified in 33 patients (30.0%). The strongest clinicopathological correlation with the EGFR mutation was found for histological type (adenocarcinoma; p < 0.01), gender (females; p < 0.01) and FISH positive result (p < 0.05). This is the first, single institution study that estimates the EGFR mutation incidence in the Polish population. Cytological material recovered from fixed preparations and stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed DNA quality comparable to fresh tumor cells and histological samples.

  1. Innovations for the Integration of Low-Skilled Workers into Lifelong Learning and the Labour Market: Case Studies from Six European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Roland

    This report presents innovative vocational training (VT) initiatives to improve integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor market. Chapter 1 describes study structure and methodology. Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical basis for observing innovations. It analyzes the definition and significance of innovation in system…

  2. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  3. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD) surveys... (74 FR 50552), effective immediately. The FMRs for the two affected areas are revised as follows: FMR... $577 $690 $853 $1,239 $1,498 Ward County, ND $425 $512 $631 $872 $1,035 ] Dated: March 4, 2010...

  4. [Between dignity and the market. An objectionable decision of the European Court of Justice, concerning aspects of judicial and bioethical interest].

    PubMed

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the fifth argument of the ruling handed down by the European Court of Justice on 9 October 2001 and focuses on two aspects in particular: gene patenting and gene sequencing, on the one hand, and, secondly, consent given by a donor in the case of research involving parts or products of his/her body and leading to patentable inventions. The author also reviews the repercussions on the right to personal integrity of consent given freely and with full knowledge of the facts by the donor and recipient.

  5. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  6. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology.

  7. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  8. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  9. New Testing Standard For European Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, P.

    2004-08-01

    Standardization is a key aspect of the production business committed to the optimization of the product development and cost. In the Space field, American industries and Government organizations have developed since several decades Space standards like the MIL series, deriving them from the aircraft and military fields, or the NASA standards. The same happened later in other countries like Russia, Japan and China. In the last years most of those standards were revised to cope with the emerging needs of the market. In Europe, the Space activities were generally managed by a set of ESA standards, the PSS, which covered some aspects of these activities and reflected the up-to-date approaches and common practices. But, in the last years an initiative was also promoted by ESA, National Agencies and Space Organizations, named ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization), with the aim to develop a coherent, single set of user-friendly standards for use in all European space activities. European industries supported this initiative, including a deep involvement of Alenia Spazio and, sometime through a suitable revision of the old PSS documents, new standards were defined, as for the "Testing" (ECSS-E-10-03A, now published). The ECSS-E-10-03A provides standard environmental and performance test requirements for space products (systems and their constituents) which are generally applicable to all projects. Scope of this paper is to present the status of the worldwide initiatives in the testing standardization, the major contents of the European ECSS Testing standard and the possibilities for tailoring. Differences in requirement definition with other international testing standards and proposals for further ECSS optimization are presented on the basis of Alenia Spazio experience in supporting the above initiatives.

  10. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  11. The European race of Gremmeniella abietina hosts a single species of Gammapartitivirus showing a global distribution and possible recombinant events in its history.

    PubMed

    Botella, Leticia; Tuomivirta, Tero T; Hantula, Jarkko; Diez, Julio J; Jankovsky, Libor

    2015-03-01

    The population genetics of the family Partitiviridae was studied within the European race of the conifer pathogen Gremmeniella abietina. One hundred sixty-two isolates were collected from different countries, including Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States. A unique species of G. abietina RNA virus-MS1 (GaRV-MS1) appears to occur indistinctly in G. abietina biotypes A and B, without a particular geographical distribution pattern. Forty-six isolates were shown to host GaRV-MS1 according to direct specific RT-PCR screening, and the virus was more common in biotype A than B. Phylogenetic analysis based on 46 partial coat protein (CP) cDNA sequences divided the GaRV-MS1 population into two closely related clades, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences revealed only one clade. The evolution of the virus appears to mainly occur through purifying selection but also through recombination. Recombination events were detected within alignments of the three complete CP and RdRp sequences of GaRV-MS1. This is the first time that recombination events have been directly identified in fungal partitiviruses and in G. abietina in particular. The results suggest that the population dynamics of GaRV-MS1 do not have a direct impact on the genetic structure of its host, G. abietina, though they might have had an innocuous ancestral relationship.

  12. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  13. The reorganisation of European pharmacovigilance. Part 2. From spontaneous reports to agency reviews and decisions.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that adverse effects are vastly under-reported, spontaneous reporting remains the foundation of pharmacovigilance. A small series of properly documented cases, when very specific, can suffice to constitute a signal. In France, reporting adverse effects to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (CRPVs) permits high-quality analysis of pharmacovigilance signals, so that they can be brought to the attention of the national agency responsible for making decisions about drugs, the French Health Products Agency (ANSM). The ANSM can use this information to protect patients by implementing the measures within its power or by initiating a European referral. When a decision taken at the national level concerns a drug marketed in several Member States of the European Union, a "harmonisation" procedure results in a decision taken at community level, applicable in all Member States. This means that a safety issue raised by a single Member State sometimes leads to a decision that protects the population of the entire European Union. But it also means that other European decisions can compel national agencies to allow back onto the market a drug that they sought to withdraw in order to protect their citizens. Negotiations with other Member States, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission must be supported by robust data: this is yet another reason for each country to have its own effective national pharmacovigilance database, the contents of which should be publicly accessible. This is unfortunately not yet the case in France in 2014. It also provides another good reason for healthcare professionals and patients to report adverse effects, so that the details can be recorded in national and European databases.

  14. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  15. Usefulness of the European standard series for patch testing in children. A 3-year single-centre study of 337 patients.

    PubMed

    Roul, S; Ducombs, G; Taieb, A

    1999-05-01

    Results of patch tests in 337 children aged 1 to 15 performed in our paediatric unit during the past 3 years have been analysed retrospectively in order to optimize the patch test series and to assess their relevance. This study represents the most important single-centre study reported so far over a short period. We found a positive patch test rate of 66%, with a peak incidence among children less than 3 years of age (88% versus 58.9%). The most common allergens were metals, especially nickel, fragrances and, less frequently, rubber chemicals. Concerning nickel, positive reactions rarely correlated with a relevant exposure and were difficult to interpret, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis, who are probably more likely to have irritant or false-positive reactions to metals. Based on the results and their relevance, we propose a shortened standard series of patch tests for paediatric patients.

  16. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir

    2015-01-01

    The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks. PMID:25945320

  17. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A.; Binda, F.; Eriksson, J.; Sharapov, S.; Collaboration:

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  18. European packaging laws: Can it happen here?

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.

    1996-06-01

    European packaging recycling and reduction efforts helped reshape recycling efforts and thinking. This article provides an update on what is happening with packaging recycling in Europe and how it affects the rest of the world, especially the US. World recycling markets were shaken by the enactment of the German Packaging Recycling ordinance of 1991. While the initial market shock waves may have subsided, the effects are still being felt. The ordinance has changed the way European countries think about packaging waste, and that way of thinking has spread, in various forms, around the world, affecting US manufacturers and causing US lawmakers to at least consider similar legislation here. The German Packaging Ordinance, its counterparts in other countries, and the European Union (EU) Directive have, themselves, been evolutionary as well as revolutionary--reacting and changing over the past five years. US reaction to the European laws has also evolved, moving from horror and annoyance to a reasoned analysis and evaluation.

  19. Cloning of a crustin-like, single whey-acidic-domain, antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, and its response to infection with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hauton, C; Brockton, V; Smith, V J

    2006-03-01

    Degenerate PCR was used to isolate a 221-base pair nucleotide sequence of a new crustin-like antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to extend the sequence to determine the complete open reading frame and un-translated regions. The inferred amino acid sequence of this peptide was found to be similar to crustin-like peptides isolated for several species of shrimp as well as the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The sequence also contains a single-whey-acidic protein (WAP) domain, similar to novel antibacterial single-whey-acidic domain (SWD) peptides that have been recently described in the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time PCR was used to analyse the expression of the gene coding for this peptide. The gene is up regulated after inoculation with the Gram-positive lobster pathogen Aerococcus viridans var. homari but down regulated after inoculation with the Gram-negative bacteria Listonella anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis of this new peptide shows that it is most related to other antimicrobial crustin peptides and that the crustins are only distantly related to the antibacterial SWD peptides recently described. PMID:16144710

  20. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  1. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  2. β-Carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations in women of European descent123

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Sara J; Hazra, Aditi; Chen, Constance; Eliassen, A Heather; Kraft, Peter; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carotenoids have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of many diseases, but associations with intakes or blood concentrations may arise from other constituents of fruit and vegetables. Use of genetic variation in β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1), a key enzyme in provitamin A carotenoid metabolism, as a surrogate for carotenoid exposure may aid in determining the role of carotenoids unconfounded by other carotenoid-containing food constituents, but important variants must be identified. Objective: Our goal was to select BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predict plasma carotenoid concentrations for use in future epidemiologic studies. Design: We assessed the associations between 224 SNPs in BCMO1 ± 20 kb imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project EUR reference panel with plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations by using 7 case-control data sets (n = 2344) within the Nurses’ Health Study, randomly divided into training (n = 1563) and testing (n = 781) data sets. SNPs were chosen in the training data set through stepwise selection in multivariate linear regression models; β-coefficients were used as weights in weighted gene scores. Results: Two or 3 SNPs were selected as predictors of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin. In the testing data set, the weighted gene scores were significantly associated with plasma concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid (P = 6.4 × 10−12, 3.3 × 10−3, 0.02, and 1.8 × 10−17, respectively), and concentrations differed by 48%, 15%, 15%, and 36%, respectively, across extreme score quintiles. Conclusions: SNPs in BCMO1 are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Given adequate sample size, the gene scores may be useful surrogates for carotenoid exposure in future studies. PMID:23134893

  3. Safety and effectiveness of a single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (enVista®) – results of a European and Asian-Pacific study

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Peter; Ligabue, Edoardo; Fan, Alex; Lam, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (enVista® MX60; Bausch and Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA) following implantation to correct aphakia subsequent to extracapsular cataract extraction in adults. Subjects and methods This was an open-label, non-interventional, observational study conducted in 19 university and private-practice settings in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region to investigate clinical outcomes of the MX60 IOL in standard practice. Eligible subjects were at least 18 years of age and had undergone standard phacoemulsification and extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of the MX60 IOL. The primary safety endpoint was the occurrence of adverse events, and the primary effectiveness endpoints included visual and refractive outcomes and stability, with data collected up to 2 years post-procedure. Results In this multicenter study, pooled data of 255 eyes were collected and analyzed. Excellent visual and refractive outcomes and stability were demonstrated. At postoperative visit 4 (61–180 days postoperative), 62.2% of subjects achieved a Snellen best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/20 (decimal 1.00), and 97.8% of subjects achieved a CDVA of 20/40 (decimal 0.50) or better. One eye (1.0%) underwent neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet capsulotomy at 12 months post-procedure. No glistenings of any grade were reported for any subject at any visit. Adverse events were infrequent and were consistent with incidences generally reported with cataract surgery. Conclusion This study, which enrolled all comers, provided evidence of the excellent safety and effectiveness of the MX60 IOL in standard practice. Favorable clinical outcomes included outstanding visual and refractive outcomes and stability. No glistenings were reported at any postoperative visit. PMID:24729678

  4. Aerosol properties, source identification, and cloud processing in orographic clouds measured by single particle mass spectrometry on a Central European mountain site during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, A.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-09-01

    Cloud residues and out-of-cloud aerosol particles with diameters between 150 and 900 nm have been analysed by on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry during the six-week study HCCT-2010 in September/October 2010. The measurement location was the mountain Schmücke (937 m a.s.l.) in Central Germany. More than 170 000 bipolar mass spectra from out-of-cloud aerosol particles and more than 14 000 bipolar mass spectra from cloud residual particles were obtained and were classified using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Analysis of the uncertainty of the sorting algorithm was conducted on a subset of the data by comparing the clustering output with particle-by-particle inspection and classification by the operator. This analysis yielded a false classification probability between 13 and 48 %. Additionally, particle types were identified by specific marker ions. The results from the ambient aerosol analysis show that 63 % of the analysed particles belong to clusters indicating a diurnal variation, suggesting that local or regional sources dominate the aerosol, especially for particles containing soot and biomass burning particles. In the cloud residues the relative percentage of large soot-containing particles and particles containing amines was found to be increased compared to the out-of-cloud aerosol, while in general organic particles were less abundant in the cloud residues. In the case of amines this can be explained by the high solubility of the amines, while the large soot-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with inorganics, which explains their activation as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, the results show that during cloud processing, both sulphate and nitrate are added to the residual particles, thereby changing the mixing state and increasing the fraction of particles with nitrate and/or sulphate. This is expected to lead to higher hygroscopicity after cloud evaporation, and therefore to an increase of the particles

  5. Aerosol properties, source identification, and cloud processing in orographic clouds measured by single particle mass spectrometry on a central European mountain site during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, A.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.; Borrmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud residues and out-of-cloud aerosol particles with diameters between 150 and 900 nm were analysed by online single particle aerosol mass spectrometry during the 6-week study Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT)-2010 in September-October 2010. The measurement location was the mountain Schmücke (937 m a.s.l.) in central Germany. More than 160 000 bipolar mass spectra from out-of-cloud aerosol particles and more than 13 000 bipolar mass spectra from cloud residual particles were obtained and were classified using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Analysis of the uncertainty of the sorting algorithm was conducted on a subset of the data by comparing the clustering output with particle-by-particle inspection and classification by the operator. This analysis yielded a false classification probability between 13 and 48 %. Additionally, particle types were identified by specific marker ions. The results from the ambient aerosol analysis show that 63 % of the analysed particles belong to clusters having a diurnal variation, suggesting that local or regional sources dominate the aerosol, especially for particles containing soot and biomass burning particles. In the cloud residues, the relative percentage of large soot-containing particles and particles containing amines was found to be increased compared to the out-of-cloud aerosol, while, in general, organic particles were less abundant in the cloud residues. In the case of amines, this can be explained by the high solubility of the amines, while the large soot-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with inorganics, which explains their activation as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, the results show that during cloud processing, both sulfate and nitrate are added to the residual particles, thereby changing the mixing state and increasing the fraction of particles with nitrate and/or sulfate. This is expected to lead to higher hygroscopicity after cloud evaporation, and therefore to an increase of

  6. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  7. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  8. Introduction: European bioethics on a rocky road.

