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Sample records for single oral dose

  1. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  2. Vaxchora: A Single-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Adriana; Lepage, Jayne E; Sullivan, Karyn M; Seed, Sheila M

    2017-07-01

    To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010. ClinicalTrials.gov was used as a source for unpublished data. Additional data sources were obtained through bibliographic review of selected articles. Studies that addressed the safety and efficacy of Vaxchora, the reformulated, single-dose oral CVD 103-HgR cholera vaccine, were selected for analysis. Approval of Vaxchora, was based on efficacy of the vaccine in human trials demonstrating 90.3% protection among those challenged with V cholerae 10 days after vaccination and in immunogenicity studies with 90% systemic vibriocidal antibody conversion at 6 months after a single-dose of vaccine. Tolerability was acceptable, with the most common adverse effects reported to be fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. Vaxchora is the only FDA-approved, single-dose oral vaccine for the prevention of cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1 in adult travelers from the United States going to cholera-affected areas. Safety and efficacy has not been established in children, immunocompromised persons, and pregnant or breastfeeding women or those living in cholera-endemic areas.

  3. Single dose oral fenbufen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Fenbufen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no known systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief database for studies to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered fenbufen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Searches identified only one study with (90 participants in total, 31 taking fenbufen). The study compared oral fenbufen 800 mg, fenbufen 400 mg, and placebo in participants with established postoperative pain. Fenbufen at both doses had apparent analgesic efficacy, but the numbers of participants was too small to allow sensible analysis. Gastrointestinal adverse events were noted in 4 of 15 participants taking fenbufen 800 mg. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be

  4. Pharmacokinetics of azapropazone following single oral and intravenous doses.

    PubMed

    Breuing, K H; Gilfrich, H J; Meinertz, T; Jähnchen, E

    1979-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of azapropazone (Prolixan) was studied in 7 healthy volunters following single oral and i.v. doses of 600 mg. After i.v. injection plasma concentration declined biexponentially with time. The half-life of the beta-phase was 13.6 +/- 2.6 h (mean +/- SD), the apparent volume of distribution 11.9 +/- 3.5 l, and the total clearance 10.1 +/- 2.1 ml . min-1. Following oral administration peak plasma concentrations occurred between 3 and 6 h and declined with a beta-phase half-life of 14.3 +/- 2.8 h. The binding of azapropazone to plasma proteins was high (ranging from 99.52 to 99.67% at a total plasma concentration of 75 micrograms/ml). The bioavailability of azapropazone when administered as capsules was 83 +/- 19%.

  5. Single dose oral fenoprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Traa, Maria X; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Fenoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), available in several different countries, but not widely used. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral fenoprofen in acute postoperative pain, and associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to December 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of fenoprofen for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Five studies (696 participants) met the inclusion criteria; 24 participants were treated with fenoprofen 12.5 mg, 23 with fenoprofen 25 mg, 79 with fenoprofen 50 mg, 78 with fenoprofen 100 mg, 146 with fenoprofen 200 mg, 55 with fenoprofen 300 mg, 43 with zomepirac 100 mg, 30 with morphine 8 mg, 77 with codeine 60 mg, and 141 with placebo. Participants had pain following third molar extraction, laparoscopy, minor day surgery and episiotomy. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with a single dose of fenoprofen 200 mg compared to placebo was 2.3 (1.9 to 3.0). There were insufficient data to analyse other doses or active comparators

  6. Single dose oral diflunisal for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wasey, Jack O; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Diflunisal is a long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) most commonly used to treat acute postoperative pain or chronic joint pain from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review analyses the effectiveness and harm of different doses of diflunisal in the context of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral diflunisal in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2010. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered diflunisal in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Nine studies in dental, orthopedic and gynaecological surgery met the inclusion criteria, testing doses of diflunisal from 125 mg to 1000 mg. For diflunisal 1000 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours was 2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) (6 studies, 391 participants); the NNT to prevent remedication within 6 hours was 1.9 (1.7 to 2.3), and within 12 hours was 2.2 (1.9 to 2.7) (6 studies, 409 participants). More participants experienced adverse events with diflunisal 100 mg than with placebo, but none were serious or led to withdrawal. For diflunisal 500 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief

  7. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    PubMed

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of temafloxacin in humans after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Granneman, G R; Carpentier, P; Morrison, P J; Pernet, A G

    1991-01-01

    Temafloxacin (A-63004) is a new quinolone antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of temafloxacin were determined in healthy volunteers after administration of single oral doses of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg. The corresponding peak concentrations in plasma (mean +/- standard deviation) were 0.98 +/- 0.26, 1.61 +/- 0.57, 2.43 +/- 0.56, 3.87 +/- 0.64, 4.54 +/- 1.03, and 6.67 +/- 0.74 micrograms/ml. The times that elapsed to attain peak levels ranged from 1.25 to 3.5 h. Statistical analyses of parameters related to the extent of absorption and the linearity of the dispositional pharmacokinetics detected no dose-related trends. Study-wide, total clearance (223 ml/min) and renal clearance (125 ml/min) showed low intersubject variability, with coefficients of variation near 20%. The terminal-phase rate constant of 0.090 +/- 0.008 h-1 corresponds to a half-life of 7.7 h. Temafloxacin was excreted mainly in the urine, with 57 +/- 11% of the dose appearing in the urine unchanged. Conjugated temafloxacin, oxidative metabolites, and conjugates thereof were minor components in urine, collectively accounting for 5 to 8% of the dose. Since intravenously dosed dogs eliminated 50% of the dose by nonrenal processes, urinary recoveries approaching two-thirds of the dose in humans were consistent with high, if not quantitative, absorption. Reported adverse events were generally mild, were randomly distributed between temafloxacin- and placebo-treated subjects, and were not dose related. PMID:2039194

  9. Reliable evidence for efficacy of single dose oral analgesics.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Silvia; Spivakovsky, Yael

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesThe Cochrane library was searched for Cochrane systematic reviews.Study selectionCochrane reviews on single pain medications for the treatment of acute pain were included. Non-Cochrane reviews were included for tramadol.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently searched, selected reviews for inclusion, assessed quality and performed data extraction. A protocol in case of disagreement was in place. Data were collected on number of included studies and participants, drug, dose and formulation and pain model. The authors concentrated on the amount of information and the potential for publication bias.Pain relief was calculated using at least 50% maximum pain relief, as a percentage, and as NNTs. Duration of analgesia was measured as mean or median and time to remedication was calculated as percentage of patients.ResultsThirty-nine reviews including 41 interventions were analysed and NNTs for at least 50% maximum pain relief were summarised in a graphic. NNTs range from almost one all the way to five. Only one intervention, codeine 60, had an NNT ≥10. Results judged to be reliable were listed in detail. Mean or median time to remedication was also presented in a graphic.The authors conclude that there is a great amount of quality information on single dose analgesics, and highlighted the potential benefit of fast acting formulations and fixed formulations to achieve good long-lasting analgesia.ConclusionsThere is a wealth of reliable evidence on the analgesic efficacy of single dose oral analgesics. Fast acting formulations and fixed dose combinations of analgesics can produce good and often long-lasting analgesia at relatively low doses. There is also important information on drugs for which there are no data, inadequate data, or where results are unreliable due to susceptibility to publication bias. This should inform choices by professionals and consumers.

  10. Single dose oral piroxicam for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Loke, Yoon; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties, and is used mainly for treating rheumatic disorders. Some drugs have been directly compared against each other within a trial setting to determine their relative efficacies, whereas other have not. It is possible, however, to compare analgesics indirectly by examining the effectiveness of each drug against placebo when used in similar clinical situations. Objectives To determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose piroxicam compared with placebo in moderate to severe postoperative pain. To compare the effects of piroxicam with other analgesics. Search methods Published studies were identified from systematic searching of MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, randomised placebo controlled trial, double-blind design, adult participants, postoperative pain of moderate to severe intensity at the baseline assessment, postoperative administration of oral or intramuscular piroxicam. Data collection and analysis Summed pain intensity and pain relief data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate estimates of relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Information was collected on adverse effects and estimates of relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH) were calculated. Main results In this update no further studies were found. The original search identified three studies (141 participants) which compared oral piroxicam 20 mg with placebo and

  11. Terbinafine pharmacokinetics after single dose oral administration in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O

    2011-12-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 μg·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 μg/mL (range 3-4.9 μg/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 μg h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs.

  12. Single dose oral sulindac for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies up to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral sulindac for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned to use area under the “pain relief versus time” curve to derive the proportion of participants with meloxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations; to use number needed to treat to benefit (NNT); the proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period; time to use of rescue analgesia; information on adverse events and withdrawals. Main results No studies were identified by the searches that examined oral sulindac in patients with established postoperative pain. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy, at present, for oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be evaluated carefully. Given the large number of available drugs of this and similar classes

  13. Difloxacin metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Granneman, G R; Snyder, K M; Shu, V S

    1986-01-01

    By using high-performance liquid chromatography, the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of difloxacin were characterized in humans after single oral doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg. Group mean peak levels in plasma were obtained 4 h after administration. The means of the individual peak levels for the 200-, 400-, and 600-mg groups were 2.17, 4.09, and 6.12 micrograms/ml, respectively. The mean respective terminal-phase half-lives were 20.6, 27.1, and 28.8 h; the mean half-life for all subjects was 25.7 h. Within the dose range studied, the behavior of difloxacin could be well described by a set of linear pharmacokinetic parameters with a one-compartment open model. Levels of unconjugated metabolites in plasma were negligible. The major urinary components were difloxacin and its glucuronide, each accounting for roughly 10% of the dose. Also present were the N-desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, accounting for 2 to 4%. Trace levels of other metabolites were observed. Group mean renal clearances ranged from 4.1 to 5.6 ml/min, indicating extensive reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. As a result, the terminal phase half-life and the dose-normalized area under the curve were substantially greater than those of other members of the class. PMID:3800345

  14. Single dose oral ibuprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This review updates a 1999 Cochrane review showing that ibuprofen at various doses was effective in postoperative pain in single dose studies designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy. New studies have since been published. Ibuprofen is one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) analgesics both by prescription and as an over-the-counter medicine. Ibuprofen is used for acute and chronic painful conditions. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy of ibuprofen in single oral doses for moderate and severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to May 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered ibuprofen (any formulation) in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Seventy-two studies compared ibuprofen and placebo (9186 participants). Studies were predominantly of high reporting quality, and the bulk of the information concerned ibuprofen 200 mg and 400 mg. For at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo the NNT for ibuprofen 200 mg (2690 participants) was 2.7 (2.5 to 3.0) and for ibuprofen 400 mg (6475 participants) it was 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6). The proportion with at least 50% pain relief was 46% with 200 mg and 54% with 400 mg. Remedication within 6 hours was less

  15. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on ‘Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain’. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at

  16. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2008-10-08

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on 'Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain'. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the "pain relief versus time" curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours following a single dose of paracetamol were as follows: 500 mg

  17. Single dose oral lumiracoxib for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Yvonne M; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumiracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors were developed to avoid COX-1-related gastrointestinal (GI) problems while maintaining the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Objectives To review the analgesic efficacy, duration of analgesia, and adverse effects of a single oral dose of lumiracoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to February 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lumiracoxib for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and the data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR 6) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results In this updated review four studies met the inclusion criteria. In total 366 participants were treated with lumiracoxib 400 mg, 51 with lumiracoxib 100 mg, and 212 with placebo. Active comparators were naproxen 500 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg, celecoxib 200 mg, celecoxib 400 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg. With lumiracoxib 400 mg 50% of participants had at least 50% pain relief over six hours, compared with 8% given placebo; RB 6.9 (95% CI 4.1 to 12), NNT 2.4 (2.1 to 2.8). Median time to onset of analgesia was shorter for lumiracoxib 400 mg (0.6 to 1.5 hours) than

  18. Single dose oral flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25

  19. Single dose oral tenoxicam for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Owen A; McIntyre, Mairead; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and is widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (March 2009); EMBASE via Ovid (March 2009); the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral tenoxicam for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with tenoxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use of rescue analgesia, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Not one of sixteen studies identified by the searches and examined in detail studied oral tenoxicam in patients with established postoperative pain and therefore no results are available. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly

  20. Single dose oral celecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an update of a review published in The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4. Celecoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor usually prescribed for the relief of chronic pain in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Celecoxib is believed to be associated with fewer upper gastrointestinal adverse effects than conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Its effectiveness in acute pain was demonstrated in the earlier reviews. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of celecoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The most recent search was to 3 January 2012. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of adults prescribed any dose of oral celecoxib or placebo for acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed studies for quality and extracted data. We converted summed pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) into dichotomous information, yielding the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, and used this to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief with celecoxib who would not have done so with placebo. We used information on use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. Main results Eight studies (1380 participants) met the inclusion criteria. We identified five potentially relevant unpublished studies in the most recent searches, but data were not available at this time. The number of included studies therefore remains unchanged. The NNT for celecoxib 200 mg and 400 mg compared with placebo

  1. Single dose oral dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. Objectives To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods Published reports were identified from electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007, the original search was conducted in October 1999). Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria Inclusion criteria: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of participants to treatment groups, double blind design, adult participants, baseline pain of moderate to severe intensity, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Data collection and analysis: summed pain intensity and pain relief data over four to six hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH). Main results Fifty-two reports

  2. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J

    2011-09-07

    Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken.There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130 mg, diflunisal 125 mg, etoricoxib 60 mg

  3. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Background Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. Objectives To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. Methods We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. Main results The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken. There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130

  4. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics of risedronate on single-dose oral administration to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D Y; Eusebio, R A; Sacco-Gibson, N A; Pallone, K A; Kelly, S C; Nesbitt, J D; Brezovic, C P; Thompson, G A; Powell, J H

    2000-03-01

    Risedronate is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate approved for the treatment of Paget's disease (US-FDA) and in development for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. This study examined risedronate pharmacokinetics and tolerability after oral administration using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design. Healthy male and female volunteers (n = 22-23 subjects per dose) received a single oral dose of 2.5, 5, or 30 mg risedronate. Serum and urine samples were collected for 72 and 672 hours, respectively, and risedronate concentrations were determined by ELISA. Safety was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, clinical laboratory measurements, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. Mean Cmax (0.41, 0.94, and 5.1 ng/mL for 2.5, 5, and 30 mg, respectively), AUC (1.8, 3.9, and 21 ng.h/mL for 2.5, 5, and 30 mg, respectively), and urinary excretion (22, 63, and 260 micrograms for 2.5, 5, and 30 mg, respectively) were dose proportional, and there were no significant differences in tmax or CLR among the three doses. All doses were well tolerated; no serious adverse events occurred, and all but one of the adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. There was no evidence of an acute phase reaction occurring after oral administration of risedronate.

  5. Oral morphine dosing predictions based on single dose in healthy children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Joy M; Cooke, Erin M; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Brand, Katherine A; Winton, Pamela; Jimenez-Mendez, Ricardo; Aleksa, Katarina; Lauder, Gillian R; Carleton, Bruce C; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Anderson, Brian J; Montgomery, Carolyne J

    2017-01-01

    Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) ). Blood sampling for morphine assay was performed at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min. Morphine serum concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using nonlinear mixed effects models. Current data were pooled with published time-concentration profiles from children (n = 1059, age 23 weeks postmenstrual age - 3 years) administered intravenous morphine, to determine oral bioavailability (F), absorption lag time (TLAG ), and absorption half-time (TABS ). These parameter estimates were used to predict concentrations in children given oral morphine (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mcg·kg(-1) ) at different dosing intervals (3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 h). The oral morphine formulation had F 0.298 (CV 36.5%), TLAG 0.45 (CV 63.6%) h and TABS 0.71 (CV 55%) h. A single-dose morphine 100 mcg·kg(-1) achieved a mean CMAX 10 mcg·l(-1) . Repeat 4-hourly dosing achieved mean steady-state concentration 13-18 mcg·l(-1) ; concentrations associated with good analgesia after intravenous administration. Serum concentration variability was large ranging from 5 to 55 mcg·l(-1) at steady state. Oral morphine 200 mcg·kg(-1) then 100 mcg·kg(-1) 4 h or 150 mcg·kg(-1) 6 h achieves mean concentrations associated with analgesia. There was high serum concentration variability suggesting that respiration may be compromised in some children given these

  6. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after a single oral dose.

    PubMed Central

    Aasmundstad, T A; Xu, B Q; Johansson, I; Ripel, A; Bjørneboe, A; Christophersen, A S; Bodd, E; Mørland, J

    1995-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after administration of a single dose of the cough mixture Cosylan were investigated in 10 healthy subjects. 2. The median urinary recovery of ethylmorphine and measured metabolites was 77% over 48 h. The median tmax of unchanged ethylmorphine was 45 min, and the terminal elimination t1/2 was 2 h. Ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide was found to be the major metabolite. 3. Two subjects had significantly lower urinary recovery (0.48 h) of morphine and morphine-glucuronides than the remainder. Furthermore, these two had urinary metabolic ratios (MRO) and partial metabolic clearances (CLmO) for O-deethylation of ethylmorphine tentatively classifying them phenotypically as poor metabolisers of the debrisoquine/sparteine type. 4. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 alleles revealed five homozygote (wt/wt) and five heterozygote subjects. Two subjects phenotypically classified as poor metabolisers were genotypically CYP2D6A/wt and CYP2D6D/wt, respectively. 5. Serum and urine samples taken more than 8 and 24 h after administration of ethyl-morphine respectively, contained morphine and morphine-glucuronides, but no ethylmorphine, ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide or (serum only) norethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine could be detected after hydrolysis of urine samples in all subjects. The urinary recovery of the active metabolites morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide after administration of ethylmorphine varied by a factor of 9 between individuals. 6. The wide variation in recovery of morphine and morphine-glucuronides after oral administration of ethylmorphine could not be explained simply by a difference in CYP2D6 genotype. Constitutional variation in other enzymatic pathways involved in ethylmorphine metabolism is probably crucial. Ratios of morphine to parent drug cannot be used to distinguish the source of morphine after administration of ethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine should be included in urine assays for opiates in forensic toxicology

  7. Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Patrick R; Huizinga, Robert B; Ling, Spencer Y; Freitag, Derrick G; Aspeslet, Launa J; Foster, Robert T

    2013-08-01

    Voclosporin (VCS) is a novel calcineurin (CN) inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. These studies evaluated the single ascending dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, CN activity) of VCS and the effect of food. VCS was administered orally in single doses of 0.25 through 4.5 mg/kg in 62 subjects in the single ascending dose study and as a single oral 1.5 mg/kg dose to 18 subjects after fasting, consumption of a low-fat and high-fat meal. Non-compartmental PK, PD, and PKPD correlation were evaluated. Following single oral doses, systemic exposure increased in a linear manner and demonstrated 1:1 dose-proportional, first-order linear PK above 1.5 mg/kg. VCS inhibited CN activity in a dose-related fashion with maximal inhibition peaking at 3.0 mg/kg. PKPD correlation indicated an EC50 of 78.3 ± 6.8 ng/mL. Administration of VCS with a low-fat and high-fat meal decreased C(max) by 29% and 53%, respectively, and AUC(inf) by 15% and 25%, respectively. Following ascending single doses of VCS, exposure increased in a linear fashion. A food effect on exposure was demonstrated, with a more pronounced effect following a high-fat meal. VCS concentrations were also found to correlate with CN activity.

  8. Single dose oral codeine, as a single agent, for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2010-04-14

    Codeine is an opioid metabolised to active analgesic compounds, including morphine. It is widely available by prescription, and combination drugs including low doses of codeine are commonly available without prescription. To assess the efficacy, the time to onset of analgesia, the time to use of rescue medication and any associated adverse events of single dose oral codeine in acute postoperative pain. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed to November 2009. Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of codeine for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data independently extracted by two review authors. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours were used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief, which were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Data on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Thirty-five studies were included (1223 participants received codeine 60 mg, 27 codeine 90 mg, and 1252 placebo). Combining all types of surgery (33 studies, 2411 participants), codeine 60 mg had an NNT of at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours of 12 (8.4 to 18) compared with placebo. At least 50% pain relief was achieved by 26% on codeine 60 mg and 17% on placebo.Following dental surgery the NNT was 21 (12 to 96) (15 studies, 1146 participants), and following other types of surgery the NNT was 6.8 (4.6 to 13) (18 studies, 1265 participants). The NNT to prevent use of rescue medication within 4 to 6 hours was 11 (6.3 to 50) (11 studies, 765 participants

  9. Single dose oral codeine, as a single agent, for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Codeine is an opioid metabolised to active analgesic compounds, including morphine. It is widely available by prescription, and combination drugs including low doses of codeine are commonly available without prescription. Objectives To assess the efficacy, the time to onset of analgesia, the time to use of rescue medication and any associated adverse events of single dose oral codeine in acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed to November 2009. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of codeine for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data independently extracted by two review authors. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours were used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief, which were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Data on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Thirty-five studies were included (1223 participants received codeine 60 mg, 27 codeine 90 mg, and 1252 placebo). Combining all types of surgery (33 studies, 2411 participants), codeine 60 mg had an NNT of at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours of 12 (8.4 to 18) compared with placebo. At least 50% pain relief was achieved by 26% on codeine 60 mg and 17% on placebo. Following dental surgery the NNT was 21 (12 to 96) (15 studies, 1146 participants), and following other types of surgery the NNT was 6.8 (4.6 to 13) (18 studies, 1265 participants). The NNT to prevent

  10. Oral microflora and selection of resistance after a single dose of amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Khalil, D; Hultin, M; Rashid, M U; Lund, B

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis on normal oral microflora. A single dose of 2 g amoxicillin was given to 29 healthy volunteers. Saliva was collected before antibiotic administration (day 1), and again on days 2, 5, 10, 17 and 24 and subjected to culturing and antibiotic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-one per cent (6/29) of the individuals carried penicillin-V- and amoxicillin-resistant viridans streptococci before antibiotic administration. After a single dose of amoxicillin there was a significant reduction in Streptococcus salivarius on days 2 and 5, a significant reduction in other viridans streptococci on day 2 and the proportion of viridans streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin was significantly increased on days 2 and 5. A single dose of amoxicillin can cause an ecological disturbance and induce selection of resistant strains in the oral microflora.

  11. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasma distribution and elimination of florfenicol in channel catfish were investigated after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intravenous i.v.) or oral administration in freshwater at a mean water temperature of 25.4°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of sildenafil after single oral doses in healthy male subjects: absolute bioavailability, food effects and dose proportionality

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Donald J; Muirhead, Gary J; Harness, Jane A

    2002-01-01

    Aims To determine the absolute bioavailability, dose proportionality and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of sildenafil citrate. Methods Three open-label, randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy male subjects. Absolute bioavailability was determined by comparing pharmacokinetic data after administration of single oral and intravenous 50-mg doses of sildenafil (n = 12 subjects). Food effects were examined by comparing pharmacokinetic data for sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, after administration of a single oral 100-mg dose in the fasted and fed states (n = 34 subjects). Dose proportionality was assessed from pharmacokinetic data obtained after administration of four single oral doses of sildenafil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) to 32 subjects. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil were also assessed in all of these studies. Results The calculated absolute oral bioavailability of sildenafil was 41% (90% CI: 36–47). Food slowed the rate of absorption, delaying mean tmax by approximately 1 h and reducing Cmax by 29% (90% CI: 19–38). Systemic exposure, as assessed by the mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), was reduced by 11% (90% CI: 6–16). These food effects were not considered to be of clinical significance. There was statistical evidence of nonproportionality in Cmax and AUC over the dose range 25–200 mg. However the degree of nonproportionality was small, with predicted increases in Cmax and AUC of 2.2- and 2.1-fold, respectively, for a doubling in dose, and was thought to be clinically nonsignificant. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the three studies; the majority of adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusions Sildenafil had a mean absolute bioavailability of 41%. Food caused small reductions in the rate and extent of systemic exposure; these reductions are unlikely to be of clinical significance. Across the dose range of 25–200 mg, systemic

  13. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  14. PaxVax CVD 103-HgR single-dose live oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levine, Myron M; Chen, Wilbur H; Kaper, James B; Lock, Michael; Danzig, Lisa; Gurwith, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine. CVD 103-HgR is well-tolerated and protects against cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 of either serotype (Inaba, Ogawa) and biotype (El Tor, Classical). Since 90% vaccine efficacy is evident 10 days post-ingestion of a single dose, CVD 103-HgR can rapidly protect travelers. Vibriocidal antibody seroconversion correlates with protection; >90% of U.S. adult (including elderly) vaccinees seroconvert. The U.S. Public Health Service's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends CVD 103-HgR for U.S. travelers to areas of ongoing cholera transmission. Expert commentary: Next steps include evaluations in children, post-licensure safety and effectiveness monitoring, diminishing cold chain constraints, optimizing a 'high-dose' formulation for developing countries, and diminishing/eliminating the need for water to administer a dose.

  15. Bioequivalence assessment of ambroxol orally-disintegrating tablet after a single oral-dose administration to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yaojun; Hou, Lili; Chen, Liang; Fan, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a modified LC-MS/MS method was used to determine plasma ambroxol concentration and thereby examine the bioequivalence of two ambroxol medications among healthy Chinese male volunteers. The study used a single-dose, randomized, open-label design principle and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for the comparison of the two formulations. Administration of a single oral dose of either the test drug or reference drug was found to be safe in healthy subjects. No severe, serious, or life-threatening clinical or drug-related side effects were reported during the study. The majority of clinical laboratory test results were within the normal range or not clinically significant. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ambroxol oral tablets and ambroxol orally disintegrating tablets were comparable. For the comparison of the two formulations, the 90% confidence intervals for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf) fell within the bioequivalence< acceptance criteria (80-125%). The ambroxol oral tablets were bioequivalent to ambroxol orally-disintegrating tablets in healthy human adult male volunteers, under fasting conditions.

  16. Single-dose bioavailability of oral and intramuscular thiocolchicoside in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, P; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Chretien, P; Tillement, J P; Scherrmann, J M

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 8 mg of thiocolchicoside was administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a Latin square design, either as tablets (reference), oral solution, or intramuscular injection. Serum thiocolchicoside concentrations showed an absorption phase followed by a biexponential decay with a terminal half-life (t1/2 beta) of approximately 5 h, similar for the three formulations. The relative bioavailability of both oral formulations was approximately 25%, compared to the intramuscular formulation. There was a trend for the oral solution to have a slightly larger AUC and Cmax, as well as a slightly shorter Tmax, than the tablet formulation. However, the comparison of the two oral forms did not show statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, and AUC, suggesting that the Coltramyl tablets have an adequate in vivo dissolution profile.

  17. Efficacy of a Single-Dose, Inactivated Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ali, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Saha, Amit; Khan, Iqbal A; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Akter, Afroza; Khan, Arifuzzaman; Begum, Yasmin A; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Mohiul I; Islam, Taufiqul; Chowdhury, Atique I; Rahman, Anisur; Siddique, Shah A; You, Young A; Kim, Deok R; Siddik, Ashraf U; Saha, Nirod C; Kabir, Alamgir; Cravioto, Alejandro; Desai, Sachin N; Singh, Ajit P; Clemens, John D

    2016-05-05

    A single-dose regimen of the current killed oral cholera vaccines that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization would make them more attractive for use against endemic and epidemic cholera. We conducted an efficacy trial of a single dose of the killed oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, which is currently given in a two-dose schedule, in an urban area in which cholera is highly endemic. Nonpregnant residents of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were 1 year of age or older were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral cholera vaccine or oral placebo. The primary outcome was vaccine protective efficacy against culture-confirmed cholera occurring 7 to 180 days after dosing. Prespecified secondary outcomes included protective efficacy against severely dehydrating culture-confirmed cholera during the same interval, against cholera and severe cholera occurring 7 to 90 versus 91 to 180 days after dosing, and against cholera and severe cholera according to age at baseline. A total of 101 episodes of cholera, 37 associated with severe dehydration, were detected among the 204,700 persons who received one dose of vaccine or placebo. The vaccine protective efficacy was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11 to 60%; 0.37 cases per 1000 vaccine recipients vs. 0.62 cases per 1000 placebo recipients) against all cholera episodes, 63% (95% CI, 24 to 82%; 0.10 vs. 0.26 cases per 1000 recipients) against severely dehydrating cholera episodes, and 63% (95% CI, -39 to 90%), 56% (95% CI, 16 to 77%), and 16% (95% CI, -49% to 53%) against all cholera episodes among persons vaccinated at the age of 5 to 14 years, 15 or more years, and 1 to 4 years, respectively, although the differences according to age were not significant (P=0.25). Adverse events occurred at similar frequencies in the two groups. A single dose of the oral cholera vaccine was efficacious in older children (≥5 years of age) and in adults in a setting with a high level of cholera endemicity. (Funded by the Bill

  18. Fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for Caparinia tripilis in a pygmy African hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Romero, Camilo; Sheinberg Waisburd, Galia; Pineda, Jocelyn; Heredia, Rafael; Yarto, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto M

    2017-07-09

    African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are popular pets belonging to the Erinaceidae family of spined mammals. Amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite Caparinia spp. Due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. This may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma. Multiple therapies have been used in the treatment of this skin condition including ivermectin, amitraz, fipronil and selamectin. A drug which could be administered as a single oral dose would be advantageous to these pets and their owners. To evaluate the effect of a single oral dose (15 mg/kg) of fluralaner on Caparinia tripilis infestation in the African pygmy hedgehog. A 10-month-old African pygmy hedgehog weighing 184 g. Response to treatment was monitored by dermatological examination and superficial skin scrapings repeated at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days following fluralaner administration. On Day 7 after treatment, adult mites were observed exhibiting normal movement. On Day 14, only dead mites were observed. No life stages of the mites were found after Day 21. A single oral dose at 15 mg/kg of fluralaner was effective within 21 days after treatment for capariniasis in this case. Further studies are required to evaluate the drug's safety and toxicology in hedgehogs, and to confirm efficacy. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Maha M.; El-Moslemany, Riham M.; Ramadan, Alyaa A.; Amer, Eglal I.; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.

    2015-01-01

    Miltefosine (MFS) is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD). This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%), good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs, allowing targeting

  1. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Maha M; El-Moslemany, Riham M; Ramadan, Alyaa A; Amer, Eglal I; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z; El-Khordagui, Labiba K

    2015-01-01

    Miltefosine (MFS) is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD). This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%), good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs, allowing targeting

  2. PHARMACOKINETICS OF SINGLE-DOSE ORALLY ADMINISTERED CIPROFLOXACIN IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lorraine; Johnson, Shawn P; Papich, Mark G; Gulland, Frances

    2015-06-01

    Ciprofloxacin is commonly selected for clinical use due to its broad-spectrum efficacy and is a frequently administered antibiotic at The Marine Mammal Center, a marine mammal rehabilitation facility. Ciprofloxacin is used for treatment of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) suffering from a variety of bacterial infections at doses extrapolated from other mammalian species. However, as oral absorption is variable both within and across species, a more accurate determination of appropriate dosage is needed to ensure effective treatment and avoid emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains. A pharmacokinetic study was performed to assess plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin in California sea lions after a single oral dose. Twenty healthy California sea lions received a single 10-mg/kg oral dose of ciprofloxacin administered in a herring fish. Blood was then collected at two of the following times from each individual: 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 18, and 24 hr postingestion. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentration was assessed via high-performance liquid chromatography. A population pharmacokinetics model demonstrated that an oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg achieved an area under the concentration vs. time curve of 6.01 μg hr/ml. Absorption was rapid, with ciprofloxacin detectable in plasma 0.54 hr after drug administration; absorption half-life was 0.09 hr. A maximum plasma concentration of 1.21 μg/ml was observed at 1.01 hr, with an elimination half-life of 3.09 hr. Ciprofloxacin administered orally at 10 mg/kg produced therapeutic antibacterial exposure for only some of the most susceptible bacterial organisms commonly isolated from California sea lions.

