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Sample records for single isolation structure

  1. Inner structural vibration isolation method for a single control moment gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Zixi; Zhang, Yao; Tang, Liang; Guan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Assembling and manufacturing errors of control moment gyros (CMG) often generate high frequency vibrations which are detrimental to spacecrafts with high precision pointing requirement. In this paper, some design methods of vibration isolation between CMG and spacecraft is dealt with. As a first step, the dynamic model of the CMG with and without supporting isolation structures is studied and analyzed. Subsequently, the frequency domain analysis of CMG with isolation system is performed and the effectiveness of the designed system is ascertained. Based on the above studies, an adaptive design suitable with appropriate design parameters are carried out. A numerical analysis is also performed to understand the effectiveness of the system and the comparison made. The simulation results clearly indicate that when the ideal isolation structure was implemented in the spacecraft, the vibrations generated by the rotor were found to be greatly reduced, while the capacity of the output torque was not lost, which means that the isolation system will not affect the performance of attitude control.

  2. Single-cell isolation by a modular single-cell pipette for RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Gao, Min; Chong, Zechen; Li, Ying; Han, Xin; Chen, Rui; Qin, Lidong

    2016-11-29

    Single-cell transcriptome sequencing highly requires a convenient and reliable method to rapidly isolate a live cell into a specific container such as a PCR tube. Here, we report a modular single-cell pipette (mSCP) consisting of three modular components, a SCP-Tip, an air-displacement pipette (ADP), and ADP-Tips, that can be easily assembled, disassembled, and reassembled. By assembling the SCP-Tip containing a hydrodynamic trap, the mSCP can isolate single cells from 5-10 cells per μL of cell suspension. The mSCP is compatible with microscopic identification of captured single cells to finally achieve 100% single-cell isolation efficiency. The isolated live single cells are in submicroliter volumes and well suitable for single-cell PCR analysis and RNA-sequencing. The mSCP possesses merits of convenience, rapidness, and high efficiency, making it a powerful tool to isolate single cells for transcriptome analysis.

  3. Structure-Based Systematic Isolation of Conditional-Lethal Mutations in the Single Yeast Calmodulin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Y.; Botstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Conditional-lethal mutations of the single calmodulin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been very difficult to isolate by random and systematic methods, despite the fact that deletions cause recessive lethality. We report here the isolation of numerous conditional-lethal mutants that were recovered by systematically altering phenylalanine residues. The phenylalanine residues of calmodulin were implicated in function both by structural studies of calmodulin bound to target peptides and by their extraordinary conservation in evolution. Seven single and 26 multiple Phe -> Ala mutations were constructed. Mutant phenotypes were examined in a haploid cmd1 disrupted strain under three conditions: single copy, low copy, and overexpressed. Whereas all but one of the single mutations caused no obvious phenotype, most of the multiple mutations caused obvious growth phenotypes. Five were lethal, 6 were lethal only in synthetic medium, 13 were temperature-sensitive lethal and 2 had no discernible phenotypic consequences. Overexpression of some of the mutant genes restored the phenotype to nearly wild type. Several temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutations were suppressed by elevated concentration of CaCl(2) in the medium. Mutant calmodulin protein was detected at normal levels in extracts of most of the lethal mutant cells, suggesting that the deleterious phenotypes were due to loss of the calmodulin function and not protein instability. Analysis of diploid strains heterozygous for all combinations of cmd1-ts alleles revealed four intragenic complementation groups. The contributions of individual phe->ala changes to mutant phenotypes support the idea of internal functional redundancy in the symmetrical calmodulin protein molecule. These results suggest that the several phenylalanine residues in calmodulin are required to different extents in different combinations in order to carry out each of the several essential tasks. PMID:7896089

  4. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field. PMID:26213926

  5. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-07-24

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  6. Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haowei; Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Yinmei; Han, Bin; Lou, Liren; Wang, Kangjun

    2004-01-01

    A new method based on optical tweezers technology is reported for the isolation of a single chromosome. A rice cell suspended in liquid was first fragmented by laser pulses (optical scalpel). Then a single released chromosome from the cell was manipulated and pulled away from other cells and oddments by optical tweezers without any direct mechanical contact. Finally the isolated single chromosome was extracted individually into a glass capillary nearby. After molecular cloning of the isolated chromosome, we obtained some specific DNA segments from the single chromosome. All these segments can be used for rice genomic sequencing. Different methods of extracting a single chromosome are compared. The advantages of optical micromanipulation method are summarized.

  7. Practical, microfabrication-free device for single-cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-I; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-08-21

    Microfabricated devices have great potential in cell-level studies, but are not easily accessible for the broad biology community. This paper introduces the Microscale Oil-Covered Cell Array (MOCCA) as a low-cost device for high throughput single-cell analysis that can be easily produced by researchers without microengineering knowledge. Instead of using microfabricated structures to capture cells, MOCCA isolates cells in discrete aqueous droplets that are separated by oil on patterned hydrophilic areas across a relatively more hydrophobic substrate. The number of randomly seeded Escherichia coli bacteria in each discrete droplet approaches single-cell levels. The cell distribution on MOCCA is well-fit with Poisson distribution. In this pioneer study, we created an array of 900-picoliter droplets. The total time needed to seed cells in approximately 3000 droplets was less than 10 minutes. Compared to traditional microfabrication techniques, MOCCA dramatically lowers the cost of microscale cell arrays, yet enhances the fabrication and operational efficiency for single-cell analysis.

  8. Drop-on-Demand Single Cell Isolation and Total RNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sangjun; Kim, Yun-Gon; Dong, Lingsheng; Lombardi, Michael; Haeggstrom, Edward; Jensen, Roderick V.; Hsiao, Li-Li; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies that rapidly isolate viable single cells from heterogeneous solutions have significantly contributed to the field of medical genomics. Challenges remain both to enable efficient extraction, isolation and patterning of single cells from heterogeneous solutions as well as to keep them alive during the process due to a limited degree of control over single cell manipulation. Here, we present a microdroplet based method to isolate and pattern single cells from heterogeneous cell suspensions (10% target cell mixture), preserve viability of the extracted cells (97.0±0.8%), and obtain genomic information from isolated cells compared to the non-patterned controls. The cell encapsulation process is both experimentally and theoretically analyzed. Using the isolated cells, we identified 11 stem cell markers among 1000 genes and compare to the controls. This automated platform enabling high-throughput cell manipulation for subsequent genomic analysis employs fewer handling steps compared to existing methods. PMID:21412416

  9. Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle cryo-STEM.

    PubMed

    Elad, Nadav; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Houben, Lothar; Sagi, Irit; Elbaum, Michael

    2017-10-17

    Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved to atomic resolution. We demonstrate here the detection of isolated atoms of Zn and Fe on ferritin, using cryogenic annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) coupled with single-particle 3D reconstructions. Zn atoms are found in a pattern that matches precisely their location at the ferroxidase sites determined earlier by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, the Fe distribution is smeared along an arc corresponding to the proposed path from the ferroxidase sites to the mineral nucleation sites along the twofold axes. In this case the single-particle reconstruction is interpreted as a probability distribution function based on the average of individual locations. These results establish conditions for detection of isolated metal atoms in the broader context of electron cryo-microscopy and tomography.

  10. Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle cryo-STEM

    PubMed Central

    Elad, Nadav; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Houben, Lothar; Sagi, Irit; Elbaum, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved to atomic resolution. We demonstrate here the detection of isolated atoms of Zn and Fe on ferritin, using cryogenic annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) coupled with single-particle 3D reconstructions. Zn atoms are found in a pattern that matches precisely their location at the ferroxidase sites determined earlier by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, the Fe distribution is smeared along an arc corresponding to the proposed path from the ferroxidase sites to the mineral nucleation sites along the twofold axes. In this case the single-particle reconstruction is interpreted as a probability distribution function based on the average of individual locations. These results establish conditions for detection of isolated metal atoms in the broader context of electron cryo-microscopy and tomography. PMID:28973937

  11. Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

  12. Magnetic microfluidic system for isolation of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitterboeck, Richard; Kokkinis, Georgios; Berris, Theocharis; Keplinger, Franz; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a compact, portable and cost effective microfluidic system for isolation and detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in suspension. The innovative aspect of the proposed isolation method is that it utilizes superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) to label CTCs and then isolate those using microtraps with integrated current carrying microconductors. The magnetically labeled and trapped CTCs can then be detected by integrated magnetic microsensors e.g. giant magnetoresistive (GMR) or giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensors. The channel and trap dimensions are optimized to protect the cells from shear stress and achieve high trapping efficiency. These intact single CTCs can then be used for additional analysis, testing and patient specific drug screening. Being able to analyze the CTCs metastasis-driving capabilities on the single cell level is considered of great importance for developing patient specific therapies. Experiments showed that it is possible to capture single labeled cells in multiple microtraps and hold them there without permanent electric current and magnetic field.

  13. Single-cell isolation using a DVD optical pickup

    PubMed Central

    Kasukurti, A.; Potcoava, M.; Desai, S.A.; Eggleton, C.; Marr, D. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost single-cell isolation system incorporating a digital versatile disc burner (DVD RW) optical pickup has been developed. We show that these readily available modules have the required laser power and focusing optics to provide a steady Gaussian beam capable of optically trapping micron-sized colloids and red blood cells. Utility of the pickup is demonstrated through the non-destructive isolation of such particles in a laminar-flow based microfluidic device that captures and translates single microscale objects across streamlines into designated channel exits. In this, the integrated objective lens focusing coils are used to steer the optical trap across the channel, resulting in the isolation of colloids and red blood cells using a very inexpensive off-the-shelf optical component. PMID:21643294

  14. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  15. Toward Single Electron Nanoelectronics Using Self-Assembled DNA Structure.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Kosti; Leppiniemi, Jenni; Shen, Boxuan; Hytönen, Vesa P; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Toppari, J Jussi

    2016-11-09

    DNA based structures offer an adaptable and robust way to develop customized nanostructures for various purposes in bionanotechnology. One main aim in this field is to develop a DNA nanobreadboard for a controllable attachment of nanoparticles or biomolecules to form specific nanoelectronic devices. Here we conjugate three gold nanoparticles on a defined size TX-tile assembly into a linear pattern to form nanometer scale isolated islands that could be utilized in a room temperature single electron transistor. To demonstrate this, conjugated structures were trapped using dielectrophoresis for current-voltage characterization. After trapping only high resistance behavior was observed. However, after extending the islands by chemical growth of gold, several structures exhibited Coulomb blockade behavior from 4.2 K up to room temperature, which gives a good indication that self-assembled DNA structures could be used for nanoelectronic patterning and single electron devices.

  16. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  18. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  19. Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

  20. Single cell isolation process with laser induced forward transfer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Renaud, Philippe; Guo, Zhongning; Huang, Zhigang; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A viable single cell is crucial for studies of single cell biology. In this paper, laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) was used to isolate individual cell with a closed chamber designed to avoid contamination and maintain humidity. Hela cells were used to study the impact of laser pulse energy, laser spot size, sacrificed layer thickness and working distance. The size distribution, number and proliferation ratio of separated cells were statistically evaluated. Glycerol was used to increase the viscosity of the medium and alginate were introduced to soften the landing process. The role of laser pulse energy, the spot size and the thickness of titanium in energy absorption in LIFT process was theoretically analyzed with Lambert-Beer and a thermal conductive model. After comprehensive analysis, mechanical damage was found to be the dominant factor affecting the size and proliferation ratio of the isolated cells. An orthogonal experiment was conducted, and the optimal conditions were determined as: laser pulse energy, 9 μJ; spot size, 60 μm; thickness of titanium, 12 nm; working distance, 700 μm;, glycerol, 2% and alginate depth, greater than 1 μm. With these conditions, along with continuous incubation, a single cell could be transferred by the LIFT with one shot, with limited effect on cell size and viability. LIFT conducted in a closed chamber under optimized condition is a promising method for reliably isolating single cells.

  1. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  2. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  3. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  4. Characterizing single isolated radiation-damage events from molecular dynamics via virtual diffraction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J. A.; Brookman, G.; Price, P.; Franco, M.; Ji, W.; Hattar, K.; Dingreville, R.

    2018-04-01

    The evolution and characterization of single-isolated-ion-strikes are investigated by combining atomistic simulations with selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns generated from these simulations. Five molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a single 20 keV primary knock-on atom in bulk crystalline Si. The resulting cascade damage is characterized in two complementary ways. First, the individual cascade events are conventionally quantified through the evolution of the number of defects and the atomic (volumetric) strain associated with these defect structures. These results show that (i) the radiation damage produced is consistent with the Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens model of damage production and (ii) there is a net positive volumetric strain associated with the cascade structures. Second, virtual SAED patterns are generated for the resulting cascade-damaged structures along several zone axes. The analysis of the corresponding diffraction patterns shows the SAED spots approximately doubling in size, on average, due to broadening induced by the defect structures. Furthermore, the SAED spots are observed to exhibit an average radial outward shift between 0.33% and 0.87% depending on the zone axis. This characterization approach, as utilized here, is a preliminary investigation in developing methodologies and opportunities to link experimental observations with atomistic simulations to elucidate microstructural damage states.

  5. Structural changes and shallow geological structure of the isolated basins in the forearc slope of the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, A.; Arai, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Sato, M.; Shin'ichiro, Y.; Hirata, K.; Kanamatsu, T.

    2017-12-01

    On the forearc slope of the Japan Trench is a typical subsidence region associated with the subduction erosion in the Japan Trench. Arai et al. (2014) reported the existence of the isolated basins with widths of up to several tens of kilometers using the seismic profiles that acquired before the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) in the forearc slope. The isolated basin probably formed due to subsidence accompanying the regional activity of normal fault systems in the forearc slope. Arai et al. (2014) suggested that the geological structures of the forearc slope along the Japan Trench are typical of those resulting from subduction erosion and proposed that the episodic subsidence accompanied by normal faulting is the most recent deformation. During the 2011 large earthquake, seafloor on the landward slope of the Japan Trench moved 50 m east-southeast toward trench (Fujiwara et al., 2011). In addition, aftershock activity after the 2011 large earthquake have predominated in the activity of the normal fault system. Therefore, there have a possibility that new isolated basin is formed after the 2011 large earthquake in the forearc slope of the Japan Trench. In order to capture the structural change in the isolated basins, we compared the seismic profiles acquired before (Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) data acquired with KR07-05 cruise) and after (Single-Channel Seismic (SCS) data acquired with NT15-07 cruise) the 2011 large earthquake. However, the large-scale structural changes are not identified around the isolated basin. In order to capture the small-scale structural change in the shallow part of the isolated basins using high-resolution data, we make an attempt at the marine geological and geophysical survey in the offshore Tohoku region using R/V Shinsei-Maru of JAMSTEC (KS-17-8 cruise) in August 2017. In this cruise, we plan to carry out the following surveys; (1) swath bathymetric survey, (2) high-resolution parametric subbottom profiler (SBP) survey, (3) geomagnetic

  6. Relationships among North American and Japanese Laetiporus isolates inferred from molecular phylogenetics and single-spore incompatibility reactions

    Treesearch

    Mark T. Banik; Daniel L. Lindner; Yuko Ota; Tsutomu Hattori

    2010-01-01

    Relationships were investigated among North American and Japanese isolates of Laetiporus using phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences and single-spore isolate incompatibility. Single-spore isolate pairings revealed no significant compatibility between North American and Japanese isolates. ITS analysis revealed 12 clades within the core ...

  7. Dynamics of a passive micro-vibration isolator based on a pretensioned plane cable net structure and fluid damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanhao; Lu, Qi; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Zhiyi

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses dynamic modelling and experiments on a passive vibration isolator for application in the space environment. The isolator is composed of a pretensioned plane cable net structure and a fluid damper in parallel. Firstly, the frequency response function (FRF) of a single cable is analysed according to the string theory, and the FRF synthesis method is adopted to establish a dynamic model of the plane cable net structure. Secondly, the equivalent damping coefficient of the fluid damper is analysed. Thirdly, experiments are carried out to compare the plane cable net structure, the fluid damper and the vibration isolator formed by the net and the damper, respectively. It is shown that the plane cable net structure can achieve substantial vibration attenuation but has a great amplification at its resonance frequency due to the light damping of cables. The damping effect of fluid damper is acceptable without taking the poor carrying capacity into consideration. Compared to the plane cable net structure and the fluid damper, the isolator has an acceptable resonance amplification as well as vibration attenuation.

  8. Zebrafish Cardiac Muscle Thick Filaments: Isolation Technique and Three-Dimensional Structure

    PubMed Central

    González-Solá, Maryví; AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. PMID:24739166

  9. Characterizing single isolated radiation-damage events from molecular dynamics via virtual diffraction methods

    DOE PAGES

    Stewart, James A.; Brookman, G.; Price, Patrick Michael; ...

    2018-04-25

    In this study, the evolution and characterization of single-isolated-ion-strikes are investigated by combining atomistic simulations with selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns generated from these simulations. Five molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a single 20 keV primary knock-on atom in bulk crystalline Si. The resulting cascade damage is characterized in two complementary ways. First, the individual cascade events are conventionally quantified through the evolution of the number of defects and the atomic (volumetric) strain associated with these defect structures. These results show that (i) the radiation damage produced is consistent with the Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens model of damage productionmore » and (ii) there is a net positive volumetric strain associated with the cascade structures. Second, virtual SAED patterns are generated for the resulting cascade-damaged structures along several zone axes. The analysis of the corresponding diffraction patterns shows the SAED spots approximately doubling in size, on average, due to broadening induced by the defect structures. Furthermore, the SAED spots are observed to exhibit an average radial outward shift between 0.33% and 0.87% depending on the zone axis. Finally, this characterization approach, as utilized here, is a preliminary investigation in developing methodologies and opportunities to link experimental observations with atomistic simulations to elucidate microstructural damage states.« less

  10. Characterizing single isolated radiation-damage events from molecular dynamics via virtual diffraction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, James A.; Brookman, G.; Price, Patrick Michael

    In this study, the evolution and characterization of single-isolated-ion-strikes are investigated by combining atomistic simulations with selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns generated from these simulations. Five molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a single 20 keV primary knock-on atom in bulk crystalline Si. The resulting cascade damage is characterized in two complementary ways. First, the individual cascade events are conventionally quantified through the evolution of the number of defects and the atomic (volumetric) strain associated with these defect structures. These results show that (i) the radiation damage produced is consistent with the Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens model of damage productionmore » and (ii) there is a net positive volumetric strain associated with the cascade structures. Second, virtual SAED patterns are generated for the resulting cascade-damaged structures along several zone axes. The analysis of the corresponding diffraction patterns shows the SAED spots approximately doubling in size, on average, due to broadening induced by the defect structures. Furthermore, the SAED spots are observed to exhibit an average radial outward shift between 0.33% and 0.87% depending on the zone axis. Finally, this characterization approach, as utilized here, is a preliminary investigation in developing methodologies and opportunities to link experimental observations with atomistic simulations to elucidate microstructural damage states.« less

  11. Isolation and gene expression analysis of single potential human spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    von Kopylow, K; Schulze, W; Salzbrunn, A; Spiess, A-N

    2016-04-01

    It is possible to isolate pure populations of single potential human spermatogonial stem cells without somatic contamination for down-stream applications, for example cell culture and gene expression analysis. We isolated pure populations of single potential human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSC) without contaminating somatic cells and analyzed gene expression of these cells via single-cell real-time RT-PCR. The isolation of a pure hSSC fraction could enable clinical applications such as fertility preservation for prepubertal boys and in vitro-spermatogenesis. By utilizing largely nonspecific markers for the isolation of spermatogonia (SPG) and hSSC, previously published cell selection methods are not able to deliver pure target cell populations without contamination by testicular somatic cells. However, uniform cell populations free of somatic cells are necessary to guarantee defined growth conditions in cell culture experiments and to prevent unintended stem cell differentiation. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a cell surface protein of human undifferentiated A-type SPG and a promising candidate marker for hSSC. It is exclusively expressed in small, non-proliferating subgroups of this spermatogonial cell type together with the pluripotency-associated protein and spermatogonial nuclear marker undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1). We specifically selected the FGFR3-positive spermatogonial subpopulation from two 30 mg biopsies per patient from a total of 37 patients with full spermatogenesis and three patients with meiotic arrest. We then employed cell selection with magnetic beads in combination with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter antibody directed against human FGFR3 to tag and visually identify human FGFR3-positive spermatogonia. Positively selected and bead-labeled cells were subsequently picked with a micromanipulator. Analysis of the isolated cells was carried out by single-cell real-time RT-PCR, real-time RT

  12. Single-Cell Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells from Whole Blood by Lateral Magnetophoretic Microseparation and Microfluidic Dispensing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Cho, Hyungseok; Han, Song-I; Han, Ki-Ho

    2016-05-03

    This paper introduces a single-cell isolation technology for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using a microfluidic device (the "SIM-Chip"). The SIM-Chip comprises a lateral magnetophoretic microseparator and a microdispenser as a two-step cascade platform. First, CTCs were enriched from whole blood by the lateral magnetophoretic microseparator based on immunomagnetic nanobeads. Next, the enriched CTCs were electrically identified by single-cell impedance cytometer and isolated as single cells using the microshooter. Using 200 μL of whole blood spiked with 50 MCF7 breast cancer cells, the analysis demonstrated that the single-cell isolation efficiency of the SIM-Chip was 82.4%, and the purity of the isolated MCF7 cells with respect to WBCs was 92.45%. The data also showed that the WBC depletion rate of the SIM-Chip was 2.5 × 10(5) (5.4-log). The recovery rates were around 99.78% for spiked MCF7 cells ranging in number from 10 to 90. The isolated single MCF7 cells were intact and could be used for subsequent downstream genetic assays, such as RT-PCR. Single-cell culture evaluation of the proliferation of MCF7 cells isolated by the SIM-Chip showed that 84.1% of cells at least doubled in 5 days. Consequently, the SIM-Chip could be used for single-cell isolation of rare target cells from whole blood with high purity and recovery without cell damage.

  13. Performance of Single Friction Pendulum bearing for isolated buildings subjected to seismic actions in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, N. V.; Nguyen, C. H.; Hoang, H. P.; Huong, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Using structural control technology in earthquake resistant design of buildings in Vietnam is very limited. In this paper, a performance evaluation of using Single Friction Pendulum (SFP) bearing for seismically isolated buildings with earthquake conditions in Vietnam is presented. A two-dimensional (2-D) model of the 5-storey building subjected to earthquakes is analyzed in time domain. Accordingly, the model is analyzed for 2 cases: with and without SFP bearing. The ground acceleration data is selected and scaled to suit the design acceleration in Hanoi followed by the Standard TCVN 9386:2012. It is shown that the seismically isolated buildings gets the performance objectives while achieving an 91% reduction in the base shear, a significant decrease in the inter-story drift and absolute acceleration of each story.

  14. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and Structural Studies of Mitochondria from Pea Roots.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2017-01-01

    For structural and respiratory studies, isolation of intact and active mitochondria is essential. Here, we describe an isolation method which gave good yield and intact mitochondria from 2-week-old pea (Pisum sativum) roots grown hydroponically under standard growth conditions. We used Percoll gradient centrifugation for this isolation procedure. The yield of purified mitochondria was 50 μg/g FW. Isolated mitochondria maintained their structure which was observed by using MitoTracker green in confocal microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Intact mitochondria are clearly visible in SCM images. Taken together this isolation method can be used for physiological and microscopic studies on mitochondria.

  16. Combination of structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy in one setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossberger, Sabrina; Best, Gerrit; Baddeley, David; Heintzmann, Rainer; Birk, Udo; Dithmar, Stefan; Cremer, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the positional and structural aspects of biological nanostructures simultaneously is as much a challenge as a desideratum. In recent years, highly accurate (20 nm) positional information of optically isolated targets down to the nanometer range has been obtained using single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), while highly resolved (100 nm) spatial information has been achieved using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). In this paper, we present a high-resolution fluorescence microscope setup which combines the advantages of SMLM with SIM in order to provide high-precision localization and structural information in a single setup. Furthermore, the combination of the wide-field SIM image with the SMLM data allows us to identify artifacts produced during the visualization process of SMLM data, and potentially also during the reconstruction process of SIM images. We describe the SMLM-SIM combo and software, and apply the instrument in a first proof-of-principle to the same region of H3K293 cells to achieve SIM images with high structural resolution (in the 100 nm range) in overlay with the highly accurate position information of localized single fluorophores. Thus, with its robust control software, efficient switching between the SMLM and SIM mode, fully automated and user-friendly acquisition and evaluation software, the SMLM-SIM combo is superior over existing solutions.

  17. Visible near-infrared light scattering of single silver split-ring structure made by nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukuta, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Fukui, Masuo

    2011-04-11

    We succeeded in making a silver split-ring (SR) structure of approximately 130 nm in diameter on a glass substrate using a nanosphere lithography technique. The light scattering spectrum in visible near-infrared region of a single, isolated SR was measured using a microscope spectroscopy optical system. The electromagnetic field enhancement spectrum and distribution of the SR structure were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method, and the excitation modes were clarified. The long wavelength peak in the light scattering spectra corresponded to a fundamental LC resonance mode excited by an incident electric field. It was shown that a single SR structure fabricated as abovementioned can operate as a resonator and generate a magnetic dipole. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Computational/experimental studies of isolated, single component droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Isolated droplet combustion processes have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations for nearly 40 years. The gross features of droplet burning are qualitatively embodied by simple theories and are relatively well understood. However, there remain significant aspects of droplet burning, particularly its dynamics, for which additional basic knowledge is needed for thorough interpretations and quantitative explanations of transient phenomena. Spherically-symmetric droplet combustion, which can only be approximated under conditions of both low Reynolds and Grashof numbers, represents the simplest geometrical configuration in which to study the coupled chemical/transport processes inherent within non-premixed flames. The research summarized here, concerns recent results on isolated, single component, droplet combustion under microgravity conditions, a program pursued jointly with F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego. The overall program involves developing and applying experimental methods to study the burning of isolated, single component droplets, in various atmospheres, primarily at atmospheric pressure and below, in both drop towers and aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or Space Station. Both computational methods and asymptotic methods, the latter pursued mainly at UCSD, are used in developing the experimental test matrix, in analyzing results, and for extending theoretical understanding. Methanol, and the normal alkanes, n-heptane, and n-decane, have been selected as test fuels to study time-dependent droplet burning phenomena. The following sections summarizes the Princeton efforts on this program, describe work in progress, and briefly delineate future research directions.

  19. Can isolated single black holes produce X-ray novae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Teraki, Yuto; Ioka, Kunihito

    2018-03-01

    Almost all black holes (BHs) and BH candidates in our Galaxy have been discovered as soft X-ray transients, so-called X-ray novae. X-ray novae are usually considered to arise from binary systems. Here, we propose that X-ray novae are also caused by isolated single BHs. We calculate the distribution of the accretion rate from interstellar matter to isolated BHs, and find that BHs in molecular clouds satisfy the condition of the hydrogen-ionization disc instability, which results in X-ray novae. The estimated event rate is consistent with the observed one. We also check an X-ray novae catalogue (Corral-Santana et al.) and find that 16/59 ˜ 0.27 of the observed X-ray novae are potentially powered by isolated BHs. The possible candidates include IGR J17454-2919, XTE J1908-094, and SAX J1711.6-3808. Near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups can exclude companion stars for a BH census in our Galaxy.

  20. Morphological evolution of porous nanostructures grown from a single isolated anodic alumina nanochannel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yung; Chang, Hsuan-Hao; Lai, Ming-Yu; Liu, Chih-Yi; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-09-07

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have been widely used as templates for growing nanomaterials because of their ordered nanochannel arrays with high aspect ratio and uniform pore diameter. However, the intrinsic growth behavior of an individual AAO nanochannel has never been carefully studied for the lack of a means to fabricate a single isolated anodic alumina nanochannel (SIAAN). In this study, we develop a lithographic method for fabricating a SIAAN, which grows into a porous hemispherical structure with its pores exhibiting fascinating morphological evolution during anodization. We also discover that the mechanical stress affects the growth rate and pore morphology of AAO porous structures. This study helps reveal the growth mechanism of arrayed AAO nanochannels grown on a flat aluminum surface and provides insights to help pave the way to altering the geometry of nanochannels on AAO templates for the fabrication of advanced nanocomposite materials.

  1. Morphological evolution of porous nanostructures grown from a single isolated anodic alumina nanochannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yung; Chang, Hsuan-Hao; Lai, Ming-Yu; Liu, Chih-Yi; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-09-01

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have been widely used as templates for growing nanomaterials because of their ordered nanochannel arrays with high aspect ratio and uniform pore diameter. However, the intrinsic growth behavior of an individual AAO nanochannel has never been carefully studied for the lack of a means to fabricate a single isolated anodic alumina nanochannel (SIAAN). In this study, we develop a lithographic method for fabricating a SIAAN, which grows into a porous hemispherical structure with its pores exhibiting fascinating morphological evolution during anodization. We also discover that the mechanical stress affects the growth rate and pore morphology of AAO porous structures. This study helps reveal the growth mechanism of arrayed AAO nanochannels grown on a flat aluminum surface and provides insights to help pave the way to altering the geometry of nanochannels on AAO templates for the fabrication of advanced nanocomposite materials.

  2. Single-ring ablation compared with standard circumferential pulmonary vein isolation using remote magnetic catheter navigation.

    PubMed

    Sohns, Christian; Bergau, Leonard; Seegers, Joachim; Lüthje, Lars; Vollmann, Dirk; Zabel, Markus

    2014-10-01

    In ablation of atrial fibrillation, the single-ring method aims for isolation of the posterior wall of the left atrium (LA) including the pulmonary veins (PVs) but avoiding posterior LA lesions. The aim of this randomized prospective study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of remote magnetic navigation (RMN)-guided single-ring ablation strategy as compared to standard RMN-guided circumferential PV ablation (PVA). Eighty consecutive patients undergoing PVA were enrolled prospectively and randomized equally into two study groups. RMN using the Stereotaxis system and open-irrigated 3.5-mm ablation catheters were used with a 3D mapping system in all procedures. Forty patients underwent RMN-guided single-ring ablation, and 40 patients received RMN-guided circumferential PVA. In the circumferential group, 3.3 ± 1.1 PVs were successfully isolated at the end of the procedure as compared to 3.1 ± 1.3 in the single-ring (box) group (p=0.38). All patients in the box group required additional posterior lesions in order to achieve electrical isolation of the PVs. Single-ring ablation was associated with longer procedure duration (p=0.01) and ablation time (p=0.001). After a single procedure, the proportion of patients free of any atrial tachycardia (AT)/atrial fibrillation (AF) episode at 12-month follow-up was 57 % in the box group and 58 % in the circ group. Using RMN, only minor complications have been observed. RMN-guided single-ring PVA provides comparable acute and long-term success rates as compared to RMN-guided circumferential PVA but requires additional posterior lesions to achieve PV isolation and increased procedure and ablation time. Procedural complication rates are low when using RMN.

  3. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, J.; Gleichmann, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2016-09-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1 μm and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35 pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20 μm in size. Further, the magnification of the optical system used for cell detection was increased. Redesign of the optical path allows for collision-free addressing of any flat substrate since no compartment protrudes below the nozzle of the dispenser chip anymore. The improved system allows for deterministic isolation of individual bacterial cells. A single-cell printing efficiency of 93% was obtained as shown by printing fluorescent labeled E. coli. A 96-well plate filled with growth medium is inoculated with single bacteria cells on average within about 8 min. Finally, individual bacterial cells from a heterogeneous sample of E. coli and E. faecalis were isolated for clonal culturing directly on agar plates in user-defined array geometry.

  4. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the enterocin P structural gene of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from nonfermented animal foods.

    PubMed

    Arlindo, Samuel; Calo, Pilar; Franco, Carlos; Prado, Marta; Cepeda, Alberto; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    The bacteriocins produced by two lactic acid bacteria isolated from nonfermented fresh meat and fish, respectively, and exhibiting a remarkable antilisterial activity, were characterized. Bacteriocinogenic strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium and the maximum bacteriocin production by both strains was detected in the stationary phase of growth. The activity against Listeria monocytogenes was maintained in pH range of 3-7 and was stable in both strains after heating at 100 or 121 degrees C. The genes coding for enterocin P were detected, isolated, and sequenced in both E. faecium strains. They exhibited DNA/DNA homology in the 87.1-97.2% range with respect to the other four enterocin P genes reported so far. Three single nucleotide polymorphism events, silent at the amino acid level, were detected at nucleotide positions 45 (G/A), 75 (A/G), and 90 (T/C) in E. faecium LHICA 28-4 and may explain the differences reported for those loci in other enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains. This work provides the first description of enterocin P-producing E. faecium strains in nonfermented foodstuffs and, in the case of E. faecium LHICA 51, the first report of an enterocin P-producing strain isolated from fish so far.

  6. Single-cell PCR of genomic DNA enabled by automated single-cell printing for cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, F; Schoendube, J; Gross, A; Rath, C; Niekrawietz, S; Koltay, P; Roth, G

    2015-07-15

    Single-cell analysis has developed into a key topic in cell biology with future applications in personalized medicine, tumor identification as well as tumor discovery (Editorial, 2013). Here we employ inkjet-like printing to isolate individual living single human B cells (Raji cell line) and load them directly into standard PCR tubes. Single cells are optically detected in the nozzle of the microfluidic piezoelectric dispenser chip to ensure printing of droplets with single cells only. The printing process has been characterized by using microbeads (10µm diameter) resulting in a single bead delivery in 27 out of 28 cases and relative positional precision of ±350µm at a printing distance of 6mm between nozzle and tube lid. Process-integrated optical imaging enabled to identify the printing failure as void droplet and to exclude it from downstream processing. PCR of truly single-cell DNA was performed without pre-amplification directly from single Raji cells with 33% success rate (N=197) and Cq values of 36.3±2.5. Additionally single cell whole genome amplification (WGA) was employed to pre-amplify the single-cell DNA by a factor of >1000. This facilitated subsequent PCR for the same gene yielding a success rate of 64% (N=33) which will allow more sophisticated downstream analysis like sequencing, electrophoresis or multiplexing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolated terawatt attosecond hard X-ray pulse generated from single current spike.

    PubMed

    Shim, Chi Hyun; Parc, Yong Woon; Kumar, Sandeep; Ko, In Soo; Kim, Dong Eon

    2018-05-10

    Isolated terawatt (TW) attosecond (as) hard X-ray pulse is greatly desired for four-dimensional investigations of natural phenomena with picometer spatial and attosecond temporal resolutions. Since the demand for such sources is continuously increasing, the possibility of generating such pulse by a single current spike without the use of optical or electron delay units in an undulator line is addressed. The conditions of a current spike (width and height) and a modulation laser pulse (wavelength and power) is also discussed. We demonstrate that an isolated TW-level as a hard X-ray can be produced by a properly chosen single current spike in an electron bunch with simulation results. By using realistic specifications of an electron bunch of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL), we show that an isolated, >1.0 TW and ~36 as X-ray pulse at 12.4 keV can be generated in an optimized-tapered undulator line. This result opens a new vista for current XFEL operation: the attosecond XFEL.

  8. A 6DOF passive vibration isolator using X-shape supporting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhijing; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Bo; Li, Fengming

    2016-10-01

    A novel 6 degree of freedom (6-DOF) passive vibration isolator is studied theoretically and validated with experiments. Based on the Stewart platform configuration, the 6-DOF isolator is constructed by 6 X-shape structures as legs, which can realize very good and tunable vibration isolation performance in all 6 directions with a passive manner. The mechanic model is established for static analysis of the working range, static stiffness and loading capacity. Thereafter, the equation of motion of the isolator is derived with the Hamilton principle. The equivalent stiffness and the displacement transmissibility in the six decoupled DOFs direction are then discussed with experimental results for validation. The results reveal that (a) by designing the structure parameters, the system can possess flexible stiffness such as negative, quasi-zero and positive stiffness, (b) due to the combination of the Stewart platform and the X-shape structure, the system can have very good vibration isolation performance in all the 6 directions and in a passive manner, and (c) compared with the simplified linear-stiffness legs, the nonlinearity of the X-shape structures enhance the passive isolator to have much better vibration isolation performance.

  9. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-09-26

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND's size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques.

  10. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-09-01

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques.

  11. Development of a facile droplet-based single-cell isolation platform for cultivation and genomic analysis in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Tingting; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Peng; Gong, Yanhai; Gou, Honglei; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2017-01-23

    Wider application of single-cell analysis has been limited by the lack of an easy-to-use and low-cost strategy for single-cell isolation that can be directly coupled to single-cell sequencing and single-cell cultivation, especially for small-size microbes. Herein, a facile droplet microfluidic platform was developed to dispense individual microbial cells into conventional standard containers for downstream analysis. Functional parts for cell encapsulation, droplet inspection and sorting, as well as a chip-to-tube capillary interface were integrated on one single chip with simple architecture, and control of the droplet sorting was achieved by a low-cost solenoid microvalve. Using microalgal and yeast cells as models, single-cell isolation success rate of over 90% and single-cell cultivation success rate of 80% were demonstrated. We further showed that the individual cells isolated can be used in high-quality DNA and RNA analyses at both gene-specific and whole-genome levels (i.e. real-time quantitative PCR and genome sequencing). The simplicity and reliability of the method should improve accessibility of single-cell analysis and facilitate its wider application in microbiology researches.

  12. Development of a facile droplet-based single-cell isolation platform for cultivation and genomic analysis in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Tingting; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Peng; Gong, Yanhai; Gou, Honglei; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Wider application of single-cell analysis has been limited by the lack of an easy-to-use and low-cost strategy for single-cell isolation that can be directly coupled to single-cell sequencing and single-cell cultivation, especially for small-size microbes. Herein, a facile droplet microfluidic platform was developed to dispense individual microbial cells into conventional standard containers for downstream analysis. Functional parts for cell encapsulation, droplet inspection and sorting, as well as a chip-to-tube capillary interface were integrated on one single chip with simple architecture, and control of the droplet sorting was achieved by a low-cost solenoid microvalve. Using microalgal and yeast cells as models, single-cell isolation success rate of over 90% and single-cell cultivation success rate of 80% were demonstrated. We further showed that the individual cells isolated can be used in high-quality DNA and RNA analyses at both gene-specific and whole-genome levels (i.e. real-time quantitative PCR and genome sequencing). The simplicity and reliability of the method should improve accessibility of single-cell analysis and facilitate its wider application in microbiology researches. PMID:28112223

  13. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates with 15 microsatellite markers in a single multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Collinet, Frédéric; Mercier, Aurélien; Vignoles, Philippe; Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2010-12-01

    We developed an easy-to-use method for genotyping Toxoplasma gondii isolates in a single multiplex PCR assay with 15 microsatellite markers. This method was validated by testing 26 reference isolates that had been characterized with other sets of markers.

  14. In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, E; Lorz, H

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

  15. Molecular Analysis of Single Tumor Glands Using the Crypt Isolation Method in Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takayuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Shoji, Tadahiro; Habano, Wataru; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinomas are characterized by the presence of many single tumor glands in which multiple genetic changes have accumulated. To elucidate the differences in molecular abnormalities among single tumor glands, individual tumor glands were analyzed and microsatellite alterations (loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability [MSI]) were examined using the crypt isolation method in glands from each tumor from patients with endometrial carcinoma. Twenty-five patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery were included in this study. We obtained cancerous individual isolated tumor glands from each patient using the crypt isolation method. For LOH and MSI analyses, we used 15 microsatellite markers (3p, 5q, 10q, 13q, 17p, 18q, BAT25, and BAT26) and the promoter regions of 6 genes (transforming growth factor beta receptor II, BAX, insulin-like growth factor II receptor, E2F4, MutS homolog 3, and MSH6). Loss of heterozygosity was detected in 8 (32%) of 25 patients, and MSI was detected in 9 (36%) of 25 patients. Some MSI-positive carcinomas had LOH in single tumor gland samples, and the coexistence of LOH and MSI was confirmed. In 16 (64%) of 25 cases, intratumoral genetic heterogeneity among single tumor gland samples was detected. By analyzing multiple single tumor glands within the same tumor, we found that endometrial adenocarcinoma was composed of various tumor glands with different molecular abnormalities, even in a limited region within the same tumor.

  16. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  17. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Jacob; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  18. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Michael John

    Realizing complex three-dimensional structures in a range of material systems is critical to a variety of emerging nanotechnologies. This is particularly true of nanomechanical and nanophotonic systems, both relying on free-standing small-scale components. In the case of nanomechanics, necessary mechanical degrees of freedom require physically isolated structures, such as suspended beams, cantilevers, and membranes. For nanophotonics, elements like waveguides and photonic crystal cavities rely on light confinement provided by total internal reflection or distributed Bragg reflection, both of which require refractive index contrast between the device and surrounding medium (often air). Such suspended nanostructures are typically fabricated in a heterolayer structure, comprising of device (top) and sacrificial (middle) layers supported by a substrate (bottom), using standard surface nanomachining techniques. A selective, isotropic etch is then used to remove the sacrificial layer, resulting in free-standing devices. While high-quality, crystalline, thin film heterolayer structures are readily available for silicon (as silicon-on-insulator (SOI)) or III-V semiconductors (i.e. GaAs/AlGaAs), there remains an extensive list of materials with attractive electro-optic, piezoelectric, quantum optical, and other properties for which high quality single-crystal thin film heterolayer structures are not available. These include complex metal oxides like lithium niobate (LiNbO3), silicon-based compounds such as silicon carbide (SiC), III-V nitrides including gallium nitride (GaN), and inert single-crystals such as diamond. Diamond is especially attractive for a variety of nanoscale technologies due to its exceptional physical and chemical properties, including high mechanical hardness, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. Optically, it is transparent over a wide wavelength range (from 220 nm to the far infrared), has a high refractive index (n ~ 2.4), and is host to a vast

  19. Solution structure of the isolated Pelle death domain.

    PubMed

    Moncrieffe, Martin C; Stott, Katherine M; Gay, Nicholas J

    2005-07-18

    The interaction between the death domains (DDs) of Tube and the protein kinase Pelle is an important component of the Toll pathway. Published crystallographic data suggests that the Pelle-Tube DD interface is plastic and implies that in addition to the two predominant Pelle-Tube interfaces, a third interaction is possible. We present the NMR solution structure of the isolated death domain of Pelle and a study of the interaction between the DDs of Pelle and Tube. Our data suggests the solution structure of the isolated Pelle DD is similar to that of Pelle DD in complex with Tube. Additionally, they suggest that the plasticity observed in the crystal structure may not be relevant in the functioning death domain complex.

  20. The experiment research of the friction sliding isolation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Li, Jiangle; Wang, Sheliang

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the theory of the friction sliding isolation structure, The M0S2 solid lubricant was adopted as isolation bearing friction materials, and a new sliding isolation bearing was designed and made. The formula of the friction factor and the compression stress was proposed. The feasibility of the material MoS2 used as the coating material in a friction sliding isolation system was tested on the 5 layers concrete frame model. Two application experiment conditions were presented. The results of the experiment research indicated that the friction sliding isolation technology have a good damping effect.

  1. Comparison of genetic diversity and population structure between two Schistosoma japonicum isolates--the field and the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chao-Rong; Gao, Yu-Meng; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Lu, Da-Bing

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most important human parasitic diseases, and a number of studies have recently elucidated the difference in biological characteristics of S. japonicum among different parasite isolates, for example, between the field and the laboratory isolates. Therefore, the understanding of underlying genetic mechanism is of both theoretical and practical importance. In this study, we used six microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and the bottleneck effect (a sharp reduction in population size) of two parasite populations, one field and one laboratory. A total of 136 S. japonicum cercariae from the field and 86 from the laboratory, which were genetically unique within single snails, were analyzed. The results showed bigger numbers of alleles and higher allelic richness in the field parasite population than in the laboratory indicating lower genetic diversity in the laboratory parasites. A bottleneck effect was detected in the laboratory population. When the field and laboratory isolates were combined, there was a clear distinction between two parasite populations using the software Structure. These genetic differences may partially explain the previously observed contrasted biological traits.

  2. Fe Isolated Single Atoms on S, N Codoped Carbon by Copolymer Pyrolysis Strategy for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiheng; Chen, Wenxing; Xiao, Hai; Gong, Yue; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Xusheng; Yan, Wensheng; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Shen, Rongan; Fu, Ninghua; Gu, Lin; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dingsheng; Peng, Qing; Li, Jun; Li, Yadong

    2018-06-01

    Heteroatom-doped Fe-NC catalyst has emerged as one of the most promising candidates to replace noble metal-based catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, delicate controls over their structure parameters to optimize the catalytic efficiency and molecular-level understandings of the catalytic mechanism are still challenging. Herein, a novel pyrrole-thiophene copolymer pyrolysis strategy to synthesize Fe-isolated single atoms on sulfur and nitrogen-codoped carbon (Fe-ISA/SNC) with controllable S, N doping is rationally designed. The catalytic efficiency of Fe-ISA/SNC shows a volcano-type curve with the increase of sulfur doping. The optimized Fe-ISA/SNC exhibits a half-wave potential of 0.896 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), which is more positive than those of Fe-isolated single atoms on nitrogen codoped carbon (Fe-ISA/NC, 0.839 V), commercial Pt/C (0.841 V), and most reported nonprecious metal catalysts. Fe-ISA/SNC is methanol tolerable and shows negligible activity decay in alkaline condition during 15 000 voltage cycles. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis and density functional theory calculations reveal that the incorporated sulfur engineers the charges on N atoms surrounding the Fe reactive center. The enriched charge facilitates the rate-limiting reductive release of OH* and therefore improved the overall ORR efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Evidence for a Single-Stranded Adenovirus-Associated Virus Genome: Isolation and Separation of Complementary Single Strands

    PubMed Central

    Berns, K. I.; Rose, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Single-stranded adenovirus-associated virus type 2 deoxyribonucleic acid (AAV-2 DNA) has been isolated from the virion after enzymatic pretreatment of the particles by heating at 53 C for 1 hr in 0.015 m NaCl plus 0.0015 m sodium citrate in the presence of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. Double-stranded AAV-2 DNA present as a marker is not denatured by this treatment. AAV-2 single-stranded DNA is composed of two complementary species which can be separated in neutral CsCl when 5-bromodeoxyuridine has been substituted for thymidine in the DNA. The present report is the first documented instance of the separation of complementary strands of an animal virus DNA. PMID:5429749

  4. Single prokaryotic cell isolation and total transcript amplification protocol for transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; McMillan, Ian; Norris, Michael H; Hoang, Tung T

    2015-07-01

    Until recently, transcriptome analyses of single cells have been confined to eukaryotes. The information obtained from single-cell transcripts can provide detailed insight into spatiotemporal gene expression, and it could be even more valuable if expanded to prokaryotic cells. Transcriptome analysis of single prokaryotic cells is a recently developed and powerful tool. Here we describe a procedure that allows amplification of the total transcript of a single prokaryotic cell for in-depth analysis. This is performed by using a laser-capture microdissection instrument for single-cell isolation, followed by reverse transcription via Moloney murine leukemia virus, degradation of chromosomal DNA with McrBC and DpnI restriction enzymes, single-stranded cDNA (ss-cDNA) ligation using T4 polynucleotide kinase and CircLigase, and polymerization of ss-cDNA to double-stranded cDNA (ds-cDNA) by Φ29 polymerase. This procedure takes ∼5 d, and sufficient amounts of ds-cDNA can be obtained from single-cell RNA template for further microarray analysis.

  5. Explaining the texture properties of whey protein isolate/starch co-gels from fracture structures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of tapioca starch (TS) and potato starch (PS) on texture properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/starch co-gels were investigated for fracture structures. We focused on two types of WPI network structures. In a fine-stranded structure at pH 6.8, the WPI/TS co-gel fractured similarly to the WPI single gel. The WPI/PS co-gel was broken at a lower strain and lower stress. In a random aggregation at pH 5.8, the WPI/TS co-gel reached a yielding point at a lower strain, whereas the WPI/PS co-gel fractured at a higher strain and higher stress. In the fracture structures, it was revealed that breaks occurred in different places in these cases, which could explain the different texture properties of samples. This study tries to explain the texture properties of WPI/starch co-gels from fracture structures and provides a reference to predict texture properties of the WPI/starch food system.

  6. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates with 15 Microsatellite Markers in a Single Multiplex PCR Assay ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Collinet, Frédéric; Mercier, Aurélien; Vignoles, Philippe; Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2010-01-01

    We developed an easy-to-use method for genotyping Toxoplasma gondii isolates in a single multiplex PCR assay with 15 microsatellite markers. This method was validated by testing 26 reference isolates that had been characterized with other sets of markers. PMID:20881166

  7. Concurrent Isolation of 3 Distinct Cardiac Stem Cell Populations From a Single Human Heart Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Megan M; White, Kevin S; Kim, Taeyong; Wang, Bingyan J; Fisher, Kristina; Ilves, Kelli; Khalafalla, Farid G; Casillas, Alexandria; Broughton, Kathleen; Mohsin, Sadia; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-07-07

    The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remain obscure. Ongoing debates on optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate 3 distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy. Isolation of 3 endogenous cardiac stem cell populations was performed from human heart samples routinely discarded during implantation of a left ventricular assist device. Tissue explants were mechanically minced into 1 mm 3 pieces to minimize time exposure to collagenase digestion and preserve cell viability. Centrifugation removes large cardiomyocytes and tissue debris producing a single cell suspension that is sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. Initial sorting is based on tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (c-Kit) expression that enriches for 2 c-Kit + cell populations yielding a mixture of cardiac progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Flowthrough c-Kit - mesenchymal stem cells are positively selected by surface expression of markers CD90 and CD105. After 1 week of culture, the c-Kit + population is further enriched by selection for a CD133 + endothelial progenitor cell population. Persistence of respective cell surface markers in vitro is confirmed both by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Three distinct cardiac cell populations with individualized phenotypic properties consistent with cardiac progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully concurrently isolated and expanded from a single tissue sample derived from human heart failure patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L.; Sherman, Michael

    2010-10-25

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to themore » mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.« less

  9. Vibration isolation by exploring bio-inspired structural nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijing; Jing, Xingjian; Bian, Jing; Li, Fengming; Allen, Robert

    2015-10-08

    Inspired by the limb structures of animals/insects in motion vibration control, a bio-inspired limb-like structure (LLS) is systematically studied for understanding and exploring its advantageous nonlinear function in passive vibration isolation. The bio-inspired system consists of asymmetric articulations (of different rod lengths) with inside vertical and horizontal springs (as animal muscle) of different linear stiffness. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the proposed LLS reveal that, (a) the system has very beneficial nonlinear stiffness which can provide flexible quasi-zero, zero and/or negative stiffness, and these nonlinear stiffness properties are adjustable or designable with structure parameters; (b) the asymmetric rod-length ratio and spring-stiffness ratio present very beneficial factors for tuning system equivalent stiffness; (c) the system loading capacity is also adjustable with the structure parameters which presents another flexible benefit in application. Experiments and comparisons with existing quasi-zero-stiffness isolators validate the advantageous features above, and some discussions are also given about how to select structural parameters for practical applications. The results would provide an innovative bio-inspired solution to passive vibration control in various engineering practice.