    PubMed

    Sass, H M

    2001-06-01

    There are quite a number of rocky roads on which the 'old continent' has embarked. There is, first, a harmonization of cultures and attitudes in the creation of a common European market of values and valuables, a harmonization undertaken in order to survive in an increasingly competitive global market. Second, there is a reactivation of specific European traditions in discourse, peaceable hermeneutics, solidarity, subsidiarity, tolerance in both conflict reduction and solution, and respect for self-determination and self-responsibility. Third, there is an integration of theory and practice, of visions and reality, of national identity or pride and common European rights, and of obligations and cultural heritages. Last but not least, there is a question about the definition of 'European' in a world which, at least in part, has been developed by successful European missionary work in the distribution of Age-of-Reason principles such as personal autonomy and social and ideational tolerance, the promotion of science-based technologies, and the creation of global markets for goods and services. PMID:11445878

  9. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy. PMID:21487236

  10. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  11. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  12. Traceability from a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwägele, F

    2005-09-01

    At pan-European level there is a need for traceability systems giving information on origin, processing, retailing and final destination of foodstuffs. Such systems shall enhance consumer confidence in food; enable the regulatory authorities to identify and to withdraw health hazardous and non-consumable foodstuffs from the market. Animal feeds are an element in this "food-to-farm" approach to public health. Such feedstuffs are preliminary elements of some foods for human consumption, and hence are an inherent element of the food chain. A harmonised pan-European food traceability protocol would greatly assist authorities in detecting fraud as well as dangerous substances. The food chain comprises a range of sequential and parallel stages bridging the full spectrum from agricultural production to the consumable foodstuffs by consumers. EU legislation on traceability and the technologies needed to implement this system for meat and meat products are the focus of this paper. PMID:22064062

  13. Security Economics and European Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  14. Childcare Markets in an Age of Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Public support provided for European early childhood education and care (ECEC) systems varies considerably. European ECEC systems tend to form part of a mixed economy, in which the state, private-for-profit and private-not-for-profit providers all play a role in ECEC's provision, funding and regulation, representing a market model. ECEC…

  15. Multimedia and Training: Practice and Skills of European Producers, Results of the European Project "START-UP" (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Christine Gardiol; Boder, Andre

    1992-01-01

    This second part of a report on European multimedia producers focuses on evaluation criteria and methodologies and the European market for educational and training multimedia materials, including production costs, subcontracting, the production hierarchy, the rationalization of production, and trends in the educational and training multimedia…

  16. Land of the free, home of the (un)regulated: A look at market-building and liberalization in the EU and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Leif Soren Birger Per Ove Holm

    In my dissertation I argue that because the European Union and the United States of America have been largely treated as unique or at least special cases, both the literature on American-state building and that on European market integration have missed how close comparison alters both our descriptive views and social-scientific explanations of the shape of each polity. In particular, scholars have not sufficiently recognized that the European Union has gone further than the United States in many elements of the creation of a centralized, liberalized single market, nor have they produced explanations that account well for this development. This study challenges the dominant assumption that the United States is generally more hierarchical and centralized than the European Union and more of a single free market in the sense of fewer allowable trade barriers. By analyzing the rules of market integration in services (over 70% of GDP), public procurement (15 -- 20% GDP) and the regulated goods markets (goods like elevators with their own regulatory regimes), I demonstrate that in all these major cases the European Union has adopted rules that open exchange to competition more than the United States. While the actual integration of flows on the ground is still generally less across European states than American ones, the political rules are more - and more liberally - integrated in Europe. I offer an institutional and ideational argument to explain these differences, with two main parts. First, there is no American parallel to the institution of the European Commission, which is mandated to continually push liberalization forward. My research shows that Commission leadership has been critical to each of the examined cases. Second, broader norms of legitimate governance favor centralized authority - including liberalizing central authority - more in the European Union than in the United States. Despite all the criticism we hear of the European Union, the basic notion of

  17. Cointegration analysis and influence rank—A network approach to global stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Niu, Lei; Li, Qian

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, cointegration relationships among 26 global stock market indices over the periods of sub-prime and European debt crisis and their influence rank are investigated by constructing and analyzing directed and weighted cointegration networks. The obtained results are shown as follows: the crises have changed cointegration relationships among stock market indices, their cointegration relationship increased after the Lehman Brothers collapse, while the degree of cointegration gradually decreased from the sub-prime to European debt crisis. The influence of US, Japan and China market indices are entirely distinguished over different periods. Before European debt crisis US stock market is a ‘global factor’ which leads the developed and emerging markets, while the influence of US stock market decreased evidently during the European debt crisis. Before sub-prime crisis, there is no significant evidence to show that other stock markets co-move with China stock market, while it becomes more integrated with other markets during the sub-prime and European debt crisis. Among developed and emerging stock markets, the developed stock markets lead the world stock markets before European debt crisis, while due to the shock of sub-prime and European debt crisis, their influences decreased and emerging stock markets replaced them to lead global stock markets.

  18. Dental licensure in the European Economic Community: implications for the United States.

    PubMed

    Freed, J R; Block, L E

    1991-01-01

    The formation of the European Economic Community is resulting in historic changes. By the end of 1992, the European Community is expected to be operating as a single market of more than 320 million consumers, the largest in the world. The fundamental assumption underlying the creation of the European Community is that the best method to increase the general prosperity is a free market. The free market included services as well as goods and required the elimination of restrictions on the movement of people, goods and services among the 12 nations. In dentistry, this has already meant the elimination of licensure restriction for dentists in good standing who are citizens of the EEC and trained in approved educational programs within the EEC, but commercial barriers still remain to be eliminated by the end of 1992. The events occurring in Europe indicate that the outcome of the controversy regarding movement of dentists among states in the United States will be determined by larger societal considerations outside of the profession. The free market principle which underlies the changes in Europe is the fundamental economic philosophy in the United States. To the extent that limitation on the movement of health professionals is seen to contribute to higher costs for health care services in the United States, there may be increased efforts to license by credentials. Similarly, factors such as the need of families for greater freedom of movement between states and court challenges based on constitutionally protected rights may determine the outcome of licensure of dentists rather than issues which are of concern within the professional dental community. PMID:1822093

  19. Student Marketing for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Richard

    2004-01-01

    AACRAO's new publication "Student Marketing for Colleges and Universities" is the single authoritative source interpreting basic and advanced marketing techniques within the context of student marketing. Four sections address marketing fundamentals in the higher education setting, strategic planning, consumer behavior of the college-bound student…

  20. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  1. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  3. EDEX Educational Expansion and Labour Market: A Comparative Study of Five European Countries--France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom with Special Reference to the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Planas, Jordi

    The long-term economic and social impacts of the rise in levels of education on mechanisms of access to employment and on human resources management were examined in a comparative study of educational expansion and the labor markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with special reference to the United States. Five teams of…

  4. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  5. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  6. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  7. The Situation of Young Labour-Market Entrants in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couppie, Thomas; Mansuy, Michele

    2000-01-01

    The different situations confronting young labor market entrants in different European countries may be described in terms of the following models: (1) the conditions of labor market entry are basically tied to the nature of the qualification acquired in initial training, experience accumulated in the labor market plays a very secondary role, and…

  8. Microbial community structure and dynamics in two-stage vs single-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion of mixed swine slurry and market bio-waste.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Aurora; Schievano, Andrea; Tenca, Alberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Oberti, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-04-15

    The microbial community of a thermophilic two-stage process was monitored during two-months operation and compared to a conventional single-stage process. Qualitative and quantitative microbial dynamics were analysed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The bacterial community was dominated by heat-shock resistant, spore-forming clostridia in the two-stage process, whereas a more diverse and dynamic community (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistes) was observed in the single-stage process. A significant evolution of bacterial community occurred over time in the acidogenic phase of the two-phase process with the selection of few dominant species associated to stable hydrogen production. The archaeal community, dominated by the acetoclastic Methanosarcinales in both methanogen reactors, showed a significant diversity change in the single-stage process after a period of adaptation to the feeding conditions, compared to a constant stability in the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage process. The more diverse and dynamic bacterial and archaeal community of single-stage process compared to the two-stage process accounted for the best degradation activity, and consequently the best performance, in this reactor. The microbiological perspective proved a useful tool for a better understanding and comparison of anaerobic digestion processes.

  9. Marketing new medical devices.

    PubMed

    LoBuglio, R J

    1988-01-01

    The marketing concept says that a firm should focus all of its efforts on satisfying its customers, at a profit. This is really a a new philosophy of business, replacing a production-oriented philosophy which focused on organizing a firm's resources to make products and then selling them. The marketing concept calls for reorienting the firm's ways of doing things. Instead of trying to get customers to buy what the firm has produced, a marketing-oriented firm would try to sell what the customers want. The underlying principle of the marketing concept is that a firm should seek to meet the needs of customers, at a profit, rather than place its main emphasis on its own internal activities and utilization of its resources. These latter factors are also important, of course, but those who believe in the marketing concept feel that customers' needs should be the firm's primary focus and that resources should be organized to satisfy those needs. Give the customer what he needs--this may seem so obvious and logical that it is difficult to understand why the marketing concept is considered such a breakthrough. However, people haven't always done the logical and obvious. In a typical company, production men thought mainly about getting the product out. Accountants were only interested in balancing the books. Financial people were absorbed in the company's cash position. And salesmen were mainly concerned with getting orders. No one was particularly concerned with whether the whole system made sense. As long as the company made a profit, each department went merrily on its independent way, "doing its own thing." Unfortunately, they still do in the majority of companies today. Finding out customer's attitudes can avoid prejudices and stereotypes commonly found in the typical organization. The need for market research to avoid stereotypes can be dramatized by the following results from a large-scale survey of European adults: The average Frenchman uses almost twice as many

  10. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  11. Joint Venture Marketing Training: Development Marketing Plans Utilizing Foreign and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, David; Jones, Kevin

    This paper describes a workshop prepared and presented by the Business Administration Department of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, that is designed to provide training in evaluating a European market for an American product and preparing a plan for marketing the product in Europe. It is noted that the program can work with both students…

  12. The European Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    Two European Communication Satellites (ECSs) are now in operation for Eutelsat, forming the orbital portion of a communications system that will operate until 1993, carrying telephony and TV for the European Broadcasting Union. A total of five ECSs are to be constructed in order to ensure continuity of service over the systems lifetime. ECSs will also serve as the bases for the European Regional Communication System, which furnishes small receiver dish specialized services and preemptive TV distribution channels within Europe.

  13. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  14. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing Phase IV study

    PubMed Central

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon; Naser, Ziad; Hawadya, Khaled Al; Sorour, Sorour; Al-Khateeb, Rami Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period. Materials and methods The study was a post-marketing Phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4) in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection. Main outcome measure(s) An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated. Main results The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated. Conclusion Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce

  15. Superconducting cavity material for the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Brinkmann, A.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Navitski, A.; Tamashevich, Y.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of the strategy for superconducting cavity material procurement and quality management is done on the basis of the experience with the cavity production for the European x-ray free electron laser (EXFEL) facility. An adjustment of the material specification to EXFEL requirements, procurement of material, quality control (QC), documentation, and shipment to cavity producers have been worked out and carried out by DESY. A multistep process of qualification of the material suppliers included detailed material testing, single- and nine-cell cavity fabrication, and cryogenic radiofrequency tests. Production of about 25 000 semi-finished parts of high purity niobium and niobium-titanium alloy in a period of three years has been divided finally between companies Heraeus, Tokyo Denkai, Ningxia OTIC, and PLANSEE. Consideration of large-grain (LG) material as a possible option for the EXFEL has resulted in the production of one cryogenic module consisting of seven (out of eight) LG cavities. LG materials fulfilled the EXFEL requirements and showed even 25% to 30% higher unloaded quality factor. A possible shortage of the required quantity of LG material on the market led, however, to the choice of conventional fine-grain (FG) material. Eddy-current scanning (ECS) has been applied as an additional QC tool for the niobium sheets and contributed significantly to the material qualification and sorting. Two percent of the sheets have been rejected, which potentially could affect up to one-third of the cavities. The main imperfections and defects in the rejected sheets have been analyzed. Samples containing foreign material inclusions have been extracted from the sheets and electrochemically polished. Some inclusions remained even after 150 μm surface layer removal. Indications of foreign material inclusions have been found in the industrially fabricated and treated cavities and a deeper analysis of the defects has been performed.