  3. Single dose intravenous methyl prednisolone versus oral prednisolone in Bell's palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Prithvi; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of Bell's palsy and several other postinfectious neurological conditions. We hypothesized that administration of a single dose of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone might be an effective alternative to oral prednisolone. Materials and Methods: In this open label, randomized trial, patients with acute Bell's palsy were randomized into two groups. One group received single dose (500 mg) of IV methylprednisolone while the other group received 10 days of oral prednisone. Outcome was assessed at 1 and 3 months with House–Brackmann scale. Results: At 3 months, 93 (79.48%) patients had completely recovered. IV methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone groups had similar recovery rates (80% vs. 78.33%, P > 0.05). Patients with Grade 2 and 3 recovered completely. In patients with Grade 6, the recovery rate was 20%. A better outcome was observed if corticosteroids were administered within 3 days of onset of palsy. Conclusion: Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone showed equivalent benefit in patients with acute Bell's palsy. PMID:25878371

  4. PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORALLY ADMINISTERED VORICONAZOLE IN AFRICAN PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) AFTER SINGLE AND MULTIPLE DOSES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Hope, William W; Stott, Katharine E

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data was modeled using 3-compartamental population methodologies that supported first-order elimination. Observed mean peak concentration (1.89 μg/ml) after single dosing PK analysis was determined within the first hour following voriconazole administration. In the multiple-dose trial average plasma voriconazole concentrations were significantly higher on days 4 and 7 as compared with day 2. The mean estimates for volume of distribution (V/F) and clearance (Cl/F) for the multiple-dose study were 3.34 L and 0.18 L/hr, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations determined the median area under the curve (AUC0-24) at 84 hr was 37.7 μg·h/ml. As this assessment was comparable with the average AUC in humans receiving the recommended human oral dosage 200 mg b.i.d., it suggests that 5 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. could be a safe and effective regimen in African penguins for treatment of aspergillosis. However, due to potential drug accumulation and subsequent toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring with dosage adjustments is recommended to individualize dosing.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and physiologic effects of alprazolam after a single oral dose in healthy mares.

    PubMed

    Wong, D M; Davis, J L; Alcott, C J; Hepworth-Warren, K L; Galow-Kersh, N L; Rice, S; Coetzee, J F

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and physiologic effects of a single oral dose of alprazolam in horses. Seven adult female horses received an oral administration of alprazolam at a dosage of 0.04 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected at various time points and assayed for alprazolam and its metabolite, α-hydroxyalprazolam, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of alprazolam was analyzed by a one-compartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of alprazolam were as follows: Cmax 14.76 ± 3.72 ng/mL and area under the curve (AUC0-∞ ) 358.77 ± 76.26 ng·h/mL. Median (range) Tmax was 3 h (1-12 h). Alpha-hydroxyalprazolam concentrations were detected in each horse, although concentrations were low (Cmax 1.36 ± 0.28 ng/mL). Repeat physical examinations and assessment of the degree of sedation and ataxia were performed every 12 h to evaluate for adverse effects. Oral alprazolam tablets were absorbed in adult horses and no clinically relevant adverse events were observed. Further evaluation of repeated dosing and safety of administration of alprazolam to horses is warranted.

  6. Evidence for CVD 103-HgR as an effective single-dose oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah S; Chen, Wilbur H

    2015-01-01

    We propose the ideal oral cholera vaccine (OCV) should be an inexpensive, single, oral dose that rapidly confers immunity for a long duration, and is well tolerated by individuals vulnerable to cholera. Vaccine trials in industrialized countries of a single oral dose of 5 × 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) of the live, attenuated cholera strain CVD 103-HgR have shown 88-97% serum vibriocidal antibody seroconversion rates, a correlate of protection and documented vaccine efficacy of ≥80% using volunteer challenge studies with wild-type cholera. For individuals of developing countries, a 5 × 10(9) CFU dose of CVD 103-HgR is necessary to elicit similar antibody responses. Presently, a reformulation of CVD 103-HgR is in late-stage clinical development for prospective US FDA licensure; making a cholera vaccine for US travelers potentially accessible in 2016. The availability of CVD 103-HgR should be a welcome addition to the currently available OCVs.

  7. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5 mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4 oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ∼2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value = 0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (∼16 hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ∼70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of loxiglumide after single intravenous or oral doses in man.

    PubMed

    Setnikar, I; Chisté, R; Makovec, F; Rovati, L C; Warrington, S J

    1988-05-01

    Loxiglumide (D,L-4-(3,4-dichlorobenzoylamino)-5-(N-3-methoxypropyl-pentylam ino)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid, CR 1505) was given intravenously to 8 male healthy volunteers in a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) or orally in a single dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. Loxiglumide was measured in plasma and in urine by HPLC during 48 h following the administration. After i.v. infusion the plasma levels were consistent with an open two-compartment pharmacokinetic model represented by the equation C (mg/l) = 43.791 x e-2.652 x h + 2.657 x e-0.139 x h. In the urine, besides loxiglumide, two metabolites were found and in the 48 h following the i.v. administration the urinary excretion of loxiglumide and of its metabolites accounted for 11.13% of the administered dose. After oral administration loxiglumide appeared in plasma with a lag time of 14 min, reached the peak 34 min after administration, being eliminated with an initial fast and a terminal slow elimination rate. The plasma levels were consistent with an open two-compartment pharmacokinetic model represented by the equation C (mg/l) = -46.72 x e-8.765 x (h-0.23) + 40.660 x e-1.383 x (h-0.23) + 6.057 x e-0.120 x (h-0.23). In the urine, besides loxiglumide, two metabolites were found and in the 48 h following the oral administration the excretion of loxiglumide and of its metabolites accounted for 7.67% of the administered dose. The absolute bioavailability of loxiglumide was calculated comparing the AUC(0-inf) found after oral and after i.v. administration and was estimated as 0.967, with p = 0.05 fiducial limit of 0.656-1.278.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after a single oral dose to loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Marín, P; Lai, O R; Laricchiuta, P; Marzano, G; Di Bello, A; Cárceles, C M; Crescenzo, G

    2009-10-01

    The single-dose disposition kinetics of marbofloxacin (MBX) were determined in clinically healthy loggerhead sea turtles (n=5) after oral (PO) administration of 2 mg kg(-1) bodyweight. Marbofloxacin plasma concentrations were determined by DAD-HPLC (LOD/LOQ 0.015/0.05 microg ml(-1)). Data were subjected to non-compartmental analysis. Following PO administration, marbofloxacin achieved maximum plasma concentrations of 11.66+/-2.53 mg L(-1) at 15.00+/-3.00 h. The absence of general adverse reactions in the turtles of the study, and the favourable pharmacokinetic properties (long half-life and high maximum plasma concentration) of MBX administered PO at the single-dose of 2 mg kg(-1) suggest the possibility of its safe and effective clinical use in loggerhead sea turtles.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of EDP-420 after Ascending Single Oral Doses in Healthy Adult Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Wang, Michelle; Or, Yat Sun

    2009-01-01

    EDP-420 (EP-013420, S-013420) is a first-in-class bicyclolide (bridged bicyclic macrolide) currently in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. It has good preclinical pharmacokinetic properties across multiple species and potent in vitro and in vivo activity against respiratory tract infection pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, atypical organisms (e.g., Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila), and multidrug-resistant streptococci. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an orally administered EDP-420 suspension in 40 healthy adult subjects were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single-dose study. Eligible subjects were sequentially randomized into one of five study groups (i.e., 100-, 200-, 400-, 800-, or 1,200-mg dosing groups) consisting of eight subjects (six active and two placebo) each. EDP-420 was well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events reported, nor were there any dose-limiting clinical or laboratory adverse events reported. EDP-420 was rapidly absorbed after a single oral dose. The mean plasma terminal half-life ranged from 15.6 to 20.1 h with low clearance. At the 400-mg dose, the area under the curve was 14.4 μg·h/ml, which well exceeded the required area under the concentration-time curve to cover common respiratory tract infection pathogens based on preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. The long half-life and high systemic exposure of EDP-420 support once-daily dosing and may allow for shorter treatment durations compared to other macrolide antibiotics. Based on its human pharmacokinetic profiles, taken together with its in vitro/in vivo activity against common respiratory pathogens, EDP-420 warrants efficacy trials for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. PMID:19223626

  11. Comparative human pharmacokinetics and metabolism of single-dose oral and intravenous sildenafil citrate

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, Gary J; Rance, David J; Walker, Donald K; Wastall, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Aims To characterize the absorption, metabolism and excretion of an oral and intravenous (IV) dose of radiolabelled [14C]-sildenafil citrate in healthy male subjects. Specific objectives were to measure the cumulative amount of drug-related radiolabelled material excreted in the urine and faeces to characterize urinary and faecal radioactivity as unchanged sildenafil or its metabolites, and to quantify blood and plasma total radioactivity and unchanged drug concentrations. Methods Six healthy male subjects between the ages of 45 and 58 years were enrolled in an open-label, parallel-group study; three subjects received the oral dose and three received the IV dose. Oral drug was administered as a single dose of 50-mg [14C]-sildenafil, and IV drug was administered as a single dose of 25-mg [14C]-sildenafil infused over 25 min. Each dosage form contained 50 µCi of radioactivity. For radioactivity assays, whole blood, plasma, urine and faeces samples were taken predose and at specified intervals up to 5 days postdose. Plasma samples were assayed for sildenafil and the metabolites UK-103,320 and UK-150,564. Metabolite profiling was also performed in plasma, faeces and urine. Results Absorption of sildenafil after oral administration was rapid and approximately 92% whilst the absolute bioavailability was limited to 38%, due to first-pass metabolism. Mean AUCt values showed that sildenafil accounted for about 60% of the total circulating radioactivity in the plasma after IV administration and for 32% after oral administration. Concentrations of radioactivity in whole blood were lower than in plasma, indicating limited penetration of sildenafil into blood cells. No unchanged sildenafil was detected in either urine or faeces, demonstrating that metabolism was the major mechanism of drug clearance. The principal routes of metabolism were N-demethylation, oxidation and aliphatic dehydroxylation. Sildenafil was well tolerated, with treatment-related adverse events reported by

  12. Comparative human pharmacokinetics and metabolism of single-dose oral and intravenous sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, Gary J; Rance, David J; Walker, Donald K; Wastall, Philip

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the absorption, metabolism and excretion of an oral and intravenous (IV) dose of radiolabelled [14C]-sildenafil citrate in healthy male subjects. Specific objectives were to measure the cumulative amount of drug-related radiolabelled material excreted in the urine and faeces to characterize urinary and faecal radioactivity as unchanged sildenafil or its metabolites, and to quantify blood and plasma total radioactivity and unchanged drug concentrations. Six healthy male subjects between the ages of 45 and 58 years were enrolled in an open-label, parallel-group study; three subjects received the oral dose and three received the IV dose. Oral drug was administered as a single dose of 50-mg [14C]-sildenafil, and IV drug was administered as a single dose of 25-mg [14C]-sildenafil infused over 25 min. Each dosage form contained 50 microCi of radioactivity. For radioactivity assays, whole blood, plasma, urine and faeces samples were taken predose and at specified intervals up to 5 days postdose. Plasma samples were assayed for sildenafil and the metabolites UK-103,320 and UK-150,564. Metabolite profiling was also performed in plasma, faeces and urine. Absorption of sildenafil after oral administration was rapid and approximately 92% whilst the absolute bioavailability was limited to 38%, due to first-pass metabolism. Mean AUCt values showed that sildenafil accounted for about 60% of the total circulating radioactivity in the plasma after IV administration and for 32% after oral administration. Concentrations of radioactivity in whole blood were lower than in plasma, indicating limited penetration of sildenafil into blood cells. No unchanged sildenafil was detected in either urine or faeces, demonstrating that metabolism was the major mechanism of drug clearance. The principal routes of metabolism were N-demethylation, oxidation and aliphatic dehydroxylation. Sildenafil was well tolerated, with treatment-related adverse events reported by three subjects

  13. Comparative disposition of codeine and pholcodine in man after single oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J W; Fowle, A S; Butz, R F; Jones, E C; Weatherley, B C; Welch, R M; Posner, J

    1986-01-01

    Four healthy male subjects received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 7 days between the six treatments. Blood samples were collected for 8 h after each drug administration. In phase 2 of the study six different male volunteers received single oral doses of 60 mg of codeine and pholcodine with a 14 day interval between successive drug treatments. Blood was sampled for 12 h after codeine and 121 h after pholcodine administration. Plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated) and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) codeine, pholcodine and morphine were determined by radioimmunoassay and selected pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from these data. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were independent of dose. Codeine was absorbed and eliminated relatively rapidly [elimination t1/2 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 h (mean +/- s.d.)]. While codeine kinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption, a two-compartment model was required to describe pholcodine elimination from plasma (t1/2,z = 37.0 +/- 4.2 h). Plasma concentrations of conjugated codeine were much greater than those of the unconjugated alkaloid. By contrast, pholcodine appeared to undergo little conjugation. Biotransformation of codeine to morphine was evident in all subjects, although the extent of this metabolic conversion varied considerably between subjects. Morphine was not detectable in the plasma of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3741728

  14. Pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin after oral administration of single and repeat doses in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of doses ranging from 200 to 1200 mg, and following repeated oral administration of 400 and 800 mg doses are reported. Plasma levels of grepafloxacin reached a peak within 2 hours (on average) following drug administration and then declined bi-exponentially with concentrations being detectable (> 5 micrograms/L) in the plasma for at least up to 72 hours postdose. The high values for the apparent volume of distribution (5 to 8 L/kg) suggested extensive distribution of grepafloxacin in the tissues. Only a small percentage of the administered dose (ranging from 6% to 9.5%) was recovered in the urine as unchanged grepafloxacin, suggesting that metabolism, rather than urinary excretion, is the major elimination route. The half-life of grepafloxacin was about 12 hours after single doses and about 15 hours after repeat doses. The trough levels increased significantly over the first 3 days of repeat administration; thereafter, the changes were small, with steady-state being reached by the fifth day. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24 h) values observed on days 7 and 14 of repeat administration, at each dose level, were similar, suggesting that steady-state is maintained. The area values increased more than proportionally after administration of increasing single and repeat doses, suggesting nonlinear kinetics. The elimination half-life and renal clearance did not change with increasing doses. Saturation in the metabolism of grepafloxacin and possibly in the distribution into a peripheral compartment, as suggested by a decrease in the total plasma clearance and in the apparent volume of distribution, could be the origin of the nonlinear kinetics. However, this deviation from linearity is unlikely to be of clinical significance, since it was very small over the recommended range of therapeutic doses (400 to 600 mg once daily). Compared with other quinolones

  15. Single dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxazepam during concomitant administration of propranolol and labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, J; Døssing, M; Loft, S; Olesen, K L; Vollmer-Larsen, A; Victor, M A; Hamberg, O; Thyssen, H

    1990-01-01

    1. The oral kinetics of oxazepam after a single 15 mg oral dose was investigated in six healthy volunteers before and during concomitant administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol (80 mg) and labetalol (200 mg) (racemates). 2. A possible pharmacodynamic interaction between oxazepam and the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists was examined using a simple reaction time test (SRT) and by measurement of postural sway. 3. The kinetics of oxazepam were not affected significantly by propranolol or labetalol, although oxazepam and labetalol share the glucuronidation pathway. 4. The SRT was increased by combination of both beta-adrenoceptor antagonists with oxazepam, with the greatest increase after the coadministration of oxazepam with propranolol. Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists alone had no significant effect. 5. Postural sway was affected significantly only by the combination of oxazepam and propranolol. PMID:2297460

  16. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus codeine for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Karlin, Samuel M; Moore, R Andrew

    2013-03-28

    There is good evidence that combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief in acute pain and headache than either drug alone, and that the drug-specific effects are essentially additive. This appears to be broadly true in postoperative pain and migraine headache across a range of different drug combinations and when tested in the same and different trials. Some combinations of ibuprofen and codeine are available without prescription (but usually only from a pharmacy) where the dose of codeine is lower, and with a prescription when the dose of codeine is higher. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of ibuprofen plus codeine for moderate to severe postoperative pain. We compared ibuprofen plus codeine with placebo and with the same dose of ibuprofen alone. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 30 September 2012. Randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials of single dose oral ibuprofen plus codeine for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed quality, and extracted data. We used the area under the pain relief versus time curve to derive the proportion of participants prescribed ibuprofen plus codeine, placebo, or the same dose of ibuprofen alone with at least 50% pain relief over six hours, using validated equations. We calculated the relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT). We used information on the use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. We also collected information on adverse effects. Analyses were planned for different doses of ibuprofen and codeine, but especially for

  17. Single dose oral mefenamic acid for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Rachel; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is most often used for treating pain of dysmenorrhoea in the short term (seven days or less), as well as mild to moderate pain including headache, dental pain, postoperative and postpartum pain. It is widely available in many countries worldwide. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral mefenamic acid in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to December 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of mefenamic acid for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and the data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Four studies with 842 participants met the inclusion criteria; 126 participants were treated with mefenamic acid 500 mg, 67 with mefenamic acid 250 mg, 197 with placebo, and 452 with lignocaine, aspirin, zomepirac or nimesulide. Participants had pain following third molar extraction, episiotomy and orthopaedic surgery. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 6 hours with a single dose of mefenamic acid 500 mg compared to placebo was 4.0 (2

  18. Ivermectin effect on microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus after a single oral dose in humans.

    PubMed

    Soboslay, P T; Newland, H S; White, A T; Erttmann, K D; Albiez, E J; Taylor, H R; Williams, P N; Greene, B M

    1987-03-01

    Ivermectin is a broad spectrum anti-helminthic agent which is currently being tested for use in human onchocerciasis. Its activity is believed to result from its effect on GABA-mediated neurotransmission. We examined the effects of ivermectin on motility of microfilariae of O. volvulus following administration to humans. When ivermectin was given in dosages of 100, 150 and 200 mcg/kg on day 1 there was a clear reduction in motility of microfilariae obtained on day 3 when compared to microfilariae from the placebo group. The mean motility scores in microfilariae from ivermectin recipients were 3.1, 2.3, and 2.2 at 0, 12, and 24 hours of incubation compared to 3.3, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, in microfilariae from placebo recipients (p less than 0.003, p less than 0.005, and p less than 0.012, respectively). Examination of the effect according to dose suggested a dose-response relationship. Microfilariae in the anterior chamber of the eye 2 days after a single oral dose of ivermectin showed abnormal and reduced winding and coiling. Microfilariae in 50% of ivermectin recipients showed abnormal motility compared to no such effects in subjects examined concurrently who received oral DEC, DEC lotion or placebo. These observations indicate that ivermectin has an effect on motility of microfilariae of O. volvulus following administration to humans.

  19. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus codeine for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Karlin, Samuel M; Moore, R Andrew

    2015-02-05

    This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3, 2013. There is good evidence that combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief in acute pain and headache than either drug alone, and that the drug-specific effects are essentially additive. This appears to be broadly true in postoperative pain and migraine headache across a range of different drug combinations and when tested in the same and different trials. Some combinations of ibuprofen and codeine are available without prescription (but usually only from a pharmacy) where the dose of codeine is lower, and with a prescription when the dose of codeine is higher.Use of combination analgesics that contain codeine has been a source of some concern because of misuse from over-the-counter preparations. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of ibuprofen plus codeine for acute moderate-to-severe postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 1 December 2014. Randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials of single dose oral ibuprofen plus codeine for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used the area under the pain relief versus time curve to derive the proportion of participants prescribed ibuprofen plus codeine, placebo, or the same dose of ibuprofen alone with at least 50% pain relief over six hours, using validated equations. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT). We used information on the use

  20. Studies on pyrazinoylguanidine. 7. Effects of single oral doses in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Vesell, E S; Beyer, K H

    1999-03-01

    In a three-phase study, single oral doses of placebo, followed in 1 week by pyrazinoylguanidine (PZG; 900 mg), followed in 3 weeks by pyrazinoic acid (PZA; 300 mg) were given to 8 normal male subjects. Blood analyses performed 0, 2 and 4 h after administration of placebo or drug revealed that compared to mean 0 h values, PZG and also PZA, but not placebo, decreased mean values for serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides and free fatty acids. In all groups, serum potassium, urea, fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were unchanged. PZA, but not PZG, increased serum uric acid. PZG significantly reduced very-low-density lipoprotein whereas PZA only tended to do so. PZG was well tolerated and without any side effect, but in 7 of the 8 normal volunteers, PZA produced a variable vasomotor response over the blush area of the face and neck lasting from 30 min in 3 subjects to 4 h in 1 subject. Collectively, these results suggest generally similar metabolic responses of normal subjects to PZG and PZA after only a single oral dose of each. Previously, it was unrecognized that acute administration of PZG and PZA could produce such rapid metabolic changes.

  1. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need.

  2. Single dose oral analgesics for postoperative pain have few adverse events.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin J

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesThe Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on the Cochrane Library.Study selectionAll Cochrane reviews of RCTs between 1999 to 2015, conducted in adults examining the adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics used for acute post-operative pain were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were searched, reviewed and assessed independently by two reviewers and standard data items extracted. Methodological quality was assessed using criteria adapted from AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews).ResultsData from 39 Cochrane reviews of 41 different analgesics or analgesic combinations involving a total of 350 studies involving 35,000 adults were included. Most analgesics were tested in a narrow dose range. For most NSAIDs, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and combinations not containing opioids, the rates of adverse events were similar to that of placebos (NSAID 3% - 44% vs 4 - 46%; paracetamol 7-18% vs 6-16%; combination 11-30% vs 6-48%). However, for higher dosages, like 1000 mg aspirin, 1000 mg diflunisal, and opioids or drug combinations containing opioids, there was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse events reported (NNH 7.7(95%CI; 4.8 - 20) for 1000 mg aspirin; 7.5(95%CI; 4.8-17) for 1000 mg diflunisal; 3.5-8.6 for opioids and combinations). Serious adverse events were rare, occurring at about 1 in 3,200.ConclusionsDespite ongoing problems with the measurement, recording and reporting of adverse events in clinical trials and in systematic reviews, the large amount of information available for single oral doses of analgesics provides evidence that adverse events rates are generally similar with active drug and placebo in these circumstances, except at higher doses of some drugs, and in combinations including opioids.

  3. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in rats and humans following single oral administration of low doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Eva Katharina; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The rodent carcinogen acrylamide (AA) is formed during preparation of starch-containing foods. AA is partly metabolized to the genotoxic epoxide glycidamide (GA). After metabolic processing, the mercapturic acids N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), rac-N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) and rac-N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-moyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA) are excreted with urine. In humans, AAMA can be sulfoxidized to AAMA-sulfoxide. The aim of this study was to assess potential species-differences in AA-toxicokinetics in rats and humans after single oral administration of doses similar to the daily human dietary exposure. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 5/dose group) were administered 20 and 100 {mu}g/kg b.w. {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AA in deionized water via oral gavage. Human subjects (n = 3/gender) were orally administered 0.5 and 20 {mu}g/kg b.w. {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AA with drinking water. Urine samples were collected in intervals for 96 and 94 h, respectively. Urinary concentrations of {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-GAMA and {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA-sulfoxide were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovered urinary metabolites accounted for 66.3% and 70.5% of the 20 and 100 {mu}g/kg b.w. doses in rats and for 71.3% and 70.0% of the 0.5 and 20 {mu}g/kg b.w. doses in humans. In rats, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA accounted for 33.6% and 38.8% of dose and 32.7% and 31.7% of dose was recovered as {sup 13}C{sub 3}-GAMA; {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA-sulfoxide was not detected in rat urine. In humans, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-GAMA and {sup 13}C{sub 3}-AAMA-sulfoxide accounted for 51.7% and 49.2%, 6.3% and 6.4% and 13.2% and 14.5% of the applied dose, respectively. The obtained results suggest that the extent of AA bioactivation to GA in humans is lower than in rodents.

  4. Effect of renal function on risedronate pharmacokinetics after a single oral dose

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D Y; St Peter, J V; Eusebio, R A; Pallone, K A; Kelly, S C; Russell, D A; Nesbitt, J D; Thompson, G A; Powell, J H

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine the relationship between risedronate pharmacokinetics and renal function. Methods Risedronate was administered to adult men and women (n = 21) with various degrees of renal function (creatinine clearance 15–126 ml min−1) as a single oral dose of 30 mg. Serum samples were obtained for 72 h after dosing, and urine samples were collected for 72 h after dosing and then periodically for 6 weeks. Risedronate concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Risedronate serum concentration-time and urinary excretion rate-time profiles were analysed simultaneously using nonlinear regression. Results Renal clearance and volume of distribution were linearly related to creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.854, P < 0.001; and r2 = 0.317, P < 0.01, respectively). Decreases in predicted renal clearance and volume of distribution of 82 and 69%, respectively, were observed when creatinine clearance decreased from 120 to 20 ml min−1. A 64% decrease in predicted oral clearance was observed when creatinine clearance decreased from 120 to 20 ml min−1 (P = 0.064). Iohexol clearance, a predictor of renal function, produced similar results to those observed with creatinine clearance. Risedronate was well tolerated by the study population. Conclusions Risedronate renal clearance was significantly related to a decrease in renal function. There was a consistent reduction in oral clearance with a decrease in creatinine clearance. However, based on the regression analysis, generally no dosage adjustment appears to be necessary for most patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance > 20 ml min−1). PMID:10718776

  5. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF ORAL AND SUBCUTANEOUS ENROFLOXACIN IN CARIBBEAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER RUBER).

    PubMed

    Nau, Melissa R; Carpenter, James W; KuKanich, Butch; Warner, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial that is widely used in veterinary medicine because of its bactericidal activity and safety in a broad range of species. Caribbean flamingos, a member of the order Phoenicopteriformes, are popular in zoological collections and suffer from a variety of conditions that can result from or lead to bacterial infection. In this study, two groups of 7 adult captive Caribbean flamingos received a single dose of 15 mg/kg enrofloxacin, administered either orally or subcutaneously. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both routes of administration were similar, with a mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 5.25 and 5.77 μg/ml, a mean time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) of 1.49 and 1.1 hr, a mean area under the curve (AUC) of 49.9 and 47.3 hr·μg/ml, and a mean terminal half-life (t1/2) of 5.83 and 6.46 hr for oral and subcutaneous dosing, respectively. Conversion to ciprofloxacin was minimal, with the AUC of ciprofloxacin representing <3% of the enrofloxacin AUC for both routes of administration. Based on the results of the present study, a dose of 15 mg/kg enrofloxacin delivered either orally or subcutaneously in the Caribbean flamingo every 24 hr is recommended for susceptible bacterial pathogens with a minimal inhibitory concentration ≤ 0.25 μg/ml.

  6. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  7. Influence of hepatic impairment on lenvatinib pharmacokinetics following single-dose oral administration.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Robert; Aluri, Jagadeesh; Fan, Jean; Martinez, Gresel; Pentikis, Helen; Ren, Min

    2015-03-01

    This open-label, single-dose study assessed lenvatinib pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 8) and mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (n = 6 each). Subjects received 10 mg oral lenvatinib, except those with severe hepatic impairment (5 mg). Plasma and urine samples were collected over 14 days; free and total lenvatinib and its metabolites were analyzed using validated chromatography/spectrometry. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. There were no clinically meaningful effects of mild or moderate hepatic impairment on lenvatinib PK. Dose-normalized Cmax for free lenvatinib was 7.0, 3.7, 5.7, and 5.6 ng/mL in subjects with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. There was no consistent trend, although dose-normalized Cmax was lower for all subjects with hepatic impairment. AUCs increased 170% and t1/2 increased (37 versus 23 hours) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. Changes in exposure based on total plasma concentrations were generally less than those based on free concentrations, suggesting changes in plasma protein binding in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. Lenvatinib was generally well tolerated. Subjects with severe hepatic impairment should begin lenvatinib treatment at a reduced dose of 14 mg versus 24 mg for subjects with normal liver function and subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after single oral dose administration in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Christensen, J Mark; Poppenga, Robert; Fahmy, Sahar A; Redig, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered terbinafine hydrochloride for potential treatment of aspergillosis in raptors, 10 adult red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) were used in single dose trials by using 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg doses with a 2-week washout period between trials. After administration of 15 mg/kg terbinafine, mean (+/- SD) plasma concentration peaked in approximately 5 hours at 0.3 +/- 0.24 microg/mL, whereas a 30 mg/kg dose resulted in peak mean (+/- SD) plasma concentration of 1.2 +/- 0.40 microg/mL in 3 hours and a 60 mg/kg dose resulted in mean (+/- SD) concentration of 2.0 +/- 0.75 microg/mL in 5 hours. The volume of distribution decreased with increasing doses, averaging 76.8 +/- 38.06 mL/kg for the 15 mg/kg dose and falling to 55.2 +/- 17.4 mL/kg for the 30 mg/kg dose. This suggests that terbinafine accumulated in deep tissues, limiting further distribution at higher doses. The harmonic mean (+/- SD) half-life was biphasic, with initial values of 14.7 +/- 6.67 hours, 17.5 +/- 8.7 hours, and 13.3 +/- 5.03 hours for 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg doses, respectively. A rapid first-elimination phase was followed by a slower second phase, and final elimination was estimated to be 161 +/- 78.2 and 147 +/- 65.6 hours for 15 and 30 mg/kg doses, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated for the area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the 3 doses used. Calculations based on pharmacokinetic parameter values indicated that a dosage of 22 mg/kg terbinafine q24h would result in steady-state trough plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine (0.8-1.6 microg/mL). This dosage is recommended as a potential treatment option for aspergillosis in raptors. However, additional research is required to determine both treatment efficacy and safety.

  9. Single dose oral tiaprofenic acid for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Moore, Maura; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Tiaprofenic acid is a a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is widely available around the world, with indications for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, periarticular disorders, and strains and sprains. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral tiaprofenic acid in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral tiaprofenic acid in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered tiaprofenic acid in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned to use area under the “pain relief versus time” curve to derive the proportion of participants with tiaprofenic acid experiencing at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations; to use number needed to treat to benefit (NNT); the proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period; time to use of rescue analgesia; information on adverse events and withdrawals. Main results Not one of eleven studies identified by the searches and examined in detail studied oral tiaprofenic acid against placebo in patients with established postoperative pain and therefore no results are available. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral tiaprofenic acid in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly

  10. Single dose oral fluconazole vs intravaginal terconazole in treatment of Candida vaginitis. Comparison and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Slavin, M B; Benrubi, G I; Parker, R; Griffin, C R; Magee, M J

    1992-10-01

    Candida vaginitis develops in approximately one-fourth of women in their childbearing years. Conventional management consists of antifungal creams or tablets/suppositories administered intravaginally. Many patients have stated preferences for oral therapy. A randomized, double-blind placebo trial compared the efficacy of a single oral 200 mg dose of fluconazole with the application of terconazole 80 mg vaginal suppository daily for 3 days. Twenty-two patients (fluconazole = 12, terconazole = 10) were evaluated during a four-month period and favorable clinical responses were observed at both early and late evaluations. Mycologic cure was attained by 75% of the fluconazole group and 50% of the terconazole group at the early evaluation. At the late evaluation, mycologic cure was 75% and 100% respectively. The mean time to onset of symptom relief was 2.4 (1.7) days for the fluconazole group and 1.8 (1.8) days for the terconazole group. The mean time to complete relief of symptoms was 6.08 (2.84) and 6.6 (2.95) days respectively. A statistically significant difference did not exist for any of these measures. Seventy-three percent of the patients preferred oral therapy.