  10. Congenital heart defects in newborns with apparently isolated single gastrointestinal malformation: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Pinello, Giuseppa; Giuffrè, Mario; La Placa, Simona; Piro, Ettore; Corsello, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Congenital gastrointestinal system malformations/abdominal wall defects (GISM) may appear as isolated defects (single or complex), or in association with multiple malformations. The high incidence of association of GISM and congenital heart defects (CHD) in patients with syndromes and malformative sequences is known, but less expected is the association of apparently isolated single GISM and CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CHD in newborns with isolated GISM, and the possibility to modify the diagnostic-therapeutic approach just before the onset of cardiac symptoms or complications. Anamnestic, clinical, and imaging data of newborns requiring abdominal surgery for GISM, between 2009 and 2014, were compared with a control group of healthy newborns. Distribution of GISM and cardiovascular abnormalities were analyzed, and risk factors for adverse outcomes were identified. Seventy-one newborns with isolated GISM were included in this study. More frequent GISM were intestinal rotation and fixation disorders. CHD were observed in 15.5% of patients, augmenting their risk for morbidity. Risk factors for morbidity related to sepsis were identified in central venous catheter, intestinal stoma, and H2-inhibitor-drugs. Moreover, 28.2% of newborns presented only functional cardiac disorders but an unexpectedly higher mortality. The high incidence of congenital heart disease in infants with apparently isolated GISM confirms the need to perform an echocardiographic study before surgery to improve perioperative management and prevent complications such as sepsis and endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Active Narrow-Band Vibration Isolation of Large Engineering Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zahidul; Spanos, John

    1994-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control method using a variant of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm to isolate slowly changing periodic disturbances from engineering structures. The advantage of the algorithm is that it has a simple architecture and is relatively easy to implement while it can isolate disturbances on the order of 40-50 dB over decades of frequency band. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on a flexible truss structure. The average disturbance rejection achieved is over 40 dB over the frequency band of 5 Hz to 50 Hz.

  12. Isolated single-molecule magnets on native gold.

    PubMed

    Zobbi, Laura; Mannini, Matteo; Pacchioni, Mirko; Chastanet, Guillaume; Bonacchi, Daniele; Zanardi, Chiara; Biagi, Roberto; Del Pennino, Umberto; Gatteschi, Dante; Cornia, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta

    2005-03-28

    The incorporation of thioether groups in the structure of a Mn12 single-molecule magnet, [Mn12(O12)(L)16(H2O)4] with L = 4-(methylthio)benzoate, is a successful route to the deposition of well-separated clusters on native gold surfaces and to the addressing of individual molecules by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  13. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2015-05-15

    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein's unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein’s unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. PMID:25794461

  15. Genome Structural Diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Two Recent U.S. Whooping Cough Statewide Epidemics.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katherine E; Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Cassiday, Pamela K; Sammons, Scott; Knipe, Kristen; Rowe, Lori A; Loparev, Vladimir; Sheth, Mili; Weening, Keeley; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    During 2010 and 2012, California and Vermont, respectively, experienced statewide epidemics of pertussis with differences seen in the demographic affected, case clinical presentation, and molecular epidemiology of the circulating strains. To overcome limitations of the current molecular typing methods for pertussis, we utilized whole-genome sequencing to gain a broader understanding of how current circulating strains are causing large epidemics. Through the use of combined next-generation sequencing technologies, this study compared de novo, single-contig genome assemblies from 31 out of 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected during two separate pertussis statewide epidemics and 2 resequenced vaccine strains. Final genome architecture assemblies were verified with whole-genome optical mapping. Sixteen distinct genome rearrangement profiles were observed in epidemic isolate genomes, all of which were distinct from the genome structures of the two resequenced vaccine strains. These rearrangements appear to be mediated by repetitive sequence elements, such as high-copy-number mobile genetic elements and rRNA operons. Additionally, novel and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 10 virulence-related genes in the epidemic isolates. Whole-genome variation analysis identified state-specific variants, and coding regions bearing nonsynonymous mutations were classified into functional annotated orthologous groups. Comprehensive studies on whole genomes are needed to understand the resurgence of pertussis and develop novel tools to better characterize the molecular epidemiology of evolving B. pertussis populations. IMPORTANCE Pertussis, or whooping cough, is the most poorly controlled vaccine-preventable bacterial disease in the United States, which has experienced a resurgence for more than a decade. Once viewed as a monomorphic pathogen, B. pertussis strains circulating during epidemics exhibit diversity visible on a genome structural

  16. Alcohol sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefina Yulias, R.; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol sensor based on Single-mode -Multimode-Single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is being proposed to sense alcohol concentration in alcohol-water mixtures. This proposed sensor uses refractive index sensing as its sensing principle. Fabricated SMS fiber structure had 40 m of multimode length. With power input -6 dBm and wavelength 1550 nm, the proposed sensor showed good response with sensitivity 1,983 dB per % v/v with measurement range 05 % v/v and measurement span 0,5% v/v.

  17. Actuator with built-in viscous damping for isolation and structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Anderson, Eric H.

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes the development and experimental application of an actuator with built-in viscous damping. An existing passive damper was modified for use as a novel actuation device for isolation and structural control. The device functions by using the same fluid for viscous damping and as a hydraulic lever for a voice coil actuator. Applications for such an actuator include structural control and active isolation. Lumped parameter models capturing structural and fluid effects are presented. Component tests of free stroke, blocked force, and passive complex stiffness are used to update the assumed model parameters. The structural damping effectiveness of the new actuator is shown to be that of a regular D-strut passively and that of a piezoelectric strut with load cell feedback actively in a complex testbed structure. Open and closed loop results are presented for a force isolation application showing an 8 dB passive and 20 dB active improvement over an undamped mount. An optimized design for a future experimental testbed is developed.

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein G-Negative Clinical Isolates Are Generated by Single Frameshift Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Svennerholm, Bo; Bergström, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) codes for several envelope glycoproteins, including glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) of HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which are dispensable for replication in cell culture. However, clinical isolates which are deficient in such proteins occur rarely. We describe here five clinical HSV-2 isolates which were found to be unreactive to a panel of anti-gG-2 monoclonal antibodies and therefore considered phenotypically gG-2 negative. These isolates were further examined for expression of the secreted amino-terminal and cell-associated carboxy-terminal portions of gG-2 by immunoblotting and radioimmunoprecipitation. The gG-2 gene was completely inactivated in four isolates, with no expression of the two protein products. For one isolate a normally produced secreted portion and a truncated carboxy-terminal portion of gG-2 were detected in virus-infected cell medium. Sequencing of the complete gG-2 gene identified a single insertion or deletion of guanine or cytosine nucleotides in all five strains, resulting in a premature termination codon. The frameshift mutations were localized within runs of five or more guanine or cytosine nucleotides and were dispersed throughout the gene. For the isolate for which a partially inactivated gG-2 gene was detected, the frameshift mutation was localized upstream of but adjacent to the nucleotides coding for the transmembranous region. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of clinical HSV-2 isolates which do not express an envelope glycoprotein and identifies the underlying molecular mechanism to be a single frameshift mutation. PMID:10559290

  19. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Horiuchi, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2012-08-27

    Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose), α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  20. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Voss, Thorsten; Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Wyrich, Ralf; Thykjaer, Thomas; Orntoft, Torben F.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood and recovery of small RNA species that are otherwise lost. The procedure presented here is suitable for large-scale experiments and is amenable to further automation. Procured total RNA and DNA was tested using Affymetrix Expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism GeneChips, respectively, and isolated microRNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis. PMID:17690207

  1. Population Structure of Candida parapsilosis: No Genetic Difference Between French and Uruguayan Isolates Using Microsatellite Length Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Bórmida, Victoria; Poirier, Philippe; Nourrisson, Céline; Pan, Dinorah; Bretagne, Stéphane; Puime, Andrès; Dromer, Françoise

    2018-04-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a human commensal yeast, frequently involved in infection worldwide and especially in neonates. It is the second species responsible for bloodstream infections in Uruguay and the third species in France. We were interested in knowing whether the population structure of isolates responsible for candidemia in France and in Uruguay was different. Genotyping methods based on microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) have been described and are especially used for investigation of local outbreaks. We therefore determined the genotypes of 159 C. parapsilosis isolates recovered from 122 patients (84 French patients from 43 hospitals and 38 Uruguayan patients from 10 hospitals) using three microsatellites markers previously described. Our results confirmed that C. parapsilosis population has a high genetic diversity, clonal inheritance and that majority of patients were infected by a single isolate. But we described recurrent infections due to related or unrelated genotypes resulting from isolates harboring loss or gain of heterozygosity. We also described three cases of coinfections due to unrelated genotypes. We did not uncover geographic specificity but observed two linked genotypes that seem to be associated with voriconazole resistance. Finally, among eight isolates involved in grouped cases, the genotypes were similar in six cases supporting the hypothesis of inter-patient transmission. These results confirmed the usefulness of performing MLP genotyping analysis for grouped cases of C. parapsilosis isolates in order to reinforce preventive hygiene measures.

  2. 49 CFR 192.467 - External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... submerged pipeline must be electrically isolated from other underground metallic structures, unless the pipeline and the other structures are electrically interconnected and cathodically protected as a single... pipeline is necessary to facilitate the application of corrosion control. (c) Except for unprotected copper...

  3. 49 CFR 192.467 - External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... submerged pipeline must be electrically isolated from other underground metallic structures, unless the pipeline and the other structures are electrically interconnected and cathodically protected as a single... pipeline is necessary to facilitate the application of corrosion control. (c) Except for unprotected copper...

  4. 49 CFR 192.467 - External corrosion control: Electrical isolation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submerged pipeline must be electrically isolated from other underground metallic structures, unless the pipeline and the other structures are electrically interconnected and cathodically protected as a single... pipeline is necessary to facilitate the application of corrosion control. (c) Except for unprotected copper...

  5. An SMS (single mode - multi mode - single mode) fiber structure for vibration sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluyo, T. B.; Bayuwati, D.

    2017-04-01

    We describe an SMS (single mode - multi mode - single mode) fiber structure to be used in a vibration sensing system. The fiber structure was fabricated by splicing a section (about 300 mm in length) of a step index multi mode fiber between two single mode fibers obtained from a communication grade fiber patchcord. Interference between higher order modes occurs while light from a narrow band light source travels along the multi mode fiber. When the multi mode fiber vibrates, the refractive index profile is changed because of the photo-elastics effect and the amplitude of the interference pattern is changed accordingly. To simulate a vibrating structure we used a loudspeaker to vibrate a wooden table. By using a digital oscilloscope, we recorded and analysed the vibrating signals obtained from the SMS fiber structure as well as from a GS-32CT geophone for referencing. We observed that this SMS fiber structure was potential to be used in a vibration sensing system with a measurement range from 30 to 180 Hz with inherent optical fiber sensor advantages such as light weight, immune to electromagnetic interference, and no electricity in the sensing part.

  6. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  7. The effect of isolated valgus moments on ACL strain during single-leg landing: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Choongsoo S.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Valgus moments on the knee joint during single-leg landing have been suggested as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of isolated valgus moment on ACL strain during single-leg landing. Physiologic levels of valgus moments from an in vivo study of single-leg landing were applied to a three-dimensional dynamic knee model, previously developed and tested for ACL strain measurement during simulated landing. The ACL strain, knee valgus angle, tibial rotation, and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strain were calculated and analyzed. The study shows that the peak ACL strain increased nonlinearly with increasing peak valgus moment. Subjects with naturally high valgus moments showed greater sensitivity for increased ACL strain with increased valgus moment, but ACL strain plateaus below reported ACL failure levels when the applied isolated valgus moment rises above the maximum values observed during normal cutting activities. In addition, the tibia was observed to rotate externally as the peak valgus moment increased due to bony and soft-tissue constraints. In conclusion, knee valgus moment increases peak ACL strain during single-leg landing. However, valgus moment alone may not be sufficient to induce an isolated ACL tear without concomitant damage to the MCL, because coupled tibial external rotation and increasing strain in the MCL prevent proportional increases in ACL strain at higher levels of valgus moment. Training that reduces the external valgus moment, however, can reduce the ACL strain and thus may help athletes reduce their overall ACL injury risk. PMID:19100550

  8. Gene Expression in Single Cells Isolated from the CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cell Line and Human Prostate Tissue Based on the Side Population Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gangavarapu, Kalyan J; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    Defining biological signals at the single cell level can identify cancer initiating driver mutations. Techniques to isolate single cells such as microfluidics sorting and magnetic capturing systems have limitations such as: high cost, labor intense, and the requirement of a large number of cells. Therefore, the goal of our current study is to identify a cost and labor effective, reliable, and reproducible technique that allows single cell isolation for analysis to promote regular laboratory use, including standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In the current study, we utilized single prostate cells isolated from the CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line and human prostate clinical specimens, based on the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter efflux of dye cycle violet (DCV), side population assay. Expression of four genes: ABCG2; Aldehyde dehydrogenase1A1 (ALDH1A1); androgen receptor (AR); and embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, were determined. Results from the current study in the CWR-R1 cell line showed ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 gene expression in 67% of single side population cells and in 17% or 100% of non-side population cells respectively. Studies using single cells isolated from clinical specimens showed that the Oct-4 gene is detected in only 22% of single side population cells and in 78% of single non-side population cells. Whereas, AR gene expression is in 100% single side population and non-side population cells isolated from the same human prostate clinical specimen. These studies show that performing RT-PCR on single cells isolated by FACS can be successfully conducted to determine gene expression in single cells from cell lines and enzymatically digested tissue. While these studies provide a simple yes/no expression readout, the more sensitive quantitative RT-PCR would be able to provide even more information if necessary.

  9. Gene Expression in Single Cells Isolated from the CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cell Line and Human Prostate Tissue Based on the Side Population Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gangavarapu, Kalyan J; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Defining biological signals at the single cell level can identify cancer initiating driver mutations. Techniques to isolate single cells such as microfluidics sorting and magnetic capturing systems have limitations such as: high cost, labor intense, and the requirement of a large number of cells. Therefore, the goal of our current study is to identify a cost and labor effective, reliable, and reproducible technique that allows single cell isolation for analysis to promote regular laboratory use, including standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In the current study, we utilized single prostate cells isolated from the CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line and human prostate clinical specimens, based on the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter efflux of dye cycle violet (DCV), side population assay. Expression of four genes: ABCG2; Aldehyde dehydrogenase1A1 (ALDH1A1); androgen receptor (AR); and embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, were determined. Results from the current study in the CWR-R1 cell line showed ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 gene expression in 67% of single side population cells and in 17% or 100% of non-side population cells respectively. Studies using single cells isolated from clinical specimens showed that the Oct-4 gene is detected in only 22% of single side population cells and in 78% of single non-side population cells. Whereas, AR gene expression is in 100% single side population and non-side population cells isolated from the same human prostate clinical specimen. These studies show that performing RT-PCR on single cells isolated by FACS can be successfully conducted to determine gene expression in single cells from cell lines and enzymatically digested tissue. While these studies provide a simple yes/no expression readout, the more sensitive quantitative RT-PCR would be able to provide even more information if necessary. PMID:27785389

  10. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Honsa, Erin; Fricke, Thomas; Stephens, Alex J; Ko, Danny; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2008-08-19

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS)) is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined clonal complexes. It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximization of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required.

  11. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Honsa, Erin; Fricke, Thomas; Stephens, Alex J; Ko, Danny; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS)) is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined clonal complexes. Results It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximisation of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. Conclusion A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required. PMID:18710585

  12. Splitting a droplet for femtoliter liquid patterns and single cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizeng; Yang, Qiang; Li, Guannan; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Shutao; Song, Yanlin

    2015-05-06

    Well-defined microdroplet generation has attracted great interest, which is important for the high-resolution patterning and matrix distribution for chemical reactions and biological assays. By sliding a droplet on a patterned superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic substrate, tiny microdroplet arrays low to femtoliter were achieved with uniform volume and composition. Using this method, cells were successfully isolated, resulting in a single cell array. The droplet-splitting method is facile, sample-effective, and low-cost, which will be of great potential for the development of microdroplet arrays for biological analysis as well as patterning system and devices.

  13. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yang, Ya; Zheng, Ru-Yue; Kim, Ick Soo; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-03-03

    The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF), extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed.

  14. CheckM: assessing the quality of microbial genomes recovered from isolates, single cells, and metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Donovan H.; Imelfort, Michael; Skennerton, Connor T.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale recovery of genomes from isolates, single cells, and metagenomic data has been made possible by advances in computational methods and substantial reductions in sequencing costs. Although this increasing breadth of draft genomes is providing key information regarding the evolutionary and functional diversity of microbial life, it has become impractical to finish all available reference genomes. Making robust biological inferences from draft genomes requires accurate estimates of their completeness and contamination. Current methods for assessing genome quality are ad hoc and generally make use of a limited number of “marker” genes conserved across all bacterial or archaeal genomes. Here we introduce CheckM, an automated method for assessing the quality of a genome using a broader set of marker genes specific to the position of a genome within a reference genome tree and information about the collocation of these genes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CheckM using synthetic data and a wide range of isolate-, single-cell-, and metagenome-derived genomes. CheckM is shown to provide accurate estimates of genome completeness and contamination and to outperform existing approaches. Using CheckM, we identify a diverse range of errors currently impacting publicly available isolate genomes and demonstrate that genomes obtained from single cells and metagenomic data vary substantially in quality. In order to facilitate the use of draft genomes, we propose an objective measure of genome quality that can be used to select genomes suitable for specific gene- and genome-centric analyses of microbial communities. PMID:25977477

  15. CheckM: assessing the quality of microbial genomes recovered from isolates, single cells, and metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Parks, Donovan H; Imelfort, Michael; Skennerton, Connor T; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W

    2015-07-01

    Large-scale recovery of genomes from isolates, single cells, and metagenomic data has been made possible by advances in computational methods and substantial reductions in sequencing costs. Although this increasing breadth of draft genomes is providing key information regarding the evolutionary and functional diversity of microbial life, it has become impractical to finish all available reference genomes. Making robust biological inferences from draft genomes requires accurate estimates of their completeness and contamination. Current methods for assessing genome quality are ad hoc and generally make use of a limited number of "marker" genes conserved across all bacterial or archaeal genomes. Here we introduce CheckM, an automated method for assessing the quality of a genome using a broader set of marker genes specific to the position of a genome within a reference genome tree and information about the collocation of these genes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CheckM using synthetic data and a wide range of isolate-, single-cell-, and metagenome-derived genomes. CheckM is shown to provide accurate estimates of genome completeness and contamination and to outperform existing approaches. Using CheckM, we identify a diverse range of errors currently impacting publicly available isolate genomes and demonstrate that genomes obtained from single cells and metagenomic data vary substantially in quality. In order to facilitate the use of draft genomes, we propose an objective measure of genome quality that can be used to select genomes suitable for specific gene- and genome-centric analyses of microbial communities. © 2015 Parks et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Morphology and structure features of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel nanoparticles prepared by matrix-isolation-assisted calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Xuelian, E-mail: xueliandu@126.com; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Wenxing

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The substrate ZnO as the isolation medium is effective in preventing the sintering and agglomeration of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, and it also prevents their contamination. High purity, well-dispersed, and single-crystal ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with 3.72 eV band gap were obtained. - Abstract: Well-dispersed ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel nanoparticles with an average crystalline size of 25.7 nm were synthesized successfully and easily by polymer-network and matrix-isolation-assisted calcination. The product microstructure and features were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, and energy dispersive X-ray spectra. The morphology andmore » optical performance of the as-prepared ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectrometer. Experimental results indicate that excess ZnO acted as the isolation medium is effective in preventing the sintering and agglomeration of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, and it also prevents their contamination. Then, high purity and well-dispersed ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with single-crystal structure were obtained.« less

  17. Complete genome assemblies for two single-chromosome Vibrio cholerae isolates, strains 1154-74 (serogroup O49) and 10432-62 (serogroup O27)

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Shannon Lyn; Khiani, A.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; ...

    2015-05-14

    We report the completed genome sequences for two non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates. Each isolate has only a single chromosome, as opposed to the normal paradigm of two chromosomes found in all other V. cholerae isolates.

  18. Complete genome assemblies for two single-chromosome Vibrio cholerae isolates, strains 1154-74 (serogroup O49) and 10432-62 (serogroup O27)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shannon Lyn; Khiani, A.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.

    We report the completed genome sequences for two non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates. Each isolate has only a single chromosome, as opposed to the normal paradigm of two chromosomes found in all other V. cholerae isolates.

  19. Recent progress and application on seismic isolation energy dissipation and control for structures in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fulin; Tan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    China is a country where 100% of the territory is located in a seismic zone. Most of the strong earthquakes are over prediction. Most fatalities are caused by structural collapse. Earthquakes not only cause severe damage to structures, but can also damage non-structural elements on and inside of facilities. This can halt city life, and disrupt hospitals, airports, bridges, power plants, and other infrastructure. Designers need to use new techniques to protect structures and facilities inside. Isolation, energy dissipation and, control systems are more and more widely used in recent years in China. Currently, there are nearly 6,500 structures with isolation and about 3,000 structures with passive energy dissipation or hybrid control in China. The mitigation techniques are applied to structures like residential buildings, large or complex structures, bridges, underwater tunnels, historical or cultural relic sites, and industrial facilities, and are used for retrofitting of existed structures. This paper introduces design rules and some new and innovative devices for seismic isolation, energy dissipation and hybrid control for civil and industrial structures. This paper also discusses the development trends for seismic resistance, seismic isolation, passive and active control techniques for the future in China and in the world.

  20. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yang, Ya; Zheng, Ru-Yue; Kim, Ick Soo; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-01-01

    The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF), extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed. PMID:28273799

  1. Amaranth, quinoa and chia protein isolates: Physicochemical and structural properties.

    PubMed

    López, Débora N; Galante, Micaela; Robson, María; Boeris, Valeria; Spelzini, Darío

    2018-04-01

    An increasing use of vegetable protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace animal proteins in the human diet. Amaranth, chia and quinoa seeds contain proteins which have biological and functional properties that provide nutritional benefits due to their reasonably well-balanced aminoacid content. This review analyses these vegetable proteins and focuses on recent research on protein classification and isolation as well as structural characterization by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry. Isolation procedures have a profound influence on the structural properties of the proteins and, therefore, on their in vitro digestibility. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of the properties and characterization of these proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  3. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for themore » Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior

  4. Magnetic field effects on the local electronic structure near a single impurity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2011-03-01

    Impurities in graphene can have a significant effect on the local electronic structure of graphene when the Fermi level is near the Dirac point. We study the problem of an isolated impurity in a single layer graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. We use a linearization approximation for the energy dispersion and employ a T-matrix formalism to calculate the Green's function. We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the Friedel oscillations and impurity-induced resonant states. Different types of impurities, such as vacancies, substitutional impurities, and adatoms, are also considered. LY and SWT acknowledge financial support from NSF(DMR-0847801)and from the UC Lab Fees Research Program.

  5. Full hyperfine structure analysis of singly ionized molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-03-01

    For a first time a parametric study of hyperfine structure of Mo II configuration levels is presented. The newly measured A and B hyperfine structure (hfs) constants values of Mo II 4d5, 4d45s and 4d35s2 configuration levels, for both 95 and 97 isotopes, using Fast-ion-beam laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy [1] are gathered with other few data available in literature. A fitting procedure of an isolated set of these three lowest even-parity configuration levels has been performed by taking into account second-order of perturbation theory including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Moreover the same study was done for Mo II odd-parity levels; for both parities two sets of fine structure parameters as well as the leading eigenvector percentages of levels and Landé-factor gJ, relevant for this paper are given. We present also predicted singlet, triplet and quintet positions of missing experimental levels up to 85000 cm-1. The single-electron hfs parameter values were extracted in their entirety for 97Mo II and for 95Mo II: for instance for 95Mo II, a4d 01 =-133.37 MHz and a5p 01 =-160.25 MHz for 4d45p; a4d 01 =-140.84 MHz, a5p 01 =-170.18 MHz and a5s 10 =-2898 MHz for 4d35s5p; a5s 10 =-2529 (2) MHz and a4d 01 =-135.17 (0.44) MHz for the 4d45s. These parameter values were analysed and compared with diverse ab-initio calculations. We closed this work with giving predicted values of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hfs constants of all known levels, whose splitting are not yet measured.

  6. A Chrysodeixis chalcites Single-Nucleocapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population from the Canary Islands Is Genotypically Structured To Maximize Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Alexandra; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Muñoz, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A Chrysodeixis chalcites single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus wild-type isolate from the Canary Islands, Spain, named ChchSNPV-TF1 (ChchTF1-wt), appears to have great potential as the basis for a biological insecticide for control of the pest. An improved understanding of the genotypic structure of this wild-type strain population should facilitate the selection of genotypes for inclusion in a bioinsecticidal product. Eight genetically distinct genotypes were cloned in vitro: ChchTF1-A to ChchTF1-H. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed that ChchTF1-A accounted for 36% of the genotypes in the wild-type population. In bioassays, ChchTF1-wt occlusion bodies (OBs) were significantly more pathogenic than any of the component single-genotype OBs, indicating that genotype interactions were likely responsible for the pathogenicity phenotype of wild-type OBs. However, the wild-type population was slower killing and produced higher OB yields than any of the single genotypes alone. These results strongly suggested that the ChchTF1-wt population is structured to maximize its transmission efficiency. Experimental OB mixtures and cooccluded genotype mixtures containing the most abundant and the rarest genotypes, at frequencies similar to those at which they were isolated, revealed a mutualistic interaction that restored the pathogenicity of OBs. In OB and cooccluded mixtures containing only the most abundant genotypes, ChchTF1-ABC, OB pathogenicity was even greater than that of wild-type OBs. The ChchTF1-ABC cooccluded mixture killed larvae 33 h faster than the wild-type population and remained genotypically and biologically stable throughout five successive passages in vivo. In conclusion, the ChchTF1-ABC mixture shows great potential as the active ingredient of a bioinsecticide to control C. chalcites in the Canary Islands. PMID:24096419

  7. Assessment of the Geographic Origins of Pinewood Nematode Isolates via Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Simões, Maria José; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Pinho, Diogo; Conceição, Luci; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4), China (1), Japan (1) and USA (1), were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2), China (1), USA (1), Japan (2) and South Korea (2). The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification. PMID:24391785

  8. Differences in the population structure of invasive Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs and from humans in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schultsz, Constance; Jansen, Ewout; Keijzers, Wendy; Rothkamp, Anja; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van der Ende, Arie

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is the main cause of zoonotic S. suis infection despite the fact that other serotypes are frequently isolated from diseased pigs. Studies comparing concurrent invasive human and pig isolates from a single geographical location are lacking. We compared the population structures of invasive S. suis strains isolated between 1986 and 2008 from human patients (N = 24) and from pigs with invasive disease (N = 124) in The Netherlands by serotyping and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Fifty-six percent of pig isolates were of serotype 9 belonging to 15 clonal complexes (CCs) or singleton sequence types (ST). In contrast, all human isolates were of serotype 2 and belonged to two non-overlapping clonal complexes CC1 (58%) and CC20 (42%). The proportion of serotype 2 isolates among S. suis strains isolated from humans was significantly higher than among strains isolated from pigs (24/24 vs. 29/124; P<0.0001). This difference remained significant when only strains within CC1 and CC20 were considered (24/24 vs. 27/37,P = 0.004). The Simpson diversity index of the S. suis population isolated from humans (0.598) was smaller than of the population isolated from pigs (0.765, P = 0.05) indicating that the S. suis population isolated from infected pigs was more diverse than the S. suis population isolated from human patients. S. suis serotype 2 strains of CC20 were all negative in a PCR for detection of genes encoding extracellular protein factor (EF) variants. These data indicate that the polysaccharide capsule is an important correlate of human S. suis infection, irrespective of the ST and EF encoding gene type of S. suis strains.

  9. From cluster structures to nuclear molecules: The role of nodal structure of the single-particle wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2018-02-01

    The nodal structure of the density distributions of the single-particle states occupied in rod-shaped, hyper- and megadeformed structures of nonrotating and rotating N ˜Z nuclei has been investigated in detail. The single-particle states with the Nilsson quantum numbers of the [N N 0 ]1 /2 (with N from 0 to 5) and [N ,N -1 ,1 ]Ω (with N from 1 to 3 and Ω =1 /2 , 3/2) types are considered. These states are building blocks of extremely deformed shapes in the nuclei with mass numbers A ≤50 . Because of (near) axial symmetry and large elongation of such structures, the wave functions of the single-particle states occupied are dominated by a single basis state in cylindrical basis. This basis state defines the nodal structure of the single-particle density distribution. The nodal structure of the single-particle density distributions allows us to understand in a relatively simple way the necessary conditions for α clusterization and the suppression of the α clusterization with the increase of mass number. It also explains in a natural way the coexistence of ellipsoidal mean-field-type structures and nuclear molecules at similar excitation energies and the features of particle-hole excitations connecting these two types of the structures. Our analysis of the nodal structure of the single-particle density distributions does not support the existence of quantum liquid phase for the deformations and nuclei under study.

  10. Sequence homology and structural analysis of plasmepsin 4 isolated from Indian Plasmodium vivax isolates.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Manmeet; Vijay, Sonam; Gupta, Yash; Dixit, Rajnikant; Tiwari, P K; Sharma, Arun

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a globally widespread disease responsible for 50% of human malaria cases in Central and South America, South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. The rising severity of the disease and emerging resistance of the parasite has emphasized the need for the search of novel therapeutic targets to combat P. vivax malaria. Plasmepsin 4 (PM4) a food vacuole aspartic protease is essential in parasite functions and viability such as initiating hemoglobin digestion and processing of proteins and is being looked upon as potential drug target. Although the plasmepsins of Plasmodium falciparum have been extensively studied, the plasmepsins of P. vivax are not well characterized. This is the first report detailing complete PM4 gene analysis from Indian P. vivax isolates. Blast results of sequences of P. vivax plasmepsin 4 (PvPM4) shows 100% homology among isolates of P. vivax collected from different geographical regions of India. All of the seven Indian isolates did not contain intron within the coding region. Interestingly, PvPM4 sequence analysis showed a very high degree of homology with all other sequences of Plasmodium species available in the genebank. Our results strongly suggest that PvPM4 are highly conserved except a small number of amino acid substitutions that did not modify key motifs at active site formation for the function or the structure of the enzymes. Furthermore, our study shows that PvPM4 occupies unique phylogenetic status within Plasmodium group and sufficiently differ from the most closely related human aspartic protease, cathepsin D. The analysis of 3D model of PM4 showed a typical aspartic protease structure with bi-lobed, compact and distinct peptide binding cleft in both P. vivax and P. falciparum. In order to validate appropriate use of PM4 as potential anti-malarial drug target, studies on genetic and structural variations among P. vivax plasmepsins (PvPMs) from different geographical regions are of utmost importance for

  11. Rapid isolation of cancer cells using microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongbin; Huang, Fei; Du, Jinghui; Shu, Weiliang; Feng, Hongtao; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This work reports a microfluidic device with deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays allowing rapid and label-free cancer cell separation and enrichment from diluted peripheral whole blood, by exploiting the size-dependent hydrodynamic forces. Experiment data and theoretical simulation are presented to evaluate the isolation efficiency of various types of cancer cells in the microfluidic DLD structure. We also demonstrated the use of both circular and triangular post arrays for cancer cell separation in cell solution and blood samples. The device was able to achieve high cancer cell isolation efficiency and enrichment factor with our optimized design. Therefore, this platform with DLD structure shows great potential on fundamental and clinical studies of circulating tumor cells.

  12. Asymmetric transmission and reflection spectra of FBG in single-multi-single mode fiber structure.

    PubMed

    Chai, Quan; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yujin; Yuan, Libo; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-05-04

    We give a comprehensive theoretical analysis and simulation of a FBG in single-multi-single mode fiber structure (FBG-in-SMS), based on the coupled mode analysis and the mode interference analysis. This enables us to explain the experimental observations, its asymmetric transmission and reflection spectra with the similar temperature responses near the spectral range of Bragg wavelengths. The transmission spectrum shift during FBG written-in process is observed and discussed. The analysis results are useful in the design of the SMS structure based sensors and filters.

  13. Electronic Structure Control of Sub-nanometer 1D SnTe via Nanostructuring within Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Vasylenko, Andrij; Marks, Samuel; Wynn, Jamie M; Medeiros, Paulo V C; Ramasse, Quentin M; Morris, Andrew J; Sloan, Jeremy; Quigley, David

    2018-05-25

    Nanostructuring, e. g., reduction of dimensionality in materials, offers a viable route toward regulation of materials electronic and hence functional properties. Here, we present the extreme case of nanostructuring, exploiting the capillarity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the synthesis of the smallest possible SnTe nanowires with cross sections as thin as a single atom column. We demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate diameter of a template SWCNT, we can manipulate the structure of the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) SnTe to design electronic behavior. From first principles, we predict the structural re-formations that SnTe undergoes in varying encapsulations and confront the prediction with TEM imagery. To further illustrate the control of physical properties by nanostructuring, we study the evolution of transport properties in a homologous series of models of synthesized and isolated SnTe nanowires varying only in morphology and atomic layer thickness. This extreme scaling is predicted to significantly enhance thermoelectric performance of SnTe, offering a prospect for further experimental studies and future applications.

  14. Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H(0) of WPC was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H(0) compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC). Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  15. CFD Prediction on the Pressure Distribution and Streamlines around an Isolated Single-Storey House Considering the Effect of Topographic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, J.; Zaini, S. S.; Aziz, M. S. A.; Majid, T. A.; Deraman, S. N. C.; Yahya, W. N. W.

    2018-04-01

    Single-storey houses are classified as low rise building and vulnerable to damages under windstorm event. This study was carried out with the aim to investigate the pressure distribution and streamlines around an isolated house by considering the effect of terrain characteristics. The topographic features such as flat, depression, ridge, and valley, are considered in this study. This simulation were analysed with Ansys FLUENT 14.0 software package. The result showed the topography characteristics influence the value of pressure coefficient and streamlines especially when the house was located at ridge terrain. The findings strongly suggested that wind analysis should include all topographic features in the analysis in order to establish the true wind force exerted on any structure.

  16. Evaluation of structural issues related to isolation of the 100-KE/100-KW discharge chute

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Hyde, L.L.

    The issue of excessive post-seismic leakage in the discharge chute of the K East and K West fuel storage basins was resolved by designing isolation barriers to maintain basin water levels if the discharge chute should drain. This report addresses the structural issues associated with isolation of the discharge chute. The report demonstrates the structural adequacy of the components associated with chute isolation for normal and seismic loading. Associated issues, such as hardware drop accidents and seismic slosh heights are also addressed.

  17. Defect Effects on TiO2 Nanosheets: Stabilizing Single Atomic Site Au and Promoting Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiawei; Chen, Wenxing; Jia, Chuanyi; Zheng, Lirong; Dong, Juncai; Zheng, Xusheng; Wang, Yu; Yan, Wensheng; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2018-03-01

    Isolated single atomic site catalysts have attracted great interest due to their remarkable catalytic properties. Because of their high surface energy, single atoms are highly mobile and tend to form aggregate during synthetic and catalytic processes. Therefore, it is a significant challenge to fabricate isolated single atomic site catalysts with good stability. Herein, a gentle method to stabilize single atomic site metal by constructing defects on the surface of supports is presented. As a proof of concept, single atomic site Au supported on defective TiO 2 nanosheets is prepared and it is discovered that (1) the surface defects on TiO 2 nanosheets can effectively stabilize Au single atomic sites through forming the Ti-Au-Ti structure; and (2) the Ti-Au-Ti structure can also promote the catalytic properties through reducing the energy barrier and relieving the competitive adsorption on isolated Au atomic sites. It is believed that this work paves a way to design stable and active single atomic site catalysts on oxide supports. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Resistance pattern of 2816 isolates isolated from 17631 blood cultures and etiology of bacteremia and fungemia in a single cancer institution.

    PubMed

    Trupl, J; Kunová, A; Oravcová, E; Pichna, P; Kukucková, E; Grausova, S; Grey, E; Spanik, S; Demitrovicová, A; Kralóvicová, K; Lacka, J; Krupova, I; Svec, J; Koren, P; Krcméry, V

    1997-01-01

    The resistance pattern of 2816 isolates from 17631 blood cultures and the etiology of isolates causing bacteremia and fungemia among 14591 admissions were investigated in an 80-bed single cancer institute during seven years (1990-1996) under the same empiric therapeutic antibiotic policy but with different prophylactic strategies. No change was found in the proportion of Gram-positive versus Gram-negative bacteria isolated from bacteremias (70% vs. 30%) during the past seven years. Furthermore, the proportion of coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci was about the same before and after the introduction of ofloxacin in prophylaxis. However, the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia causing bacteremia increased. There was no increase in Candida krusei and Candida glabrata after the introduction of fluconazole into our prophylactic regimen in 1992. Penicillin-resistance in viridans streptococci increased after penicillin was introduced into prophylaxis in acute leukemia in 1993. Until 1995 no quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were observed. Susceptibility to quinolones did not significantly change within the past seven years in Enterobacteriaceae after their introduction to prophylaxis in 1991, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased from 90 to 58.2%. Glycopeptide resistance in enterococci and staphylococci was minimal in the observed period (0.9-4.3%).

  19. Fracture behavior of single-structure fiber-reinforced composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kohji; Garoushi, Sufyan K.; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Lassila, Lippo V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The applications of single-structure fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) in restorative dentistry have not been well reported. This study aimed to clarify the static mechanical properties of anterior crown restorations prepared using two types of single-structure FRC. Materials and methods : An experimental crown restoration was designed for an upper anterior incisor. The restorations were made from IPS Empress CAD for CEREC (Emp), IPS e.max® CAD (eMx), experimental single-structure all-FRC (a-FRC), Filtek™ Supreme XTE (XTE), and commercially available single-structure short-FRC (everX Posterior™) (n = 8 for each material) (s-FRC). The a-FRC restorations were prepared from an experimental FRC blank using a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. A fracture test was performed to assess the fracture load, toughness, and failure mode. The fracture loads were vertically applied on the restorations. The surface micromorphology of the FRC restorations was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (p = .05) followed by Tukey's test. Results : s-FRC showed the highest mean fracture load (1145.0 ± 89.6 N) and toughness (26.2 ± 5.8 Ncm) among all the groups tested. With regard to the micromorphology of the prosthetic surface, local crushing of the fiberglass was observed in s-FRC, whereas chopped fiberglass was observed in a-FRC. Conclusions : The restorations made of short-FRC showed a higher load-bearing capacity than those made of the experimental all-FRC blanks for CAD/CAM. The brittle-like fractures were exhibited in the recent dental esthetic materials, while local crushing fractures were shown for single-structure FRC restorations. PMID:28642921

  20. Characterization and structure elucidation of antibacterial compound of Streptomyces sp. ECR77 isolated from east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Thirumurugan, D; Vijayakumar, R

    2015-05-01

    Forty marine actinobacteria were isolated from the sediments of east coast (Bay of Bengal) region of Tamilnadu, India. Morphologically distinct colonies were primarily tested against fish pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila by cross-streak plate method. The secondary metabolites produced by the highly potential strain cultured on starch casein broth were extracted separately with various solvents such as alcohol, ethyl acetate, methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. The antibacterial assay of the bioactive compounds was tested against the fish pathogenic bacteria by well diffusion method. Of the various solvents used, the ethyl acetate extract of the isolate had good antibacterial activity. The potential strain was identified as Streptomyces labedae by phenotypic, 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Purification of the biologically active compounds by column chromatography led to isolation of 27 fractions. The biologically active fraction was re-chromatographed on a silica gel column to obtain a single active compound, namely N-isopentyltridecanamide. The structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of ultra violet, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  1. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Histophilus somni genome; a comparison of new and old isolates.

    PubMed

    Madampage, Claudia Avis; Rawlyk, Neil; Crockford, Gordon; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Dorin, Craig; Potter, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Histophilus somni, a causative agent of the bovine respiratory disease complex, can also cause a variety of systemic disorders, including bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, pericarditis, arthritis, pleuritis, and infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if currently circulating strains differ from those of the 1980s by identifying genomic changes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (INDEL) sites were examined by whole-genome sequencing in 12 samples, 6 old and 6 new. The 31 028 SNP/INDELs recorded were compared against the reference genome sequence of the pathogenic H. somni strain 2336. The distribution of about 75% of these SNPs within a specified gene differed between old and new isolates and did not follow any particular pattern. The other 25% clustered into 2 groups containing the same SNPs in various genes: group I included 5 old isolates and 1 new isolate; group II included 5 new isolates and 1 old isolate. For putative virulence genes there were more SNPs in group I compared with strain 2336, itself an older isolate, than in group II. Although only 25% of all the SNPs formed 2 clusters, the results suggest some genetic difference in various genes between old and new strains.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Histophilus somni genome; a comparison of new and old isolates

    PubMed Central

    Madampage, Claudia Avis; Rawlyk, Neil; Crockford, Gordon; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Dorin, Craig; Potter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Histophilus somni, a causative agent of the bovine respiratory disease complex, can also cause a variety of systemic disorders, including bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, pericarditis, arthritis, pleuritis, and infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if currently circulating strains differ from those of the 1980s by identifying genomic changes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (INDEL) sites were examined by whole-genome sequencing in 12 samples, 6 old and 6 new. The 31 028 SNP/INDELs recorded were compared against the reference genome sequence of the pathogenic H. somni strain 2336. The distribution of about 75% of these SNPs within a specified gene differed between old and new isolates and did not follow any particular pattern. The other 25% clustered into 2 groups containing the same SNPs in various genes: group I included 5 old isolates and 1 new isolate; group II included 5 new isolates and 1 old isolate. For putative virulence genes there were more SNPs in group I compared with strain 2336, itself an older isolate, than in group II. Although only 25% of all the SNPs formed 2 clusters, the results suggest some genetic difference in various genes between old and new strains. PMID:26130851

  4. Study on comparison of special moment frame steel structure (SMF) and base isolation special moment frame steel structure (BI-SMF) in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Jody; Nakazawa, Shoji

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses about comparison of seismic response behaviors, seismic performance and seismic loss function of a conventional special moment frame steel structure (SMF) and a special moment frame steel structure with base isolation (BI-SMF). The validation of the proposed simplified estimation method of the maximum deformation of the base isolation system by using the equivalent linearization method and the validation of the design shear force of the superstructure are investigated from results of the nonlinear dynamic response analysis. In recent years, the constructions of steel office buildings with seismic isolation system are proceeding even in Indonesia where the risk of earthquakes is high. Although the design code for the seismic isolation structure has been proposed, there is no actual construction example for special moment frame steel structure with base isolation. Therefore, in this research, the SMF and BI-SMF buildings are designed by Indonesian Building Code which are assumed to be built at Padang City in Indonesia. The material of base isolation system is high damping rubber bearing. Dynamic eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear dynamic response analysis are carried out to show the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance. In addition, the seismic loss function is obtained from damage state probability and repair cost. For the response analysis, simulated ground accelerations, which have the phases of recorded seismic waves (El Centro NS, El Centro EW, Kobe NS and Kobe EW), adapted to the response spectrum prescribed by the Indonesian design code, that has, are used.

  5. Genetic structure and isolation by distance in a landrace of Thai rice

    PubMed Central

    Pusadee, Tonapha; Jamjod, Sansanee; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Rice is among the 3 most important crops worldwide. While much of the world's rice harvest is based on modern high-yield varieties, traditional varieties of rice grown by indigenous groups have great importance as a resource for future crop improvement. These local landraces represent an intermediate stage of domestication between a wild ancestor and modern varieties and they serve as reservoirs of genetic variation. Such genetic variation is influenced both by natural processes such as selection and drift, and by the agriculture practices of local farmers. How these processes interact to shape and change the population genetics of landrace rice is unknown. Here, we determine the population genetic structure of a single variety of landrace rice, Bue Chomee, cultivated by Karen people of Thailand. Microsatellite markers reveal high level of genetic variation despite predominant inbreeding in the crop. Bue Chomee rice shows slight but significant genetic differentiation among Karen villages. Moreover, genetically determined traits such as flowering time can vary significantly among villages. An unanticipated result was the overall pattern of genetic differentiation across villages which conforms to an isolation by distance model of differentiation. Isolation by distance is observed in natural plant species where the likelihood of gene flow is inversely related to distance. In Karen rice, gene flow is the result of farmers' seed sharing networks. Taken together, these data suggest that landrace rice is a dynamic genetic system that responds to evolutionary forces, both natural and those imposed by humans. PMID:19651617

  6. The structure and immunoreactivity of exopolysaccharide isolated from Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 151.

    PubMed

    Górska-Frączek, Sabina; Sandström, Corine; Kenne, Lennart; Paściak, Mariola; Brzozowska, Ewa; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-08-30

    The exopolysaccharide (EPS) structure from Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 151 isolated from the intestinal tract of mice was investigated. Sugar and methylation analyses together with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional (1)H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and (1)H,(13)C HSQC, HMBC experiments, revealed that the repeating unit of the EPS is the linear pentasaccharide: →6)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→3)-β-d-Galf-(1→3)-α-d-Glcp-(1→2)-β-d-Galf-(1→ The immunoreactivity of two structurally different exopolysaccharides isolated from L. johnsonii, 151 and 142 (Carbohydr. Res. 2010, 345, 108-114), was compared. Both EPSs differed in their reactivity with antisera. EPS from L. johnsonii 151 reacted with anti-Lactobacillus polyclonal sera against cells of five different strains, while EPS from L. johnsonii 142 was found to react only with its own antiserum. The broader specificity and higher reactivity of EPS from 151 strain than EPS from 142 strain were also observed with human sera. The physiological antibodies recognizing polysaccharide antigens were present in both adults and umbilical cord blood sera. A highly specific EPS 142 bearing strain was isolated from experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mice, while a strain with EPS 151 isolated from the intestinal tract of healthy mice is characterized by a broad immune reactivity common structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  8. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  9. Nature's Anti-Alzheimer's Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Galantamine from "Leucojum Aestivum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Catherine M.; Reilly, Ciara; Walsh, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that galantamine penetrates the blood-brain barrier has led to its clinical use in the treatment of choline-deficiency conditions in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of galantamine from "Leucojum aestivum". Isolation of the alkaloid constituents in "L. aestivum"…

  10. High Isolation Single-Pole Four-Throw RF MEMS Switch Based on Series-Shunt Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Khaira, Navjot

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design of single-pole four-throw (SP4T) RF-MEMS switch employing both capacitive and ohmic switches. It is designed on high-resistivity silicon substrate and has a compact area of 1.06 mm2. The series or ohmic switches have been designed to provide low insertion loss with good ohmic contact. The pull-in voltage for ohmic switches is calculated to be 7.19 V. Shunt or capacitive switches have been used in each port to improve the isolation for higher frequencies. The proposed SP4T switch provides excellent RF performances with isolation better than 70.64 dB and insertion loss less than 0.72 dB for X-band between the input port and each output port. PMID:24711730

  11. Genotyping single spore isolates of a Pasteuria penetrans population occurring in Florida using SNP-based markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida. Six single spore lines (ssp), 16ssp, 17ssp, 18ssp, 25ssp, 26ssp, and 30ssp were generated by infecting...

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of single-cell chromosome structure using recurrence plots.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Oda, Arisa; Ohta, Kunihiro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-10-11

    Single-cell analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) chromosome structure can reveal cell-to-cell variability in genome activities. Here, we propose to apply recurrence plots, a mathematical method of nonlinear time series analysis, to reconstruct the 3D chromosome structure of a single cell based on information of chromosomal contacts from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. This recurrence plot-based reconstruction (RPR) method enables rapid reconstruction of a unique structure in single cells, even from incomplete Hi-C information.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of single-cell chromosome structure using recurrence plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Oda, Arisa; Ohta, Kunihiro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Single-cell analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) chromosome structure can reveal cell-to-cell variability in genome activities. Here, we propose to apply recurrence plots, a mathematical method of nonlinear time series analysis, to reconstruct the 3D chromosome structure of a single cell based on information of chromosomal contacts from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. This recurrence plot-based reconstruction (RPR) method enables rapid reconstruction of a unique structure in single cells, even from incomplete Hi-C information.

  14. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@usu.ru; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.

    2013-12-09

    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation.

  15. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Chezganov, D. S.; Lobov, A. I.; Baturin, I. S.; Smirnov, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation.

  16. Zero-mode waveguide nanophotonic structures for single molecule characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Garrison M.; Han, Donghoon; Bohn, Paul W.

    2018-05-01

    Single-molecule characterization has become a crucial research tool in the chemical and life sciences, but limitations, such as limited concentration range, inability to control molecular distributions in space, and intrinsic phenomena, such as photobleaching, present significant challenges. Recent developments in non-classical optics and nanophotonics offer promising routes to mitigating these restrictions, such that even low affinity (K D ~ mM) biomolecular interactions can be studied. Here we introduce and review specific nanophotonic devices used to support single molecule studies. Optical nanostructures, such as zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs), are usually fabricated in thin gold or aluminum films and serve to confine the observation volume of optical microspectroscopy to attoliter to zeptoliter volumes. These simple nanostructures allow individual molecules to be isolated for optical and electrochemical analysis, even when the molecules of interest are present at high concentration (µM–mM) in bulk solution. Arrays of ZMWs may be combined with optical probes such as single molecule fluorescence, single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for distributed analysis of large numbers of single-molecule reactions or binding events in parallel. Furthermore, ZMWs may be used as multifunctional devices, for example by combining optical and electrochemical functions in a single discrete architecture to achieve electrochemical ZMWs. In this review, we will describe the optical properties, fabrication, and applications of ZMWs for single-molecule studies, as well as the integration of ZMWs into systems for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  17. Structures of plutonium coordination compounds: A review of past work, recent single crystal x-ray diffraction results, and what we're learning about plutonium coordination chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, M. P.; Matonic, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Scott, B. L.