  16. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  17. Education and European Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews implications for education and training of the movement toward integration among European Community nations and the end of Communist governments. Discusses common concerns for new Europe, including data sharing, teacher training, educational quality, disadvantaged learners, demographic and employment trends, European Studies curricula, and…

  18. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  19. European Generic Medicines Association (EGA)--16th Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bob

    2010-08-01

    The 16th Annual Conference of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA), held in Rome, included topics covering new developments and challenges in the generic medicines industry in Europe. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments for generics in the Italian healthcare system, a summary of the EGA pharmaceutical sector inquiry on the delayed market entry of generics, developments and trends in the European generics market, the evolution and growth of the global generics industry, and a CEO perspective on the challenges facing the industry.

  20. Bayou Vista: A Market-Driven Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, G. Martin; Teal, Elisabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The case touches on several areas of marketing: ethics, sales issues, conflicts of interest, marketing forecasts, and issues of pricing. Joe Brice, the visionary and real estate broker for a 36-lot subdivision of moderately priced single-family homes targeting the $190,000 to $260,000 range, seems to have identified an unmet housing market,…

  1. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  2. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  3. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  4. Cross-Dimensional Modelling Patterns to Empower Pan-European Business to Government Services Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampathaki, Fenareti; Koussouris, Sotiris; Gionis, George; Charalabidis, Yannis; Askounis, Dimitris

    Pan-European policies envisioning a single European market and reduction of administrative burden call for effective, interoperable implementation and transformation of cross-border business-to-government services. Despite the existence of dedicated tools and methodologies that enable modelling and execution of cross-organizational business processes, a service-driven approach, that implies associating legal and business rules on the workflow, binding reusable documents with specific information exchanges among the stakeholders and extracting all-inclusive executable flows, remains to be adopted. In this context, the present paper outlines cross-dimensional patterns for modelling and transforming pan-European Business to Government Services interconnecting processes, data and rules under a common, cross-country prism. Such model-driven patterns foster interoperability on a conceptual and platform-independent basis. Discussion on the results is targeting best practices that can be drawn at research level and is pointing out the key difficulties that have to be tackled due to lack of enterprises' and public organizations' readiness in various countries.

  5. Functional Significance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Lactase Gene in Diverse United States Subjects and Evidence for a Novel Lactase Persistence Allele at -13909 in Those of European Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Baffour-Awuah, Nana Yaa; Fleet, Sarah; Baker, Susan S.; Butler, Johannah L.; Campbell, Catarina; Tischfield, Samuel; Mitchell, Paul D.; Moon, Jennifer E.; Allende-Richter, Sophie; Fishman, Laurie; Bousvaros, Athos; Fox, Victor; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Montgomery, Robert K.; Grand, Richard J.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent data from mainly homogeneous European and African populations implicate a 140 bp region 5′ to the transcriptional start site of LCT (the lactase gene) as a regulatory site for lactase persistence and non-persistence. As there are no studies of United States non-homogeneous populations, we performed genotype/phenotype analysis of the -13910 and -22018 LCT SNPs in New England children, mostly of European ancestry. Methods Duodenal biopsies were processed for disaccharidase activities, RNA quantification by RT-PCR, allelic expression ratios by PCR, and genotyping and SNP analysis. Results were compared to clinical information. Results Lactase activity and mRNA levels, as well as sucrase-to-lactase ratios of enzyme activity and mRNA, showed robust correlations with genotype. None of the other LCT SNPs showed as strong a correlation with enzyme or mRNA activities as did -13910. Data were consistent with the -13910 being the causal sequence variant rather than -22018. Four individuals heterozygous for -13910T/C had allelic expression patterns similar to individuals with -13910C/C genotypes; of these, 2 showed equal LCT expression from the 2 alleles and a novel variant (-13909C>A) associated with lactase persistence. Conclusion The identification of -13910C/C genotype is very likely to predict lactase non-persistence, consistent with prior published studies. A -13910T/T genotype will frequently, but not perfectly, predict lactase persistence in this mixed European-ancestry population; a -13910T/C genotype will not predict the phenotype. A long, rare haplotype in 2 individuals with -13910T/C genotype but equal allele-specific expression contains a novel lactase persistence allele present at -13909. PMID:25625576

  6. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  7. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  8. Case Studies as Practical Teaching in the New Marketing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Cordente-Rodríguez, María; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Andrés-Martínez, María-Encarnación; Gázquez-Abad, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area is assuming a change in the teaching-learning of all European universities. The area of Marketing, traditionally characterized by being at the forefront in terms of educational innovation, faces the challenge of finding new tools to facilitate the work of students by encouraging their involvement in the…

  9. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  10. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  11. European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734

  12. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  13. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  14. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  15. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  16. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  17. Integrative efforts in occupational safety and health in the European union.

    PubMed

    Horst, A

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has had a long tradition in developing a common European social policy from its beginning. A milestone to European social policy in the field of occupational safety and health was the Single European Act in 1986. With this Single European Act the improvement of the work environment became an explicit objective of the community. Since that starting point several legislative and nonlegislative actions have been taken to face the huge challenges of globalisation with a targeted social policy. The aim of this policy is to reconcile the interests of the employers in productive and competitive workplaces with the interests of the employees in healthy working conditions.

  18. The European Social Fund: A Very Specific Case Instrument of HRD Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the intervention of the European Social Fund (ESF) as an instrument of human resource development (HRD) policies in the European labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an economic background, and reviews the official documents produced by the ESF during its history to try to define its economic…

  19. Publishing Strategies of Young, Highly Mobile Academics: The Question of Language in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines links between publishing strategies and the academic mobility of multilingual entry-level scholars in the European context against the backdrop of European Union (EU) policies and research on academic labor market characteristics, skilled migration and scholarly publishing. An analysis of language of publication, patterns of…

  20. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…

  1. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  2. Key Data on Vocational Training in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This book provides key quantitative and qualitative data on vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union. Among the topics on which data are provided are the following: demographic trends, educational attainment, and the labor market (aging of the population and labor force, changes in educational attainment over time, impacts of…

  3. European user trial of paging by satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fudge, R. E.; Fenton, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    British Telecom conceived the idea of adapting their existing paging service, together with the use of existing terrestrial pagers, to yield a one way data (i.e., paging) satellite service to mobiles. The user trial of paging by satellites was successful. It demonstrated that services could be provided over a wide geographical area to low priced terminals. Many lessons were learned in unexpected areas. These include the need for extensive liaison with all users involved, especially the drivers, to ensure they understood the potential benefits. There was a significant desire for a return acknowledgement channel or even a return data channel. Above all there is a need to ensure that the equipment can be taken across European borders and legitimately used in all European countries. The next step in a marketing assessment would be to consider the impact of two way data messaging such as INMARSAT-C.

  4. Generation of a Catalogue of European Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, Filipa; Baptiste Granier, Jean; Bordoy, Roger; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Souch, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The probability of multiple wind-storm events within a year is crucial to any (re)insurance company writing European wind business. Indeed, the volatility of losses is enhanced by the clustering of storms (cyclone families), as occurred in early 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke), December 1999 (Lothar, Martin) or December 2015 (Desmond, Eva, Frank), among others. In order to track winter extratropical cyclones, we use the maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa of the new-released long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from the ECMWF since the beginning of the 20th Century until 2010. We develop an automatic procedure to define events. We then quantify the severity of each storm using loss and meteorological indices at country and Europe-wide level. Validation against market losses for the period 1970-2010 is undertaken before considering the severity and frequency of European windstorms for the 110 years period.

  5. Heterogeneity of the environmental regulation of industrial wastewater: European wineries.

    PubMed

    Román-Sánchez, Isabel M; Aznar-Sánchez, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The European legislation of the pollution of industrial wastewater shows a high degree of heterogeneity. This fact implies that there is a market failure with relevant consequences. Within the European Union, each Member State performs a specific transposition of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. The member states introduce different sanitation fees to correct water pollution. In this paper, the case of the European wine industry is analyzed. It studies the sanitation fees of the five major wine producing countries: France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal. Results show significant differences among the wastewater fees and the study reveals how such heterogeneity leads to relevant market distortions. The research concludes that more homogeneous environmental regulation would promote more sustainable wine production processes with more efficient water management and purification systems, as well as the introduction of cutting edge technologies.

  6. Heterogeneity of the environmental regulation of industrial wastewater: European wineries.

    PubMed

    Román-Sánchez, Isabel M; Aznar-Sánchez, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The European legislation of the pollution of industrial wastewater shows a high degree of heterogeneity. This fact implies that there is a market failure with relevant consequences. Within the European Union, each Member State performs a specific transposition of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. The member states introduce different sanitation fees to correct water pollution. In this paper, the case of the European wine industry is analyzed. It studies the sanitation fees of the five major wine producing countries: France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal. Results show significant differences among the wastewater fees and the study reveals how such heterogeneity leads to relevant market distortions. The research concludes that more homogeneous environmental regulation would promote more sustainable wine production processes with more efficient water management and purification systems, as well as the introduction of cutting edge technologies. PMID:26524460

  7. Carbon markets proliferating despite difficulties, report notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although some existing carbon markets are facing structural issues and economic difficulties in Europe have put a damper on the European Union emissions trading system, new carbon pricing initiatives are developing rapidly, and these initiatives could help slow down greenhouse gas emissions, according to a 29 May report from the World Bank.

  8. The Market Prospects for Consumer Online Services in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Martin

    The rapid growth over the last few years of online services designed to appeal to a mass market audience in the United States encouraged many of the companies operating these services to consider launching them in Europe. This paper concentrates primarily on the European market of online services. The services fall into three categories: United…

  9. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  10. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  11. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  12. The European nitrogen case.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Klaas; Bresser, Ton; Bouwman, Lex

    2002-03-01

    The N budget for Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union) indicates that the 3 principal driving forces of the acceleration of the European N cycle are fertilizer production (14 Mt (mill. tonnes) N yr-1), fossil fuel combustion and other industry (3.3 Mt N yr-1) and import of N in various products (7.6 Mt N yr-1). The various leaks of reactive N species from European food, energy and industrial production systems are estimated and their effects on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are assessed. Future European environmental policy measures to close the N cycle and to reduce leaks of reactive N can best focus on the three major driving forces, taking into consideration the possible consequences in the N cascade. Critical loads may be useful tools in determining N-emission ceilings and developing integrated policies for regulating N flows such as fertilizer use and imports and N levels.

  13. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  14. Biosimilars and the European experience: implications for the United States.

    PubMed

    Megerlin, Francis; Lopert, Ruth; Taymor, Ken; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues

    2013-10-01

    Biologics are medicines derived from a biological source. Their high prices and rapid uptake have raised hopes that with the gradual expiration of patents on the first generations of biologics, the advent of lower-cost follow-on products known as biosimilars will help "bend the cost curve." Although biosimilars have been available since 2006 within the European Union and are expected to save $15-$44 billion by 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has yet to finalize the necessary regulatory processes for their approval in the United States. The European experience suggests, however, that once these are in place, the US biosimilar market may well emerge as bimodal: Initially, modestly discounted biosimilars deemed noninterchangeable with the original products will compete to become the initial treatment of choice in new patients. Subsequently, a second market may be anticipated for those products able to meet the FDA's higher standard for "interchangeability." In that market, discounts may be more dramatic. PMID:24101072

  15. Code of ethics and conduct for European nursing.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Loredana; Stievano, Alessandro; González Jurado, Máximo; Rocco, Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    A main identifying factor of professions is professionals' willingness to comply with ethical and professional standards, often defined in a code of ethics and conduct. In a period of intense nursing mobility, if the public are aware that health professionals have committed themselves to the drawing up of a code of ethics and conduct, they will have more trust in the health professional they choose, especially if this person comes from another European Member State. The Code of Ethics and Conduct for European Nursing is a programmatic document for the nursing profession constructed by the FEPI (European Federation of Nursing Regulators) according to Directive 2005/36/EC On recognition of professional qualifications , and Directive 2006/123/EC On services in the internal market, set out by the European Commission. This article describes the construction of the Code and gives an overview of some specific areas of importance. The main text of the Code is reproduced in Appendix 1.