  11. Single dose oral indometacin for the treatment of acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Mason, Lorna; McQuay, Henry J; Edwards, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2004. Indometacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used most commonly for the treatment of inflammation and pain resulting from rheumatic disease (arthritis), and less commonly in postoperative pain management. When taken for chronic pain conditions, indometacin has been associated with a high incidence of adverse events. The benefits and harms of orally-administered indometacin for postoperative pain are not clear. Objectives To determine the efficacy of a single dose of oral indometacin compared with placebo in treating acute postoperative pain in adults, and to analyse information relating to adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for relevant studies in January 2002 and for the updated search in December 2007. Additional studies were sought from the reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Studies were included in the review if they were randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials using a single oral dose of indometacin in adults with acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed independently by two review authors. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to give the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours. The relative benefit for at least 50% pain relief was calculated. Main results In the original review one study of 59 women with post-episiotomy pain met the inclusion criteria. The dose of indometacin assessed against placebo was 50 mg, and the results concluded that indometacin was not significantly better than placebo for relieving postoperative pain at four to six hours. There was insufficient information to conduct further efficacy analyses or assess adverse events

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Gemifloxacin (SB-265805) after Administration of Single Oral Doses to Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bygate, Elizabeth; Oliver, Stuart; Johnson, Martin; Ward, Christopher; Cheon, Ae-Jin; Choo, Youn Sung; Kim, In-Chull

    2000-01-01

    Gemifloxacin (known as SB-265805 or LB-20304) is a potent, novel fluoroquinolone compound with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin were characterized in healthy male volunteers after a single dose of 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 600, or 800 mg. Multiple serum and urine samples were collected and analyzed for gemifloxacin using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Safety assessments included vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram readings, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and adverse-experience monitoring. Gemifloxacin was rapidly absorbed after all doses. Maximum concentrations of gemifloxacin in serum (Cmax) were achieved approximately 1 h after dosing, after which concentrations in serum declined in a biexponential manner. Values of Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve in serum from 0 h to infinity (serum AUC0–∞) increased linearly with dose. Serum AUC0–∞ values (mean ± standard deviation) were 0.65 ± 0.01, 1.28 ± 0.22, 2.54 ± 0.31, 5.48 ± 1.24, 9.82 ± 2.70, 24.4 ± 7.1, and 31.4 ± 7.6 μg · h/ml following 20-, 40-, 80-, 160-, 320-, 600-, and 800-mg doses, respectively. The terminal phase elimination half-life was independent of dose, with an overall mean of 7.4 ± 2.0 h. The profiles indicated that the pharmacokinetic profile is suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Approximately 25 to 40% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged in the urine, and renal clearance (ca. 150 ml/min) was independent of dose. There were no significant changes in clinical chemistry, hematology, or urinalysis parameters, vital signs, or 12-lead electrocardiogram readings in subjects, irrespective of dose. The results of these studies support the further investigation of once-daily administration of gemifloxacin. PMID:10817716

  13. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  14. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in pigs and broilers following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Z; Yang, G X; Huang, X H; Chen, Z L; Zeng, Z L

    2008-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in pigs and broilers after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), or oral (p.o.) administration at a single dose of five (pigs) or 10 mg/kg (broilers). Plasma concentration profiles were analyzed by a compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v., i.m. and p.o. doses, the elimination half-lives (t(1/2beta)) were 17.14 +/- 4.14, 25.79 +/- 8.10, 16.67 +/- 4.04 (pigs) and 6.11 +/- 1.50, 5.64 +/- 0.74, 8.20 +/- 3.12 h (broilers), respectively. After single i.m. and p.o. administration, difloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 1.77 +/- 0.66, 2.29 +/- 0.85 (pigs) and 2.51 +/- 0.36, 1.00 +/- 0.21 microg/mL (broilers) attained at t(max) of 1.29 +/- 0.26, 1.41 +/- 0.88 (pigs) and 0.86 +/- 0.4, 4.34 +/- 2.40 h (broilers), respectively. Bioavailabilities (F) were (95.3 +/- 28.9)% and (105.7 +/- 37.1)% (pigs) and (77.0 +/- 11.8)% and (54.2 +/- 12.6)% (broilers) after i.m. and p.o. doses, respectively. Apparent distribution volumes(V(d(area))) of 4.91 +/- 1.88 and 3.10 +/- 0.67 L/kg and total body clearances(Cl(B)) of 0.20 +/- 0.06 and 0.37 +/- 0.10 L/kg/h were determined in pigs and broilers, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC), the half-lives of both absorption and distribution(t(1/2ka), t(1/2alpha)) were also determined. Based on the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters determined, multiple dosage regimens were recommended as: a dosage of 5 mg/kg given intramuscularly every 24 h in pigs, or administered orally every 24 h at the dosage of 10 mg/kg in broilers, can maintain effective plasma concentrations with bacteria infections, in which MIC(90) are <0.25 microg/mL and <0.1 microg/mL respectively.

  15. Chemoprophylaxis of coccidiosis in lambs with a single oral dose of toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, B; Helle, O

    1991-03-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of a single oral dose of toltrazuril against coccidiosis (mixed Eimeria infections) in naturally infected lambs was evaluated in two experiments. Toltrazuril at 20 mg kg-1, given on Day 7 or Day 10 after turnout on pasture, proved to be highly efficacious in preventing clinical coccidiosis under Norwegian conditions. Toltrazuril reduced the oocyst output to very low levels, prevented the development of diarrhoea and improved weight gain during the first 4-5 weeks after treatment. Treatment on Day 7 was superior to treatment on Day 10 with respect to improving weight gain and preventing the development of soft faeces. Lambs treated with toltrazuril on Day 7 seemed to be as immune as untreated lambs to natural reinfections with coccidia later in the grazing season. In one of the experiments, natural infections with the nematode Nematodirus battus produced a coccidiosis-like disease in some lambs simultaneously with the outbreak of coccidiosis.

  16. Distribution, elimination, and renal effects of single oral doses of europium in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Keiko; Usuda, Kan; Nakayama, Shin; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Akihiro; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Kono, Koichi

    2011-11-01

    Single doses of europium (III) chloride hexahydrate were orally administered to several groups of rats. Cumulative urine samples were taken at 0-24 h, and blood samples were drawn after 24-h administration. The europium concentration was determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The volume, creatinine, ß-2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase were measured in the urine samples to evaluate possible europium-induced renal effects. The blood samples showed low europium distribution, with an average of 77.5 μg/L for all groups. Although the urinary concentration and excretion showed dose-dependent increases, the percentage of europium excreted showed a dose-dependent decrease, with an average of 0.31% in all groups. The administration of europium resulted in a significant decrease of creatinine and a significant increase of urinary volume, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, and ß-2-microglobulin. Rare earth elements, including europium, are believed to form colloidal conjugates that deposit in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli. This specific reaction may contribute to low europium bioavailability and renal function disturbances. Despite low bioavailability, the high performance of the analytical method for determination of europium makes the blood and urine sampling suitable tools for monitoring of exposure to this element. The results presented in this study will be of great importance in future studies on the health impacts of rare earth elements.

  17. Gene Expression in Rat Hearts Following Oral Administration of a Single Hepatotoxic Dose of Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Kil, Hong Ryang; Park, Kwangsik; Noh, Chung Il

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Toxicity caused by acetaminophen and its toxic mechanisms in the liver have been widely studied, including effects involving metabolism and oxidative stress. However, its adverse effects on heart have not been sufficiently investigated. This study evaluated the cardiac influence and molecular events occurring within the myocardium in rats treated with a dose of acetaminophen large enough to induce conventional liver damage. Materials and Methods Male rats were orally administered a single dose of acetaminophen at 1,000 mg/kg-body weight, and subsequently examined for conventional toxicological parameters and for gene expression alterations to both the heart and liver 24 hours after administration. Results Following treatment, serum biochemical parameters including aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were elevated. Histopathological alterations of necrosis were observed in the liver, but not in the heart. However, alterations in gene expression were observed in both the liver and heart 24 hours after dosing. Transcriptional profiling revealed that acetaminophen changed the expression of genes implicated in oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and apoptosis in the heart as well as in the liver. The numbers of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in the heart were 271 and 81, respectively, based on a two-fold criterion. Conclusion The induced expression of genes implicated in oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in the myocardium reflects molecular levels of injury caused by acetaminophen (APAP), which could not be identified by conventional histopathology. PMID:22187249

  18. Pharmacokinetics of rebaudioside A and stevioside after single oral doses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, A; Boileau, A C; Winkler, P C; Compton, J C; Prakash, I; Jiang, X; Mandarino, D A

    2008-07-01

    This randomized, double-blind, cross-over study assessed the comparative pharmacokinetics of steviol and steviol glucuronide following single oral doses of rebaudioside A and stevioside in healthy adult male subjects. Steviol glucuronide appeared in the plasma of all subjects after administration of rebaudioside A or stevioside, with median tmax values of 12.0 and 8.00h post-dose, respectively. Steviol glucuronide was eliminated from the plasma, with similar t1/2 values of approximately 14h for both compounds. Administration of rebaudioside A resulted in a significantly (approximately 22%) lower steviol glucuronide geometric mean Cmax value (1472ng/mL) than administration of stevioside (1886ng/mL). The geometric mean AUC0-t value for steviol glucuronide after administration of rebaudioside A (30,788ngh/mL) was approximately 10% lower than after administration of stevioside (34,090ngh/mL). Steviol glucuronide was excreted primarily in the urine of the subjects during the 72h collection period, accounting for 59% and 62% of the rebaudioside A and stevioside doses, respectively. No steviol glucuronide was detected in feces. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that rebaudioside A and stevioside underwent similar metabolic and elimination pathways in humans with steviol glucuronide excreted primarily in the urine and steviol in the feces. No safety concerns were noted as determined by reporting of adverse events, laboratory assessments of safety or vital signs.

  19. Enantioselective disposition of hydroxychloroquine after a single oral dose of the racemate to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, J; Fieger, H; Ducharme, M P; Khalil, S K; Wainer, I W

    1995-08-01

    1. Stereoselectivity in the disposition of hydroxychloroquine was investigated in 23 healthy males following a single oral dose of 200 mg racemic HCQ (rac-HCQ) sulphate. Total concentrations (R+S) and R/S ratios of HCQ and its metabolites were measured by stereoselective h.p.l.c. 2. HCQ was detected in whole blood and urine, up to 91 and 85 days after dosing, respectively. Metabolites could not be detected in whole blood while in urine detectable concentrations were still present after 85 days. The blood concentrations of HCQ enantiomers were measurable until 168 h post-dose. 3. R(-)-HCQ accounted for 62 +/- 3% (mean +/- s.d.) of the AUC of rac-HCQ AUC. The elimination half-life of S(+)-HCQ (457 +/- 122 h) was significantly shorter than that of R(-)-HCQ (526 +/- 140 h), partly due to its faster urinary excretion and hepatic metabolism. Its renal clearance was twice that of R(-)-HCQ (4.61 +/- 4.01 vs 1.79 +/- 1.30 1 h-1), and metabolites derived from the S-isomer represented 80-90% of the urinary recovery of the dose. 4. Over 85 days, 4.4 +/- 2.9 and 3.3 +/- 1.8% of the dose was recovered in urine as unchanged S(+)-HCQ and R(-)-HCQ, respectively. For the first 2 weeks, S(+)-HCQ excretion rate clearly surpassed that of R(-)-HCQ whereas afterwards the inverse was observed. However, since the first 2 weeks account for 95% of rac-HCQ renal excretion, the total urinary excretion of S(+)-HCQ clearly surpassed that of R(-)-HCQ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Single dose oral dexibuprofen [S(+)-ibuprofen] for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Dexibuprofen (S(+)-ibuprofen) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and widely available in other countries worldwide. It is an active isomer of ibuprofen. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral dexibuprofen in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral dexibuprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to May 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral dexibuprofen for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results In the single included study, both S(+)-ibuprofen (dexibuprofen, an active isomer of ibuprofen) 200 mg and 400 mg gave high levels of response, with 31/51 (61%) and 35/50 (70%) respectively having at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, compared with 2/25 (8%) with placebo. The median time to additional analgesic use was 5.8 hours, 6.1 hours, and 1.8 hours

  1. Comparative metabolism studies of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers in male rats following a single oral dose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively 42% of dose for alpha-HBCD,...

  2. Single dose oral gabapentin for established acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug, also used in the treatment of neuropathic pain, which is the subject of a Cochrane review, currently under revision. Its efficacy in treating established acute postoperative pain has not been demonstrated. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of single dose oral gabapentin compared with placebo in established acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Additional studies were sought from reference lists of retrieved articles and reviews. Clinical trials databases were searched for unpublished studies; clinical trial reports of several unpublished studies have been made public following litigation in the US. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of gabapentin for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Numbers of participants with at least 50% of maximum possible total pain relief (TOTPAR) or summed pain intensity difference (SPID) with gabapentin or placebo were calculated and used to derive relative benefit (RB) or risk (RR), and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT). Numbers of participants using rescue medication, and time to its use, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Four unpublished studies met inclusion criteria; in three, participants had pain following dental surgery, and one followed major orthopaedic surgery; 177 participants were treated with a single dose of gabapentin 250 mg, 21 with gabapentin 500 mg, and 172 with placebo. At least 50% pain relief over 6 hours was achieved by 15% with gabapentin 250 mg and 5% with placebo; giving a RB of 2.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 5

  3. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Aldington, Dominic; Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-09-28

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane overview published in Issue 9, 2011. That overview considered both efficacy and adverse events, but adverse events are now dealt with in a separate overview.Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. This overview brings together the results of those individual reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. To summarise the efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic. We identified systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews, we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, and the percentage of participants remedicating by six, eight, 12, or 24 hours. Where there was adequate information for pairs of drug and dose (at least 200 participants, in at least two studies), we defined the addition of four comparisons of typical size (400 participants in total) with zero effect as making the result potentially subject to publication bias and therefore unreliable. The overview included 39 separate Cochrane Reviews with 41 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 50,000 participants in approximately 460 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design

  4. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline after a single intravenous, oral or intramuscular dose in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Zhao, Z S; Wang, G Y; Wang, M F

    2015-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in ducks were investigated after a single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) or oral (PO) dose at 20 mg/kg body weight. 2. The concentrations of doxycycline in plasma samples were assayed using a high performance liquid chromatography method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. 3. After IV administration, doxycycline had a mean (±SD) distribution volume (Vz) of 1761.9 ± 328.5 ml/kg and was slowly eliminated with a terminal half-life (t₁/₂λz) of 21.21±1.47 h and a total body clearance (Cl) of 57.51 ± 9.50 ml/h/kg. Following PO and IM administration, doxycycline was relatively slowly absorbed - the peak concentrations (Cmax) were 17.57 ± 4.66 μg/ml at 2 h and 25.01 ± 4.18 μg/ml at 1.5 h, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities (F) of doxycycline after PO and IM administration were 39.13% and 70.71%, respectively. 4. The plasma profile of doxycycline exhibited favourable pharmacokinetics characteristics in Muscovy ducks, such as wide distribution, relatively slow absorption and slow elimination, though oral bioavailability was low.

  5. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Different Oral Sodium Nitrite Formulations in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin L.; Flanagan, Douglas R.; Giordano, Tony; Qiu, Yang; Brandon, Angela; Lefer, David J.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers, although associated with macrovascular disease and neuropathy, have a microvascular disease causing ischemia not amenable to surgical intervention. Nitrite selectively releases nitric oxide in ischemic tissues, and diabetes subjects have low nitrite levels that do not increase with exercise. This study explores the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of sodium nitrite in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers. Subjects and Methods Using a blinded, randomized crossover study design, 12 subjects with diabetes mellitus and active or healed foot ulcers received a single dose of sodium nitrite on two occasions 7–28 days apart, once with an immediate release (IR) formulation and once with an enteric-coated (EC) formulation for delayed release. Serum nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, blood pressure, pulse rate, complete blood count, chemistry panel, electrocardiogram, and adverse events were followed for up to 6 h after each dose. The IR and EC nitrite levels were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by pharmacokinetic modeling. Results The IR formulation elevated nitrite levels between 0.25 and 0.75 h (P<0.05). The EC formulation did not elevate nitrite levels significantly, but both formulations gave plasma nitrite levels previously suggested to be therapeutic (approximately 2–5 μM). The IR formulation gave an asymptomatic blood pressure drop of 10/6 mm Hg (P<0.003), and two subjects experienced mild flushing. There was no elevation of methemoglobin or other safety concerns. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plama nitrite levels gave r2 values of 0.81 and 0.97 for the fits for IR and EC formulations, respectively. Conclusions Oral sodium nitrite administration is well tolerated in diabetes patients. PMID:22468627

  6. Single dose oral naproxen and naproxen sodium for acute postoperative pain (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, L; Edwards, JE; Moore, RA; McQuay, HJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain is often poorly managed. Treatment options include a range of drug therapies such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) of which naproxen is one. Naproxen is used to treat a variety of painful conditions including acute postoperative pain, and is often combined with sodium to improve its solubility for oral administration. Naproxen sodium 550 mg (equivalent to 500 mg of naproxen) is considered to be an effective dose for treating postoperative pain but to date no systematic review of the effectiveness of naproxen/naproxen sodium at different doses has been published. Objectives To assess the efficacy, safety and duration of action of a single oral dose of naproxen or naproxen sodium for acute postoperative pain in adults. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for relevant studies. Additional studies were identified from the reference list of retrieved reports. The most recent search was undertaken in July 2004. Selection criteria Included studies were randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of a single dose of orally administered naproxen or naproxen sodium in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to give the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours. Relative risk estimates (RR) and the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for at least 50% pain relief were then calculated. Information was sought on the percentage of patients experiencing any adverse event, and the number-needed-to-harm was derived. Time to remedication was also estimated. Main results Ten trials (996 patients) met the inclusion criteria: nine assessed naproxen sodium; one combined the results from two small trials of naproxen alone. Included studies scored well for methodological quality. Meta-analysis of six trials (500

  7. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus caffeine for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2015-07-14

    There is good evidence that combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief in acute pain and headache than either drug alone, and that the drug-specific benefits are essentially additive. This appears to be broadly true in postoperative pain and migraine headache across a range of different drug combinations, and when tested in the same and different trials. Adding caffeine to analgesics also increases the number of people obtaining good pain relief. Combinations of ibuprofen and caffeine are available without prescription in some parts of the world. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of ibuprofen plus caffeine for moderate to severe postoperative pain, using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, two clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 1 February 2015. Randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials of single dose oral ibuprofen plus caffeine for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used the area under the pain relief versus time curve to derive the proportion of participants with at least 50% pain relief over six hours prescribed either ibuprofen plus caffeine or placebo. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT). We used information on the use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. We also collected information on adverse effects. We identified five randomised, double-blind studies with 1501 participants, but

  8. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and hydrolysis of oral pyrroloquinazolinediamines administered in single and multiple doses in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qigui; Kozar, Michael P; Shearer, Todd W; Xie, Lisa H; Lin, Ai J; Smith, Kirsten S; Si, Yuanzheng; Anova, Lalaine; Zhang, Jing; Milhous, Wilbur K; Skillman, Donald R

    2007-08-01

    Pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD) derivatives such as tetra-acetamide PQD (PQD-A4) and bis-ethylcarbamyl PQD (PQD-BE) were much safer (with therapeutic indices of 80 and 32, respectively) than their parent compound, PQD (therapeutic index, 10). Further evaluation of PQD-A4 and PQD-BE in single and multiple pharmacokinetic (PK) studies as well as corresponding toxicity studies was conducted with rats. PQD-A4 could be converted to two intermediate metabolites (monoacetamide PQD and bisacetamide PQD) first and then to the final metabolite, PQD, while PQD-BE was directly hydrolyzed to PQD without precursor and intermediate metabolites. Maximum tolerant doses showed that PQD-A4 and PQD-BE have only 1/12 and 1/6, respectively, of the toxicity of PQD after a single oral dose. Compared to the area under the concentration-time curve for PQD alone (2,965 ng.h/ml), values measured in animals treated with PQD-A4 and PQD-BE were one-third (1,047 ng.h/ml) and one-half (1,381 ng.h/ml) as high, respectively, after an equimolar dosage, suggesting that PQD was the only agent to induce the toxicity. Similar results were also shown in multiple treatments; PQD-A4 and PQD-BE generated two-fifths and three-fifths, respectively, of PQD concentrations, with 8.8-fold and 3.8-fold safety margins, respectively, over the parent drug. PK data indicated that the bioavailability of oral PQD-A4 was greatly limited at high dose levels, that PQD-A4 was slowly converted to PQD via a sequential three-step process of conversion, and that PQD-A4 was significantly less toxic than the one-step hydrolysis drug, PQD-BE. It was concluded that the slow and smaller release of PQD was the main reason for the reduction in toxicity and that the active intermediate metabolites can still maintain antimalarial potency. Therefore, the candidate with multiple-step hydrolysis of PQD could be developed as a safer potential agent for malaria treatment.

  9. Effect of a single oral dose of rabeprazole on nocturnal acid breakthrough and nocturnal alkaline amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jin-Yan; Niu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xue-Qin; Zhu, You-Ling; Gong, Jun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of rabeprazole (RAB) on nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB) and nocturnal alkaline amplitude (NAKA) and to compare it with omeprazole (OME) and pantoprazole (PAN). METHODS: By an open comparative study, forty patients with active peptic ulcer were randomly assigned to receive one of the three PPIs (proton pump inhibitor) with a single oral dose. They were divided into RAB group (10 mg), OME group (20 mg) and PAN group (40 mg). Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled to the control group (without taking any drug). Intragastric pH monitoring was then performed 1 h before and 24 h after the dose was given. RESULTS: No clinically undesirable signs and symptoms possibly attributed to the administration of RAB or OME and PAN were recognizable throughout the study period. All subjects completed the study according to the protocol. All data were processed by a computer using the Student t test or t’ test followed by an analysis of covariance. P < 0.05 was considered to have statistical significance. The intragastric pH of NAB was significantly higher in RAB group (1.84 ± 0.55) than in either OME group (1.15 ± 0.31) or PAN group (1.10 ± 0.30) (both P < 0.01). RAB produced a longer sustaining time (4.65 ± 1.22 h) on NAKA than OME (3.22 ± 1.89 h) (P < 0.05), PAN (3.15 ± 1.92 h) (P < 0.05), and the sustaining time of NAKA in RAB group was longer than that in the healthy control group (P < 0.01) too. In addition, RAB produced a much higher pH on NAKA (6.41 ± 0.45) in comparison with PAN (6.01 ± 0.92) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A single oral dose of 10 mg RAB may increase the pH of NAB and shorten the sustaining time of NAB, and it may increase the pH of NAKA as well as prolong the sustaining time of NAKA. PMID:14606102

  10. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  11. The pharmacokinetics of methocarbamol and guaifenesin after single intravenous and multiple-dose oral administration of methocarbamol in the horse.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

    2014-02-01

    A simple LC/MSMS method has been developed and fully validated to determine concentrations and characterize the concentration vs. time course of methocarbamol (MCBL) and guaifenesin (GGE) in plasma after a single intravenous dose and multiple oral dose administrations of MCBL to conditioned Thoroughbred horses. The plasma concentration-time profiles for MCBL after a single intravenous dose of 15 mg/kg of MCBL were best described by a three-compartment model. Mean extrapolated peak (C0 ) plasma concentrations were 23.2 (± 5.93) μg/mL. Terminal half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, mean residence time, and systemic clearance were characterized by a median (range) of 2.96 (2.46-4.71) h, 1.05 (0.943-1.21) L/kg, 1.98 (1.45-2.51) h, and 8.99 (6.68-10.8) mL/min/kg, respectively. Oral dose of MCBL was characterized by a median (range) terminal half-life, mean transit time, mean absorption time, and apparent oral clearance of 2.89 (2.21-4.88) h, 2.67 (1.80-2.87) h, 0.410 (0.350-0.770) h, and 16.5 (13.0-20) mL/min/kg. Bioavailability of orally administered MCBL was characterized by a median (range) of 54.4 (43.2-72.8)%. Guaifenesin plasma concentrations were below the limit of detection in all samples collected after the single intravenous dose of MCBL whereas they were detected for up to 24 h after the last dose of the multiple-dose oral regimen. This difference may be attributed to first-pass metabolism of MCBL to GGE after oral administration and may provide a means of differentiating the two routes of administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of a single dose of oral ivermectin on pruritus in the homeless.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, Sékéné; Foucault, Cédric; Rogier, Christophe; Doudier, Barbara; Rovery, Clarisse; Dupont, Hervé Tissot; Castro, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Homeless people commonly present with ectoparasite-based pruritus. We evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin to reduce the pruritus prevalence in a homeless population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial from January 2006 to April 2006 in two homeless shelters in the city of Marseille, France. Homeless people complaining of pruritus were randomized to receive either ivermectin (24 mg) or placebo. Follow-up visits were planned at day 14 and day 28 after the inclusion to assess the outcome of pruritus. Forty-two subjects with pruritus were randomized to the ivermectin group and 40 to the placebo group. On day 14, pruritus was reported by significantly more subjects in the placebo group than those in the ivermectin group for both the per-protocol (PP) population (91.42% versus 68.57%, P = 0.014) and the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (92.5% versus 73.80%, P = 0.038). No significant effect was observed at day 28. Ivermectin was the only independent factor associated with the absence of pruritus at day 14 in both PP population [OR: 4.60 (95% CI:1.13; 18.73), P = 0.033] and ITT population [OR: 4.38 (95% CI: 1.07; 17.77), P = 0.039]. A single dose of oral ivermectin has a transient beneficial effect on the reduction of the prevalence of pruritus in the homeless population. More studies are required to assess the efficacy of multiple repeated treatments with ivermectin to reduce scabies and body lice endemic among homeless people with pruritus and the impact of such treatment on this population.

  13. Oral contraception does not alter single dose saquinavir pharmacokinetics in women

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Margit; Burhenne, Jürgen; Martin-Facklam, Meret; Weiss, Johanna; von Wolff, Michael; Strowitzki, Thomas; Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Haefeli, Walter E

    2004-01-01

    Aims Women experience more adverse drug reactions (ADR) to antiretroviral therapy than men. This may be attributed to higher plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors due to pharmacokinetic interactions with hormonal preparations. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the pharmacokinetics of the protease inhibitor saquinavir. Methods Saquinavir was administered in a hard gelatin capsule formulation (Invirase®) to rule out confounding by pharmaceutical aids of the more frequently used soft gelatin capsule. After an overnight fast, eight healthy female participants ingested a single oral dose of 600 mg saquinavir immediately before and after the 19th dose of a combined, low dose OC (0.03 mg ethinylestradiol, 0.075 mg gestodene) in a prospective, fixed sequence study design. The first saquinavir application was scheduled on day 1, 2, or 3 of the individual menstrual cycle. Plasma concentrations of saquinavir and relative concentrations of its M2&M3-hydroxy metabolites were determined by LC/MS/MS for 48 h. Results Intake of OC resulted in a significant decrease in morning serum concentrations (before intake of OC, compared to day 19 of OC therapy) of 17β-estradiol by −23.4 pg ml−1 (57%, 95%CI: −76% to −37.4%); progesterone by −0.25 ng ml−1 (33%, 95%CI: −45.3% to −21.5%); follicle-stimulating hormone by −4.06 U l−1 (82%, 95%CI: −96.5% to −67.7%); and luteinizing hormone by −3.49 U l−1 (74%, 95%CI: −93 to −54.6%). Conversely, sexual hormone binding globulin serum concentrations increased by 83.6 nmol l−1 (205%, 95%CI: 32.2% to 377%). Pharmacokinetic parameters of saquinavir (AUC, Cmax, tmax, t1/2, CLR) were not affected by OC, nor was the relative metabolic ratio of saquinavir/M2&M3-hydroxy saquinavir. Furthermore, there was no association of serum hormone concentrations or MDR1-polymorphisms (C3435T and G2677T) with pharmacokinetic parameters of saquinavir. Conclusions There

  14. Single, Escalating Dose Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Food Effects of a New Oral Androgen Dimethandrolone Undecanoate in Man: A prototype oral male hormonal contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Nya-Ngatchou, Jean Jacques; Liu, Peter Y.; Amory, John K.; Leung, Andrew; Hull, Laura; Blithe, Diana L.; Woo, Jason; Bremner, William J.; Wang, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The novel androgen, dimethandrolone (DMA) has both androgenic and progestational activities, properties that may maximize gonadotropin suppression. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU), an orally bioavailable, longer-acting ester of DMA, for male contraceptive development. Our objective was to examine the safety and pharmacokinetics of single, escalating doses of DMAU (powder in capsule formulation) administered orally with or without food in healthy men. We conducted a randomized, double-blind Phase 1 study. For each dose of DMAU (25 to 800 mg), ten male volunteers received DMAU and two received placebo at two academic medical centers. DMAU was administered both fasting and after a high fat meal (200–800 mg doses). Serial serum samples were collected over 24h following each dose. DMAU was well tolerated without significant effects on vital signs, safety laboratory tests or electrocardiograms. When administered while fasting, serum DMA (active compound) was detectable in only 4/10 participants after the 800mg dose. When administered with a 50% fat meal, serum DMA was detectable in all participants given 200mg DMAU and showed a dose-incremental increase up to 800mg, with peak levels 4 to 8h after taking the dose. Serum gonadotropins and sex hormone concentrations were significantly suppressed 12h after DMAU administration with food at doses above 200mg. This first-in-man study demonstrated that a single, oral dose of DMAU up to 800 mg is safe. A high-fat meal markedly improved DMAU/DMA pharmacokinetics. PMID:24789057

  15. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) with codeine for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 1998. Combining drugs from different classes with different modes of action may offer opportunity to optimise efficacy and tolerability, using lower doses of each drug to achieve the same degree of pain relief. Previously we concluded that addition of codeine to paracetamol provided additional pain relief, but at expense of additional adverse events. New studies have been published since. This review sought to evaluate efficacy and safety of paracetamol plus codeine using current data, and compare findings with other analgesics evaluated similarly. Objectives Assess efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol plus codeine in acute postoperative pain, increase in efficacy due to the codeine component, and associated adverse events. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database in October 2008 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of paracetamol plus codeine, compared with placebo or the same dose of paracetamol alone, for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. The area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive proportion of participants with paracetamol plus codeine and placebo or paracetamol alone experiencing least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use of rescue analgesia, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Twenty-six studies, with 2295 participants, were included comparing paracetamol plus codeine with placebo. Significant dose response was seen for the outcome of at least 50% pain

  16. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) with codeine for postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Toms, Laurence; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2009-01-21

    This is an updated version of the Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 1998. Combining drugs from different classes with different modes of action may offer opportunity to optimise efficacy and tolerability, using lower doses of each drug to achieve the same degree of pain relief. Previously we concluded that addition of codeine to paracetamol provided additional pain relief, but at expense of additional adverse events. New studies have been published since. This review sought to evaluate efficacy and safety of paracetamol plus codeine using current data, and compare findings with other analgesics evaluated similarly. Assess efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol plus codeine in acute postoperative pain, increase in efficacy due to the codeine component, and associated adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database in October 2008 for this update. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of paracetamol plus codeine, compared with placebo or the same dose of paracetamol alone, for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. The area under the "pain relief versus time" curve was used to derive proportion of participants with paracetamol plus codeine and placebo or paracetamol alone experiencing least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use of rescue analgesia, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Twenty-six studies, with 2295 participants, were included comparing paracetamol plus codeine with placebo. Significant dose response was seen for the outcome of at least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours, with NNTs of 2.2 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.9) for 800 to 1000 mg paracetamol plus

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelser, Andries; Müller, Douw G; du Plessis, Jeanetta; du Preez, Jan L; Goosen, Colleen

    2002-09-01

    The intranasal route of administration provides a potential useful way of administering a range of systemic drugs. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach for the treatment of nausea and vomiting, doxylamine succinate was studied in rats for the pharmacokinetics (AUC, C(max), t(max)) following intranasal, oral and intravenous administrations. Subjects (six male Sprague-Dawley rats per time interval for each route of administration) received 2-mg doses of doxylamine succinate orally and I-mg doses intranasally and intravenously, respectively. The various formulations were formulated in isotonic saline (0.9% w/v) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. Doxylamine succinate concentrations in plasma were determined with a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay and a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Intranasal and oral bioavailabilities were determined from AUC values relative to those after intravenous dosing. Intranasal bioavailability was greater than that of oral doxylamine succinate (70.8 vs 24.7%). The intranasal and oral routes of administration differed significantly from the intravenous route of administration. Peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 887.6 ng/ml (S.D. 74.4), 281.4 ng/ml (S.D. 24.6) and 1296.4 ng/ml (S.D. 388.9) for the intranasal, oral and intravenous routes, respectively. The time to achieve C(max) for the intranasal route (t(max)=0.5 h) was faster than for the oral route (t(max)=1.5 h), but no statistically significant differences between the C(max) values were found using 95% confidence intervals. The results of this study show that doxylamine succinate is rapidly and effectively absorbed from the nasal mucosa.

  18. Concentrations of gemifloxacin at the target site in healthy volunteers after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Islinger, Florian; Bouw, Rene; Stahl, Mathias; Lackner, Edith; Zeleny, Petra; Brunner, Martin; Müller, Markus; Eichler, Hans Georg; Joukhadar, Christian

    2004-11-01

    Free gemifloxacin concentrations in the interstitial space fluid of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by means of in vivo microdialysis to characterize the ability of gemifloxacin to penetrate human soft tissues. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 320 mg of gemifloxacin. The mean areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 10 h (AUC(0-10)) were significantly higher for soft tissue than for unbound gemifloxacin in plasma (P < 0.05). The ratios of the mean AUC(0-10) for tissue to the AUC(0-10) for free gemifloxacin in plasma were 1.7 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- standard deviation) for skeletal muscle and 2.4 +/- 1.0 for adipose tissue. The AUC(0-24) ratios for free gemifloxacin in tissues to the MIC at which 90% of frequently isolated bacteria are inhibited were close to or higher than 100 h. Therefore, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic calculations, we conclude that gemifloxacin might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of soft tissue infections.