    2000-07-01

    The compounds we have isolated and characterized include plutonium(III) and plutonium(IV) bound by ligands with a range of donor types and denticity (halide, phosphine oxide, hydroxamate, amine, sulfide) in a variety of coordination geometries. For example, we have obtained the first X-ray structure of Pu(III) complexed by a soft donor ligand. Using a "one pot" synthesis beginning with Pu metal strips and iodine in acetonitrile and adding trithiacyclononane we isolated the complex, PuI3(9S3)(MeCN)2 (Figure 1). On the other end of the coordination chemistry spectrum, we have obtained the first single crystal structure of the Pu(IV) hexachloro anion (Figure 2). Although this species has been used in plutonium purification via anion exchange chromatography for decades, the bond distances and exact structure were not known. We have also characterized the first plutonium-biomolecule complex, Pu(IV) bound by the siderophore desferrioxamine E.In this presentation we will review the preparation, structures, and importance of previously known coordination compounds and of those we have recently isolated. We will show the coordination chemistry of plutonium is rich and varied, well worth additional exploration.

  18. Strength of single-pole utility structures

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    This section presents three basic methods for deriving and documenting Rn as an LTL value along with the coefficient of variation (COVR) for single-pole structures. These include the following: 1. An empirical analysis based primarily on tests of full-sized poles. 2. A theoretical analysis of mechanics-based models used in...

  19. Clustered atom-replaced structure in single-crystal-like metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Mariko; Ishii, Hirotaka; Yokoe, Daisaku; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takeharu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi

    2018-06-01

    By means of metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD), we replaced and localized two or more atoms in a single-crystalline structure having almost perfect orientation. Thus, we created a new functional structure, namely, clustered atom-replaced structure (CARS), having single-crystal-like metal oxide. We replaced metals in the oxide with Sm and Lu and localized them. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results, where the Sm signal increases with the Lu signal in the single-crystalline structure, confirm evidence of CARS. We also form other CARS with three additional metals, including Pr. The valence number of Pr might change from 3+ to approximately 4+, thereby reducing the Pr–Ba distance. We directly observed the structure by a high-angle annular dark-field image, which provided further evidence of CARS. The key to establishing CARS is an equilibrium chemical reaction and a combination of additional larger and smaller unit cells to matrix cells. We made a new functional metal oxide with CARS and expect to realize CARS in other metal oxide structures in the future by using the above-mentioned process.

  20. Correlating the Structure, Optical Spectra, and Electrodynamics of Single Silver Nanocubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-27

    Correlating the Structure, Optical Spectra, and Electrodynamics of Single Silver Nanocubes Jeffrey M. McMahon,†,‡ Yingmin Wang,§ Leif J. Sherry...response and detailed structural information for a single nanoparticle, using a silver (Ag) nanocube as the example. By carefully incorporating the HRTEM...this work is to describe the relationship between the optical response, morphology, and dielectric environment of a single silver (Ag) cubic

  1. Label-free isolation of a prostate cancer cell among blood cells and the single-cell measurement of drug accumulation using an integrated microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Khamenehfar, A; Beischlag, T V; Russell, P J; Ling, M T P; Nelson, C; Li, P C H

    2015-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of patients with cancer. Although these cells are rare, they can provide useful information for chemotherapy. However, isolation of these rare cells from blood is technically challenging because they are small in numbers. An integrated microfluidic chip, dubbed CTC chip, was designed and fabricated for conducting tumor cell isolation. As CTCs usually show multidrug resistance (MDR), the effect of MDR inhibitors on chemotherapeutic drug accumulation in the isolated single tumor cell is measured. As a model of CTC isolation, human prostate cancer cells were mixed with mouse blood cells and the label-free isolation of the tumor cells was conducted based on cell size difference. The major advantages of the CTC chip are the ability for fast cell isolation, followed by multiple rounds of single-cell measurements, suggesting a potential assay for detecting the drug responses based on the liquid biopsy of cancer patients.

  2. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  3. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  4. Liquid scintillation counting for /sup 14/C uptake of single algal cells isolated from natural samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, R.B.; Seliger, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    Short term rates of /sup 14/C uptake for single cells and small numbers of isolated algal cells of five phytoplankton species from natural populations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. Regression analysis of uptake rates per cell for cells isolated from unialgal cultures of seven species of dinoflagellates, ranging in volume from ca. 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ ..mu..m/sup 3/, gave results identical to uptake rates per cell measured by conventional /sup 14/C techniques. Relative standard errors or regression coefficients ranged between 3 and 10%, indicating that for any species there was little variation in photosynthesis per cell.

  5. Analyses of the population structure in a global collection of Phytophthora nicotianae isolates inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mammella, Marco A; Martin, Frank N; Cacciola, Santa O; Coffey, Michael D; Faedda, Roberto; Schena, Leonardo

    2013-06-01

    Genetic variation within the heterothallic cosmopolitan plant pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae was determined in 96 isolates from a wide range of hosts and geographic locations by characterizing four mitochondrial (10% of the genome) and three nuclear loci. In all, 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (an average of 1 every 58 bp) and 313 sites with gaps representing 5,450 bases enabled the identification of 50 different multilocus mitochondrial haplotypes. Similarly, 24 SNPs (an average of 1 every 69 bp), with heterozygosity observed at each locus, were observed in three nuclear regions (hyp, scp, and β-tub) differentiating 40 multilocus nuclear genotypes. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed a high level of dispersal of isolates and an inconsistent geographic structuring of populations. However, a specific association was observed for host of origin and genetic grouping with both nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. In particular, the majority of citrus isolates from Italy, California, Florida, Syria, Albania, and the Philippines clustered in the same mitochondrial group and shared at least one nuclear allele. A similar association was also observed for isolates recovered from Nicotiana and Solanum spp. The present study suggests an important role of nursery populations in increasing genetic recombination within the species and the existence of extensive phenomena of migration of isolates that have been likely spread worldwide with infected plant material.

  6. Recent progress on the structure separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiaming; Yang, Dehua; Zeng, Xiang; Zhou, Naigen; Liu, Huaping

    2017-11-01

    The mass production of single-structure, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with identical properties is critical for their basic research and technical applications in the fields of electronics, optics and optoelectronics. Great efforts have been made to control the structures of SWCNTs since their discovery. Recently, the structure separation of SWCNTs has been making great progress. Various solution-sorting methods have been developed to achieve not only the separation of metallic and semiconducting species, but also the sorting of distinct (n, m) single-chirality species and even their enantiomers. This progress would dramatically accelerate the application of SWCNTs in the next-generation electronic devices. Here, we review the recent progress in the structure sorting of SWCNTs and outline the challenges and prospects of the structure separation of SWCNTs.

  7. Structural degradation of Thar lignite using MW1 fungal isolate: optimization studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological degradation of low-rank coals, particularly degradation mediated by fungi, can play an important role in helping us to utilize neglected lignite resources for both fuel and non-fuel applications. Fungal degradation of low-rank coals has already been investigated for the extraction of soil-conditioning agents and the substrates, which could be subjected to subsequent processing for the generation of alternative fuel options, like methane. However, to achieve an efficient degradation process, the fungal isolates must originate from an appropriate coal environment and the degradation process must be optimized. With this in mind, a representative sample from the Thar coalfield (the largest lignite resource of Pakistan) was treated with a fungal strain, MW1, which was previously isolated from a drilled core coal sample. The treatment caused the liberation of organic fractions from the structural matrix of coal. Fungal degradation was optimized, and it showed significant release of organics, with 0.1% glucose concentration and 1% coal loading ratio after an incubation time of 7 days. Analytical investigations revealed the release of complex organic moieties, pertaining to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and it also helped in predicting structural units present within structure of coal. Such isolates, with enhanced degradation capabilities, can definitely help in exploiting the chemical-feedstock-status of coal.

  8. Development of a micromanipulation method for single cell isolation of prokaryotes and its application in food safety.

    PubMed

    Hohnadel, Marisa; Maumy, Myriam; Chollet, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    For nearly a century, conventional microbiological methods have been standard practice for detecting and identifying pathogens in food. Nevertheless, the microbiological safety of food has improved and various rapid methods have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods. Alternative methods are expected to detect low cell numbers, since the presence in food of even a single cell of a pathogenic organism may be infectious. With respect to low population levels, the performance of a detection method is assessed by producing serial dilutions of a pure bacterial suspension to inoculate representative food matrices with highly diluted bacterial cells (fewer than 10 CFU/ml). The accuracy of data obtained by multiple dilution techniques is not certain and does not exclude some colonies arising from clumps of cells. Micromanipulation techniques to capture and isolate single cells from environmental samples were introduced more than 40 years ago. The main limitation of the current micromanipulation technique is still the low recovery rate for the growth of a single cell in culture medium. In this study, we describe a new single cell isolation method and demonstrate that it can be used successfully to grow various types of microorganism from picked individual cells. Tests with Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including cocci, rods, aerobes, anaerobes, yeasts and molds showed growth recovery rates from 60% to 100% after micromanipulation. We also highlight the use of our method to evaluate and challenge the detection limits of standard detection methods in food samples contaminated by a single cell of Salmonella enterica.

  9. Electrical characterization of single cells using polysilicon wire ion sensor in an isolation window.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Lin; Hsu, Po-Yen; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Jing-Jenn

    2011-10-01

    A polysilicon wire (PSW) sensor can detect the H(+) ion density (pH value) of the medium coated on its surface, and different cells produce different extracellular acidification and hence different H(+) ion densities. Based on this, we used a PSW sensor in combination with a mold-cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) isolation window to detect the adhesion, apoptosis and extracellular acidification of single normal cells and single cancer cells. Single living human normal cells WI38, MRC5, and BEAS-2B as well as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells A549, H1299, and CH27 were cultivated separately inside the isolation window. The current flowing through the PSW channel was measured. From the PSW channel current change as a function of time, we determined the cell adhesion time by observing the time required for the current change to saturate, since a stable extracellular ion density was established after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. The apoptosis of cells can also be determined when the channel current change drops to zero. We found that all the NSCLC cells had a higher channel current change and hence a lower pH value than the normal cells anytime after they were seeded. The corresponding average pH values were 5.86 for A549, 6.00 for H1299, 6.20 for CH27, 6.90 for BEAS-2B, 6.96for MRC5, and 7.02 for WI38, respectively, after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. Our results show that NSCLC cells have a stronger cell-substrate adhesion and a higher extracellular acidification rate than normal cells.

  10. FINE STRUCTURE OF CELLS ISOLATED FROM ADULT MOUSE LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M. N.; Simpson, F. O.

    1962-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated cells in various media were prepared from mouse liver which had been perfused via the portal vein with a buffered medium containing 0.40 M sucrose, and the cells were fixed with osmium tetroxide. Their fine structure was compared with that of cells from perfused and unperfused intact liver. Perfusion brought about some separation of the cells with little or no damage to cell membranes. When cells were dispersed in 0.40 M sucrose medium the plasma membranes partially broke down, and this disintegration was increased by transfer of the cells to media of lower osmolarity. This is presumed to account for the loss of permeability barriers which occurs in isolated liver cells. The mitochondria in cells of perfused liver and in isolated cells remained elongated, but the layers of many mitochondrial cristae became separated by clear spaces. When cells were transferred to a medium containing 0.20 M sucrose, the mitochondria swelled and became spherical, often with displacement of the swollen cristae to the periphery. In a medium containing 0.06 M sucrose and 0.08 M potassium chloride the outer chamber of many mitochondria became swollen with displacement of the mitochondrial body to one side to give a crescent-shaped appearance. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are discussed in relation to the metabolic activity of isolated liver cells. PMID:19866610

  11. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Terpene "[beta]"-Thujone from Cedar Leaf Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    Western red cedar leaf affords an essential oil characterized by high thujone content. Students in an advanced organic chemistry lab course isolate a single thujone diastereoisomer from commercially available cedar leaf oil. Treatment of crude oil, containing roughly 70% thujone, predominately as [alpha]-thujone (6.5:1), with ethanolic sodium…

  12. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  13. Polysaccharides in Lentinus edodes: isolation, structure, immunomodulating activity and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yan, Huidan; Tang, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    Lentinus edodes has been valued as edible and medical resources. Polysaccharides have been known to be the most potent antitumor and immunomodulating substance in Lentinus edodes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the polysaccharides isolated from Lentinus edodes, including extraction and purification methods, chemical structure and chain conformation, the effects on innate and adaptive immunity and their mechanism, relationship between structure and function, and the future prospects.

  14. Detection and isolation of rare cells by 2-step enrichment high-speed flow cytometry/cell sorting and single cell LEAP laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, M. D.; Leary, James F.

    2011-02-01

    The clonal isolation of rare cells, especially cancer and stem cells, in a population is important to the development of improved medical treatment. We have demonstrated that the Laser-Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP, Cyntellect Inc., San Diego, CA) instrument can be used to efficiently produce single cell clones by photoablative dilution. Additionally, we have also shown that cells present at low frequencies can be cloned by photoablative dilution after they are pre-enriched by flow cytometry based cell sorting. Circulating tumor cells were modeled by spiking isolated peripheral blood cells with cells from the lung carcinoma cell line A549. Flow cytometry based cell sorting was used to perform an enrichment sort of A549 cells directly into a 384 well plate. Photoablative dilution was performed with the LEAPTM instrument to remove any contaminating cells, and clonally isolate 1 side population cell per well. We were able to isolate and grow single clones of side population cells using this method at greater than 90% efficiency. We have developed a 2 step method that is able to perform the clonal isolation of rare cells based on a medically relevant functional phenotype.

  15. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils.

    PubMed

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S; Whitman, Richard L; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2012-02-15

    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  16. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  17. The structure of some cytoplasmic components of plant cells in relation to the biochemical properties of isolated particles.

    PubMed

    HODGE, A J; MARTIN, E M; MORTON, R K

    1957-01-25

    1. Electron micrographs of thin sections of material fixed with buffered osmium tetroxide have been used for comparison of the fine structure of isolated cytoplasmic particles from silver beet petioles and roots of germinating wheat with that of the cytoplasm of the intact cells. 2. Mitochondria of wheat roots have an external double membrane and poorly oriented internal double membranes. As compared with the structures seen in situ, the isolated mitochondria showed evidence of some disorganisation of the fine internal structure, probably due to osmotic effects. The possible influence of such changes on the enzymic properties of the isolated mitochondria is discussed. 3. The isolated plant microsomes are mainly spherical vesicular structures consisting of (a) an outer membrane enclosing (b) either an homogeneous slightly dense material (wheat root microsomes) or some granular dense material (silver beet microsomes) and (c) small dense particles, mostly associated with the vesicle membranes. 4. The cytoplasm of the wheat root cells does not contain any structures similar to the isolated microsomes but has a very dense reticular network, consisting of membranes with associated small dense particles, here called the endoplasmic reticulum. The observations indicate that the isolated microsomes arise mainly by rupture and transformation of the membranes of this structure. The effects of such extensive changes in the lipoprotein membranes on the enzymic activities of the endoplasmic reticulum, as studied in isolated microsomes, is discussed. 5. Meristematic wheat root cells contain structures which consist of smooth membranes with associated vacuoles and are similar to the Golgi zones of animal cells. The membranes of these zones probably contribute to the microsomal fraction under the conditions of preparation used for the enzymic and chemical studies previously reported.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF SOME CYTOPLASMIC COMPONENTS OF PLANT CELLS IN RELATION TO THE BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ISOLATED PARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, A. J.; Martin, E. M.; Morton, R. K.

    1957-01-01

    1. Electron micrographs of thin sections of material fixed with buffered osmium tetroxide have been used for comparison of the fine structure of isolated cytoplasmic particles from silver beet petioles and roots of germinating wheat with that of the cytoplasm of the intact cells. 2. Mitochondria of wheat roots have an external double membrane and poorly oriented internal double membranes. As compared with the structures seen in situ, the isolated mitochondria showed evidence of some disorganisation of the fine internal structure, probably due to osmotic effects. The possible influence of such changes on the enzymic properties of the isolated mitochondria is discussed. 3. The isolated plant microsomes are mainly spherical vesicular structures consisting of (a) an outer membrane enclosing (b) either an homogeneous slightly dense material (wheat root microsomes) or some granular dense material (silver beet microsomes) and (c) small dense particles, mostly associated with the vesicle membranes. 4. The cytoplasm of the wheat root cells does not contain any structures similar to the isolated microsomes but has a very dense reticular network, consisting of membranes with associated small dense particles, here called the endoplasmic reticulum. The observations indicate that the isolated microsomes arise mainly by rupture and transformation of the membranes of this structure. The effects of such extensive changes in the lipoprotein membranes on the enzymic activities of the endoplasmic reticulum, as studied in isolated microsomes, is discussed. 5. Meristematic wheat root cells contain structures which consist of smooth membranes with associated vacuoles and are similar to the Golgi zones of animal cells. The membranes of these zones probably contribute to the microsomal fraction under the conditions of preparation used for the enzymic and chemical studies previously reported. PMID:13416311

  19. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dry-growth of silver single-crystal nanowires from porous Ag structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuantong, E-mail: chenchuantong@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagao, Shijo; Jiu, Jinting

    A fabrication method of single crystal Ag nanowires in large scale is introduced without any chemical synthesis in wet processes, which usually generates fivefold twinned nanowires of fcc metals. Dense single-crystal nanowires grow on a mechanically polished surface of micro-porous Ag structure, which is created from Ag micro-particles. The diameter and the length of the nanowires can be controlled simply by changing the temperature and the time of the heating during the nanowire growth in air. Unique growth mechanism is described in detail, based on stress-induced migration accelerated by the micro-porous structure where the origin of Ag nanowires growth ismore » incubated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis on the single crystal nanowires is also presented. This simple method offered an alternative preparation for metallic nanowires, especially with the single crystal structure in numerous applications.« less

  1. The Composition and Structure of Biofilms Developed by Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from Cardiac Pacemaker Devices.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ken-Ichi; Nagahori, Ryuichi; Yamada, Satomi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Sato, Chikara; Sato, Mari; Iwase, Tadayuki; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the biofilm formation mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes by analyzing the components and structure of the biofilms. P. acnes strains were isolated from the surface of explanted cardiac pacemaker devices that exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Culture tests using a simple stamp culture method (pressing pacemakers against the surface of agar plates) revealed frequent P. acnes colonization on the surface of cardiac pacemaker devices. P . acnes was isolated from 7/31 devices, and the isolates were categorized by multilocus sequence typing into five different sequence types (STs): ST4 (JK18.2), ST53 (JK17.1), ST69 (JK12.2 and JK13.1), ST124 (JK5.3), ST125 (JK6.2), and unknown ST (JK19.3). An in vitro biofilm formation assay using microtiter plates demonstrated that 5/7 isolates formed biofilms. Inhibitory effects of DNase I and proteinase K on biofilm formation varied among isolates. In contrast, dispersin B showed no inhibitory activity against all isolates. Three-dimensional live/dead imaging of P. acnes biofilms with different biochemical properties using confocal laser microscopy demonstrated different distributions and proportions of living and dead cells. Additionally, it was suggested that extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a role in the formation of biofilms containing living cells. Ultrastructural analysis of P. acnes biofilms using a transmission electron microscope and atmospheric scanning electron microscope revealed leakage of cytoplasmic components along with cell lysis and fibrous structures of eDNA connecting cells. In conclusion, the biochemical properties and structures of the biofilms differed among P. acnes isolates. These findings may provide clues for establishing countermeasures against biofilm-associated infection by P. acnes .

  2. SIDR: simultaneous isolation and parallel sequencing of genomic DNA and total RNA from single cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Joung, Je-Gun; Son, Dae-Soon; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Jo, Areum; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Moon, Hui-Sung; Yoo, Chang Eun; Chung, Woosung; Eum, Hye Hyeon; Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Hong Kwan; Lee, Jeong Eon; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Hae-Ock; Park, Donghyun; Park, Woong-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous sequencing of the genome and transcriptome at the single-cell level is a powerful tool for characterizing genomic and transcriptomic variation and revealing correlative relationships. However, it remains technically challenging to analyze both the genome and transcriptome in the same cell. Here, we report a novel method for simultaneous isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA (SIDR) from single cells, achieving high recovery rates with minimal cross-contamination, as is crucial for accurate description and integration of the single-cell genome and transcriptome. For reliable and efficient separation of genomic DNA and total RNA from single cells, the method uses hypotonic lysis to preserve nuclear lamina integrity and subsequently captures the cell lysate using antibody-conjugated magnetic microbeads. Evaluating the performance of this method using real-time PCR demonstrated that it efficiently recovered genomic DNA and total RNA. Thorough data quality assessments showed that DNA and RNA simultaneously fractionated by the SIDR method were suitable for genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis at the single-cell level. The integration of single-cell genome and transcriptome sequencing by SIDR (SIDR-seq) showed that genetic alterations, such as copy-number and single-nucleotide variations, were more accurately captured by single-cell SIDR-seq compared with conventional single-cell RNA-seq, although copy-number variations positively correlated with the corresponding gene expression levels. These results suggest that SIDR-seq is potentially a powerful tool to reveal genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic information inferred from gene expression patterns at the single-cell level. © 2018 Han et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. SIDR: simultaneous isolation and parallel sequencing of genomic DNA and total RNA from single cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Joung, Je-Gun; Son, Dae-Soon; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Jo, Areum; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Moon, Hui-Sung; Yoo, Chang Eun; Chung, Woosung; Eum, Hye Hyeon; Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Hong Kwan; Lee, Jeong Eon; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Hae-Ock; Park, Donghyun; Park, Woong-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous sequencing of the genome and transcriptome at the single-cell level is a powerful tool for characterizing genomic and transcriptomic variation and revealing correlative relationships. However, it remains technically challenging to analyze both the genome and transcriptome in the same cell. Here, we report a novel method for simultaneous isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA (SIDR) from single cells, achieving high recovery rates with minimal cross-contamination, as is crucial for accurate description and integration of the single-cell genome and transcriptome. For reliable and efficient separation of genomic DNA and total RNA from single cells, the method uses hypotonic lysis to preserve nuclear lamina integrity and subsequently captures the cell lysate using antibody-conjugated magnetic microbeads. Evaluating the performance of this method using real-time PCR demonstrated that it efficiently recovered genomic DNA and total RNA. Thorough data quality assessments showed that DNA and RNA simultaneously fractionated by the SIDR method were suitable for genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis at the single-cell level. The integration of single-cell genome and transcriptome sequencing by SIDR (SIDR-seq) showed that genetic alterations, such as copy-number and single-nucleotide variations, were more accurately captured by single-cell SIDR-seq compared with conventional single-cell RNA-seq, although copy-number variations positively correlated with the corresponding gene expression levels. These results suggest that SIDR-seq is potentially a powerful tool to reveal genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic information inferred from gene expression patterns at the single-cell level. PMID:29208629

  4. The phylogenetic structure of plant-pollinator networks increases with habitat size and isolation.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Marcelo A; Gleiser, Gabriela; Sabatino, Malena; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Similarity among species in traits related to ecological interactions is frequently associated with common ancestry. Thus, closely related species usually interact with ecologically similar partners, which can be reinforced by diverse co-evolutionary processes. The effect of habitat fragmentation on the phylogenetic signal in interspecific interactions and correspondence between plant and animal phylogenies is, however, unknown. Here, we address to what extent phylogenetic signal and co-phylogenetic congruence of plant-animal interactions depend on habitat size and isolation by analysing the phylogenetic structure of 12 pollination webs from isolated Pampean hills. Phylogenetic signal in interspecific interactions differed among webs, being stronger for flower-visiting insects than plants. Phylogenetic signal and overall co-phylogenetic congruence increased independently with hill size and isolation. We propose that habitat fragmentation would erode the phylogenetic structure of interaction webs. A decrease in phylogenetic signal and co-phylogenetic correspondence in plant-pollinator interactions could be associated with less reliable mutualism and erratic co-evolutionary change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Effect of a Near Fault on the Seismic Response of a Base-Isolated Structure with a Soft Storey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athamnia, B.; Ounis, A.; Abdeddaim, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on the soft-storey behavior of RC structures with lead core rubber bearing (LRB) isolation systems under near and far-fault motions. Under near-fault ground motions, seismic isolation devices might perform poorly because of large isolator displacements caused by large velocity and displacement pulses associated with such strong motions. In this study, four different structural models have been designed to study the effect of soft-storey behavior under near-fault and far-fault motions. The seismic analysis for isolated reinforced concrete buildings is carried out using a nonlinear time history analysis method. Inter-story drifts, absolute acceleration, displacement, base shear forces, hysteretic loops and the distribution of plastic hinges are examined as a result of the analysis. These results show that the performance of a base isolated RC structure is more affected by increasing the height of a story under nearfault motion than under far-fault motion.

  6. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Cembranoids from a Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sarcophyton stellatum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Chen, Yi-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Yao; Tseng, Yen-Ju; Lin, Chi-Chen; Dai, Chang-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

    2018-06-14

    Six new polyoxygenated cembrane-based diterpenoids, stellatumolides A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 ), stellatumonins A and B ( 4 and 5 ), and stellatumonone ( 6 ), were isolated together with ten known related compounds ( 7 ⁻ 16 ) from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of soft coral Sarcophyton stellatum . The structures of the new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and data comparison with related structures. Compounds 8 and 14 were isolated from a natural source for the first time. The isolated metabolites were shown to be not cytotoxic against a limited panel of cancer cells. Compound 9 showed anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the expression of proinflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells.

  7. Magnetic cooling at a single molecule level: a spectroscopic investigation of isolated molecules on a surface.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Valdis; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Biagi, Roberto; del Pennino, Umberto; Dotti, Gianluca; Otero, Edwige; Choueikani, Fadi; Blagg, Robin J; McInnes, Eric J L; Affronte, Marco

    2013-05-28

    A sub-monolayer distribution of isolated molecular Fe14 (bta)6 nanomagnets is deposited intact on a Au(111) surface and investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The entropy variation with respect to the applied magnetic field is extracted from the magnetization curves and evidences high magnetocaloric values at the single molecule level. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of drying methods on the structure, thermo and functional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Feyzi, Samira; Varidi, Mehdi; Zare, Fatemeh; Varidi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-03-01

    Different drying methods due to protein denaturation could alter the functional properties of proteins, as well as their structure. So, this study focused on the effect of different drying methods on amino acid content, thermo and functional properties, and protein structure of fenugreek protein isolate. Freeze and spray drying methods resulted in comparable protein solubility, dynamic surface and interfacial tensions, foaming and emulsifying properties except for emulsion stability. Vacuum oven drying promoted emulsion stability, surface hydrophobicity and viscosity of fenugreek protein isolate at the expanse of its protein solubility. Vacuum oven process caused a higher level of Maillard reaction followed by the spray drying process, which was confirmed by the lower amount of lysine content and less lightness, also more browning intensity. ΔH of fenugreek protein isolates was higher than soy protein isolate, which confirmed the presence of more ordered structures. Also, the bands which are attributed to the α-helix structures in the FTIR spectrum were in the shorter wave number region for freeze and spray dried fenugreek protein isolates that show more possibility of such structures. This research suggests that any drying method must be conducted in its gentle state in order to sustain native structure of proteins and promote their functionalities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Composition and Structure of Biofilms Developed by Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from Cardiac Pacemaker Devices

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Ken-ichi; Nagahori, Ryuichi; Yamada, Satomi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Sato, Chikara; Sato, Mari; Iwase, Tadayuki; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the biofilm formation mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes by analyzing the components and structure of the biofilms. P. acnes strains were isolated from the surface of explanted cardiac pacemaker devices that exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Culture tests using a simple stamp culture method (pressing pacemakers against the surface of agar plates) revealed frequent P. acnes colonization on the surface of cardiac pacemaker devices. P. acnes was isolated from 7/31 devices, and the isolates were categorized by multilocus sequence typing into five different sequence types (STs): ST4 (JK18.2), ST53 (JK17.1), ST69 (JK12.2 and JK13.1), ST124 (JK5.3), ST125 (JK6.2), and unknown ST (JK19.3). An in vitro biofilm formation assay using microtiter plates demonstrated that 5/7 isolates formed biofilms. Inhibitory effects of DNase I and proteinase K on biofilm formation varied among isolates. In contrast, dispersin B showed no inhibitory activity against all isolates. Three-dimensional live/dead imaging of P. acnes biofilms with different biochemical properties using confocal laser microscopy demonstrated different distributions and proportions of living and dead cells. Additionally, it was suggested that extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a role in the formation of biofilms containing living cells. Ultrastructural analysis of P. acnes biofilms using a transmission electron microscope and atmospheric scanning electron microscope revealed leakage of cytoplasmic components along with cell lysis and fibrous structures of eDNA connecting cells. In conclusion, the biochemical properties and structures of the biofilms differed among P. acnes isolates. These findings may provide clues for establishing countermeasures against biofilm-associated infection by P. acnes. PMID:29491850

  10. Single-Crystal Structure of a Covalent Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, YB; Su, J; Furukawa, H

    2013-11-06

    The crystal structure of a new covalent organic framework, termed COF-320, is determined by single-crystal 3D electron diffraction using the rotation electron diffraction (RED) method for data collection. The COF crystals are prepared by an imine condensation of tetra-(4-anilyl)methane and 4,4'-biphenyldialdehyde in 1,4-dioxane at 120 degrees C to produce a highly porous 9-fold interwoven diamond net. COF-320 exhibits permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 2400 m(2)/g and a methane total uptake of 15.0 wt % (176 cm(3)/cm(3)) at 25 degrees C and 80 bar. The successful determination of the structure of COF-320 directly from single-crystal samples is anmore » important advance in the development of COF chemistry.« less

  11. Enhanced Emission from Single Isolated Gold Quantum Dots Investigated Using Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abeyasinghe, Neranga; Kumar, Santosh; Sun, Kai; Mansfield, John F; Jin, Rongchao; Goodson, Theodore

    2016-12-21

    New approaches in molecular nanoscopy are greatly desired for interrogation of biological, organic, and inorganic objects with sizes below the diffraction limit. Our current work investigates emergent monolayer-protected gold quantum dots (nanoclusters, NCs) composed of 25 Au atoms by utilizing two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) at single NC concentrations. Here, we demonstrate an approach to synthesize and isolate single NCs on solid glass substrates. Subsequent investigation of the NCs using TPEF NSOM reveals that, even when they are separated by distances of several tens of nanometers, we can excite and interrogate single NCs individually. Interestingly, we observe an enhanced two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section for single Au 25 NCs that can be attributed to few-atom local field effects and to local field-induced microscopic cascading, indicating their potential for use in ultrasensitive sensing, disease diagnostics, cancer cell therapy, and molecular computers. Finally, we report room-temperature aperture-based TPEF NSOM imaging of these NCs for the first time at 30 nm point resolution, which is a ∼5-fold improvement compared to the previous best result for the same technique. This report unveils the unique combination of an unusually large TPA cross section and the high photostability of Au NCs to (non-destructively) investigate stable isolated single NCs using TPEF NSOM. This is the first reported optical study of monolayer-protected single quantum clusters, opening some very promising opportunities in spectroscopy of nanosized objects, bioimaging, ultrasensitive sensing, molecular computers, and high-density data storage.

  12. Genome sequences of thirty Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a single dairy farm and its associated off-site heifer raising facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-ye...

  13. Decoupling capabilities of split-loop resonator structure for 7 Tesla MRI surface array coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurshkainen, A.; Kurdjumov, S.; Simovski, C.; Glybovski, S.; Melchakova, I.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Raaijmakers, A.; Belov, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we studied electromagnetic properties of one-dimentional periodic structures composed of split-loop res-onators (SLRs) and investigated their capabilities in decoupling of two dipole antennas for full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two different finite structures comprising a single-SLR and a double-SLR constitutive elements were studied. Numerical simulations of the structures were performed to evaluate their decoupling capabilities. As it was demonstrated two dipole antennas equipped with either a single or a double-SLR structure exhibit high isolation even for an electrically short distance between the dipoles. Double-SLR structure while dramatically improving isolation of the dipoles keeps the field created by each of the decoupled dipoles comparable with one of a single dipole inside the target area.

  14. Development of the self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor of single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utegulov, B. B.; Utegulov, A. B.; Meiramova, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes the development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase ground fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. Development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. allows to effectively implement mathematical models of automatic change of protection settings. Single-phase earth fault protection devices.

  15. Structural consequences of metallothionein dimerization: solution structure of the isolated Cd4-alpha-domain and comparison with the holoprotein dimer.

    PubMed

    Ejnik, John W; Muñoz, Amalia; DeRose, Eugene; Shaw, C Frank; Petering, David H

    2003-07-22

    The NMR determination of the structure of Cd(7)-metallothionein was done previously using a relatively large protein concentration that favors dimer formation. The reactivity of the protein is also affected under this condition. To examine the influence of protein concentration on metallothionein conformation, the isolated Cd(4)-alpha-domain was prepared from rabbit metallothionein-2 (MT 2), and its three-dimensional structure was determined by heteronuclear, (1)H-(111)Cd, and homonuclear, (1)H-(1)H NMR, correlation experiments. The three-dimensional structure was refined using distance and angle constraints derived from these two-dimensional NMR data sets and a distance geometry/simulated annealing protocol. The backbone superposition of the alpha-domain from rabbit holoprotein Cd(7)-MT 2 and the isolated rabbit Cd(4)-alpha was measured at a RMSD of 2.0 A. Nevertheless, the conformations of the two Cd-thiolate clusters were distinctly different at two of the cadmium centers. In addition, solvent access to the sulfhydryl ligands of the isolated Cd(4)-alpha cluster was 130% larger due to this small change in cluster geometry. To probe whether these differences were an artifact of the structure calculation, the Cd(4)-alpha-domain structure in rabbit Cd(7)-MT 2 was redetermined, using the previously defined set of NOEs and the present calculation protocol. All calculations employed the same ionic radius for Cd(2+) and same cadmium-thiolate bond distance. The newly calculated structure matched the original with an RMSD of 1.24 A. It is hypothesized that differences in the two alpha-domain structures result from a perturbation of the holoprotein structure because of head-to-tail dimerization under the conditions of the NMR experiments.

  16. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single Molecule Stepping and Structural Dynamics of Myosin X

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yujie; Sato, Osamu; Ruhnow, Felix; Arsenault, Mark E.; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Goldman, Yale E.

    2010-01-01

    Myosin X is an unconventional myosin with puzzling motility properties. We studied the motility of dimerized myosin X using single molecule fluorescence techniques – polTIRF, FIONA, and Parallax to measure rotation angles and 3-dimensional position of the molecule during its walk. It was found that Myosin X steps processively in a hand-over-hand manner following a left-handed helical path along both single actin filaments and bundles. Its step size and velocity are smaller on actin bundles than individual filaments, suggesting myosin X often steps onto neighboring filaments in a bundle. The data suggest that a previously postulated single α-helical domain mechanically extends the 3-IQ motif lever arm and either the neck-tail hinge or the tail is flexible. These structural features, in conjunction with the membrane and microtubule binding domains, enable myosin X to perform multiple functions on varied actin structures in cells. PMID:20364131

  18. Single cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Yaffe, Eitan; Dean, Wendy; Laue, Ernest D.; Tanay, Amos; Fraser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale chromosome structure and spatial nuclear arrangement have been linked to control of gene expression and DNA replication and repair. Genomic techniques based on chromosome conformation capture assess contacts for millions of loci simultaneously, but do so by averaging chromosome conformations from millions of nuclei. Here we introduce single cell Hi-C, combined with genome-wide statistical analysis and structural modeling of single copy X chromosomes, to show that individual chromosomes maintain domain organisation at the megabase scale, but show variable cell-to-cell chromosome territory structures at larger scales. Despite this structural stochasticity, localisation of active gene domains to boundaries of territories is a hallmark of chromosomal conformation. Single cell Hi-C data bridge current gaps between genomics and microscopy studies of chromosomes, demonstrating how modular organisation underlies dynamic chromosome structure, and how this structure is probabilistically linked with genome activity patterns. PMID:24067610

  19. 4D visualization of embryonic, structural crystallization by single-pulse microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Barwick, Brett; Park, Hyun Soon; Baskin, J. Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2008-01-01

    In many physical and biological systems the transition from an amorphous to ordered native structure involves complex energy landscapes, and understanding such transformations requires not only their thermodynamics but also the structural dynamics during the process. Here, we extend our 4D visualization method with electron imaging to include the study of irreversible processes with a single pulse in the same ultrafast electron microscope (UEM) as used before in the single-electron mode for the study of reversible processes. With this augmentation, we report on the transformation of amorphous to crystalline structure with silicon as an example. A single heating pulse was used to initiate crystallization from the amorphous phase while a single packet of electrons imaged selectively in space the transformation as the structure continuously changes with time. From the evolution of crystallinity in real time and the changes in morphology, for nanosecond and femtosecond pulse heating, we describe two types of processes, one that occurs at early time and involves a nondiffusive motion and another that takes place on a longer time scale. Similar mechanisms of two distinct time scales may perhaps be important in biomolecular folding. PMID:18562291

  20. Spectroscopic Manifestation of Vibrationally-Mediated Structure Change in the Isolated Formate Monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Joanna K.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Gorlova, Olga; Gerardi, Helen; McCoy, Anne B.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The breadth of the OH stretching manifold observed in the IR for bulk water is commonly attributed to the thermal population of excited states and the presence of many configurations within the water network. Here, I use carboxylate species as a rigid framework to isolate a single water molecule in the gas phase and cold ion vibrational pre-dissociation spectroscopy to explore excited state contributions to bandwidth. The spectrum of the carboxylate monohydrate exhibits a signature series of peaks in the OH stretching region of this system, providing an archetypal model to study vibrationally adiabatic mode separation. Previous analysis of this behavior accounts for the extensive progression in a Franck-Condon formalism involving displaced vibrationally adiabatic potentials. In this talk I will challenge this prediction by using isotopic substation to systematically change the level structure within these potentials. This picture quantitatively accounts for the diffuse spectrum of this complex at elevated temperature providing a convenient spectroscopic reporter for the temperature of ions in a trap. E. M. Myshakin, K. D. Jordan, E. L. Sibert III, M. A. Johnson J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10138 (2003) W.H. Robertson, et al. J. Phys Chem. 107, 6527 (2003)

  1. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  2. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  3. Gallium arsenide single crystal solar cell structure and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A production method and structure for a thin-film GaAs crystal for a solar cell on a single-crystal silicon substrate (10) comprising the steps of growing a single-crystal interlayer (12) of material having a closer match in lattice and thermal expansion with single-crystal GaAs than the single-crystal silicon of the substrate, and epitaxially growing a single-crystal film (14) on the interlayer. The material of the interlayer may be germanium or graded germanium-silicon alloy, with low germanium content at the silicon substrate interface, and high germanium content at the upper surface. The surface of the interface layer (12) is annealed for recrystallization by a pulsed beam of energy (laser or electron) prior to growing the interlayer. The solar cell structure may be grown as a single-crystal n.sup.+ /p shallow homojunction film or as a p/n or n/p junction film. A Ga(Al)AS heteroface film may be grown over the GaAs film.

  4. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies. PMID:18478090

  5. Evaluation of a Modified Single-Enzyme Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique for Fingerprinting and Differentiating of Mycobacterium kansasii Type I Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gaafar, Ayman; Josebe Unzaga, M.; Cisterna, Ramón; Clavo, Felicitas Elena; Urra, Elena; Ayarza, Rafael; Martín, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of single-enzyme amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the subtyping of Mycobacterium kansasii type I isolates was evaluated. This simplified technique classified 253 type I strains into 12 distinct clusters. The discriminating power of this technique was high, and the technique easily distinguished between the epidemiologically unrelated control strains and our clinical isolates. Overall, the technique was relatively rapid and technically simple, yet it gave reproducible and discriminatory results. This technique provides a powerful typing tool which may be helpful in solving many questions concerning the reservoirs, pathogenicities, and modes of transmission of these isolates. PMID:12904399

  6. Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Arigong, Bayaner; Ren, Han; Zhou, Mi; Shao, Jin; Lu, Meng; Chai, Yang; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang

    2014-01-01

    Novel graphene-based tunable plasmonic metamaterials featuring single and multiple transparency windows are numerically studied in this paper. The designed structures consist of a graphene layer perforated with quadrupole slot structures and dolmen-like slot structures printed on a substrate. Specifically, the graphene-based quadrupole slot structure can realize a single transparency window, which is achieved without breaking the structure symmetry. Further investigations have shown that the single transparency window in the proposed quadrupole slot structure is more likely originated from the quantum effect of Autler-Townes splitting. Then, by introducing a dipole slot to the quadrupole slot structure to form the dolmen-like slot structure, an additional transmission dip could occur in the transmission spectrum, thus, a multiple-transparency-window system can be achieved (for the first time for graphene-based devices). More importantly, the transparency windows for both the quadrupole slot and the dolmen-like slot structures can be dynamically controlled over a broad frequency range by varying the Fermi energy levels of the graphene layer (through electrostatic gating). The proposed slot metamaterial structures with tunable single and multiple transparency windows could find potential applications in many areas such as multiple-wavelength slow-light devices, active plasmonic switching, and optical sensing. PMID:25146672

  7. Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Arigong, Bayaner; Ren, Han; Zhou, Mi; Shao, Jin; Lu, Meng; Chai, Yang; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang

    2014-08-22

    Novel graphene-based tunable plasmonic metamaterials featuring single and multiple transparency windows are numerically studied in this paper. The designed structures consist of a graphene layer perforated with quadrupole slot structures and dolmen-like slot structures printed on a substrate. Specifically, the graphene-based quadrupole slot structure can realize a single transparency window, which is achieved without breaking the structure symmetry. Further investigations have shown that the single transparency window in the proposed quadrupole slot structure is more likely originated from the quantum effect of Autler-Townes splitting. Then, by introducing a dipole slot to the quadrupole slot structure to form the dolmen-like slot structure, an additional transmission dip could occur in the transmission spectrum, thus, a multiple-transparency-window system can be achieved (for the first time for graphene-based devices). More importantly, the transparency windows for both the quadrupole slot and the dolmen-like slot structures can be dynamically controlled over a broad frequency range by varying the Fermi energy levels of the graphene layer (through electrostatic gating). The proposed slot metamaterial structures with tunable single and multiple transparency windows could find potential applications in many areas such as multiple-wavelength slow-light devices, active plasmonic switching, and optical sensing.

  8. From isolated light-harvesting complexes to the thylakoid membrane: a single-molecule perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J. Michael; Malý, Pavel; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.; Grondelle, Rienk van

    2018-01-01

    The conversion of solar radiation to chemical energy in plants and green algae takes place in the thylakoid membrane. This amphiphilic environment hosts a complex arrangement of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes that absorb light and transfer the excitation energy to photochemically active reaction centers. This efficient light-harvesting capacity is moreover tightly regulated by a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching to avoid the stress-induced destruction of the catalytic reaction center. In this review we provide an overview of single-molecule fluorescence measurements on plant light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of varying sizes with the aim of bridging the gap between the smallest isolated complexes, which have been well-characterized, and the native photosystem. The smallest complexes contain only a small number (10-20) of interacting chlorophylls, while the native photosystem contains dozens of protein subunits and many hundreds of connected pigments. We discuss the functional significance of conformational dynamics, the lipid environment, and the structural arrangement of this fascinating nano-machinery. The described experimental results can be utilized to build mathematical-physical models in a bottom-up approach, which can then be tested on larger in vivo systems. The results also clearly showcase the general property of biological systems to utilize the same system properties for different purposes. In this case it is the regulated conformational flexibility that allows LHCs to switch between efficient light-harvesting and a photoprotective function.

  9. The properties of single cones isolated from the tiger salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Attwell, David; Werblin, Frank S.; Wilson, Martin

    1982-01-01

    1. The properties of isolated single cones were studied using the voltage-clamp technique, with two micro-electrodes inserted under visual control. 2. Single cones had input resistances, when impaled with two electrodes, of up to 270 MΩ. This is probably lower than the true membrane resistance, because of damage by the impaling electrodes. The cone capacitance was about 85 pF. 3. The cone membrane contains a time-dependent current, IB, controlled by voltage, and a separate photosensitive current. 4. The gated current, IB, is an inward current with a reversal potential around -25 mV. It is activated by hyperpolarization over the range -30 to -80 mV, and at constant voltage obeys first order (exponential) kinetics. The gating time constant is typically 50 ms at the resting potential of -45 mV, rises to 170 ms at -70 mV, and decreases for further hyperpolarization. 5. The spectral sensitivity curve of the cone light response peaks at 620 nm wave-length, and is narrower than the nomogram for vitamin A2-based pigments. The light responses of isolated cones are spectrally univariant. 6. Voltage-clamped photocurrents were recorded at various membrane potentials, for light steps of various intensities. The photocurrent reversed at around -8 mV. The time course of the photocurrent, for a given intensity, was approximately independent of voltage (although its magnitude was voltage-dependent). The shape of the peak current—voltage relation of the light-sensitive current was independent of light intensity (although its magnitude was intensity-dependent). 7. These results can be explained if: (a) light simply changes the number of photosensitive channels open, without altering the properties of an open channel; (b) the reactions controlling the production of internal transmitter, the binding of internal transmitter to the photosensitive channels, and the closing and opening of the channels are unaffected by the electric field in the cone membrane, even though at least some

  10. Isolation and characterization of naturally occurring hairpin structures in single-stranded DNA of coliphage M13

    SciTech Connect

    Niyogi, S.K.; Mitra, S.

    With precise conditions of digestion with single-strand-specific nucleases, namely, endonuclease S1 of Aspergillus oryzae and exonuclease I of Escherichia coli, nuclease-resistant DNA cores can be obtained reproducibly from single-stranded M13 DNA. The DNA cores are composed almost exclusively of two sizes (60 and 44 nucleotides long). These have high (G + C)-contents relative to that of intact M13 DNA, and arise from restricted regions of the M13 genome. The resistance of these fragments to single-strand-specific nucleases and their nondenaturability strongly suggest the presence of double-stranded segments in these core pieces. That the core pieces are only partially double-stranded is shownmore » by their lack of complete base complementarity and their pattern of elution from hydroxyapatite.« less

  11. Dichotomous Results Using Polarized Illumination with Single Chip Color Cameras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    response is both strain and chemically induced at an interior laminate layer interface. The size and location of the pattern are crucial and not the...the ideal for making photoelastic stress measurements, which were not required for this sample. ...............7 Figure 8. A single laminate as seen...7 Figure 9. The observed response was isolated to a single layer of the laminate structure. The analyzer is in front of the base

  12. Isolated fallopian tube torsion in pediatric and adolescent females: a retrospective review of 15 cases at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rachel K; Damle, Lauren F; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2013-06-01

    To identify and review cases of isolated fallopian tube torsion (FTT) at our institution to further characterize diagnosis and management. Retrospective review. Tertiary care medical center. Case series of pediatric and adolescent females, <21 years old, with operatively diagnosed isolated fallopian tube torsion from our institution. None. Isolated fallopian tube torsion. Fifteen cases of isolated fallopian tube torsion were identified based on intraoperative diagnosis. Patient ages ranged from 8-15 years old, mean age of 12. Fourteen patients (93%) presented with abdominal pain, 8 (53%) localized to the side of associated torsion. Ultrasonography reports described a tubular structure in 4 patients and an associated ovarian or paraovarian cyst in eleven patients. Suspicion of fallopian tube torsion was only described for those patients with a tubular structure described on ultrasonography report. Intraoperatively, 7 patients (47%) were found to have no associated pathology and 8 (53%) were found to have associated cyst or hydrosalpinx. Eight (53%) patients underwent salipingectomy and 7 (47%) underwent reversal of torsion with drainage of associated cyst or cystectomy. Isolated fallopian tube torsion is a rare condition that seems to occur in younger adolescents. Vague clinical presentation contributes to low preoperative suspicion. Preoperative suspicion may be increased based on radiographic findings of an enlarged tubular structure or an adjacent normal ovary. Management may be considered nonemergent and salpingectomy is controversial. Long-term fertility outcomes must be further assessed for more definitive decisions regarding surgical management. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid level sensor based on fiber ring laser with single-mode-offset coreless-single-mode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zixiao; Tan, Zhongwei; Xing, Rui; Liang, Linjun; Qi, Yanhui; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel reflective liquid level sensor based on single-mode-offset coreless-single-mode (SOCS) fiber structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Theory analyses and experimental results indicate that offset fusion can remarkably enhance the sensitivity of sensor. Ending-reflecting structure makes the sensor compact and easy to deploy. Meanwhile, we propose a laser sensing system, and the SOCS structure is used as sensing head and laser filter simultaneously. Experimental results show that laser spectra with high optical signal-to-noise ratio (-30 dB) and narrow 3-dB bandwidth (<0.15 nm) are achieved. Various liquids with different indices are used for liquid level sensing, besides, the refractive index sensitivity is also investigated. In measurement range, the sensing system presents steady laser output.

  14. Do Staphylococcus epidermidis Genetic Clusters Predict Isolation Sources?

    PubMed Central

    Tolo, Isaiah; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Fischer, Rebecca S. B.; Brown, Eric L.; Gray, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a ubiquitous colonizer of human skin and a common cause of medical device-associated infections. The extent to which the population genetic structure of S. epidermidis distinguishes commensal from pathogenic isolates is unclear. Previously, Bayesian clustering of 437 multilocus sequence types (STs) in the international database revealed a population structure of six genetic clusters (GCs) that may reflect the species' ecology. Here, we first verified the presence of six GCs, including two (GC3 and GC5) with significant admixture, in an updated database of 578 STs. Next, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was developed that accurately assigned 545 (94%) of 578 STs to GCs. Finally, the hypothesis that GCs could distinguish isolation sources was tested by SNP typing and GC assignment of 154 isolates from hospital patients with bacteremia and those with blood culture contaminants and from nonhospital carriage. GC5 was isolated almost exclusively from hospital sources. GC1 and GC6 were isolated from all sources but were overrepresented in isolates from nonhospital and infection sources, respectively. GC2, GC3, and GC4 were relatively rare in this collection. No association was detected between fdh-positive isolates (GC2 and GC4) and nonhospital sources. Using a machine learning algorithm, GCs predicted hospital and nonhospital sources with 80% accuracy and predicted infection and contaminant sources with 45% accuracy, which was comparable to the results seen with a combination of five genetic markers (icaA, IS256, sesD [bhp], mecA, and arginine catabolic mobile element [ACME]). Thus, analysis of population structure with subgenomic data shows the distinction of hospital and nonhospital sources and the near-inseparability of sources within a hospital. PMID:27076664

  15. Experimental study on wake structure of single rising clean bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ayaka; Takedomi, Yuta; Shirota, Minori; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Wake structure of clean bubble rising in quiescent silicone oil solution of photochromic dye is experimentally studied. A single bubble is generated, immediately after UV sheet light illuminates the part of the liquid just above the bubble generation nozzle in order to activate photochromic dye. Once the bubble passes across the colored part of the liquid, the bubble is accompanied by some portion of activated dye tracers; hence the flow structure in the rear of the single rising bubble is visualized. We capture stereo images of both wake structure and bubble motion. We study how wake structure changes with the increase in bubble size. We observe the stable axisymmetric wake structure, which is called `standing eddy' when bubble size is relatively small, and then wake structure becomes unstable and starts to oscillate with the increase in bubble size. With further increase in bubble size, a pair of streamwise vortices, which is called `double thread', is observed. We discuss in detail this transition from the steady wake to unsteady wake structure, especially double thread wake development and hairpin vortices shedding, in relation to the transition from rectilinear to spiral or zigzag bubble motions.