  16. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  17. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  18. European Commission activities in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Silas; Lymberis, Andreas; Whitehouse, Diane

    2004-12-01

    Health-care is an information-intensive and knowledge-demanding sector, which is why eHealth solutions are so important in this field. The European Commission (EC) has been initiating and funding research and development activities regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for health, or "eHealth", since 1988. These programmes covered priority topics like electronic health-care records, regional and national health networks, telemedicine in homecare and care-at-the-point-of-need to support continuity of care concepts, systems to support people to stay healthy, and systems and tools to support health professionals to work more efficiently and safely on patients. During the 15-year span of the programmes, the European Union (EU) has contributed about 500 million Euro to approximately 400 R&D projects, support activities, best practice and studies covering technical, clinical, ethical, legal, organisational and market issues. eHealth has shown proven benefits in application fields like improved access to care, care at the point-of-need, citizen-centred care, improved quality and cost containment. Such applications were on show at the EU High Level eHealth Conferences in Brussels, Belgium, in 2003, and in Cork, Ireland, in 2004. eHealth is now on the governmental agenda of EU Member States to be implemented on a broader scale. In line with this development, the Commission has taken a number of policy initiatives. A European Union Action Plan for a European eHealth Area was published by the Commission in April 2004 and endorsed by the EU health ministers in June 2004. This means that, for the first time, Europe has a coherent agenda for the implementation of eHealth. This report will concentrate on eHealth activities initiated by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission. PMID:15709306

  19. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  20. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions

  1. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  2. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  3. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  4. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  5. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  6. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  7. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  8. Are international securitized property markets converging or diverging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chen, Jia; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a new framework which combines the recursive model with the Fractionally Integrated Vector Error Correction Model (FIVECM) to investigate the cointegration relationship among 9 securitized real estate indices, which are divided into three groups: Asian, European and North American groups. Our new combined framework has the advantage of reflecting the changes in cointegration dynamics over a period of time instead of a single result for the whole period. The results show that the three groups of markets follow a similar cointegration trend: the cointegration relationship gradually increases before the global financial crisis, reaches a peak during the crisis, and dies down gradually after the crisis. However, cointegration among Asian and European countries occurs at a much later time than cointegration among North American countries does, showing that North America is the source of cointegration, while Asia and Europe are the recipients. This study has important implications to investors and related authorities that investors can adjust their portfolio according to the test results to reduce their risk, while related authorities can take appropriate measures to stabilize the economy and mitigate the effects of financial crises.

  9. Smart Order Routing Technology in the New European Equity Trading Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ende, Bartholomäus; Gomber, Peter; Lutat, Marco

    In Europe, fragmentation of execution venues has been triggered by increasing competition among markets and a new regulatory environment set up by MiFID. Against this background, IT-based sophisticated order routing systems (Smart Order Routing systems) promise to assure efficiency despite fragmented markets. This raises the question on the relevance and economic value of this technology in European equity trading. Based on order book data for EURO STOXX 50 securities of ten European electronic execution venues, this paper assesses the potential of Smart Order Routing technology by measuring the performance of actual executions in European order book trading relative to a Smart Order Router implementation that detects and accesses best European prices. We identify 6.71% full trade troughs and 6.45% partial trade-throughs in our dataset enabling for significant absolute and relative savings. This indicates that Smart Order Routing technology can provide business value by improving order executions in European cross-tradable equities.

  10. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  11. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  12. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  13. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  14. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  15. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  16. Merging Advertising and PR: Integrated Marketing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and compares the perceived educational needs of advertising and public relations practitioners. Explores differences between practitioners in small versus large markets, and assesses practitioners' beliefs about integrated marketing communications (the merger of advertising and public relations under a single organizational unit). (SR)

  17. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  18. Animal health and the trade in aquatic animals within and to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Daelman, W

    1996-06-01

    The creation of a single European market has significantly extended the scope of veterinary animal and public health legislation. This extension includes aquatic animals, and a comprehensive set of directives and decisions has been developed to ensure free circulation of aquaculture animals and their products, while guaranteeing a high level of animal health. At the same time, and in the same context, other directives have been adopted which organise checks on animals and products within and to the European Union (EU), as well as accompanying financial measures. Animal health legislation for the movement of aquaculture animals is also based on a number of principles, including the following: --the definition of important pathogens and their hosts --zoning (regionalisation)--the obligation for EU Member States to move animals only from areas or farms with high health status to and between areas and farms with equal or lower health status--the prescription of a testing regime to improve animal health status in zones or farms. In addition, disease control prescriptions have been established or are being considered for adoption. These include the establishment of national and EU reference laboratories, as well as the application of contingency plans and the measures to be taken in the event of a disease outbreak. PMID:8890390

  19. Rates of Return to Education of Mexican-Americans and European-Americans in Santa Clara County, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the extent of ethnic labor market discrimination measurable in incomes and rates of return on education for Mexican-Americans and European-Americans in a large industrialized metropolitan area. (Author)

  20. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    PubMed

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  1. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  2. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for

  3. The European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) database.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin; Luca, Gianina; Baumann, Christian R; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bruni, Oliviero; Canellas, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Del Rio-Villegas, Rafael; Feketeova, Eva; Ferri, Raffaele; Geisler, Peter; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Kornum, Birgitte R; Lecendreux, Michel; Martins-da-Silva, Antonio; Mathis, Johannes; Mayer, Geert; Paiva, Teresa; Partinen, Markku; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Riha, Renata; Tafti, Mehdi; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Young, Peter; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.02% in European populations. Narcolepsy shares many features of rare disorders, in particular the lack of awareness of the disease with serious consequences for healthcare supply. Similar to other rare diseases, only a few European countries have registered narcolepsy cases in databases of the International Classification of Diseases or in registries of the European health authorities. A promising approach to identify disease-specific adverse health effects and needs in healthcare delivery in the field of rare diseases is to establish a distributed expert network. A first and important step is to create a database that allows collection, storage and dissemination of data on narcolepsy in a comprehensive and systematic way. Here, the first prospective web-based European narcolepsy database hosted by the European Narcolepsy Network is introduced. The database structure, standardization of data acquisition and quality control procedures are described, and an overview provided of the first 1079 patients from 18 European specialized centres. Due to its standardization this continuously increasing data pool is most promising to provide a better insight into many unsolved aspects of narcolepsy and related disorders, including clear phenotype characterization of subtypes of narcolepsy, more precise epidemiological data and knowledge on the natural history of narcolepsy, expectations about treatment effects, identification of post-marketing medication side-effects, and will contribute to improve clinical trial designs and provide facilities to further develop phase III trials. PMID:26809504

  4. The European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) database.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin; Luca, Gianina; Baumann, Christian R; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bruni, Oliviero; Canellas, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Del Rio-Villegas, Rafael; Feketeova, Eva; Ferri, Raffaele; Geisler, Peter; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Kornum, Birgitte R; Lecendreux, Michel; Martins-da-Silva, Antonio; Mathis, Johannes; Mayer, Geert; Paiva, Teresa; Partinen, Markku; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Riha, Renata; Tafti, Mehdi; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Young, Peter; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.02% in European populations. Narcolepsy shares many features of rare disorders, in particular the lack of awareness of the disease with serious consequences for healthcare supply. Similar to other rare diseases, only a few European countries have registered narcolepsy cases in databases of the International Classification of Diseases or in registries of the European health authorities. A promising approach to identify disease-specific adverse health effects and needs in healthcare delivery in the field of rare diseases is to establish a distributed expert network. A first and important step is to create a database that allows collection, storage and dissemination of data on narcolepsy in a comprehensive and systematic way. Here, the first prospective web-based European narcolepsy database hosted by the European Narcolepsy Network is introduced. The database structure, standardization of data acquisition and quality control procedures are described, and an overview provided of the first 1079 patients from 18 European specialized centres. Due to its standardization this continuously increasing data pool is most promising to provide a better insight into many unsolved aspects of narcolepsy and related disorders, including clear phenotype characterization of subtypes of narcolepsy, more precise epidemiological data and knowledge on the natural history of narcolepsy, expectations about treatment effects, identification of post-marketing medication side-effects, and will contribute to improve clinical trial designs and provide facilities to further develop phase III trials.

  5. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    PubMed

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25200487

  6. European small geostationary communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián

    2011-04-01

    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  7. A Space for the European Higher Education Area: The Guidance from the EU Court of Justice to Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwikkers, Peter; van Wageningen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The European Court of Justice has developed a body of jurisprudence that regulates issues such as access, capacity, quality, student allowances and labour market needs, and that should be considered at least an even more important contribution to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) than the Bologna process. The Bressol and Chaverot cases…

  8. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  9. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods. PMID:9612781

  10. Norne crude oil quality, transport and marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Thorvaldsen, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Norne field is situated in the northern part of Norway and will start production of crude oil in spring 1997. Planned plateau production of this medium density crude is 170 thousand barrels per day (kbd). After stabilization and water removal, crude will be tandem loaded from the monohull ship storage to standard North Sea buoy loaders with an average cargo size of 855 kb. The cargoes will either be delivered directly to the North West European market or reloaded at Statoil`s crude oil terminal at Mongstad for re-export to the Mediterranean or US/Canadian market.

  11. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  12. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    In 1978 Congress passed the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act. This legislation requires uniform posting of accurate octane ratings on gas pumps to let consumers know the octane rating of the gasoline they are buying. However, because the Federal Trade Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not carried out their octane testing and enforcement responsibilities under the Act, there are no federal controls to ensure that gasoline octane postings are accurate. This report discussed how octane mislabeling is a problem in some states, and GAO believes consumer may be paying millions of dollars each year for gasoline with lower octane rating than what is posted on the pump. GAO is also concerned that the Act lacks provisions for posting octane ratings for gasoline-alcohol blends and has other provisions that may interfere with state octane enforcement efforts.

  13. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  14. The first modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.

  15. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  16. Should Consumers Be Priced Out of Pollution-Permit Markets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stefani C.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a simple diagrammatic exposition of a pollution-permit market in which firms that generate pollution and consumers who are harmed by pollution are allowed to purchase permits at a single market price. Illustrates that the market equilibrium is efficient only if the endowment of permits is equal to the efficient level of pollution. (JEH)

  17. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  18. Probabilistic modelling of European consumer exposure to cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Rohan, D; Golden, D; Gibney, M; Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; Steiling, W

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.

  19. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  20. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  1. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  2. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  3. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  4. [Orphan diseases and orphan medicines: a Belgian and European study].

    PubMed

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze policies concerning orphan medicines, used to treat patients suffering from a rare disease. The decisions about orphan designation and marketing authorization of orphan medicines are taken at European level, but each Member State is responsible for decisions regarding reimbursement. The European measures to encourage the development of orphan medicines, such as market exclusivity for a period of ten years, seem to be successful. However, this market exclusivity should be revised once the profitability of such medicines has clearly been demonstrated. Our study recommends the implementation of patient registries at the European level in order to describe the natural evolution of rare diseases and the efficacy of orphan medicines, the majority of which are relatively expensive. In 2008, Belgian social security services reimbursed orphan medicines for an amount of 66 million euro, accounting for more than 5% of the hospital pharmaceutical budget. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine to an individual patient is subject to multiple conditions. Our study recommends that a unique counter within the NIHDI is created which centralizes all reimbursement requests. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine must be linked to the provision of standardized information needed for a patient register. The NIHDI administration could then, in collaboration with external experts, evaluate reimbursement requests and ensure a coherent application of reimbursement criteria. PMID:20183989

  5. International wind farm markets: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rackstraw, K.

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  6. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G.

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  7. Satellite broadcasting - The European experience and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Alan

    1991-11-01

    The use of satellites is considered as a means for developing a European transnational broadcasting system with attention given to the control of technology. A tension is described between maintaining technology as the property of one nation when the DBSs are developed for multinational program broadcasting. The simultaneous development of satellite systems is theorized to lead eventually to a single merged program for a particular nation, and the effect is considered of the regulation of cross-holding and cross-selling systems by investors.

  8. European Union vaccine research--an overview.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Jürgen; Olesen, Ole F; Bray, Jeremy; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in vaccine research provide new momentum for an important area in health innovation. Particularly interesting are novel DNA vaccine approaches, many of which are already under clinical investigation. The Framework Programmes of the European Union play an important role in supporting collaborative efforts in vaccine research to develop new and better vaccines and bring them to the market. With a timely strategic reorientation towards a sustainable investment in innovation, the current seventh Framework Programme will help to bring large industry and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) on board and foster partnership between stakeholders. As the first human DNA vaccines progresses through the development pipeline, more and more questions revolve around licensing and regulation and appropriate guidelines are being developed.

  9. Marketing Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    In January 1993 the New Products and Services (NP&S) department of Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Marketing Organization embarked on a project to provide greater access and sharing of market data. This project is the Marketing Data Warehouse (MDW). The goal of the MDW is to provide for the integration and access of market relevant data collected by TVA internally or purchased from external sources. The MDW is a repository of secondary information, allowing marketing analysts to answer market questions in a matter of minutes rather hours or days. The application of the data warehouse approach allows marketing groups to take full advantage of new market data sources, market analysis software and marketing techniques. Marketers can perform impact analysis of market relevant legislation, business trends and technology breakthroughs much quicker with greater confinence in the results.

  10. Marketing through Video Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using video presentations as marketing tools. Includes information about video news releases, public service announcements, and sales/marketing presentations. Describes the three stages in creating a marketing video: preproduction planning; production; and postproduction. (JOW)

  11. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

  12. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  13. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  14. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  15. Patterns of contraceptive use in 5 European countries. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, A; Talamanca, I F; Lauria, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of contraception in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy, and Spain is described. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional study, the European Study of Infertility and Subfecundity. Interviews were conducted with 6630 women aged 25 to 44 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of factors associated with contraceptive use. RESULTS: Residents of Northern European countries tended to use more effective methods of contraception than residents of Southern European countries. The use of contraception was generally more common among single women, the more highly educated, those with children, and those with a previous induced abortion. These characteristics were also the main determinants of the use of more effective methods. Periodic abstinence and withdrawal were more common among older women. CONCLUSIONS: The European countries are in different phases of contraceptive practice: in Northern and Western Europe, use of more modern methods has been stable over the past 10 years, whereas these methods are less common in Southern and Eastern Europe. The results suggest the need for information, education, and provision of contraceptive services in Eastern and Southern Europe. PMID:10983197

  16. Blueprint of the world`s largest uranium markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bizal, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    This article is a review of two recently released reports: (1) the EURATOM Supply Agency Annual Report for 1995, and (2) the US Energy Information Administration Uranium Industry Annual for 1995. These reports provide myraid information on uranium production, deliveries, contracts, and prices, as well as enrichment market activity during 1995 in the world`s largest nuclear fuel markets: the European Union and the United States.