  19. Concentrations of Gemifloxacin at the Target Site in Healthy Volunteers after a Single Oral Dose

    PubMed Central

    Islinger, Florian; Bouw, Rene; Stahl, Mathias; Lackner, Edith; Zeleny, Petra; Brunner, Martin; Müller, Markus; Eichler, Hans Georg; Joukhadar, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Free gemifloxacin concentrations in the interstitial space fluid of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by means of in vivo microdialysis to characterize the ability of gemifloxacin to penetrate human soft tissues. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 320 mg of gemifloxacin. The mean areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 10 h (AUC0-10) were significantly higher for soft tissue than for unbound gemifloxacin in plasma (P < 0.05). The ratios of the mean AUC0-10 for tissue to the AUC0-10 for free gemifloxacin in plasma were 1.7 ± 0.7 (mean ± standard deviation) for skeletal muscle and 2.4 ± 1.0 for adipose tissue. The AUC0-24 ratios for free gemifloxacin in tissues to the MIC at which 90% of frequently isolated bacteria are inhibited were close to or higher than 100 h. Therefore, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic calculations, we conclude that gemifloxacin might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of soft tissue infections. PMID:15504848

  20. A comparative study of oral single dose of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and ornidazole in bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Thulkar, Jyoti; Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan

    2012-03-01

    To compare the cure rates of oral single dose of metronidazole (2 g), tinidazole (2 g), secnidazole (2 g), and ornidazole (1.5 g) in cases of bacterial vaginosis. This was a prospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial on 344 Indian women (86 women in each group) who attended a gynecology outpatient department with complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge or who had abnormal vaginal discharge on Gynecological examination but they did not complaint of it. For diagnosis and cure rate of bacterial vaginosis, Amsel's criteria were used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test of proportions. The cure rate was compared considering metronidazole cure rate as gold standard. At 1 week, the cure rate of tinidazole and ornidazole was 100% and at 4 weeks, it was 97.7% for both drugs (P<0.001). Secnidazole had cure rate of 80.2% at 4 weeks (P=NS). Metronidazole showed a cure rate of 77.9% at 4 weeks, which is the lowest of all four drugs. Tinidazole and ornidazole have better cure rate as compared to metronidazole in cases of bacterial vaginosis.

  1. Structural identification of bitespiramycin metabolites in rat: a single oral dose study.

    PubMed

    Shi, X G; Fawcett, J P; Chen, X Y; Zhong, D F

    2005-04-01

    Bitespiramycin is a macrolide antibiotic consisting of a mixture of some nine spiramycin ester derivatives. It has a similar spectrum of antibiotic activity to that of spiramycin but has superior pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, a rapid and facile LC/ESI-MSn method was applied to study the metabolism of bitespiramycin in rat following a single oral dose (80 mg kg-1). Concentrations of parent drug constituents and metabolites were determined in plasma, urine, feces and bile. Concentrations of parent drug constituents and metabolites in plasma were very low. In urine, feces and bile, parent drug constituents and 38 metabolites were identified on the basis of their chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties. The identity of 17 metabolites was confirmed by comparison with reference substances. The principal metabolites were the corresponding spiramycins formed by hydrolysis of the 4''-(3-methylbutanoate) groups. Other important metabolic pathways were: hydrolytic loss of the forosamine and mycarose sugars; aldehyde reduction; cysteine conjugation of the aldehyde group; and hydrolysis of the lactone ring. Products formed by lactone ring opening were found only in urine, and those formed by aldehyde reduction were found only in feces. Aldehyde reduction and hydrolytic loss of forosamine represent novel biotransformation pathways for spiramycin derivatives.

  2. Influence of a single oral dose of vitamin D(2) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Martineau, A R; Nanzer, A M; Satkunam, K R; Packe, G E; Rainbow, S J; Maunsell, Z J; Timms, P M; Venton, T R; Eldridge, S M; Davidson, R N; Wilkinson, R J; Griffiths, C J

    2009-01-01

    Newham Chest Clinic, London, UK. To determine the safety and efficacy of the administration of bolus-dose vitamin D(2) in elevating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in tuberculosis (TB) patients. A multi-ethnic cohort of TB patients was randomised to receive a single oral dose of 2.5 mg vitamin D(2) (n = 11) or placebo (n = 14). Serum 25(OH)D and corrected calcium concentrations were determined at baseline and 1 week and 8 weeks post-dose, and compared to those of a multi-ethnic cohort of 56 healthy adults receiving an identical dose of vitamin D(2). Hypovitaminosis D (serum 25[OH]D < 75 nmol/l) was present in all patients at baseline. A single oral dose of 2.5 mg vitamin D2 corrected hypovitaminosis D in all patients in the intervention arm of the study at 1 week post-dose, and induced a 109.5 nmol/l mean increase in their serum 25(OH)D concentration. Hypovitaminosis D recurred in 10/11 patients at 8 weeks post-dose. No patient receiving vitamin D(2) experienced hypercalcaemia. Patients receiving 2.5 mg vitamin D(2) experienced a greater mean increase in serum 25(OH)D at 1 week post-dose than healthy adults receiving 2.5 mg vitamin D(2). A single oral dose of 2.5 mg vitamin D(2) corrects hypovitaminosis D at 1 week but not at 8 weeks post-dose in TB patients.

  3. Artemisinin pharmacokinetics in healthy adults after 250, 500 and 1000 mg single oral doses.

    PubMed

    Ashton, M; Gordi, T; Trinh, N H; Nguyen, V H; Nguyen, D S; Nguyen, T N; Dinh, X H; Johansson, M; Le, D C

    1998-05-01

    Eight healthy male, Vietnamese subjects were administered 1 x 250, 2 x 250, and 4 x 250 mg artemisinin capsules in a cross-over design with randomized sequence with a 7-day washout period between administrations. The inter-individual variability in artemisinin pharmacokinetics was large with parameter coefficient of variation (CV) typically between 50-70%. The parameter with the smallest variability was the elimination half-life (CV approximately equal to 30-40%). Analysis of variance indicated also a large intra-subject variability. (CV, or = 24%) for the dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC/dose). The pharmacokinetic results suggested artemisinin to be subject to high pre-systemic extraction. Artemisinin half-life could not predict the extent of in vivo exposure to the drug, there being no correlation between half-life and oral clearance. Artemisinin oral plasma clearance was about 400 L h-1 exhibiting a slight decrease with dose, although the effect was weak. Thus results from studies using different artemisinin doses may, within the studied dose range, be compared without the complication of disproportionate changes in drug exposure with varying dose levels. Half-lives appeared to increase with dose. An observed period effect in the analysis of variance was tentatively associated with time-dependency in artemisinin pharmacokinetics. There was a high correlation between artemisinin plasma concentrations determined at various time-points after drug administration and the AUCs after the 500 and 1000 mg doses, but less so after the 250 mg dose. This may show a tentative approach to assess the systemic exposure of the patients to artemisinin from the determination of artemisinin plasma concentrations in one or two plasma samples only. Artemisinin was well tolerated with no apparent dose or time dependent effects on blood pressure, heart rate or body temperature.

  4. Miltefosine lipid nanocapsules: Intersection of drug repurposing and nanotechnology for single dose oral treatment of pre-patent schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    El-Moslemany, Riham M; Eissa, Maha M; Ramadan, Alyaa A; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z

    2016-07-01

    A dual drug repurposing/nanotechnological approach was used to develop an alternative oral treatment for schistosomiasis mansoni using miltefosine (MFS), an anticancer alkylphosphocholine, and lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. We demonstrated earlier that MFS possesses significant activity against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni in the mouse model using 5 successive 20mg/kg/day oral doses. Moreover, an effective single dose (20mg/kg) oral treatment against the adult stage of S. mansoni in mice was developed using LNCs, particularly modified with CTAB, a positive charge imparting agent (MFS-LNC-CTAB(+)), or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer (MFS-LNC-OA). Efficacy enhancement involved, at least in part, targeting of the worm tegument with MFS-LNCs as a new therapeutic entity. As the tegument surface charge and composition may differ in pre-patent stages of the parasite, it was of importance in the present study to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of the two MFS-LNC formulations against invasive and immature stages for potential advantage relative to praziquantel. Results indicated potent schistosomicidal effects against both invasive and immature stages of S. mansoni in infected mice, efficacy being both formulation and developmental stage dependent. This was indicated by the significant reduction in the total worm burden of the invasive stage by 91.6% and 76.8% and the immature stage by 82.7% and 96.7% for MFS-LNC-CTAB+ and MFS-LNC-OA, respectively. Histopathological findings indicated amelioration of hepatic pathology with regression of the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and reduction in granulomas number and size, verifying marked improvement in architecture of hepatic lobules. From a clinical perspective, MFS-LNCs offer potential as an alternative single oral dose nanomedicine with a wide therapeutic profile for the mass chemotherapy of schistosomiasis mansoni.

  5. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were < 40 ng/mL for the entire time period, but oral administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in mean plasma concentrations > 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Ferrous Sulphate (Tardyferon®) after Single Oral Dose Administration in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

    PubMed

    Leary, A; Barthe, L; Clavel, T; Sanchez, C; Oulmi-Castel, M; Paillard, B; Edmond, J M; Brunner, V

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing preparations available on the market vary in dosage, salt, and chemical state of iron contained in the preparation, as well as in the iron delivery process (immediate or prolonged-release). The present study aimed at characterizing the serum pharmacokinetics of iron in non pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) following a single oral administration of a prolonged-release ferrous sulphate tablet. This multicenter, single dose, open-label study was conducted in 30 women aged between 18 and 45 years with IDA. A single 160 mg oral dose of ferrous sulphate was given as 2 tablets of 80 mg of Tardyferon(®) under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected before dosing and until 24 h post-dosing. Serum iron concentrations were determined using a routine colorimetric analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the serum concentration profiles using a non compartmental approach. Serum profiles showed elevated levels of iron up to 12 h after drug intake. The median time to maximum serum concentrations (Tmax) occurred 4 h post-dosing. Between 2 and 8 h post-dosing, mean serum iron concentrations fluctuated by only 20%. Additionally, C8h and C12h represented on average 78.6% and 47.5% of the Cmax, respectively. This study demonstrates that a single oral dose of 160 mg Tardyferon(®) administered under fasting condition to 30 women with IDA leads to an optimal long-lasting release of iron in the gastrointestinal tract in the targeted population. This allows the attainment and maintenance of elevated serum iron levels for up to 12 h after administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine in horses after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Bianco, A W; Constable, P D; Cooper, B R; Taylor, S D

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an integral component of equine analgesia, yet currently available NSAIDs are both limited in their analgesic efficacy and have adverse effects. The NSAID ketorolac tromethamine (KT) is widely used in humans as a potent morphine-sparing analgesic drug but has not been fully evaluated in horses. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of KT in horses after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), and oral (p.o.) administration. Nine healthy adult horses received a single 0.5-mg/kg dose of KT via each route of administration. Plasma was collected up to 48 h postadministration and analyzed for KT concentration using HPLC/MS/MS. Noncompartmental analysis of i.v. dosage indicated a mean plasma clearance of 8.4 (mL/min)/kg and an estimated mean volume of distribution at steady-state of 0.77 L/kg. Noncompartmental analysis of i.v., i.m., and p.o. dosages indicated mean residence times of 2.0, 2.6, and 7.1 h, respectively. The drug was rapidly absorbed after i.m. and p.o. administration, and mean bioavailability was 71% and 57% for i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Adverse effects were not observed after i.v., i.m., and p.o. administration. More studies are needed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of KT in horses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose of Oral and Subcutaneous Meloxicam in Caribbean Flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Carpenter, James W; KuKanich, Butch

    2016-03-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Caribbean flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pilot study was performed first, followed by a complete pharmacokinetic study. Four healthy birds were divided into 2 groups and administered 1 mg/kg of either oral (n = 2) or subcutaneous (n = 2) meloxicam. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the pilot study results, 12 healthy birds were assigned into 2 groups and administered either 3 mg/kg PO (n = 6) or 1.5 mg/kg SC (n = 6) of meloxicam. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 9 time intervals per group after administration of meloxicam in all flamingos. Plasma concentrations after administration of 3 mg/kg PO meloxicam reached a mean maximum plasma concentration of 1.449 μg/mL at 2.35 hours with a terminal half-life of 1.832 hours. After administration of 1.5 mg/kg SC meloxicam, maximum plasma concentration was 4.059 μg/mL at 0.91 hour with a terminal half-life of 1.104 hours. The plasma profile from the main oral study (3 mg/kg PO) differed markedly from the pilot study (1 mg/kg PO), suggesting a delayed absorption with the higher dose and lack of dose proportionality. The different doses for subcutaneous administration resulted in a proportional change in plasma concentrations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the drug volume administered and fasting status when oral dosing is used. Future studies are also needed to investigate multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of meloxicam and to determine the therapeutic meloxicam plasma concentration in Caribbean flamingos.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber).

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after IM and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber). ANIMALS 14 adult flamingos. PROCEDURES Flamingos were allocated to 2 groups. Each group received a dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) by the IM or oral route. After a 4-week washout period, groups received meloxicam via the other route of administration. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Data for each bird were analyzed. Estimated values of selected pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by use of a linear mixed-effects ANOVA. Pooled concentration-time profiles for each route of administration were analyzed to examine the influence of body weight on pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 1.00 ± 0.88 μg/mL after oral administration. This was approximately 15% of the mean maximum plasma concentration of 5.50 ± 2.86 μg/mL after IM administration. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.33 ± 1.32 hours after oral administration and 0.28 ± 0.17 hours after IM administration. Mean half-life of the terminal phase after oral administration (3.83 ± 2.64 hours) was approximately twice that after IM administration (1.83 ± 1.22 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent and rate of meloxicam absorption were less after oral administration than after IM administration. Intramuscular administration resulted in a short period during which mean plasma concentrations met or exceeded reported efficacious analgesic concentrations in other species, whereas oral administration did not. These results suggested that higher doses may be required for oral administration.

  10. Pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin/trimethoprim combination following single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Lee, Seung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Kim, Jong-Choon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim was evaluated after single-dose intraperitoneal or oral co-administration in rats. Plasma concentrations of the two drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following intraperitoneal combination, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of plasma half-life (t 1/2) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) was observed for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of area under the plasma drug concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and C max between combined oral doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) of both antibacterial drugs. Also, after oral conjugation a significant difference in mean values of MRT0-∞ was observed between lower (10 mg/kg) and higher (100 mg/kg) doses of both drugs. A significant increase in pharmacokinetic parameters of both drugs in combined intraperitoneal and oral doses indicated pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim. Further study is recommended in other species of animals.

  11. Human metabolism and excretion kinetics of aniline after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Modick, Hendrik; Weiss, Tobias; Dierkes, Georg; Koslitz, Stephan; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger Martin

    2016-06-01

    Aniline is an important source material in the chemical industry (e.g., rubber, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals). The general population is known to be ubiquitously exposed to aniline. Thus, assessment of aniline exposure is of both occupational and environmental relevance. Knowledge on human metabolism of aniline is scarce. We orally dosed four healthy male volunteers (two fast and two slow acetylators) with 5 mg isotope-labeled aniline, consecutively collected all urine samples over a period of 2 days, and investigated the renal excretion of aniline and its metabolites by LS-MS/MS and GC-MS. After enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, N-acetyl-4-aminophenol was the predominant urinary aniline metabolite representing 55.7-68.9 % of the oral dose, followed by the mercapturic acid conjugate of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol accounting for 2.5-6.1 %. Acetanilide and free aniline were found only in minor amounts accounting for 0.14-0.36 % of the dose. Overall, these four biomarkers excreted in urine over 48 h post-dose represented 62.4-72.1 % of the oral aniline dose. Elimination half-times were 3.4-4.3 h for N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, 4.1-5.5 h for the mercapturic acid conjugate, and 1.3-1.6 and 0.6-1.2 h for acetanilide and free aniline, respectively. Urinary maximum concentrations of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol were reached after about 4 h and maximum concentrations of the mercapturic acid conjugate after about 6 h, whereas concentrations of acetanilide and free aniline peaked after about 1 h. The present study is one of the first to provide reliable urinary excretion factors for aniline and its metabolites in humans after oral dosage, including data on the predominant urinary metabolite N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, also known as an analgesic under the name paracetamol/acetaminophen.

  12. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  13. Pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin, a new macrolide, after single ascending oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S Y; Sennello, L T; Bunnell, S T; Varga, L L; Wilson, D S; Sonders, R C

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of single ascending doses of clarithromycin (6-0-methylerythromycin A) were assessed in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial with 39 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive single doses of either placebo or 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, or 1,200 mg of clarithromycin. Blood and urine collections were performed over the 24 h following administration of the test preparation. Biological specimens were analyzed for clarithromycin and 14(R)-hydroxyclarithromycin content by a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. The pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin appeared to be dose dependent, with terminal disposition half-life ranging from 2.3 to 6.0 h and mean +/- standard deviation area under the concentration-versus-time curve from time 0 to infinity for plasma ranging from 1.67 +/- 0.48 to 3.72 +/- 1.26 mg/liter.h per 100-mg dose over the 100- to 1,200-mg dose range. Similar dose dependency was noted in the pharmacokinetics of the 14(R)-hydroxy metabolite. Mean urinary excretion of clarithromycin and its 14(R)-hydroxy metabolite ranged from 11.5 to 17.5% and 5.3 to 8.8% of the administered dose, respectively. Urinary excretion data and plasma metabolite/parent compound concentration ratio data suggested that capacity-limited formation of the active metabolite may account, at least in part, for the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin. No substantive dose-related trend was observed for the renal clearance of either compound. There were no clinically significant drug-related alterations in laboratory and nonlaboratory safety parameters. In addition, there was no significant difference between placebo and clarithromycin recipients in the incidence or severity of adverse events. Clarithromycin appears to be safe and well tolerated. PMID:1489187

  14. Pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety data of a single oral dose of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in cats.

    PubMed

    Puza, N; Papich, M G; Reinero, C; Chang, C H; Yu, D-H; Sharp, C; DeClue, A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and adverse effect profile of single-dose oral bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in healthy cats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single mean ± SD oral dose of 3.2 ± 0.6 mg/kg of bosentan in 6 adult cats. Blood was collected for quantification of bosentan via high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Blood and urine were evaluated for CBC, plasma biochemical profile, and urinalysis, and repeat physical examinations were performed to evaluate for adverse effects. The mean terminal half-life of bosentan was 20.4 ± 17.2 h. The mean peak plasma concentration was 0.49 ± 0.24 g/mL, and the mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 6.8 ± 8.6 h. The area under the curve was 5.14 ± 3.81 h·μg/mL. Oral bosentan tablets were absorbed in cats, and no clinically important adverse events were noted. Further evaluation of repeat dosing, investigation into the in vivo efficacy of decreasing endothelin-1 concentrations in cats, as well as safety in conjunction with other medications is warranted.

  15. A case of community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 in which initial treatment with single-dose oral azithromycin appeared useful.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akihiro; Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Yuhei; Takaiwa, Takuya; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Toru; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko

    2017-09-11

    Legionella species are important causative pathogens for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Most cases of Legionella pneumonia are due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is rare. A fourth case of CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is reported, and initial treatment using single-dose oral azithromycin appeared useful. Azithromycin injection or fluoroquinolone injection is usually recommended for the treatment of Legionella pneumonia, and no previous reports have shown the effectiveness of single-dose oral azithromycin. This case report is therefore valuable from the perspective of possible treatment for mild to moderate Legionella pneumonia using single-dose oral azithromycin.

  16. Toxico-kinetics, recovery, and metabolism of napropamide in goats following a single high-dose oral administration.

    PubMed

    Pahari, A K; Majumdar, S; Mandal, T K; Chakraborty, A K; Bhattacharyya, A; Chowdhury, A

    2001-04-01

    Toxicokinetic behavior, recovery and metabolism of napropamide (a pre-emergent herbicide) and its effect on Cytochrome P(450) of liver microsomal pellet were studied following a single high-dose oral administration of 2.5 g kg(-1) and continuous (7 days) oral administration of 500 mg kg(-1) in black Bengal goat. Napropamide was detected in blood at 15 min and the maximum quantity was recovered at 3 h after administration. The absorption rate constant (Ka) value was low indicating poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. High elimination half-life (t(1/2) beta) and low body clearance (Cl(B)) values coupled with higher transfer of compound from tissue to central compartment (K(21)) suggest that napropamide persisted in the blood for a long time, i.e., after 72 h of oral administration. The recovery percentage of napropamide, including metabolites, from goats varied from 75.94 to 80.08 and excretion of the parent compound through feces varied from 18.86 to 21.59%, indicating that a major portion of the orally administered napropamide was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of goat. Napropamide significantly increased the Cytochrome P(450) content of liver microsomal pellet. The recovery of metabolites from feces, urine, and tissues ranged from 4.2--6.2, 40.81--49.42, and 2.7--11.6%, respectively, during a 4--7 day period. The material balance of napropamide (including metabolites) following a single high-dose oral administration at 2.5 g kg(-1) during 4--7 days after dosing was found to be in the range of 75--80%.

  17. Albendazole and its metabolites in the breast milk of lactating women following a single oral dose of albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M; Bradley, Mark; Ghazaly, Essam A; Horton, John; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Albendazole (ABZ) is used in several anthelminthic drug programmws. ABZ side-effects are generally mild, but ABZ-induced pancytopenia may be serious. In filariasis programmes, it may be necessary to administer ABZ to breastfeeding women. Few data are available on safety of ABZ for breastfed infants. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites in human milk is insufficiently investigated. The aim was to study pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites [ABZ sulphoxide (ABSX) and ABZ sulphone] in the breast milk lactating women after one single oral dose of ABZ. METHODS Thirty-three lactating women (age 18–40 years) participated in the study. They received a single oral 400-mg dose of ABZ. Five milk samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. One serum sample was taken after 6 h. Samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. RESULTS ABZ was detectable in milk samples 6 h after the oral dose. The mean concentration of serum ABZ was 63.7 ± 11.9 ng ml−1. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ABSX were calculated as follows: 351.9 ± 32.4 ng ml−1, 6.9 ± 0.5 h, 12.4 ± 2.2 h and 5190.3 ± 482.8 ng*h ml−1 for Cmax, Tmax, t½ and AUC0–36, respectively. The milk-to-serum ratios (range) for ABZ and ABSX were 0.9 (0.2–6.5) and 0.6 (0.1–1.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS After an oral dose of 400 mg, ABZ and ABSX attain low concentrations in breast milk that are unlikely to be considered harmful for the breastfed infant. PMID:19916998

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a single, orally administered dose of digoxin in horses.

    PubMed

    Pedersoli, W M; Ravis, W R; Belmonte, A A; McCullers, R M

    1981-08-01

    Digoxin (elixir, 0.022 mg/kg) was administered via stomach tube to healthy horses of mixed breeding and sexes. Serum digoxin concentrations reached a peak (2.21 +/- 0.6 ng/ml) at approximately 1 hour after dosing and had a half-life of 28.8 +/- 10.7 hours. Digoxin kinetics followed a triexponential curve, indicating that at least a 2 compartmental model is required to characterize the serum concentration-time curve after this route of administration. It was calculated that to achieve average serum concentrations of 1.1 ng/ml, an oral dose of 17.4 microgram of digoxin elixir/kg/day and an IV dose of 6.1 microgram of parenteral preparation/kg/day would be required. There was no significant (P greater than 0.05) alteration in base-line serum calcium, potassium, and sodium concentrations and heart rate, P-R interval, and mean arterial blood pressure.

  19. Comparative Metabolism Studies of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Diastereomers in Male Rats Following a Single Oral Dose.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur

    2016-01-05

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 3 mg/kg of one of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Each diastereomer was well absorbed (73-83%), and distributed preferentially to lipophilic tissues. Feces were the major route of excretion; cumulatively accounting for 42% of dose for α-HBCD, 59% for ß-HBCD, and 53% for γ-HBCD. Urine was also an important route of HBCD excretion, accounting for 13% of dose for α-HBCD, 30% for ß-HBCD, and 21% for γ-HBCD. Total metabolism of HBCD diastereomers followed the rank order ß > γ > α, and was >65% of that administered. The metabolites formed were distinct in male rats: α-HBCD did not debrominate or stereoisomerize, but formed two hydroxylated metabolites; ß- and γ-HBCD were both extensively metabolized via pathways of stereoisomerization, oxidation, dehydrogenation, reductive debromination, and ring opening. ß-HBCD was biotransformed to two mercapturic acid pathway metabolites. The metabolites of ß- and γ-HBCD were largely distinct, and could possibly be used as markers of exposure. These isomer-specific data suggest that α-HBCD would be the most dominant HBCD diastereomer in biological tissues because it was metabolized to the lowest degree and also accumulated from the stereoisomerization of the β- and γ- diastereomers.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered single- and multiple-dose olopatadine in healthy Chinese subjects: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Li; Xu, Hong-Rong; Li, Xue-Ning

    2009-01-01

    Olopatadine is a new selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonist with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Its pharmacokinetics and safety have not previously been evaluated in Chinese subjects. The aims of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of olopatadine after single- and multiple-dose oral administration in healthy Chinese subjects and to identify any differences in pharmacokinetics between males and females. The pharmacokinetic parameters for olopatadine in 12 healthy Chinese subjects (six males and six females) were assessed by determining olopatadine concentrations with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assay results, vital signs, physical examination findings and 12-lead ECG results. The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) for olopatadine following a single dose were: maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) 69.98 +/-20.87 ng/mL, time to reach C(max) (t(max)) 1.02 +/- 0.34 h, elimination half-life (t1/2) 5.87 +/- 4.24 h, area under the plasma-concentration curve (AUC) from time zero to the time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC(last)) 266.00 +/- 143.95 ng.h/mL, AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(infinity)) 283.46 +/- 152.96 ng.h/mL, apparent oral clearance (CL/F) 23.45 +/- 12.59 L/h and apparent volume of distribution after oral administration (V(d)/F) 133.83 +/- 43.07 L. The pharmacokinetic parameters of olopatadine after multiple doses were similar to those after a single dose. In both studies, significantly higher AUC(last), AUC(infinity) and C(max), longer t1/2 (single-dose only) and lower CL/F were observed in female subjects compared with male subjects after both single and multiple dosing. No serious adverse events occurred. Olopatadine was shown to be safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. There were no changes in absorption and elimination of olopatadine following

  2. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-06-25

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

  3. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F.; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously. PMID:26109079

  4. Voriconazole Disposition After Single and Multiple, Oral Doses in Healthy, Adult Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ).

    PubMed

    Gentry, Jordan; Montgerard, Christy; Crandall, Elizabeth; Cruz-Espindola, Crisanta; Boothe, Dawn; Bellah, Jamie

    2014-09-01

    Voriconazole is effective for treatment of aspergillosis, a common disease in captive red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). To determine the disposition and safety of voriconazole after single and multiple, oral doses, 12 adult red-tailed hawks were studied in 2 phases. In phase 1, each bird received a single dose of voriconazole solution (10 mg/kg) by gavage. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 24, and 36 hours after treatment. In phase 2, each of 8 birds received voriconazole oral solution at 10 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 10 and after the final dose and were processed as in phase 1. Plasma samples were submitted for analysis of voriconazole levels by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry and for measurement of selected plasma biochemical parameters. After single dosing, voriconazole concentrations reached a (mean ± SD) peak (Cmax) of 4.7 ± 1.3 μg/mL at 2.0 ± 1.2 hours. The disappearance half-life (t1/2) was 2.8 ± 0.7 hours, and the mean residence time (MRT) was 4.6 ± 0.9 hours. After the last dose at 14 days, the mean Cmax of voriconazole was 4.5 ± 2.7 μg/mL at 2.4 ± 1.1 hours. The t1/2 was 2.1 ± 0.8 hours, and the MRT was 3.5 ± 1.1 hours. Although concentrations of several plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different at study end compared with prestudy concentrations, only plasma creatine kinase activity was outside the reference range. No adverse reactions were observed in any of the birds. After both single and multiple dosing at 10 mg/kg, voriconazole concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit 90% (MIC90) of Aspergillus species (1 μg/mL) by at least fourfold and remained above the MIC90 for 8.8 ± 1.1 hours after single dosing versus 6.5 ± 1.5 hours after multiple dosing (P = .003). This difference suggests that more frequent dosing (eg, up to q8h) may be necessary to maintain target

  5. Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): Novel single-dose oral food challenge study to validate eliciting doses in children with peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Allen, Katrina J; Shreffler, Wayne G; Dunngalvin, Gillian; Nordlee, Julie A; Zurzolo, Giovanni A; Dunngalvin, Audrey; Gurrin, Lyle C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2017-05-01

    Eliciting doses (EDs) of allergenic foods can be defined by the distribution of threshold doses for subjects within a specific population. The ED05 is the dose that elicits a reaction in 5% of allergic subjects. The predicted ED05 for peanut is 1.5 mg of peanut protein (6 mg of whole peanut). We sought to validate the predicted peanut ED05 (1.5 mg) with a novel single-dose challenge. Consecutive eligible children with peanut allergy in 3 centers were prospectively invited to participate, irrespective of previous reaction severity. Predetermined criteria for objective reactions were used to identify ED05 single-dose reactors. Five hundred eighteen children (mean age, 6.8 years) were eligible. No significant demographic or clinical differences were identified between 381 (74%) participants and 137 (26%) nonparticipants or between subjects recruited at each center. Three hundred seventy-eight children (206 male) completed the study. Almost half the group reported ignoring precautionary allergen labeling. Two hundred forty-five (65%) children experienced no reaction to the single dose of peanut. Sixty-seven (18%) children reported a subjective reaction without objective findings. Fifty-eight (15%) children experienced signs of a mild and transient nature that did not meet the predetermined criteria. Only 8 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.6%-3.4%) subjects met the predetermined criteria for an objective and likely related event. No child experienced more than a mild reaction, 4 of the 8 received oral antihistamines only, and none received epinephrine. Food allergy-related quality of life improved from baseline to 1 month after challenge regardless of outcome (η(2) = 0.2, P < .0001). Peanut skin prick test responses and peanut- and Ara h 2-specific IgE levels were not associated with objective reactivity to peanut ED05. A single administration of 1.5 mg of peanut protein elicited objective reactions in fewer than the predicted 5% of patients with peanut allergy. The novel

  6. Adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Aldington, Dominic; Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-10-13

    This is an update of a Cochrane overview published in Issue 9, 2011; that overview considered both efficacy and adverse events. This overview considers adverse events, with efficacy dealt with in a separate overview.Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the adverse events associated with individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. This overview brings together the results of those individual reviews. To provide an overview of adverse event rates associated with single-dose oral analgesics, compared with placebo, for acute postoperative pain in adults. We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group. We extracted information related to participants experiencing any adverse event, and reports of serious adverse events, and deaths from the individual reviews. Information was available from 39 Cochrane reviews for 41 different analgesics or analgesic combinations (51 drug/dose/formulations) tested in single oral doses in participants with moderate or severe postoperative pain. This involved around 350 unique studies involving about 35,000 participants. Most studies involved younger participants with pain following removal of molar teeth.For most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, and combinations not containing opioids, there were few examples where participants experienced significantly more or fewer adverse events than with placebo. For aspirin 1000 mg and diflunisal 1000 mg, opioids, or fixed-dose combination drugs containing opioids, participants typically experienced significantly more adverse events than with placebo. Studies of combinations of ibuprofen and paracetamol reported significantly fewer adverse events.Serious adverse events were rare, occurring a rate of about 1 in 3200 participants.Most reviews did not report specific adverse events. Despite

  7. [Effects of 2 single oral doses of mesoglycan on the coagulation-fibrinolysis system in man. A pharmacodynamic study].

    PubMed

    Messa, G; Blardi, P; La Placa, G; Puccetti, L; Ghezzi, A

    1995-01-01

    In this study the profibrinolytic activity of two single oral doses of mesoglycan was evaluated. Furthermore, a mathematical model describing the patterns of the resulting phenomena was applied. Ten patients with impaired fibrinolytic system (euglobulin lysis time > 180 min) were enrolled in the study. In the morning following a 24 hour fast period, the patients were given orally a single dose (100 and 50 mg) of mesoglycan and placebo, with an interval of 48 hours between each treatment. The following parameters were evaluated at the time 0 and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours from each administration: tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor PAI-1, euglobulin lysis time, plasminogen and alfa-2-antiplasmin as indexes of the fibrinolytic system; aPTT, TT, fibrinogen as indexes of the hemostatic-coagulative system. Mesoglycan showed a dose-dependent profibrinolytic activity, that was also present after placebo but in a less entity. The mathematical study confirms the experimental observations and thus may allow to describe, with a high degree of approximation, the in vivo pharmacology of mesoglycan through the use of the mathematical function.