  16. Isolation, enzyme-bound structure and antibacterial activity of platencin A[subscript 1] from Streptomyces platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sheo B.; Ondeyka, John G.; Herath, Kithsiri B.

    Natural products continue to serve as one of the best sources for discovery of antibacterial agents as exemplified by the recent discoveries of platensimycin and platencin. Chemical modifications as well as discovery of congeners are the main sources for gaining knowledge of structure-activity relationship of natural products. Screening for congeners in the extracts of the fermentation broths of Streptomyces platensis led to the isolation of platencin A{sub 1}, a hydroxy congener of platencin. The hydroxylation of the tricyclic enone moiety negatively affected the antibacterial activity and appears to be consistent with the hydrophobic binding pocket of the FabF. Isolation, structure,more » enzyme-bound structure and activity of platencin A{sub 1} and two other congeners have been described.« less

  17. Structural analysis of the alpha-D-glucan produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereal associated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are well known for homopolymeric exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Herein, the structure of an EPS isolated from sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25 was determined. A modified BHI medium was used for production of EPS-E25 in order to eliminate po...

  18. Structure of complex cell wall polysaccharides isolated from Trichoderma and Hypocrea species.

    PubMed

    Prieto, A; Leal, J A; Poveda, A; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Gómez-Miranda, B; Domenech, J; Ahrazem, O; Bernabé, M

    1997-11-28

    The structure of fungal polysaccharides isolated from the cell wall of Trichoderma reesei, T. koningii, and Hypocrea psychrophila, have been investigated by means of chemical analyses and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharides have an irregular structure, idealized as follows: [formula: see text] The proportions of the different side chains vary from a species to another, being n above some three times larger in H. psychrophila than in T. reesei or T. koningii.

  19. Isolated, well-defined organovanadium(iii) on silica: Single-site catalyst for hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes

    DOE PAGES

    Sohn, H.; Camacho-Bunquin, J.; Langeslay, R. R.; ...

    2017-05-03

    Well-defined, isolated, single-site organovanadium(III) catalyst on SiO 2 [(SiO 2)V(Mes)(THF)] were synthesized via surface organometallic chemistry, and fully characterized using a combination of analytical and spectroscopic techniques (EA, ICP, 1H NMR, TGA-MS, EPR, XPS, DR-UV/Vis, UV-Raman, DRIFTS, XAS). The catalysts exhibit unprecedented reactivity in liquid- and gas-phase alkene/alkyne hydrogenation. Catalyst poisoning experiments revealed that 100% of the V sites are active for hydrogenation.

  20. Structural study of the exopolysaccharide produced by a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, P; Bosco, M; Picotti, F; Impallomeni, G; Leitão, J H; Richau, J A; Sá-Correia, I

    2000-07-14

    The primary structure of the exopolysaccharide produced by a clinical isolate of the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia was studied by means of methylation analysis, selective degradation, NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry. The resulting data showed that the parent repeating unit of the exopolysaccharide is a highly branched heptasaccharide with the following structure: Two acetyl groups are present per repeating unit, as noncarbohydrate substituents. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Nature's Migraine Treatment: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Parthenolide from "Tanacetum parthenium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Emma L.; Ashe, Siobhan; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to provide students with the essential skills and knowledge required to perform the extraction, isolation, and structural elucidation of parthenolide from "Tanacetum parthenium" or feverfew. Students are introduced to a background of the traditional medicinal uses of parthenolide, while more modern applications of…

  2. Active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures for a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danh, Le Thanh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures (NSS) for a vehicle seat in low excitation frequencies is proposed, which is named as an active system with NSS. Here, the negative stiffness structures (NSS) are used to minimize the vibratory attraction of a vehicle seat. Owing to the time-varying and nonlinear behavior of the proposed system, it is not easy to build an accurate dynamic for model-based controller design. Thus, an adaptive intelligent backstepping controller (AIBC) is designed to manage the system operation for high-isolation effectiveness. In addition, an auxiliary control effort is also introduced to eliminate the effect of the unpredictable perturbations. Moreover, a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model is utilized to estimate the optimal gain of the auxiliary control effort. Final control input and the adaptive law for updating coefficients of the approximate series can be obtained step by step using a suitable Lyapunov function. Afterward, the isolation performance of the proposed system is assessed experimentally. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed controller for the proposed system is also compared with that of the traditional backstepping controller (BC). The experimental results show that the isolation effectiveness of the proposed system is better than that of the active system without NSS. Furthermore, the undesirable chattering phenomenon in control effort is quite reduced by the estimation mechanism. Finally, some concluding remarks are given at the end of the paper.

  3. Shigella Phages Isolated during a Dysentery Outbreak Reveal Uncommon Structures and Broad Species Diversity.

    PubMed

    Doore, Sarah M; Schrad, Jason R; Dean, William F; Dover, John A; Parent, Kristin N

    2018-04-15

    In 2016, Michigan experienced the largest outbreak of shigellosis, a type of bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella spp., since 1988. Following this outbreak, we isolated 16 novel Shigella -infecting bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) from environmental water sources. Most well-known bacteriophages infect the common laboratory species Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica , and these phages have built the foundation of molecular and bacteriophage biology. Until now, comparatively few bacteriophages were known to infect Shigella spp., which are close relatives of E. coli We present a comprehensive analysis of these phages' host ranges, genomes, and structures, revealing genome sizes and capsid properties that are shared by very few previously described phages. After sequencing, a majority of the Shigella phages were found to have genomes of an uncommon size, shared by only 2% of all reported phage genomes. To investigate the structural implications of this unusual genome size, we used cryo-electron microscopy to resolve their capsid structures. We determined that these bacteriophage capsids have similarly uncommon geometry. Only two other viruses with this capsid structure have been described. Since most well-known bacteriophages infect Escherichia or Salmonella , our understanding of bacteriophages has been limited to a subset of well-described systems. Continuing to isolate phages using nontraditional strains of bacteria can fill gaps that currently exist in bacteriophage biology. In addition, the prevalence of Shigella phages during a shigellosis outbreak may suggest a potential impact of human health epidemics on local microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Shigella spp. bacteria are causative agents of dysentery and affect more than 164 million people worldwide every year. Despite the need to combat antibiotic-resistant Shigella strains, relatively few Shigella -infecting bacteriophages have been described. By specifically looking for Shigella

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Rabia; Gahtori, Bhasker; Meena, R. S.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2018-05-01

    We report the growth and characterization of bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal synthesized by the self flux method via solid state reaction route from high temperature melt (850˚C) and slow cooling (2˚C/hour) of constituent elements. The single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern showed the 00l alignment and the high crystalline nature of the resultant sample. The rietveld fitted room temperature powder XRD revealed the phase purity and rhombohedral structure of the synthesized crystal. The formation and analysis of unit cell structure further verified the rhombohedral structure composed of three quintuple layers stacked one over the other. The SEM image showed the layered directional growth of the synthesized crystal carried out using the ZEISS-EVOMA-10 scanning electron microscope The electrical resistivity measurement was carried out using the conventional four-probe method on a quantum design Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The temperature dependent electrical resistivity plot for studied Sb2Te3 single crystal depicts metallic behaviour in the absence of any applied magnetic field. The synthesis as well as the structural characterization of as grown Sb2Te3 single crystal is reported and discussed in the present letter.

  5. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  6. Structural studies on Rauscher murine leukemia virus: isolation and characterization of viral envelopes.

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, W J; Vermorken, A J; Onnekink, C; Bloemers, H P; Bloemendal, H

    1978-01-01

    A preparative method for isolating pure viral envelopes from a type-C RNA tumor virus, Rauscher murine leukemia virus, is described. Fractionation of virions of Rauscher murine leukemia virus was studied after disruption of the virions with the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate of Nonidet P-40 in combination with ether. Fractionation was performed through flotation in a discontinuous sucrose gradient and, as appeared from electron microscopic examination, a pure viral envelope fraction was obtained in this way. By use of sensitive competition radioimmunoassays or sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after immunoprecipitation with polyvalent and monospecific antisera directed against Rauscher murine leukemia virus proteins, the amount of the gag and env gene-encoded structural polypeptides in the virions and the isolated envelope fraction was compared. The predominant viral structural polypeptides in the purified envelope fraction were the env gene-encoded polypeptides gp70, p15(E), and p12(E), whereas, except for p15, there was only a relatively small amount of the gag gene-encoded structural polypeptides in this fraction. Images PMID:702639

  7. Single-shot three-dimensional reconstruction based on structured light line pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZhenZhou; Yang, YongMing

    2018-07-01

    Reconstruction of the object by single-shot is of great importance in many applications, in which the object is moving or its shape is non-rigid and changes irregularly. In this paper, we propose a single-shot structured light 3D imaging technique that calculates the phase map from the distorted line pattern. This technique makes use of the image processing techniques to segment and cluster the projected structured light line pattern from one single captured image. The coordinates of the clustered lines are extracted to form a low-resolution phase matrix which is then transformed to full-resolution phase map by spline interpolation. The 3D shape of the object is computed from the full-resolution phase map and the 2D camera coordinates. Experimental results show that the proposed method was able to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of the object robustly from one single image.

  8. Secondary structure prediction and structure-specific sequence analysis of single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Allawi, H T; Anderson, T; Neri, B P; Lyamichev, V I

    2001-08-01

    DNA sequence analysis by oligonucleotide binding is often affected by interference with the secondary structure of the target DNA. Here we describe an approach that improves DNA secondary structure prediction by combining enzymatic probing of DNA by structure-specific 5'-nucleases with an energy minimization algorithm that utilizes the 5'-nuclease cleavage sites as constraints. The method can identify structural differences between two DNA molecules caused by minor sequence variations such as a single nucleotide mutation. It also demonstrates the existence of long-range interactions between DNA regions separated by >300 nt and the formation of multiple alternative structures by a 244 nt DNA molecule. The differences in the secondary structure of DNA molecules revealed by 5'-nuclease probing were used to design structure-specific probes for mutation discrimination that target the regions of structural, rather than sequence, differences. We also demonstrate the performance of structure-specific 'bridge' probes complementary to non-contiguous regions of the target molecule. The structure-specific probes do not require the high stringency binding conditions necessary for methods based on mismatch formation and permit mutation detection at temperatures from 4 to 37 degrees C. Structure-specific sequence analysis is applied for mutation detection in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG gene and for genotyping of the hepatitis C virus.

  9. Ultrahigh-performance transparent conductive films of carbon-welded isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao-Lin; Wang, Bing-Wei; Tang, Dai-Ming; Jin, Qun; Guo, Qing-Xun; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Du, Jin-Hong; Tai, Kai-Ping; Tan, Jun; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2018-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are ideal for fabricating transparent conductive films because of their small diameter, good optical and electrical properties, and excellent flexibility. However, a high intertube Schottky junction resistance, together with the existence of aggregated bundles of SWCNTs, leads to a degraded optoelectronic performance of the films. We report a network of isolated SWCNTs prepared by an injection floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method, in which crossed SWCNTs are welded together by graphitic carbon. Pristine SWCNT films show a record low sheet resistance of 41 ohm □−1 at 90% transmittance for 550-nm light. After HNO3 treatment, the sheet resistance further decreases to 25 ohm □−1. Organic light-emitting diodes using this SWCNT film as anodes demonstrate a low turn-on voltage of 2.5 V, a high current efficiency of 75 cd A−1, and excellent flexibility. Investigation of isolated SWCNT-based field-effect transistors shows that the carbon-welded joints convert the Schottky contacts between metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs into near-ohmic ones, which significantly improves the conductivity of the transparent SWCNT network. Our work provides a new avenue of assembling individual SWCNTs into macroscopic thin films, which demonstrate great potential for use as transparent electrodes in various flexible electronics. PMID:29736413

  10. Single transseptal big Cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation using an inner lumen mapping catheter.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kr Julian; Bordignon, Stefano; Gunawardene, Melanie; Urban, Verena; Kulikoglu, Mehmet; Schulte-Hahn, Britta; Nowak, Bernd; Schmidt, Boris

    2012-11-01

    The single big cryoballon technique for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been limited by the need for two transseptal punctures (TP). We therefore investigated feasibility and safety of a simplified approach using a single TP and a novel circumferential mapping catheter (CMC). Patients underwent 28-mm cryoballoon PVI using a single TP. The CMC (Achieve(©) Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) served as (1) guidewire and (2) as a PV mapping tool. Primary endpoint was PVI without switching to a regular guidewire. Secondary endpoints included: (1) PV signal quality during freezing, (2) time to PVI, (3) classification of successful ablation technique, (4) complications, and (5) procedural data. A total of 32 patients (126 PVs) were studied (mean age: 62 ± 11 years, 24 males, left atrium: 40 ± 4 mm). The primary endpoint was achieved in 29/32 patients (91%) and 123/126 PVs (98%) with a procedure and fluoroscopy time of 126 ± 26 minutes and 18.9 ± 7.5 minutes, respectively. Real-time visualization of PVI could be observed in 61/126 (48%) PVs. Time to sustained PVI versus nonsustained PVI was 66 ± 56 seconds versus 129 ± 76 seconds (P < 0.001). One phrenic nerve palsy was observed. After a follow-up of 250 ± 84 days 23/32 patients (72%) remained in sinus rhythm. The "simplified single big cryoballoon" PVI strategy appears to be safe and feasible. However, real-time PV recording was achieved in <50% of PVs. Therefore, further catheter refinements are warranted. (PACE 2012; 35:1304-1311). ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Complete genome sequences of two divergent isolates of strawberry crinkle virus coinfecting a single strawberry plant.

    PubMed

    Koloniuk, Igor; Fránová, Jana; Sarkisova, Tatiana; Přibylová, Jaroslava

    2018-05-04

    Strawberry crinkle disease is one of the major diseases that threatens strawberry production. Although the biological properties of the agent, strawberry crinkle virus (SCV), have been thoroughly investigated, its complete genome sequence has never been published. Existing RT-PCR-based detection relies on a partial sequence of the L protein gene, presumably the least expressed viral gene. Here, we present complete sequences of two divergent SCV isolates co-infecting a single plant, Fragaria x ananassa cv. Čačanská raná.

  12. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo

    2017-11-01

    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  13. Random breakup of microdroplets for single-cell encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Eujin; Lee, Seung-Goo; Park, Je-Kyun

    2010-10-01

    Microfluidic droplet-based technology enables encapsulation of cells in the isolated aqueous chambers surrounded by immiscible fluid but single-cell encapsulation efficiency is usually less than 30%. In this letter, we introduce a simple microgroove structure to break droplets into random sizes which further allows collecting of single-cell [Escherichia coli (E. coli)] containing droplets by their size differences. Pinched-flow separation method is integrated to sort out droplets of certain sizes which have high probability of containing one cell. Consequently, we were able to obtain more than 50% of droplets having single E. coli inside, keeping the proportion of multiple-cell containing droplets less than 16%.

  14. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xie, Lishi; Li, Ye; Majumdar, Shyama; Nonn, Larisa; Hu, Hong; Shioda, Toshi; Prins, Gail S

    2017-08-01

    Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and structure of palstatin from the Amazon tree Hymeneae palustris(1).

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Meng, Yanhui; Stevenson, Clare A; Doubek, Dennis L; Knight, John C; Cichacz, Zbigniew; Pettit, Robin K; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Schmidt, Jean M

    2003-02-01

    Bioassay (P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and human cancer cell lines) guided separation of an extract prepared from the leaves of Hymenaea palustris Ducké led to the isolation of six cancer cell growth inhibitory flavonoids (1-6). The structures were elucidated by HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis. The new flavonolignan 1 designated palstatin proved to be a methoxy structural modification of 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin-D (2). Flavones 1-4 inhibited growth of the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

  16. Single-Molecule Reaction Chemistry in Patterned Nanowells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to synthetic chemistry is performed in ultraminiaturized, nanofabricated reaction chambers. Using lithographically defined nanowells, we achieve single-point covalent chemistry on hundreds of individual carbon nanotube transistors, providing robust statistics and unprecedented spatial resolution in adduct position. Each device acts as a sensor to detect, in real-time and through quantized changes in conductance, single-point functionalization of the nanotube as well as consecutive chemical reactions, molecular interactions, and molecular conformational changes occurring on the resulting single-molecule probe. In particular, we use a set of sequential bioconjugation reactions to tether a single-strand of DNA to the device and record its repeated, reversible folding into a G-quadruplex structure. The stable covalent tether allows us to measure the same molecule in different solutions, revealing the characteristic increased stability of the G-quadruplex structure in the presence of potassium ions (K+) versus sodium ions (Na+). Nanowell-confined reaction chemistry on carbon nanotube devices offers a versatile method to isolate and monitor individual molecules during successive chemical reactions over an extended period of time. PMID:27270004

  17. The role of hydrodynamic stress on the phenotypic characteristics of single and binary biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Simões, M; Pereira, M O; Vieira, M J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the phenotype of turbulent (Re = 5,200) and laminar (Re = 2,000) flow-generated Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. Three P. fluorescens strains, the type strain ATCC 13525 and two strains isolated from an industrial processing plant, D3-348 and D3-350, were used throughout this study. The isolated strains were used to form single and binary biofilms. The biofilm physiology (metabolic activity, cellular density, mass, extracellular polymeric substances, structural characteristics and outer membrane proteins [OMP] expression) was compared. The results indicate that, for every situation, turbulent flow-generated biofilms were more active (p < 0.05), had more mass per cm(2) (p < 0.05), a higher cellular density (p < 0.05), distinct morphology, similar matrix proteins (p > 0.1) and identical (isolated strains -single and binary biofilms) and higher (type strain) matrix polysaccharides contents (p < 0.05) than laminar flow-generated biofilms. Flow-generated biofilms formed by the type strain revealed a considerably higher cellular density and amount of matrix polysaccharides than single and binary biofilms formed by the isolated strains (p < 0.05). Similar OMP expression was detected for the several single strains and for the binary situation, not dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions. Binary biofilms revealed an equal coexistence of the isolated strains with apparent neutral interactions. In summary, the biofilms formed by the type strain represent, apparently, the worst situation in a context of control. The results obtained clearly illustrate the importance of considering strain variation and hydrodynamics in biofilm development, and complement previous studies which have focused on physical aspects of structural and density differences.

  18. Ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-layer fabricated using laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Yuri A; Vikhrova, Olga V; Kudrin, Alexey V; Zvonkov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    The new technique combining metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy with laser ablation of solid targets was used for fabrication of ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-doped layer. The structures demonstrated anomalous Hall effect, planar Hall effect, negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance in temperature range of 10-35 K. In GaAs structures with only single Mn delta-layer (without additional 2D hole gas channel or quantum well) ferromagnetism was observed for the first time.

  19. Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.

    PubMed

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

  20. Archival Isolates Confirm a Single Topotype of West Nile Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bixing; Prow, Natalie A; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Allcock, Richard J. N.; Moore, Peter R.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN) was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype) was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source. This was consistent with current hypotheses regarding the distribution of WNVKUN, whereby the virus is enzootic in northern Australia and is disseminated to southern states by water-birds or mosquitoes after flooding associated with above average rainfall. In addition, two previous amino acid changes associated with pathogenicity, an N-Y-S glycosylation motif in the envelope protein and a phenylalanine at amino acid 653 in the RNA polymerase, were both detected in all isolates collected since the 1980s. Changes primarily occurred due to stochastic drift. One fixed substitution each in NS3 and NS5, subtly changed the chemical environment of important functional groups, and may be involved in fine-tuning RNA synthesis. Understanding these evolutionary changes will help us to better understand events such as the emergence of the virulent strain in 2011. PMID:27906966

  1. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a single purpose horticultural structure: (i) The commercial production of plants (including plant.... (3) Ancillary post-production activities. The terms “commercial production of plants” and “commercial... commercial production of plants. The greenhouse is a rectangular structure with translucent fiberglass walls...

  2. Hybrid carrageenans: isolation, chemical structure, and gel properties.

    PubMed

    Hilliou, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carrageenan is a special class of carrageenan with niche application in food industry. This polysaccharide is extracted from specific species of seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinales order. This chapter focuses on hybrid carrageenan showing the ability to form gels in water, which is known in the food industry as weak kappa or kappa-2 carrageenan. After introducing the general chemical structure defining hybrid carrageenan, the isolation of the polysaccharide will be discussed focusing on the interplay between seaweed species, extraction parameters, and the hybrid carrageenan chemistry. Then, the rheological experiments used to determine the small and large deformation behavior of gels will be detailed before reviewing the relationships between gel properties and hybrid carrageenan chemistry. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Isolation and structural identification of flavonoids from Aurantii Fructus].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi-qiang; Xiong, Ying; Zhou, Bin; Deng, Min-zhi; Deng, Ke-zhong

    2015-06-01

    Aurantii Fructus is the dried and immature fruit of Citrus aurantium and its cultivars. To investigate the chemical constituents of Aurantii Fructus, the separation and purification of constituents were performed by column chromatography on silica gel LH-20, HW-40, ODS, PHPLC and PTLC. Fourteen flavonoids, including four flavone glycosides and ten polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) were isolated from the EtOAc fraction and Petroleum ether fraction of Aurantii Fructus and their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral data (NMR and MS) as (2R) -and (2S)-6"-O-acetylprunin (1,2), naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranside (3), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8,3'-dimethoxyflavone-3-O-6"-(3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), 4'-hydroxy-5,6, 7-trimethoxyflavone (5), natsudaidain (6), nobiletin (7), sinensetin (8), 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (9), 5,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (10), 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (11), tangeretin (12), 5-demethyl nobiletin (13), and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (14). Compound 3-5 s were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 was a new one.

  4. Single Fluorescent Molecules as Nano-Illuminators for Biological Structure and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerner, W. E.

    2011-03-01

    Since the first optical detection and spectroscopy of a single molecule in a solid (Phys. Rev. Lett. {62}, 2535 (1989)), much has been learned about the ability of single molecules to probe local nanoenvironments and individual behavior in biological and nonbiological materials in the absence of ensemble averaging that can obscure heterogeneity. Because each single fluorophore acts a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic imaging of individual fluorophores leads naturally to superlocalization, or determination of the position of the molecule with precision beyond the optical diffraction limit, simply by digitization of the point-spread function from the single emitter. For example, the shape of single filaments in a living cell can be extracted simply by allowing a single molecule to move through the filament (PNAS {103}, 10929 (2006)). The addition of photoinduced control of single-molecule emission allows imaging beyond the diffraction limit (super-resolution) and a new array of acronyms (PALM, STORM, F-PALM etc.) and advances have appeared. We have used the native blinking and switching of a common yellow-emitting variant of green fluorescent protein (EYFP) reported more than a decade ago (Nature {388}, 355 (1997)) to achieve sub-40 nm super-resolution imaging of several protein structures in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus: the quasi-helix of the actin-like protein MreB (Nat. Meth. {5}, 947 (2008)), the cellular distribution of the DNA binding protein HU (submitted), and the recently discovered division spindle composed of ParA filaments (Nat. Cell Biol. {12}, 791 (2010)). Even with these advances, better emitters would provide more photons and improved resolution, and a new photoactivatable small-molecule emitter has recently been synthesized and targeted to specific structures in living cells to provide super-resolution images (JACS {132}, 15099 (2010)). Finally, a new optical method for extracting three-dimensional position information based on

  5. [Community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan salt lake on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuo

    2017-04-04

    I studied the community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake. I isolated and cultured the moderate halophilic bacteria on different selective media. After the 16S rRNA gene sequences was amplified and measured, I constructed the phylogenic tree, analyzed the community structure and calculated the diversity indexes according to the 16S rRNA gene information. A total of 421 moderate halophilic bacteria were isolated from water and mud samples in Qrhan Salt Lake. The 16S rRNA gene information showed that 4 potential novel species belonged to the family Bacillaceae. Eighty-three model strains belonged to 3 phylurms 6 families 16 genus. Among them, Bacillus sp., Oceanobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. were dominant species. Diversity analysis showed that the diversity of strains isolated from water sample was higher than that from mud sample, but the dominance degree of strains isolated from mud sample was higher than that from water sample. The genetic diversity of moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake was abundant. Also, there were dominant and novel species of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria in this lake.

  6. The structure of antrocarine E, an ergostane isolated from Antrocaryon klaineanum Pierre (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fouokeng, Yannick; Akak, Carine Mvot; Tala, Michel Feussi; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Dittrich, Birger; Vardamides, Juliette Catherine; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2017-03-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Antrocaryon klaineanum, and their structures determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Among these compounds, the ergostane-type antrocarine E (1a) is a new compound, although the structure had already been published by mismatching the spectroscopic data with those of 2. In this paper, we are reporting the valid spectroscopic values for antrocarine E and X-ray diffraction results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the Listeria monocytogenes Population Structure among Isolates from 1931 to 2015 in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jennison, Amy V.; Masson, Jesse J.; Fang, Ning-Xia; Graham, Rikki M.; Bradbury, Mark I.; Fegan, Narelle; Gobius, Kari S.; Graham, Trudy M.; Guglielmino, Christine J.; Brown, Janelle L.; Fox, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Listeriosis remains among the most important bacterial illnesses, with a high associated mortality rate. Efforts to control listeriosis require detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease itself, and its etiological bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the epidemiology of 224 L. monocytogenes isolates from Australian clinical and non-clinical sources. Non-human sources included meat, dairy, seafood, fruit, and vegetables, along with animal and environmental isolates. Serotyping, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and analysis of inlA gene sequence were performed. Serogroups IIA, IIB, and IVB comprised 94% of all isolates, with IVB over-represented among clinical isolates. Serogroup IIA was the most common among dairy and meat isolates. Lineage I isolates were most common among clinical isolates, and 52% of clinical isolates belonged to ST1. Overall 39 STs were identified in this study, with ST1 and ST3 containing the largest numbers of L. monocytogenes isolates. These STs comprised 40% of the total isolates (n = 90), and both harbored isolates from clinical and non-clinical sources. ST204 was the third most common ST. The high prevalence of this group among L. monocytogenes populations has not been reported outside Australia. Twenty-seven percent of the STs in this study contained exclusively clinical isolates. Analysis of the virulence protein InlA among isolates in this study identified a truncated form of the protein among isolates from ST121 and ST325. The ST325 group contained a previously unreported novel mutation leading to production of a 93 amino acid protein. This study provides insights in the population structure of L. monocytogenes isolated in Australia, which will contribute to public health knowledge relating to this important human pathogen. PMID:28428781

  8. Typing of canine parvovirus isolates using mini-sequencing based single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Hariprasad; Subramanian, B Mohana; Chinchkar, Shankar Ramchandra; Sriraman, Rajan; Rana, Samir Kumar; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-05-01

    The antigenic types of canine parvovirus (CPV) are defined based on differences in the amino acids of the major capsid protein VP2. Type specificity is conferred by a limited number of amino acid changes and in particular by few nucleotide substitutions. PCR based methods are not particularly suitable for typing circulating variants which differ in a few specific nucleotide substitutions. Assays for determining SNPs can detect efficiently nucleotide substitutions and can thus be adapted to identify CPV types. In the present study, CPV typing was performed by single nucleotide extension using the mini-sequencing technique. A mini-sequencing signature was established for all the four CPV types (CPV2, 2a, 2b and 2c) and feline panleukopenia virus. The CPV typing using the mini-sequencing reaction was performed for 13 CPV field isolates and the two vaccine strains available in our repository. All the isolates had been typed earlier by full-length sequencing of the VP2 gene. The typing results obtained from mini-sequencing matched completely with that of sequencing. Typing could be achieved with less than 100 copies of standard plasmid DNA constructs or ≤10¹ FAID₅₀ of virus by mini-sequencing technique. The technique was also efficient for detecting multiple types in mixed infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-02-01

    Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs. two-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over seven consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from two-parent households had fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure-sex interactions. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents and they highlight the moderating role of race. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen-induced structural transition in single layer ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2017-09-01

    By performing density functional theory-based calculations, we investigate how structural, electronic and mechanical properties of single layer ReS2 can be tuned upon hydrogenation of its surfaces. It is found that a stable, fully hydrogenated structure can be obtained by formation of strong S-H bonds. The optimized atomic structure of ReS2H2 is considerably different than that of the monolayer ReS2 which has a distorted-1T phase. By performing phonon dispersion calculations, we also predict that the Re2-dimerized 1T structure (called 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} ) of the ReS2H2 is dynamically stable. Unlike the bare ReS2 the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} -ReS2H2 structure which is formed by breaking the Re4 clusters into separated Re2 dimers, is an indirect-gap semiconductor. Furthermore, mechanical properties of the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} phase in terms of elastic constants, in-plane stiffness (C) and Poisson ratio (ν) are investigated. It is found that full hydrogenation not only enhances the flexibility of the single layer ReS2 crystal but also increases anisotropy of the elastic constants.

  11. Mixed-ligand approach to design of heterometallic single-source precursors with discrete molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Craig M; Navulla, Anantharamulu; Zhang, Haitao; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2014-05-05

    Heterometallic single-source precursors for the Pb/Fe = 1:1 oxide materials, PbFe(β-dik)4 (β-dik = hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac, 1), acetylacetonate (acac, 2), and trifluoroacetylacetonate (tfac, 4)), have been isolated by three different solid-state synthetic methods. The crystal structures of heterometallic diketonates 1, 2, and 4 were found to contain polymeric chains built on alternating [Fe(β-dik)2] and [Pb(β-dik)2] units that are held together by bridging M-O interactions. Heterometallic precursors are highly volatile, but soluble only in coordinating solvents, in which they dissociate into solvated homometallic fragments. In order to design the heterometallic precursor with a proper metal/metal ratio and with a discrete molecular structure, we used a combination of two different diketonate ligands. Heteroleptic complex Pb2Fe2(hfac)6(acac)2 (5) has been obtained by optimized stoichiometric reaction of an addition of homo-Fe(acac)2 to heterometallic Pb2Fe(hfac)6 (3) diketonate that can be run in solution on a high scale. The combination of two ligands with electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups allows changing the connectivity pattern within the heterometallic assembly and yields the precursor with a discrete tetranuclear structure. In accord with its molecular structure, heteroleptic complex 5 is soluble even in noncoordinating solvents and was found to retain its heterometallic structure in solution. Thermal decomposition of heterometallic precursors in air at 750 °C resulted in the target Pb2Fe2O5 oxide, a prospective multiferroic material. Prolonging the annealing time or increasing the decomposition temperature leads to another phase-pure lead-iron oxide PbFe12O19 that is a representative of the important family of magnetic hexaferrites.

  12. Two new diterpenoid lactones isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Yang; Wen, Ting; Liu, Fei-Fei; Tian, Hai-Yan; Chun-Lin, Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, two new diterpenoid lactones, 3-deoxy-andrographoside (1) and 14-deoxy-15-methoxy-andrographolide (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata. Their structures were elucidated by combination of NMR, MS, and chemical methods. The configurations of 1 and 2 were established based on the analysis of ROESY data and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiment. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. One-step nanoimprinted hybrid micro-/nano-structure for in situ protein detection of isolated cell array via localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Villariza Espulgar, Wilfred; Aoki, Wataru; Jiang, Shu; Saito, Masato; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2018-03-01

    Nanoplasmonic biosensors show high potentials as label-free devices for continuous monitoring in biomolecular analyses. However, most current sensors comprise multiple-dedicated layers with complicated fabrication procedures, which increases production time and manufacturing costs. In this work, we report the synergistic integration of cell-trapping microwell structures with plasmonic sensing nanopillar structures in a single-layered substrate by one-step thermal nanoimprinting. Here, microwell arrays are used for isolating cells, wherein gold-capped nanostructures sense changes in local refractive index via localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Hence, proteins secreted from trapped cells can be label-freely detected as peak shifts in absorbance spectra. The fabricated device showed a detection limit of 10 ng/µL anti-IgA. In Pichia pastoris cells trial analysis, a red shift of 6.9 nm was observed over 12 h, which is likely due to the protein secretion from the cells. This approach provides an inexpensive, rapid, and reproducible alternative for mass production of biosensors for continuous biomolecular analyses.

  14. Mechanical characteriztion of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokadia, Husein Juzer

    Hybrid nanostructures of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes are being proposed as the basis for the next generation of biosensors. For such biosensors, mechanical properties such as the Young's modulus of the hybrid structures play a critical role, which to the best of the author's knowledge is still unknown. Thus, the determination of the Young's modulus of the ssDNA/swCNT hybrid structures was the primary objective of this study. Hybrid structures of 30mer polyT ssDNA and HiPCORTM swCNTs were conjugated using a well known non-covalent interaction protocol. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to scan and generate topographic images and perform nanoindentation tests on the hybrid structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a commercial MD program, Materials StudioRTM were performed to study the nature of non-covalent interactions between the ssDNA and the swCNT on the pico-second timescale. AFM topography scans of the bare control HiPCORTM swCNTs indicated an average diameter of about 1.0 nm and length of 800 nm. Similarly, the control 30mer polyT ssDNA was found to resemble a half-hemispherical domed structure with an average height of 2.1 nm. Nanoindentation tests yielded the transverse Young's modulus of the control swCNTs to be 78.0 GPa. The control ssDNA were found to have a Young's modulus of 3.3 GPa and 4.0 MPa in dry and wet environments, respectively. Topographic scans of the ssDNA/swCNT hybrid structures showed the slender swCNTs fully or partially coated along their lengths by ssDNA. The height of the hybrid structures ranged from 2.5 nm to 7.5 nm. Nanoindentation tests on the ssDNA coated portions of the hybrid structures indicated that, their Young's modulus exponentially decreased with increasing coating thickness. Thinly coated sections were found to have a Young's modulus of 100.0 GPa and 7.0 MPa in dry and wet conditions respectively. The thick walled hybrid sections were found to have an average Young

  15. A method for the isolation and characterization of functional murine monoclonal antibodies by single B cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Carbonetti, Sara; Oliver, Brian G; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Dambrauskas, Nicholas; Sack, Brandon; Bergl, Emilee; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sather, D Noah

    2017-09-01

    Monoclonal antibody technologies have enabled dramatic advances in immunology, the study of infectious disease, and modern medicine over the past 40years. However, many monoclonal antibody discovery procedures are labor- and time-intensive, low efficiency, and expensive. Here we describe an optimized mAb discovery platform for the rapid and efficient isolation, cloning and characterization of monoclonal antibodies in murine systems. In this platform, antigen-binding splenic B cells from immunized mice are isolated by FACS and cocultured with CD40L positive cells to induce proliferation and mAb production. After 12days of coculture, cell culture supernatants are screened for antigen, and IgG positivity and RNA is isolated for reverse-transcription. Positive-well cDNA is then amplified by PCR and the resulting amplicons can be cloned into ligation-independent expression vectors, which are then used directly to transfect HEK293 cells for recombinant antibody production. After 4days of growth, conditioned medium can be screened using biolayer interferometry for antigen binding and affinity measurements. Using this method, we were able to isolate six unique, functional monoclonal antibodies against an antigen of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Importantly, this method incorporates several important advances that circumvent the need for single-cell PCR, restriction cloning, and large scale protein production, and can be applied to a wide array of protein antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A STUDY OF DISLOCATION STRUCTURE OF SUBBOUNDARIES IN MOLYBDENUM SINGLE CRYSTALS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MOLYBDENUM, *DISLOCATIONS), GRAIN STRUCTURES(METALLURGY), SINGLE CRYSTALS, ZONE MELTING, ELECTRON BEAM MELTING, GRAIN BOUNDARIES, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, ETCHED CRYSTALS, ETCHING, ELECTROEROSIVE MACHINING, CHINA

  17. 52. Virginia Route 666. This single span structure, built in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Virginia Route 666. This single span structure, built in 1962, is an example of a spandrel arch grade separation structure with a roman arch over a state secondary road. The bridge is constructed of reinforced concrete, backfilled with earth and has a thick stone veneer. Looking east-northeast at elevation. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. Fine Structure of Trious and Excitons in Single GaAs Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-30

    RAPID COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICAL REVIEW B 66, 081310~R! ~2002!Fine structure of trions and excitons in single GaAs quantum dots J. G. Tischler, A. S ...fine structure of single localized excitons and trions. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.081310 PACS number~ s !: 78.67.Hc, 73.21.2b, 71.35.2yAlthough the...AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory

  19. Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Dziura, T.G.; Wang, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Mushroom structure vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with a 0.6 {mu}m GaAs active layer sandwiched by two Al{sub 0.6{sup {minus}}}Ga{sub 0.4}As-Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}As multilayers as top and bottom mirrors exhibit 15 mA pulsed threshold current at 880 nm. Single longitudinal and single transverse mode operation was achieved on lasers with a 5 {mu}m diameter active region at current levels near 2 {times} I{sub th}. The light output above threshold current was linearly polarized with a polarization ratio of 25:1.

  20. Static and dynamic stability of pneumatic vibration isolators and systems of isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic vibration isolation is the most widespread effective method for creating vibration-free environments that are vital for precise experiments and manufacturing operations in optoelectronics, life sciences, microelectronics, nanotechnology and other areas. The modeling and design principles of a dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, basically established a few decades ago, continue to attract attention of researchers. On the other hand, behavior of systems of such isolators was never explained in the literature in sufficient detail. This paper covers a range of questions essential for understanding the mechanics of pneumatic isolation systems from both design and application perspectives. The theory and a model of a single standalone isolator are presented in concise form necessary for subsequent analysis. Then the dynamics of a system of isolators supporting a payload is considered with main attention directed to two aspects of their behavior: first, the static stability of payloads with high positions of the center of gravity; second, dynamic stability of the feedback system formed by mechanical leveling valves. The direct method of calculating the maximum stable position of the center of gravity is presented and illustrated by three-dimensional stability domains; analytic formulas are given that delineate these domains. A numerical method for feedback stability analysis of self-leveling valve systems is given, and the results are compared with the analytical estimates for a single isolator. The relation between the static and dynamic phenomena is discussed.

  1. Improved Numerical Calculation of the Single-Mode-No-Core-Single-Mode Fiber Structure Using the Fields Far from Cutoff Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xianchao; Xu, Degang; Rong, Feng; Zhao, Junfa; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    Multimode interferometers based on the single-mode-no-core-single-mode fiber (SNCS) structure have been widely investigated as functional devices and sensors. However, the theoretical support for the sensing mechanism is still imperfect, especially for the cladding refractive index response. In this paper, a modified model of no-core fiber (NCF) based on far from cut-off approximation is proposed to investigate the spectrum characteristic and sensing mechanism of the SNCS structure. Guided-mode propagation analysis (MPA) is used to analyze the self-image effect and spectrum response to the cladding refractive index and temperature. Verified by experiments, the performance of the SNCS structure can be estimated specifically and easily by the proposed method. PMID:28961174

  2. Microfluidic cell isolation technology for drug testing of single tumor cells and their clusters.

    PubMed

    Bithi, Swastika S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2017-02-02

    Drug assays with patient-derived cells such as circulating tumor cells requires manipulating small sample volumes without loss of rare disease-causing cells. Here, we report an effective technology for isolating and analyzing individual tumor cells and their clusters from minute sample volumes using an optimized microfluidic device integrated with pipettes. The method involves using hand pipetting to create an array of cell-laden nanoliter-sized droplets immobilized in a microfluidic device without loss of tumor cells during the pipetting process. Using this technology, we demonstrate single-cell analysis of tumor cell response to the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. We find that even though individual tumor cells display diverse uptake profiles of the drug, the onset of apoptosis is determined by accumulation of a critical intracellular concentration of doxorubicin. Experiments with clusters of tumor cells compartmentalized in microfluidic drops reveal that cells within a cluster have higher viability than their single-cell counterparts when exposed to doxorubicin. This result suggests that circulating tumor cell clusters might be able to better survive chemotherapy drug treatment. Our technology is a promising tool for understanding tumor cell-drug interactions in patient-derived samples including rare cells.

  3. A snapshot of the predominant single nucleotide polymorphism cluster groups of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Varma-Basil, Mandira; Narang, Anshika; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Garima, Kushal; Gupta, Shraddha; Kumar Sharma, Naresh; Giri, Astha; Zozio, Thierry; Couvin, David; Hanif, Mahmud; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Menon, Balakrishnan; Niemann, Stefan; Rastogi, Nalin; Alland, David; Bose, Mridula

    2016-09-01

    Several attempts have been made to associate phylogenetic differences among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to variations in the clinical outcome of the disease and to drug resistance. We genotyped 139 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained from patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in North Delhi region. The isolates were analyzed using nine Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs; and the results were correlated with their drug susceptibility profile. Results of SNP cluster group (SCG) analysis (available for 138 isolates) showed that the most predominant cluster was SCG 3a, observed in 58.7% (81/138) of the isolates with 44.4% (36/81) of these being drug susceptible, while 16% (13/81) were multidrug resistant (MDR). Of the ancestral cluster SCG 1 observed in 19.5% (27/138) of the isolates, 14.8% (4/27) were MDR while 44.4% (12/27) were drug susceptible. SCG 2 formed 5.79% (8/138) of the isolates and 50% (4/8) of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping subdivided the strains into 45 shared types (n = 125) and 14 orphan strains. The orphan strains were mostly associated with SCG 3a or SCG 1, reflecting the principal SCGs found in the Indian population. SCG 1 and SCG 2 genotypes were concordant with the East African Indian (EAI) and Beijing families respectively. Central Asian (CAS) clade and its sublineages were predominantly associated with SCG 3a. No consistent association was seen between the SCGs and Harlem, T or X clades. The 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed 123/136 isolates to be unclustered, while 13 isolates were present in 6 clusters of 2-3 isolates each. However, correlating the cluster analysis with patient details did not suggest any evidence of recent transmission. In conclusion, though our study revealed the preponderance of SCG 1 and 3a in the M. tuberculosis population circulating in the region, the diversity of strains highlights the changes occurring within lineages and reemphasizes the

  4. IPET and FETR: Experimental Approach for Studying Molecular Structure Dynamics by Cryo-Electron Tomography of a Single-Molecule Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Ren, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic personalities and structural heterogeneity of proteins are essential for proper functioning. Structural determination of dynamic/heterogeneous proteins is limited by conventional approaches of X-ray and electron microscopy (EM) of single-particle reconstruction that require an average from thousands to millions different molecules. Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) is an approach to determine three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a single and unique biological object such as bacteria and cells, by imaging the object from a series of tilting angles. However, cconventional reconstruction methods use large-size whole-micrographs that are limited by reconstruction resolution (lower than 20 Å), especially for small and low-symmetric molecule (<400 kDa). In this study, we demonstrated the adverse effects from image distortion and the measuring tilt-errors (including tilt-axis and tilt-angle errors) both play a major role in limiting the reconstruction resolution. Therefore, we developed a “focused electron tomography reconstruction” (FETR) algorithm to improve the resolution by decreasing the reconstructing image size so that it contains only a single-instance protein. FETR can tolerate certain levels of image-distortion and measuring tilt-errors, and can also precisely determine the translational parameters via an iterative refinement process that contains a series of automatically generated dynamic filters and masks. To describe this method, a set of simulated cryoET images was employed; to validate this approach, the real experimental images from negative-staining and cryoET were used. Since this approach can obtain the structure of a single-instance molecule/particle, we named it individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) as a new robust strategy/approach that does not require a pre-given initial model, class averaging of multiple molecules or an extended ordered lattice, but can tolerate small tilt-errors for high-resolution single

  5. A highly relevant and efficient single step method for simultaneous depletion and isolation of human regulatory T cells in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Brezar, Vedran; Ruffin, Nicolas; Lévy, Yves; Seddiki, Nabila

    2014-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal in preventing autoimmunity. They play a major but still ambiguous role in cancer and viral infections. Functional studies of human Tregs are often hampered by numerous technical difficulties arising from imperfections in isolating and depleting protocols, together with the usual low cell number available from clinical samples. We standardized a simple procedure (Single Step Method, SSM), based on magnetic beads technology, in which both depletion and isolation of human Tregs with high purities are simultaneously achieved. SSM is suitable when using low cell numbers either fresh or frozen from both patients and healthy individuals. It allows simultaneous Tregs isolation and depletion that can be used for further functional work to monitor suppressive function of isolated Tregs (in vitro suppression assay) and also effector IFN-γ responses of Tregs-depleted cell fraction (OX40 assay). To our knowledge, there is no accurate standardized method for Tregs isolation and depletion in a clinical context. SSM could thus be used and easily standardized across different laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of a Single Species Fishery with Stage Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kar, T. K.; Pahari, U. K.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic model for a single species fishery with stage structure is proposed using taxation as a control instrument to protect the fish population from overexploitation. Criteria for local stability and global stability of the system are derived. The optimal tax policy is established by using Pontryagin's maximal principle. By numerical…

  7. Ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolator based on a two-stage beam structure for absolute gravimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wu, K; Hu, H; Li, G; Wang, L J

    2016-10-01

    To reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise, ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play an important role in absolute gravimetry. For this purpose, an isolator based on a two-stage beam structure is proposed and demonstrated. The isolator has a simpler and more robust structure than the present ultra-low-frequency vertical active vibration isolators. In the system, two beams are connected to a frame using flexural pivots. The upper beam is suspended from the frame with a normal hex spring and the lower beam is suspended from the upper one using a zero-length spring. The pivot of the upper beam is not vertically above the pivot of the lower beam. With this special design, the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams can be moved to adjust the effective stiffness. A photoelectric detector is used to detect the angle between the two beams, and a voice coil actuator attached to the upper beam is controlled by a feedback circuit to keep the angle at a fixed value. The system can achieve a natural period of 100 s by carefully moving the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams and tuning the feedback parameters. The system has been used as an inertial reference in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The experiment results demonstrate that the system has significant vibration isolation performance that holds promise in applications such as absolute gravimeters.

  8. Ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolator based on a two-stage beam structure for absolute gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Hu, H.; Li, G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    To reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise, ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play an important role in absolute gravimetry. For this purpose, an isolator based on a two-stage beam structure is proposed and demonstrated. The isolator has a simpler and more robust structure than the present ultra-low-frequency vertical active vibration isolators. In the system, two beams are connected to a frame using flexural pivots. The upper beam is suspended from the frame with a normal hex spring and the lower beam is suspended from the upper one using a zero-length spring. The pivot of the upper beam is not vertically above the pivot of the lower beam. With this special design, the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams can be moved to adjust the effective stiffness. A photoelectric detector is used to detect the angle between the two beams, and a voice coil actuator attached to the upper beam is controlled by a feedback circuit to keep the angle at a fixed value. The system can achieve a natural period of 100 s by carefully moving the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams and tuning the feedback parameters. The system has been used as an inertial reference in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The experiment results demonstrate that the system has significant vibration isolation performance that holds promise in applications such as absolute gravimeters.

  9. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  10. Isolation, structure elucidation and DFT study on two novel oligosaccharides from yak milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Alok; Srivastava, Gaurav; Deepak, Desh; Singh, M. P. V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Two novel oligosaccharides were isolated from yak milk. The milk was processed by the method of Kobata and Ginsberg involving deproteination, centrifugation and lyophilization followed by gel filtrate chromatography acetylation and silica gel column chromatography of derivatized oligosaccharides while their homogeneity was confirmed by HPLC. The structures of these isolated oligosaccharides were elucidated by chemical transformation, chemical degradation, 1H, 13C NMR, 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY and HSQC) and mass spectrometry. The geometry of compound A (Bosiose) and B (Bovisose) have been optimized at B3LYP method and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The difference between the energies of A and B is 1.269 a.u. or 796.309 kcal/mol.

  11. Mechanics of smooth muscle in isolated single microvessels.

    PubMed

    Gore, R W; Davis, M J

    1984-01-01

    In vivo studies on frog mesenteric arterioles (4) indicate that segmental differences in the response of microvessels to physical and chemical stimuli can be explained simply in terms of the length-tension characteristics of vascular smooth muscle at different points along the vascular tree. Studies on single, isolated arterioles in vitro were initiated to examine more closely the validity of this explanation for regional response differences. This paper reports some of the results. First-, second-, and third-order arterioles (18-60 micron i.d.) were dissected from hamster cheek pouches. The vessels were cannulated with a modified Burg microperfusion system, and their mechanical properties studied using the methods described by Duling and Gore. Vessels were activated in four stages with K+ and norepinephrine. During activation, transmural pressures were adjusted to minimize vascular smooth-muscle shortening. Active pressure-diameter curves were recorded while adjusting transmural pressure through the range 5 to 400 cm H20 in 5-25 cm steps. Vessel dimensions were measured with a videomicrometer. Passive curves were obtained after equilibration overnight in Ca2+-free medium. The vessels were then fixed and prepared for histologic sectioning, and measurements of vessel-wall composition were made. The Laplace relationship was used to construct length-tension diagrams, and the histologic data were used to normalize the dimensional data to smooth-muscle lengths. Maximum active tension of second-order arterioles (1,170 dynes/cm) was two times previous values reported by Gore et al. This was due presumably to refinements in techniques and dissection procedures. Maximum active stress averaged 3.9 X 10(+6) dynes/cm2 for second-order arterioles. This number is identical to data obtained from hog carotid strips by Dillon et al.

  12. Synergistic Degradation of Linuron by a Bacterial Consortium and Isolation of a Single Linuron-Degrading Variovorax Strain

    PubMed Central

    Dejonghe, Winnie; Berteloot, Ellen; Goris, Johan; Boon, Nico; Crul, Katrien; Maertens, Siska; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M.