  17. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  18. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  19. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  20. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  1. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  2. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  3. 45 CFR 156.80 - Single risk pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single risk pool. 156.80 Section 156.80 Public... Provisions § 156.80 Single risk pool. (a) Individual market. A health insurance issuer must consider the... a single risk pool. (b) Small group market. A health insurance issuer must consider the...

  4. 45 CFR 156.80 - Single risk pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single risk pool. 156.80 Section 156.80 Public... Provisions § 156.80 Single risk pool. (a) Individual market. A health insurance issuer must consider the... a single risk pool. (b) Small group market. A health insurance issuer must consider the...

  5. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  6. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  7. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    PubMed

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.

  8. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    PubMed

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900

  9. Marketable permits, market power, and cheating

    SciTech Connect

    Egteren, H. van; Weber, M.

    1996-03-01

    Marketable pollution permits are gaining acceptance in government policy circles, and initial estimates of the potential cost savings over command and control regulations were deemed significant and achievable with minimal information requirements on the part of reglators. However, the original promise of marketable permit systems has not been fulfilled. Significant gains in pollution reduction have not been achieved while emissions permits have become costly liabilities to firms. This paper combines the theoretical challeges of two groups to consider the impact of market power on equilibrium permit prices and levels of compliance. Results indicate that when a firm has market power in the permit market, the intial allocation is fundamental in determining prices and levels of compliance for all participants in the permit market. Furthermore, the exercise of market power and its corresponding impact on the equilibrium level of compliance is a significant factor in determining total social costs.

  10. The Vision of Students Enrolled in European Technical Universities Regarding Tomorrow'S World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duşe, Dan-Maniu; Nemeş, Cătălin

    2014-11-01

    Starting from Michael Rendell and his team's "Managing tomorrow's people", this paper sets out to build a possible future of leadership in European technical universities. We can ask ourselves if European technical universities could exist in a Blue, Green and Orange World. How would they look like and how efficient would "corporate" universities be, assuming that the Blue World would prevail in the next 10 years. What should their development strategies be and what labor markets would absorb its graduates? What if universities would be in the Green or Orange World? What leaders should they have then? Starting from these questions we try to construct possible scenarios for a European reality

  11. Impact of the European Union enlargement on health professionals and health care systems.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthimios D; Koupidis, Sotirios A; Filippou, Dimitrios K

    2004-09-01

    As the European family enlarges, the admission of new human resources in the health services will have an impact on the European market and health care system. Under the umbrella of the European Union (EU) equality, the educational quality barriers (e.g. PLAB test in UK, DIKATSA test in Greece) will be abolished. The overproduction of health professionals and their heterogeneous regional and per specialty distribution will lead to medical unemployment and demotion of the medical profession. Medical and political authorities and decision makers of the EU need to reform the European Health System, supervise, and assess the quality of medical education, harmonize the individual National Health System policies, and follow the World Health Organization (regional office for Europe) guidelines on health policy. An agreed, structured European Health Policy might moderate the vibrations of the forthcoming EU enlargement.

  12. Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.

    PubMed

    Moulin, G

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process.

  13. Licensing failure in the European decentralised procedure.

    PubMed

    Langedijk, Joris; Ebbers, Hans C; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Kruger-Peters, Alexandra G; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2016-05-25

    The majority of the licensing applications in the European Union are submitted via the decentralised procedure. Little is known about licensing failure (i.e. refusal or withdrawal of a marketing authorisation application) in the EU decentralised procedure compared to the EU centralised procedure and the approval procedure in the United States. The study aim was to determine the frequency of and determinants for licensing failure of marketing authorisation applications submitted via this procedure. We assessed procedures that failed between 2008 and 2012 with The Netherlands as leading authority and assessed the remaining major objections. In total 492 procedures were completed, of which 48 (9.8%) failed: 8 refused, 40 withdrawn. A wide variety of major objections was identified and included both quality (48 major objections) and clinical (45 major objections) issues. The low failure rate may be related to the regular interaction between competent authorities and applicants during the procedure. Some degree of licensing failure may be inevitable, as it may also be affected by the financial feasibility or willingness to resolve major objections, as well as other reasons to withdraw an application besides the raised major objections.

  14. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  15. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  16. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  17. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  18. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  19. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  20. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care.

  1. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  2. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  3. On the Black-Scholes European Option Pricing Model Robustness and Generality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Hellinton Hatsuo; de Oliveira Siqueira, José

    2008-11-01

    The common presentation of the widely known and accepted Black-Scholes European option pricing model explicitly imposes some restrictions such as the geometric Brownian motion assumption for the underlying stock price. In this paper, these usual restrictions are relaxed using maximum entropy principle of information theory, Pearson's distribution system, market frictionless and risk-neutrality theories to the calculation of a unique risk-neutral probability measure calibrated with market parameters.

  4. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  5. A quantitative description for efficient financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immonen, Eero

    2015-09-01

    In this article we develop a control system model for describing efficient financial markets. We define the efficiency of a financial market in quantitative terms by robust asymptotic price-value equality in this model. By invoking the Internal Model Principle of robust output regulation theory we then show that under No Bubble Conditions, in the proposed model, the market is efficient if and only if the following conditions hold true: (1) the traders, as a group, can identify any mispricing in asset value (even if no one single trader can do it accurately), and (2) the traders, as a group, incorporate an internal model of the value process (again, even if no one single trader knows it). This main result of the article, which deliberately avoids the requirement for investor rationality, demonstrates, in quantitative terms, that the more transparent the markets are, the more efficient they are. An extensive example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  6. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    PubMed

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates.

  7. Biomass and Abundance Biases in European Standard Gillnet Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 – 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates. PMID:25793776

  8. European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4,000 subjects genotyped for 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian, and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be controlled effectively in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity of performing additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets.

  9. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  10. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  11. The Problem of a Market-Oriented University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayrinen-Alestalo, Marja; Peltola, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Economy- and technology-driven theories dominate current explanations of social change. The political orientations of the European Union and many of its member states are increasingly based on the idea of knowledge economy where public organisations move towards market-orientation. Among the other producers of knowledge, universities are expected…

  12. The Changing Legal Climate for Marketing and Advertising in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, S. Watson

    Although advertisers and marketers can expect stronger controls in all West European countries, especially by governments, they must be alert to country-by-country differences. Political moves to the left in any country will hasten controls. Consumerism is militant in some countries, practically dormat in others. Although self regulation is strong…

  13. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…

  14. The Portuguese Youth Labour Market: A Critical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…

  15. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  16. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper. PMID:25138241

  17. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  18. Marketing occupational therapy services.

    PubMed

    Kautzmann, L N

    1985-01-01

    The ability to understand and appropriately apply business skills is a key component in the development of a successful private practice. Marketing is one of the business skills occupational therapists need to have in order to take full advantage of the opportunities available to entrepeneurs in the health care industry. The purpose of this article is to present a structured approach to marketing occupational therapy services through the use of a marketing plan. The four components of a marketing plan, a situation analysis, the identification of problems, opportunities, and target markets, the development of a marketing strategy for each targeted market, and a method to monitor the plan, are discussed. Applications to occupational therapy practice are suggested. The use of a marketing plan as a method for organizing and focusing marketing efforts is an effective means of supporting and enhancing the development of a private practice.

  19. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  20. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  2. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    PubMed

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA. PMID:21133243

  3. The re-emergence of Eastern European science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Economic competitiveness, and with it the survival of democracy in Eastern Europe, depends in large part on the ability of the region to manage technology for manufacturing exports. Most East European products are now oriented toward civilian and military needs of the former Soviet Union, and cannot now be sold anywhere. The communist system of central planning and soft budgets provided no incentive to manage technology or any other resource. Innovation was hampered by isolation from changes in world markets and technology, and by the separation of teaching, research, and production. Teaching was carried out on schools and universities, research in government institutes, and production in state-owned enterprises. Eastern European scientific and technological infrastructure is oversized, under-equipped, and politicized, but includes a strong nucleus which could be reformed and reoriented towards world markets. This process is beginning in several countries. But public support is lacking, as are funds for long-range investments. Strategic alliances are urgently needed with western firms and researchers with an understanding of world markets. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  5. Correlations of multiscale entropy in the FX market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosic, Darko; Stosic, Dusan; Ludermir, Teresa; Stosic, Tatijana

    2016-09-01

    The regularity of price fluctuations in exchange rates plays a crucial role in FX market dynamics. Distinct variations in regularity arise from economic, social and political events, such as interday trading and financial crisis. This paper applies a multiscale time-dependent entropy method on thirty-three exchange rates to analyze price fluctuations in the FX. Correlation matrices of entropy values, termed entropic correlations, are in turn used to describe global behavior of the market. Empirical results suggest a weakly correlated market with pronounced collective behavior at bi-weekly trends. Correlations arise from cycles of low and high regularity in long-term trends. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix also indicate a dominant European market, followed by shifting American, Asian, African, and Pacific influences. As a result, we find that entropy is a powerful tool for extracting important information from the FX market.

  6. National quality improvement policies and strategies in European healthcare systems

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, E; Walshe, K

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This survey provides an overview of the development of policies and strategies for quality improvement in European healthcare systems, by mapping quality improvement policies and strategies, progress in their implementation, and early indications of their impact. Study design: A survey of quality improvement policies and strategies in healthcare systems of the European Union was conducted in 2005 for the first phase of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) project. Participants: The survey, completed by 68 key experts in quality improvement from 24 European Union member states, represents their views and accounts of quality improvement policies and strategies in their healthcare systems. Principal findings: There are substantial international and intra-national variations in the development of healthcare quality improvement. Legal requirements for quality improvement strategies are an important driver of progress, along with the activities of national governments and professional associations and societies. Patient and service user organisations appear to have less influence on quality improvement. Wide variation in voluntary and mandatory coverage of quality improvement policies and strategies across sectors can potentially lead to varying levels of progress in implementation. Many healthcare organisations lack basic infrastructure for quality improvement. Conclusions: Some convergence can be observed in policies on quality improvement in healthcare. Nevertheless, the growth of patient mobility across borders, along with the implications of free market provisions for the organisation and funding of healthcare systems in European Union member states, require policies for cooperation and learning transfer. PMID:19188457

  7. Ising model of financial markets with many assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckrot, A.; Jurczyk, J.; Morgenstern, I.

    2016-11-01

    Many models of financial markets exist, but most of them simulate single asset markets. We study a multi asset Ising model of a financial market. Each agent has two possible actions (buy/sell) for every asset. The agents dynamically adjust their coupling coefficients according to past market returns and external news. This leads to fat tails and volatility clustering independent of the number of assets. We find that a separation of news into different channels leads to sector structures in the cross correlations, similar to those found in real markets.

  8. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  9. The Rewards of Human Capital Competences for Young European Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

    2004-01-01

    The labour market rewards for a number of required human capital competences are analysed using a sample of young European higher education graduates. Factor analysis is applied to classify competences by jobs into eight orthogonal groups, namely participative, methodological, specialised, organisational, applying rules, physical, generic and…

  10. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  11. Beyond ESOL? Assessing the Propensity of East European Migrant Workers to Undertake Further and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the labour market participation of east Europeans living and working in East Staffordshire and Derby. It is based upon research which examines the qualifications and occupations of these migrant workers and which also seeks to ascertain their future intentions in respect of settlement, and the propensity to undertake…

  12. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions. PMID:16846190

  13. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions.

  14. The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Beleza, Sandra; Santos, António M.; McEvoy, Brian; Alves, Isabel; Martinho, Cláudia; Cameron, Emily; Shriver, Mark D.; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The inverse correlation between skin pigmentation and latitude observed in human populations is thought to have been shaped by selective pressures favoring lighter skin to facilitate vitamin D synthesis in regions far from the equator. Several candidate genes for skin pigmentation have been shown to exhibit patterns of polymorphism that overlap the geospatial variation in skin color. However, little work has focused on estimating the time frame over which skin pigmentation has changed and on the intensity of selection acting on different pigmentation genes. To provide a temporal framework for the evolution of lighter pigmentation, we used forward Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a rejection sampling algorithm to estimate the time of onset of selective sweeps and selection coefficients at four genes associated with this trait in Europeans: KITLG, TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2. Using compound haplotype systems consisting of rapidly evolving microsatellites linked to one single-nucleotide polymorphism in each gene, we estimate that the onset of the sweep shared by Europeans and East Asians at KITLG occurred approximately 30,000 years ago, after the out-of-Africa migration, whereas the selective sweeps for the European-specific alleles at TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 started much later, within the last 11,000–19,000 years, well after the first migrations of modern humans into Europe. We suggest that these patterns were influenced by recent increases in size of human populations, which favored the accumulation of advantageous variants at different loci. PMID:22923467

  15. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  16. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A European View

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Franc, Sylvia; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bolinder, Jan; Diem, Peter; Pickup, John; Hans DeVries, J.