  8. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-08-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males.

  9. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-01-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males. PMID:9257777

  10. Retention, organ distribution, and excretory pattern of cadmium orally administered in a single dose to two monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, S.; Taguchi, T.

    1980-07-01

    Retention, excretion, and organ distribution of radioactive Cd were observed after a single oral dose of two monkeys. The retention rate of Cd 19 d after the administration of radiocadmium (/sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/, carrier-free) to one monkey was 5.2% of the administered dose; 73.4% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 0.7% in the urine. The largest fractions of the administered dose were found in the small intestine, liver, and kidney. The absorption rate of Cd 25 d after the administration of radiocadmium with 1.0 mg cold Cd as CdCl/sub 2/ solution to the other monkey was 6.3% of the administered dose; 75.5% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 0.9% in the urine. Setting the whole body retention equal to 100% on d 19 or 25, the largest fractions were found in the small intestines (51.5 and 36.3%), livers (21.8 and 29.6%), and kidneys (13.4 and 21.0%) of the respective monkeys). The effect of carrier Cd on absorption, excretion, and organ distribution was not pronounced. The highest concentration and greatest retention of Cd was observed in the upper small intestinal wall and the content of the small intestine, indicating the importance of enteroenteric circulation of the element; this finding was different from the results for Cd metabolism in rodents.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after oral and intramuscular administration to captive lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Zordan, Martín A; Papich, Mark G; Pich, Ashley A; Unger, Katy M; Sánchez, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after IM and oral administration to healthy lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) by use of a population approach. ANIMALS 16 healthy captive lesser flamingos between 1 and 4 years of age. PROCEDURES A single dose of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to each bird, and blood samples were collected from birds at 3 (n = 13 birds), 2 (2), or 1 (1) selected point between 0 and 13 hours after administration, with samples collected from birds at each point. After a 15-day washout period, the same dose of meloxicam was administered PO via a red rubber tube and blood samples were collected as described for IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values were determined from plasma concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Plasma drug concentrations after IM administration of meloxicam reached a mean ± SD maximum value of 6.01 ± 3.38 μg/mL. Mean area under the concentration-versus-time curve was 17.78 ± 2.79 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 1.93 ± 0.32 hours. Plasma concentrations after oral administration reached a mean maximum value of 1.79 ± 0.33 μg/mL. Mean area under the curve was 22.16 ± 7.17 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 6.05 ± 3.53 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In lesser flamingos, oral administration of meloxicam resulted in higher bioavailability and a longer elimination half-life than did IM administration, but the maximum plasma concentration was low and may be insufficient to provide analgesia in flamingos. Conversely, IM administration achieved the desired plasma concentration but would require more frequent administration.

  12. Single dose pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin oral formulations using a simple HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman

    2016-07-01

    The study was aimed to assess pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin (40 mg) in healthy fasted human subjects by a simple and inexpensive high performance liquid chromatography. Experimental design of the study was a randomized, two way, two periods, crossover study (single dose in fasted conditions). Eighteen (18) healthy male volunteers were enrolled according to FDA guidelines. The plasma samples were assayed using an isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system of Agilent technologies USA consisted of an isocratic pump with column of Thermo Electron Corporation USA (ODS hypersil C(18) 4.6 mm x 250 mm), a UV-visible detector set at λ(max) 237 nm. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of atorvastatin (Mean ± SEM) for the reference product (A) found to be 13.739±0.210ng/ml & 13.374±0.145ng/ml for test product (B). T(max) values (Mean±SEM) of atorvastatin were 1.222 ±0.060 hours and 1.167±0.057 hours for reference and test products, respectively. The values of AUC(0-oo) (Mean ± SEM) for the reference (A) and test product (B) were 73.955 ± 1.715ng.h/ml and 77.773 ± 1.858ng. h/ml, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters of both products were also determined. A statistical non-significant difference between pharmacokinetic parameters has been found and both brands of atorvastatin showed the same rate and extent of absorption in healthy fasted human volunteers after single dose. A simple and cost effective HPLC method was developed and applied.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of single oral doses of the new beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents betaxolol (SL 75212) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Cadigan, P J; London, D R; Pentecost, B L; Bianchetti, G; Gomeni, R; Kilborn, J R; Morselli, P L

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of betaxolol (SL 75212), a new beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, on the cardiovascular response to exercise have been studied in six normal subjects after placebo and single oral doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg given double-blind in a randomized sequence. 2 All doses reduced exercise heart rate, with a significant reduction persisting to 23 h after doses of 20 mg and 40 mg. Systolic blood pressure on exercise was reduced after all doses, with a reduction continuing to 23 h after doses of 10 mg and above. 3 The mean elimination half-life of SL 75212 was 17.5 +/- 3.9 h. The plasma clearance ranged from 0.15--0.48 1 kg-1 h-1 and the volume of distribution from 5.8--13 1 kg-1. 4 There was a significant correlation between the peak blood levels and change in exercise heart rate (r = 0.53, P less than 0.05) and between the area under the blood concentration curve and the effect of the exercise heart rate (r = 0.55, P less than 0.01). PMID:6104498

  14. Comparison of the single dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of two novel oral formulations of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU): a potential oral, male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, R; Page, S T; Swerdloff, R S; Liu, P Y; Amory, J K; Leung, A; Hull, L; Blithe, D; Christy, A; Chao, J H; Bremner, W J; Wang, C

    2017-03-01

    Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation. DMAU was dosed orally in healthy adult male volunteers at two academic medical centers. For each formulation tested in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 10 men received single, escalating, oral doses of DMAU (100, 200, and 400 mg) and two subjects received placebo. All doses were evaluated for both fasting and with a high fat meal. All three formulations were well tolerated without clinically significant changes in vital signs, blood counts, or serum chemistries. For all formulations, DMA and DMAU showed higher maximum (p < 0.007) and average concentrations (p < 0.002) at the 400 mg dose, compared with the 200 mg dose. The powder formulation resulted in a lower conversion of DMAU to DMA (p = 0.027) compared with both castor oil and SEDDS formulations. DMAU in SEDDS given fasting resulted in higher serum DMA and DMAU concentrations compared to the other two formulations. Serum LH and sex hormone concentrations were suppressed by all formulations of 200 and 400 mg DMAU when administered with food, but only the SEDDS formulation was effectively suppressed serum T when given fasting. We conclude that while all three formulations of oral DMAU are effective and well tolerated when administered with food, DMAU in oil and SEDDS increased conversion to DMA, and SEDDS may have some effectiveness when given fasting. These properties might be

  15. A Study on the Single-dose Oral Toxicity of Super Key in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Jongcheol; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose oral toxicity of the super key (processed sulfur). Methods: All experiments were conducted at Medvill, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. In order to investigate the oral toxicity of super key We administered it orally to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The SD rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of super key 500 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 10 mL/kg, was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rates, weights, clinical signs, gross findings and necropsy findings. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. (Approval number: A01-14018). Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. Although slight decreases in the weights of some female rats were noted, no significant changes in weights or differences in the gross findings between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that administration of 500 ─ 2,000 mg/kg of super key did not cause any changes in the weights or in the results of necropsy examinations. Neither did it result in any mortalities. The above findings suggest that treatment with super key is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence. PMID:26392913

  16. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Alexander; Heine, Guido; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals. Research design and methods Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies. Results The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264). Conclusions Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:28114352

  17. Acute response of rat liver microsomal lipids, lipid peroxidation, and membrane anisotropy to a single oral dose of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Groce, D F

    1984-01-01

    Liver microsomal lipids and lipid peroxidation activities were examined in adult male rats at intervals over a 2-mo period after the administration of a single oral dose of 0 or 500 mg/kg of FireMaster BP-6 in corn oil. Microsomal lipids were markedly altered in the polybrominated biphenyl- (PBB-) dosed animals at the earliest time examined (1 wk), and these changes persisted throughout the remainder of the study. An early decrease in the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio was noted, which probably contributed to the significant decrease in the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy demonstrable in both intact microsomes and in liposomes prepared from microsomal lipid extracts. Significant concentrations of PBBs were present in dosed rat microsomes, but the changes in anisotropy appeared to result from membrane lipid alterations rather than from a direct perturbation by PBBs. Iron ascorbate-induced peroxidation was also greatly enhanced in dosed rat microsomes, even when rats were maintained on a low-iron (25 ppm) diet. These early alterations in membrane fluidity and peroxidative capacity of microsomes may ultimately contribute to the hepatotoxicity of PBBs.

  18. A study to determine the pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin following a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mandal, U; Musmade, P; Ghosh, A; Chakraborty, Mita; Jayakumar, M; Rajan, D Senthil; Chakravarty, M; Pal, T K; Chattaraj, T K; Roy, Krishnangshu; Banerjee, S N

    2004-09-01

    Gatifloxacin is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone that offers enhanced Gram-positive activity and anaerobic coverage to other fluoroquinolones. The pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUCo-t, tmax) of this drug have been evaluated to compare the single dose (400mg) bioavailability of gatifloxacin with the reference formulation. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with U-V detector set at 290 nm has been used to determine plasma concentration of 12 human volunteers as per DCGI (Drug Controller General of India) guidelines. The method has been validated over a linear range of 0.25 to 8 microg/ml from plasma. The minimum quantifiable concentration has been set at 0.25 microg/ml (% CV < 10%). The pharmacokinetic parameters are: Cmax = 4.366 +/- 0.44 microg/ml at tmax = 1.83 +/- 0.44 hour, AUCO0-t = 25.26 +/- 2.91 microg hour/ml, AUCo-inf = 33.68 +/- 4.31 microg hour/ml, Kel = 0.094 +/- 0.024/hour and t1/2 = 8.0 +/- 1.92 hour.

  19. Effects of dosing condition on the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins after single-dose administration of Polyphenon E in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Hakim, Iman A; Vining, Donna R; Crowell, James A; Ranger-Moore, James; Chew, Wade M; Celaya, Catherine A; Rodney, Steven R; Hara, Yukihiko; Alberts, David S

    2005-06-15

    Green tea has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. Its consumption has been associated with decreased risk of certain types of cancers in humans. The oral bioavailability of the major green tea constituents, green tea catechins, is low, resulting in systemic catechin levels in humans many fold less than the effective concentrations determined in in vitro systems. We conducted this clinical study to test the hypothesis that the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins can be enhanced when consumed in the absence of food. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following doses of Polyphenon E (a decaffeinated and defined green tea catechin mixture): 400, 800, or 1,200 mg, based on the epigallocatechin gallate content (10 subjects per dose group). After an overnight fast, study participants took a single dose of Polyphenon E with or without a light breakfast, which consisted of one or two 4-oz muffins and a glass of water. Following a 1-week wash-out period, subjects were crossed over to take the same dose of Polyphenon E under the opposite fasting/fed condition. Tea catechin concentrations in plasma and urine samples collected after dosing were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Consistent with previous reports, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate were present in plasma mostly as the free form, whereas epicatechin and epigallocatechin were mostly present as the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. There was >3.5-fold increase in the average maximum plasma concentration of free epigallocatechin gallate when Polyphenon E was taken in the fasting condition than when taken with food. The dosing condition led to a similar change in plasma-free epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate levels. Taking Polyphenon E in the fasting state did not have a significant effect on the plasma levels of total (free and conjugated) epigallocatechin, but resulted in lower plasma levels of

  20. Intravenous topiramate: safety and pharmacokinetics following a single dose in patients with epilepsy or migraines taking oral topiramate.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anne M; Kriel, Robert L; Leppik, Ilo E; White, James R; Henry, Thomas R; Brundage, Richard C; Cloyd, James C

    2013-06-01

    , half-life, and clearance were significantly altered by enzyme-inducing drugs. A single 25-mg dose of intravenous topiramate caused minimal infusion site or systemic adverse effects in patients taking oral topiramate. Pharmacokinetic results show that oral topiramate is completely absorbed and that its steady-state elimination half-life is longer than previously assumed, which permits once or twice daily dosing even in the presence of enzyme-inducing drugs. The information from this study can inform the design of subsequent studies in adults, older children, and newborns, including controlled clinical trials intended to determine the efficacy and safety of intravenous topiramate for neonatal seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetics of three formulations of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Teo, S K; Colburn, W A; Thomas, S D

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a complication of leprosy. The present study determined the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetics of Celgene's commercial and clinical trial thalidomide formulations and the Brazilian Tortuga formulation in an open-label, single-dose, three-way crossover design. Seventeen healthy subjects were given 200 mg of thalidomide on three occasions, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental methods for the two Celgene formulations and using noncompartmental methods for all three formulations. All subjects reported adverse events, none of which was serious or unexpected. Celgene formulations were bioequivalent when comparing Cmax, tmax, and AUC. There was significant variability in plasma levels from the Tortuga formulation, giving a mean profile that was distinctly different from the two Celgene formulations with a lower Cmax value and a longer terminal phase. The lower Cmax was probably due to slower absorption. The terminal rate constant for the Tortuga formulation was significantly less, giving rise to a terminal half-life of 15 hours compared to about 5 to 6 hours for the Celgene formulations. Confidence intervals for Cmax between the Tortuga and the Celgene formulations were outside the 80% to 125% range, indicating a lack of bioequivalence. Extent of absorption, as measured by AUC0-infinity, was approximately equal for all three formulations. Terminal half-life for Tortuga was two to three times longer compared to the Celgene formulations and is clear evidence for absorption rate limitations. The two Celgene formulations showed similar pharmacokinetic parameters with profiles that were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The authors conclude that Celgene's clinical trial and commercial thalidomide formulations are similar to each other and distinctly

  2. The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of benazepril and enalapril.

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N J; Sioufi, A; Howie, C A; Wade, J R; Elliott, H L

    1993-01-01

    1. Eighteen healthy, normotensive subjects (nine young and nine elderly) participated in a double-blind, 3-way, crossover study to compare aspects of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of 10 mg benazepril, 10 mg enalapril and placebo. 2. The hypotensive effect was similar after both drugs but the absolute reductions were greater in the elderly who had higher initial levels of blood pressure. 3. The AUCs for both benazeprilat and enalaprilat were higher in the elderly but by a significantly greater amount for enalaprilat (+ 113% vs 40%; P < 0.01). 4. The AUCs for both drugs tended to be highest in subjects with the lowest creatinine clearance. 5. The changes in kinetics and dynamics observed in the elderly after benazepril are qualitatively similar to those with other ACE inhibitors. The clinical significance of the quantitative differences requires further investigation. PMID:9114905

  3. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joerger, Markus; Wilkins, Justin; Fagagnini, Stefania; Baldinger, Reto; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Schneider, Ursula; Goldman, Bea; Weber, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Cannabinoids exert neuroprotective and symptomatic effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tolerability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in ALS patients. Nine patients received THC single oral doses of 5mg and 10mg, separated by a wash-out period of two weeks. Blood samples for the determination of THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH) and hydroxy-THC (THC-OH) were taken up to 8 hours after intake. Adverse events were assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS). Plasma concentrations of the active metabolite THC-OH were submitted to sequential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic population modeling on individual heart rate as a proxy for THC's cardiovasculatory effects. Drowsiness, euphoria, orthostasis, sleepiness, vertigo and weakness were significantly more frequent in patients receiving 10mg compared to 5 mg THC. A marked interindividual variability was found for the absorption of oral THC (84%) and elimination of THC-COOH (45%). PK data did not support any clinically relevant deviation from linear PK in the investigated range of concentrations. Plasma concentrations of THC-OH were positively correlated with the individual heart rate. An E(max-model) was successfully fitted to individual heart rate, with a THC-OH plasma concentration of 3.2 x 10(-4) μmol/L for EC(50) and an E(max) of 93 bpm for heart rate. The higher 10mg dose of THC was dose-limiting in patients with ALS. High interindividual PK variability requires individuell titration of THC for potential therapeutic use in patients with ALS.

  4. Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sahre, Martina; Sabarinath, Sreedharan; Grant, Maria; Seubert, Christoph; DeAnda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues. PMID:22584101

  5. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline after single-dose oral administration in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sam; Nevarez, Javier G; Maxwell, Lara K; Barker, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of tetracycline administered orally to fasted and nonfasted American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at 50 mg/kg. Plasma levels of tetracycline were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The concentration versus time curve was analyzed using a compartmental modeling technique. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination, as well as a lag time to absorption, best described the data. The area under the curve and mean residence time values differed significantly between the fasted and nonfasted groups. Based on the results of this study, tetracycline suspension administered once orally at 50 mg/kg to American alligators is not expected to reach plasma concentrations above the breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 microg/ml for susceptible organisms.

  7. Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Tenofovir in Plasma, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Colonic Tissue, and Vaginal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Louissaint, Nicolette A.; Cao, Ying-Jun; Skipper, Paul L.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Anderson, Jean R.; Everts, Stephanie; Bakshi, Rahul; Fuchs, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract HIV seroconversion outcomes in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials of oral tenofovir (TFV)-containing regimens are highly sensitive to drug concentration, yet less-than-daily dosing regimens are under study. Description of TFV and its active moiety, TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), in blood, vaginal tissue, and colon tissue may guide the design and interpretation of PrEP clinical trials. Six healthy women were administered a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 4.3 mg (12.31 MBq, 333 μCi) 14C-TDF slurry. Blood was collected every 4 h for the first 24 h, then at 4, 8, 11, and 15 days postdosing. Colonic and vaginal samples (tissue, total and CD4+ cells, luminal fluid and cells) were collected 1, 8 and 15 days postdose. Samples were analyzed for TFV and TFV-DP. Plasma TFV demonstrated triphasic decay with terminal elimination half-life median [interquartile range (IQR)] 69 h (58–77). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) TFV-DP demonstrated biphasic peaks (median 12 h and 96 h) followed by a terminal 48 h (38–76) half-life; Cmax was 20 fmol/million cells (2–63). One day postdose, the TFV-DP paired colon:vaginal tissue concentration ratio was 1 or greater in all subjects' tissue homogenates, median 124 (range 1–281), but was not sustained. The ratio was lower and more variable in cells extracted from tissue. Among all sample types, TFV and TFV-DP half-life ranged from 23 to 139 h. PBMC TFV-DP rose slowly in the hours after dosing indicating that success with exposure-driven dosing regimens may be sensitive to timing of the dose prior to exposure. Colonic tissue homogenate TFV-DP concentrations were greater than in vaginal homogenate at 24 h, but not in cells extracted from tissue. These and the other pharmacokinetic findings will guide the interpretation and design of future PrEP trials. PMID:23600365

  8. Preclinical Study of Single-Dose Moxidectin, a New Oral Treatment for Scabies: Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Compared to Two-Dose Ivermectin in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bernigaud, Charlotte; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Dreau, Dominique; Kelly, Andrew; Sutra, Jean-François; Moreau, Francis; Lilin, Thomas; Botterel, Françoise; Guillot, Jacques; Chosidow, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM) are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX), with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0.3 mg/kg once), IVM (0.2 mg/kg twice) or no treatment. We evaluated treatment efficacies by assessing mite count, clinical lesions, pruritus and ELISA-determined anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies reductions. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. At day 14 post-treatment, all four MOX-treated but only two IVM-treated pigs were mite-free. MOX efficacy was 100% and remained unchanged until study-end (D47), compared to 62% (range 26–100%) for IVM, with one IVM-treated pig remaining infected until D47. Clinical scabies lesions, pruritus and anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies had completely disappeared in all MOX-treated but only 75% of IVM-treated pigs. MOX persisted ~9 times longer than IVM in plasma and skin, thereby covering the mite’s entire life cycle and enabling long-lasting efficacy. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that oral single-dose MOX was more effective than two consecutive IVM-doses, supporting MOX as potential therapeutic approach for scabies. PMID:27732588

  9. Preclinical Study of Single-Dose Moxidectin, a New Oral Treatment for Scabies: Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Compared to Two-Dose Ivermectin in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, Charlotte; Fang, Fang; Fischer, Katja; Lespine, Anne; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Dreau, Dominique; Kelly, Andrew; Sutra, Jean-François; Moreau, Francis; Lilin, Thomas; Botterel, Françoise; Guillot, Jacques; Chosidow, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM) are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX), with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative. Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0.3 mg/kg once), IVM (0.2 mg/kg twice) or no treatment. We evaluated treatment efficacies by assessing mite count, clinical lesions, pruritus and ELISA-determined anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies reductions. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. At day 14 post-treatment, all four MOX-treated but only two IVM-treated pigs were mite-free. MOX efficacy was 100% and remained unchanged until study-end (D47), compared to 62% (range 26-100%) for IVM, with one IVM-treated pig remaining infected until D47. Clinical scabies lesions, pruritus and anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies had completely disappeared in all MOX-treated but only 75% of IVM-treated pigs. MOX persisted ~9 times longer than IVM in plasma and skin, thereby covering the mite's entire life cycle and enabling long-lasting efficacy. Our data demonstrate that oral single-dose MOX was more effective than two consecutive IVM-doses, supporting MOX as potential therapeutic approach for scabies.

  10. Malaria-Infected Mice Are Cured by a Single Oral Dose of New Dimeric Trioxane Sulfones Which Are Also Selectively and Powerfully Cytotoxic to Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Andrew S.; Chen, Xiaochun; Liu, Jun O.; West, Diana C.; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Shapiro, Theresa A.; Posner, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    A new series of 6 dimeric trioxane sulfones has been prepared from the natural trioxane artemisinin in 5 or 6 chemical steps. One of these thermally and hydrolytically stable new chemical entities (4c) completely cured malaria-infected mice via a single oral dose of 144 mg/kg. At a much lower single oral dose of only 54 mg/kg combined with 13 mg/kg of mefloquine hydrochloride, this trioxane dimer 4c as well as its parent trioxane dimer 4b also completely cured malaria-infected mice. Both dimers 4c and 4b were potently and selectively cytotoxic toward five cancer cell lines. PMID:19186946

  11. Tegumental alterations of adult Schistosoma japonicum harbored in mice treated with a single oral dose of mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Shen, Bing-gui

    2010-02-01

    To observe the effect of mefloquine on the tegument of adult Schistosoma japonicum harbored in mice. Twelve mice were each infected with 60-80 S. japonicum cercariae. At 35 days post-infection, 10 mice were treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 400 mg/kg. Two mice were sacrificed at 8 h, 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days post-treatment respectively, and schistosomes were collected by the perfusion technique, fixed and examined under a scanning electron microscope. Schistosomes obtained from the remaining 2 untreated mice served as control. 8 h post-treatment, male and female schistosomes showed focal swelling of the worm body accompanied by extensive swelling, tough junction and fusion of tegumental ridges. Meanwhile, some of the sensory structures showed enlargement and part of them collapsed. 24 h after mefloquine administration, head portion of some male and female worms revealed high swelling accompanied by severe damage to oral sucker. 3 days post-treatment, focal swelling of worm body along the whole worm was universal. In some male and female worms, the damaged tegument fused together to form a large mass protruding from the tegumental surface. In addition, focal or extensive peeling of tegumental ridges was seen or collapse of enlarged sensory structure resulted in formation of hole-like appearance. 7 days post administration, focal swelling of worm body and damage to tegument induced by mefloquine were similar to those aforementioned, but focal peeling, collapse of enlarged sensory structures, and deformation of oral sucker in male and female worms were universal. 14 days post-treatment, individual male worm survived the treatment revealed normal appearance of tegumental ridges in head portion, although light focal swelling of worm body was still observed. Mefloquine causes focal swelling of worm body, extensive and severe damage to the tegument in adult S. japonicum.

  12. A pilot study on the serum pharmacokinetics of nattokinase in humans following a single, oral, daily dose.

    PubMed

    Ero, Michael Penfield; Ng, Connie M; Mihailovski, Tamara; Harvey, Nathaniel R; Lewis, Brad Howard

    2013-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease and is derived from natto, a traditional Japanese, fermented, soybean food meal. Multiple authors have described the significant fibrinolytic, antithrombotic, and antihypertensive effects of natto. Nattokinase has been growing in popularity for use as a dietary supplement for the benefit of cardiovascular health. Little is known regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of this enzyme, and the bioavailability of nattokinase is currently unknown. This study intended to (1) detect nattokinase directly and immunologically, (2) show that nattokinase and/or its metabolites were detectable in human blood following ingestion of a commercial preparation, and (3) chart a pharmacokinetic dosing effect for nattokinase. The research team designed the pilot study as an in vivo, human clinical trial. Healthy human subjects responded to an advertisement and were screened. Subjects who satisfied both inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Subjects were then instructed to orally ingest a single capsule containing a known concentration of nattokinase immediately following a baseline blood draw. Subsequent blood draws occurred over a 24-h period. This study was conducted in Oakland, California, at a clinical reference laboratory and was performed with the approval of an institutional review board (IRB) to ensure that appropriate ethical standards were met. Eleven healthy participants (five male, six female, ages 21-65), who met eligibility criteria, were enrolled. Administration of nattokinase occurred orally with the ingestion of a single daily dose (2000 FU) of nattokinase. Capsules, each containing approximately 100 mg of nattokinase, in softgel form (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory, Osaka, Japan), were used in the study. Baseline blood samples were collected, and participants were observed swallowing a single capsule of the nattokinase supplement before returning at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h post

  13. Evaluating the enantioselective degradation and novel metabolites following a single oral dose of metalaxyl in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-01

    Metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D,L-alaninemethylester] is a systemic fungicide widely used in agriculture. In this study, the enantioselective distribution, degradation and excretion of metalaxyl were investigated after oral gavage administration of rac-metalaxyl to mice. Concentration of metalaxyl and its enantiomers was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that R-metalaxyl was much higher than S-metalaxyl in heart, liver, lung, urine and feces. As for the strong first pass effect, concentrations of metalaxyl in liver were much higher than those in other tissues. The total body clearance (CL) of metalaxyl in mice was 1.77 L h(-1 )kg(-1) and degradation half-lives of (t1/2) of S-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl in liver were 2.2 h and 3.0 h, respectively. Such results indicated the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl lies in distribution, degradation and excretion processes in mice. Main metabolites were also determined and biotransformation reactions were hydroxylation, demethylation and didemethylation. Furthermore, metabolite concentrations in urine and feces were much higher than those in tissues. These results may have potential implications to predict toxicity and provide additional information associated with adverse health effects for risk assessment of metalaxyl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetics of pergolide mesylate in healthy adult mares.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ronette; Beard, Laurie; Wright, Abra; Coetzee, Johann; Havel, James; Apley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is probably the most common disease of geriatric horses. Affected horses show a variety of clinical signs, including hirsutism, polyuria/polydipsia, immunosuppression, muscle wasting, and laminitis. The most common treatment for PPID is pergolide, a dopamine agonist; however, there are no pharmacokinetic data about the use of this drug in horses. This article describes a study designed to address this complete lack of pharmacokinetic information. The pharmacokinetics of pergolide are described in a small group of relatively young, healthy mares (n = 6), with the objective of generating data on which to base larger studies in the future. To make definitive dosing recommendations to clinicians, more studies will be needed to investigate the relationship between plasma pergolide concentrations and clinical outcomes, as well as the effect of gender, age, and concomitant disease on the absorption and disposition of this drug.

  15. Enhancement of energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols associated with an increase in catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Yuta; Mikome, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Osakabe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    administration of a single oral dose of FL.

  16. Enhancement of Energy Expenditure following a Single Oral Dose of Flavan-3-Ols Associated with an Increase in Catecholamine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Yuta; Mikome, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Osakabe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    administration of a single oral dose of FL. PMID:25375880

  17. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  18. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48 h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24 h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimalarial Preclinical Drug Development: A Single Oral Dose of A 5-Carbon-linked Trioxane Dimer Plus Mefloquine Cures Malaria-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deuk Kyu; Singhal, Vandana; Kumar, Nirbhay; Shapiro, Theresa A; Posner, Gary H

    2009-01-01

    Three new 5-carbon-linked trioxane dimer carboxylate esters have been prepared from the natural trioxane, artemisinin in only 3-steps and 40-50% overall yields. Each one of these new chemical entities is at least as efficacious as the clinically used trioxane antimalarial drug artemether when combined with mefloquine hydrochloride in a low single oral dose cure.

  20. Open Study of the Safety and Efficacy of a Single Oral Dose of Cefixime for the Treatment of Gonorrhea in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerance of single dose oral cefixime use in the treatment of pregnant women with endocervical gonococcal carriage. Methods: A retrospective review of clinic records over a 3 year period identified patients treated with a single 400 mg dose of cefixime for gonorrhea during pregnancy. Side effects and subsequent gonococcal carriage were noted. Results: Pregnant women (n = 102) treated with cefixime were reviewed. A cure rate of 95.2% was found. Side effects were reported in three patients: two had nausea and vomiting and one had diarrhea. Conclusions: A single 400 mg oral dose of cefixime was effective for the treatment of gonorrhea and was well tolerated by the pregnant women. PMID:18476147

  1. Novel and Distinct Metabolites Identified Following a Single Oral Dose of Alpha- or Gamma-Hexabromocyclododecane in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolism of alpha- and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated in adult C57BL/6 female mice. Alpha- or gamma-[14C]HBCD (3 mg/kg bw) was orally administered with subsequent urine and feces collection for 4 consecutive days; a separate group of mice were dosed a...

  2. Novel and distinct metabolites identified following a single oral dose of alpha- or gamma-hexabromocyclododecane in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The metabolism of alpha- and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated in adult C57BL/6 female mice. Alpha- or gamma-[14C]HBCD (3 mg/kg bw) was orally administered with subsequent urine and feces collection for 4 consecutive days; a separate group of mice were dosed and sacrificed 3 hour...

  3. Novel and Distinct Metabolites Identified Following a Single Oral Dose of Alpha- or Gamma-Hexabromocyclododecane in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolism of alpha- and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated in adult C57BL/6 female mice. Alpha- or gamma-[14C]HBCD (3 mg/kg bw) was orally administered with subsequent urine and feces collection for 4 consecutive days; a separate group of mice were dosed a...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim after oral single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Mengelers, M J; van Gogh, E R; Huveneers, M B; Hougee, P E; Kuiper, H A; Pijpers, A; Verheijden, J H; van Miert, A S

    2001-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics were studied of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) or sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in combination with trimethoprim (TMP) administered as a single oral dose (25 mg + 5 mg per kg body weight) to two groups of 6 healthy pigs. The elimination half-lives of SMX and TMP were quite similar (2-3 h); SDM had a relatively long half-life of 13 h. Both sulfonamides (S) were exclusively metabolized to N4-acetyl derivatives but to different extents. The main metabolic pathway for TMP was O-demethylation and subsequent conjugation. In addition, the plasma concentrations of these drugs and their main metabolites after medication with different in-feed concentrations were determined. The drug (S:TMP) concentrations in the feed were 250:50, 500:100, and 1000:200 mg per kg. Steady-state concentrations were achieved within 48 h of feed medication, twice daily (SDM+TMP) or three times a day (SMX+TMP). Protein binding of SDM and its metabolite was high (>93%), whereas SMX, TMP and their metabolites showed moderate binding (48-75%). Feed medication with 500 ppm sulfonamide combined with 100 ppm TMP provided minimum steady-state plasma concentrations (C(ss,min)) higher than the concentration required for inhibition of the growth of 90% of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains (n = 20).