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a linuron-degrading enrichment culture and the role of the individual strains in linuron degradation have been determined by a combination of methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the total 16S rRNA gene pool, isolation and identification of strains, and biodegradation assays. Three strains, Variovorax sp. strain WDL1, Delftia acidovorans WDL34, and Pseudomonas sp. strain WDL5, were isolated directly from the linuron-degrading culture. In addition, subculture of this enrichment culture on potential intermediates in the degradation pathway of linuron (i.e., N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine and 3-chloroaniline) resulted in the isolation of, respectively, Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans WDL6 and Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. Of these five strains, only Variovorax sp. strain WDL1 was able to use linuron as the sole source of C, N, and energy. WDL1 first converted linuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), which transiently accumulated in the medium but was subsequently degraded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a strain that degrades linuron further than the aromatic intermediates. Interestingly, the rate of linuron degradation by strain WDL1 was lower than that for the consortium, but was clearly increased when WDL1 was coinoculated with each of the other four strains. D. acidovorans WDL34 and C. testosteroni WDL7 were found to be responsible for degradation of the intermediate 3,4-DCA, and H. sulfonivorans WDL6 was the only strain able to degrade N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine. The role of Pseudomonas sp. strain WDL5 needs to be further elucidated. The degradation of linuron can thus be performed by a single isolate, Variovorax sp. strain WDL1, but is stimulated by a synergistic interaction with the other strains isolated from the same linuron-degrading culture. PMID:12620840

  13. Structure and migration in U.S. Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While wheat powdery mildew occurs throughout the south-central and eastern U.S.A, epidemics are especially damaging in the Mid-Atlantic states. The structure of the U.S. Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population was assessed based on a sample of 238 single-spored isolates. The isolates were coll...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, Isolated from Soil as a Mixed Single Colony with Kaistia sp. 32K

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, Shun; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Onodera, Takefumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Shimizu, Tetsu; Wakabayashi, Yuu; Narumi, Issay; Nakamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. ME121 was isolated from soil as a mixed single colony with Kaistia sp. 32K, and its growth was enhanced by coculture. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, which may contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:26337893

  15. Genome sequencing of disease and carriage isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae identifies discrete population structure

    PubMed Central

    De Chiara, Matteo; Hood, Derek; Muzzi, Alessandro; Pickard, Derek J.; Perkins, Tim; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Dougan, Gordon; Rappuoli, Rino; Moxon, E. Richard; Soriani, Marco; Donati, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    One of the main hurdles for the development of an effective and broadly protective vaccine against nonencapsulated isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) lies in the genetic diversity of the species, which renders extremely difficult the identification of cross-protective candidate antigens. To assess whether a population structure of NTHi could be defined, we performed genome sequencing of a collection of diverse clinical isolates representative of both carriage and disease and of the diversity of the natural population. Analysis of the distribution of polymorphic sites in the core genome and of the composition of the accessory genome defined distinct evolutionary clades and supported a predominantly clonal evolution of NTHi, with the majority of genetic information transmitted vertically within lineages. A correlation between the population structure and the presence of selected surface-associated proteins and lipooligosaccharide structure, known to contribute to virulence, was found. This high-resolution, genome-based population structure of NTHi provides the foundation to obtain a better understanding, of NTHi adaptation to the host as well as its commensal and virulence behavior, that could facilitate intervention strategies against disease caused by this important human pathogen. PMID:24706866

  16. Genome sequencing of disease and carriage isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae identifies discrete population structure.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Matteo; Hood, Derek; Muzzi, Alessandro; Pickard, Derek J; Perkins, Tim; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Dougan, Gordon; Rappuoli, Rino; Moxon, E Richard; Soriani, Marco; Donati, Claudio

    2014-04-08

    One of the main hurdles for the development of an effective and broadly protective vaccine against nonencapsulated isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) lies in the genetic diversity of the species, which renders extremely difficult the identification of cross-protective candidate antigens. To assess whether a population structure of NTHi could be defined, we performed genome sequencing of a collection of diverse clinical isolates representative of both carriage and disease and of the diversity of the natural population. Analysis of the distribution of polymorphic sites in the core genome and of the composition of the accessory genome defined distinct evolutionary clades and supported a predominantly clonal evolution of NTHi, with the majority of genetic information transmitted vertically within lineages. A correlation between the population structure and the presence of selected surface-associated proteins and lipooligosaccharide structure, known to contribute to virulence, was found. This high-resolution, genome-based population structure of NTHi provides the foundation to obtain a better understanding, of NTHi adaptation to the host as well as its commensal and virulence behavior, that could facilitate intervention strategies against disease caused by this important human pathogen.

  17. Flexible radio-frequency single-crystal germanium switch on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Cai, Tianhao; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Jianguo; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-04-01

    This Letter presents the realization and characterizations of the flexible radio-frequency (RF)/microwave switches on plastic substrates employing single-crystal germanium (Ge) nanomembranes. The fabricated flexible Ge single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switches display high frequency responses (e.g., insertion loss of <1.3 dB at up to 30 GHz and isolation >10 dB at up to ˜13 GHz). RF performance tradeoff exists for the flexible Ge switches and the major affecting parameters are determined. The flexible Ge SPST switch shows better RF property to that of the flexible Si SPST switch. Underlying mechanism is investigated by theoretical analysis and modeling of switches with different structures.

  18. Laser direct writing of complex radially varying single-mode polymer waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin; Peng, Jie; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-07-01

    Increasing board-to-board and chip-to-chip computational data rates beyond 12.5 Gbs will require the use of single-mode polymer waveguides (WGs) that have high bandwidths and are able to be wavelength division multiplexed. Laser direct writing (LDW) of polymer WGs provides a scalable and reconfigurable maskless procedure compared to common photolithography fabrication. LDW of straights and radial curves are readily achieved using predefined drive commands of the two-axis direct drive linear stage system. Using the laser direct write process for advanced WG structures requires stage-drive programming techniques that account for specified polymer material exposure durations. Creating advanced structures such as WG S-bends into single-mode polymer WG builds provides designers with the ability to affect pitch control, optical coupling, and reduce footprint requirements. Fabrication of single-mode polymer WG segmented radial arcs is achieved through a smooth radial arc user-programmed defined mathematical algorithm. Cosine and raised-sine S-bends are realized through a segmentation method where the optimal incremental step length and bend dimensions are controlled to achieve minimal structure loss. Laser direct written S-bends are compared with previously published photolithographic S-bend results using theoretical bend loss models. Fabrication results show that LDW is a viable method in the fabrication of advanced polymer WG structures.

  19. Studying and Teaching about the Internal Environments of Single-Structure Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    The field of urban geography has as its prime foci the study and teaching of the spatial relationships that exist among the various structures, areas, and inhabitants within cities. The idea of a single-structure city, a building where people can live, work, and be entertained with a climatically-controlled environment is no longer a utopian…

  20. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  1. Revealing the effect of edge contamination on vortex matter structure in a Nb single crystal with neutron diffraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Helen; Wang, Xi; Luk, Michael; Shi, Jing; Ling, Xinsheng; Maranville, Brian; Majkrzak, Charles

    2011-03-01

    The vortex matter of type II superconductors provides a model system to study the effect of quenched random disorder on an elastic lattice, particularly in the framework of Bragg glass theory. Neutron scattering techniques are used to examine the structure of the vortex matter and to quantify the phase diagram. After measuring various thermal-magnetic histories, our data provided evidence for the edge contamination model in a Nb single crystal. Since surface oxidation is known to suppress the Bean-Livingston Surface barrier and the inhomogeneous distribution of surface impurities in Nb, we oxidize our sample surface and repeat our measurements. By comparing the data, we are able isolate the dynamic impact of the edge disorder from the static influence of bulk pinning. We discuss the various experimental obstacles in measuring the predicted Bragg glass state. We also report on Reverse Monte Carlo Refinement simulations modeling possible structures of our vortex matter. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE under grant DE- FG 02 - 07 ER46458.

  2. Next-Generation Sequencing of Coccidioides immitis Isolated during Cluster Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Engelthaler, David M.; Chiller, Tom; Schupp, James A.; Colvin, Joshua; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Moses, Tracy; Tembe, Waibhav; Sinari, Shripad; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S.; Christoforides, Alexis; Pearson, John V.; Carpten, John; Keim, Paul; Peterson, Ashley; Terashita, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing enables use of whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) as a viable and discriminatory tool for genotyping and molecular epidemiologic analysis. We used WGST to confirm the linkage of a cluster of Coccidioides immitis isolates from 3 patients who received organ transplants from a single donor who later had positive test results for coccidioidomycosis. Isolates from the 3 patients were nearly genetically identical (a total of 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified among them), thereby demonstrating direct descent of the 3 isolates from an original isolate. We used WGST to demonstrate the genotypic relatedness of C. immitis isolates that were also epidemiologically linked. Thus, WGST offers unique benefits to public health for investigation of clusters considered to be linked to a single source. PMID:21291593

  3. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, J.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis based on 27 polymorphic microsatellite markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, Jennifer K.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n=112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and α-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species.

  5. Population genetic diversity and structure of a naturally isolated plant species, Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan; Lou, Anru

    2011-01-01

    Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae) is a perennial diploid species found in high-montane areas. It is distributed in fragmented populations across northern, central and northwestern China. In this study, we aimed to (i) measure the genetic diversity of this species and that of its populations; (ii) describe the genetic structure of these populations across the entire distribution range in China; and (iii) evaluate the extent of gene flow among the naturally fragmented populations. Samples from 1089 individuals within 35 populations of R. dumulosa were collected, covering as much of the entire distribution range of this species within China as possible. Population genetic diversity and structure were analyzed using AFLP molecular markers. Gene flow among populations was estimated according to the level of population differentiation. The total genetic diversity of R. dumulosa was high but decreased with increasing altitude. Population-structure analysis indicated that the most closely related populations were geographically restricted and occurred in close proximity to each other. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern, caused by the naturally fragmented population distribution, was observed. At least two distinct gene pools were found in the 35 sampled populations, one composed of populations in northern China and the other composed of populations in central and northwestern China. The calculation of Nei's gene diversity index revealed that the genetic diversity in the northern China pool (0.1972) was lower than that in the central and northwestern China pool (0.2216). The populations were significantly isolated, and gene flow was restricted throughout the entire distribution. However, gene flow among populations on the same mountain appears to be unrestricted, as indicated by the weak genetic isolation among these populations.

  6. Population Genetic Diversity and Structure of a Naturally Isolated Plant Species, Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yan; Lou, Anru

    2011-01-01

    Aims Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae) is a perennial diploid species found in high-montane areas. It is distributed in fragmented populations across northern, central and northwestern China. In this study, we aimed to (i) measure the genetic diversity of this species and that of its populations; (ii) describe the genetic structure of these populations across the entire distribution range in China; and (iii) evaluate the extent of gene flow among the naturally fragmented populations. Methods Samples from 1089 individuals within 35 populations of R. dumulosa were collected, covering as much of the entire distribution range of this species within China as possible. Population genetic diversity and structure were analyzed using AFLP molecular markers. Gene flow among populations was estimated according to the level of population differentiation. Important Findings The total genetic diversity of R. dumulosa was high but decreased with increasing altitude. Population-structure analysis indicated that the most closely related populations were geographically restricted and occurred in close proximity to each other. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern, caused by the naturally fragmented population distribution, was observed. At least two distinct gene pools were found in the 35 sampled populations, one composed of populations in northern China and the other composed of populations in central and northwestern China. The calculation of Nei's gene diversity index revealed that the genetic diversity in the northern China pool (0.1972) was lower than that in the central and northwestern China pool (0.2216). The populations were significantly isolated, and gene flow was restricted throughout the entire distribution. However, gene flow among populations on the same mountain appears to be unrestricted, as indicated by the weak genetic isolation among these populations. PMID:21909437

  7. Admittance Investigation of MIS Structures with HgTe-Based Single Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Izhnin, Ihor I; Nesmelov, Sergey N; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V; Gorn, Dmitry I; Dvoretsky, Sergey A; Mikhailov, Nikolaj N

    2016-12-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure based on Hg1 - x Cd x Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The structure contains a single quantum well Hg0.35Cd0.65Te/HgTe/Hg0.35Cd0.65Te with thickness of 5.6 nm in the sub-surface layer of the semiconductor. Both the conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics show strong oscillations when the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a single quantum well based on HgTe is biased into the strong inversion mode. Also, oscillations on the voltage dependencies of differential resistance of the space charge region were observed. These oscillations were related to the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  8. Continuous bioluminescent monitoring of cytoplasmic ATP in single isolated rat hepatocytes during metabolic poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Koop, A; Cobbold, P H

    1993-01-01

    We have devised a technique for monitoring cytoplasmic ATP continuously in single hepatocytes. Single isolated rat hepatocytes were injected with the ATP-dependent luminescent protein firefly luciferase, and then superfused with 45 microM luciferin in air-equilibrated medium. Signals of approx. 10-200 photoelectron counts per second could be recorded from individual healthy cells for up to 3 h. The response of the luminescent signal to chemical hypoxia (2-5 mM CN- and 5-10 mM 2-deoxyglucose) was monitored. We found a great cell-to-cell variability in the time course of the ATP decline in response to CN-, 2-deoxyglucose or to their combination; the time for the signal to fall to 10% of the original (corresponding to approx. 100 microM ATP) ranged from approx. 20 to 75 min. This resistance of the cytoplasmic ATP concentration to depletion after blockade of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis could be abolished by pretreatment of the cells with etomoxir, which blocks mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Etomoxir alone had no effect on the luciferase signal, but etomoxir-pre-treated cells showed a prompt fall in the luciferase signal starting within 1-2 min of application of cyanide and 2-deoxyglucose and falling to 10% of the original signal in approx. 6-10 min. The technique allows cytoplasmic ATP changes to be monitored in single hepatocytes at concentrations of 1 mM or lower, but more precise calibration of the signal will require correction for the effects of cytoplasmic pH changes. PMID:8216212

  9. Structural differences between single crystal and polycrystalline UBe 13

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather Michelle; Vogel, Sven C.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    Here, we report on observations of structural and chemical differences between samples of UBe 13 that were synthesised using two different methods. Unexplained discrepancies in properties between samples with differing synthesis had previously been found in this heavy fermion superconductor. A polycrystalline UBe13 sample was made by arc-melting the constituents. Single crystals were grown using an aluminium flux and had a consistently slightly larger lattice parameter than the polycrystals, which merited further study. Neutron diffraction data were collected at the Lujan Center at LANSCE on the HIPPO diffractometer. Aluminium was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in themore » flux-grown single crystal (0.803 wt%), and small amounts (~0.2 wt%) of thorium were detected in the UBe 13 polycrystalline sample. In order to probe the implications of the presence of Al, calculations by spin-polarised DFT-GGA+U show that the incorporation of Al onto the 96i site (the lowest symmetry site in the structure) is energetically more favourable than on other sites. In general, the trends calculated by DFT for bond lengths and lattice parameter increases are consistent with bond lengths experimentally observed by neutron diffraction, but specific percentage changes with aluminium incorporation may be obscured by the unexpected thorium in the polycrystalline sample. The aggregate of our initial observations suggests that incorporation of aluminium from the flux into single crystal UBe 13 is significant.« less

  10. Structural differences between single crystal and polycrystalline UBe 13

    DOE PAGES

    Volz, Heather Michelle; Vogel, Sven C.; Smith, Alice Iulia; ...

    2018-05-16

    Here, we report on observations of structural and chemical differences between samples of UBe 13 that were synthesised using two different methods. Unexplained discrepancies in properties between samples with differing synthesis had previously been found in this heavy fermion superconductor. A polycrystalline UBe13 sample was made by arc-melting the constituents. Single crystals were grown using an aluminium flux and had a consistently slightly larger lattice parameter than the polycrystals, which merited further study. Neutron diffraction data were collected at the Lujan Center at LANSCE on the HIPPO diffractometer. Aluminium was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in themore » flux-grown single crystal (0.803 wt%), and small amounts (~0.2 wt%) of thorium were detected in the UBe 13 polycrystalline sample. In order to probe the implications of the presence of Al, calculations by spin-polarised DFT-GGA+U show that the incorporation of Al onto the 96i site (the lowest symmetry site in the structure) is energetically more favourable than on other sites. In general, the trends calculated by DFT for bond lengths and lattice parameter increases are consistent with bond lengths experimentally observed by neutron diffraction, but specific percentage changes with aluminium incorporation may be obscured by the unexpected thorium in the polycrystalline sample. The aggregate of our initial observations suggests that incorporation of aluminium from the flux into single crystal UBe 13 is significant.« less

  11. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    PubMed

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  12. Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals (S4C): Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alwis, A.; Holsclaw, B.; Pushkarev, V. V.; Reinicker, A.; Lawton, T. J.; Blecher, M. E.; Sykes, E. C. H.; Gellman, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    A set of six spherically curved Cu single crystals referred to as Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals (S4Cs) has been prepared in such a way that their exposed surfaces collectively span all possible crystallographic surface orientations that can be cleaved from the face centered cubic Cu lattice. The method for preparing these S4Cs and for finding the high symmetry pole point is described. Optical profilometry has been used to determine the true shapes of the S4Cs and show that over the majority of the surface, the shape is extremely close to that of a perfect sphere. The local orientations of the surfaces lie within ± 1° of the orientation expected on the basis of the spherical shape; their orientation is as good as that of many commercially prepared single crystals. STM imaging has been used to characterize the atomic level structure of the Cu(111) ± 11°-S4C. This has shown that the average step densities and the average step orientations match those expected based on the spherical shape. In other words, although there is some distribution of step-step spacing and step orientations, there is no evidence of large scale reconstruction or faceting. The Cu S4Cs have local structures based on the ideal termination of the face centered cubic Cu lattice in the direction of termination. The set of Cu S4Cs will serve as the basis for high throughput investigations of structure sensitive surface chemistry on Cu.

  13. Tg and Structural Recovery of Single Ultrathin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sindee

    The behavior of materials confined at the nanoscale has been of considerable interest over the past two decades. Here, the focus is on recent results for single polystyrene ultrathin films studied with ultrafast scanning chip calorimetry. The Tg depression of a 20 nm-thick high-molecular-weight polystyrene film is found to be a function of cooling rate, decreasing with increasing cooling rate; whereas, at high enough cooling rates (e.g., 1000 K/s), Tg is the same as the bulk within the error of the measurements. Structural recovery is also performed with chip calorimetry as a function of aging time and temperature, and the evolution of the fictive temperature is followed. The advantages of the Flash DSC include sufficient sensitivity to measure enthalpy recovery for a single 20 nm-thick film, as well as extension of the measurements to aging temperatures as high as 15 K above nominal Tg and to aging times as short as 0.01 s. The aging behavior and relaxation time-temperature map for single ultrathin films are compared to those for bulk material. Comparison to behavior in other geometries will also be discussed.

  14. Forest Structure Retrieval From EcoSAR P-Band Single-Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Rincon, Rafael; Lee, Seung Kuk; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Bollian, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    EcoSAR is a single-pass (dual antenna) digital beamforming, P-band radar system that is designed for remote sensing of dense forest structure. Forest structure retrievals require the measurement related to the vertical dimension, for which several techniques have been developed over the years. These techniques use polarimetric and interferometric aspects of the SAR data, which can be collected using EcoSAR. In this paper we describe EcoSAR system in light of its interferometric capabilities and investigate forest structure retrieval techniques.

  15. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Tess V; Rendleman, Justin; Ge, Wenzhen; Koenig, Karen L; Wirgin, Isaac; Currie, Diane; Shore, Roy E; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA. We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison. We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74%) had high call frequencies (≥95%) using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95%) had highly concordant (>98%) genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping. Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  16. Development of vibration isolation platform for low amplitude vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-03-01

    The performance of high precision payloads on board a satellite is extremely sensitive to vibration. Although vibration environment of a satellite on orbit is very gentle compared to the launch environment, even a low amplitude vibration disturbances generated by reaction wheel assembly, cryocoolers, etc may cause serious problems in performing tasks such as capturing high resolution images. The most commonly taken approach to protect sensitive payloads from performance degrading vibration is application of vibration isolator. In this paper, development of vibration isolation platform for low amplitude vibration is discussed. Firstly, single axis vibration isolator is developed by adapting three parameter model using bellows and viscous fluid. The isolation performance of the developed single axis isolator is evaluated by measuring force transmissibility. The measured transmissibility shows that both the low Q-factor (about 2) and the high roll-off rate (about -40 dB/dec) are achieved with the developed isolator. Then, six single axis isolators are combined to form Stewart platform in cubic configuration to provide multi-axis vibration isolation. The isolation performance of the developed multi-axis isolator is evaluated using a simple prototype reaction wheel model in which wheel imbalance is the major source of vibration. The transmitted force without vibration isolator is measured and compared with the transmitted force with vibration isolator. More than 20 dB reduction of the X and Y direction (radial direction of flywheel) disturbance is observed for rotating wheel speed of 100 Hz and higher.

  17. Protein structure determination by electron diffraction using a single three-dimensional nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Clabbers, M T B; van Genderen, E; Wan, W; Wiegers, E L; Gruene, T; Abrahams, J P

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional nanometre-sized crystals of macromolecules currently resist structure elucidation by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Here, a single nanocrystal with a diffracting volume of only 0.14 µm 3 , i.e. no more than 6 × 10 5 unit cells, provided sufficient information to determine the structure of a rare dimeric polymorph of hen egg-white lysozyme by electron crystallography. This is at least an order of magnitude smaller than was previously possible. The molecular-replacement solution, based on a monomeric polyalanine model, provided sufficient phasing power to show side-chain density, and automated model building was used to reconstruct the side chains. Diffraction data were acquired using the rotation method with parallel beam diffraction on a Titan Krios transmission electron microscope equipped with a novel in-house-designed 1024 × 1024 pixel Timepix hybrid pixel detector for low-dose diffraction data collection. Favourable detector characteristics include the ability to accurately discriminate single high-energy electrons from X-rays and count them, fast readout to finely sample reciprocal space and a high dynamic range. This work, together with other recent milestones, suggests that electron crystallography can provide an attractive alternative in determining biological structures.

  18. Protein structure determination by electron diffraction using a single three-dimensional nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Clabbers, M. T. B.; van Genderen, E.; Wiegers, E. L.; Gruene, T.; Abrahams, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanometre-sized crystals of macromolecules currently resist structure elucidation by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Here, a single nanocrystal with a diffracting volume of only 0.14 µm3, i.e. no more than 6 × 105 unit cells, provided sufficient information to determine the structure of a rare dimeric polymorph of hen egg-white lysozyme by electron crystallography. This is at least an order of magnitude smaller than was previously possible. The molecular-replacement solution, based on a monomeric polyalanine model, provided sufficient phasing power to show side-chain density, and automated model building was used to reconstruct the side chains. Diffraction data were acquired using the rotation method with parallel beam diffraction on a Titan Krios transmission electron microscope equipped with a novel in-house-designed 1024 × 1024 pixel Timepix hybrid pixel detector for low-dose diffraction data collection. Favourable detector characteristics include the ability to accurately discriminate single high-energy electrons from X-rays and count them, fast readout to finely sample reciprocal space and a high dynamic range. This work, together with other recent milestones, suggests that electron crystallography can provide an attractive alternative in determining biological structures. PMID:28876237

  19. Isolation and characterization of diuron-degrading bacteria from lotic surface water.

    PubMed

    Batisson, Isabelle; Pesce, Stéphane; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Sancelme, Martine; Bohatier, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The bacterial community structure of a diuron-degrading enrichment culture from lotic surface water samples was analyzed and the diuron-degrading strains were selected using a series of techniques combining temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) of 16 S rDNA gene V1-V3 variable regions, isolation of strains on agar plates, colony hybridization methods, and biodegradation assays. The TTGE fingerprints revealed that diuron had a strong impact on bacterial community structure and highlighted both diuron-sensitive and diuron-adapted bacterial strains. Two bacterial strains, designated IB78 and IB93 and identified as belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp., were isolated and shown to degrade diuron in pure resting cells in a first-order kinetic reaction during the first 24 h of incubation with no 3,4-DCA detected. The percentages of degradation varied from 25% to 60% for IB78 and 20% to 65% for IB93 and for a diuron concentration range from 20 mg/L to 2 mg/L, respectively. It is interesting to note that diuron was less degraded by single isolates than by mixed resting cells, thereby underlining a cumulative effect between these two strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of diuron-degrading strains isolated from lotic surface water.

  20. Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jitendra Y.; Bhambar, Rajendra S.; Narkhede, Minal R.; Gawali, Sonali R.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

  1. The Structure Lacuna

    PubMed Central

    Boeyens, Jan C.A.; Levendis, Demetrius C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular symmetry is intimately connected with the classical concept of three-dimensional molecular structure. In a non-classical theory of wave-like interaction in four-dimensional space-time, both of these concepts and traditional quantum mechanics lose their operational meaning, unless suitably modified. A required reformulation should emphasize the importance of four-dimensional effects like spin and the symmetry effects of space-time curvature that could lead to a fundamentally different understanding of molecular symmetry and structure in terms of elementary number theory. Isolated single molecules have no characteristic shape and macro-biomolecules only develop robust three-dimensional structure in hydrophobic response to aqueous cellular media. PMID:22942753

  2. Ensembles generated from crystal structures of single distant homologues solve challenging molecular-replacement cases in AMPLE.

    PubMed

    Rigden, Daniel J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simkovic, Felix; Simpkin, Adam; Winn, Martyn D; Mayans, Olga; Keegan, Ronan M

    2018-03-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) is the predominant route to solution of the phase problem in macromolecular crystallography. Although routine in many cases, it becomes more effortful and often impossible when the available experimental structures typically used as search models are only distantly homologous to the target. Nevertheless, with current powerful MR software, relatively small core structures shared between the target and known structure, of 20-40% of the overall structure for example, can succeed as search models where they can be isolated. Manual sculpting of such small structural cores is rarely attempted and is dependent on the crystallographer's expertise and understanding of the protein family in question. Automated search-model editing has previously been performed on the basis of sequence alignment, in order to eliminate, for example, side chains or loops that are not present in the target, or on the basis of structural features (e.g. solvent accessibility) or crystallographic parameters (e.g. B factors). Here, based on recent work demonstrating a correlation between evolutionary conservation and protein rigidity/packing, novel automated ways to derive edited search models from a given distant homologue over a range of sizes are presented. A variety of structure-based metrics, many readily obtained from online webservers, can be fed to the MR pipeline AMPLE to produce search models that succeed with a set of test cases where expertly manually edited comparators, further processed in diverse ways with MrBUMP, fail. Further significant performance gains result when the structure-based distance geometry method CONCOORD is used to generate ensembles from the distant homologue. To our knowledge, this is the first such approach whereby a single structure is meaningfully transformed into an ensemble for the purposes of MR. Additional cases further demonstrate the advantages of the approach. CONCOORD is freely available and computationally inexpensive, so

  3. Ensembles generated from crystal structures of single distant homologues solve challenging molecular-replacement cases in AMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Adam; Mayans, Olga; Keegan, Ronan M.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) is the predominant route to solution of the phase problem in macromolecular crystallography. Although routine in many cases, it becomes more effortful and often impossible when the available experimental structures typically used as search models are only distantly homologous to the target. Nevertheless, with current powerful MR software, relatively small core structures shared between the target and known structure, of 20–40% of the overall structure for example, can succeed as search models where they can be isolated. Manual sculpting of such small structural cores is rarely attempted and is dependent on the crystallographer’s expertise and understanding of the protein family in question. Automated search-model editing has previously been performed on the basis of sequence alignment, in order to eliminate, for example, side chains or loops that are not present in the target, or on the basis of structural features (e.g. solvent accessibility) or crystallographic parameters (e.g. B factors). Here, based on recent work demonstrating a correlation between evolutionary conservation and protein rigidity/packing, novel automated ways to derive edited search models from a given distant homologue over a range of sizes are presented. A variety of structure-based metrics, many readily obtained from online webservers, can be fed to the MR pipeline AMPLE to produce search models that succeed with a set of test cases where expertly manually edited comparators, further processed in diverse ways with MrBUMP, fail. Further significant performance gains result when the structure-based distance geometry method CONCOORD is used to generate ensembles from the distant homologue. To our knowledge, this is the first such approach whereby a single structure is meaningfully transformed into an ensemble for the purposes of MR. Additional cases further demonstrate the advantages of the approach. CONCOORD is freely available and computationally inexpensive, so

  4. Prevalence and significance of isolated T wave inversion in 1755 consecutive American collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Dany; Main, Michael L; Gupta, Sanjaya; Gosch, Kensey; McCoy, Marcia; Magalski, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of isolated T-wave inversions (TWI) in American athletes using contemporary ECG criteria. Ethnic and gender disparities including the association of isolated TWI with underlying abnormal cardiac structure are evaluated. From 2004 to 2014, 1755 collegiate athletes at a single American university underwent prospective collection of medical history, physical examination, 12-lead ECG, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. ECG analysis was performed to evaluate for isolated TWI as per contemporary ECG criteria. The overall prevalence of isolated TWI is 1.3%. Ethnic and gender disparities are not observed in American athletes (black vs. white: 1.7% vs. 1.1%; p=0.41) (women vs. men: 1.5% vs. 1.1; p=0.52). No association was found with underlying cardiomyopathy. A lower prevalence of isolated TWI in American athletes than previously reported. Isolated TWI was not associated with an abnormal echocardiogram. No ethnic or gender disparity is seen in American college athletes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Genotyping of single spore isolates of a Pasteuria penetrans population occurring in Florida using SNP-based markers.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S; Schmidt, L M; Danquah, W B; Timper, P; Mekete, T

    2017-02-01

    To generate single spore lines of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida and examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics exist within the population. Six single spore lines (SSP), 16SSP, 17SSP, 18SSP, 25SSP, 26SSP and 30SSP were generated. Genetic variability was evaluated by comparing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six protein-coding genes and the 16S rRNA gene. An average of one SNP was observed for every 69 bp in the 16S rRNA, whereas no SNPs were observed in the protein-coding sequences. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 16S rRNA sequences placed the clones into three distinct clades. Bio-efficacy analysis revealed significant heterogeneity in the level virulence and host specificity between the individual clones. The SNP markers developed to the 5' hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene may be useful in biotype differentiation within a population of P. penetrans. This study demonstrates an efficient method for generating single spore lines of P. penetrans and gives a deep insight into genetic heterogeneity and varying level of virulence exists within a population parasitizing a specific Meloidogyne sp. host. The results also suggest that the application of generalist spore lines in nematode management may achieve broad RKN control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A simple, fast, and inexpensive CTAB-PVP-silica based method for genomic DNA isolation from single, small insect larvae and pupae.

    PubMed

    Huanca-Mamani, W; Rivera-Cabello, D; Maita-Maita, J

    2015-07-17

    In this study, we report a modified CTAB-PVP method combined with silicon dioxide (silica) treatment for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from a single larva or pupa. This method efficiently obtains DNA from small specimens, which is difficult and challenging because of the small amount of starting tissue. Maceration with liquid nitrogen, phenol treatment, and the ethanol precipitation step are eliminated using this methodology. The A260/A280 absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 1.8, suggesting that the DNA is pure and can be used for further molecular analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA permits molecular applications and represents a fast, cheap, and effective alternative method for laboratories with low budgets.

  7. Isolation of Mitochondrial DNA from Single, Short Hairs without Roots Using Pressure Cycling Technology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kathryn A; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Merritt, Richard T; Walker, Jessica; Fisher, Constance L; Robertson, James M

    2018-02-01

    Hairs are commonly submitted as evidence to forensic laboratories, but standard nuclear DNA analysis is not always possible. Mitochondria (mt) provide another source of genetic material; however, manual isolation is laborious. In a proof-of-concept study, we assessed pressure cycling technology (PCT; an automated approach that subjects samples to varying cycles of high and low pressure) for extracting mtDNA from single, short hairs without roots. Using three microscopically similar donors, we determined the ideal PCT conditions and compared those yields to those obtained using the traditional manual micro-tissue grinder method. Higher yields were recovered from grinder extracts, but yields from PCT extracts exceeded the requirements for forensic analysis, with the DNA quality confirmed through sequencing. Automated extraction of mtDNA from hairs without roots using PCT could be useful for forensic laboratories processing numerous samples.

  8. Divorce, Single Parenthood and Stepfamilies: Structural Implications of These Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Gerda L.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on change in the family structure during divorce as well as stages of single parenthood and the reconstituted family. Special characteristics of these families and tasks to be undertaken to enable the new unit to function are discussed. Suggests family therapy is helpful during the crisis stage. (Author)

  9. Population Structure, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Mutation Frequencies of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Rosa; Morosini, María-Isabel; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez-G.; Fenoll, Asunción; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Máiz, Luis; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from sputum samples from 26 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients attending our CF unit (1995 to 2003) were studied. Mean yearly incidence of isolation was 5.5%, and all were strains recovered from young patients (≤12 years). The isolation was linked to clinical exacerbation in 35% of the cases, but only 27% of these were not accompanied by other CF pathogens. Fifty percent of the patients presented with two to four isolates over the studied period. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-SmaI digestion revealed a high heterogeneity (32 pulsotypes among 48 isolates) and the persistence over a 6-month period of a single clone (clone A) in two patients. This clone, presenting a varied multiresistance phenotype, was identified as the Spain23F-1 clone and was also recognized in six other patients, including two out of nine patients from the CF unit of Sant Joan de Dèu Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. In our isolates, 16 different serotypes were recognized, the most frequent being 23F (33.3%), 19F (18.8%), 6A (6.2%), and 6B (6.2%). High overall resistance rates were observed: to penicillin, 73%; to cefotaxime, 33%; to erythromycin, 42%; to tetracycline, 58%; to chloramphenicol, 48%; and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 67%. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Multiresistance was a common feature (60%). The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains with increased frequencies of mutation to rifampin resistance (≥7.5 × 10−8) was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in CF (60%) than among non-CF (37%) isolates in the same institution (M. I. Morosini et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:1464-1467, 2003). Even though a clear association with acute exacerbations could not be observed, long-term clonal persistence and variability, high frequency of antibiotic resistance, and hypermutability indicate the plasticity for adaptation of S. pneumoniae to the CF lung environment. PMID:15872243

  10. Effect of structural flexibility on the design of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous analyses of the design of vibration-isolating mounts for a rear-mounted engine to decouple linear and rotational oscillations are extended to take into account flexibility of the engine-mount structure. Equations and curves are presented to allow the design of mount systems and to illustrate the results for a range of design conditions.

  11. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  12. Applicability of superelastic materials in seismic protection systems: a parametric study of performance in isolation of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soul, H.; Yawny, A.

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic response to different seismic inputs of an isolated structure disposed on a sliding layer and connected to the ground with a superelastic NiTi device was analyzed. The device allows wires of NiTi to be mechanically cycled by supporting externally applied tension/compression forces exploiting both dissipative and self-centering capabilities associated with superelasticity. Simulations were carried out modifying the wires length and the structural mass. Both parameters were varied over two orders of magnitude with the aim of evaluating the type of response, the mitigation level that can be accomplished and the combination of parameters resulting in an optimal response. Results indicate that the proposed device is suitable for seismic protection of isolated structures and it is demonstrated that the protective action is more related with the restraining and self-centering properties of the NiTi superelastic wires than with its damping capacity.

  13. The Manifest Association Structure of the Single-Factor Model: Insights from Partial Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgueiro, Maria de Fatima; Smith, Peter W. F.; McDonald, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The association structure between manifest variables arising from the single-factor model is investigated using partial correlations. The additional insights to the practitioner provided by partial correlations for detecting a single-factor model are discussed. The parameter space for the partial correlations is presented, as are the patterns of…

  14. Single Biomolecules at Cryogenic Temperatures: From Structure to Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Clemens; Kulzer, Florian; Zondervan, Rob; Köhler, Jürgen; Orrit, Michel

    Elucidating the dynamics of proteins remains a central and daunting challenge of molecular biology. In our contribution we discuss the relevance of lowtemperature observations not only to structure, but also to dynamics, and thereby to the function of proteins. We first review investigations on light-harvesting complexes to illustrate how increased photostability at low temperatures and spectral selection provide a deeper insight into the excitonic interactions of the chromophores and the dynamics of the protein scaffold. Furthermore, we introduce a novel technique that achieves controlled, reproducible temperature cycles of a microscopic sample on microsecond timescales. We discuss the potential of this technique as a tool to achieve repeatable single-molecule freeze-trapping and to overcome some of the limitations of single-molecule experiments at room temperature.

  15. Single-wall nanohorn structure and distribution of incorporated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigne, Alan; Gloter, Alexandre; Ajima, Kumiko; Colliex, Christian; Iijima, Sumio

    2005-03-01

    Single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) are unique spherical-aggregates of single-wall carbon quasi-nanotubes. So far, the observable area has been limited to the aggregate surfaces. We studied core-region structure with TEM using thickness measurement method, EELS, and EDS, and found that carbon density was uniform over the whole aggregate. This result allows to modelize the core-region and to clarify previous models of SWNHs. We used same tools to investigate the incorporation of materials such as fullerenes or platinium compounds. We found that particles can even be incorporated in the core-region and that their distribution in the aggregate depends on their concentration. The information available with these models should be useful in the study of SWNH applications to, for example, drug delivery system.

  16. Physiological and structural properties of saponin-skinned single smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The study of the fundamental events underlying the generation and regulation of force in smooth muscle would be greatly facilitated if the permeability of the cell membrane were increased so that the intracellular environment of the contractile apparatus could be manipulated experimentally. To initiate such an analysis, we developed a saponin permeabilization procedure that was used to "skin" isolated smooth muscle cells from the stomach of the toad, Bufo marinus. Suspensions of single cells isolated enzymatically were resuspended in high-K+ rigor solution (0 ATP, 5 mM EGTA) and exposed for 5 min to 25 micrograms/ml saponin. Virtually all the cells in a suspension were made permeable by this procedure and shortened to less than one-third their initial length when ATP and Ca++ were added; they re-extended when free Ca++ was removed. Analysis of the protein content of the skinned cells revealed that, although their total protein was reduced by approximately 30%, they retained most of their myosin and actin. Skinning was accompanied by a rearrangement of actin and myosin filaments within the cells such that a fine fibrillar structure became visible under the light microscope and a tight clustering of acting filaments around myosin filaments was revealed by the electron microscope. Face-on views of saponin-treated cell membranes revealed the presence of 70-80-A-wide pits or holes. The shortening rate of skinned cells was sensitive to [Ca++] between pCa 7 and pCa 5 and was half-maximal at approximately pCa 6.2. Shortening was also dependent on [ATP] but could be increased at low [ATP] by pretreatment with adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), which suggests that myosin phosphorylation was more sensitive to low substrate concentrations than was cross-bridge cycling. To determine whether a significant limitation to free diffusion existed in the skinned cells, a computer model of the cell and the unstirred layer surrounding it was developed. Simulations

  17. Physiological and structural properties of saponin-skinned single smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kargacin, G J; Fay, F S

    1987-07-01

    The study of the fundamental events underlying the generation and regulation of force in smooth muscle would be greatly facilitated if the permeability of the cell membrane were increased so that the intracellular environment of the contractile apparatus could be manipulated experimentally. To initiate such an analysis, we developed a saponin permeabilization procedure that was used to "skin" isolated smooth muscle cells from the stomach of the toad, Bufo marinus. Suspensions of single cells isolated enzymatically were resuspended in high-K+ rigor solution (0 ATP, 5 mM EGTA) and exposed for 5 min to 25 micrograms/ml saponin. Virtually all the cells in a suspension were made permeable by this procedure and shortened to less than one-third their initial length when ATP and Ca++ were added; they re-extended when free Ca++ was removed. Analysis of the protein content of the skinned cells revealed that, although their total protein was reduced by approximately 30%, they retained most of their myosin and actin. Skinning was accompanied by a rearrangement of actin and myosin filaments within the cells such that a fine fibrillar structure became visible under the light microscope and a tight clustering of acting filaments around myosin filaments was revealed by the electron microscope. Face-on views of saponin-treated cell membranes revealed the presence of 70-80-A-wide pits or holes. The shortening rate of skinned cells was sensitive to [Ca++] between pCa 7 and pCa 5 and was half-maximal at approximately pCa 6.2. Shortening was also dependent on [ATP] but could be increased at low [ATP] by pretreatment with adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), which suggests that myosin phosphorylation was more sensitive to low substrate concentrations than was cross-bridge cycling. To determine whether a significant limitation to free diffusion existed in the skinned cells, a computer model of the cell and the unstirred layer surrounding it was developed. Simulations

  18. Sequence polymorphism in an insect RNA virus field population: A snapshot from a single point in space and time reveals stochastic differences among and within individual hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Stenger, Drake C., E-mail: drake.stenger@ars.usda.

    Population structure of Homalodisca coagulata Virus-1 (HoCV-1) among and within field-collected insects sampled from a single point in space and time was examined. Polymorphism in complete consensus sequences among single-insect isolates was dominated by synonymous substitutions. The mutant spectrum of the C2 helicase region within each single-insect isolate was unique and dominated by nonsynonymous singletons. Bootstrapping was used to correct the within-isolate nonsynonymous:synonymous arithmetic ratio (N:S) for RT-PCR error, yielding an N:S value ~one log-unit greater than that of consensus sequences. Probability of all possible single-base substitutions for the C2 region predicted N:S values within 95% confidence limits of themore » corrected within-isolate N:S when the only constraint imposed was viral polymerase error bias for transitions over transversions. These results indicate that bottlenecks coupled with strong negative/purifying selection drive consensus sequences toward neutral sequence space, and that most polymorphism within single-insect isolates is composed of newly-minted mutations sampled prior to selection. -- Highlights: •Sampling protocol minimized differential selection/history among isolates. •Polymorphism among consensus sequences dominated by negative/purifying selection. •Within-isolate N:S ratio corrected for RT-PCR error by bootstrapping. •Within-isolate mutant spectrum dominated by new mutations yet to undergo selection.« less

  19. Protein secondary structure determination by constrained single-particle cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, Alberto; Lecumberry, Federico; Sapiro, Guillermo; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2012-12-05

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for 3D structure determination of protein complexes by averaging information from individual molecular images. The resolutions that can be achieved with single-particle cryo-EM are frequently limited by inaccuracies in assigning molecular orientations based solely on 2D projection images. Tomographic data collection schemes, however, provide powerful constraints that can be used to more accurately determine molecular orientations necessary for 3D reconstruction. Here, we propose "constrained single-particle tomography" as a general strategy for 3D structure determination in cryo-EM. A key component of our approach is the effective use of images recorded in tilt series to extract high-resolution information and correct for the contrast transfer function. By incorporating geometric constraints into the refinement to improve orientational accuracy of images, we reduce model bias and overrefinement artifacts and demonstrate that protein structures can be determined at resolutions of ∼8 Å starting from low-dose tomographic tilt series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra-isolate genome variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi persists in the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Boon, E; Zimmerman, E; Lang, B F; Hijri, M

    2010-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are heterokaryotes with an unusual genetic makeup. Substantial genetic variation occurs among nuclei within a single mycelium or isolate. AMF reproduce through spores that contain varying fractions of this heterogeneous population of nuclei. It is not clear whether this genetic variation on the genome level actually contributes to the AMF phenotype. To investigate the extent to which polymorphisms in nuclear genes are transcribed, we analysed the intra-isolate genomic and cDNA sequence variation of two genes, the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rDNA) of Glomus sp. DAOM-197198 (previously known as G. intraradices) and the POL1-like sequence (PLS) of Glomus etunicatum. For both genes, we find high sequence variation at the genome and transcriptome level. Reconstruction of LSU rDNA secondary structure shows that all variants are functional. Patterns of PLS sequence polymorphism indicate that there is one functional gene copy, PLS2, which is preferentially transcribed, and one gene copy, PLS1, which is a pseudogene. This is the first study that investigates AMF intra-isolate variation at the transcriptome level. In conclusion, it is possible that, in AMF, multiple nuclear genomes contribute to a single phenotype.

  1. Single-crystalline cubic structured InP nanosprings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G. Z.; Bando, Y.; Zhi, C. Y.; Yuan, X. L.; Sekiguchi, T.; Golberg, D.

    2006-06-01

    Cubic structured nanosprings, InP nanosprings, have been synthesized via a simple thermochemical process using InP and ZnS as the source materials. Each InP nanospring is formed by rolling up a single InP nanobelt with the growth direction along the ⟨111⟩ orientation. The formation of these novel nanostructures is mainly attributed to the minimization of the electrostatic energy due to the polar charges on the ±(002) side surfaces of cubic InP. Cathodoluminescence properties were also studied, which reveal that the InP nanosprings have three emission bands centered at ˜736, ˜920, and ˜980nm.

  2. Isolation and Structural Characterization of Two Very Large, and Largely Empty, Endohedral Fullerenes: Tm@C3v-C94 and Ca@C3v-C94

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yuliang; Yang, Hua; Wang, Zhimin; Jin, Hongxiao; Lu, Chunxin; Zuo, Tianming; Beavers, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of two newly synthesized endohedral fullerenes - Tm@C3v-C94 and Ca@C3v-C94 - have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction on samples co-crystallized with NiII(octaethylporphyrin). Both compounds exhibit the same cage geometry and conform to the isolated pentagon rule (IPR). The metal ions within these rather large cages are localized near one end and along the C3 axis. While the calcium ion is situated over a C-C bond at a 6:6 ring junction, the thulium ion is positioned above a six-membered ring of the fullerene. PMID:19507844

  3. Go with the flow or solitary confinement: a look inside the single-cell toolbox for isolation of rare and uncultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert Rb; Raes, Jeroen

    2018-06-13

    With the vast majority of the microbial world still considered unculturable or undiscovered, microbiologists not only require more fundamental insights concerning microbial growth requirements but also need to implement miniaturized, versatile and high-throughput technologies to upscale current microbial isolation strategies. In this respect, single-cell-based approaches are increasingly finding their way to the microbiology lab. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that analysis and separation of free microbial cells by flow-based sorting as well as physical stochastic confinement of individual cells in microenvironment compartments can facilitate the isolation of previously uncultured species and the discovery of novel microbial taxa. Still, while most of these methods give immediate access to downstream whole genome sequencing, upscaling to higher cell densities as required for metabolic readouts and preservation purposes can remain challenging. Provided that these and other technological challenges are addressed in future innovation rounds, integration of single-cell tools in commercially available benchtop instruments and service platforms is expected to trigger more targeted explorations in the microbial dark matter at a depth comparable to metagenomics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microsatellite markers isolated from a polyploid saltbush, Atriplex nummularia Lindl. (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Byrne, Margaret; Hankinson, Margaret; Sampson, Jane F; Stankowski, Sean

    2008-11-01

    Atriplex nummularia is a polyploid Australian saltbush which has been identified as a suitable species for use in the rehabilitation of agricultural land affected by salinity. We isolated 12 polymorphic loci for a preliminary assessment of genetic variability and structure within the species as a basis for a breeding programme. Preliminary screening of loci in 40 individuals from two populations revealed multibanded genotypes consisting of up to seven alleles in a single individual, with up to 29 alleles observed at a single locus. The multibanded patterns are consistent with the polyploid status of this species. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Contact-force guided single-catheter approach for pulmonary vein isolation: Feasibility, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Pambrun, Thomas; Combes, Stéphane; Sousa, Pedro; Bloa, Mathieu Le; El Bouazzaoui, Rim; Grand-Larrieu, Delphine; Thompson, Nathaniel; Martin, Ruairidh; Combes, Nicolas; Boveda, Serge; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Albenque, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    For conventional ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), an ablation catheter in conjunction with a circular mapping catheter (CMC) is typically used for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate an approach for PVI with a single contact-force (CF) ablation catheter in terms of procedural reliability, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. One hundred consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF were included in the study. Fifty patients (study group) underwent a CF-guided single-catheter approach, whereby PVI was demonstrated when sequential pacing at 9 equidistant points within the lesion set (carina included) failed to capture the left atrium. For confirmation, PVI was verified with a CMC. In comparison, 50 patients (control group) underwent a conventional PVI ablation guided by a CMC. Procedure time (101 ± 17 minutes vs 107 ± 15 minutes, P = .11), ablation time (24.2 ± 7.1 minutes vs 22.6 ± 8.8 minutes, P = .37), fluoroscopy time (5.6 ± 2.2 minutes vs 8.3 ± 3.4 minutes, P = .09), and applied CF (17.8 ± 2.6 g vs 18 ± 2.8 g, P = .72) did not reach statistical difference between the study and control groups. CF-guided single-catheter ablation achieved successful PVI in 98% of the study group and a 31% reduction in cost. At 1-year follow-up, sinus rhythm maintenance rate was similar in both groups (86% vs 84%, P = .78). In paroxysmal AF, a CF-guided single-catheter technique is an effective method for PVI, yielding substantial cost savings and clinical results similar to a conventional approach. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative structural and electronic studies of hydrogen interaction with isolated versus ordered silicon nanoribbons grown on Ag(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, M. E.; Marele, A.; De Padova, P.; Montero, I.; Hennies, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Shariati, M. N.; Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.; Le Lay, G.

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated the geometry and electronic structure of two different types of self-aligned silicon nanoribbons (SiNRs), forming either isolated SiNRs or a self-assembled 5 × 2/5 × 4 grating on an Ag(110) substrate, by scanning tunnelling microscopy and high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At room temperature we further adsorb on these SiNRs either atomic or molecular hydrogen. The hydrogen absorption process and hydrogenation mechanism are similar for isolated or 5 × 2/5 × 4 ordered SiNRs and are not site selective; the main difference arises from the fact that the isolated SiNRs are more easily attacked and destroyed faster. In fact, atomic hydrogen strongly interacts with any Si atoms, modifying their structural and electronic properties, while molecular hydrogen has first to dissociate. Hydrogen finally etches the Si nanoribbons and their complete removal from the Ag(110) surface could eventually be expected.

  7. Structural Model for Antisocial Behavior: Generalization to Single-Mother Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, David V.; Skinner, Martie L.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the "basic training" structural model in Patterson's (1982) coercion theory, extending its scope to single-mother families with younger (six- to eight-year-old) boys. Significance of the successful replication was seen to lie in implications for the generalizability of the model across family…

  8. Quantum Yield Heterogeneity among Single Nonblinking Quantum Dots Revealed by Atomic Structure-Quantum Optics Correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Orfield, Noah J.; McBride, James R.; Wang, Feng; ...