    2012-01-01

    Different systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are available on the European market. There is no unlimited reimbursement for CGM use in any European country, but in some countries, reimbursement exists for certain clinical indications. The aim of this commentary is to describe the different reimbursement situations across Europe for this innovative but costly technology, as a prelude to establishing more uniform use. From the perspective of many scientists and clinicians, a number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of real-time CGM versus self-monitoring of blood glucose, at least for hemoglobin A1c reduction. Nevertheless, according to many health care professionals and potential CGM users, national health services and health insurance organizations are reluctant to reimburse CGM. Imminent technological and manufacturing developments are expected to reduce the day-to-day costs of CGM. PMID:23294797

  17. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  18. [The use of nanotechnology in medicinal products in the light of European Union law].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Margin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of EU regulations in relation to nanotechnology, according to the European Commission's Communication "Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials", is to allow the public to use innovative applications of nanotechnology while ensuring a high level of safety, health care and environmental protection. This article characterizes and comments on EU legislation in respect of medicinal products containing nanomaterials. Medicinal products manufactured using nanotechnology are subject to the optional centralized authorization procedure by the European Commission authorizations for the placing on the market throughout the EU; advanced therapy medicinal products containing nanomaterials are covered by the mandatory centralized procedure. Evaluation of medicines in centralized authorization mode for the marketing of medicinal products, including those containing nanomaterials, is carried out by the Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) subject to the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

  19. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  20. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. PMID:27425792

  1. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need.

  2. Marketing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jewell R.

    1978-01-01

    In this conference presentation, the author, contrary to traditional views, offers a marketing definition that is compatible with continuing education goals. She then points out five reasons why continuing education activities for nurses should be marketed. (EM)

  3. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  4. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  5. Going to Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Ways to create and implement a master marketing plan for college campuses are described. The best marketing plans describe both objectives and methods for all appropriate areas within the institution. (MLW)

  6. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    PubMed

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line.

  7. Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Philip H K; Aro, Mikko; Erskine, Jane M

    2003-05-01

    Several previous studies have suggested that basic decoding skills may develop less effectively in English than in some other European orthographies. The origins of this effect in the early (foundation) phase of reading acquisition are investigated through assessments of letter knowledge, familiar word reading, and simple nonword reading in English and 12 other orthographies. The results confirm that children from a majority of European countries become accurate and fluent in foundation level reading before the end of the first school year. There are some exceptions, notably in French, Portuguese, Danish, and, particularly, in English. The effects appear not to be attributable to differences in age of starting or letter knowledge. It is argued that fundamental linguistic differences in syllabic complexity and orthographic depth are responsible. Syllabic complexity selectively affects decoding, whereas orthographic depth affects both word reading and nonword reading. The rate of development in English is more than twice as slow as in the shallow orthographies. It is hypothesized that the deeper orthographies induce the implementation of a dual (logographic + alphabetic) foundation which takes more than twice as long to establish as the single foundation required for the learning of a shallow orthography.

  8. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Dynamics of Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  10. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by…

  11. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  12. Marketing Across the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an eight-step approach to launching an integrated college or university marketing/fund-raising program: finding a visionary campus leader; getting presidential support; assembling a three-tier marketing structure; considering new ways of defining quality; developing a marketing "blueprint"; selling the program on campus; embracing…

  13. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  14. Clinical immunoassay instrument markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

  15. Marketing imaging services.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, E A

    1992-01-01

    "Communication with physicians and patients is critical to successfully marketing technology," says Mr. Bouchard, author of a new handbook for radiology managers. In this section from his book, he describes the components of a successful marketing plan and tries to dispel several myths about marketing. He also describes benchmarks for success, and provides a sample plan to promote mammography services.

  16. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  17. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  18. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  19. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  20. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  1. Plugging into Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Gary; Swift, Teri

    This text contains activities that allow marketing education instructors to integrate their curriculum with word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Their students can gain experience with technology, fulfill marketing education learner outcomes, and meet the demands of a marketing job. The instructor provides an outline for…

  2. Marketing occupational health care.

    PubMed

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  3. High resolution earth observation satellites and services in the next decade a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Gunter; Dech, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Projects to use very high resolution optical satellite sensor data started in the late 90s and are believed to be the major driver for the commercialisation of earth observation. The global political security situation and updated legislative frameworks created new opportunities for high resolution, dual use satellite systems. In addition to new optical sensors, very high resolution synthetic aperture radars will become in the next few years an important component in the imaging satellite fleet. The paper will review the development in this domain so far, and give perspectives on future emerging markets and opportunities. With dual-use satellite initiatives and new political frameworks agreed between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), the European market becomes very attractive for both service suppliers and customers. The political focus on "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security" (GMES) and the "European Defence and Security Policy" drive and amplify this demand which ranges from low resolution climate monitoring to very high resolution reconnaissance tasks. In order to create an operational and sustainable GMES in Europe by 2007, the European infrastructure need to be adapted and extended. This includes the ESA SENTINEL and OXYGEN programmes, aiming for a fleet of earth observation satellites and an open and operational earth observation ground segment. The harmonisation of national and regional geographic information is driven by the European Commission's INSPIRE programme. The necessary satellite capacity to complement existing systems in the delivery of space based data required for GMES is currently under definition. Embedded in a market with global competition and in the global political framework of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, European companies, agencies and research institutions are now contributing to this joint undertaking. The paper addresses the chances, risks and options for the future.

  4. EUTELTRACS: The European experience on mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colcy, Jean-Noel; Steinhaeuser, Rafael

    1993-01-01

    EUTELTRACS is Europe's first commercially operated Mobile Satellite Service. Under the overall network operation of EUTELSAT, the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization, EUTELTRACS provides an integrated message exchange and position reporting service. This paper describes the EUTELTRACS system architecture, the message exchange and the position reporting services, including the result of recent analysis of message delivery time and positioning accuracy. It also provides an overview of the commercial deployment, the regulatory situation for its operation within Europe and new applications outside its target market, the international road transportation.

  5. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  6. A Good Beginning Makes a Good Market: The Effect of Different Market Opening Structures on Market Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hinterleitner, Gernot; Leopold-Wildburger, Ulrike; Mestel, Roland; Palan, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the market structure at the opening of the trading day and its influence on subsequent trading. We compare a single continuous double auction and two complement markets with different call auction designs as opening mechanisms in a unified experimental framework. The call auctions differ with respect to their levels of transparency. We find that a call auction not only improves market efficiency and liquidity at the beginning of the trading day when compared to the stand-alone continuous double auction, but also causes positive spillover effects on subsequent trading. Concerning the design of the opening call auction, we find no significant differences between the transparent and nontransparent specification with respect to opening prices and liquidity. In the course of subsequent continuous trading, however, market quality is slightly higher after a nontransparent call auction. PMID:26351653

  7. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  8. The European convention on bioethics.

    PubMed

    de Wachter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Nearly fifteen years after the Council of Europe first called for a pan-European convention on issues in bioethics to harmonize disparate national regulations, in November 1996 the council's Committee of Ministers approved the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine for formal adoption. The draft convention, released in July 1994, provoked strong public, professional, and governmental debate among European nations, particularly regarding provisions for biomedical research with subjects unable to give informed consent. If ratified, the "bioethics convention" will become the first such document to have binding force internationally.

  9. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  10. Private health insurance: a role model for European health systems.

    PubMed

    Arentz, Christine; Eekhoff, Johann; Kochskämper, Susanna

    2012-10-01

    European health care systems will face major challenges in the near future. Demographic change and technological progress induce rising costs. In order to deal with these developments and to preserve the current level of health care provision, health care systems need to be highly efficient. Yet existing health care systems show a lot of inefficiencies that result in waste of scarce resources. Therefore, improvements in performance are necessary. In this article, we argue that a change in financing health care accompanied by the liberalisation of the market for health care service providers offers a promising solution. We develop a market-based model for financing health care and show how it can be put into practice without generating additional costs for society while meeting social equity criteria.

  11. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  12. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  13. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test, addresses... experimental market dominant product, Marketing Mail Made Easy (MMME).\\1\\ The market test will begin on...

  14. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  15. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  16. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  17. Strategic marketing for ridesharing professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.

    1982-11-01

    A management perspective on market planning is described along with the purposes of this guidebook. The phases of marketing planning described here are: determine program strategy, assess market situation, design market strategy, develop implementation plan, and establish evaluation criteria. (MHR)

  18. Operationalizing strategic marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The strategic marketing process, like any administrative practice, is far simpler to conceptualize than operationalize within an organization. It is for this reason that this chapter focused on providing practical techniques and strategies for implementing the strategic marketing process. First and foremost, the marketing effort needs to be marketed to the various publics of the organization. This chapter advocated the need to organize the marketing analysis into organizational, competitive, and market phases, and it provided examples of possible designs of the phases. The importance and techniques for exhausting secondary data sources and conducting efficient primary data collection methods were explained and illustrated. Strategies for determining marketing opportunities and threats, as well as segmenting markets, were detailed. The chapter provided techniques for developing marketing strategies, including considering the five patterns of coverage available; determining competitor's position and the marketing mix; examining the stage of the product life cycle; and employing a consumer decision model. The importance of developing explicit objectives, goals, and detailed action plans was emphasized. Finally, helpful hints for operationalizing the communication variable and evaluating marketing programs were provided.

  19. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  20. Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets. PMID:23186704

  1. Lobbying as Marketing. Marketing Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The secret of marketing community education effectively at various government levels is unification, both of people and purpose. Although lobbying for community education may constitute a lengthy political process, the benefits derived may far exceed the labor expended. (Author)

  2. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  3. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  4. The market and health sector reform.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Hunter, D J; Green, A

    1994-01-01

    A new international orthodoxy has developed on health sector reform. The dominant theme of the orthodoxy is the alleged benefits of market style reforms for health development. This is shaping changes formulated, and being implemented, in the British NHS and other European health services (including Central and Eastern Europe), Latin America and a number of developing health systems in Africa and Asia. Sets out a ten-point description of the orthodoxy. Contends that the orthodoxy is showing distinct signs of restricting the analysis and development of health management and planning. This is a matter for considerable concern as the adoption of market-style reforms can generate unforeseen and, in some cases, negative consequences. There is clearly a need for strengthening management research and development as a basis for effective health sector reform.

  5. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  6. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  7. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  8. Phased Retirement: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Constance

    This report provides United States corporate and union policymakers with practical information on one alternative work pattern for older employees--phased retirement--from European colleagues who already have implemented or negotiated specific phasing programs. An introduction provides details on the collection of information from companies in…

  9. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  10. European association of tissue banks.

    PubMed

    Cahane, Michael; van Baare, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Tissue banking is a specific field of medical practice. The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) is a scientific nonprofit organization that coordinates and supports aspects of tissue banking within Europe. The evolvement, structure and principal fields of interest and activities of the EATB are described.

  11. BSE : the European regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Chalus, T; Peutz, I

    2000-10-01

    The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis provoked a fundamental re-appraisal of the way in which the European Community approaches matters of food safety. Between 28 July 1989, when restrictions on the dispatch of certain live cattle from the UK starte PMID:12631966

  12. European astronaut training in Houston.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, O

    1993-11-01

    Three European astronauts are currently training as Space Shuttle Mission Specialists at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Two of the astronauts, Maurizio Cheli and Jean-Francois Clervoy, recently became members of NASA's 'astronaut pool' and have entered the Advanced Training phase. The third one, Claude Nicollier, is now preparing for the mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope in December.

  13. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  14. European Year of Languages, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This document is a folder full of brochures describing the activities of Council of Europe and the European Union to celebrate 2001 as a year of languages in order to celebrate the linguistic diversity of Europe and promote the many opportunities available for lifelong language learning. A number of facts and figures about the languages of Europe…

  15. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  16. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  17. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  18. The future of European Communications Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.

    1984-02-01

    The paper, which is based on the work of a Eurospace Study Group on future prospects, reviews the problems arising from the introduction of new technologies in the industrial process of developing and manufacturing communications satellites, covering the topics of engineering, manufacturing, integration and test, and in-space management. It continues by considering the commerical and industrial problems encountered by European manufacturers, and the contractual and legal problems arising from the change of customer base, from ESA to user organizations, and from the political problems which stem from cross-border transmission of TV broadcasting and data transfer. It then considers the marketing problems of the spacecraft manufacturer - his remoteness from the end-user of telecommunications circuits, the competition from new technology in conventional communications, and the intense competition from U.S. competitors, who have the advantage of both military and domestic and international civil programs on which to develop technology. It concludes with a brief review of current and future spacecraft developments by British Aerospace, and some possible communications satellite configurations for the 1990's.

  19. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  20. Getting ready for the marriage market? A comment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Björn; Grimps, Florian

    2012-03-01

    This text comments on the article by Lundborg et al. 'Getting ready for the marriage market? The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans' published in July 2007 in this journal. This commentary presents differing results from the original data using multilevel analysis for calculation. The results presented here suggest there is no significant relation between divorce risk and body mass index (BMI) among married individuals in European countries. Therefore, the primary finding of Lundborg et al. (2007) is questioned.