  5. Novel and Distinct Metabolites Identified Following a Single Oral Dose of α- or γ-Hexabromocyclododecane in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, David T.; Huwe, Janice; Diliberto, Janet; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of α- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated in adult C57BL/6 female mice. α- or γ-[14C]HBCD (3 mg/kg bw) was orally administered with subsequent urine and feces collection for 4 consecutive days; a separate group of mice were dosed and sacrificed 3 hours post-exposure to investigate tissue metabolite levels. Extractable and non-extractable HBCD metabolites were quantitated in liver, blood, fat, brain, bile, urine and feces and characterized by LC/MS (ESI-). Metabolites identified were distinct between the two stereoisomers. In mice exposed to α-HBCD, four hydroxylated metabolites were detected in fecal extracts, and one of these metabolite isomers was consistently characterized in liver, brain, and adipose tissue extracts. In contrast, mice exposed to γ-HBCD contained multiple isomers of monohydroxy-pentabromocyclododecene, dihydroxy-pentabromocyclododecene, and dihydroxy-pentabromocyclododecadiene in the feces while only a single monohydroxy-pentabromocyclododecane metabolite was measured in liver and adipose tissue. Both stereoisomers were transformed to metabolites which formed covalent bonds to proteins and/or lipids in the gut as evidenced by high fecal non-extractables. Although the potential toxicity of these free and bound metabolites remains to be determined, the presence of distinct metabolic products from the two main HBCD stereoisomers should allow biomarkers to be selected that may aid in characterizing sources of HBCD exposure. PMID:23171393

  6. Single dose of diclofenac or meloxicam for control of pain, facial swelling, and trismus in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Solís, Mariana; García-Ávalos, Yazmín; Pichardo-Ramírez, Celeste; Tobías-Azúa, Francisco; Zapata-Morales, Juan-Ramón; Aragon-Martínez, Othoniel-Hugo; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative pain associated with removal of mandibular third molars has been documented from moderate to severe during the first 24 hours after surgery, with pain peaking between 6 and 8 hours when a conventional local anesthetic is used. Dental pain is largely inflammatory, and evidence-based medicine has shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the best analgesics for dental pain. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-trismus effect of a single dose of diclofenac and meloxicam after mandibular third molar extraction. A total of 36 patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each with 18 patients, using a series of random numbers: Group A, was administered 100 mg of diclofenac; and Group B, 15 mg of meloxicam. Drugs were administered orally 1 hour prior to surgery. We evaluated pain intensity, analgesic consumption, swelling, as well as trismus. The results of this study showed that patients receiving 15 mg of meloxicam had less postoperative pain (P=0.04) and better aperture than those receiving 100 mg of diclofenac (P=0.03). The meloxicam group presented less swelling than diclofenac group; however, significant statistical differences were not observed. Data of this double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial demonstrated that patients receiving 15 mg of preoperative meloxicam had a better postoperative analgesia and anti-trismus effect compared with who were given 100 mg of diclofenac after third molar extractions.

  7. The efficacy of a single-oral-dose administration of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine on the treatment of feline Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Chansiri, Gaysorn; Khawsak, Phaisan; Phantana, Sirichai; Sarataphan, Nopporn; Chansiri, Kosum

    2005-09-01

    The combination of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) have been shown to be superior to either drug alone for the suppression of Brugia malayi in humans, but their efficacy against infection with B. malayi in cats has never been investigated. Fourteen asymptomatic microfilaremic (1-200 microfilariae/20 microl blood) cats received oral doses of ivermectin (400 microg/kg body weight) and DEC (6 mg/kg body weight) as a single treatment. A two-month post-treatment examination revealed that 87-100% of the microfilariae in each subject had been cleared, with two of the subjects being amicrofilaremic. A further reduction in microfilarial levels was observed until the final follow-up, at 8 months post-treatment, when the mean clearance rate was 99% and 12 out of the 14 subjects (86%) were amicrofilaremic. The combination of ivermectin and DEC demonstrated a microfilaricidal effect superior to that of either drug used alone, both in the initial rapid clearance of microfilariae, and in sustaining the effect for 8 months. This finding has important implications for the control of brugian lymphatic filariasis in the cat reservoir.

  8. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetic parameters after single-dose administration of intravenous, oral, or rectal acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neil K; Parulan, Cherri; Samson, Roselle; Hutchinson, Joel; Bushnell, Rick; Beja, Evelyn G; Ang, Robert; Royal, Mike A

    2012-09-01

    This is the first study to compare plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of intravenous (IV), oral (PO), or rectal (PR) formulations of acetaminophen. Healthy male subjects (N = 6) were randomized to receive a single dose of IV (OFIRMEV(®) ; Cadence) 1,000 mg (15 minute infusion), PO (2 Tylenol(®) 500 mg caplets; McNeil Consumer Healthcare), or PR acetaminophen (2 Feverall(®) 650 mg suppositories; Actavis) with a 1-day washout period between doses. The 1,300 mg PR concentrations were standardized to 1,000 mg. Acetaminophen plasma and CSF levels were obtained at T0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours. IV acetaminophen showed earlier and higher plasma and CSF levels compared with PO or PR administration. CSF bioavailability over 6 hours (AUC(0-6)) for IV, PO, and PR 1 g was 24.9, 14.2, and 10.3 μg·h/mL, respectively. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. One subject was replaced because of premature failure of his lumbar spinal catheter. The mean CSF level in the IV group was similar to plasma from 3 to 4 hours and higher from 4 hours on. Absorption phase, variability in plasma, and CSF were greater in PO and PR groups than variability with IV administration. These results demonstrate that earlier and greater CSF penetration occurs as a result of the earlier and higher plasma peak with IV administration compared with PO or PR. © 2012 Lotus Clinical Research, LLC. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Effect of single oral dose of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function assessed ex vivo by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Parschalk, B; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Weihs, A; el Menyawi, I; Graninger, W

    1996-01-01

    Azithromycin was given as a single oral dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) to 12 volunteers in a crossover study with roxithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg) and clarithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg). Flow cytometry was used to study the phagocytic functions and the release of reactive oxygen products following phagocytosis by neutrophil granulocytes prior to administration of the three drugs, 16 h after azithromycin administration, and 3 h after clarithromycin and roxithromycin administration. Phagocytic capacity was assessed by measuring the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. Reactive oxygen generation after phagocytosis of unlabeled bacteria was estimated by the amount of dihydrorhodamine 123 converted to rhodamine 123 intracellularly. Azithromycin resulted in decreased capacities of the cells to phagocytize Escherichia coli (median [range], 62% [27 to 91%] of the control values; P < 0.01) and generate reactive oxygen products (75% [34 to 26%] of the control values; P < 0.01). Clarithromycin resulted in reduced phagocytosis (82% [75 to 98%] of control values; P < 0.01) but did not alter reactive oxygen production (84% [63 to 113%] of the control values; P > 0.05). Roxithromycin treatment did not affect granulocyte phagocytosis (92% [62 to 118%] of the control values; P > 0.05) or reactive oxygen production (94% [66 to 128%] of the control value; P > 0.05). No relation between intra- and/or extracellular concentrations of azithromycin and/or roxithromycin and the polymorphonuclear phagocyte function and/or reactive oxygen production existed (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). These results demonstrate that the accumulation of macrolides in neutrophils can suppress the response of phagocytic cells to bacterial pathogens after a therapeutic dose. PMID:8878577

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su; Hu, Chun-Yun; He, Meng-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jie-di; Huang, Li-Jie; Tan, Wen

    2015-12-01

    This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study.

  11. Comparative assessment of efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on inter-appointment and postoperative discomfort: An in vivo clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gyanani, Hitesh; Chhabra, Naveen; Parmar, Ghanshyam R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two different pretreatment single oral doses of betamethasone on the incidence of inter-appointment flare up and postoperative discomfort. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients aged 18–59 years requiring endodontic treatment were selected and randomly assigned to three groups; single pretreatment oral dose of placebo or betamethasone in two different oral doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg, respectively. Endodontic therapy was completed in two visits using triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicament. Patients were given a questionnaire to record their pain at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after treatment. In the second visit, obturation was done, and the patients were again instructed to record their pain scores after treatment and discharged. The verbal rating scale was used for recording the pain scores. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and the Friedman test. Results: 0.5 mg betamethasone group showed least mean pain scores among all experimental groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between any of the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pretreatment single oral dose of betamethasone is an effective in managing endodontic flare-ups; however, the results were statistically insignificant. PMID:27994320

  12. Single-dose oral quercetin improves redox status but does not affect heat shock response in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Islam, Aminul; Abraham, Preetha; Deuster, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered as likely contributors to heat injury. However, their roles in regulating the heat shock response in vivo remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute quercetin treatment would improve redox status and reduce heat shock responses in mice. Mice underwent two heat tests before and after single oral administration of either quercetin (15 mg/kg) or vehicle. We measured physiologic and biochemical responses in mice during and 18 to 22 hours after heat tests, respectively. There were no significant differences in core temperature, heart rate, or blood pressure between quercetin and vehicle groups during heat exposure. Mice with relatively severe hyperthermia during the pretreatment heat test showed a significant trend toward a lower peak core temperature during the heat test after quercetin treatment. Compared with mice not exposed to heat, quercetin-treated mice had significantly lower interleukin 6 (P < .01) and higher superoxide dismutase levels (P < .01), whereas vehicle-treated mice had significantly lower total glutathione and higher 8-isoprostane levels in the circulation after heat exposure. Heat exposure significantly elevated heat shock proteins (HSPs) 72 and 90 and heat shock factor 1 levels in mouse liver, heart, and skeletal muscles, but no significant differences in tissue HSPs and heat shock factor 1 were found between quercetin- and vehicle-treated mice. These results suggest that a single moderate dose of quercetin is sufficient to alter redox status but not heat stress response in mice. Acute adaptations of peripheral tissues to heat stress may not be mediated by systemic inflammatory and redox state in vivo. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Nutrition Composition and Single, 14-Day and 13-Week Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Studies of the Leaves and Stems of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    PubMed

    Om, Ae-Son; Song, Yu-Na; Noh, GeonMin; Kim, HaengRan; Choe, JeongSook

    2016-01-08

    The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg/day. The LD50 and LOAEL of RCMLS might be over 2500 mg/kg body weight/day and no target organs were identified. Therefore, this study revealed that single and repeated oral doses of RCMLS are safe.

  14. Single dose pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim.

    PubMed Central

    Rylance, G W; George, R H; Healing, D E; Roberts, D G

    1985-01-01

    Single oral dose trimethoprim pharmacokinetics were determined in 18 children aged 3 months to 13 years. Trimethoprim suspension was rapidly absorbed and quickly and widely distributed. The mean clearance was considerably faster and the elimination half life considerably shorter than values reported in adults. Only one third of the administered drug dose was recovered from the urine within 24 hours which is considerably less than in adults, suggesting that children may metabolise a greater proportion of the dose given. Urine trimethoprim concentrations greatly in excess of minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens were rapidly achieved and sustained for at least 16 hours. PMID:3970564

  15. Single dose pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Rylance, G W; George, R H; Healing, D E; Roberts, D G

    1985-01-01

    Single oral dose trimethoprim pharmacokinetics were determined in 18 children aged 3 months to 13 years. Trimethoprim suspension was rapidly absorbed and quickly and widely distributed. The mean clearance was considerably faster and the elimination half life considerably shorter than values reported in adults. Only one third of the administered drug dose was recovered from the urine within 24 hours which is considerably less than in adults, suggesting that children may metabolise a greater proportion of the dose given. Urine trimethoprim concentrations greatly in excess of minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens were rapidly achieved and sustained for at least 16 hours.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Urinary excretion and bactericidal activities of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Naber, C K; Hammer, M; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sauber, C; Sörgel, F; Bygate, E A; Fairless, A J; Machka, K; Naber, K G

    2001-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 16 volunteers (8 men, 8 women) received single oral doses of 320 mg of gemifloxacin and 400 mg of ofloxacin on two separate occasions in the fasting state to assess the urinary excretion and urinary bactericidal titers (UBTs) at intervals for up to 144 h. Ofloxacin showed higher concentrations in urine compared with those of gemifloxacin. The median (range) cumulative excretion of gemifloxacin was 29.7% (8.4 to 48.7%) of the parent drug administered, and median (range) cumulative excretion of ofloxacin was 84.3% (46.5 to 95.2%) of the parent drug administered. The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilutions (with antibiotic-free urine as the diluent) of urine that were still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and nine uropathogens for which the MICs of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin were as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.016 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0.03 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Proteus mirabilis, 0.125 and 0.125 microg/ml, respectively; Escherichia coli, 0.06 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.008 and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.06 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.5 and 32 microg/ml, respectively; and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 32 microg/ml, respectively. Generally, the UBTs for gram-positive uropathogens were higher for gemifloxacin than for ofloxacin and the UBTs for gram-negative uropathogens were higher for ofloxacin than for gemifloxacin. According to the UBTs, ofloxacin-resistant uropathogens (MICs, >or=4 mg/liter) should also be considered gemifloxacin resistant. Although clinical trials have shown that gemifloxacin is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, whether an oral dosage of 320 mg of gemifloxacin once daily is also adequate for the

  18. Urinary Excretion and Bactericidal Activities of Gemifloxacin and Ofloxacin after a Single Oral Dose in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Christoph K.; Hammer, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Bygate, Elizabeth A.; Fairless, Amanda J.; Machka, Konstanze; Naber, Kurt G.

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 16 volunteers (8 men, 8 women) received single oral doses of 320 mg of gemifloxacin and 400 mg of ofloxacin on two separate occasions in the fasting state to assess the urinary excretion and urinary bactericidal titers (UBTs) at intervals for up to 144 h. Ofloxacin showed higher concentrations in urine compared with those of gemifloxacin. The median (range) cumulative excretion of gemifloxacin was 29.7% (8.4 to 48.7%) of the parent drug administered, and median (range) cumulative excretion of ofloxacin was 84.3% (46.5 to 95.2%) of the parent drug administered. The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilutions (with antibiotic-free urine as the diluent) of urine that were still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and nine uropathogens for which the MICs of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin were as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.016 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively; Proteus mirabilis, 0.125 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively; Escherichia coli, 0.06 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.008 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.06 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 and 4 μg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.5 and 32 μg/ml, respectively; and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 32 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, the UBTs for gram-positive uropathogens were higher for gemifloxacin than for ofloxacin and the UBTs for gram-negative uropathogens were higher for ofloxacin than for gemifloxacin. According to the UBTs, ofloxacin-resistant uropathogens (MICs, ≥4 mg/liter) should also be considered gemifloxacin resistant. Although clinical trials have shown that gemifloxacin is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, whether an oral dosage of 320 mg of gemifloxacin once daily is also adequate for the treatment of complicated urinary

  19. Single dose of diclofenac or meloxicam for control of pain, facial swelling, and trismus in oral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Solís, Mariana; García-Ávalos, Yazmín; Pichardo-Ramírez, Celeste; Tobías-Azúa, Francisco; Zapata-Morales, Juan-Ramón; Aragon-Martínez, Othoniel-Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain associated with removal of mandibular third molars has been documented from moderate to severe during the first 24 hours after surgery, with pain peaking between 6 and 8 hours when a conventional local anesthetic is used. Dental pain is largely inflammatory, and evidence-based medicine has shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the best analgesics for dental pain. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-trismus effect of a single dose of diclofenac and meloxicam after mandibular third molar extraction. Material and Methods A total of 36 patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each with 18 patients, using a series of random numbers: Group A, was administered 100 mg of diclofenac; and Group B, 15 mg of meloxicam. Drugs were administered orally 1 hour prior to surgery. We evaluated pain intensity, analgesic consumption, swelling, as well as trismus. Results The results of this study showed that patients receiving 15 mg of meloxicam had less postoperative pain (P=0.04) and better aperture than those receiving 100 mg of diclofenac (P=0.03). The meloxicam group presented less swelling than diclofenac group; however, significant statistical differences were not observed. Conclusions Data of this double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial demonstrated that patients receiving 15 mg of preoperative meloxicam had a better postoperative analgesia and anti-trismus effect compared with who were given 100 mg of diclofenac after third molar extractions. Key words:Diclofenac, meloxicam, dental pain, trismus, third molar surgery. PMID:26615509

  20. Analysis of clinical efficacy, side effects, and laboratory changes among patients with acne vulgaris receiving single versus twice daily dose of oral isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a debilitating disorder and requires proper treatment. This work evaluates the clinical efficacy, side effects, and laboratory changes of serum lipids and liver function during oral isotretinoin therapy for acne vulgaris, comparing single versus twice daily dose. Fifty-eight patients with acne vulgaris were included and randomized into group I (26 patients), who received once daily dose, and group II (32 patients), who received twice daily dose of oral isotretinoin. Global acne scoring system was used to evaluate acne severity and post-treatment improvement. Both regimens resulted in highly significant clinical improvement of acne with no significant difference. However, side effects were significantly more common among patients of group I. Both regimens caused mild rise of serum cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with more prominent rise of triglycerides especially with twice daily dose. Oral isotretinoin is a very effective treatment for acne vulgaris with no statistically significant difference in clinical efficacy between once and twice daily doses. However, dividing dose to twice per day might cause fewer incidence of side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. The drug causes mild clinically insignificant rise of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, and ALT.

  1. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral once-a-day osmotic controlled-release OROS (methylphenidate HCl) formulation.

    PubMed

    Modi, N B; Lindemulder, B; Gupta, S K

    2000-04-01

    Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OROS (methylphenidate HCl) is an osmotic controlled-release delivery system designed for once-daily oral dosing. The pharmacokinetics of OROS (methylphenidate HCl) 18 mg qd, sustained-release (SR) methylphenidate 20 mg qd, and the immediate-release (IR) formulation given as three 5 mg doses every 4 hours (tid) were compared in adults. In addition, the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of the OROS formulation were studied. Following OROS (methylphenidate HCl), there was a gradual increase in the mean methylphenidate plasma concentrations with peak concentrations noted at 6 to 8 hours. With the SR formulation, peak plasma concentrations were noted at approximately 4 hours. Following the IR regimen, methylphenidate plasma concentrations fluctuated in tandem with oral dosing; peak concentrations were noted at 6.5 hours. The terminal half-life of methylphenidate was similar for the three formulations. The dose-normalized methylphenidate Cmax for OROS (methylphenidate HCl) was significantly lower than for IR and SR methylphenidate. The bioavailability of methylphenidate and PPA from OROS (methylphenidate HCl) relative to the IR and SR formulations was complete. Mean methylphenidate AUC and terminal half-life were similar after single (32.9 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) and multiple doses (35.2 ng.h/mL and 3.9 hours) of OROS (methylphenidate HCl).

  2. Effect of steady-state ambrisentan on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of the oral contraceptive norethindrone (norethisterone) 1 mg/ethinylestradiol 35 microg in healthy subjects: an open-label, single-sequence, single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Rebecca; Mandagere, Arun; Walker, Gennyne; Dufton, Christopher; Boinpally, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Ambrisentan is an oral, once-daily endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) that is approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pregnancy is not recommended for women of childbearing potential with PAH, due to an increased risk of mortality. Additionally, the ERA class is teratogenic in animal studies. A highly effective method of contraception is therefore strongly recommended for women of childbearing potential who are treated with an ERA for PAH. This study investigated the effect of ambrisentan on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the oral contraceptive norethindrone (norethisterone) 1 mg/ethinylestradiol 35 microg (NT 1 mg/EE 35 microg). The study was an open-label, single-sequence, PK study designed to assess the effect of multiple doses of ambrisentan (Letairis; Volibris) on the PK of a single oral dose of NT 1 mg/EE 35 microg (Ortho-Novum 1/35) in a single clinical research centre in the US. The study included 28 healthy female subjects in general good health, aged 18-45 years, and who had a body mass index of 18.5-29.9 kg/m2. A single oral dose of NT 1 mg/EE 35 microg was administered on day 1. On day 10, following a wash-out period, fasted subjects received once-daily 10 mg doses of ambrisentan for 12 days. On day 22, a single oral dose of NT 1 mg/EE 35 microg and a single 10 mg oral dose of ambrisentan were coadministered; thereafter, subjects continued to receive once-daily oral doses of ambrisentan 10 mg on days 23 through 26. The primary PK endpoints included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), time to reach C(max) (t(max)), and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of last measurable concentration (AUC(last)). Ethinylestradiol C(max) was slightly decreased (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 91.7%; 90% CI 86.1, 97.8) and AUC(last) was similar (GMR 99.1%; 90% CI 91.0, 107.9) in the presence of ambrisentan compared with NT 1 mg/EE 35 microg. Norethindrone C(max) (GMR 113.2%; 90% CI 102

  3. Accumulation and effects of nodularin from a single and repeated oral doses of cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena on flounder (Platichthys flesus L.).

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Sipiä, Vesa O; Karlsson, Krister; Keinänen, Marja; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla; James, Kevin; Perttilä, Ulla; Rimaila-Pärnänen, Eija; Meriluoto, Jussi A O

    2009-07-01

    Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which occurs regularly in the Baltic Sea during the summer season. In this study flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) was orally exposed to NODLN either as a single dose or as three repeated doses 3 days apart. Liver and bile samples of the fish were taken 4 days after the last dose. Liver glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was also measured and the histopathology of the liver was investigated. The liver of the exposed fish was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for NODLN concentration. The content of NODLN-like compounds in the bile was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NODLN exposure caused slightly incoherent liver architecture and degenerative cell changes in both groups. The mean liver GST activity was significantly higher in the repeatedly dosed flounders than in the singly dosed flounders or in the control. In conclusion, the significantly lower NODLN concentration and the increased GST activity in the liver of the repeatedly dosed flounders compared to the singly dosed flounders suggest that NODLN is rapidly detoxificated. The absence of NODLN glutathione conjugates and the low concentrations of NODLN-like compounds in the bile indicate that detoxification products disintegrate or they are rapidly excreted.

  4. A Phase 1 Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Single Oral Doses of DS-3801b, a Motilin Receptor Agonist, in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Dennie, Justin; Atiee, George; Warren, Vance; Tao, Ben; Morimoto, Kiyoshi; Senaldi, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    DS-3801b is an orally active, nonmacrolide, selective motilin receptor agonist. The aim of this 2-part first-in-human study was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects on proximal and distal gastrointestinal (GI) motility of single oral doses of DS-3801b in healthy subjects. The (13) C-octanoate breath test was used to assess gastric emptying (GE), a measure of proximal GI motility. The time to first bowel movement (TTFBM) and the consistency of the first bowel movement according to the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) were recorded to assess distal GI motility. In part A, 48 subjects received single oral doses of DS-3801b from 1 to 100 mg or placebo (6 DS-3801b, 2 placebo per cohort). In part B, 12 subjects received 50 mg of DS-3801b or placebo to assess GE. DS-3801b is safe and generally well tolerated after doses up to 50 mg, resulting in mild, predominantly GI adverse events. DS-3801a plasma concentrations increase with increasing doses; however, Cmax increases greater than dose-proportionally, whereas AUC increases less than dose-proportionally. The double peaks observed are consistent with multiple absorption sites. Results of the (13) C-octanoate breath test indicate that DS-3801b accelerates GE. Fifty milligrams of DS-3801b resulted in a 20.8% median reduction in GE T1/2 and a 20.6% median reduction in GE Tlag compared with placebo. However, this increase in proximal GI motility was not accompanied by an effect on distal GI motility, as indicated by no significant differences in TTFBM and BSS values across DS-3801b dose levels or compared with placebo. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. A Single Dose Oral Azithromycin versus Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for the Treatment of Yaws-A Randomized Non Inferiority Trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Agana, Nsiire; Gyapong, John; Nortey, Priscilia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Aryee, Esther; Asiedu, Kingsley; Ballard, Roland; Binka, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws. In this study, we also compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of azithromycin as an alternative to intramuscular benzathine penicillin for the treatment of the disease in another geographic setting. We conducted an open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial in three neighboring yaws-endemic districts in Southern Ghana. Children aged 1-15 years with yaws lesions were assigned to receive either 30mg/kg of oral azithromycin or 50,000 units/kg of intramuscular benzathine penicillin. The primary end point was clinical cure rate, defined as a complete or partial resolution of lesions 3 weeks after treatment. The secondary endpoint was serological cure, defined as at least a 4-fold decline in baseline RPR titre 6 months after treatment. Non- inferiority of azithromycin treatment was determined if the upper bound limit of a 2 sided 95% CI was less than 10%. The mean age of participants was 9.5 years (S.D.3.1, range: 1-15 years), 247(70%) were males. The clinical cure rates were 98.2% (95% CI: 96.2-100) in the azithromycin group and 96.9% (95% CI: 94.1-99.6) in the benzathine penicillin group. The serological cure rates at 6 months were 57.4% (95% CI: 49.9-64.9) in the azithromycin group and 49.1% (95% CI: 41.2-56.9) in the benzathine penicillin group, thus achieving the specified criteria for non-inferiority. A single oral dose of azithromycin, at a dosage of 30mg/kg, was non-inferior to a single dose of intramuscular

  6. A Single Dose Oral Azithromycin versus Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for the Treatment of Yaws-A Randomized Non Inferiority Trial in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws. In this study, we also compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of azithromycin as an alternative to intramuscular benzathine penicillin for the treatment of the disease in another geographic setting. Methodology We conducted an open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial in three neighboring yaws-endemic districts in Southern Ghana. Children aged 1–15 years with yaws lesions were assigned to receive either 30mg/kg of oral azithromycin or 50,000 units/kg of intramuscular benzathine penicillin. The primary end point was clinical cure rate, defined as a complete or partial resolution of lesions 3 weeks after treatment. The secondary endpoint was serological cure, defined as at least a 4-fold decline in baseline RPR titre 6 months after treatment. Non- inferiority of azithromycin treatment was determined if the upper bound limit of a 2 sided 95% CI was less than 10%. Findings The mean age of participants was 9.5 years (S.D.3.1, range: 1–15 years), 247(70%) were males. The clinical cure rates were 98.2% (95% CI: 96.2–100) in the azithromycin group and 96.9% (95% CI: 94.1–99.6) in the benzathine penicillin group. The serological cure rates at 6 months were 57.4% (95% CI: 49.9–64.9) in the azithromycin group and 49.1% (95% CI: 41.2–56.9) in the benzathine penicillin group, thus achieving the specified criteria for non-inferiority. Conclusions A single oral dose of azithromycin, at a dosage of 30mg

  7. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  8. Comparison of Azithromycin Pharmacokinetics following Single Oral Doses of Extended-Release and Immediate-Release Formulations in Children with Acute Otitis Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Fang, Annie F.; LaBadie, Robert R.; Crownover, Penelope H.; Arguedas, Adriano G.

    2011-01-01

    An azithromycin extended-release (ER) oral suspension was developed to improve the gastrointestinal tolerability profile without substantially compromising systemic exposure. A single dose of 30 mg/kg azithromycin immediate-release (IR) oral suspension has been used in children to treat acute otitis media (AOM). This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of a 60-mg/kg azithromycin ER single dose with a 30-mg/kg azithromycin IR single dose in children with AOM aged 6 months to 6 years (n = 19 per treatment). Serum samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after dosing. The area under the curve from time zero to 72 h postdosing (AUC0-72) was calculated based on a noncompartmental method. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare exposure parameters (e.g., AUC0-72 and peak concentration) as well as concentrations at each time point. The adjusted geometric mean ratio of the ER/IR AUC0-72 was 157.98% (90% confidence interval [CI], 98.87%, 252.44%), which met the predefined criterion of the lower boundary of the 90% CI of ≥80%. As expected, due to the slower-release profile of the ER formulation, the concentrations of the ER formulation during the first 3 h were lower than those of the IR formulation. After 3 h postdosing, the lower boundaries of the 90% CI for the ER/IR concentration ratios were greater than 100%. These results indicated that a 60-mg/kg single dose of ER azithromycin provides similar or greater systemic exposure in children than the 30-mg/kg single dose of IR azithromycin. PMID:21859932

  9. Fosfomycin trometamol: a review of its use as a single-dose oral treatment for patients with acute lower urinary tract infections and pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    Fosfomycin trometamol (fosfomycin tromethamine) [Monuril(®), Monurol(®), Monural(®)] is approved in numerous countries worldwide, mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Fosfomycin has good in vitro activity against common uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli (including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli), Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and the susceptibility of uropathogens to fosfomycin has remained relatively stable over time. A single oral dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g (the approved dosage) achieves high concentrations in urine. Results of recent randomized trials indicate that single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to 3- to 7-day regimens of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated lower UTIs. In addition, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or a 7-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, and similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or a 3-day course of ceftibuten in pregnant women with a lower UTI. Single-dose fosfomycin trometamol was generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal adverse events (e.g. diarrhoea, nausea) reported most commonly. In conclusion, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol is an important option for the first-line empirical treatment of uncomplicated lower UTIs.

  10. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Smith, Valerie; Cleary, Brian J

    2016-07-14

    Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are thus an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016), OpenSIGLE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the ISRCTN Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov (31 March 2016). We also reviewed reference lists of retrieved papers and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials were excluded. Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risk of bias. Any discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, was also conducted independently by two review authors and checked for accuracy. We included 28 studies that examined 13 different NSAIDs and involved 4181 women (none of whom were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013, with the majority published in the 1980s. Of the 4181 women involved in the studies, 2642 received a NSAID and 1539 received placebo or paracetamol. Risk of bias was generally unclear due to poor reporting, but in most studies the participants and personnel were blinded, outcome data were complete and the outcomes that were specified in the methods section were reported.None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes: prolonged hospitalisation or re

  11. Single oral dose toxicity test of polycalcium, a mixed composition of polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (G/G) in SD rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Ki-Young; Cho, Hyung-rae; Rha, Chae-hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2013-11-01

    The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose.

    PubMed

    Schnellbacher, Rodney; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Arnold, Robert D; Tully, Thomas N; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration-time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

  13. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D profile after single large oral doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in medical staff in North India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Priyambada, L; Bhatia, V; Singh, N; Bhatia, E

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India and subjects who have almost no exposure to sunlight are severely deficient. Daily oral doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) are costly as compared to stoss doses and further, take a long time for the serum levels to reach a plateau. Compliance to supplementation may also be better if a regimen involves single oral doses of vitamin D at specified intervals rather than daily doses. Evidence-based guidelines regarding the dosing and the frequency of dosing for prophylactic intermittent supplementation (stoss doses) in severely-deficient subjects are few. In a prospective intervention study, we serially assessed 30 asymptomatic healthy medical staff for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH); (a) at baseline; (b) monthly for 3 months after single oral 60,000 units (U) cholecalciferol; (c) monthly for 3 months after 120,000 (or 180,000 for those with elevated alkaline phosphatase) U cholecalciferol; and, (d) subsequently, at 3 months after a repeat dose of 60,000 U cholecalciferol by repeated measures analysis of variance. The baseline serum 25(OH)D was 7.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL (< 10 ng/mL in 85% subjects) which increased to 18.7 ± 8.9 ng/mL at 1 month after 60,000 U of cholecalciferol (P < 0.001) and decreased to 11.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL by the 3 rd month. The higher dose of 120,000 (or 180,000) U increased mean 25(OH)D to 28.9 ± 9.9 ng/mL at the end of 1 st month, declining to 17.9 ± 4.9 ng/mL (P < 0.001) at 3 months. With the subsequent 60,000 U the serum 25(OH)D was 18.4 ± 3.9 ng/mL at 3 months. PTH showed a corresponding negative trend. No hypercalcemia was observed. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent amongst medical staff in Northern India. An initial dose of 120,000-180,000 U of cholecalciferol is required to elevate 25(OH)D out of the deficiency range. Maintenance dose is needed at 2 months.

  14. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral hepatic-directed vesicle insulin add-on to oral antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Geho, W Blair; Rosenberg, Len N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Lau, John R; Gana, Theophilus J

    2014-05-01

    The dose response of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) to add-on, premeal oral hepatic-directed vesicle-insulin (HDV-I), an investigational lipid bio-nanoparticle hepatocyte-targeted insulin delivery system, was evaluated in a 3-test-meal/day model in type 2 diabetes patients. The single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating trial enrolled 6 patients with HbA(1c) 8.6 ± 2.0% (70.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol) and on stable metformin therapy. Patients received oral HDV-I capsules daily 30 minutes before breakfast, lunch, and dinner as follows: placebo capsules, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 U/kg on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Outcome measures were PPG and incremental PPG area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). All 4 doses of oral HDV-I statistically significantly lowered mean PPG (P ≤ .0110 each) and incremental PPG (P ≤ .0352 each) AUC compared to placebo. A linear dose response was not observed. The 0.05 U/kg dose was the minimum effective dose in the dosage range studied. Three adverse events unrelated to treatment were observed. Add-on oral HDV-I 0.05-0.4 U/kg significantly lowered PPG excursions and the dose response curve was flat. These results are consistent with the lack of a linear dose response between portal and systemic plasma insulin concentrations in previous animal and human studies. Oral HDV-I was safe and well tolerated.