    2016-02-05

    Physical variations in colloidal nanostructures give rise to heterogeneity in expressed optical behavior. This correlation between nanoscale structure and function demands interrogation of both atomic structure and photophysics at the level of single nanostructures to be fully understood. In this paper, by conducting detailed analyses of fine atomic structure, chemical composition, and time-resolved single-photon photoluminescence data for the same individual nanocrystals, we reveal inhomogeneity in the quantum yields of single nonblinking “giant” CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (g-QDs). We find that each g-QD possesses distinctive single exciton and biexciton quantum yields that result mainly from variations in the degree of charging,more » rather than from volume or structure inhomogeneity. We further establish that there is a very limited nonemissive “dark” fraction (<2%) among the studied g-QDs and present direct evidence that the g-QD core must lack inorganic passivation for the g-QD to be “dark”. Finally and therefore, in contrast to conventional QDs, ensemble photoluminescence quantum yield is principally defined by charging processes rather than the existence of dark g-QDs.« less

  9. Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

  10. Linear and passive silicon optical isolator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    On-chip optical isolation plays a key role in optical communications and computing based on silicon integrated photonic structures and has attracted great attentions for long years. Recently there have appeared hot controversies upon whether isolation of light can be realized via linear and passive photonic structures. Here we demonstrate optical isolation of infrared light in purely linear and passive silicon photonic structures. Both numerical simulations and experimental measurements show that the round-trip transmissivity of in-plane infrared light across a silicon photonic crystal slab heterojunction diode could be two orders of magnitudes smaller than the forward transmissivity at around 1,550 nm with a bandwidth of about 50 nm, indicating good performance of optical isolation. The occurrence of in-plane light isolation is attributed to the information dissipation due to off-plane and side-way scattering and selective modal conversion in the multiple-channel structure and has no conflict with the reciprocal principle. PMID:22993699

  11. A Dicobalt Complex with an Unsymmetrical Quinonoid Bridge Isolated in Three Units of Charge: A Combined Structural, (Spectro)electrochemical, Magnetic and Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Margarethe; Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Frank, Uta; Breitgoff, Frauke D; Hohloch, Stephan; Su, Cheng-Yong; Neugebauer, Petr; Marx, Raphael; Dörfel, María; van Slageren, Joris; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2016-09-19

    Quinonoid ligands are excellent bridges for generating redox-rich dinuclear assemblies. A large majority of these bridges are symmetrically substituted, with examples of unsymmetrically substituted quinonoid bridges being extremely rare. We present here a dicobalt complex in its various redox states with an unsymmetrically substituted quinonoid bridging ligand. Two homovalent forms and one mixed-valent form have been isolated and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex displays a large comproportionation constant for the mixed-valent state which is three orders of magnitude higher than that observed for the analogous complex with a symmetrically substituted bridge. Results from electrochemistry, UV/Vis/NIR spectroelectrochemistry, SQUID magnetometry, multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy and FIR spectroscopy are used to probe the electronic structures of these complexes. FIR provides direct evidence of exchange coupling. The results presented here display the advantages of using an unsymmetrically substituted bridge: site specific redox chemistry, high thermodynamic stabilization of the mixed-valent form, isolation and crystallization of various redox forms of the complex. This work represents an important step on the way to generating heterodinuclear complexes for use in cooperative catalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Magnetic Memory from Site Isolated Dy(III) on Silica Materials

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Achieving magnetic remanence at single isolated metal sites dispersed at the surface of a solid matrix has been envisioned as a key step toward information storage and processing in the smallest unit of matter. Here, we show that isolated Dy(III) sites distributed at the surface of silica nanoparticles, prepared with a simple and scalable two-step process, show magnetic remanence and display a hysteresis loop open at liquid 4He temperature, in contrast to the molecular precursor which does not display any magnetic memory. This singular behavior is achieved through the controlled grafting of a tailored Dy(III) siloxide complex on partially dehydroxylated silica nanoparticles followed by thermal annealing. This approach allows control of the density and the structure of isolated, “bare” Dy(III) sites bound to the silica surface. During the process, all organic fragments are removed, leaving the surface as the sole ligand, promoting magnetic remanence. PMID:28386602

  13. Magnetic memory from site isolated Dy(III) on silica materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allouche, Florian; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Siddiqi, Georges

    Achieving magnetic remanence at single isolated metal sites dispersed at the surface of a solid matrix has been envisioned as a key step toward information storage and processing in the smallest unit of matter. Here, we show that isolated Dy(III) sites distributed at the surface of silica nanoparticles, prepared with a simple and scalable two-step process, show magnetic remanence and display a hysteresis loop open at liquid 4He temperature, in contrast to the molecular precursor which does not display any magnetic memory. This singular behavior is achieved through the controlled grafting of a tailored Dy(III) siloxide complex on partially dehydroxylatedmore » silica nanoparticles followed by thermal annealing. This approach allows control of the density and the structure of isolated, “bare” Dy(III) sites bound to the silica surface. Throughout the process, all organic fragments are removed, leaving the surface as the sole ligand, promoting magnetic remanence.« less

  14. Magnetic memory from site isolated Dy(III) on silica materials

    DOE PAGES

    Allouche, Florian; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Siddiqi, Georges; ...

    2017-02-22

    Achieving magnetic remanence at single isolated metal sites dispersed at the surface of a solid matrix has been envisioned as a key step toward information storage and processing in the smallest unit of matter. Here, we show that isolated Dy(III) sites distributed at the surface of silica nanoparticles, prepared with a simple and scalable two-step process, show magnetic remanence and display a hysteresis loop open at liquid 4He temperature, in contrast to the molecular precursor which does not display any magnetic memory. This singular behavior is achieved through the controlled grafting of a tailored Dy(III) siloxide complex on partially dehydroxylatedmore » silica nanoparticles followed by thermal annealing. This approach allows control of the density and the structure of isolated, “bare” Dy(III) sites bound to the silica surface. Throughout the process, all organic fragments are removed, leaving the surface as the sole ligand, promoting magnetic remanence.« less

  15. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Characterization and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles of a single clone Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Alper; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Acar, Sümeyra; Durmaz, Rıza

    2014-10-01

    were susceptible to TG and COL. The resistance rates of the environmental isolates to SCF, AMK, GEN, NT, LVF, TET and SXT were determined as 57.1%, 85.7%, 85.7%, 28.8%, 28.6%, 85.7% and 57.1%, respectively. PFGE analysis done by the use of ApaI enzyme revealed the presence of one major clone. Dendogram analysis indicated that environmental and clinical isolates were in the same clone indicating that the outbreak was possibly originated from the same internal ICUs. Our data emphasized that multidrug resistant A.baumannii isolates were quite common in our hospital, and enviromental cross-contamination throughout the year was confirmed by molecular methods. Despite the precautions such as continous education on effective hand washing, use of gloves and hospital cleaning, established in our hospital, this single clonal spread was attributed to staff shortage and poor adherence to infection control rules. In conclusion, for the prevention of dissemination of multidrug resistant A.baumannii strains and control of nosocomial infections, infection control strategies should be established and strict compliance to these rules should be provided.

  17. Structural and optical properties of WTe2 single crystals synthesized by DVT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pathak, V. M.; Soalanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Layered transition metal di-chalcogenide (LTMDCs) crystals have attracted much attention due to their potential in optoelectronic device applications recently due to realization of their monolayer based structures. In the present investigation we report growth of WTe2 single crystals by direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. These crystals are then characterized by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) to study stoichiometric composition after growth. The structural properties are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) is used to confirm orthorhombic structure of grown WTe2 crystal. Surface morphological properties of the crystals are also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical properties of the grown crystals are studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy which gives direct band gap of 1.44 eV for grown WTe2 single crystals.

  18. Structural characterization of framework-gas interactions in the metal-organic framework Co2(dobdc) by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Miguel I; Mason, Jarad A; Bloch, Eric D; Teat, Simon J; Gagnon, Kevin J; Morrison, Gregory Y; Queen, Wendy L; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-06-01

    The crystallographic characterization of framework-guest interactions in metal-organic frameworks allows the location of guest binding sites and provides meaningful information on the nature of these interactions, enabling the correlation of structure with adsorption behavior. Here, techniques developed for in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments on porous crystals have enabled the direct observation of CO, CH 4 , N 2 , O 2 , Ar, and P 4 adsorption in Co 2 (dobdc) (dobdc 4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), a metal-organic framework bearing coordinatively unsaturated cobalt(ii) sites. All these molecules exhibit such weak interactions with the high-spin cobalt(ii) sites in the framework that no analogous molecular structures exist, demonstrating the utility of metal-organic frameworks as crystalline matrices for the isolation and structural determination of unstable species. Notably, the Co-CH 4 and Co-Ar interactions observed in Co 2 (dobdc) represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first single-crystal structure determination of a metal-CH 4 interaction and the first crystallographically characterized metal-Ar interaction. Analysis of low-pressure gas adsorption isotherms confirms that these gases exhibit mainly physisorptive interactions with the cobalt(ii) sites in Co 2 (dobdc), with differential enthalpies of adsorption as weak as -17(1) kJ mol -1 (for Ar). Moreover, the structures of Co 2 (dobdc)·3.8N 2 , Co 2 (dobdc)·5.9O 2 , and Co 2 (dobdc)·2.0Ar reveal the location of secondary (N 2 , O 2 , and Ar) and tertiary (O 2 ) binding sites in Co 2 (dobdc), while high-pressure CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 , and Ar adsorption isotherms show that these binding sites become more relevant at elevated pressures.

  19. Structural characterization of framework–gas interactions in the metal–organic framework Co 2 (dobdc) by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Mason, Jarad A.; Bloch, Eric D.; ...

    2017-04-19

    The crystallographic characterization of framework–guest interactions in metal–organic frameworks allows the location of guest binding sites and provides meaningful information on the nature of these interactions, enabling the correlation of structure with adsorption behavior. Here, techniques developed for in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments on porous crystals have enabled the direct observation of CO, CH 4, N 2, O 2, Ar, and P 4 adsorption in Co2(dobdc) (dobdc 4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), a metal–organic framework bearing coordinatively unsaturated cobalt(II) sites. All these molecules exhibit such weak interactions with the high-spin cobalt(II) sites in the framework that no analogous molecular structures exist,more » demonstrating the utility of metal–organic frameworks as crystalline matrices for the isolation and structural determination of unstable species. Notably, the Co–CH 4 and Co–Ar interactions observed in Co 2(dobdc) represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first single-crystal structure determination of a metal–CH 4 interaction and the first crystallographically characterized metal–Ar interaction. Analysis of low-pressure gas adsorption isotherms confirms that these gases exhibit mainly physisorptive interactions with the cobalt(II) sites in Co 2(dobdc), with differential enthalpies of adsorption as weak as –17(1) kJ mol –1 (for Ar). Moreover, the structures of Co 2(dobdc)·3.8N 2, Co 2(dobdc)·5.9O 2, and Co 2(dobdc)·2.0Ar reveal the location of secondary (N 2, O 2, and Ar) and tertiary (O 2) binding sites in Co 2(dobdc), while high-pressure CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2, and Ar adsorption isotherms show that these binding sites become more relevant at elevated pressures.« less

  20. Transition from single to multiple axial potential structure in expanding helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Pal, R.; Bora, D.

    2017-02-01

    Transition from single to multiple axial potential structure (MAPS) formation is reported in expanding helicon plasma. This transition is created by forming a cusp magnetic field at the downstream after the expansion throat. Two distinct potential drops are separated by a uniform axial potential zone. Non-uniform axial density distribution exists in expanding helicon systems. A cusp-like field nourishes both the axial density gradients sufficient enough for the formation of these two distinct potential drops. It is also shown that both single and multiple axial potential structures are observed only when both geometric and magnetic expansions closely coincide with each other. Coexistence of these two expansions at the same location enhances plasma expansion which facilitates deviation from Boltzmann distribution and violates quasi-neutrality locally.

  1. Single-chain behavior of poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Momchil; Gross, Jonathan; Janke, Wolfhard

    2017-03-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been in the focus of recent studies due to its promising future use in organic photovoltaics, electronics and photonics. Recent publications investigate the melt behavior of P3HT, its interaction with other molecules, mainly various fullerene derivates, and isolated chains interacting with substrates. In this work we lay the focus on the single-chain properties of P3HT in vacuum. We compare structural properties obtained from simulations using two coarse-grained models and an atomistic model of the polymer for various chain lengths and temperatures.

  2. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  3. Peloruside B, a Potent Antitumor Macrolide from the New Zealand Marine Sponge Mycale hentscheli: Isolation, Structure, Total Synthesis and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. Jonathan; Xu, Chun-Xiao; Xu, Xiaoming; West, Lyndon M.; Wilmes, Anja; Chan, Ariane; Hamel, Ernest; Miller, John H.; Northcote, Peter T.; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2009-01-01

    Peloruside B (2), a natural congener of peloruside A (1), was isolated in sub-milligram quantities from the New Zealand marine sponge Mycale hentscheli. Peloruside B promotes microtubule polymerization and arrests cells in the G2M phase of mitosis similar to paclitaxel, and its bioactivity was comparable to that of peloruside A. NMR-directed isolation, structure elucidation, structure confirmation by total synthesis and bioactivity of peloruside B are described in this article. The synthesis features Sharpless dihydroxylation, Brown's asymmetric allylboration reaction, reductive aldol coupling, Yamaguchi macrolactonization and selective methylation. PMID:19957922

  4. Isolation and primary structural analysis of two conjugated polyketone reductases from Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A R; Akond, M A; Kita, K; Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-12-01

    Two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPRs) were isolated from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The primary structures of CPRs (C1 and C2) were analyzed by amino acid sequencing. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes had high similarity to those of several proteins of the aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in the putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPRs-C1 and -C2.

  5. Population Genetics of Verticillium dahliae in Iran Based on Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Vahideh; Banihashemi, Ziaeddin; Bautista-Jalon, Laura S; Del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, Maria; Turgeon, B Gillian; Milgroom, Michael G

    2018-06-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a plant pathogenic fungus that reproduces asexually and its population structure is highly clonal. In the present study, 78 V. dahliae isolates from Iran were genotyped for mating type, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and microsatellites to assign them to clonal lineages and to determine population genetic structure in Iran. The mating type of all isolates was MAT1-2. Based on neighbor-joining analysis and minimum spanning networks constructed from SNPs and microsatellite genotypes, respectively, all but four isolates were assigned to lineage 2B 824 ; four isolates were assigned to lineage 4B. The inferred coalescent genealogy of isolates in lineage 2B 824 showed a clear divergence into two clades that corresponded to geographic origin and host. Haplotypes of cotton and pistachio isolates sampled from central Iran were in one clade, and those of isolates from Prunus spp. sampled from northwestern Iran were in the other. The strong divergence in haplotypes between the two clades suggests that there were at least two separate introductions of lineage 2B 824 to different parts of Iran. Given the history of cotton and pistachio cultivation and Verticillium wilt in Iran, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that cotton was historically a likely source inoculum causing Verticillium wilt in pistachio.

  6. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape.

    PubMed

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A

    2012-10-30

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to test the counteraction hypothesis of counterbalancing effects between the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and denaturing osmolyte urea for the case of α-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease-linked protein whose monomer exhibits significant disorder. The single-molecule experiments, which avoid complications from protein aggregation, do not exhibit clear solvent-induced cooperative protein transitions for these osmolytes, unlike results from previous studies on globular proteins. Our data demonstrate the ability of TMAO and urea to shift α-synuclein structures towards either more compact or expanded average dimensions. Strikingly, the experiments directly reveal that a 21 [urea][TMAO] ratio has a net neutral effect on the protein's dimensions, a result that holds regardless of the absolute osmolyte concentrations. Our findings shed light on a surprisingly simple aspect of the interplay between urea and TMAO on α-synuclein in the context of intrinsically disordered proteins, with potential implications for the biological roles of such chemical chaperones. The results also highlight the strengths of single-molecule experiments in directly probing the chemical physics of protein structure and disorder in more chemically complex environments.

  7. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M.; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Deniz, Ashok A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to test the counteraction hypothesis of counterbalancing effects between the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and denaturing osmolyte urea for the case of α-synuclein, a Parkinson’s disease-linked protein whose monomer exhibits significant disorder. The single-molecule experiments, which avoid complications from protein aggregation, do not exhibit clear solvent-induced cooperative protein transitions for these osmolytes, unlike results from previous studies on globular proteins. Our data demonstrate the ability of TMAO and urea to shift α-synuclein structures towards either more compact or expanded average dimensions. Strikingly, the experiments directly reveal that a 2∶1 [urea]∶[TMAO] ratio has a net neutral effect on the protein’s dimensions, a result that holds regardless of the absolute osmolyte concentrations. Our findings shed light on a surprisingly simple aspect of the interplay between urea and TMAO on α-synuclein in the context of intrinsically disordered proteins, with potential implications for the biological roles of such chemical chaperones. The results also highlight the strengths of single-molecule experiments in directly probing the chemical physics of protein structure and disorder in more chemically complex environments. PMID:22826265

  8. Facile Isolation of Adsorbent-Free Long and Highly-Pure Chirality-Selected Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using A Hydrogen-bonding Supramolecular Polymer.

    PubMed

    Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-12-14

    The ideal form of semiconducting-single-walled carbon nanotubes (sem-SWNTs) for science and technology is long, defect-free, chirality pure and chemically pure isolated narrow diameter tubes. While various techniques to solubilize and purify sem-SWNTs have been developed, many of them targeted only the chiral- or chemically-purity while sacrificing the sem-SWNT intrinsic structural identities by applying strong ultra-sonication and/or chemical modifications. Toward the ultimate purification of the sem-SWNTs, here we report a mild-conditioned extraction of the sem-SWNTs using removable supramolecular hydrogen-bonding polymers (HBPs) that are composed of dicarboxylic- or diaminopyridyl-fluorenes with ~70%-(8,6)SWNT selective extraction. Replacing conventional strong sonication techniques by a simple shaking using HPBs was found to provide long sem-SWNTs (>2.0 μm) with a very high D/G ratio, which was determined by atomic force microscopy observations. The HBPs were readily removed from the nanotube surfaces by an outer stimulus, such as a change in the solvent polarities, to provide chemically pure (8,6)-enriched sem-SWNTs. We also describe molecular mechanics calculations to propose possible structures for the HBP-wrapped sem-SWNTs, furthermore, the mechanism of the chiral selectivity for the sorted sem-SWNTs is well explained by the relationship between the molecular surface area and mass of the HBP/SWNT composites.

  9. Multi-functional metal-dielectric photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kyle J.

    In RF circuits and integrated photonics, it is important to effectively control an electromagnetic signal. This includes protecting of the network from high power and/or undesired signal flow, which is achieved with device functionalities such as isolation, circulation, switching, and limiting. In an attempt to develop light-weight, small-footprint, better protection devices, new designs have been sought utilizing materials that have been otherwise avoided due to some primary downside. For example, ferromagnetic metals like Iron and Cobalt, despite being powerful magnets, have been completely shunned for uses in nonreciprocal devices due to their overwhelming electric losses and high reflectivity. How could we utilize lossy materials in electromagnetic applications? In this thesis research, we design and fabricate metal-dielectric photonic structures in which metal can be highly transmissive, while the desired response (e.g., magneto-photonic response) is strongly enhanced. Moreover, the metal-dielectric structures can be designed to exhibit a sharp transition from the induced transmission to broadband opacity for oblique incidence and/or due to a tiny alteration of the photonic structure (e.g., because of nonlinearity). Thus, the photonic structures can be tailored to produce collimation and power-limiting effects. In the case of ferromagnetic metals, the metal-dielectric structure can be realized as an omnidirectional isolator passing radiation in a single direction and for a single frequency. The effectiveness of such structures will be verified in microwave measurements. Additionally, metal-dielectric structures including a nonlinear component will be shown to function as a reflective power limiter, thus providing a far superior alternative to absorptive, and often sacrificial, limiters.

  10. Epitaxial layers of 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films having single crystalline structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal K. (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  11. A single dynamic observer-based module for design of simultaneous fault detection, isolation and tracking control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, M.; Meskin, N.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of simultaneous fault detection, isolation and tracking (SFDIT) control design for linear systems subject to both bounded energy and bounded peak disturbances is considered in this work. A dynamic observer is proposed and implemented by using the H∞/H-/L1 formulation of the SFDIT problem. A single dynamic observer module is designed that generates the residuals as well as the control signals. The objective of the SFDIT module is to ensure that simultaneously the effects of disturbances and control signals on the residual signals are minimised (in order to accomplish the fault detection goal) subject to the constraint that the transfer matrix from the faults to the residuals is equal to a pre-assigned diagonal transfer matrix (in order to accomplish the fault isolation goal), while the effects of disturbances, reference inputs and faults on the specified control outputs are minimised (in order to accomplish the fault-tolerant and tracking control goals). A set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility conditions are derived to ensure solvability of the problem. In order to illustrate and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed design methodology, the developed and proposed schemes are applied to an autonomous unmanned underwater vehicle (AUV).

  12. Structure of the Balmer jump. The isolated hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Belluzzi, L.; Steiner, O.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the hydrogen atom was explained by Bohr more than one century ago. We revisit here some of the aspects of the underlying quantum structure, with a modern formalism, focusing on the limit of the Balmer series. Aims: We investigate the behaviour of the absorption coefficient of the isolated hydrogen atom in the neighbourhood of the Balmer limit. Methods: We analytically computed the total cross-section arising from bound-bound and bound-free transitions in the isolated hydrogen atom at the Balmer limit, and established a simplified semi-analytical model for the surroundings of that limit. We worked within the framework of the formalism of Landi Degl'Innocenti & Landolfi (2004, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib., 307), which permits an almost straight-forward generalization of our results to other atoms and molecules, and which is perfectly suitable for including polarization phenomena in the problem. Results: We analytically show that there is no discontinuity at the Balmer limit, even though the concept of a "Balmer jump" is still meaningful. Furthermore, we give a possible definition of the location of the Balmer jump, and we check that this location is dependent on the broadening mechanisms. At the Balmer limit, we compute the cross-section in a fully analytical way. Conclusions: The Balmer jump is produced by a rapid drop of the total Balmer cross-section, yet this variation is smooth and continuous when both bound-bound and bound-free processes are taken into account, and its shape and location is dependent on the broadening mechanisms.

  13. Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.

  14. Design-Filter Selection for H2 Control of Microgravity Isolation Systems: A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require active vibration isolation, to attain suitably low levels of background acceleration for useful experimental results. The design of state-space controllers by optimal control methods requires judicious choices of frequency-weighting design filters. Kinematic coupling among states greatly clouds designer intuition in the choices of these filters, and the masking effects of the state observations cloud the process further. Recent research into the practical application of H2 synthesis methods to such problems, indicates that certain steps can lead to state frequency-weighting design-filter choices with substantially improved promise of usefulness, even in the face of these difficulties. In choosing these filters on the states, one considers their relationships to corresponding design filters on appropriate pseudo-sensitivity- and pseudo-complementary-sensitivity functions. This paper investigates the application of these considerations to a single-degree-of-freedom microgravity vibration-isolation test case. Significant observations that were noted during the design process are presented. along with explanations based on the existent theory for such problems.

  15. Crystal structure, spectral, thermal and dielectric studies of a new zinc benzoate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijini, B. R.; Prasanna, S.; Deepa, M.; Nair, C. M. K.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2012-11-01

    Single crystals of zinc benzoate with a novel structure were grown in gel media. Sodium metasilicate of gel density 1.04 g/cc at pH 6 was employed to yield transparent single crystals. The crystal structure of the compound was ascertained by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. It was noted that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c with unit cell parameters a = 10.669(1) Å, b = 12.995(5) Å, c = 19.119(3) Å, and β = 94.926(3)°. The crystal was seen to possess a linear polymeric structure along b-axis; with no presence of coordinated or lattice water. CHN analysis established the stoichiometric composition of the crystal. The existence of functional groups present in the single crystal system was confirmed by FT-IR studies. The thermal characteristic of the sample was analysed by TGA-DTA techniques, and the sample was found to be thermally stable up to 280 °C. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also determined. UV-Vis spectroscopy corroborated the transparency of the crystal and revealed the optical band gap to be 4 eV. Dielectric studies showed decrease in the dielectric constant of the sample with increase in frequency.

  16. Leishmania major: genetic heterogeneity of Iranian isolates by single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer.

    PubMed

    Tashakori, Mahnaz; Mahnaz, Tashakori; Kuhls, Katrin; Katrin, Kuhls; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Amer, Al-Jawabreh; Mauricio, Isabel L; Isabel, Mauricio; Schönian, Gabriele; Gabriele, Schönian; Farajnia, Safar; Safar, Farajnia; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hossein, Alimohammadian Mohammad

    2006-04-01

    Protozoan parasites of Leishmania major are the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different parts of Iran. We applied PCR-based methods to analyze L. major parasites isolated from patients with active lesions from different geographic areas in Iran in order to understand DNA polymorphisms within L. major species. Twenty-four isolates were identified as L. major by RFLP analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons. These isolates were further studied by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of ITS1 and ITS2. Data obtained from SSCP analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 loci revealed three and four different patterns among all studied samples, respectively. Sequencing of ITS1 and ITS2 confirmed the results of SSCP analysis and showed the potential of the PCR-SSCP method for assessing genetic heterogeneity within L. major. Different patterns in ITS1 were due to substitution of one nucleotide, whereas in ITS2 the changes were defined by variation in the number of repeats in two polymorphic microsatellites. In total five genotypic groups LmA, LmB, LmC, LmD and LmE were identified among L. major isolates. The most frequent genotype, LmA, was detected in isolates collected from different endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Genotypes LmC, LmD and LmE were found only in the new focus of CL in Damghan (Semnan province) and LmB was identified exclusively among isolates of Kashan focus (Isfahan province). The distribution of genetic polymorphisms suggests the existence of distinct endemic regions of L. major in Iran.

  17. Structural and immunomodulatory differences among lactobacilli exopolysaccharides isolated from intestines of mice with experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Górska, Sabina; Sandstrőm, Corine; Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Rossowska, Joanna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-11-21

    Characteristic changes in the microbiota biostructure and a decreased tolerance to intestinal bacteria have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, few studies have examined the constituents of the intestinal microbiota, including the surface molecules of the bacteria, in healthy and IBD subsets. Here, we compare the chemical structures and immunomodulatory properties of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of lactobacilli isolated from mice with induced IBD (IBD "+") versus those of healthy mice (IBD "-"). Classical structural analyses were performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Immunomodulatory properties were assessed by stimulation of dendritic cells derived from mouse bone marrow or human peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Our results revealed that EPS produced by IBD "+" species are structurally different from those isolated from IBD "-". Moreover, the structurally different EPS generate different immune responses by dendritic cells. We speculate that resident strains could, upon gut inflammation, switch to producing EPS with specific motifs that are absent from lactobacilli IBD "-", and/or that bacteria with a particular EPS structure might inhabit the inflamed intestinal mucosa. This study may shed light on the role of EPS in IBD and help the development of a specific probiotic therapy for this disease.

  18. Bioactive Formylated Flavonoids from Eugenia rigida: Isolation, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mohamed A; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Hetta, Mona H; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Mohammed, Rabab; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Coleman, Christina; Fronczek, Frank R; Ferreira, Daneel; Muhammad, Ilias

    2016-09-23

    Two new flavonoids, rac-6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (1) and 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-methylchalcone (2), together with five known derivatives, rac-8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (3), 4',6'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-3'-methyldihydrochalcone (4), rac-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methylflavanone (5), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxy-5'-methyldihydrochalcone (6), and 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7), were isolated from the leaves of Eugenia rigida. The individual (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of 1 and 3, together with the corresponding formylated flavones 8 (6-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and 9 (8-formyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavone), as well as 2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (10), 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone (11), and the corresponding 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (7) and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (12), were synthesized. The structures of the isolated and synthetic compounds were established via NMR, HRESIMS, and electronic circular dichroism data. In addition, the structures of 3, 5, and 8 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The isolated and synthetic flavonoids were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against a panel of microorganisms and solid tumor cell lines.

  19. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439

  20. Molecular vibrations in metal-single-molecule-metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Kazumichi; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2010-03-01

    Molecular vibrations in a metal-single-molecule-metal junction were studied based on density functional theory using a single benzenedithiolate molecule connected between gold clusters. We found that the difference in vibrational energy between an isolated benzenedithiol and the single-molecule junction is less than 3% in the energy range above 540 cm -1, where sulfur atoms contribute little to molecular vibrations. The finding implies that we can predict the peak energy in the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of the single-molecule junction in the high energy range by vibrational analyses of isolated molecules.

  1. Single Cell Spectroscopy: Noninvasive Measures of Small-Scale Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulis, Charilaos; Xu, Xin; Reiter, David A.; Neu, Corey P.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of spectroscopy methods attained through increases in sensitivity, and often with the coupling of complementary techniques, has enabled real-time structure and function measurements of single cells. The purpose of this review is to illustrate, in light of advances, the strengths and the weaknesses of these methods. Included also is an assessment of the impact of the experimental setup and conditions of each method on cellular function and integrity. A particular emphasis is placed on noninvasive and nondestructive techniques for achieving single cell detection, including nuclear magnetic resonance, in addition to physical, optical, and vibrational methods. PMID:23886910

  2. Structural analysis of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn with potent antityrosinase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Gao, Yu-Sen; Feng, Hui-Ling; Ding, Yu-Mei; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-08

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.). Their structures were analyzed and elucidated by methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that these compounds are complicated mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers consisting of procyanidin/procyanidin gallate and prodelphinidin. They possessed structural heterogeneity in monomer units, polymer length, and interflavan linkage (A-type and B-type). Their antityrosinase and antioxidant activity were then investigated. The results revealed that they can inhibit tyrosinase activities, including the monophenolase activity and the diphenolase activity. In addition, proanthocyanidins possessed potent antioxidant activity. Our studies revealed that proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn may be applied in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. Single-subject structural networks with closed-form rotation invariant matching mprove power in developmental studies of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    Although much attention has recently been focused on single-subject functional networks, using methods such as resting-state functional MRI, methods for constructing single-subject structural networks are in their infancy. Single-subject cortical networks aim to describe the self-similarity across the cortical structure, possibly signifying convergent developmental pathways. Previous methods for constructing single-subject cortical networks have used patch-based correlations and distance metrics based on curvature and thickness. We present here a method for constructing similarity-based cortical structural networks that utilizes a rotation-invariant representation of structure. The resulting graph metrics are closely linked to age and indicate an increasing degree of closeness throughout development in nearly all brain regions, perhaps corresponding to a more regular structure as the brain matures. The derived graph metrics demonstrate a four-fold increase in power for detecting age as compared to cortical thickness. This proof of concept study indicates that the proposed metric may be useful in identifying biologically relevant cortical patterns.

  4. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    SciTech Connect

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanfordmore » Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for

  5. Uncluttered Single-Image Visualization of Vascular Structures using GPU and Integer Programming

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Jeon, Yongkweon; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Yoon, Sungroh; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    Direct projection of three-dimensional branching structures, such as networks of cables, blood vessels, or neurons onto a 2D image creates the illusion of intersecting structural parts and creates challenges for understanding and communication. We present a method for visualizing such structures, and demonstrate its utility in visualizing the abdominal aorta and its branches, whose tomographic images might be obtained by computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography, in a single two-dimensional stylistic image, without overlaps among branches. The visualization method, termed uncluttered single-image visualization (USIV), involves optimization of geometry. This paper proposes a novel optimization technique that utilizes an interesting connection of the optimization problem regarding USIV to the protein structure prediction problem. Adopting the integer linear programming-based formulation for the protein structure prediction problem, we tested the proposed technique using 30 visualizations produced from five patient scans with representative anatomical variants in the abdominal aortic vessel tree. The novel technique can exploit commodity-level parallelism, enabling use of general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) technology that yields a significant speedup. Comparison of the results with the other optimization technique previously reported elsewhere suggests that, in most aspects, the quality of the visualization is comparable to that of the previous one, with a significant gain in the computation time of the algorithm. PMID:22291148

  6. Predicted stem-loop structures and variation in nucleotide sequence of 3' noncoding regions among animal calicivirus genomes.

    PubMed

    Seal, B S; Neill, J D; Ridpath, J F

    1994-07-01

    Caliciviruses are nonenveloped with a polyadenylated genome of approximately 7.6 kb and a single capsid protein. The "RNA Fold" computer program was used to analyze 3'-terminal noncoding sequences of five feline calicivirus (FCV), rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), and two San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) isolates. The FCV 3'-terminal sequences are 40-46 nucleotides in length and 72-91% similar. The FCV sequences were predicted to contain two possible duplex structures and one stem-loop structure with free energies of -2.1 to -18.2 kcal/mole. The RHDV genomic 3'-terminal RNA sequences are 54 nucleotides in length and share 49% sequence similarity to homologous regions of the FCV genome. The RHDV sequence was predicted to form two duplex structures in the 3'-terminal noncoding region with a single stem-loop structure, resembling that of FCV. In contrast, the SMSV 1 and 4 genomic 3'-terminal noncoding sequences were 185 and 182 nucleotides in length, respectively. Ten possible duplex structures were predicted with an average structural free energy of -35 kcal/mole. Sequence similarity between the two SMSV isolates was 75%. Furthermore, extensive cloverleaflike structures are predicted in the 3' noncoding region of the SMSV genome, in contrast to the predicted single stem-loop structures of FCV or RHDV.

  7. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  8. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single layers and multilayers of GaN and AlN in square-octagon structure: Stability, electronic properties, and functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, E.; Cahangirov, S.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2017-11-01

    Further to planar single-layer hexagonal structures, GaN and AlN can also form free-standing, single-layer structures constructed from squares and octagons. We performed an extensive analysis of dynamical and thermal stability of these structures in terms of ab initio finite-temperature molecular dynamics and phonon calculations together with the analysis of Raman and infrared active modes. These single-layer square-octagon structures of GaN and AlN display directional mechanical properties and have wide, indirect fundamental band gaps, which are smaller than their hexagonal counterparts. These density functional theory band gaps, however, increase and become wider upon correction. Under uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, the fundamental band gaps decrease and can be closed. The electronic and magnetic properties of these single-layer structures can be modified by adsorption of various adatoms, or by creating neutral cation-anion vacancies. The single-layer structures attain magnetic moment by selected adatoms and neutral vacancies. In particular, localized gap states are strongly dependent on the type of vacancy. The energetics, binding, and resulting electronic structure of bilayer, trilayer, and three-dimensional (3D) layered structures constructed by stacking the single layers are affected by vertical chemical bonds between adjacent layers. In addition to van der Waals interaction, these weak vertical bonds induce buckling in planar geometry and enhance their binding, leading to the formation of stable 3D layered structures. In this respect, these multilayers are intermediate between van der Waals solids and wurtzite crystals, offering a wide range of tunability.

  10. Isolated Human Pulmonary Artery Structure and Function Pre- and Post-Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dora, Kim A; Stanley, Christopher P; Al Jaaly, Emad; Fiorentino, Francesca; Ascione, Raimondo; Reeves, Barnaby C; Angelini, Gianni D

    2016-02-23

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a known complication after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, ranging from subclinical functional changes to prolonged postoperative ventilation, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether human pulmonary arterial function is compromised is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the structure and function of isolated and cannulated human pulmonary arteries obtained from lung biopsies after the chest was opened (pre-cardiopulmonary bypass) to those obtained at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (post-cardiopulmonary bypass) from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung biopsies were received from 12 patients undergoing elective surgery. Intralobular small arteries were dissected, cannulated, pressurized, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Functionally, the thromboxane mimetic U46619 produced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in 100% and 75% of pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass arteries, respectively. The endothelium-dependent agonist bradykinin stimulated vasodilation in 45% and 33% of arteries pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass, respectively. Structurally, in most arteries smooth muscle cells aligned circumferentially; live cell viability revealed that although 100% of smooth muscle and 90% of endothelial cells from pre-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies had intact membranes and were considered viable, only 60% and 58%, respectively, were viable from post-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies. We successfully investigated isolated pulmonary artery structure and function in fresh lung biopsies from patients undergoing heart surgery. Pulmonary artery contractile tone and endothelium-dependent dilation were significantly reduced in post-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies. The decreased functional responses were associated with reduced cell viability. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN34428459. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 34428459.

  11. The Transformation of Enterovirus Replication Structures: a Three-Dimensional Study of Single- and Double-Membrane Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Limpens, Ronald W. A. L.; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Kumar, Darshan; Koster, Abraham J.; Snijder, Eric J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Bárcena, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT All positive-strand RNA viruses induce membrane structures in their host cells which are thought to serve as suitable microenvironments for viral RNA synthesis. The structures induced by enteroviruses, which are members of the family Picornaviridae, have so far been described as either single- or double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). Aside from the number of delimiting membranes, their exact architecture has also remained elusive due to the limitations of conventional electron microscopy. In this study, we used electron tomography (ET) to solve the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of these compartments. At different time points postinfection, coxsackievirus B3-infected cells were high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted for ET analysis. The tomograms showed that during the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis, closed smooth single-membrane tubules constituted the predominant virus-induced membrane structure, with a minor proportion of DMVs that were either closed or connected to the cytosol in a vase-like configuration. As infection progressed, the DMV number steadily increased, while the tubular single-membrane structures gradually disappeared. Late in infection, complex multilamellar structures, previously unreported, became apparent in the cytoplasm. Serial tomography disclosed that their basic unit is a DMV, which is enwrapped by one or multiple cisternae. ET also revealed striking intermediate structures that strongly support the conversion of single-membrane tubules into double-membrane and multilamellar structures by a process of membrane apposition, enwrapping, and fusion. Collectively, our work unravels the sequential appearance of distinct enterovirus-induced replication structures, elucidates their detailed 3-D architecture, and provides the basis for a model for their transformation during the course of infection. PMID:21972238

  12. Nanoparticles Incorporated inside Single-Crystals: Enhanced Fluorescent Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yujing; Zang, Huidong; Wang, Ling; ...

    2016-09-25

    Incorporation of guest materials inside single-crystalline hosts leads to single-crystal composites that have become more and more frequently seen in both biogenic and synthetic crystals. The unique composite structure together with long-range ordering promises special properties that are, however, less often demonstrated. In this study, we examine the fluorescent properties of quantum dots (QDs) and polymer dots (Pdots) encapsulated inside the hosts of calcite single-crystals. Two CdTe QDs and two Pdots are incorporated into growing calcite crystals, as the QDs and Pdots are dispersed in the crystallization media of agarose gels. As a result, enhanced fluorescent properties are obtained frommore » the QDs and Pdots inside calcite single-crystals with greatly improved photostability and significantly prolonged fluorescence lifetime, compared to those in solutions and gels. Particularly, the fluorescence lifetime increases by 0.5-1.6 times after the QDs or Pdots are incorporated. The enhanced fluorescent properties indicate the advantages of encapsulation by single-crystal hosts that provide dense shells to isolate the fluorescent nanoparticles from atmosphere. As such, this work has implications for advancing the research of single-crystal composites toward their functional design.« less

  13. Isolation and structure of whiskey polyphenols produced by oxidation of oak wood ellagitannins.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Miho; Tanaka, Takashi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Kouno, Isao

    2008-08-27

    Three new phenolic compounds named whiskey tannins A and B and carboxyl ellagic acid were isolated from commercial Japanese whiskey, along with gallic acid, ellagic acid, brevifolin carboxylic acid, three galloyl glucoses, a galloyl ester of phenolic glucoside, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose, and castacrenin B. Whiskey tannins A and B were oxidation products of a major oak wood ellagitannin, castalagin, in which the pyrogallol ring at the glucose C-1 position of castalagin was oxidized to a cyclopentenone moiety. These tannins originated from ellagitannins contained in the oak wood used for barrel production; however, the original oak wood ellagitannins were not detected in the whiskey. To examine whether the whiskey tannins were produced during the charring process of barrel production, pyrolysis products of castalagin were investigated. Dehydrocastalagin and a new phenolcarboxylic acid trislactone having an isocoumarin structure were isolated, along with castacrenin F and ellagic acid. However, whiskey tannins were not detected in the products.

  14. Genetic Structures of Copy Number Variants Revealed by Genotyping Single Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Minjie; Cui, Xiangfeng; Fredman, David; Brookes, Anthony J.; Azaro, Marco A.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Hu, Guohong; Wang, Hui-Yun; Tereshchenko, Irina V.; Lin, Yong; Shentu, Yue; Gao, Richeng; Shen, Li; Li, Honghua

    2009-01-01

    Background Copy number variants (CNVs) occupy a significant portion of the human genome and may have important roles in meiotic recombination, human genome evolution and gene expression. Many genetic diseases may be underlain by CNVs. However, because of the presence of their multiple copies, variability in copy numbers and the diploidy of the human genome, detailed genetic structure of CNVs cannot be readily studied by available techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Single sperm samples were used as the primary subjects for the study so that CNV haplotypes in the sperm donors could be studied individually. Forty-eight CNVs characterized in a previous study were analyzed using a microarray-based high-throughput genotyping method after multiplex amplification. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also included as controls. Two single-base variants, either allelic or paralogous, could be discriminated for all markers. Microarray data were used to resolve SNP alleles and CNV haplotypes, to quantitatively assess the numbers and compositions of the paralogous segments in each CNV haplotype. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study of the genetic structure of CNVs on a large scale. Resulting information may help understand evolution of the human genome, gain insight into many genetic processes, and discriminate between CNVs and SNPs. The highly sensitive high-throughput experimental system with haploid sperm samples as subjects may be used to facilitate detailed large-scale CNV analysis. PMID:19384415

  15. Conformation, structure and molecular solvation: a spectroscopic and computational study of 2-phenoxy ethanol and its singly and multiply hydrated clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Neil A.; Simons, John P.

    2002-10-01

    The conformational landscapes of 2-phenoxy ethanol (POX) and its hydrated clusters have been studied in the gas-phase, providing a model for pharmaceutical β-blockers. A combination of experimental techniques, including resonant two-photon ionisation (R2PI), laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) and resonant ion-dip infra-red spectroscopy (RIDIRS), coupled with high-level ab initio calculations has allowed the assignment of the individually resolved spectral features to discrete conformational and supra-molecular structures. Assignments were made by comparison of experimental vibrational spectra and partially resolved ultra-violet rotational band contours with those predicted from quantum chemical calculations. The isolated molecule displays a solitary structure with an extended geometry of the side-chain which is stabilised by an intramolecular hydrogen-bond between the alcohol (proton donor) and the ether (proton acceptor) groups of the side-chain. In singly hydrated clusters the water molecule is accommodated by insertion into the intramolecular hydrogen-bond. In the doubly hydrated and higher clusters cyclic structures are generated which incorporate both the water molecules and the terminal OH group of the side-chain; additional (weak) hydrogen bonded interactions with the phenoxy group provide a degree of selectivity but essentially, the water 'droplet' forms on the end of the alcohol side-chain.

  16. Study of structural and optical properties of YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kostić, S.; Lazarević, Z.Ž., E-mail: lzorica@yahoo.com; Radojević, V.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced by the Czochralski technique. • Growth mechanisms and shape of the liquid/solid interface and incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} were studied. • The structure of the crystals was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. • The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. • The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. - Abstract: Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and yttrium aluminum garnet doped with neodymium (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. Themore » critical diameter and the critical rate of rotation were calculated. Suitable polishing and etching solutions were determined. As a result of our experiments, the transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced. The obtained crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure was confirmed by XRD. The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. The Raman and IR spectroscopy results are in accordance with X-ray diffraction analysis. The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. The absence of a core was confirmed by viewing polished crystal slices. Also, it is important to emphasize that the obtained Nd:YAG single crystal has a concentration of 0.8 wt.% Nd{sup 3+} that is characteristic for laser materials.« less

  17. Isolating USB connections in medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Jan-Hein

    2009-01-01

    Although offering several benefits, the universal serial bus (USB) port has not been rapidly adopted for connecting medical equipment. This is because it could affect safety procedures, with equipment not operating isolated from the mains. To overcome this, a single package isolation device has been developed that can be inserted directly into the USB signal path.

  18. Stimulation of Single Isolated Adult Ventricular Myocytes within a Low Volume Using a Planar Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L.; Cooper, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Microchannels (40-μm wide, 10-μm high, 10-mm long, 70-μm pitch) were patterned in the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane on a microscope coverslip base. Integrated within each microchamber were individually addressable stimulation electrodes (40-μm wide, 20-μm long, 100-nm thick) and a common central pseudo-reference electrode (60-μm wide, 500-μm long, 100-nm thick). Isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced into the chamber by micropipetting and subsequently capped with a layer of mineral oil, thus creating limited volumes of saline around individual myocytes that could be varied from 5 nL to 100 pL. Excitation contraction coupling was studied by monitoring myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transients (using Fluo-3 fluorescence) . The amplitude of stimulated myocyte shortening and Ca2+ transients remained constant for 90 min in the larger volume (5 nL) configuration, although the shortening (but not the Ca2+ transient) amplitude gradually decreased to 20% of control within 60 min in the low volume (100 pL) arrangement. These studies indicate a lower limit for the extracellular volume required to stimulate isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Whereas this arrangement could be used to create a screening assay for drugs, individual microchannels (100 pL) can also be used to study the effects of limited extracellular volume on the contractility of single cardiac myocytes. PMID:12944291

  19. Single-crystal silicon trench etching for fabrication of highly integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Manfred

    1991-03-01

    The development of single crystal silicon trench etching for fabrication of memory cells in 4 16 and 64Mbit DRAMs is reviewed in this paper. A variety of both etch tools and process gases used for the process development is discussed since both equipment and etch chemistry had to be improved and changed respectively to meet the increasing requirements for high fidelity pattern transfer with increasing degree of integration. In additon to DRAM cell structures etch results for deep trench isolation in advanced bipolar ICs and ASICs are presented for these applications grooves were etched into silicon through a highly doped buried layer and at the borderline of adjacent p- and n-well areas respectively. Shallow trench etching of large and small exposed areas with identical etch rates is presented as an approach to replace standard LOCOS isolation by an advanced isolation technique. The etch profiles were investigated with SEM TEM and AES to get information on contathination and damage levels and on the mechanism leading to anisotropy in the dry etch process. Thermal wave measurements were performed on processed single crystal silicon substrates for a fast evaluation of the process with respect to plasma-induced substrate degradation. This useful technique allows an optimization ofthe etch process regarding high electrical performance of the fully processed memory chip. The benefits of the use of magnetic fields for the development of innovative single crystal silicon dry

  20. Isolation, pharmacological activity and structure determination of physalin B and 5β,6β-epoxyphysalin B isolated from Congolese Physalis angulata L.

    PubMed

    Mangwala Kimpende, Peter; Lusakibanza, Mariano; Mesia, Kahunu; Tona, Lutete; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frédérich, Michel; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2013-12-15

    Physalis angulata L., an annual herb from the Solanaceae family, is widely used in popular medicine in tropical countries to treat a variety of diseases. Two products, (X) and (Y), were isolated from a crude CH2Cl2 extract of dried Congolese Physalis angulata L. plants and crystallized from acetone for structure elucidation. Compound (X) corresponds to a physalin B dimer acetone solvate hydrate (2C28H30O9·C3H6O·0.22H2O), while compound (Y) crystallizes as a mixed crystal containing two physalin B molecules which overlap with 5β,6β-epoxyphysalin B, also known as physalin F, and one acetone molecule in the asymmetric unit (1.332C28H30O9·0.668C28H30O10·C3H6O). Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxic activity and selectivity indices were determined for crude extracts and the two isolated products (X) and (Y).

  1. A Comparison of Cocrystal Structure Solutions from Powder and Single Crystal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    S Lapidus; P Stephens; K Arora

    We demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of high resolution powder diffraction for determination of cocrystal structures through a double-blind study. Structures of 10 cocrystals of varying complexity were determined independently using single crystal and powder techniques. The two methodologies give identical molecular packing and hydrogen bond topology, and an rms difference in covalent bond lengths of 0.035 {angstrom}. Powder techniques are clearly sufficient to establish a complete characterization of cocrystal geometry.