  1. Markets, modernisation and national interest: three faces of patient choice policy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin; Hughes, David; Yıldırım, Türkan

    2011-03-01

    This article discusses three faces of patient choice policy in a developing country, Turkey. As part of its wider health transformation programme (HTP), Turkey has created a purchaser/provider system in which a single public purchaser channels funding to a range of public and private hospitals, and patients--in theory at least--are given significant freedoms to choose their hospital and physician. At the same time, marketisation has been softened by an emphasis on the creation of 'human-centred' services, resulting in a variety of initiatives to enhance patient rights and using a similar rhetoric to that employed in modernising 'third-way' reforms in countries such as the United Kingdom. We argue that neither markets nor modernisation fully explain the specifics of Turkish choice policy, which is also driven by the strong political imperative arising from Turkey's proximity to the European Union and its accession ambitions. Europeanisation represents an approach to markets softened by social solidarity, and gives the Turkish reforms a very different profile from neo-liberal reforms implemented in other middle income countries. However, in practice, medical workforce shortages, the uneven distribution of resources across the nation, and the lack of systematic information on provider outcomes limit the scope of choice for much of the population. In this situation, a planned allocation of resources to support equity of provision has advantages over a system where resource flows to providers are determined by individual patient choices.

  2. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  3. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  4. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  5. New head picked for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The UK physicist John Womersley is to become the next director-general of the €1.8bn European Spallation Source (ESS), which is currently being built in Lund, Sweden, by a 17-member consortium of European countries.

  6. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  7. Systems of Organization and Allocation of National Resources for Scientific Research: Some International Comparisons and Conclusions for New Market Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles, Jr.; Passman, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Reviews science and technology policymaking in five countries with free-market economies: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Implications for eastern European and other countries currently reorganizing toward domestic market economies and greater orientation toward world trade are discussed. (61…

  8. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also facilitated…

  9. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  10. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  11. Multivariate Comparative Analysis of Stock Exchanges: The European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralun-Bereźnicka, Julia

    The aim of the research is to perform a multivariate comparative analysis of 20 European stock exchanges in order to identify the main similarities between the objects. Due to the convergence process of capital markets in Europe the similarities between stock exchanges could be expected to increase over time. The research is meant to show whether and how these similarities change. Consequently, the distances between clusters of similar stock exchanges should become less significant, which the analysis also aims at verifying. The basis of comparison is a set of 48 monthly variables from the period January, 2003 to December, 2006. The variables are classified into three categories: size of the market, equity trading and bonds. The paper aims at identifying the clusters of alike stock exchanges and at finding the characteristic features of each of the distinguished groups. The obtained categorization to some extent corresponds with the division of the European Union into “new” and “old” member countries. Clustering method, performed for each quarter separately, also reveals that the classification is fairly stable in time. The factor analysis, which was carried out to reduce the number of variables, reveals three major factors behind the data, which are related with the earlier mentioned categories of variables.

  12. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C; Ebbers, H C; de Jong, J P; De Bruin, M L

    2015-11-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in marketing authorization of oncology medicines in the period 2006 to 2013. We show that compared to full marketing authorization, CMA is granted based on less comprehensive data. However, this is accompanied by significantly longer assessment times and less consensus among regulators about marketing authorization. Moreover, development time from first-in-human testing to marketing authorization did not differ between full marketing authorization and CMA, but was significantly longer for CMA compared to accelerated approved products in the United States (US). Results indicate that CMA is not used by companies as a prospectively planned pathway to obtain early access, but as a "rescue option" when submitted data are not strong enough to justify full marketing authorization.

  13. Market day midwives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    In August 1994 in Uganda, the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project invited midwives to counsel clients and sell low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs), condoms, and the progestin-only OCs in local markets. They now sell these contraceptives from vendor stalls in busy markets, which allows clients to speak privately with the midwives. The midwives refer clients to their maternity clinics or to hospitals for other contraceptive methods and reproductive/maternal and child health (MCH) services. All Market Day Midwives have taken a 1-month family planning course and a course in quality of customer service. By the end of March 1994, 17 midwives served 22 marketplaces ranging from rural village markets operating once every 2 weeks to very busy, daily city markets. Some markets have 15 permanent stalls, while other midwives move within markets. Market Day Midwives have been able to add more than 1900 women to the list of women using the OC Pilplan. 65% of the new acceptors had not used any OC before Pilplan. 46% of them would be women considered to be high risk if they were to become pregnant (teenagers, women over 35, and women with many children). These midwives have been successful because they operate where the people are and they provide anonymity. Market Day Midwives have also brought in men who seek them out for family planning/sexually transmitted disease prevention services. They have sold more than 1000 Protector condoms. Another benefit of the market day approach is professional growth of the midwives. They often invest their earnings into new equipment and their private maternity clinics. They have learned the significance of advertising and the value of high-quality customer service. They look to expand into other markets and to integrate MCH products (e.g., oral rehydration) into their contraceptive business.

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  15. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  16. Targeting biodefense markets.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market. PMID:19855169

  17. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  18. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  19. Advanced Placement European History: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaber, Lawrence

    A new approach to the teaching of European history is being implemented in Advanced Placement secondary classes. In the latter 1950's a Committee of Examiners composed of European history professors and secondary teachers formulated a course description comprised of a brief outline of an introductory survey in European history. It was organized…

  20. European Community Databases: Online to Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Colin

    1989-01-01

    Describes three groups of databases sponsored by the European Communities Commission: Eurobases, a textual database of the contents of the "Official Journal" of the European Community; the European Community Host Organization (ECHO) databases, which offer multilingual information about Europe; and statistical databases. Information on access and…

  1. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  2. Population access to new vaccines in European countries.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Sardos, Christelle Saint; Patris, Julien; Szucs, Thomas D

    2013-06-12

    Time from registration to population access to new vaccines can take considerable time in European countries. Reasons might be found in the regulatory framework, decision-making processes or the assessment of vaccines by evaluating bodies. The aim of this study was to determine whether some decision-making processes can explain between-country differences in the time to population access to new vaccination programs. Information gathered from a survey among European National Vaccine Industry Groups was combined with information from official health authorities, vaccine manufacturers and literature published. Firstly, a retrospective survey was conducted to measure access time to new vaccines against three diseases in 17 European countries. Secondly, qualitative information on the country-specific decision-making frameworks for the introduction of new "vaccination programs" was identified in a cross-sectional survey. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used for data analysis. The median access time to new vaccines was 6.4 years (95% confidence interval: 5.7-7.1 years) post marketing authorization. National assessments underlying immunization policy decisions (recommendation phase) absorbed most of the access time. Correlation analysis suggested that processes with established timelines and clarity in regard to vaccine evaluation criteria used could ameliorate the effectiveness of the decision-making process. In order to reduce the time to access for new, beneficial vaccines, the underlying vaccination recommendation, implementation and funding process needs to be understood and optimized, where necessary. PMID:23632307

  3. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success.

  4. Internet marketing 401.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan J

    2010-11-01

    For facial plastic surgeons who are already realizing increased patient consultation requests from their online marketing efforts, the primary concern often becomes implementing additional tactics and strategies that can keep their online marketing fresh, relevant, and effective. This article creates a framework for evaluating advanced online marketing opportunities by analyzing each opportunity according to the variables of possible return, average cost to implement, probability of success, and implementation time. Within this framework, 11 distinct tactics are discussed, with special emphasis on the most common marketing needs and challenges of facial plastic surgery practices.

  5. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success. PMID:16442443

  6. Market Review: Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This article is the April 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data is presented on the supply, demand, and prices of U3O8, conversion services, and separative work units. During this period, market activity slowed, with only four transactions in the spot market. Prices strengthened slightly. There were five deals in the long-term U3O8 market and one deal in the conversion market. Active demand increased to 1.1 million pounds U3O8, while active supply increased to 4.8 million pounds U3O8.

  7. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies.

  8. Involve physicians in marketing.

    PubMed

    Randolph, G T; Baker, K M; Laubach, C A

    1984-01-01

    Many everyday problems in medical group practice can be attacked by a marketing approach. To be successful, however, this kind of approach must have the full support of those involved, especially the physicians, since they are the principal providers of healthcare services. When marketing is presented in a broad context, including elements such as patient mix, population distribution, and research, physicians are more likely to be interested and supportive. The members of Geisinger Medical Center's Department of Cardiovascular Medicine addressed their patient appointment backlog problem with a marketing approach. Their method is chronicled here and serves as a fine example of how physician involvement in marketing can lead to a positive outcome.

  9. Developing a European Identity: A Case Study of the European School at Culham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savvides, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Encouraging pupils to develop a sense of European identity is one of the implicit aims of the "European Schools". This paper reports on a small case study that was carried out in 2004 that investigated how the European School at Culham attempts to develop in its pupils a sense of European identity. In particular, the study looked at the secondary…

  10. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  11. All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-04-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts.

  12. All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-04-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts. PMID:21299662

  13. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  14. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation.

  15. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation. PMID:20824460

  16. Horizontal-axis clothes washer market poised for expansion

    SciTech Connect

    George, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    The availability of energy- and water-efficient horizontal-axis washing machines in the North American market is growing, as US and European manufacturers position for an expected long-term market shift toward horizontal-axis (H-axis) technology. Four of the five major producers of washing machines in the US are developing or considering new H-axis models. New entrants, including US-based Staber Industries and several European manufacturers, are also expected to compete in this market. The intensified interest in H-axis technology is partly driven by speculation that new US energy efficiency standards, to be proposed in 1996 and implemented in 1999, will effectively mandate H-axis machines. H-axis washers typically use one-third to two-thirds less energy, water, and detergent than vertical-axis machines. Some models also reduce the energy needed to dry the laundry, since their higher spin speeds extract more water than is typical with vertical-axis designs. H-axis washing machines are the focus of two broadly-based efforts to support coordinated research and incentive programs by electric, gas, and water utilities: The High-Efficiency Laundry Metering/Marketing Analysis (THELMA), and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) High-Efficiency Clothes Washer Initiative. These efforts may help to pave the way for new types of marketing partnerships among utilities and other parties that could help to speed adoption of H-axis washers.

  17. European standardisation of hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E

    2005-01-01

    European legislation based on the New Approach requires that technical requirements for products are given in harmonised European standards. The Directive 89/686/EEC on Personal Protective Equipment came into force in 1995. The existence of product and testing standards is a prerequisite for the effective implementation of the directive. There was a need to develop several standards in a very short time period and the basic standards for hearing protectors have already been revised once. It is important to continue the validation of the standardised testing methods and requirement levels. This requires good co-operation and research between test laboratories and research institutes, especially as it is necessary to ensure new products comply with these technical requirements.

  18. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure. PMID:25300107

  19. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  20. Hospital marketing orientation and managed care processes: are they coordinated?

    PubMed

    White, K R; Thompson, J M; Patel, U B

    2001-01-01

    The hospital marketing function has been widely adopted as a way to learn about markets, attract sufficient resources, develop appropriate services, and communicate the availability of such goods to those who may be able to purchase such services. The structure, tasks, and effectiveness of the marketing function have been the subject of increased inquiry by researchers and practitioners alike. A specific understanding of hospital marketing in a growing managed care environment and the relationship between marketing and managed care processes in hospitals is a growing concern. Using Kotler and Clarke's framework for assessing marketing orientation, we examined the marketing orientation of hospitals in a single state at two points in time--1993 and 1999. Study findings show that the overall marketing orientation score decreased from 1993 to 1999 for the respondent hospitals. The five elements of the Kotler and Clarke definition of marketing orientation remained relatively stable, with slightly lower scores related to customer philosophy. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which selected managed care activities are carried out as part of its marketing function. A significant (p < .05) decrease in managed care processes coordinated with the formal marketing function was evident from 1993 to 1999. With increasing numbers of managed care plan enrollees, hospitals are likely focusing on organizational buyers as important customers. In order to appeal to organizational buyers, hospital executives may be focusing more on clinical quality and cost efficiency in the production of services, which will improve a hospital's position with organizational buyers.

  1. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  2. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  3. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models.