  15. A Single-Center, Case-Control Study of Low-Dose-Induction Oral Immunotherapy with Cow's Milk.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Yu; Ogura, Kiyotake; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose-induction oral immunotherapy (OIT) with 3 ml of milk, which is a lower target volume than is conventionally used. Children aged ≥5 years with milk allergies [confirmed by oral food challenge (OFC) against 3 ml of milk] were enrolled. The OIT group was admitted to the hospital for 5 days for build-up. Subsequently, at home, the volume was gradually increased by up to a maximum of 3 ml every 5 days. While the OIT group ingested a small amount of milk every day, the control group completely eliminated their milk intake. Both groups underwent OFCs approximately 1 year later in order to assess their responsiveness to 3 ml and 25 ml of cow's milk. The OIT and control groups had no background differences; the proportion of patients unresponsive to 3 ml of milk after 1 year was 58.3% (7/12) and 13.8% (4/25), respectively (p = 0.018), while the proportion unresponsive to 25 ml of milk was 33.3% (4/12) and 0.0% (0/25), respectively (p = 0.007). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the casein-specific immunoglobulin E levels was seen after 12 months when compared to baseline in the OIT group (p = 0.033). Adverse allergic reactions were rare and most symptoms were mild. This study of a high-risk population reacting to very low amounts of milk showed that low-dose-induction OIT appeared effective for acquiring unresponsiveness to 3 ml and 25 ml of milk, with severe symptoms being rare, indicating that for improvement of food allergies, continuous intake of small amounts may be as effective as intake of larger amounts. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Safety Evaluation of Rare Sugar Syrup: Single-dose Oral Toxicity in Rats, Reverse Mutation Assay, Chromosome Aberration Assay, and Acute Non-Effect Level for Diarrhea of a Single Dose in Humans].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Takamine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.

  17. High-dose fenretinide in oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    William, William N; Lee, J Jack; Lippman, Scott M; Martin, Jack W; Chakravarti, Nitin; Tran, Hai T; Sabichi, Anita L; Kim, Edward S; Feng, Lei; Lotan, Reuben; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that low-dose fenretinide (200 mg/d) had limited activity in retinoid-resistant oral leukoplakia (34% response rate) possibly because serum drug levels were insufficient to induce retinoid receptor-independent apoptosis. Therefore, we designed the single-arm phase II trial reported here to investigate whether higher-dose fenretinide would improve leukoplakia response over that of our previous study. Leukoplakia patients received fenretinide (900 mg/m(2) twice daily) in four 3-week cycles (1 week on drug followed by 2 weeks off). At week 12, clinical responses were determined and blood samples were collected for serum drug level assessments. A planned interim futility analysis led to early trial closure after the initial 15 (of 25 planned) patients because only 3 (20%) had a partial response (stopping rule: dose fenretinide inhibited the growth of head and neck cancer cells more and oral leukoplakia cells less than did lower doses of fenretinide. This result is consistent with our clinical finding that high-dose fenretinide did not improve on the historical response rate of lower-dose fenretinide in our previous oral leukoplakia trial.

  18. A Randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of single intramuscular versus staggered oral dose of 600 000IU Vitamin D in treatment of nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishanu; Seth, Anju; Marwaha, Raman K; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Aneja, Satinder; Singh, Ritu; Sonkar, Pitambar

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion or oral iron for treatment of fatigue after postpartum haemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A; Langhoff-Roos, J

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single-dose intravenous infusion of iron isomaltoside compared with current treatment practice with oral iron measured by physical fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage. Single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Participants received intravenous iron (n = 97) or oral iron (n = 99), and completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and haematological and iron parameters were measured. Primary outcome was the aggregated change in physical fatigue score from baseline to 12 weeks postpartum. The difference in physical fatigue score was -0·97 (95% CI: -1·65; -0·28, P = 0·006) in favour of intravenous iron, but did not meet the predefined difference of 1·8. Across visits, we found statistically significant differences in fatigue and depression scores, as well as in haematological and iron parameters, all in favour of intravenous iron. There were no serious adverse reactions. A single dose of intravenous iron was associated with a statistically significant reduction in aggregated physical fatigue within 12 weeks after postpartum haemorrhage compared to standard medical care with oral iron below the prespecified criteria of clinical superiority. As patient-reported outcomes improved significantly and intravenous iron resulted in a fast hematopoietic response without serious adverse reactions, intravenous iron may be a useful alternative after postpartum haemorrhage if oral iron is not absorbed or tolerated. © 2017 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. [LC-MS quantification and pharmacokinetics of the multi-constituents of Huangqin Tang in rat plasma after different single oral doses].

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Liang, Ri-Xin; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Li; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Yang, Wei-Peng

    2013-06-01

    The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of Huangqin Tang on different oral doses. An LC-MS method for simultaneous determination of flavonoids and terpenoids in rat plasma was developed and validated. Plasma samples were treated with hydrochloric acid (containing 1% ascorbic acid), precipitated with acetonitrile, separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 column, detected by single quadruple mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization interface, and quantified using selected ion monitoring mode. All pharmacokinetic parameters were processed by non-compartmental analysis using WinNonlin software. The results of specificity, linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, and stability for LC-MS assay were suitable for the quantification of paeoniflorin, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A, glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma. The concentration-time profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A and glycyrrhizic acid showed double-peak phenomenon after Huangqin Tang was orally administered at 40 g x kg(-1) dose; all eight constituents in rat plasma showed good dose-exposure relationship within the dosage of 10-40 g x kg(-1); although plasma concentrations were different, the flavonoids with the same backbone showed the similar fate in the body with the corresponding dosage. In conclusion, the LC-MS assay was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of multi-constituents of Huangqin Tang with different doses. Additionally, these constituents demonstrated good pharmacokinetic properties in the body.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of intravenous and oral meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Lacasse, Claude; Gamble, Kathryn C; Boothe, Dawn M

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic data were determined after a single dose of meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (RTH; Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (GHO; Bubo virginianus). In a nonrandomized crossover design, individual birds of each species received 1 dose of intravenous meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg i.v.; n = 7 for each species) followed by a 2-week washout period, and then each received 1 dose of oral meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg PO; n = 5 for each species). Blood samples were collected intermittently after administration, and meloxicam was detected in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time versus plasma concentration data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Red-tailed hawks were determined to have the shortest elimination half-life for meloxicam (0.49 +/- 0.5 hours) of any species documented. Great horned owls also eliminated meloxicam very rapidly (0.78 +/- 0.52 hours). Great horned owls achieved higher plasma concentrations (368 +/- 87 ng/mL) of meloxicam than RTH (182 +/- 167 ng/mL) after oral administration, although RTH had a markedly higher volume of distribution (832 +/- 711 mL/kg) than GHO (137.6 +/- 62.7 mL/kg). The differences in meloxicam pharmacokinetics between these 2 raptor species supports the need for species-dependent studies and underlines the challenges of extrapolating drug dosages between species. Results of this study suggest that the current recommended once-daily dosing interval of oral meloxicam is unlikely to maintain plasma concentrations anticipated to be therapeutic in either RTH or GHO, and practical dosing options are questionable for this nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug in these raptor species.

  2. Single dose sublingual testosterone and oral sildenafil vs. a dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet: a pharmacokinetic comparison

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Koppeschaar, Hans P. F.; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of two formulations of a combination drug product containing 0.5 mg testosterone and 50 mg sildenafil for female sexual interest/arousal disorder. The prototype (formulation 1) consists of a testosterone solution for sublingual administration and a sildenafil tablet that is administered 2.5 h later. The dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet (formulation 2) employs a sublingual and an oral route for systemic uptake. This tablet has an inner core of sildenafil with a polymeric time delay coating and an outer polymeric coating containing testosterone. It was designed to increase dosing practicality and decrease potential temporal non‐adherence through circumventing the relatively complex temporal dosing scheme. Methods Twelve healthy premenopausal subjects received both formulations randomly on separate days. Blood was sampled frequently to determine the pharmacokinetics of free testosterone, total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sildenafil and N‐desmethyl‐sildenafil. Results Formulation 2 had a higher maximum concentration (C max) for testosterone, 8.06 ng ml–1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.84, 9.28) and higher area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), 7.69 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 6.22, 9.16) than formulation 1, 5.66 ng ml–1 (95% CI 4.63, 6.69) and 5.12 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 4.51, 5.73), respectively. Formulation 2 had a lower C max for sildenafil, 173 ng ml–1 (95% CI 126, 220) and a lower AUC, 476 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 401, 551) than formulation 1, 268 ng ml–1 (95% CI 188, 348) and 577 ng ml–1 h (95% CI 462, 692), respectively. Formulation 2 released sildenafil after 2.75 h (95% CI 2.40, 3.10). Conclusions The dual route/dual release fixed dose combination tablet fulfilled its design criteria and is considered suitable for further clinical testing. What is Already Known about this Subject Female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) is a

  3. A single, low, oral dose of a 5-carbon-linked trioxane dimer orthoester plus mefloquine cures malaria-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deuk Kyu; Tripathi, Abhai; Sullivan, David; Siegler, Maxime A; Parkin, Sean; Posner, Gary H

    2011-05-01

    Four 5-carbon-linked trioxane dimer orthoesters (6a-6d) have been prepared in 4 or 5 chemical steps from the natural trioxane artemisinin (1). When administered orally to malaria-infected mice using a single dose of only 6 mg/kg body weight along with 18 mg/kg of mefloquine hydrochloride, trioxane dimer orthoester sulfone 6d completely and safely cured the mice; after 30 days, the cured mice showed no detectable parasitemia, gained at least as much weight as the control mice (no infection), and behaved normally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of THC and THC-solid dispersion orally to mice at single dose].

    PubMed

    Liao, Li; Hua, Hua; Zhao, Jun-Ning; Luo, Heng; Yang, An-Dong

    2014-03-01

    To establish a fast sensitive, reproducible LC-MS/MS method to study pharmacokinetic properties of THC, and compare relative bioavailability of THC and its solid dispersion in mice. 200 mice were divided randomly into two groups, and administered orally with THC and THC-solid dispersion after fasting (calculate on THC:400 mg x kg(-1)), used HPLC-MS/MS method to determine the THC concentration of each period at the following times: baseline ( predose ), 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24 h after dosing. Calculating the pharmacokinetic parameters according to the C-t curv, and then use the Phoenix WinNonlin software for data analysis. The calibration curves were linear over the range 9.06-972 microg x L(-1) for THC (R2 = 0.999). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.7 microg x L(-1), respectively. The average extraction recoveries for THC was above 75%, The methodology recoveries were between 79% and 108%. The intra-day and inter-day RSD were less than 13%, the stability test showed that the plasma samples was stable under different conditions (RSD < 15%). The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic parameters of THC and THC-solid dispersion orally to mice shows as fllows: T(max), were 60 and 15 min, AUC(0-t) were 44 500.43 and 57 497.81 mg x L(-1) x min, AUC(0-infinity) were 51 226.00 and 68 031.48 mg x L(-1) x min, MRT(0-infinity) were 596.915 6, 661.747 7 min, CL(z)/F were 0.007 809 and 0.005 88 L x min(-1) x kg(-1). Compared with THC, the MRT and t1/2 of the THC-solid dispersion were all slightly extended, the t(max) was significantly reduced, AUC(0-24 h), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were all significantly higher, the relative bioavailability of THC-solid dispersion is 1.34 times of THC. The results of the experiment shows that the precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for the pharmacokinetic studies. After oral administration to mice, the relative

  5. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of the Anti-Orthopoxvirus Compound ST-246 following a Single Daily Oral Dose for 14 Days in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Honeychurch, Kady M.; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R.; Leeds, Janet M.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Jones, Kevin F.; Jordan, Robert; Marbury, Thomas; Ruckle, Jon; Mee-Lee, Denis; Ross, Eric; Lichtenstein, Israel; Pickens, Margaret; Corrado, Michael; Clarke, Jean M.; Frimm, Annie M.

    2012-01-01

    ST-246 is being evaluated as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. To this end, a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ST-246 when administered as a single daily oral dose (400 mg or 600 mg) for 14 days in fed adult volunteers. ST-246 was safe and well tolerated, with no deaths or serious adverse events reported during the study. There was a low incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), the most common of which were mild nausea and headache. There were no clinically significant results from laboratory assessments, vital sign measurements, physical examinations, or electrocardiograms. The PK and dose proportionality of ST-246 were determined. The PK analysis showed that steady state was achieved by day 5 for the ST-246 400-mg treatment group and by day 6 for the 600-mg group. The dose proportionality analysis showed that the 400- and 600-mg ratio of dose-normalized peak drug concentration in plasma (Cmax) and relative exposure for each dosing interval (AUCτ) ranged from 80% to 85%. However, the 90% confidence intervals did not include 1.0, so dose proportionality could not be concluded. Overall, ST-246 was shown to be safe, and the PK was predictable. These results support further testing of ST-246 in a multicenter pivotal clinical safety study for licensure application. PMID:22777041

  6. Safety and pharmacokinetics of the anti-orthopoxvirus compound ST-246 following a single daily oral dose for 14 days in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Honeychurch, Kady M; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R; Leeds, Janet M; Bolken, Tove' C; Jones, Kevin F; Jordan, Robert; Marbury, Thomas; Ruckle, Jon; Mee-Lee, Denis; Ross, Eric; Lichtenstein, Israel; Pickens, Margaret; Corrado, Michael; Clarke, Jean M; Frimm, Annie M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2012-09-01

    ST-246 is being evaluated as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. To this end, a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ST-246 when administered as a single daily oral dose (400 mg or 600 mg) for 14 days in fed adult volunteers. ST-246 was safe and well tolerated, with no deaths or serious adverse events reported during the study. There was a low incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), the most common of which were mild nausea and headache. There were no clinically significant results from laboratory assessments, vital sign measurements, physical examinations, or electrocardiograms. The PK and dose proportionality of ST-246 were determined. The PK analysis showed that steady state was achieved by day 5 for the ST-246 400-mg treatment group and by day 6 for the 600-mg group. The dose proportionality analysis showed that the 400- and 600-mg ratio of dose-normalized peak drug concentration in plasma (C(max)) and relative exposure for each dosing interval (AUC(τ)) ranged from 80% to 85%. However, the 90% confidence intervals did not include 1.0, so dose proportionality could not be concluded. Overall, ST-246 was shown to be safe, and the PK was predictable. These results support further testing of ST-246 in a multicenter pivotal clinical safety study for licensure application.

  7. Significance of higher drug concentration in erythrocytes of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and treated orally with mefloquine at single doses.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Xue, Jian; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand the pharmacokinetic feature of mefloquine measured by erythrocytes and plasma in Schistosoma japonicum (S. j.)-infected mice and non-infected mice after oral administration of the drug at single doses. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to measure the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of mefloquine at varying intervals posttreatment. Our results demonstrated that in non-infected mice treated orally with mefloquine at an ineffective dose of 50 mg/kg or effective dose of 200 mg/kg for 2-72 h, the erythrocyte-to-plasma ratios of mefloquine were 5.8-11.2 or 2-14.2. On the other hand, in S. j.-infected mice treated with the same single doses of the drug, the erythrocyte and plasma drug concentration ratios were 3.1-4.6 or 2.9-8.5, manifesting that either in infected mice or in non-infected mice that received oral mefloquine resulted in higher concentration of mefloquine in erythrocytes than that in plasma. Unexpectedly, under oral administration of mefloquine at a higher single dose of 200 mg/kg, the pharmacokinetic parameter C max values for plasma from S. j.-infected and non-infected mice were 1.6 ± 0.3 and 2.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL, respectively, which were below the determined in vitro LC50 (50 % lethal concentration) value of 4.93 μg/mL. Therefore, the plasma concentration of mefloquine may display a little effect against schistosomes during the treatment. Although the values of T 1/2 and AUC0-∞ for erythrocytes were significantly longer and higher in infected mice than those of corresponding non-infect mice that received the same single mefloqine dose of 50 mg/kg, the C max value was only 2.6 ± 0.4 μg/mL lower than the determined in vitro LC50, which may explain why this low single dose is ineffective against schistosomes in vivo. After administration of higher mefloquine dose of 200 mg/kg, the C max value for erythrocytes in infected mice was 30 % (7.4 ± 0

  8. A Randomized Trial of Single-Dose Oral Dexamethasone Versus Multidose Prednisolone for Acute Exacerbations of Asthma in Children Who Attend the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John J; McCoy, Siobhan; Kennedy, Una; An Fhailí, Sinéad Nic; Wakai, Abel; Hayden, John; Crispino, Gloria; Barrett, Michael J; Walsh, Sean; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-05-01

    In acute exacerbations of asthma in children, corticosteroids reduce relapses, subsequent hospital admission, and the need for ß2-agonist bronchodilators. Prednisolone is the most commonly used corticosteroid, but prolonged treatment course, vomiting, and a bitter taste may reduce patient compliance. Dexamethasone has a longer half-life and has been used safely in other acute pediatric conditions. We examine whether a single dose of oral dexamethasone is noninferior to prednisolone in the emergency department (ED) treatment of asthma exacerbations in children, as measured by the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) at day 4. We conducted a randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial comparing oral dexamethasone (single dose of 0.3 mg/kg) with prednisolone (1 mg/kg per day for 3 days) in patients aged 2 to 16 years and with a known diagnosis of asthma or at least 1 previous episode of ß2-agonist-responsive wheeze who presented to a tertiary pediatric ED. The primary outcome measure was the mean PRAM score (range of 0 to 12 points) performed on day 4. Secondary outcome measures included requirement for further steroids, vomiting of study medication, hospital admission, and unscheduled return visits to a health care practitioner within 14 days. There were 245 enrollments involving 226 patients. There was no difference in mean PRAM scores at day 4 between the dexamethasone and prednisolone groups (0.91 versus 0.91; absolute difference 0.005; 95% CI -0.35 to 0.34). Fourteen patients vomited at least 1 dose of prednisolone compared with no patients in the dexamethasone group. Sixteen children (13.1%) in the dexamethasone group received further systemic steroids within 14 days after trial enrollment compared with 5 (4.2%) in the prednisolone group (absolute difference 8.9%; 95% CI 1.9% to 16.0%). There was no significant difference between the groups in hospital admission rates or the number of unscheduled return visits to a health care practitioner. In

  9. Neighborhood-targeted and case-triggered use of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine in an urban setting: Feasibility and vaccine coverage.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lucy A; Rumunu, John; Jamet, Christine; Kenyi, Yona; Lino, Richard Laku; Wamala, Joseph F; Mpairwe, Allan M; Muller, Vincent; Llosa, Augusto E; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Ciglenecki, Iza; Azman, Andrew S

    2017-06-01

    In June 2015, a cholera outbreak was declared in Juba, South Sudan. In addition to standard outbreak control measures, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was proposed. As sufficient doses to cover the at-risk population were unavailable, a campaign using half the standard dosing regimen (one-dose) targeted high-risk neighborhoods and groups including neighbors of suspected cases. Here we report the operational details of this first public health use of a single-dose regimen of OCV and illustrate the feasibility of conducting highly targeted vaccination campaigns in an urban area. Neighborhoods of the city were prioritized for vaccination based on cumulative attack rates, active transmission and local knowledge of known cholera risk factors. OCV was offered to all persons older than 12 months at 20 fixed sites and to select groups, including neighbors of cholera cases after the main campaign ('case-triggered' interventions), through mobile teams. Vaccination coverage was estimated by multi-stage surveys using spatial sampling techniques. 162,377 individuals received a single-dose of OCV in the targeted neighborhoods. In these neighborhoods vaccine coverage was 68.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 64.0-73.7) and was highest among children ages 5-14 years (90.0%, 95% CI 85.7-94.3), with adult men being less likely to be vaccinated than adult women (Relative Risk 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.96). In the case-triggered interventions, each lasting 1-2 days, coverage varied (range: 30-87%) with an average of 51.0% (95% CI 41.7-60.3). Vaccine supply constraints and the complex realities where cholera outbreaks occur may warrant the use of flexible alternative vaccination strategies, including highly-targeted vaccination campaigns and single-dose regimens. We showed that such campaigns are feasible. Additional work is needed to understand how and when to use different strategies to best protect populations against epidemic cholera.

  10. Efficacy trial of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in North Jakarta, Indonesia, a cholera-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Richie, E E; Punjabi, N H; Sidharta, Y Y; Peetosutan, K K; Sukandar, M M; Wasserman, S S; Lesmana, M M; Wangsasaputra, F F; Pandam, S S; Levine, M M; O'Hanley, P P; Cryz, S J; Simanjuntak, C H

    2000-05-08

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of one dose of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine was performed in Indonesia from 1993 to 1997. 67,508 persons aged 2-41 years ingested vaccine or placebo and were followed for four years, detecting cholera cases using hospital-based surveillance. A nested reactogenicity study (538 vaccinees, 535 controls) revealed no vaccine-attributable side effects. A nested immunogenicity study (N=657) showed vibriocidal seroresponses in 64-70% of vaccinees vs 1-2% of controls. Cholera incidence was lower than expected. 103 cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor diarrhea were detected, 93 evaluable for vaccine efficacy (43 vaccine, 50 placebo; efficacy=14%). A suggestion of protection was observed among persons with blood group O [P=0.12]. Only seven cases occurred within six months of vaccination, precluding assessment of short-term efficacy. In Jakarta, single-dose CVD 103-HgR did not confer long-term protection. Short-term protection from a single-dose and long-term protection from two doses have yet to be studied.

  11. Randomised clinical trial on the effect of a single oral administration of l-tryptophan, at three dose rates, on reaction speed, plasma concentration and haemolysis in horses.

    PubMed

    Noble, Glenys K; Li, Xiuhua; Zhang, Dagong; Sillence, Martin N

    2016-07-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is marketed as a calmative for horses despite reservations about its efficacy. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of oral TRP administration on the reaction speed of horses. Sixty mature horses were used in a two stage randomised, blind, cross-over study, receiving a placebo and an oral dose of TRP (30, 60 or 120 mg/kg body weight), before undergoing a reaction speed test. Blood samples were taken up to 96 h after TRP administration, to identify signs of acute haemolytic anaemia. Plasma TRP concentrations were increased (P <0.001) by the administration of TRP paste. However, TRP had no effect on the reaction speed of horses when startled. There was no evidence of alterations in clinical pathology parameters in 432 blood samples. While the safety of these doses of TRP can be confirmed, there was no evidence to suggest that a single dose of TRP is an effective calmative for horses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of single, oral doses of GSK1278863, a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Wakamatsu, Akira; Caltabiano, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and safety of GSK1278863, a novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, following a single oral administration of GSK1278863 from 10 to 100 mg or placebo in Japanese (n = 19), and 10, 25 and 100 mg in Caucasians (n = 14). Dose-proportional increases were observed in AUCinf of GSK1278863 in both ethnic groups, with a 1.3-1.5-fold higher exposure seen in Japanese relative to Caucasians for all doses. This difference in exposure can be mainly explained by the observed differences in body weights between the two groups. Statistically significant increases in erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reticulocyte counts were observed in Japanese subjects after the 50 and 100 mg dose as compared to placebo. In Caucasians, similar to Japanese, EPO and VEGF levels were observed to be increased in response to the 100 mg dose. Drug-related adverse events, including headache and abdominal pain were reported in 3 Japanese subjects, while headache was reported in 3 Caucasians. In conclusion, GSK1278863 was well tolerated, with dose-proportional increases in exposure observed in both groups. There was no evidence of ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasian with regard to PK or PD. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl in healthy volunteers: assessment of pharmacokinetic changes and safety following single and multiple oral doses

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Christa F; Kumar, Dinesh; Perdomo, Carlos A; Wason, Suman; Cullen, Edward I; Pratt, Raymond D

    2004-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl when administered separately and in combination. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study. In consecutive dosing periods separated by washout periods of ≥3 weeks, healthy volunteers received either oral donepezil HCI 5 mg once daily for 15 days, oral sertraline HCl 50 mg once daily for 5 days followed by 10 days of once-daily sertraline HCl 100 mg, or the simultaneous administration of oral donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl. Plasma donepezil and sertraline concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Safety was evaluated by physical and laboratory evaluations and the monitoring of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 19 volunteers (16 male and three female) were enrolled. Three male subjects withdrew from the study prematurely due to AEs (one case of nausea/stomach cramps and one case of eosinophilia during combination treatment, and one upper respiratory tract infection during treatment with sertraline HCl alone). In subjects who completed all three treatment periods (n = 16), the concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl did not alter the steady-state (day 15) PK parameters of donepezil HCl. A small (<12%) but statistically significant (P = 0.02) increase in donepezil Cmax was seen after single doses of sertraline HCl and donepezil HCl on day 1 but this was not thought to be clinically meaningful. No significant differences in the tmax or AUC0–24 h of donepezil were observed between the donepezil HCl only or donepezil HCl plus sertraline HCl groups on day 1. No significant changes in sertraline PK parameters were observed either on day 1 (single dose) or on day 15 (steady state) when sertraline HCl was co-administered with donepezil HCl. Generally, the concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl was well tolerated, with no serious AEs reported

  14. Norfloxacin disposition after sequentially increasing oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, B N; Boppana, V K; Vlasses, P H; Rotmensch, H H; Ferguson, R K

    1983-01-01

    Single doses of norfloxacin (200, 400, 800, 1,200, and 1,600 mg) or placebo were administered orally at weekly intervals to 14 healthy male volunteers in a double-blind study. Norfloxacin was measured in serum and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. The concentrations of this drug in serum peaked 1 to 2 h after each dose; the mean peak values for increasing doses were 0.75, 1.58, 2.41, 3.15, and 3.87 micrograms/ml. Mean area under the serum concentration-time curves for the first 12 h after each dose were 3.56, 6.26, 11.4, 16.1, and 19.7 micrograms . h/ml, respectively. The elimination half-life of norfloxacin was about 7 h and was similar for all doses. The concentrations of the drug in urine also peaked 1 to 2 h after dosage; mean peak values for increasing doses were 200, 478, 697, 992, and 1,045 micrograms/ml. Renal clearances approximated 285 ml/min. About 30% of each dose was excreted into urine as unmetabolized norfloxacin. Crystals of the drug were occasionally observed during microscopic examination of freshly voided urine collected after the 1,200- and 1,600-mg doses. Crystalluria was not encountered at lower doses. PMID:6220672

  15. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Montesinos, A; Ardiaca, M; Gilabert, J A; Bonvehí, C; Oros, J; Encinas, T

    2016-09-06

    Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in avian species. In this study, the pharmacokinetic parameters for meloxicam were determined following single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) administrations of the drug (1 mg/kg·b.w.) in adult African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected and meloxicam concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. No undesirable side effects were observed during the study. After i.v. administration, the volume of distribution, clearance and elimination half-life were 90.6 ± 4.1 mL/kg, 2.18 ± 0.25 mL/h/kg and 31.4 ± 4.6 h, respectively. The peak mean ± SD plasma concentration was 8.32 ± 0.95 μg/mL at 30 min after i.m. administration. Oral administration resulted in a slower absorption (tmax  = 13.2 ± 3.5 h; Cmax  = 4.69 ± 0.75 μg/mL) and a lower bioavailability (38.1 ± 3.6%) than for i.m. (78.4 ± 5.5%) route. At 24 h, concentrations were 5.90 ± 0.28 μg/mL for i.v., 4.59 ± 0.36 μg/mL for i.m. and 3.21 ± 0.34 μg/mL for p.o. administrations and were higher than those published for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots at 12 h with predicted analgesic effects.

  16. A pharmacokinetic and residual study of sulfadiazine/trimethoprim in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) with single- and multiple-dose oral administrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Luo, L; Xiao, H; Zhang, R; Deng, Y; Tan, A; Jiang, L

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (SDZ/TMP = 5/1) was conducted in Siniperca chuatsi after single- (120 mg/kg) or multiple-dose (an initial dose of 120 mg/kg followed by a 5-day consecutive dose of 60 mg/kg) oral administrations at 28 °C. The absorption half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), volume of distribution (Vd /F), and the total body clearance (ClB /F) for SDZ and TMP were 4.3 ± 1.7 to 6.3 ± 1.8 h and 2.4 ± 1.0 to 3.9 ± 0.9 h, 25.9 ± 4.5 to 53.0 ± 5.6 h and 11.8 ± 3.5 to 17.1 ± 3.4 h, 2.34 ± 0.78 to 3.67 ± 0.99 L/kg and 0.39 ± 0.01 to 1.33 ± 0.57 L/kg, and 0.03 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 L/kg·h and 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.01 L/kg·h, respectively, after the single dose. The elimination half-life (t1/2β ) and mean residue time (MRT) for SDZ and TMP were 68.8 ± 7.8 to 139.8 ± 12.3 h and 34.0 ± 5.5 to 56.1 ± 6.8 h, and 99.3 ± 6.1 to 201.7 ± 11.5 h and 49.1 ± 3.5 to 81.0 ± 5.1 h, respectively, after the multiple-dose administration. The daily oral SDZ/TMP administration might cause a high tissue concentration and long t1/2β , thereby affecting antibacterial activity. The withdrawal time for this oral SDZ/TMP formulation (according to the accepted guidelines in Europe for maximum residue limits, <0.1 mg/kg of tissues for sulfonamides, and <0.05 mg/kg for TMP) should not be <36 days for fish. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Prashant; Agrawal, Yadvendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods:This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0−∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80–125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results:For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0−t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0−∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0–102.0% for Cmax, 96.7–103.2% for AUC0−t and 96.1–103.5% for AUC0−∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion:Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition. PMID:26483693

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus).

    PubMed

    Parsley, Ruth A; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, hawks were randomly assigned to first receive voriconazole (15 mg/kg, PO) injected into a dead mouse (n = 3; fed birds) or without food (4; unfed birds). Sixteen days later, treatments were reversed. Blood samples were collected at various points to measure plasma voriconazole concentrations by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and fit to a compartmental model through nonlinear mixed-effects regression, with feeding status and body weight investigated as covariates. RESULTS Voriconazole was well absorbed, with quantifiable plasma concentrations up to 24 hours after administration. Mean plasma half-life was approximately 2 hours in fed and unfed birds. Administration of the voriconazole in food delayed absorption, resulting in a significant delay in time to maximum plasma concentration. The final compartmental model included a categorical covariate to account for this lag in absorption as well as body weight as a covariate of total body clearance (relative to unknown bioavailability). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A single dose of voriconazole (15 mg/kg) administered PO to red-tailed hawks resulted in mean plasma voriconazole concentrations greater than the targeted value (1 μg/mL). Additional studies with larger sample sizes and multidose regimens are required before the model developed here can be applied in clinical settings.

  19. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  20. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Single-dose oral toxicity study of a cross-linked sodium polyacrylate/polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Haselbach, J; Berner, T; Wright, H; Dunlap, E

    2000-12-01

    A single-dose oral toxicity study of a grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate with polyvinyl alcohol was conducted in chickens (Gallus domesticus) to demonstrate this copolymer's safety for use as a hydration medium in recently hatched poultry chicks. Three experimental groups, each composed of 25 male and 25 female 1-day-old chicks, were administered a one-time dose of 0, 3, or 6 g of the hydrated test article by gavage. All chicks were monitored daily for mortality and morbidity during their typical grow-out period of approximately 8 weeks. Interim sacrifices of one animal of each sex from each treatment group were made at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. All surviving animals were necropsied at the end of the study. A single dose of up to 6 g of hydrated copolymer did not adversely affect these animals during their grow-out period. Mortality was comparable across all experimental groups, as no statistically significant survival differences were found. Body weights were also comparable across the three experimental groups at all time points during the study, and no statistically significant differences were detected in mean terminal body weights among the groups. Finally, lesion frequencies were similar across the three experimental groups, with none of the lesions deemed related to administration of the test article. Thus, the safety of this cross-linked sodium polyacrylate/polyvinyl alcohol copolymer has been demonstrated for its intended use. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Equivalent dynamic human brain NK1-receptor occupancy following single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant vs. oral aprepitant as assessed by PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, K; De Hoon, J; Bormans, G; Koole, M; Derdelinckx, I; De Lepeleire, I; Declercq, R; Sanabria Bohorquez, S M; Hamill, T; Mozley, P D; Tatosian, D; Xie, W; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Zappacosta, P; Mahon, C; Butterfield, K L; Rosen, L B; Murphy, M G; Hargreaves, R J; Wagner, J A; Shadle, C R

    2012-08-01

    The type 1 neurokinin receptor (NK1R) antagonist aprepitant and its i.v. prodrug fosaprepitant have been approved for prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. This study evaluated the magnitude and duration of brain NK1R occupancy over a period of 5 days after single-dose i.v. infusion of 150-mg fosaprepitant and single-dose oral administration of 165-mg aprepitant, using serial [(18)F]MK-0999 positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 healthy subjects. Each subject underwent three scans. Brain NK1R occupancy rates after i.v. fosaprepitant at time to peak concentration (T(max); ~30 min), 24, 48, and 120 h after the dose were 100, 100, ≥97, and 41-75%, respectively. After aprepitant, NK1R occupancy rates at these time points (T(max) ~4 h) were ≥99, ≥99, ≥97, and 37-76%, respectively. Aprepitant plasma concentration profiles were comparable for the two dosage forms. The study illustrates the utility of PET imaging in determining central bioequivalence in a limited number of subjects.