  2. Determination of the hydrate structure of an isolated alcoholic OH in hydrophobic medium by infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Reikichi; Kusanagi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-07

    This paper reports the structure of the hydrate complex of an isolated alcoholic OH, produced in a small amount in hydrophobic solution in heptane. The structure was determined from the changes, caused by hydration, in the infrared and near-infrared spectra of 2-nonanol in the solution. The changes were exhibited in the "difference" spectrum, in which the spectrum of the solution before hydration was subtracted from that after hydration. The difference spectrum showed a "plus" or "minus" peak at the frequency of the stretching band of a free OH, depending on whether the concentration was below or above about 2%(v/v), respectively. The plus peak appears because the OH stretching band of the isolated OH that acts as an acceptor does not change in frequency but significantly increases in intensity, in agreement with theoretical calculations. In contrast, the stretching band of an isolated OH that acts as a donor shifts downward. This shift decreases the intensity at the stretching frequency of a free OH, giving rise to a minus peak at the frequency in the difference spectrum. It was concluded that an isolated OH is hydrated in the manner as HO...HOH and OH...OH(2) at a concentration below and above about 2%, respectively, in the hydrophobic solution of 2-nonanol.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Single Outpatient Clinic in Panama City Exhibit Wide Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  4. Limited family structure and BRCA gene mutation status in single cases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lagos, Veronica I; Cullinane, Carey A; Gambol, Patricia J; Culver, Julie O; Blazer, Kathleen R; Palomares, Melanie R; Lowstuter, Katrina J; MacDonald, Deborah J

    2007-06-20

    An autosomal dominant pattern of hereditary breast cancer may be masked by small family size or transmission through males given sex-limited expression. To determine if BRCA gene mutations are more prevalent among single cases of early onset breast cancer in families with limited vs adequate family structure than would be predicted by currently available probability models. A total of 1543 women seen at US high-risk clinics for genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA gene testing were enrolled in a prospective registry study between April 1997 and February 2007. Three hundred six of these women had breast cancer before age 50 years and no first- or second-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancers. The main outcome measure was whether family structure, assessed from multigenerational pedigrees, predicts BRCA gene mutation status. Limited family structure was defined as fewer than 2 first- or second-degree female relatives surviving beyond age 45 years in either lineage. Family structure effect and mutation probability by the Couch, Myriad, and BRCAPRO models were assessed with stepwise multiple logistic regression. Model sensitivity and specificity were determined and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. Family structure was limited in 153 cases (50%). BRCA gene mutations were detected in 13.7% of participants with limited vs 5.2% with adequate family structure. Family structure was a significant predictor of mutation status (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.73; P = .02). Although none of the models performed well, receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that modification of BRCAPRO output by a corrective probability index accounting for family structure was the most accurate BRCA gene mutation status predictor (area under the curve, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.81; P<.001) for single cases of breast cancer. Family structure can affect the accuracy of mutation probability models. Genetic testing

  5. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, ISOLATION, AND COMPOSITION OF THE TUBULAR MASTIGONEMES OF THE OCHROMONAS FLAGELLUM

    PubMed Central

    Bouck, G. Benjamin

    1971-01-01

    The structure, assembly, and composition of the extracellular hairs (mastigonemes) of Ochromonas are detailed in this report. These mastigonemes form two lateral unbalanced rows, each row on opposite sides of the long anterior flagellum. Each mastigoneme consists of lateral filaments of two distinct sizes attached to a tubular shaft. The shaft is further differentiated into a basal region at one end and a group of from one to three terminal filaments at the free end. Mastigoneme ontogeny as revealed especially in deflagellated and regenerating cells appears to begin by assembly of the basal region and shaft within the perinuclear continuum. However, addition of lateral filaments to the shaft and extrusion of the mastigonemes to the cell surface is mediated by the Golgi complex. The ultimate distribution of mastigonemes on the flagellar surface seems to be the result of extrusion of mastigonemes near the base of the flagellum, and it is suggested that mastigonemes are then pulled up the flagellum as the axoneme elongates. Efforts to characterize mastigonemes biochemically after isolation and purification on cesium chloride (CsCl) followed by electrophoresis on acrylamide gels have demonstrated what appear to be a single major polypeptide and several differentially migrating carbohydrates. The polypeptide is not homologous with microtuble protein. The functionally anomalous role of mastigonemes in reversing flagellar thrust is discussed in relation to their distribution relative to flagellar anatomy and to the plane of flagellar undulations. PMID:5123323

  6. Single cell transcriptomic analysis of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Welty, Christopher J; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Lakely, Bryce; Xia, Jing; Chen, Shu; Gulati, Roman; Larson, Sandy R; Lange, Paul H; Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm

    2013-02-16

    The ability to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTC) and disseminated tumor cells (DTC) is restricted by the small number detected and isolated (typically <10). To determine if a commercially available technology could provide a transcriptomic profile of a single prostate cancer (PCa) cell, we clonally selected and cultured a single passage of cell cycle synchronized C4-2B PCa cells. Ten sets of single, 5-, or 10-cells were isolated using a micromanipulator under direct visualization with an inverted microscope. Additionally, two groups of 10 individual DTC, each isolated from bone marrow of 2 patients with metastatic PCa were obtained. RNA was amplified using the WT-Ovation™ One-Direct Amplification System. The amplified material was hybridized on a 44K Whole Human Gene Expression Microarray. A high stringency threshold, a mean Alexa Fluor® 3 signal intensity above 300, was used for gene detection. Relative expression levels were validated for select genes using real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Using this approach, 22,410, 20,423, and 17,009 probes were positive on the arrays from 10-cell pools, 5-cell pools, and single-cells, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of gene detection on the single-cell analyses were 0.739 and 0.972 respectively when compared to 10-cell pools, and 0.814 and 0.979 respectively when compared to 5-cell pools, demonstrating a low false positive rate. Among 10,000 randomly selected pairs of genes, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.875 between the single-cell and 5-cell pools and 0.783 between the single-cell and 10-cell pools. As expected, abundant transcripts in the 5- and 10-cell samples were detected by RT-qPCR in the single-cell isolates, while lower abundance messages were not. Using the same stringency, 16,039 probes were positive on the patient single-cell arrays. Cluster analysis showed that all 10 DTC grouped together within each patient. A transcriptomic profile can be reliably obtained from a single cell using

  7. Nonlinear ultrasonic fatigue crack detection using a single piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Lee, Dong Jun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new nonlinear ultrasonic technique for fatigue crack detection using a single piezoelectric transducer (PZT). The proposed technique identifies a fatigue crack using linear (α) and nonlinear (β) parameters obtained from only a single PZT mounted on a target structure. Based on the different physical characteristics of α and β, a fatigue crack-induced feature is able to be effectively isolated from the inherent nonlinearity of a target structure and data acquisition system. The proposed technique requires much simpler test setup and less processing costs than the existing nonlinear ultrasonic techniques, but fast and powerful. To validate the proposed technique, a real fatigue crack is created in an aluminum plate, and then false positive and negative tests are carried out under varying temperature conditions. The experimental results reveal that the fatigue crack is successfully detected, and no positive false alarm is indicated.

  8. Mixed-infection of antibiotic susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates in a single patient and underestimation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae J; Kim, Jong G; Kwon, Dong H

    2003-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori has been increasing worldwide and has begun to affect the overall efficacy of current antibiotic regimens adversely. We examined 220 pairs of H. pylori isolates obtained from both the antrum and corpus of separate patients; 109 (50%) harbored antibiotic-resistant H. pylori: amoxicillin (0.5%), clarithromycin (5.9%), furazolidone (1.4%), metronidazole (45.5%), nitrofurantoin (1.4%), and tetracycline (6.8%). Heteroresistance among the two biopsy sites from each patient was present in 41 of the 109 patients (38%) with antibiotic resistant H. pylori (e.g. 34% with resistant strains would be misclassified as susceptible if a biopsy of the antrum alone used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing). DNA fingerprinting genotype analysis was carried out on the 41 pairs of isolates with heteroresistance. While different patients had different fingerprinting patterns, each pair of isolates showed identical or similar fingerprinting patterns. These results suggest that antibiotic-resistant H. pylori typically develop from pre-existing susceptible strain rather than coinfection with a different strain. The minor differences in genotype (degeneration of genotype) seen reflect one of the processes for development of genetic diversity in H. pylori. No biopsy single site can be considered representative for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  9. Continuous Changes in Structure Mapped by Manifold Embedding of Single-Particle Data in Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fran, Joachim; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy, when combined with single-particle reconstruction, is a powerful method for studying macromolecular structure. Recent developments in detector technology have pushed the resolution into a range comparable to that of X-ray crystallography. However, cryo-EM is able to separate and thus recover the structure of each of several discrete structures present in the sample. For the more general case involving continuous structural changes, a novel technique employing manifold embedding has been recently demonstrated. Potentially, the entire work-cycle of a molecular machine may be observed as it passes through a continuum of states, and its free-energy landscape may be mapped out. This technique will be outlined and discussed in the context of its application to a large single-particle dataset of yeast ribosomes. PMID:26884261

  10. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  11. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  12. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Catherine H.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S. Blair; Davidson, Ana D.; Costa, Gabriel C.

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from single outpatient clinic in Panama City exhibit wide genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-08-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Crystal structures of carbonates up to Mbar pressures determined by single crystal synchrotron radiation diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The recent improvements at synchrotron beamlines, currently allow single crystal diffraction experiments at extreme pressures and temperatures [1,2] on very small single crystal domains. We successfully applied such technique to determine the crystal structure adopted by carbonates at mantle pressures. The knowledge of carbon-bearing phases is in fact fundamental for any quantitative modelling of global carbon cycle. The major technical difficulty arises after first order transitions or decomposition reactions, since original crystal (apx. 10x10x5 μm3) is transformed in much smaller crystalline domains often with random orientation. The use of 3D reciprocal space visualization software and the improved resolution of new generation flat panel detectors, however, allow both identification and integration of each single crystal domain, with suitable accuracy for ab-initio structure solution, performed with direct and charge-flipping methods and successive structure refinements. The results obtained on carbonates, indicate two major crystal-chemistry trends established at high pressures. The CO32- units, planar and parallel in ambient pressure calcite and dolomite structures, becomes non parallel in calcite- and dolomite-II and III phases, allowing more flexibility in the structures with possibility to accommodate strain arising from different cation sizes (Ca and Mg in particular). Dolomite-III is therefore also observed to be thermodynamically stable at lower mantle pressures and temperatures, differently from dolomite, which undergoes decomposition into pure end-members in upper mantle. At higher pressure, towards Mbar (lowermost mantle and D'' region) in agreement with theoretical calculations [3,4] and other experimental results [5], carbon coordination transform into 4-fold CO4 units, with different polymerisation in the structure depending on carbonate composition. The second important crystal chemistry feature detected is related to Fe2+ in Fe

  15. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  16. Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Smits, Jan M.; Williams, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based materials represent the future aerospace vehicle construction material of choice based primarily on predicted strength-to-weight advantages and inherent multifunctionality. The multifunctionality of SWCNTs arises from the ability of the nanotubes to be either metallic or semi-conducting based on their chirality. Furthermore, simply changing the environment around a SWCNT can change its conducting behavior. This phenomenon is being exploited to create sensors capable of measuring several parameters related to vehicle structural health (i.e. strain, pressure, temperature, etc.) The structural health monitor is constructed using conventional electron-beam lithographic and photolithographic techniques to place specific electrode patterns on a surface. SWCNTs are then deposited between the electrodes using a dielectrophoretic alignment technique. Prototypes have been constructed on both silicon and polyimide substrates, demonstrating that surface-mountable and multifunctional devices based on SWCNTs can be realized.

  17. Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; del Río, José C

    2013-03-13

    The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include β-O-4' alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the γ-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the γ-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignin's being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that β-β' resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.

  18. Population Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Isolates from Sporadic Human Listeriosis Cases in the United States from 2003 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Todd J.; Graves, Lewis M.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause severe food-borne disease (listeriosis). Numerous outbreaks have involved three serotype 4b epidemic clones (ECs): ECI, ECII, and ECIa. However, little is known about the population structure of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis in the United States, even though most cases of human listeriosis are in fact sporadic. Here we analyzed 136 serotype 4b isolates from sporadic cases in the United States, 2003 to 2008, utilizing multiple tools including multilocus genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence analysis of the inlAB locus. ECI, ECII, and ECIa were frequently encountered (32, 17, and 7%, respectively). However, annually 30 to 68% of isolates were outside these ECs, and several novel clonal groups were identified. An estimated 33 and 17% of the isolates, mostly among the ECs, were resistant to cadmium and arsenic, respectively, but resistance to benzalkonium chloride was uncommon (3%) among the sporadic isolates. The frequency of clonal groups fluctuated within the 6-year study period, without consistent trends. However, on several occasions, temporal clusters of isolates with indistinguishable genotypes were detected, suggesting the possibility of hidden multistate outbreaks. Our analysis suggests a complex population structure of serotype 4b L. monocytogenes from sporadic disease, with important contributions by ECs and several novel clonal groups. Continuous monitoring will be needed to assess long-term trends in clonality patterns and population structure of L. monocytogenes from sporadic listeriosis. PMID:24705322

  19. Population structure of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis cases in the United States from 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmi; Ward, Todd J; Graves, Lewis M; Tarr, Cheryl L; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2014-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause severe food-borne disease (listeriosis). Numerous outbreaks have involved three serotype 4b epidemic clones (ECs): ECI, ECII, and ECIa. However, little is known about the population structure of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis in the United States, even though most cases of human listeriosis are in fact sporadic. Here we analyzed 136 serotype 4b isolates from sporadic cases in the United States, 2003 to 2008, utilizing multiple tools including multilocus genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence analysis of the inlAB locus. ECI, ECII, and ECIa were frequently encountered (32, 17, and 7%, respectively). However, annually 30 to 68% of isolates were outside these ECs, and several novel clonal groups were identified. An estimated 33 and 17% of the isolates, mostly among the ECs, were resistant to cadmium and arsenic, respectively, but resistance to benzalkonium chloride was uncommon (3%) among the sporadic isolates. The frequency of clonal groups fluctuated within the 6-year study period, without consistent trends. However, on several occasions, temporal clusters of isolates with indistinguishable genotypes were detected, suggesting the possibility of hidden multistate outbreaks. Our analysis suggests a complex population structure of serotype 4b L. monocytogenes from sporadic disease, with important contributions by ECs and several novel clonal groups. Continuous monitoring will be needed to assess long-term trends in clonality patterns and population structure of L. monocytogenes from sporadic listeriosis.

  20. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the twomore » basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.« less

  1. Transformations of the dislocation structure of nickel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfyorova, E. A.; Lychagin, D. V.; Lychagina, L. L.; Tsvetkov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    A relationship between different-scale deformations of crystals has not been established yet. In order to solve this task, we investigate the development of a deformation relief and dislocation structure in nickel single crystals after deformation. The stress tensor, crystallography, and geometry of specimens affect the organization of some shear along corresponding systems of sliding. The organization of shear shows some features of self-organization. It is associated with the self-organization in the dislocation subsystem analyzed previously. The effectiveness of reducing external and internal stresses determines patterns of deformation processes at different scale levels.

  2. Structural variations of single and tandem mismatches in RNA duplexes: a joint MD simulation and crystal structure database analysis.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sukanya; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-04

    Internal loops within RNA duplex regions are formed by single or tandem basepairing mismatches with flanking canonical Watson-Crick basepairs on both sides. They are the most common motif observed in RNA secondary structures and play integral functional and structural roles. In this report, we have studied the structural features of 1 × 1, 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 internal loops using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique with explicit solvent model. As MD simulation is intricately dependent on the choice of force-field and these are often rather approximate, we have used both the most popular force-fields for nucleic acids-CHARMM27 and AMBER94-for a comparative analysis. We find that tandem noncanonical basepairs forming 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 internal loops are considerably more stable than the single mismatches forming 1 × 1 internal loops, irrespective of the force field. We have also analyzed crystal structure database to study the conservation of these helical fragments in the corresponding sets of RNA structures. We observe that the nature of stability in MD simulations mimic their fluctuating natures in crystal data sets also, probably indicating reliable natures of both the force fields to reproduce experimental results. We also notice significant structural changes in the wobble G:U basepairs present in these double helical stretches, leading to a biphasic stability for these wobble pairs to release the deformational strains introduced by internal loops within duplex regions.

  3. Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming

    2015-05-01

    Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.

  4. Single-atom Catalysis Using Pt/Graphene Achieved through Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Yang, Songlan; Chen, Weifeng; Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Banis, Mohammad N.; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-05-01

    Platinum-nanoparticle-based catalysts are widely used in many important chemical processes and automobile industries. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their use efficiency, however, very challenging. Here we report a practical synthesis for isolated single Pt atoms anchored to graphene nanosheet using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. ALD offers the capability of precise control of catalyst size span from single atom, subnanometer cluster to nanoparticle. The single-atom catalysts exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity (up to 10 times) over that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses reveal that the low-coordination and partially unoccupied densities of states of 5d orbital of Pt atoms are responsible for the excellent performance. This work is anticipated to form the basis for the exploration of a next generation of highly efficient single-atom catalysts for various applications.

  5. Single-atom Catalysis Using Pt/Graphene Achieved through Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Yang, Songlan; Chen, Weifeng; Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Banis, Mohammad N.; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-01-01

    Platinum-nanoparticle-based catalysts are widely used in many important chemical processes and automobile industries. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their use efficiency, however, very challenging. Here we report a practical synthesis for isolated single Pt atoms anchored to graphene nanosheet using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. ALD offers the capability of precise control of catalyst size span from single atom, subnanometer cluster to nanoparticle. The single-atom catalysts exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity (up to 10 times) over that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses reveal that the low-coordination and partially unoccupied densities of states of 5d orbital of Pt atoms are responsible for the excellent performance. This work is anticipated to form the basis for the exploration of a next generation of highly efficient single-atom catalysts for various applications.

  6. Structural and functional analysis of the finished genome of the recently isolated toxic Anabaena sp. WA102.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan M; Mueller, Ryan S; Shepardson, Jonathan W; Landry, Zachary C; Morré, Jeffrey T; Maier, Claudia S; Hardy, F Joan; Dreher, Theo W

    2016-06-13

    Very few closed genomes of the cyanobacteria that commonly produce toxic blooms in lakes and reservoirs are available, limiting our understanding of the properties of these organisms. A new anatoxin-a-producing member of the Nostocaceae, Anabaena sp. WA102, was isolated from a freshwater lake in Washington State, USA, in 2013 and maintained in non-axenic culture. The Anabaena sp. WA102 5.7 Mbp genome assembly has been closed with long-read, single-molecule sequencing and separately a draft genome assembly has been produced with short-read sequencing technology. The closed and draft genome assemblies are compared, showing a correlation between long repeats in the genome and the many gaps in the short-read assembly. Anabaena sp. WA102 encodes anatoxin-a biosynthetic genes, as does its close relative Anabaena sp. AL93 (also introduced in this study). These strains are distinguished by differences in the genes for light-harvesting phycobilins, with Anabaena sp. AL93 possessing a phycoerythrocyanin operon. Biologically relevant structural variants in the Anabaena sp. WA102 genome were detected only by long-read sequencing: a tandem triplication of the anaBCD promoter region in the anatoxin-a synthase gene cluster (not triplicated in Anabaena sp. AL93) and a 5-kbp deletion variant present in two-thirds of the population. The genome has a large number of mobile elements (160). Strikingly, there was no synteny with the genome of its nearest fully assembled relative, Anabaena sp. 90. Structural and functional genome analyses indicate that Anabaena sp. WA102 has a flexible genome. Genome closure, which can be readily achieved with long-read sequencing, reveals large scale (e.g., gene order) and local structural features that should be considered in understanding genome evolution and function.

  7. Molecular Characterization of OXA-198 Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Rémy A; Bogaerts, Pierre; Girlich, Delphine; Huang, Te-Din; Dortet, Laurent; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonadaceae have increasingly been reported worldwide, with an ever-increasing heterogeneity of carbapenem resistance mechanisms, depending on the bacterial species and the geographical location. OXA-198 is a plasmid-encoded class D β-lactamase involved in carbapenem resistance in one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from Belgium. In the setting of a multicenter survey of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa strains in Belgian hospitals in 2013, three additional OXA-198-producing P. aeruginosa isolates originating from patients hospitalized in one hospital were detected. To reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, MIC determinations, whole-genome sequencing, and PCR analyses to confirm the genetic organization were performed. The plasmid harboring the bla OXA-198 gene was characterized, along with the genetic relatedness of the four P. aeruginosa isolates. The bla OXA-198 gene was harbored on a class 1 integron carried by an ∼49-kb IncP-type plasmid proposed as IncP-11. The same plasmid was present in all four P. aeruginosa isolates. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that the isolates all belonged to sequence type 446, and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed only a few differences between the isolates. This report describes the structure of a 49-kb plasmid harboring the bla OXA-198 gene and presents the first description of OXA-198-producing P. aeruginosa isolates associated with a hospital-associated cluster episode. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; Potvin, Éric; Jeong, Hae Jin; Drebing, Wolfgang; Kilcoyne, Jane; Al-Jorani, Ahmed; Twiner, Michael J.; Göthel, Qun; Köck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1) and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2) by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1) and (2) were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively. PMID:26528990

  9. Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) and their structural elucidation.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hidetoshi; Danno, Gen-ichi

    2002-08-01

    Four antibacterial compounds were isolated from leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L.), and the structures of these compounds were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Two new flavonoid glycosides, morin-3-O-alpha-L-lyxopyranoside and morin-3-O-alpha-L-arabopyranoside, and two known flavonoids, guaijavarin and quercetin, were identified. The minimum inhibition concentration of morin-3-O-alpha-L-lyxopyranoside and morin-3-O-alpha-L-arabopyranoside was 200 microg/ml for each against Salmonella enteritidis, and 250 microg/ml and 300 microg/ml against Bacillus cereus, respectively.

  10. Live cell isolation by laser microdissection with gravity transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, Oleg V.

    2013-05-01

    Laser microdissection by pulsing ultraviolet laser allows the isolation and recultivation of live cells based on morphological features or/and fluorescent labelling from adherent cell cultures. Previous investigations described only the use of the laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) for live cell isolation. But LMPC requires complex manipulations and some skill. Furthermore, single-cell cloning using laser microdissection has not yet been demonstrated. The first evidence of successful application of laser microdissection with gravity transfer (LMDGT) for capturing and recultivation of live cells is presented. A new strategy for LMDGT is presented because of the failure to reproduce the manufacturer's protocol. Using the new strategy, successful capturing and recultivation of circle-shaped samples from confluent monolayer of HeLa cells was demonstrated. It was found that LMDGT is easier than LMPC because it doesn't require personal participation of investigator in transferring of isolated samples to final culture dishes. Moreover, for the first time, the generation of clonal colonies from single live cells isolated by laser microdissection was demonstrated. Data obtained in this study confirm that LMDGT is a reliable and high-yield method allowing isolation and expansion of both cell clusters and single cells from adherent cell cultures.

  11. Isolation of Protein-Associated Circular DNA from Healthy Cattle Serum

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Mathis; Gunst, Karin; Lucansky, Vincent; Müller, Hermann; zur Hausen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Three replication-competent single-stranded DNA molecules sharing nucleotide similarity to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 2.36 were isolated from healthy bovine serum. PMID:25169856

  12. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Zareh A.; Karapetian, Armen T.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed. PMID:26345143

  13. Absorption by DNA single strands of adenine isolated in vacuo: The role of multiple chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Pedersen, Sara Øvad; Kirketerp, Maj-Britt Suhr; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-02-01

    The degree of electronic coupling between DNA bases is a topic being up for much debate. Here we report on the intrinsic electronic properties of isolated DNA strands in vacuo free of solvent, which is a good starting point for high-level excited states calculations. Action spectra of DNA single strands of adenine reveal sign of exciton coupling between stacked bases from blueshifted absorption bands (˜3 nm) relative to that of the dAMP mononucleotide (one adenine base). The bands are blueshifted by about 10 nm compared to those of solvated strands, which is a shift similar to that for the adenine molecule and the dAMP mononucleotide. Desolvation has little effect on the bandwidth, which implies that inhomogenous broadening of the absorption bands in aqueous solution is of minor importance compared to, e.g., conformational disorder. Finally, at high photon energies, internal conversion competes with electron detachment since dissociation of the bare photoexcited ions on the microsecond time scale is measured.

  14. Global structure of forked DNA in solution revealed by high-resolution single-molecule FRET.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Tara; Schröder, Gunnar F; Toulmin, Anita; McGlynn, Peter; Magennis, Steven W

    2011-02-09

    Branched DNA structures play critical roles in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in addition to being key building blocks for DNA nanotechnology. Here we combine single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence detection and molecular dynamics simulations to give a general approach to global structure determination of branched DNA in solution. We reveal an open, planar structure of a forked DNA molecule with three duplex arms and demonstrate an ion-induced conformational change. This structure will serve as a benchmark for DNA-protein interaction studies.

  15. Metal–organic and covalent organic frameworks as single-site catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, S. M. J.; Bavykina, A.; Hajek, J.; Garcia, H.; Olivos-Suarez, A. I.; Sepúlveda-Escribano, A.; Vimont, A.; Clet, G.; Bazin, P.; Kapteijn, F.

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous single-site catalysts consist of isolated, well-defined, active sites that are spatially separated in a given solid and, ideally, structurally identical. In this review, the potential of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as platforms for the development of heterogeneous single-site catalysts is reviewed thoroughly. In the first part of this article, synthetic strategies and progress in the implementation of such sites in these two classes of materials are discussed. Because these solids are excellent playgrounds to allow a better understanding of catalytic functions, we highlight the most important recent advances in the modelling and spectroscopic characterization of single-site catalysts based on these materials. Finally, we discuss the potential of MOFs as materials in which several single-site catalytic functions can be combined within one framework along with their potential as powerful enzyme-mimicking materials. The review is wrapped up with our personal vision on future research directions. PMID:28338128

  16. Perpendicular reading of single confined magnetic skyrmions

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Dax M.; Bouhassoune, Mohammed; Bouaziz, Juba; Schweflinghaus, Benedikt; Blügel, Stefan; Lounis, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sub-5 nm magnetic skyrmions constitute an ultimate scaling alternative for future digital data storage. Skyrmions are robust noncollinear spin textures that can be moved and manipulated by small electrical currents. Here we show here a technique to detect isolated nanoskyrmions with a current perpendicular-to-plane geometry, which has immediate implications for device concepts. We explore the physics behind such a mechanism by studying the atomistic electronic structure of the magnetic quasiparticles. We investigate from first principles how the isolated skyrmion local-density-of-states which tunnels into the vacuum, when compared with the ferromagnetic background, is modified by the site-dependent spin mixing of electronic states with different relative canting angles. Local transport properties are sensitive to this effect, as we report an atomistic conductance anisotropy of up to ∼20% for magnetic skyrmions in Pd/Fe/Ir(111) thin films. In single skyrmions, engineering this spin-mixing magnetoresistance could possibly be incorporated in future magnetic storage technologies. PMID:26471957

  17. Structural elucidation of a novel phosphoglycolipid isolated from six species of Halomonas.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Assunta; Vella, Filomena M; Romano, Ida; Gambacorta, Agata

    2007-08-01

    The structure of a new phosphoglycolipid from the halophilic Gram-negative bacteria Halomonas elongata ATCC 33173(T), Halomonas eurihalina ATCC 49336(T), Halomonas almeriensis CECT 7050(T), strain Sharm (AM238662), Halomonas halophila DSM 4770(T), and Halomonas salina ATCC 49509(T) was elucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopy studies. In all of the species examined, the polar lipid composition consisted of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine, 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphoryl-glycerol, bisphosphatidyl glycerol, and the new phosphoglycolipid PGL1. The structure of PGL1 was established to be (2-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxy-propyl)-phosphatidyl diacylglycerol. C16:0;C18:1 and C16:0;C19:cyclopropane are the most abundant acyl chains linked to the phosphatidylglycerol moiety of each isolated PGL1. All of the species presenting the lipid PGL1 belong to Halomonas rRNA group 1, suggesting that the new phosphoglycolipid could be a chemotaxonomic marker of this phylogenetic group.

  18. Structural and Functional Properties of Soy Protein Isolates Modified by Soy Soluble Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Teng; Liu, Ling-Ling

    2016-09-28

    Aiming to achieve the modification to soy protein isolate (SPI) by soy soluble polysaccharides (SSPS), electrically driven complex systems were first established in the environment of pH 3.0, and then reconstituted SPI particles with different SPI-SSPS ratios were obtained under freeze-drying process. Through this treatment, the structures of SPI particles were partly unfolded and adsorbed SSPS mainly via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with larger particle sizes. The adherence of SSPS decreased the surface hydrophobicity of reconstituted SPI particles, but exerted not much influence on the emulsifying and foaming activities and increased the corresponding stabilities due to enhancing the unfolded extent of structure and improving the conformation flexibility. Reconstituted SPI-SSPS particles might rearrange and link each other due to the presence of SSPS on the air-water interface to better stabilize these systems. At SPI-SSPS ratio of 10:1, lower temperature was required to form gels with lower gel intensity and porous structure. The findings provide a further comprehension to the relationship between structures and functional properties of SPI modified by SSPS and the feasibility of applying these reconstituted particles to needed areas.

  19. A high-throughput screen for single gene activities: isolation of apoptosis inducers.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Timur; Grimm, Stefan

    2003-05-16

    We describe a novel genetic screen that is performed by transfecting every individual clone of an expression library into a separate population of cells in a high-throughput mode. The screen allows one to achieve a hitherto unattained sensitivity in expression cloning which was exploited in a first read-out to clone apoptosis-inducing genes. This led to the isolation of several genes whose proteins induce distinct phenotypes of apoptosis in 293T cells. One of the isolated genes is the tumor suppressor cytochrome b(L) (cybL), a component of the respiratory chain complex II, that diminishes the activity of this complex for apoptosis induction. This gene is more efficient and specific for causing cell death than a drug with the same activity. These results suggest further applications, both of the isolated genes and the screen.

  20. Incorporating isolated molybdenum (Mo) atoms into Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Wan, Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Swee Liang; Lv, Lu; Gao, Yongli; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic structures and electronic properties of isolated Mo atoms in bilayer epitaxial graphene (BLEG) on 4H-SiC(0001) are investigated by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). LT-STM results reveal that isolated Mo dopants prefer to substitute C atoms at α-sites, and preferentially locate between the graphene bilayers. First-principles calculations confirm that the embedding of single Mo dopants within BLEG is energetically favorable as compared to monolayer graphene. The calculated bandstructures show that Mo-doped BLEG is n-doped, and each Mo atom introduces a local magnetic moment of 1.81 μB. Our findings demonstrate a simple and stable method to incorporate single transition metal dopants into the graphene lattice to tune its electronic and magnetic properties for possible use in graphene spin devices. NRF-CRP (Singapore) grants R-143-000-360-281and R-144-000-295-281. ``Shenghua Professorship'' startup funding from CSU and the support from the NSF of China (Grant No.11304398).

  1. [Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934].

    PubMed

    Niu, Siwen; Li, Sumei; Tian, Xinpeng; Hu, Tao; Ju, Jianhua; Ynag, Xiaohong; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Changsheng

    2011-07-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as new resources for bioactive natural products with promise in novel drug discovery. In recent years, the richness and diversity of marine Actinobacteria from the South China Sea and their ability in producing bioactive products have been investigated. The objective of this work is to isolate and identify bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine actinobacterium SCSIO 1934 derived from sediments of South China Sea. The strain was identified as a Streptomyces spieces by analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934 was fermented under optimized conditions and seven bioactive secondary metabolites were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods including colum chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated as 17-O-demethylgeldanamycin (1), lebstatin (2), 17-O-demethyllebstatin (3), nigericin (4), nigericin sodium salt (5), abierixin (6), respectively, by detailed NMR spectroscopic data (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC). This work provided a new marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 1934, capable of producing diverse bioactive natural products.

  2. Paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Liu, Yi-Ju; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell separation is among the most useful techniques in biochemical research, diagnosis and various industrial applications. Microalgae species have great economic importance as industrial raw materials. Microalgae species collected from environment are typically a mixed and heterogeneous population of species that must be isolated and purified for examination and further application. Conventional methods, such as serial dilution and a streaking-plate method, are intensive of labor and inefficient. We developed a paper-based device for separation and cultivation of single microalga. The fabrication was simply conducted with a common laser printer and required only a few minutes without lithographic instruments and clean-room. The driving force of the paper device was simple capillarity without a complicated pump connection that is part of most devices for microfluidics. The open-structure design of the paper device makes it operable with a common laboratory micropipette for sample transfer and manipulation with a naked eye or adaptable to a robotic system with functionality of high-throughput retrieval and analysis. The efficiency of isolating a single cell from mixed microalgae species is seven times as great as with a conventional method involving serial dilution. The paper device can serve also as an incubator for microalgae growth on simply rinsing the paper with a growth medium. Many applications such as highly expressed cell selection and various single-cell analysis would be applicable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural variability of E. coli thioredoxin captured in the crystal structures of single-point mutants

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, Martín E.; Vazquez, Diego S.; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Agudelo, William A.; Howard, Eduardo; Rasia, Rodolfo M.; Manta, Bruno; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous small protein that catalyzes redox reactions of protein thiols. Additionally, thioredoxin from E. coli (EcTRX) is a widely-used model for structure-function studies. In a previous paper, we characterized several single-point mutants of the C-terminal helix (CTH) that alter global stability of EcTRX. However, spectroscopic signatures and enzymatic activity for some of these mutants were found essentially unaffected. A comprehensive structural characterization at the atomic level of these near-invariant mutants can provide detailed information about structural variability of EcTRX. We address this point through the determination of the crystal structures of four point-mutants, whose mutations occurs within or near the CTH, namely L94A, E101G, N106A and L107A. These structures are mostly unaffected compared with the wild-type variant. Notably, the E101G mutant presents a large region with two alternative traces for the backbone of the same chain. It represents a significant shift in backbone positions. Enzymatic activity measurements and conformational dynamics studies monitored by NMR and molecular dynamic simulations show that E101G mutation results in a small effect in the structural features of the protein. We hypothesize that these alternative conformations represent samples of the native-state ensemble of EcTRX, specifically the magnitude and location of conformational heterogeneity. PMID:28181556

  4. Structural variability of E. coli thioredoxin captured in the crystal structures of single-point mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, Martín E.; Vazquez, Diego S.; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Agudelo, William A.; Howard, Eduardo; Rasia, Rodolfo M.; Manta, Bruno; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous small protein that catalyzes redox reactions of protein thiols. Additionally, thioredoxin from E. coli (EcTRX) is a widely-used model for structure-function studies. In a previous paper, we characterized several single-point mutants of the C-terminal helix (CTH) that alter global stability of EcTRX. However, spectroscopic signatures and enzymatic activity for some of these mutants were found essentially unaffected. A comprehensive structural characterization at the atomic level of these near-invariant mutants can provide detailed information about structural variability of EcTRX. We address this point through the determination of the crystal structures of four point-mutants, whose mutations occurs within or near the CTH, namely L94A, E101G, N106A and L107A. These structures are mostly unaffected compared with the wild-type variant. Notably, the E101G mutant presents a large region with two alternative traces for the backbone of the same chain. It represents a significant shift in backbone positions. Enzymatic activity measurements and conformational dynamics studies monitored by NMR and molecular dynamic simulations show that E101G mutation results in a small effect in the structural features of the protein. We hypothesize that these alternative conformations represent samples of the native-state ensemble of EcTRX, specifically the magnitude and location of conformational heterogeneity.

  5. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability. PMID:24256942

  6. Single mode fibers with antireflective surface structures for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Lynda E.; Florea, Catalin M.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.

    2014-03-01

    We present results for increased transmission of ~99.5% in the near-IR through the end faces of silica single mode fibers by creating a random antireflective microstructure etched into the end face of the fiber. We demonstrate high laser damage thresholds for these fibers with AR structured surfaces.

  7. Characterization of pharmacological properties of isolated single-stranded DNA aptamers against angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2016-08-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers can be served as drugs, carriers and diagnostic probes in living systems. Before recruiting aptamers, their pharmacological characteristics should be determined. Here we intended to investigate four important properties of isolated ssDNA anti-angiotensin II aptamers (FLC112 and FLC125) including hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity, immunogenicity and serum stability through in vitro and in vivo models. The hemolytic effect and cytotoxicity potential of aptamers were measured through hemolysis test and MTT assay respectively. In the following test, the humoral immune responses to aptamers in BALB/c mice were assessed. The human serum stability of aptamers was also determined using real-time PCR (qPCR). The results of this study revealed that the FLC112 aptamer with its unique structure had slightly higher cytotoxicity and hemolysis effect (9.14% and 0.1 ± 0.037% respectively) relative to FLC125 (8.07% and 0.08 ± 0.045% respectively) at the highest concentration (5 μM). FLC112 showed ignorable immune response in mice and barely higher than FLC125. Serum stability test confirmed that FLC112 with 12 h had more nuclease stability than FLC125 with 8 h. Aptamer molecule analysis revealed that the structure, sequense composition and motifs are the determinative parameters in aptamer pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Vortex-induced vibration for an isolated circular cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil: Part II. Single degree of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Ji, L. C.; Hu, X.

    2017-04-01

    The vortex-induced vibration behind an isolated cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil at different oscillating frequencies and amplitudes have been studied numerically. Our previous research [11] mainly focused on the two degree of freedom vibration problem, several types of the phase portraits of the displacement have been newly found, including the "half -8″ and "cone-net" types as reduced velocity increases. At present, we have continued the research to the single degree of freedom vibration, the corresponding results had been found that under the wake of the free steady flow, as the reduced velocity increases, the phase portraits displacements of the single degree of freedom vibrating cylinder will begin to rotate counterclockwise from the first and third quadrants to the second and fourth quadrants in a Cartesian coordinate system. Under the wake of the oscillating airfoil, the single bending curve and the single closed orbit (double "8-shape" like) of the displacements are newly found in the drag and thrust producing cases respectively. Except this, the two triplets of vortices have also been newly found in the pair and single plus pair wakes at each cycle. The vorticity dynamics behind the vibrating cylinder together with the corresponding force variations have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in details.

  9. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Single-Center Experience With Isolated Limb Infusion: An Interventional Oncology Opportunity.

    PubMed

    DeFoe, Adam; Heckman, Andrew; Slater, Dick; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Foster, Jason; Bowden, Thom; Vargo, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    This retrospective review details our experience with isolated limb infusion for the treatment of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and sarcoma in-transit metastases performed entirely in the interventional radiology suite. Eleven patients were treated over a 3-year period. Treatment response was assessed clinically and with PET/CT. Eight patients had either complete or partial response, giving an overall response rate of 72%. Isolated limb infusion can efficiently be performed entirely in the interventional radiology suite.

  11. Genetic basis and clonal population structure of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler carcasses in Belgium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to investigate the population structure and antimicrobial resistance profiles of a set of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broiler carcasses in Belgium, and to further analyze the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance phenotypes. Minimum inhibitory c...

  12. Early impact of social isolation and breast tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Szpunar, Mercedes J; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from cancer patients and animal models of cancer indicates that exposure to psychosocial stress can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the pathways underlying stress-induced cancer pathogenesis are not fully understood. Social isolation has been shown to promote tumor progression. We examined the impact of social isolation on breast cancer pathogenesis in adult female severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice using the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, a high β-adrenergic receptor (AR) expressing line. When group-adapted mice were transferred into single housing (social isolation) one week prior to MB-231 tumor cell injection into a mammary fat pad (orthotopic), no alterations in tumor growth or metastasis were detected compared to group-housed mice. When social isolation was delayed until tumors were palpable, tumor growth was transiently increased in singly-housed mice. To determine if sympathetic nervous system activation was associated with increased tumor growth, spleen and tumor norepinephrine (NE) was measured after social isolation, in conjunction with tumor-promoting macrophage populations. Three days after transfer to single housing, spleen weight was transiently increased in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice in conjunction with reduced splenic NE concentration and elevated CD11b+Gr-1+ macrophages. At day 10 after social isolation, no changes in spleen CD11b+ populations or NE were detected in singly-housed mice. In the tumors, social isolation increased CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+Gr-1-, and F4/80+ macrophage populations, with no change in tumor NE. The results indicate that a psychological stressor, social isolation, elicits dynamic but transient effects on macrophage populations that may facilitate tumor growth. The transiency of the changes in peripheral NE suggest that homeostatic mechanisms may mitigate the impact of social isolation over time. Studies are underway to define the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the

  13. Band structures in coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles Green's function (GFCCSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yoritaka; Kosugi, Taichi; Nishi, Hirofumi; Matsushita, Yu-ichiro

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate that the coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles Green's function (GFCCSD) method is a powerful and prominent tool drawing the electronic band structures and the total energies, which many theoretical techniques struggle to reproduce. We have calculated single-electron energy spectra via the GFCCSD method for various kinds of systems, ranging from ionic to covalent and van der Waals, for the first time: the one-dimensional LiH chain, one-dimensional C chain, and one-dimensional Be chain. We have found that the bandgap becomes narrower than in HF due to the correlation effect. We also show that the band structures obtained from the GFCCSD method include both quasiparticle and satellite peaks successfully. Besides, taking one-dimensional LiH as an example, we discuss the validity of restricting the active space to suppress the computational cost of the GFCCSD method. We show that the calculated results without bands that do not contribute to the chemical bonds are in good agreement with full-band calculations. With the GFCCSD method, we can calculate the total energies and spectral functions for periodic systems in an explicitly correlated manner.

  14. Isolation and structure elucidation of neuropeptides of the AKH/RPCH family in long-horned grasshoppers (Ensifera).

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1992-11-01

    An identical neuropeptide was isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography from the corpora cardiaca of the king cricket, Libanasidus vittatus, and the two armoured ground crickets, Heterodes namaqua and Acanthoproctus cervinus. The crude gland extracts had adipokinetic activity in migratory locusts, hypertrehalosaemic activity in American cockroaches and a slight hypertrehalosaemic, but no adipokinetic, effect in armoured ground crickets. The primary structure of this neuropeptide was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion by carboxypeptidase A. The peptide was assigned the structure [symbol: see text]Glu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-TrpNH2, previously designated Scg-AKH-II. The corpora cardiaca of the cricket Gryllodes sigillatus contained a neuropeptide which differed in retention time from the one isolated from the king and armoured ground crickets. The structure was assigned as [symbol: see text]Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-TrpNH2, previously designated Grb-AKH. This octapeptide caused hyperlipaemia in its donor species. The presence of the same peptide, Scg-AKH-II, in the two primitive infraorders of Ensifera, and the different peptide, Grb-AKH, in the most advanced infraorder of Ensifera, supports the evolutionary trends assigned formerly from morphological and physiological evidence.

  15. Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Heng; Qian, Jianying; He, Yongfeng; Zheng, Jialin; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong; Shi, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix. PMID:26729136

  16. Structural Investigation of the Oligosaccharide Portion Isolated from the Lipooligosaccharide of the Permafrost Psychrophile Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4.

    PubMed

    Casillo, Angela; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Filomena, Sannino; Lindner, Buko; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2015-07-22

    Psychrophilic microorganisms have successfully colonized all permanently cold environments from the deep sea to mountain and polar regions. The ability of an organism to survive and grow in cryoenviroments depends on a number of adaptive strategies aimed at maintaining vital cellular functions at subzero temperatures, which include the structural modifications of the membrane. To understand the role of the membrane in the adaptation, it is necessary to characterize the cell-wall components, such as the lipopolysaccharides, that represent the major constituent of the outer membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) isolated from the cold-adapted Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4. The strain, isolated from a 20,000-to-30,000-year-old continuously frozen permafrost in Siberia, was cultivated at 4 °C. The LOS was isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical methods. In particular, it was degraded either by mild acid hydrolysis or by hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and by ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharide was characterized by the substitution of the heptose residue, usually linked to Kdo in the inner core, with a glucose, and for the unusual presence of N-acetylmuramic acid.

  17. From protein structure to function via single crystal optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Luca; Bruno, Stefano; Bettati, Stefano; Storici, Paola; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The more than 100,000 protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography provide a wealth of information for the characterization of biological processes at the molecular level. However, several crystallographic “artifacts,” including conformational selection, crystallization conditions and radiation damages, may affect the quality and the interpretation of the electron density maps, thus limiting the relevance of structure determinations. Moreover, for most of these structures, no functional data have been obtained in the crystalline state, thus posing serious questions on their validity in infereing protein mechanisms. In order to solve these issues, spectroscopic methods have been applied for the determination of equilibrium and kinetic properties of proteins in the crystalline state. These methods are UV-vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, IR, EPR, Raman, and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Some of these approaches have been implemented with on-line instruments at X-ray synchrotron beamlines. Here, we provide an overview of investigations predominantly carried out in our laboratory by single crystal polarized absorption UV-vis microspectrophotometry, the most applied technique for the functional characterization of proteins in the crystalline state. Studies on hemoglobins, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate dependent enzymes and green fluorescent protein in the crystalline state have addressed key biological issues, leading to either straightforward structure-function correlations or limitations to structure-based mechanisms. PMID:25988179

  18. Impact of magnetic isolation on pointing system performance in the presence of structural flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seller, J.

    1985-01-01

    The inertial pointing stability of a gimbal pointing system (AGS) was compared with a magnetic pointing/gimbal followup system (ASPS), under certain conditions of system structural flexibility and disturbance inputs from the gimbal support structure. Separate 3 degree-of-freedom (3DOF) linear models based on NASTRAN modal flexibility data for the gimbal and support structures were generated for the ASPS configurations. Using the models inertial pointing control loops providing 6dB of gain margin and 45 deg of phase margin were defined for each configuration. The pointing loop bandwidth obtained for the ASPS is more than twice the level achieved for the AGS configuration. The AGS limit is attributed to the gimbal and support structure flexibility. As a result of the higher ASPS pointing loop bandwidth and the disturbance rejection provided by the magnetic isolation ASPS pointing performane is significantly better than that of the AGS system. The low frequency peak of the ASPS transfer function from base disturbance to payload angular motion is almost 60dB lower than AGS low frequency peak.

  19. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinny L; Anderson, George P; Goldman, Ellen R

    2007-11-19

    Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR), consists of one single Variable domain (VH), containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs) make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins.

  20. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinny L; Anderson, George P; Goldman, Ellen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR), consists of one single Variable domain (VH), containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs) make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. Results A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins. PMID:18021450

  1. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  2. Quantum dots in single electron transistors with ultrathin silicon-on-insulator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, S.; Andreev, A.; Williams, D. A.; Kodera, T.; Oda, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on fabrication and transport properties of lithographically defined single quantum dots (QDs) in single electron transistors with ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. We observed comparatively large charging energy E C ˜ 20 meV derived from the stability diagram at a temperature of 4.2 K. We also carried out three-dimensional calculations of the capacitance matrix and transport properties through the QD for the real structure geometry and found an excellent quantitative agreement with experiment of the calculated main parameters of stability diagram (charging energy, period of Coulomb oscillations, and asymmetry of the diamonds). The obtained results confirm fabrication of well-defined integrated QDs as designed with ultrathin SOI that makes it possible to achieve relatively large QD charging energies, which is useful for stable and high temperature operation of single electron devices.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA structure of an isolated Tunisian Berber population and its relationship with Mediterranean populations.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Chargui, Mariem; Khemira, Laaroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2018-02-01

    Douiret is an isolated Berber population from South-Eastern Tunisia. The strong geographic and cultural isolation characterising this population might have contributed to remarkable endogamy and consanguinity, which were practiced for several centuries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure of Douiret and to compare it to other Mediterranean populations with a special focus on major haplogroup T. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 58 unrelated individuals collected from the different patrilineal lineages of the population. The hypervariable region 1 of the mtDNA was amplified and sequenced. For comparative analyses, additional HVS1 sequences (n = 4857) were compiled from previous studies. The maternal background of the studied sample from Douiret was mainly of Eurasian origin (74%) followed by Sub-Saharan (17%) and North African (3%) lineages. Douiret harbours the highest frequency of haplogroup T in the Mediterranean region, assigned to the unique subclade T1a (38%). Phylogenetic analysis showed an outlier position of Douiret at the Mediterranean level. The genetic structure of Douiret highlights the presence of founders, most likely of Near/Middle Eastern origin, who conquered this area during the Middle/Late Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic dispersals.

  4. Low vibration laboratory with a single-stage vibration isolation for microscopy applications.

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Bert; Coenen, Peter; Cherepanov, Vasily; Borgens, Peter; Duden, Thomas; Tautz, F Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The construction and the vibrational performance of a low vibration laboratory for microscopy applications comprising a 100 ton floating foundation supported by passive pneumatic isolators (air springs), which rest themselves on a 200 ton solid base plate, are discussed. The optimization of the air spring system leads to a vibration level on the floating floor below that induced by an acceleration of 10 ng for most frequencies. Additional acoustic and electromagnetic isolation is accomplished by a room-in-room concept.

  5. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  6. Modeling and tachometer feedback in the control of an experimental single link flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    In this work a formulation for the modeling of a single link flexible structure will be introduced that includes the effects of dynamic interaction between the actuator and structure. These effects are the rotational modal participation factors for the structure's vibratory motion that occurs at the slewing axis. It will be shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that this dynamic interaction can be advantageous for vibration suppression of the flexible modes of the system during slewing positioning maneuvers.

  7. Isolating relativistic effects in large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvin, Camille

    2014-12-01

    We present a fully relativistic calculation of the observed galaxy number counts in the linear regime. We show that besides the density fluctuations and redshift-space distortions, various relativistic effects contribute to observations at large scales. These effects all have the same physical origin: they result from the fact that our coordinate system, namely the galaxy redshift and the incoming photons’ direction, is distorted by inhomogeneities in our Universe. We then discuss the impact of the relativistic effects on the angular power spectrum and on the two-point correlation function in configuration space. We show that the latter is very well adapted to isolate the relativistic effects since it naturally makes use of the symmetries of the different contributions. In particular, we discuss how the Doppler effect and the gravitational redshift distortions can be isolated by looking for a dipole in the cross-correlation function between a bright and a faint population of galaxies.

  8. High Electrical Conductivity of Single Metal-Organic Chains.

    PubMed

    Ares, Pablo; Amo-Ochoa, Pilar; Soler, José M; Palacios, Juan José; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2018-05-01

    Molecular wires are essential components for future nanoscale electronics. However, the preparation of individual long conductive molecules is still a challenge. MMX metal-organic polymers are quasi-1D sequences of single halide atoms (X) bridging subunits with two metal ions (MM) connected by organic ligands. They are excellent electrical conductors as bulk macroscopic crystals and as nanoribbons. However, according to theoretical calculations, the electrical conductance found in the experiments should be even higher. Here, a novel and simple drop-casting procedure to isolate bundles of few to single MMX chains is demonstrated. Furthermore, an exponential dependence of the electrical resistance of one or two MMX chains as a function of their length that does not agree with predictions based on their theoretical band structure is reported. This dependence is attributed to strong Anderson localization originated by structural defects. Theoretical modeling confirms that the current is limited by structural defects, mainly vacancies of iodine atoms, through which the current is constrained to flow. Nevertheless, measurable electrical transport along distances beyond 250 nm surpasses that of all other molecular wires reported so far. This work places in perspective the role of defects in 1D wires and their importance for molecular electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mapping local deformation behavior in single cell metal lattice structures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Holly D.; Lind, Jonathan; Messner, Mark C.

    The deformation behavior of metal lattice structures is extremely complex and challenging to predict, especially since strain is not uniformly distributed throughout the structure. Understanding and predicting the failure behavior for these types of light-weighting structures is of great interest due to the excellent scaling of stiffness- and strength-to weight ratios they display. Therefore, there is a need to perform simplified experiments that probe unit cell mechanisms. This study reports on high resolution mapping of the heterogeneous structural response of single unit cells to the macro-scale loading condition. Two types of structures, known to show different stress-strain responses, were evaluatedmore » using synchrotron radiation micro-tomography while performing in-situ uniaxial compression tests to capture the local micro-strain deformation. These structures included the octet-truss, a stretch-dominated lattice, and the rhombic-dodecahedron, a bend-dominated lattice. The tomographic analysis showed that the stretch- and bend-dominated lattices exhibit different failure mechanisms and that the defects built into the structure cause a heterogeneous localized deformation response. Also shown here is a change in failure mode for stretch-dominated lattices, where there appears to be a transition from buckling to plastic yielding for samples with a relative density between 10 and 20%. In conclusion, the experimental results were also used to inform computational studies designed to predict the mesoscale deformation behavior of lattice structures. Here an equivalent continuum model and a finite element model were used to predict both local strain fields and mechanical behavior of lattices with different topologies.« less

  10. Mapping local deformation behavior in single cell metal lattice structures

    DOE PAGES

    Carlton, Holly D.; Lind, Jonathan; Messner, Mark C.; ...