  4. Hospital marketing orientation and managed care processes: are they coordinated?

    PubMed

    White, K R; Thompson, J M; Patel, U B

    2001-01-01

    The hospital marketing function has been widely adopted as a way to learn about markets, attract sufficient resources, develop appropriate services, and communicate the availability of such goods to those who may be able to purchase such services. The structure, tasks, and effectiveness of the marketing function have been the subject of increased inquiry by researchers and practitioners alike. A specific understanding of hospital marketing in a growing managed care environment and the relationship between marketing and managed care processes in hospitals is a growing concern. Using Kotler and Clarke's framework for assessing marketing orientation, we examined the marketing orientation of hospitals in a single state at two points in time--1993 and 1999. Study findings show that the overall marketing orientation score decreased from 1993 to 1999 for the respondent hospitals. The five elements of the Kotler and Clarke definition of marketing orientation remained relatively stable, with slightly lower scores related to customer philosophy. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which selected managed care activities are carried out as part of its marketing function. A significant (p < .05) decrease in managed care processes coordinated with the formal marketing function was evident from 1993 to 1999. With increasing numbers of managed care plan enrollees, hospitals are likely focusing on organizational buyers as important customers. In order to appeal to organizational buyers, hospital executives may be focusing more on clinical quality and cost efficiency in the production of services, which will improve a hospital's position with organizational buyers. PMID:11570344

  5. A Critical Analysis of Concentration and Competition in the Indian Pharmaceutical Market

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aashna; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Selvaraj, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It can be argued that with several players marketing a large number of brands, the pharmaceutical market in India is competitive. However, the pharmaceutical market should not be studied as a single market but, as a sum total of a large number of individual sub-markets. This paper examines the methodological issues with respect to defining the relevant market involved in studying concentration in the pharmaceutical market in India. Further, we have examined whether the Indian pharmaceutical market is competitive. Methods Indian pharmaceutical market was studied using PharmaTrac, the sales audit data from AIOCD-AWACS, that organises formulations into 5 levels of therapeutic classification based on the EphMRA system. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used as the indicator of market concentration. We calculated HHI for the entire pharmaceutical market studied as a single market as well as at the five different levels of therapeutic classification. Results and Discussion Whereas the entire pharmaceutical market taken together as a single market displayed low concentration (HHI = 226.63), it was observed that if each formulation is defined as an individual sub-market, about 69 percent of the total market in terms of market value displayed at least moderate concentration. Market should be defined taking into account the ease of substitutability. Since, patients cannot themselves substitute the formulation prescribed by the doctor with another formulation with the same indication and therapeutic effect, owing to information asymmetry, it is appropriate to study market concentration at the narrower levels of therapeutic classification. PMID:26895269

  6. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  7. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  8. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  9. Marketing orientation: how do hospital administrators compare with marketing managers?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P J; Schewe, C D; Allen, C T

    1984-01-01

    A recent study shows that the marketing orientation of hospital administrators is similar to that of marketing practitioners but that hospital administrators have an underdeveloped sense of market segmentation and market aggressiveness regarding their patients and physicians. Studies such as this one can be helpful in applying marketing techniques to today's hospitals.

  10. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  15. The legacy of the European Geotraverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    The European Geotraverse (EGT) created a 4600-km profile across Europe from North Cape Norway to Tunisia. Not only did this produce the first comprehensive cross-section to a depth of 450 km of continental lithosphere covering an eighth of the Earth's circumference, it covered the geological history of Europe from the Archaean to the present. EGT built up a detailed knowledge of the crust and upper mantle of Europe by integrating geological and geophysical information in a coherent way, continuously along a single profile. It illuminated the dramatic contrast between the thickness and complexity of the lithosphere of western Europe and that of Fennoscandia, which remain in isostatic equilibrium, and elucidated the multilayered elements of thickened Alpine crust and lithosphere and the dynamics of the western Mediterranean. Nine years on, the legacy of EGT is the platform it provided for major scientific advances that have stemmed from it, the greatest being through EUROPROBE projects. The PANCARDI project has discovered the subducted slab beneath the Carpathian Arc in the process of tearing apart from the lithosphere. URALIDES has discovered the Urals orogen is almost perfectly preserved since the Palaeozoic, and the TESZ project has elucidated the complex evolution of the transitional region between the Baltic Shield and the Caledonian and Variscan crustal terranes of western Europe. The scientific advances of EGT were matched by its achievement in mobilising an international workforce from every discipline of the Earth sciences. Friendships made in that endeavour are another legacy of EGT and many of those who started their research careers in EGT are now leading EUROPROBE projects and other collaborative ventures. We all owe a great debt to Professor Stephan Mueller who founded and led the European Geotraverse and was its enduring inspiration.

  16. Biosimilar insulins: a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J H; Gough, S C L; Kiljanski, J; Heinemann, L

    2015-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins are likely to enter clinical practice in Europe in the near future. It is important that clinicians are familiar with and understand the concept of biosimilarity and how a biosimilar drug may differ from its reference product. The present article provides an overview of biosimilars, the European regulatory requirements for biosimilars and safety issues. It also summarizes the current biosimilars approved in Europe and the key clinical issues associated with the use of biosimilar insulins. PMID:25376600

  17. Social protection sustainability, prolongation of working life and greater participation of women in the labour market.

    PubMed

    Barea, M; Cesana, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest problems of European societies is the financial sustainability of social protection systems in Europe. Together with Japan, Europe has the highest levels of ageing population in the world. This concern explains the reiterated insistence of the European Commission and the OECD regarding the reforms that governments should undertake. In this paper, reference is made to two of these reforms: prolonging of working life and a greater participation of women in the labour market.

  18. Progress in European CELSS activities.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1987-01-01

    The European CELSS activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). Since then the European efforts have continued in two major directions: as a series of individual development tasks like the Environmental Life Support System and the Solar Plant Growth Facility, and in parallel hereto as overall coordination and planning activities for life support system long term needs definition and payload definition for COLUMBUS utilization. The early initiations for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still to early to state that a "CELSS-programme" as a "concerted" effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives have been accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades.

  19. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  20. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  1. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit.

  2. Sod Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Vocational Agriculture Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…

  3. Data-Based Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ernest R.

    The discipline of marketing, applied to higher education, has the potential for increasing enrollments, reducing attrition, and making college services more responsive to the needs of consumers. Faced with enrollments that were below projections, Prince George's Community College devised a four-stage marketing plan that focused on service,…

  4. Marketing hydronic comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Holohan, D.

    1997-02-01

    Methods for selling hydronic radiant heating are described. People who are good at marketing hydronic heat do that. They paint beautiful Word Pictures that connect things people know intuitively with the technical aspects of hydronic heat. They focus on the benefits, the way the system makes you feel. They market what hydronic heat does, not what it is.

  5. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  6. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  7. Outside-Inside Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susan Rovezzi; Carroll, David

    2001-01-01

    Instead of employing "inside-outside" marketing via inhouse brochures, newsletters, and websites, public schools should begin practicing "outside-inside" marketing in which strategic planning and then action comes from the marketplace (the community) to the school. Public perceptions are gathered through surveys, focus groups, and indepth…

  8. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  9. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  10. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  11. Marketing for Black Alums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  12. Health care marketing management.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P D

    1979-01-01

    Health Care Marketing Management is the process of understanding the needs and the wats of a target market. Its purpose is to provide a viewpoint from which to integrate the analysis, planning, implementation (or organization) and control of the health care delivery system.

  13. Financial Services Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lucretia Maria

    This manual contains student assignments in the financial services area of the marketing process. The individualized competency-based materials are intended to enhance and supplement instruction or to provide the basis for a course of instruction by the teacher-coordinator. Information on skills needed in jobs in financial marketing is first…

  14. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  15. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  16. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  17. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  18. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  19. Postmodernism and Educational Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Explains two problems of the postmodern era-fragmentation (disintegration of social, economic, and political institutions) and symbolic consumption. Discusses two postmodernist epistemological challenges to educational marketers-anti-foundationalism and poststructuralism. Transactional views of marketing must yield to relational and interactive…

  20. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  1. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  2. Marketing Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook contains a competency-based curriculum for teaching marketing education in Alaska. The handbook is organized in seven sections. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum, while Section 2 provides the scope and sequence and hierarchy of marketing education competencies. Section 3, the core of the curriculum, includes the…

  3. Guatemala social marketing program.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The Guatemala Social Marketing Program reported 1986 increases after social marketing promotion in the sales of Panther and Scudo condoms, Perla oral contraceptives, and Lirio vaginal foaming tablets. Sale of Panther condoms was highest in February; all the other products peaked in June and July. Sales fell in December due to Christmas holidays. Sale patterns are illustrated graphically for all 4 products.

  4. High level of mislabeling in Spanish and Greek hake markets suggests the fraudulent introduction of African species.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Perez, Juliana; Martinez, Jose L; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Lopez, Belen; Karaiskou, Nikoletta; Casa, Mary F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2011-01-26

    DNA analysis of hake products commercialized in southern European (Spanish and Greek) market chains have demonstrated more than 30% mislabeling, on the basis of species substitution. Tails and fillets were more mislabeled than other products, such as slices and whole pieces. African species were substitute species for products labeled as American and European species, and we suggest it is a case of deliberate economically profitable mislabeling because real market prices of European and American hake products are higher than those of African in Spanish market chains. The presented results suggest fraud detection that disadvantages African producers. Government-mandated genetic surveys of commercial hakes and the use of subsequent statements of fair trade on labels of seafood products could help to reduce fraud levels in a global market of increasingly conscious consumers sensitive to ethical issues.

  5. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    PubMed

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  6. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  7. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  8. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  9. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  10. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  11. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  12. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  13. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included. PMID:16320895

  14. The European NEO Search Project within EUNEASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Alain; Savalle, Renaud; Hahn, Gerhard; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

    1997-05-01

    EUNEASO is a European program aimed at discovering and observing near-Earth objects. It was started in 1992, and is an informal partnership to promote and coordinate research on NEO in Europe (see poster by Hahn et al. in this volume). Efforts are made to develop and operate a CCD array camera system in order to participate in a large scale NEO search programme. Work is progressing on the following steps: (1) Construction of hardware and software required to automatically detect near-Earth objects using a large CCD camera. Our aim is to install a 9 2K CCD camera at the focus of the Observatoire de Cote d'Azur 90/l50/315 cm Schmidt telescope, and if possible a similar telescope in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the ESO Schmidt. (2) Integration of this hardware in the worldwide asteroid observing network. An European asteroid web server has been installed at DLR. It allows to connect to several databases of interest, but also, on the OCA Schmidt telescope where, if permission is granted, observing requests may be posted. (3) Automated detection software has been written at OCA (detection part) and DLR (reduction part) and tested on images obtained with a single 2K camera in 1994. It allows a complete image detection down to 3 sigmas with 200 kpixels/second speed using a 12 megaflops Unix workstation. It will be ported on a network of Digital Signal Processors during the 1995 summer. This should allow real-time detection using 9 CCD's (76 megabytes per image). (4) The construction of the multi CCD camera has started. The CCD controller is currently being tested. It will be able to read out a 2K CCD in 25 seconds, and will use dynamic antiblooming mode in order to be able to use Hipparcos reference stars for very high precision astrometry. (5) The mechanical assembly has also begun. Tests will be done at the telescope during the 1995 summer. We hope to start regular observations with a single CCD camera at the OCA as soon as possible.

  15. [GA(2)LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network): European network of excellence for asthma and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E; Canonica, G W; Bonini, S; Ricci, G; Burney, P; Zuberbier, T; Van Cauwenberge, P; Bousquet, J

    2009-12-01

    Allergic diseases represent some of the main health problems in Europe. These are increasing in prevalence, seriousness and social cost. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a network of excellence of the 6 degrees management program, was created in the 2005 with the aim to gather the European leader institutions of the research and clinical assistance fields, in order to guarantee the excellence and avoid the fragmentation of the energy spent in fighting allergy diseases in general. The GA(2)LEN has drawn a great advantage from the personal efforts of every single researcher who have proved their strong motivation in carrying on this "pan-European" model of collaboration. The network has been organized in order to increase the team work in scientific research projects in allergic and asthma disease field, making the GA(2)LEN the worldwide leader in this area. On these basis research projects have been carried on about which first data have been already published. The activities of the GA(2)LEN include in general the establishment of a lasting organization of the planning phase, the activity linked to every single project and to the improving on the existing projects, as well as the draft of new guidelines. This review reports the main achieved goals. PMID:20010485

  16. Updates to BioSamples database at European Bioinformatics Institute

    PubMed Central

    Faulconbridge, Adam; Burdett, Tony; Brandizi, Marco; Gostev, Mikhail; Pereira, Rui; Vasant, Drashtti; Sarkans, Ugis; Brazma, Alvis; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The BioSamples database at the EBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biosamples) provides an integration point for BioSamples information between technology specific databases at the EBI, projects such as ENCODE and reference collections such as cell lines. The database delivers a unified query interface and API to query sample information across EBI’s databases and provides links back to assay databases. Sample groups are used to manage related samples, e.g. those from an experimental submission, or a single reference collection. Infrastructural improvements include a new user interface with ontological and key word queries, a new query API, a new data submission API, complete RDF data download and a supporting SPARQL endpoint, accessioning at the point of submission to the European Nucleotide Archive and European Genotype Phenotype Archives and improved query response times. PMID:24265224

  17. Toward an european Med HF-radar coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molcard, A.; Fraunie, P.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas through HF radar is developping in the european Mediterranean coasts, through national and international projects. Surface current maps may be used for process studies, forecast correction through assimilation, or for practical applications in transport studies (jellyfish, oil-spill, search-and-rescue operations). Results of radar campaigns in the North-western Mediterranean (evidence of mesoscale eddy in the Gulf of Lions and identification of dynamical structures by FSLE in the Ligurian Sea) are shown, as well as techniques for current reconstruction using a single site. A new inter-regional european project started in summer 2010, regrouping 5 countries for an integrated oil-spill coastal awarness network is presented.

  18. Marketing: Educators' New Buzz Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotoia, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that educators lack understanding of the nature of marketing and the collegiate product. Establishes priorities for developing a marketing plan, identifies the potential benefits and inevitable problems of a marketing program, and offers examples of successful promotional activities. (DMM)

  19. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  20. Formal Intermediaries in the Marriage Market: A Typology and Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahuvia, Aaron C.; Adelman, Mara B.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes social introduction services, including singles ads, video dating, and matchmakers by their underlying functions in the marriage market (search for information about eligible others, matching interested singles together, and promoting successful interaction). Uses typology developed to structure review of empirical research on these…