    2017-02-08

    The deformation behavior of metal lattice structures is extremely complex and challenging to predict, especially since strain is not uniformly distributed throughout the structure. Understanding and predicting the failure behavior for these types of light-weighting structures is of great interest due to the excellent scaling of stiffness- and strength-to weight ratios they display. Therefore, there is a need to perform simplified experiments that probe unit cell mechanisms. This study reports on high resolution mapping of the heterogeneous structural response of single unit cells to the macro-scale loading condition. Two types of structures, known to show different stress-strain responses, were evaluatedmore » using synchrotron radiation micro-tomography while performing in-situ uniaxial compression tests to capture the local micro-strain deformation. These structures included the octet-truss, a stretch-dominated lattice, and the rhombic-dodecahedron, a bend-dominated lattice. The tomographic analysis showed that the stretch- and bend-dominated lattices exhibit different failure mechanisms and that the defects built into the structure cause a heterogeneous localized deformation response. Also shown here is a change in failure mode for stretch-dominated lattices, where there appears to be a transition from buckling to plastic yielding for samples with a relative density between 10 and 20%. In conclusion, the experimental results were also used to inform computational studies designed to predict the mesoscale deformation behavior of lattice structures. Here an equivalent continuum model and a finite element model were used to predict both local strain fields and mechanical behavior of lattices with different topologies.« less

  11. Nature's Cholesterol-Lowering Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Lovastatin from Red Yeast Rice-Containing Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazri, Maisarah Mohd; Samat, Farah D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice, produced by fermenting the fungus, "Monascus purpureus", on rice ("Oryza sativa" L. gramineae), is commonly used as a dietary supplement. It contains lovastatin, a member of the statin family of compounds, and is licensed for use as a cholesterol-lowering agent. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of…

  12. Lipooligosaccharide Structures of Invasive and Carrier Isolates of Neisseria meningitidis Are Correlated with Pathogenicity and Carriage*

    PubMed Central

    John, Constance M.; Phillips, Nancy J.; Din, Richard; Liu, Mingfeng; Rosenqvist, Einar; Høiby, E. Arne; Stein, Daniel C.; Jarvis, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The degree of phosphorylation and phosphoethanolaminylation of lipid A on neisserial lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a major cell-surface antigen, can be correlated with inflammatory potential and the ability to induce immune tolerance in vitro. On the oligosaccharide of the LOS, the presence of phosphoethanolamine and sialic acid substituents can be correlated with in vitro serum resistance. In this study, we analyzed the structure of the LOS from 40 invasive isolates and 25 isolates from carriers of Neisseria meningitidis without disease. Invasive strains were classified as groups 1–3 that caused meningitis, septicemia without meningitis, and septicemia with meningitis, respectively. Intact LOS was analyzed by high resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Prominent peaks for lipid A fragment ions with three phosphates and one phosphoethanolamine were detected in all LOS analyzed. LOS from groups 2 and 3 had less abundant ions for highly phosphorylated lipid A forms and induced less TNF-α in THP-1 monocytic cells compared with LOS from group 1. Lipid A from all invasive strains was hexaacylated, whereas lipid A of 6/25 carrier strains was pentaacylated. There were fewer O-acetyl groups and more phosphoethanolamine and sialic acid substitutions on the oligosaccharide from invasive compared with carrier isolates. Bioinformatic and genomic analysis of LOS biosynthetic genes indicated significant skewing to specific alleles, dependent on the disease outcome. Our results suggest that variable LOS structures have multifaceted effects on homeostatic innate immune responses that have critical impact on the pathophysiology of meningococcal infections. PMID:26655715

  13. Genetic diversity and structure related to expansion history and habitat isolation: stone marten populating rural-urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Leblois, Raphaël; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2017-12-22

    Population genetic diversity and structure are determined by past and current evolutionary processes, among which spatially limited dispersal, genetic drift, and shifts in species distribution boundaries have major effects. In most wildlife species, environmental modifications by humans often lead to contraction of species' ranges and/or limit their dispersal by acting as environmental barriers. However, in species well adapted to anthropogenic habitat or open landscapes, human induced environmental changes may facilitate dispersal and range expansions. In this study, we analysed whether isolation by distance and deforestation, among other environmental features, promotes or restricts dispersal and expansion in stone marten (Martes foina) populations. We genotyped 298 martens from eight sites at twenty-two microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic variability, population structure and demographic history of stone martens in Poland. At the landscape scale, limited genetic differentiation between sites in a mosaic of urban, rural and forest habitats was mostly influenced by isolation by distance. Statistical clustering and multivariate analyses showed weak genetic structuring with two to four clusters and a high rate of gene flow between them. Stronger genetic differentiation was detected for one stone marten population (NE1) located inside a large forest complex. Genetic differentiation between this site and all others was 20% higher than between other sites separated by similar distances. The genetic uniqueness index of NE1 was also twofold higher than in other sites. Past demographic history analyses showed recent expansion of this species in north-eastern Poland. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north, and MIGRAINE analyses indicated the direction of expansion of stone marten. Our results showed that two processes, changes in species distribution boundaries and limited dispersal associated with landscape barriers, affect genetic diversity and

  14. Single-anchor support and supercritical CO2 drying enable high-precision microfabrication of three-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Shoji; Hasegawa, Takuya; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2009-11-09

    In high-precision two-photon microfabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) polymeric microstructures, supercritical CO(2) drying was employed to reduce surface tension, which tends to cause the collapse of micro/nano structures. Use of supercritical drying allowed high-aspect ratio microstructures, such as micropillars and cantilevers, to be fabricated. We also propose a single-anchor supporting method to eliminate non-uniform shrinkage of polymeric structures otherwise caused by attachment to the substrate. Use of this method permitted frame models such as lattices to be produced without harmful distortion. The combination of supercritical CO(2) drying and the single-anchor supporting method offers reliable high-precision microfabrication of sophisticated, fragile 3-D micro/nano structures.

  15. Isolation and structure elucidation of tetrameric procyanidins from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shohei; Oda, Chihiro; Masuda, Susumu; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2012-11-01

    Procyanidins are plant secondary metabolites widely consumed and known to have various physiological functions, but their bioavailability and mechanism of action are still unclear especially for larger oligomers. One of the reasons is scarce information about the detailed structure of oligomeric procyanidins. As for apple, structures of procyanidin components larger than trimers are scarcely known. In this study, 11 tetrameric procyanidins including two known compounds were isolated from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) and identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis and phloroglucinol degradation. As a result, the detailed structural diversity of tetrameric procyanidins in apple was established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Templated Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Specific Structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Li, Meihui; Liu, Xiyan; Zhao, Xiulan; Zhang, Daqi; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown great potential in various applications attributed to their unique structure-dependent properties. Therefore, the controlled preparation of chemically and structurally pristine SWNTs is a crucial issue for their advanced applications (e.g., nanoelectronics) and has been a great challenge for two decades. Epitaxial growth from well-defined seeds has been shown to be a promising strategy to control the structure of SWNTs. Segments of carbon nanotubes, including short pipes from cutting of preformed nanotubes and caps from opening of fullerenes or cyclodehydrogenation of polycyclic hydrocarbon precursors, have been used as the seeds to grow SWNTs. Single-chirality SWNTs were obtained with both presorted chirality-pure SWNT segments and end caps obtained from polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules with designed structure. The main challenges of nanocarbon-segment-seeded processes are the stability of the seeds, yield, and efficiency. Catalyst-mediated SWNT growth is believed to be more efficient. The composition and morphology of the catalyst nanoparticles have been widely reported to affect the chirality distribution of SWNTs. However, chirality-specific SWNT growth is hard to achieve by alternating catalysts. The specificity of enzyme-catalyzed reactions brings us an awareness of the essentiality of a unique catalyst structure for the chirality-selective growth of SWNTs. Only catalysts with the desired atomic arrangements in their crystal planes can act as structural templates for chirality-specific growth of SWNTs. We have developed a new family of catalysts, tungsten-based intermetallic compounds, which have high melting points and very special crystal structures, to facilitate the growth of SWNTs with designed chirality. By the use of W6Co7 catalysts, (12,6) SWNTs were directly grown with purity higher than 92%. Both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements and density functional theory simulations

  17. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Recent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Germany Reveals Population Structure and Disease Clusters.

    PubMed

    Halbedel, Sven; Prager, Rita; Fuchs, Stephan; Trost, Eva; Werner, Guido; Flieger, Antje

    2018-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne outbreaks with high mortality. For improvement of outbreak cluster detection, the German consiliary laboratory for listeriosis implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 2015. A total of 424 human L. monocytogenes isolates collected in 2007 to 2017 were subjected to WGS and core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). cgMLST grouped the isolates into 38 complexes, reflecting 4 known and 34 unknown disease clusters. Most of these complexes were confirmed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling, but some were further differentiated. Interestingly, several cgMLST cluster types were further subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, partly due to phage insertions in the accessory genome. Our results highlight the usefulness of cgMLST for routine cluster detection but also show that cgMLST complexes require validation by methods providing higher typing resolution. Twelve cgMLST clusters included recent cases, suggesting activity of the source. Therefore, the cgMLST nomenclature data presented here may support future public health actions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SINGLE-PARENT FAMILY STRUCTURE AND AGE OF SEXUAL DEBUT AMONG YOUNG PERSONS IN JAMAICA.

    PubMed

    Oshi, Daniel C; Mckenzie, Jordan; Baxter, Martin; Robinson, Royelle; Neil, Stephan; Greene, Tayla; Wright, Wayne; Lodge, Jeorghino

    2018-02-26

    There is a high and increasing proportion of single-parent families in Jamaica. This has raised concerns about the potential impact of single-parent families on the social, cognitive and behavioural development of children, including their sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between being raised in a single-parent family and age of sexual debut among young people in Jamaica. The study was cross-sectional in design, and based on a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study was conducted in July/September 2016. The study sample comprised 233 respondents (110 males and 123 females) aged from 18 to 35 years (mean 26.37 years; SD 5.46). Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic characteristics, family structure, sexual debut and current sexual behaviour. Ninety-seven (41.7%) respondents grew up in single-parent families. A total of 201 (86.3%) had had sex (102 males and 99 females). Their mean age of sexual debut was 15.51 years (SD 3.41). Sixty-five (32.3%) had early sexual debut (<16 years). Respondents from single-parent families were more likely to have had early sexual debut (56.9%; n=37) compared with those from two-parent families (43.1%, n=28; p=0.004). Only 44.6% (n=29) of those who experienced early sexual debut used a condom during their first sexual encounter compared with 73% (n=100) of those who had a later sexual debut (≥16 years; p=<0.001). A single-father family structure was a significant predictor of early sexual debut (AOR 5.5; 95%CI: 1.1-25.8). The study found a significant association between single-parent family structure and age of sexual debut.

  19. Characterisation of Phytophthora capsici isolates from black pepper in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Truong, Nguyen V; Liew, Edward C Y; Burgess, Lester W

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora foot rot of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is a major disease of black pepper (Piper nigrum) throughout Vietnam. To understand the population structure of P. capsici, a large collection of P. capsici isolates from black pepper was studied on the basis of mating type, random amplified microsatellites (RAMS) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) fingerprinting. Two mating types A1 and A2 were detected in four provinces in two climatic regions, with A1:A2 ratios ranging from 1:3 to 1:5. In several instances A1 and A2 mating types were found to co-exist in the same farm or black pepper pole, suggesting the potential for sexual reproduction of P. capsici in the field in Vietnam although its contribution to disease epidemics is uncertain. RAMS and REP DNA fingerprinting analysis of 118 isolates of P. capsici from black pepper showed that the population was genetically more diverse where two mating types were found, although the overall genetic diversity was low with most of the isolates belonging to one clonal group. The implication of these findings is discussed. The low diversity among isolates suggests that the P. capsici population may have originated from a single source. There was no genetic differentiation of isolates from different climatic regions. In addition to the large clonal group, several isolates with unique RAMS/REP phenotypes were also detected. Most of these unique phenotypes belonged to the minority A1 mating type. This may have significant implications for a gradual increase in overall genetic diversity.

  20. Population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Paenibacillus larvae isolates from American foulbrood cases in Apis mellifera in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuichi; Yoshida, Emi; Misumi, Wakako; Watando, Eri; Suzuki, Kenta; Hirai, Yuko; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Katsuda, Ken; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2018-04-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most destructive disease of the honey bee brood. In this study, we investigated the population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Japanese P. larvae using 100 isolates isolated between 1993 and 2017 in 17 prefectures. Using repetitive-element PCR and multilocus sequence typing, isolates from diverse origins were classified into six genotypes, including the novel genotype ERIC II-ST24. Among these genotypes, ERIC I-ST15 is the most common in Japan, while ERIC II-ST10 isolates were found to be increasing during the 2010s. Regardless of genotype or origin, all isolates were susceptible to the major antimicrobials used in the control of AFB, including mirosamicin and tylosin, which were approved for the prevention of AFB in Japan in 1999 and 2017 respectively. Despite nearly 20 years of use, mirosamicin is still effective against Japanese P. larvae in vitro; however, the development of AFB in honey bee colonies may not always be suppressed by this drug. The case information collected in this study provides insight into the conditions under which prophylactic medicine may not exert sufficient preventive effects in vivo. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Seismic isolation of small modular reactors using metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witarto, Witarto; Wang, S. J.; Yang, C. Y.; Nie, Xin; Mo, Y. L.; Chang, K. C.; Tang, Yu; Kassawara, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Adaptation of metamaterials at micro- to nanometer scales to metastructures at much larger scales offers a new alternative for seismic isolation systems. These new isolation systems, known as periodic foundations, function both as a structural foundation to support gravitational weight of the superstructure and also as a seismic isolator to isolate the superstructure from incoming seismic waves. Here we describe the application of periodic foundations for the seismic protection of nuclear power plants, in particular small modular reactors (SMR). For this purpose, a large-scale shake table test on a one-dimensional (1D) periodic foundation supporting an SMR building model was conducted. The 1D periodic foundation was designed and fabricated using reinforced concrete and synthetic rubber (polyurethane) materials. The 1D periodic foundation structural system was tested under various input waves, which include white noise, stepped sine and seismic waves in the horizontal and vertical directions as well as in the torsional mode. The shake table test results show that the 1D periodic foundation can reduce the acceleration response (transmissibility) of the SMR building up to 90%. In addition, the periodic foundation-isolated structure also exhibited smaller displacement than the non-isolated SMR building. This study indicates that the challenge faced in developing metastructures can be overcome and the periodic foundations can be applied to isolating vibration response of engineering structures.

  2. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; van der Merwe, Ruben G; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L; Tabb, David L

    2017-10-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of the utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study, we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach, we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ∼9% of all coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here, we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e., large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  3. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, Ralph W.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  4. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from the excreta of psittaciformes in a southern Brazilian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Abegg, Maxwel Adriano; Cella, Fabiana Lucila; Faganello, Josiane; Valente, Patrícia; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-02-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients, is a ubiquitous free-living fungus that can be isolated from soils, avian excreta and plant material. To further study potential saprophytic sources of this yeast in the Southern Brazilian State Rio Grande do Sul, we analyzed fecal samples from 59 species of captive birds kept in cages at a local Zoological Garden, belonging to 12 different orders. Thirty-eight environmental isolates of C. neoformans were obtained only from Psittaciformes (Psittacidae, Cacatuidae and Psittacula). Their variety and serotype were determined, and the genetic structure of the isolates was analyzed by use of the simple repetitive microsatellite specific primer M13 and the minisatellite specific primer (GACA)(4) as single primers in the PCR. The varieties were confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty-three isolates (87%) were from the var. grubii, serotype A, molecular type VNI and five (13%) were Cryptococcus gattii, serotype B, molecular type VGI. All the isolates were mating type alpha. Isolates were screened for some potential virulence factors. Quantitative urease production by the environmental isolates belonging to the C. gattii was similar to the values usually obtained for clinical ones.

  5. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna C; Upreti, Reshmi; Mujawar, Mohammad M; Pasha, Sadiq S

    2015-12-01

    We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (10 0 stocks). For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (10 0 ) stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (10 1 -10 6 ) were applied as 10-15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 10 0 -10 5 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v), 10 1 -10 6 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6-60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae , SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  6. Spontaneous formation of structurally diverse membrane channel architectures from a single antimicrobial peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yukun; Chen, Charles H.; Hu, Dan; Ulmschneider, Martin B.; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.

    2016-11-01

    Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) selectively target and form pores in microbial membranes. However, the mechanisms of membrane targeting, pore formation and function remain elusive. Here we report an experimentally guided unbiased simulation methodology that yields the mechanism of spontaneous pore assembly for the AMP maculatin at atomic resolution. Rather than a single pore, maculatin forms an ensemble of structurally diverse temporarily functional low-oligomeric pores, which mimic integral membrane protein channels in structure. These pores continuously form and dissociate in the membrane. Membrane permeabilization is dominated by hexa-, hepta- and octamers, which conduct water, ions and small dyes. Pores form by consecutive addition of individual helices to a transmembrane helix or helix bundle, in contrast to current poration models. The diversity of the pore architectures--formed by a single sequence--may be a key feature in preventing bacterial resistance and could explain why sequence-function relationships in AMPs remain elusive.

  7. Using forensic microsatellites to decipher the genetic structure of linguistic and geographic isolates: A survey in the eastern Italian Alps.

    PubMed

    Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Trombetta, Federica; Merigioli, Sara; Anagnostou, Paolo; Battaggia, Cinzia; Capocasa, Marco; Crivellaro, Federica; Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Coia, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    The study of geographically and/or linguistically isolated populations could represent a potential area of interaction between population and forensic genetics. These investigations may be useful to evaluate the suitability of loci which have been selected using forensic criteria for bio-anthropological studies. At the same time, they give us an opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of forensic tools for parentage testing in groups with peculiar allele frequency profiles. Within the frame of a long-term project concerning Italian linguistic isolates, we studied 15 microsatellite loci (Identifiler kit) comprising the CODIS panel in 11 populations from the north-eastern Italian Alps (Veneto, Trentino and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions). All our analyses of inter-population differentiation highlight the genetic distinctiveness of most Alpine populations comparing them either to each other or with large and non-isolated Italian populations. Interestingly, we brought to light some aspects of population genetic structure which cannot be detected using unilinear polymorphisms. In fact, the analysis of genotypic disequilibrium between loci detected signals of population substructure when all the individuals of Alpine populations are pooled in a single group. Furthermore, despite the relatively low number of loci analyzed, genetic differentiation among Alpine populations was detected at individual level using a Bayesian method to cluster multilocus genotypes. Among the various populations studied, the four linguistic minorities (Fassa Valley, Luserna, Sappada and Sauris) showed the most pronounced diversity and signatures of a peculiar genetic ancestry. Finally, we show that database replacement may affect estimates of probability of paternity even when the local database is replaced by another based on populations which share a common genetic background but which differ in their demographic history. These findings point to the importance of considering the demographic and

  8. Changes in the population structure of canine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Binek, Marian

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is being reported with an increasing frequency in small animal veterinary practice. The molecular typing of MRSP isolates revealed that the dominating European multidrug-resistant lineage is the sequence type 71 (ST71), associated with staphylococcal chromosomal cassette SCCmec type II-III. However, the recent reports indicated the emergence of other clones. The study aimed to determine the genetic properties of MRSP isolates obtained from dogs in Poland over a ten-year period. A total of 42 clinical MRSP isolates were subjected to multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing. MLST typing of 42 MRSP isolates yielded six STs belonging to two major clonal complexes (CCs): CC71 and CC551, associated with SCCmec element II-III and V, respectively. CC71 comprising ST71 and its newly described single locus variant (SLV) ST680. The second dominating CC551was represented by ST551 and newly described SLV ST771. The other, ST258 and ST85 were detected in single MRSP isolates. This is the first report concerning MLST typing of MRSP isolates in Poland. The results confirmed the domination of ST71 among MRSP until 2015, and the emergence of ST551 in 2015. Furthermore, in 2016 ST551 was identified in the majority of the strains, indicating the changes in the population structure of MRSP in Poland. Polish clinical MRSP isolates showed a shift in the population structure during the period of 2007 and 2016. The dominating MRSP lineage until 2015 was multidrug-resistant ST71-SCCmecII-III. The other lineage ST551-SCCmecV emerged in Poland since 2015, and in 2016 was found in the majority of MRSP isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z., E-mail: mmo09@slac.stanford.edu; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined.more » This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.« less

  10. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 µm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined.more » This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime« less

  11. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; ...

    2016-08-04

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 µm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined.more » This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime« less

  12. Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayrin, Clément; Junge, Christian; Mitsch, Rudolf; Albrecht, Bernhard; O'Shea, Danny; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2015-10-01

    The realization of nanophotonic optical isolators with high optical isolation even at ultralow light levels and low optical losses is an open problem. Here, we employ the link between the local polarization of strongly confined light and its direction of propagation to realize low-loss nonreciprocal transmission through a silica nanofiber at the single-photon level. The direction of the resulting optical isolator is controlled by the spin state of cold atoms. We perform our experiment in two qualitatively different regimes, i.e., with an ensemble of cold atoms where each atom is weakly coupled to the waveguide and with a single atom strongly coupled to the waveguide mode. In both cases, we observe simultaneously high isolation and high forward transmission. The isolator concept constitutes a nanoscale quantum optical analog of microwave ferrite resonance isolators, can be implemented with all kinds of optical waveguides and emitters, and might enable novel integrated optical devices for fiber-based classical and quantum networks.

  13. Ku to V-band 4-bit MEMS phase shifter bank using high isolation SP4T switches and DMTL structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.; Poddar, Ajay K.; Rohde, Ulrich L.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based on a wide-band 4-bit phase shifter using two back-to-back single-pole-four-throw (SP4T) switches and four different distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) structures that are implemented on 635 µm alumina substrate using surface micromachining process. An SP4T switch is designed with a series-shunt configuration and it demonstrates an average return loss of  >17 dB, an insertion loss of  <1.97 dB and maximum isolation of  >28 dB up to 60 GHz. A maximum area of the SP4T switch is ~0.76 mm2. Single-pole-single-throw and SP4T switches are capable of handling 1 W of radio frequency (RF) power up to  >100 million cycles at 25° C; they can even sustained up to  >70 million cycles with 1 W at 85 °C. The proposed wide-band phase shifter works at 17 GHz (Ku-band), 25 GHz (K-band), 35 GHz (Ka-band) and 60 GHz (V-band) frequencies. Finally,a 4-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of  <6 dB, return loss of  >10 dB and maximum phase error of ~3.8° at 60 GHz frequency over 500 MHz bandwidth. Total area of the fabricated device is ~11 mm2. In addition, the proposed device works well up to  >107 cycles with 1 W of RF power. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the best reported wide-band MEMS 4-bit phase shifter in the literature that works with a constant resolution.

  14. Spin and lattice structures of single-crystalline SrFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Ratcliff, W., II; Lynn, J. W.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Hu, Jiangping; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-10-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin and lattice structure of single-crystal SrFe2As2 , the parent compound of the FeAs-based superconductor (Sr,K)Fe2As2 . We find that SrFe2As2 exhibits an abrupt structural phase transition at 220 K, where the structure changes from tetragonal with lattice parameters c>a=b to orthorhombic with c>a>b . At almost the same temperature, Fe spins develop a collinear antiferromagnetic structure along the orthorhombic a axis with spin direction parallel to this a axis. These results are consistent with earlier work on the RFeAsO ( R=rare earth) families of materials and on BaFe2As2 , and therefore suggest that static antiferromagnetic order is ubiquitous for the parent compounds of these FeAs-based high-transition temperature superconductors.

  15. Method for autologous single skin cell isolation for regenerative cell spray transplantation with non-cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Johnen, Christa; Ottomann, Christian; Ottoman, Christian; Bräutigam, Kirsten; Plettig, Jörn; Belfekroun, Claudia; Münch, Sandra; Hartmann, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    There is a therapeutic gap for patients with deep partial thickness wounds (Grade IIb) of moderate size that were initially not treated with split- or mesh grafting to avoid overgrafting, but developed delayed wound healing around two weeks after injury--at which time grafting is typically not indicated anymore. Delayed wound healing is often associated with esthetically unsatisfactory results and sometimes functional problems. An innovative cell isolation method for cell spray transplantation at the point of care, which eliminates cell culture prior to treatment, was implemented for this population of burn patients in our center. Autologous skin cell spray transplantation was initiated by taking healthy skin. The dermal/epidermal layers were separated using enzymatic digestion with 40 min dispase application, followed by 15 min trypsin application for basal kerationcyte isolation, 7 min cell washing by centrifugation, followed by transferring the cells for spraying into Ringer lactate solution. The procedure was performed on site in a single session immediately following the biopsy. After sharp wound debridement, cells were immediately transplanted by deposition with a cell sprayer for even distribution of the cell suspension. Eight patients were treated (mean age 30.3 years, mean burn total body surface area 14%, mean Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (5 points). The mean time to complete re-epithelialization was 12.6 days. All patients exhibited wound healing with improved esthetic and functional quality. Our initial experience for the use of non-cultured cells using a two-enzyme approach with cell washing suggests shortened time for wound closure, suggesting that the method may potentially avoid longer-term complications.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded RNA virus infecting the bloom-forming diatom Chaetoceros socialis.

    PubMed

    Tomaru, Yuji; Takao, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Nagasaki, Keizo

    2009-04-01

    Diatoms are very significant primary producers in the world's oceans. Various environmental factors affect the depletion of diatom populations. The importance of viruses as a potential mortality source has recently been recognized. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Chaetoceros socialis f. radians RNA virus [CsfrRNAV]) causing the lysis of the bloom-forming species Chaetoceros socialis Lauder f. radians (Schütt) Proschkina-Lavrenko. The virus infectious to C. socialis f. radians was isolated from water samples collected in Hiroshima Bay. Here we show the physiology, morphology, and genome characteristics of the virus clone. Virions were 22 nm in diameter and accumulated in the cytoplasm of the host cells. The latent period and the burst size were estimated to be <48 h and 66 infectious units per host cell, respectively. CsfrRNAV harbors a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome and encodes at least three polypeptides of 32.0, 28.5, and 25.0 kDa. Sequencing analysis shows the length of the genome is 9,467 bases, excluding a poly(A) tail. The monophyly of CsfrRNAV and other diatom-infecting RNA viruses, Rhizosolenia setigera RNA virus and Chaetoceros tenuissimus RNA virus, was strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. This suggested a new ssRNA virus family, Bacillariornaviridae. This discovery of CsfrRNAV may aid in further understanding the ecological dynamics of the C. socialis f. radians population in nature and the relationships between ssRNA diatom viruses and their hosts.

  17. FORMING SELF-ASSEMBLED CELL ARRAYS AND MEASURING THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE OF A SINGLE LIVE CELL.

    PubMed

    Etzkorn, James R; McQuaide, Sarah C; Anderson, Judy B; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Parviz, Babak A

    2009-06-01

    We report a method for forming arrays of live single cells on a chip using polymer micro-traps made of SU8. We have studied the toxicity of the microfabricated structures and the associated environment for two cell lines. We also report a method for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using optical interrogation of molecular oxygen sensors placed in micromachined micro-wells by temporarily sealing the cells in the micro-traps. The new techniques presented here add to the collection of tools available for performing "single-cell" biology. A single-cell self-assembly yield of 61% was achieved with oxygen draw down rates of 0.83, 0.82, and 0.71 fmol/minute on three isolated live A549 cells.

  18. FORMING SELF-ASSEMBLED CELL ARRAYS AND MEASURING THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE OF A SINGLE LIVE CELL

    PubMed Central

    Etzkorn, James R.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Parviz, Babak A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a method for forming arrays of live single cells on a chip using polymer micro-traps made of SU8. We have studied the toxicity of the microfabricated structures and the associated environment for two cell lines. We also report a method for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using optical interrogation of molecular oxygen sensors placed in micromachined micro-wells by temporarily sealing the cells in the micro-traps. The new techniques presented here add to the collection of tools available for performing “single-cell” biology. A single-cell self-assembly yield of 61% was achieved with oxygen draw down rates of 0.83, 0.82, and 0.71 fmol/minute on three isolated live A549 cells. PMID:20694048

  19. Isolation, structure elucidation and antibacterial activity of methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate from the marine actinobacterium Streptomyces albogriseolus ECR64.

    PubMed

    Thirumurugan, Durairaj; Vijayakumar, Ramasamy; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Alam Khan, Md Khurshid

    2018-05-25

    Around 120 actinobacterial colonies were isolated from various regions of marine East coast region of Tamil Nadu, India. Among them, 33 were morphologically distinct and they were preliminarily screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila by cross-streak plate technique. Among the isolated, the isolate ECR64 exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against fish pathogenic bacteria. The crude bioactive compounds were extracted from the isolate ECR64 using different organic solvents which exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Separation and purification of the bioactive compounds were made by column chromatography which yielded 27 fractions and were re-chromatographed to obtain the active compound. Ultra violet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral studies were used to predict the structure of the active compound which was identified as methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate. The potential isolate ECR64 was identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus by phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic (16S rRNA gene sequence) analyses. The identified compound methyl-4,8-dimethylundecanate can be used as potential and alternative drug in disease management of aquaculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-cell Hi-C for genome-wide detection of chromatin interactions that occur simultaneously in a single cell.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Takashi; Lubling, Yaniv; Yaffe, Eitan; Wingett, Steven W; Dean, Wendy; Tanay, Amos; Fraser, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Hi-C is a powerful method that provides pairwise information on genomic regions in spatial proximity in the nucleus. Hi-C requires millions of cells as input and, as genome organization varies from cell to cell, a limitation of Hi-C is that it only provides a population average of genome conformations. We developed single-cell Hi-C to create snapshots of thousands of chromatin interactions that occur simultaneously in a single cell. To adapt Hi-C to single-cell analysis, we modified the protocol to include in-nucleus ligation. This enables the isolation of single nuclei carrying Hi-C-ligated DNA into separate tubes, followed by reversal of cross-links, capture of biotinylated ligation junctions on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and PCR amplification of single-cell Hi-C libraries. The entire laboratory protocol can be carried out in 1 week, and although we have demonstrated its use in mouse T helper (TH1) cells, it should be applicable to any cell type or species for which standard Hi-C has been successful. We also developed an analysis pipeline to filter noise and assess the quality of data sets in a few hours. Although the interactome maps produced by single-cell Hi-C are sparse, the data provide useful information to understand cellular variability in nuclear genome organization and chromosome structure. Standard wet and dry laboratory skills in molecular biology and computational analysis are required.

  1. Variance in water chemistry parameters in isolated wetlands of Florida, USA, and relationships with macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighty small isolated wetlands throughout Florida were sampled in 2005 to explore within-site variability of water chemistry parameters and relate water chemistry to macroinvertebrate and diatom community structure. Three samples or measures of water were collected within each si...

  2. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from plants: isolation, structure elucidation, and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Cong; Joshi, Alpana S; ElSohly, Hala N; Khan, Shabana I; Jacob, Melissa R; Zhang, Zhizheng; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ferreira, Daneel; Walker, Larry A; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L

    2002-12-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been identified as a potential antifungal target. FAS prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was employed for bioactivity-guided fractionation of Chlorophora tinctoria,Paspalum conjugatum, Symphonia globulifera, Buchenavia parviflora, and Miconia pilgeriana. Thirteen compounds (1-13), including three new natural products (1, 4, 12), were isolated and their structures identified by spectroscopic interpretation. They represented five chemotypes, namely, isoflavones, flavones, biflavonoids, hydrolyzable tannin-related derivatives, and triterpenoids. 3'-Formylgenistein (1) and ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (9) were the most potent compounds against FAS, with IC(50) values of 2.3 and 7.5 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, 43 (14-56) analogues of the five chemotypes from our natural product repository and commercial sources were tested for their FAS inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships for some chemotypes were investigated. All these compounds were further evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although there were several antifungal compounds in the set, correlation between the FAS inhibitory activity and antifungal activity could not be defined.

  3. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    PubMed

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of chain stiffness on the structure of single-chain polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Angel J.; Bacova, Petra; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Colmenero, Juan; Pomposo, José A.

    2018-01-01

    Polymeric single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) are soft nano-objects synthesized by purely intramolecular cross-linking of single polymer chains. By means of computer simulations, we investigate the conformational properties of SCNPs as a function of the bending stiffness of their linear polymer precursors. We investigate a broad range of characteristic ratios from the fully flexible case to those typical of bulky synthetic polymers. Increasing stiffness hinders bonding of groups separated by short contour distances and increases looping over longer distances, leading to more compact nanoparticles with a structure of highly interconnected loops. This feature is reflected in a crossover in the scaling behaviour of several structural observables. The scaling exponents change from those characteristic for Gaussian chains or rings in θ-solvents in the fully flexible limit, to values resembling fractal or ‘crumpled’ globular behaviour for very stiff SCNPs. We characterize domains in the SCNPs. These are weakly deformable regions that can be seen as disordered analogues of domains in disordered proteins. Increasing stiffness leads to bigger and less deformable domains. Surprisingly, the scaling behaviour of the domains is in all cases similar to that of Gaussian chains or rings, irrespective of the stiffness and degree of cross-linking. It is the spatial arrangement of the domains which determines the global structure of the SCNP (sparse Gaussian-like object or crumpled globule). Since intramolecular stiffness can be varied through the specific chemistry of the precursor or by introducing bulky side groups in its backbone, our results propose a new strategy to tune the global structure of SCNPs.

  5. Authoritative knowledge and single women's unintentional pregnancies, abortions, adoption, and single motherhood: social stigma and structural violence.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Marcia A

    2003-09-01

    This article explores the sources of authoritative knowledge that shaped single, white, middle-class women's unintentional pregnancies and child-bearing decisions throughout five reproductive eras. Women who terminated a pregnancy were most influenced by their own personal needs and circumstances. birth mothers' decisions were based on external sources of knowledge, such as their mothers, social workers, and social pressures. In contrast, single mothers based their decision on instincts and their religious or moral beliefs. Reproductive policies further constrained and significantly shaped women's experiences. The social stigma associated with these forms of stratified maternity suggests that categorizing pregnant women by their marital status, or births as out-of-wedlock, reproduces the structural violence implicit to normative models of female sexuality and maternity. This mixed-method study included focus groups to determine the kinds of knowledge women considered authoritative, a mailed survey to quantify these identified sources, and one-on-one interviews to explore outcomes in depth.

  6. Novel Isochroman Dimers from Stachybotrys sp. PH30583: Fermentation, Isolation, Structural Elucidation and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Ya-Bin; Yang, Xue-Qiong; Xie, Hui-Ding; Shao, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Hao; Miao, Cui-Ping; Zhao, Li-Xing; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2017-05-01

    The rare anishidiol and five new isochromans, including three novel dimers with unprecedented skeletons, were isolated from Stachybotrys sp. PH30583. Their structures were determined by spectral analyses. The bioactivities of these compounds were also investigated. The dimers ( 6 - 10 ) inhibited acetylcholinesterase at 50 µM, but the monomers did not. To investigate the biogenesis of the novel dimers, a time-course investigation of metabolite production was undertaken. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Isolation and structure elucidation of the nucleoside antibiotic strepturidin from Streptomyces albus DSM 40763.

    PubMed

    Pesic, Alexander; Steinhaus, Britta; Kemper, Sebastian; Nachtigall, Jonny; Kutzner, Hans Jürgen; Höfle, Gerhard; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2014-06-01

    The antibiotic strepturidin (1) was isolated from the microorganism Streptomyces albus DSM 40763, and its structure elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical degradation studies. The determination of the relative and absolute stereocenters was partially achieved using chiral GC/EI-MS analysis and microderivatization by acetal ring formation and subsequent 2D-NMR analysis of key (1)H,(1)H-NOESY NMR correlations and extraction of (1)H,(13)C coupling constants from (1)H,(13)C-HMBC NMR spectra. Based on these results, a biosynthesis model was proposed.

  8. HSQC-TOCSY Fingerprinting for Prioritization of Polyketide- and Peptide-Producing Microbial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Buedenbender, Larissa; Habener, Leesa J; Grkovic, Tanja; Kurtböke, D İpek; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-04-27

    Microbial products are a promising source for drug leads as a result of their unique structural diversity. However, reisolation of already known natural products significantly hampers the discovery process, and it is therefore important to incorporate effective microbial isolate selection and dereplication protocols early in microbial natural product studies. We have developed a systematic approach for prioritization of microbial isolates for natural product discovery based on heteronuclear single-quantum correlation-total correlation spectroscopy (HSQC-TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance profiles in combination with antiplasmodial activity of extracts. The HSQC-TOCSY experiments allowed for unfractionated microbial extracts containing polyketide and peptidic natural products to be rapidly identified. Here, we highlight how this approach was used to prioritize extracts derived from a library of 119 ascidian-associated actinomycetes that possess a higher potential to produce bioactive polyketides and peptides.

  9. Single molecule tools for enzymology, structural biology, systems biology and nanotechnology: an update

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Julia R.; Dhakal, Soma; Heinicke, Laurie A.; Walter, Nils G.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicology is the highly interdisciplinary field studying the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It requires sensitive tools to detect such effects. After their initial implementation during the 1990s, single-molecule fluorescence detection tools were quickly recognized for their potential to contribute greatly to many different areas of scientific inquiry. In the intervening time, technical advances in the field have generated ever-improving spatial and temporal resolution, and have enabled the application of single-molecule fluorescence to increasingly complex systems, such as live cells. In this review, we give an overview of the optical components necessary to implement the most common versions of single-molecule fluorescence detection. We then discuss current applications to enzymology and structural studies, systems biology, and nanotechnology, presenting the technical considerations that are unique to each area of study, along with noteworthy recent results. We also highlight future directions that have the potential to revolutionize these areas of study by further exploiting the capabilities of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25212907

  10. A Single Chip Automotive Control LSI Using SOI Bipolar Complimentary MOS Double-Diffused MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Kazunori; Mizuno, Shoji; Abe, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Yasushi; Ishihara, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Harutsugu; Watanabe, Takamoto; Fujino, Seiji; Shirakawa, Isao

    2001-04-01

    Using the example of an air bag controller, a single chip solution for automotive sub-control systems is investigated, by using a technological combination of improved circuits, bipolar complimentary metal oxide silicon double-diffused metal oxide silicon (BiCDMOS) and thick silicon on insulator (SOI). For circuits, an automotive specific reduced instruction set computer (RISC) center processing unit (CPU), and a novel, all integrated system clock generator, dividing digital phase-locked loop (DDPLL) are proposed. For the device technologies, the authors use SOI-BiCDMOS with trench dielectric-isolation (TD) which enables integration of various devices in an integrated circuit (IC) while avoiding parasitic miss operations by ideal isolation. The structures of the SOI layer and TD, are optimized for obtaining desired device characteristics and high electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. While performing all the air bag system functions over a wide range of supply voltage, and ambient temperature, the resulting single chip reduces the electronic parts to about a half of those in the conventional air bags. The combination of single chip oriented circuits and thick SOI-BiCDMOS technologies offered in this work is valuable for size reduction and improved reliability of automotive electronic control units (ECUs).

  11. The isolation of Escherichia coli from a poultry packing station and an abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Shooter, R. A.; Cooke, E. Mary; O'Farrell, Sheila; Bettelheim, K. A.; Chandler, Mary E.; Bushrod, Frances M.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution and serotype of strains of Escherichia coli from a poultry packing station and an abattoir are described. The results indicated that animal faecal strains contaminated the environment and the animal carcasses. Using 150 O antisera, a high proportion of the E. coli strains were non-typable. This suggests that the serotype distribution of E. coli in animals is different from that in man. Strains with single antigenic differences were isolated, and the possibility of genetic transfer of these antigenic structures is suggested. PMID:4608415

  12. Scaling up the Single Transducer Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Method for Accurate Characterization of Microstructural Gradients in Monolithic and Composite Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Carney, Dorothy V.; Baaklini, George Y.; Bodis, James R.; Rauser, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging that uses back surface reflections to gauge volumetric material quality is highly suited for quantitative characterization of microstructural gradients including those due to pore fraction, density, fiber fraction, and chemical composition variations. However, a weakness of conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging is that the image shows the effects of thickness as well as microstructural variations unless the part is uniformly thick. This limits this imaging method's usefulness in practical applications. Prior studies have described a pulse-echo time-of-flight-based ultrasonic imaging method that requires using a single transducer in combination with a reflector plate placed behind samples that eliminates the effect of thickness variation in the image. In those studies, this method was successful at isolating ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure in plate-like samples of silicon nitride, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite. In this study, the method is engineered for inspection of more complex-shaped structures-those having (hollow) tubular/curved geometry. The experimental inspection technique and results are described as applied to (1) monolithic mullite ceramic and polymer matrix composite 'proof-of-concept' tubular structures that contain machined patches of various depths and (2) as-manufactured monolithic silicon nitride ceramic and silicon carbide/silicon carbide composite tubular structures that might be used in 'real world' applications.

  13. Structural Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Obtained Through Single-Step Green Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Peddi, Siva; Abdallah Sadeh, Bilal

    2015-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver Nanoparticles (AGNP's) has been the most prominent among the metallic nanoparticles for research for over a decade and half now due to both the simplicity of preparation and the applicability of biological species with extensive applications in medicine and biotechnology to reduce and trap the particles. The current article uses Eclipta Prostrata leaf extract as the biological species to cap the AGNP's through a single step process. The characterization data obtained was used for the analysis of the sample structure. The article emphasizes the disquisition of their shape and size of the lattice parameters and proposes a general scheme and a mathematical model for the analysis of their dependence. The data of the synthesized AGNP's has been used to advantage through the introduction of a structural shape factor for the crystalline nanoparticles. The properties of the structure of the AGNP's proposed and evaluated through a theoretical model was undeviating with the experimental consequences. This modus operandi gives scope for the structural studies of ultrafine particles prepared using biological methods.

  14. Multi-resonant electromagnetic shunt in base isolation for vibration damping and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yalu; Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts applied to base isolation for dual-function vibration damping and energy harvesting. Two multi-mode shunt circuit configurations, namely parallel and series, are proposed and optimized based on the H2 criteria. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the relative displacement between the base and the primary structure is minimized. Practically, this will improve the safety of base-isolated buildings subjected the broad bandwidth ground acceleration. Case studies of a base-isolated building are conducted in both the frequency and time domains to investigate the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts under recorded earthquake signals. It shows that both multi-mode shunt circuits outperform traditional single mode shunt circuits by suppressing the first and the second vibration modes simultaneously. Moreover, for the same stiffness ratio, the parallel shunt circuit is more effective at harvesting energy and suppressing vibration, and can more robustly handle parameter mistuning than the series shunt circuit. Furthermore, this paper discusses experimental validation of the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts for vibration damping and energy harvesting on a scaled-down base isolation system.

  15. ISEE 3 observations of low-energy proton bidirectional events and their relation to isolated interplanetary magnetic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tranquille, C.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper represents the results of a comprehensive survey of low-energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and associated transient magnetic structures as observed in the 35-1600 keV energy range on ISEE-3 during the last solar maximum. The majority of observed bidirectional flow (BDF) events (more than 70 percent) are associated with isolated magnetic structures which are postulated to be an interplanetary manifestation of coronal mass ejection (CME) events. The observed BDF events can be qualitatively grouped into five classes depending on the field signature of the related magnetic structure and the association (or lack of association) with an interplanetary shock. Concerning the topology of the CME-related magnetic structures, the observations are interpreted as being consistent with a detached bubble, comprising closed loops or tightly wound helices.

  16. Structural and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate subjected to acid and alkaline pH-shifting processes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Youling L

    2009-08-26

    Structural unfolding of soy protein isolate (SPI) as induced by holding (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) in acidic (pH 1.5-3.5) and alkaline (pH 10.0-12.0) pH solutions, followed by refolding (1 h) at pH 7.0, was analyzed. Changes in emulsifying properties of treated SPI were then examined. The pH-shifting treatments resulted in a substantial increase in protein surface hydrophobicity, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence intensity, and disulfide-mediated aggregation, along with the exposure of tyrosine. After the pH-shifting processes, soy protein adopted a molten globule-like conformation that largely maintained the original secondary structure and overall compactness but lost some tertiary structure. These structural modifications, consequently, led to markedly improved emulsifying activity of SPI as well as the emulsion stability.

  17. Nanofluidic transport through isolated carbon nanotube channels: Advances, controversies, and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Shirui; Meshot, Eric R.; Kuykendall, Tevye; ...

    2015-06-02

    Owing to their simple chemistry and structure, controllable geometry, and a plethora of unusual yet exciting transport properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as exceptional channels for fundamental nanofluidic studies, as well as building blocks for future fluidic devices that can outperform current technology in many applications. Leveraging the unique fluidic properties of CNTs in advanced systems requires a full understanding of their physical origin. Recent advancements in nanofabrication technology enable nanofluidic devices to be built with a single, nanometer-wide CNT as a fluidic pathway. These novel platforms with isolated CNT nanochannels offer distinct advantages for establishing quantitative structure–transport correlationsmore » in comparison with membranes containing many CNT pores. In addition, they are promising components for single-molecule sensors as well as for building nanotube-based circuits wherein fluidics and electronics can be coupled. With such advanced device architecture, molecular and ionic transport can be manipulated with vastly enhanced control for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery. Recent achievements in fabricating isolated-CNT nanofluidic platforms are highlighted, along with the most-significant findings each platform enables for water, ion, and molecular transport. Furthermore, the implications of these findings and remaining open questions on the exceptional fluidic properties of CNTs are also discussed.« less

  18. Genetic Diversity among Bacillus anthracis Soil Isolates at Fine Geographic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental samples were collected from carcass sites during and after anthrax outbreaks in 2000 and 2001 in the bison (Bison bison) population within Wood Buffalo National Park and the Hook Lake Region north of Wood Buffalo National Park. Bacillus anthracis spores were isolated from these samples and confirmed using phenotypic characterization and real-time PCR. Confirmed B. anthracis isolates were typed using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA15) and single-nucleotide-repeat analysis (SNRA). B. anthracis isolates split into two clades based on MLVA15, while SNRA allowed some isolates between carcass sites to be distinguished from each other. SNRA polymorphisms were also present within a single carcass site. Some isolates from different carcass sites having the same SNRA type had divergent MLVA types; this finding leads to questions about hierarchical typing methods and the robustness of the fine-scale typing of Bacillus anthracis. PMID:22773624

  19. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Honey and Propolis toward Drug Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli and Candida Albicans Isolates in Single and Polymicrobial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    AL-Waili, Noori; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Attal, Y.; Salom, Khelod

    2012-01-01

    Background: Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. The study investigated antimicrobial activity of ethyl alcohol extraction of propolis collected from Saudi Arabia (EEPS) and from Egypt (EEPE), and their synergistic effect when used with honey. Single and polymicrobial cultures of antibiotic resistant human pathogens were tested. Material and methods; Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C.albicans) were cultured in 10-100% (v/v) honey diluted in broth, or 0.08-1.0% (weight/volume) EEPS and EEPE diluted in broth. Four types of polymicrobial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other in broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey or propolis. Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation. Results; EEPS and EEPE inhibited antibiotic resistant E.coli, and S.aureus, and C.albicans in single and polymicrobial cultures. S.aureus became more susceptible when it was cultured with E.coli or C.albicans or when all cultured together. C.albicans became more susceptible when it was cultured with S.aureus or with E.coli and S. aureus together. The presence of ethyl alcohol or honey potentiated antimicrobial effect of propolis toward entire microbes tested in single or polymicrobial cultures. EEPS had lower MIC toward E.coli and C.albicans than EEPE. When propolis was mixed with honey, EEPS showed lower MIC than EEPE. In addition, honey showed lower MIC toward entire microbes when mixed with EEPS than when it was mixed with EEPE. Conclusion; 1) propolis prevents the growth of the microorganisms in single and mixed microbial cultures, and has synergistic effect when used with honey or ethyl alcohol, 2) the antimicrobial property of propolis varies with geographical origin, and 3) this study will pave the way to isolate active ingredients from honey and propolis to be further tested individually or

  1. Assessment of six different collagenase-based methods to isolate feline pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Zini, Eric; Franchini, Marco; Guscetti, Franco; Osto, Melania; Kaufmann, Karin; Ackermann, Mathias; Lutz, Thomas A; Reusch, Claudia E

    2009-12-01

    Isolation of pancreatic islets is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell demise in diabetic cats. Six collagenase-based methods of isolation were compared in 10 cat pancreata, including single and double course of collagenase, followed or not by Ficoll centrifugation or accutase, and collagenase plus accutase. Morphometric analysis was performed to measure the relative area of islet and exocrine tissue. Islet specific mRNA transcripts were quantified in isolates by real-time PCR. The single and double course of collagenase digestion was successful in each cat and provided similar islet-to-exocrine tissue ratio. Quantities of insulin mRNA did not differ between the two methods. However, on histological examination either method yielded only approximately 2% of pure islets. The other methods provided disrupted islets or insufficient samples in 1-7 cats. Although pancreas digestion with single and double course of collagenase was superior, further studies are needed to improve islet isolation in cats.

  2. Mitochondrial population genomic analyses reveal population structure and demography of Indian Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Suchi; Das, Aparup

    2015-09-01

    Inference on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations could help in better management of malaria. A very recent study with mitochondrial (mt) genomes in global P. falciparum had revealed interesting evolutionary genetic patterns of Indian isolates in comparison to global ones. However, no population genetic study using the whole mt genome sequences of P. falciparum isolates collected in the entire distribution range in India has yet been performed. We herewith have analyzed 85 whole mt genomes (48 already published and 37 entirely new) sampled from eight differentially endemic Indian locations to estimate genetic diversity and infer population structure and historical demography of Indian P. falciparum. We found 19 novel Indian-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 novel haplotypes segregating in Indian P. falciparum. Accordingly, high haplotype and nucleotide diversities were detected in Indian P. falciparum in comparison to many other global isolates. Indian P. falciparum populations were found to be moderately sub-structured with four different genetic clusters. Interestingly, group of local populations aggregate to form each cluster; while samples from Jharkhand and Odisha formed a single cluster, P. falciparum isolates from Asom formed an independent one. Similarly, Surat, Bilaspur and Betul formed a single cluster and Goa and Mangalore formed another. Interestingly, P. falciparum isolates from the two later populations were significantly genetically differentiated from isolates collected in other six Indian locations. Signature of historical population expansion was evident in five population samples, and the onset of expansion event was found to be very similar to African P. falciparum. In agreement with the previous finding, the estimated Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) and the effective population size were high in Indian P. falciparum. All these genetic features of Indian P. falciparum with high mt genome

  3. Complete genome analysis of dengue virus type 3 isolated from the 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodan; Ma, Dehong; Huang, Xinwei; Li, Lihua; Li, Duo; Zhao, Yujiao; Qiu, Lijuan; Pan, Yue; Chen, Junying; Xi, Juemin; Shan, Xiyun; Sun, Qiangming

    2017-06-15

    In the past few decades, dengue has spread rapidly and is an emerging disease in China. An unexpected dengue outbreak occurred in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China, resulting in 1331 patients in 2013. In order to obtain the complete genome information and perform mutation and evolutionary analysis of causative agent related to this largest outbreak of dengue fever. The viruses were isolated by cell culture and evaluated by genome sequence analysis. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining methods (MEGA6.0), followed by analysis of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. The analysis of the diversity of secondary structure for E and NS1 protein were also performed. Then selection pressures acting on the coding sequences were estimated by PAML software. The complete genome sequences of two isolated strains (YNSW1, YNSW2) were 10,710 and 10,702 nucleotides in length, respectively.