  3. Effect of feeding rate on biochemical measures and fate of a single oral dose of PCB in Arctic char

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, P.D.; Brown, S.B.; Lockhart, W.L.; Metner, D.A.; Vandenbyllaardt, L.

    1995-12-31

    This study was done to determine the effects of reducing lipid stores and the resulting mobilization of associated contaminants. Individually tagged Arctic char (Saivelinus alpinus) were treated with single gavage doses of 6.1 ng/g {sup 14}C-3,3{prime}4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in gelatin or vehicle (controls). Following treatment, the PCB was allowed 3 weeks to reach equilibrium distribution within the fish. After this 3 week period, treated and control groups of fish were fed one of three rations, (1.5%, 0.75% or 0.25% body wt/d). Fish were sampled at 0, 8, 24 and 48 weeks following the initiation of the different rations. PCB concentrations and lipid levels were measured in 5 tissues (muscle, liver, intestine, spleen and kidney). Biochemical response measured included hepatic EROD, retinoids and tocopherol. Growth was reduced in both treated and control groups fed the lowest ration. EROD activity was negatively correlated with growth and positively correlated with liver concentrations of PCB 126. Declines in mean lipid content were ration dependent. Changes in hepatic retinoids were related to both ration and treatment. The results indicate that a low ration resulted in greater utilization of stored lipids and higher tissue concentrations of contaminants compared to the other rations. These changes altered biochemical measures which are responsive to planar chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose intravenous, oral, and intraperitoneal pefloxacin in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, J L; Hary, L; Bou, P; Renaud, H; Westeel, P F; Andrejak, M; Fournier, A

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma and dialysate concentrations of pefloxacin after intravenous, oral, or intraperitoneal administration shows excellent bidirectional diffusion of the quinolone through the peritoneal membrane, demonstrating that therapeutical concentrations can be achieved in the dialysate after intravenous or oral administration. In this study, the half-life of the drug was 18.8 +/- 1.4 h, i.e., apparently longer than that reported for normal controls or uremic patients on hemodialysis. PMID:1929314

  5. Pharmacokinetics and effects of demographic factors on blood 25(OH)D3 levels after a single orally administered high dose of vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-zhan; Li, Mian; Duan, Xiao-hua; Jia, Jing-ying; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Yu, Chen; Han, Jun-hua; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the biological consequences and demographic factors that might affect the pharmacokinetics of vitamin D3 after a single high dose intervention in a young Chinese population with vitamin D insufficiency status. Methods: A total of 28 young subjects (25 to 35 years old) with vitamin D insufficiency status [serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL] was recruited in Shanghai, China. The subjects were orally administered a single high dose of vitamin D3 (300 000 IU). Baseline characteristics and blood samples were collected at d 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28, 56, 84 and 112 after the intervention. The blood biomarker levels were determined with standardized methods. Results: The intervention markedly increased the blood 25(OH)D3 levels within the first five days (mean Tmax=5.1±2.1 d) and sustained an optimal circulating level of 25(OH)D3 (≥30 ng/mL) for 56 d. After the intervention, body weight and baseline 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly correlated with circulating 25(OH)D3 levels. No adverse events and no consistently significant changes in serum calcium, creatinine, glucose, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D binding protein, or the urinary calcium/reatinine ratio were observed. However, there was a significant increase in phosphorus after the vitamin D3 intervention. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased at the end of the trial. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetics of vitamin D after intervention were influenced by baseline 25(OH)D3 levels and the body weight of the subjects. The results suggest that a single high oral vitamin D3 intervention is safe and efficient for improving the vitamin D status of young Chinese people with vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:27569392

  6. Pharmacokinetics and effects of demographic factors on blood 25(OH)D3 levels after a single orally administered high dose of vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Zhan; Li, Mian; Duan, Xiao-Hua; Jia, Jing-Ying; Li, Jing-Quan; Chu, Rui-Ai; Yu, Chen; Han, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To examine the biological consequences and demographic factors that might affect the pharmacokinetics of vitamin D3 after a single high dose intervention in a young Chinese population with vitamin D insufficiency status. A total of 28 young subjects (25 to 35 years old) with vitamin D insufficiency status [serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL] was recruited in Shanghai, China. The subjects were orally administered a single high dose of vitamin D3 (300 000 IU). Baseline characteristics and blood samples were collected at d 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28, 56, 84 and 112 after the intervention. The blood biomarker levels were determined with standardized methods. The intervention markedly increased the blood 25(OH)D3 levels within the first five days (mean Tmax=5.1±2.1 d) and sustained an optimal circulating level of 25(OH)D3 (≥30 ng/mL) for 56 d. After the intervention, body weight and baseline 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly correlated with circulating 25(OH)D3 levels. No adverse events and no consistently significant changes in serum calcium, creatinine, glucose, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D binding protein, or the urinary calcium/reatinine ratio were observed. However, there was a significant increase in phosphorus after the vitamin D3 intervention. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased at the end of the trial. The pharmacokinetics of vitamin D after intervention were influenced by baseline 25(OH)D3 levels and the body weight of the subjects. The results suggest that a single high oral vitamin D3 intervention is safe and efficient for improving the vitamin D status of young Chinese people with vitamin D insufficiency.

  7. Protection of sheep against caseous lymphadenitis by use of a single oral dose of live recombinant Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, A L; Tachedjian, M; Corner, L A; Radford, A J

    1994-01-01

    An inactive form of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis phospholipase D (PLD) gene was constructed and expressed in a PLD-negative strain (designated Toxminus) of C. pseudotuberculosis. Antibody responses specific to Toxminus and both Toxminus and PLD proteins were detected in sheep following oral administration of Toxminus or Toxminus expressing the PLD toxoid, respectively. However, only those sheep vaccinated with Toxminus expressing PLD toxoid were protected against wild-type challenge. These results confirm the importance of PLD as a protective antigen and demonstrate both the potential for developing an oral caseous lymphadenitis vaccine and C. pseudotuberculosis Toxminus as a live vaccine vector. Images PMID:7960105

  8. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase and liver kinase B1 is increased after a single oral dose of green tea extract to mice.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Porter, Todd D

    2012-12-01

    We have previously shown that green and black tea extracts increase the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and HMG-CoA reductase in rat hepatoma cells in culture, concomitant with a decrease in cholesterol synthesis. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a single oral dose of green or black tea extract to promote the phosphorylation of AMPK, liver kinase B1 (LKB1, an AMPK-kinase), and HMG-CoA reductase in mouse liver. Green tea extract administered by gavage at 50 and 100 mg/kg caused a 2- to 3-fold increase in hepatic AMPK phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hours after dosing and a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in LKB1 phosphorylation at these same time points. The phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase at these and later time points was not significantly increased. Black tea administered by gavage at up to 250 mg/kg was ineffective in increasing hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Both green and black tea extracts increased LKB1 phosphorylation in hepatoma cells in culture at 15 μg/mL, and black tea also increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase A in hepatoma cells. These results suggest that compounds in both tea extracts activate AMPK by activating its upstream kinase, LKB1, and that black tea may do so by first activating protein kinase A, a known kinase for LKB1. Only green tea, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was able to activate AMPK and LKB1 in mouse liver after oral dosing, suggesting that the polymerized catechins present in black tea do not reach the liver in sufficient concentration to affect AMPK activity.

  9. Acute administration of single oral dose of grape seed polyphenols restores blood pressure in a rat model of metabolic syndrome: role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

    PubMed

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of different doses of grape seed polyphenols in cafeteria diet-fed hypertensive rats (CHRs) and to establish the mechanism involved in the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of these compounds in this experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS). Male 8-week-old Wistar rats were fed cafeteria or standard (ST) diet for 10 weeks. After this, the antihypertensive effect of a single oral administration of a polyphenol grape seed extract (GSPE) was tested at different doses (250, 375 and 500 mg/kg) in CHRs. BP was recorded before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-administration. The hypotensive effect of GSPE was also proved in ST diet-fed rats. Additionally, in other experiment, CHRs were orally administered 375 mg/kg GSPE. Four hours post-administration, the rats were intraperitoneally administrated 30 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 5 mg/kg indomethacin [inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin synthesis, respectively]. BP was recorded initially and 6 h post-administration. GSPE produced a decrease in SBP and DBP, the most effective dose (375 mg/kg) showing an antihypertensive effect in CHRs similar to the drug captopril, and did not affect BP of ST diet-fed rats. The antihypertensive effect was completely abolished by L-NAME and partially inhibited by indomethacin. GSPE acts as an antihypertensive agent in a rat model of hypertension associated with MS. The change in endothelium-derived NO availability is one of the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of GSPE in CHRs. Additionally, endothelial prostacyclin contributes to the effect of GSPE on arterial BP.

  10. A randomised phase 1 study to investigate safety, pharmacokinetics and impact on gut microbiota following single and multiple oral doses in healthy male subjects of SMT19969, a novel agent for Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Richard; Robinson, Neil; Best, Emma; Echols, Roger; Tillotson, Glenn; Wilcox, Mark

    2015-02-25

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of diarrhoea in health care settings with symptoms ranging from mild and self-limiting to life threatening. SMT19969 is a novel, non-absorbable antibiotic currently under development for the treatment of CDI. Here we report the results from a Phase I study. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study assessing safety and tolerability of single and multiple oral doses of SMT19969 in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic assessments included blood and faecal sampling. The effect of food on systemic exposure and analysis of the gut microbiota were also included. Fifty-six healthy male subjects were enrolled. Following single oral doses of up to 2,000 mg in the fasted state, plasma concentrations of SMT19969 were generally below the lower limit of quantification. In the fed state levels ranged from 0.102 to 0.296 ng/mL after single dosing and after repeat dosing at Day 10 from 0.105 to 0.305 ng/mL. Following single and multiple oral doses of SMT19969, mean daily faecal concentrations increased with increasing dose level and were significantly above the typical MIC range for C. difficile (0.06-0.5 μg/mL). At 200 mg BID, mean (± SD) faecal concentrations of 1,466 (±547) μg/g and 1,364 (±446) μg/g were determined on days 5 and 10 of dosing respectively. No notable metabolites were detected in faeces. Overall, all doses of SMT19969 were well tolerated both as single oral doses or BID oral doses for 10 days. The majority (88%) of adverse events (AEs) were classified as gastrointestinal disorders and were mild in severity, resolving without treatment. The gut microbiota was analysed in the multiple dose groups with minimal changes observed in the bacterial groups analysed except for total clostridia which were reduced to below the limit of detection by day 4 of dosing. Oral administration of SMT19969 was considered safe and well tolerated and was associated with negligible plasma concentrations after

  11. Phase III randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2011-11-01

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ≥ 20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

  12. Effect of a single oral dose of methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol on the hepatic microsomal metabolism of foreign compounds in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Powis, G

    1975-01-01

    Methanol and ethanol administered to rats as a single oral dose increased aniline hydroxylation by the hepatic microsomal fraction by a maximum of 169 and 66% respectively, whereas aminopyrine demethylation was inhibited by 51 and 61%. The concentration of microsomal cytochrome P-450, and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase were unchanged. Propan-2-ol, administered as a single oral dose, increased microsomal aniline hydroxylation by 165% and increased aminopyrine demethylation by 83%. The concentration of cytochrome P-450 was unchanged whereas NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase were both increased by 38%. Methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol administration resulted in a decreased type I spectral change but had no effect on the reverse type I spectral change. Methanol administration decreased the type II spectral change whereas ethanol and propan-2-ol had no effect. Cycloheximide blocked the increases in aniline hydroxylation and aminopyrine demethylation but could not completely prevent the decreases in aminopyrine demethylation. The increases in aniline hydroxylation were due to an increase in V, but Km was unchanged. The ability of acetone to enhance and compound SKF 525A to inhibit microsomal aniline hydroxylation was decreased by the administration of all three alcohols. The decrease in the metabolism of aminopyrine may result from a decrease in the binding to the type I site with a consequent failure of aminopyrine to stimulate the reduction of cytochrome P-450. Methanol administration may lead to an increase in aniline hydroxylation because of a failure of aniline to inhibit cytochrome P-450 reduction. PMID:168885

  13. PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS METABOLITE O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL FOLLOWING A SINGLE, ORALLY ADMINISTERED DOSE IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Barbosa, Lorraine; Van Bonn, William G; Johnson, Shawn P; Gulland, Frances M D; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting, opiate-like analgesic that is structurally related to codeine and morphine. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of tramadol was administered orally in fish at 2 mg/kg to a total of 15 wild California sea lions admitted for rehabilitation. Twenty-four total blood samples were collected post drug administration at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr. Blood plasma was separated and stored at -80°C until analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the major active metabolite. The results indicate that the plasma levels of parent tramadol are low or negligible during the first 30-45 min and then reach the predicted mean maximum plasma concentration of 358 ng/ml at 1.52 hr. The M1 metabolite was not detectable in 21 of 24 plasma samples, below the level of quantification of 5 ng/ml in one sample, and detectable at 11 and 17 ng/ml in two of the samples. This study suggests that a 2 mg/kg dose would need to be administered every 6-8 hr to maintain concentrations of tramadol above the minimum human analgesic level for mild to moderate pain. Based on dosing simulations, a dose of 4 mg/kg q8 hr or q12 hr, on average, may represent an adequate compromise, but further studies are needed using a larger sample size. Pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine if tramadol provides analgesic effects in this species. The potential for tramadol toxicosis at any dose also has not been determined in this species.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of chlorimipramine, chlorpromazine and their N-dealkylated metabolites in plasma of healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of the parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, L; Valoti, M; Palmi, M; Giovannini, M G; Sgaragli, G P

    1993-09-01

    A single oral dose of 0.7 mg kg-1 chlorimipramine (n = 18) and chlorpromazine (n = 16) was given to each subject 45 days apart and plasma concentrations of parent drugs and their monodesmethyl and didesmethyl metabolites were measured by GC. Ingestion of chlorimipramine resulted in an area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) for parent drug plus metabolites 5-fold higher than that observed in the same subjects following chlorpromazine intake (600 +/- 87 and 124 +/- 14 ng mL-1, respectively). Plasma chlorimipramine levels reached a mean peak value of 43.8 ng mL-1, which occurred 2 h after administration. Desmethyl metabolite kinetics of chlorimipramine appeared to be elimination rate-limited and those of chlorpromazine appeared to be formation-rate-limited. The response to single doses of these two drugs in healthy subjects highlights the two distinct dispositional processes involved, thus offering pharmacokinetic explanation of the hitherto empirical discrepancy in dosage levels in chronic treatment.

  15. Influence of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intravenous and oral administration of a 400 mg single dose to healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Stass, H; Kubitza, D; Möller, J-G; Delesen, H

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the extent to which enterohepatic recycling circulation contributes to moxifloxacin bioavailability in healthy, males by administration of activated charcoal and to evaluate the efficacy of activated charcoal administration in decreasing systemic concentrations of moxifloxacin in the event of overdose. Methods Nine healthy males, mean age 34 years (range 23–45 years) participated in a single centre, randomized, nonplacebo-controlled, three way crossover study. The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in plasma and urine were determined for up to 96 h following a 400 mg single dose randomly administered on three separate occasions with a minimum washout phase of 1 week. Treatment A was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion, treatment B was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion with oral activated charcoal (5 g directly before the start of the infusion, 5 g immediately after the end of the infusion, and 10 g at 2, 4 and 8 h after the start of the infusion), treatment C was 400 mg oral moxifloxacin with activated charcoal (10 g 15 min before and at 2, 4 and 8 h after drug administration). The subjects underwent a series of clinical and laboratory tests. Results Single 400 mg doses of moxifloxacin (PO and/or IV) were safe and well tolerated. The bioavailability of moxifloxacin was significantly decreased when given with charcoal (AUC = 35.5 (IV reference) vs 5.40 (PO) vs 28.5 (IV) mg l−1 h). Concurrently peak concentrations were lowered Cmax = 3.38 (IV reference) vs 0.62(PO) vs 2.97 (IV) mg l−1) by approximately 85% (P < 0.05) following oral administration and by 20% after IV treatment (P < 0.05). Bioavailability amounted to 15.4% (95% confidence interval 9.6, 25.0%) for treatment B while it was 80.4% (95% confidence interval 76.3.6, 84.6%) for treatment C. Terminal half-lives were not affected. The kinetics of urinary excretion corroborated these findings. Conclusions The results of this study show that moxifloxacin undergoes pronounced

  16. Comparison of intake and systemic relative effect potencies of dioxin-like compounds in female rats after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Karin I; Andersson, Patrik L; Gaisch, Konrad P J; van den Berg, Martin; van Duursen, Majorie B M

    2014-03-01

    Risk assessment for mixtures of dioxin-like compounds uses the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. Although current WHO-TEFs are mostly based on oral administration, they are commonly used to determine toxicity equivalencies (TEQs) in human blood or tissues. However, the use of "intake" TEFs to calculate systemic TEQs in for example human blood, has never been validated. In this study, intake and systemic relative effect potencies (REPs) for 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118) and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) were compared in rats. The effect potencies were calculated based on administered dose and liver, adipose or plasma concentrations in female Sprague-Dawley rats 3 days after a single oral dose, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and gene expression of Cyp1a1, 1a2, 1b1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor in liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as endpoints. Results show that plasma-based systemic REPs were generally within a half log range around the intake REPs for all congeners tested, except for 4-PeCDF. Together with our previously reported systemic REPs from a mouse study, these data do not warrant the use of systemic REPs as systemic TEFs for human risk assessment. However, further investigation for plasma-based systemic REPs for 4-PeCDF is desirable.

  17. Effect of single oral dose of sodium rabeprazole on the intragastric pH & volume in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Altaf; Al-Saeed, Abdul Hamid Hasan; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2008-02-01

    While evaluating the effectiveness of drugs used for the prophylaxis of acid aspiration of gastric contents, the impact of duodeno-gastric reflux on gastric contents has not been studied earlier. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of preanaesthetic oral administration of sodium rabeprazole on pH and volume of gastric contents in adult patients undergoing elective surgery by excluding cases contaminated with duodeno-gastric refluxate. The patients in group C (control) in the triple blind placebo controlled trial received placebo while group S sodium rabeprazole 20 mg orally at 2100 h, a night before elective surgery. Next day, gastric contents were aspirated with a large bore, multi-orifices gastric tube passed through an endotracheal tube placed blindly in oesophagus after tracheal intubation and analyzed for the presence of bile salts, pH and volume. The pH and volume of gastric contents were the primary and duodeno-gastric reflux secondary outcome measures of the study. The pH and volume of group S-2 were 3.97+/-1.78 and 9.48+/-8.39 ml respectively compared with 1.90+/-0.47 and 19.60+/-18.56 ml of group C-2. Sodium rabeprazole, after excluding contaminated cases with duodeno-gastric refluxate, significantly increased the pH (P<0.001), decreased the volume of gastric contents (P<0.005) and the proportion of the patients (30.76 vs 2.63%) considered at risk compared with placebo (P<0.001) according to the criteria defined (pH < 2.5 and volume > 25 ml). Thirty nine samples (33.33%) out of 117 were contaminated with duodenal contents. Duodenogastric reflux significantly (P<0.001) affected pH and volume of gastric in both groups C-1 vs C-2 and S-1 vs S-2. Sodium rabeprazole 20 mg given orally a night before surgery provided adequate prophylaxis for acid aspiration syndrome at the time of induction of anaesthesia and duodeno-gastric reflux significantly affected both the pH and volume of gastric contents.

  18. Odanacatib, a selective cathepsin K inhibitor to treat osteoporosis: safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics--results from single oral dose studies in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stoch, S Aubrey; Zajic, Stefan; Stone, Julie A; Miller, Deborah L; van Bortel, Lucas; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Pramanik, Barnali; Cilissen, Caroline; Liu, Qi; Liu, Lida; Scott, Boyd B; Panebianco, Deborah; Ding, Yu; Gottesdiener, Keith; Wagner, John A

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of odanacatib (ODN), a cathepsin K inhibitor, in humans. Two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single oral dose studies were performed with ODN (2-600 mg) in 44 healthy volunteers (36 men and eight postmenopausal women). Adverse experiences (AEs) with single doses of ODN were transient and mild to moderate, with the exception of one severe AE of gastroenteritis. Headache was the most frequent AE. After absorption of ODN (initial peak concentrations 4-6 h postdose), plasma concentrations exhibited a monophasic decline, with an apparent terminal half-life of ∼40-80 h. The area under the curve0-24 hours (AUC(0-24 h)), concentration at 24 hours (C(24 h)) and maximum concentration (C(max,overal)) increased in a less than dose-proportional manner from 2 to 600 mg. Administration of ODN with a high-fat meal led to ∼100% increases in AUC(0-24 h), C(max,day1), C(max,overall) and C(24 h) relative to the fasted state, while administration with a low-fat meal led to a ∼30% increase in those parameters. Reduction of biomarkers of bone resorption, the C- and N-telopeptides of cross-links of type I collagen, (CTx and NTx, respectively), was noted at 24 h for doses ≥5 mg and at 168 h postdose for ≥10 mg. In postmenopausal women administered 50 mg ODN, reductions in serum CTx of -66% and urine NTx/creatinine (uNTx/Cr) of -51% relative to placebo were observed at 24 h. At 168 h, reductions in serum CTx (-70%) and uNTx/Cr (-78%) were observed relative to baseline. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling characterized the ODN concentration/uNTx/Cr relation, with a modeled EC50 value of 43.8 nM and ∼80% maximal reduction. Odanacatib was well tolerated and has a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile suitable for once weekly dosing. © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA. British Journal of

  19. Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1 lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four h after exposure chlorate...

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single-dose oral tolvaptan in fasted and non-fasted states in healthy Caucasian and Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shoaf, Susan E; Kim, Seong Ryul; Bricmont, Patricia; Mallikaarjun, Suresh

    2012-12-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolvaptan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy male subjects under fasting and non-fasting conditions. This was a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover trial of single oral doses of tolvaptan 30 mg under fasting and non-fasting [a high-fat, high-calorie meal (HFM) or Japanese standard meal] conditions in 25 healthy male Caucasian subjects and 24 healthy male Japanese subjects. Pharmacodynamic endpoints were urine volume and fluid balance for 0 to 24 h postdose. In the fasted state, the plasma tolvaptan C(max) and AUC(∞) geometric mean ratios (90 % confidence interval) were 1.105 (0.845-1.444) and 1.145 (0.843-1.554) for Japanese compared to Caucasian subjects. A HFM increased the C(max) and AUC(∞) values by about 1.15-fold in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.. Twenty-four-hour urine volumes paralleled pharmacokinetic changes, but the increases were not clinically significant. Fluid balance in the Japanese men was 1.4- to 2.0-fold more negative than that in the Caucasian men. Tolvaptan pharmacokinetics is not clinically significantly affected by race. Body weight is a factor that affects exposure. Tolvaptan can be administered with or without food.

  1. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Batalla, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Atakan, Z; Borgwardt, S; Allen, P; Seal, M; Langohr, K; Farré, M; Zuardi, A W; McGuire, P K

    2012-01-01

    Animal and humans studies suggest that the two main constituents of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have quite different acute effects. However, to date the two compounds have largely been studied separately. To evaluate and compare the acute pharmacological effects of both THC and CBD in the same human volunteers. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy male subjects. Oral THC 10 mg or CBD 600 mg or placebo was administered in three consecutive sessions, at one-month interval. Physiological measures and symptom ratings were assessed before, and at 1, 2 and 3 hours post drug administration. The area under the curve (AUC) between baseline and 3 hours, and the maximum absolute change from baseline at 2 hours were analysed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance, with drug condition (THC or CBD or placebo) as the factor. Relative to both placebo and CBD, administration of THC was associated with anxiety, dysphoria, positive psychotic symptoms, physical and mental sedation, subjective intoxication (AUC and effect at 2 hours: p < 0.01), an increase in heart rate (p < 0.05). There were no differences between CBD and placebo on any symptomatic, physiological variable. In healthy volunteers, THC has marked acute behavioural and physiological effects, whereas CBD has proven to be safe and well tolerated.

  2. Comparison of intake and systemic relative effect potencies of dioxin-like compounds in female mice after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Karin I; Andersson, Patrik L; Gaisch, Konrad P J; van den Berg, Martin; van Duursen, Majorie B M

    2013-07-01

    Risk assessment for mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is performed using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. These TEF values are derived mainly from relative effect potencies (REPs) linking an administered dose to an in vivo toxic or biological effect, resulting in "intake" TEFs. At present, there is insufficient data available to conclude that intake TEFs are also applicable for systemic concentrations (e.g., blood and tissues). We compared intake and systemic REPs of 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzodioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118), and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) in female C57BL/6 mice 3 days after a single oral dose. We calculated intake REPs and systemic REPs based on administered dose and liver, adipose, or plasma concentrations relative to TCDD. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1-associated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and gene expression of Cyp1a1, 1a2 and 1b1 in the liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were used as biological end points. We observed up to one order of magnitude difference between intake REPs and systemic REPs. Two different patterns were discerned. Compared with intake REPs, systemic REPs based on plasma or adipose levels were higher for PeCDD, 4-PeCDF, and PCB-126 but lower for the mono-ortho PCBs 118 and 156. Based on these mouse data, the comparison between intake REPs and systemic REPs reveals significant congener-specific differences that warrants the development of systemic TEFs to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blood and body tissues.

  3. Comparison of Intake and Systemic Relative Effect Potencies of Dioxin-like Compounds in Female Mice after a Single Oral Dose

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patrik L.; Gaisch, Konrad P.J.; van den Berg, Martin; van Duursen, Majorie B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Risk assessment for mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is performed using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. These TEF values are derived mainly from relative effect potencies (REPs) linking an administered dose to an in vivo toxic or biological effect, resulting in “intake” TEFs. At present, there is insufficient data available to conclude that intake TEFs are also applicable for systemic concentrations (e.g., blood and tissues). Objective: We compared intake and systemic REPs of 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzodioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), 3,3´,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), 2,3´,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118), and 2,3,3´,4,4´,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) in female C57BL/6 mice 3 days after a single oral dose. Methods: We calculated intake REPs and systemic REPs based on administered dose and liver, adipose, or plasma concentrations relative to TCDD. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1–associated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and gene expression of Cyp1a1, 1a2 and 1b1 in the liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were used as biological end points. Results: We observed up to one order of magnitude difference between intake REPs and systemic REPs. Two different patterns were discerned. Compared with intake REPs, systemic REPs based on plasma or adipose levels were higher for PeCDD, 4-PeCDF, and PCB-126 but lower for the mono-ortho PCBs 118 and 156. Conclusions: Based on these mouse data, the comparison between intake REPs and systemic REPs reveals significant congener-specific differences that warrants the development of systemic TEFs to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blood and body tissues. PMID:23674508

  4. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (∼500 μg/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 μg h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood

  5. Investigation of the bioavailability of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin and the flavonoids quercetin and isorhamnetin following single and multiple oral dosing of a hypericum extract containing tablet.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Schürer, Michael; Bässler, Dagmar; Weiser, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two open phase I clinical trials was the investigation of the bioavailability of five constituents from a hypericum extract containing tablet, which are discussed as the components contributing to the antidepressant action. Each trial included 18 healthy male volunteers who received the test preparation, containing 612 mg dry extract of St John's wort (STW-3, Laif 600), either as a single oral dose or as a multiple once daily dose over a period of 14 days. Concentration/time curves were determined for hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, the flavonoid aglycone quercetin, and its methylated form isorhamnetin for 48 h after single dosing and for 24 h on day 14 at the end of 2 weeks of continuous daily dosing. After single dose intake, the key pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as follows: hypericin: area under the curve (AUC(0-infinity)) = 75.96 h x ng/ml, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) = 3.14 ng/ml, time to reach Cmax (t(max)) = 8.1 h, and elimination half-life (t1/2) = 23.76 h; pseudohypericin: AUC(0-infinity) = 93.03 h x ng/ml, Cmax = 8.50 ng/ml, t(max) = 3.0 h, t1/2 = 25.39 h; hyperforin: AUC(0-max) = 1009.0 h x ng/ml, Cmax = 83.5 nglml, t(max) = 4.4 h, t1/2 = 19.64 h. Quercetin and isohamnetin showed two peaks of maximum plasma concentration separated by about 4 h. Quercetin: AUC(0-infinity) = 318,7 h x ng/ml, Cmax (1) = 47.7 ng/ml, t(max) (1) = 1.17 h, Cmax (2) = 43.8 ng/ml, t(max) (2) = 5.47 h, t1/2 = 4.16 h; isorhamnetin: AUC(0-infinity) = 98.0 h x ng/ml, Cmax (1) = 7.6 ng/ml, t(max) (1) = 1.53 h, Cmax (2) = 9.0 ng/ml, t(max), (2) = 6.42 h, t1/2 = 4.45 h. Under steady state conditions reached during multiple dose administration similar results were obtained. Further pharmacokinetic characteristics calculated from the obtained data were the mean residence time (MRT), the lag-time, the peak-trough fluctuation (PTF), the lowest observed plasma concentration (Cmin), and the average plasma concentration (Cav). The data

  6. Efficacy of a single dose of oral antibiotic given within two hours of birth in preventing watery mouth disease and illthrift in colostrum-deficient lambs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J C; Brebner, J; Mckendrick, I J

    1999-07-17

    An antibiotic with a product licence limited to the treatment and control of infectious bacterial enteritis associated with Escherichia coli in piglets was tested for its ability to control watery mouth disease in neonatal lambs. Three groups of lambs were kept in conditions commonly encountered in intensive lambing systems, where high levels of environmental bacterial contamination may be expected. They were allocated at birth to: a control group (group 1) consisting of 18 colostrum-deprived lambs; group 2, consisting of 17 lambs given one feed of colostrum when they were two hours old; and group 3, consisting of 18 colostrum-deprived lambs given spectinomycin orally when they were two hours old. Nine group 1 lambs became diseased and were killed for humane reasons. Blood biochemical changes included hyperglycaemia followed by hypoglycaemia, lactacidaemia, hypoproteinaemia and metabolic acidosis, and postmortem examination of the diseased lambs showed signs consistent with endotoxaemia and a clinical diagnosis of watery mouth disease. Coliforms were isolated from the blood of all group 1 lambs and from half the lambs in groups 2 and 3, but endotoxaemia and watery mouth disease occurred only in group 1 lambs. The results for groups 2 and 3 showed that neither colostrum nor antibiotic at the rates and frequency used prevented bacteraemia, although consecutive samples were positive only on three occasions. Group 3 lambs consistently grew more rapidly than the surviving group 1 lambs and as rapidly as group 2 lambs. There was no evidence that male lambs were more prone to watery mouth disease than female lambs. The results indicated that the antibiotic spectinomycin did not induce endotoxaemia during low-grade bacteraemia and that a single oral dose given within two hours of birth protected colostrum-deprived lambs delivered into a contaminated indoor environment against watery mouth disease.

  7. Rat tissue concentrations of chlorimipramine, chlorpromazine and their N-demethylated metabolites after a single oral dose of the parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sgaragli, G P; Valoti, M; Palmi, M; Frosini, M; Giovannini, M G; Bianchi, L; Della Corte, L

    1995-09-01

    A single oral dose of 90 mg kg-1 chlorimipramine or chlorpromazine, corresponding to 54.5 or 55.9 mumol, respectively, was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats and concentrations of parent drugs and their N-desmethyl metabolites measured by gas chromatography in plasma and major organs (brain, liver, lung, kidney, heart, spleen and peritoneal fat). In the case of chlorimipramine, N-desmethyl metabolite levels were consistently higher than those of the parent drug for the entire observation period of 24 h in all tissues except fat, while lower N-desmethyl metabolite/parent compound ratios were observed for chlorpromazine. N-Desmethyl metabolite kinetics of chlorimipramine appeared to be elimination-rate limited, while those of chlorpromazine were formation-rate limited. In all analysed organs, the maximu detectable drug+metabolite concentrations accounted for only 2.3 and 4.6% of the initial dose of chlorimipramine and chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine treatment gave rise to an area under the total amount-time curve (AUC0-24) for parent drug+metabolites, 3.9-fold that for chlorimipraine. Closer scrutiny discloses a conversion ratio of parent compound to N-desmethyl metabolite of 1.1 for chlorpromazine and of 2.2 for chlorimipramine, indicating the greater efficiency of chlorimipramine metabolism in all compartments. The expected high conversion index found in the liver (2.3) reaches its maximum of 5.4 in the lung. Fractional data analysis of chlorimipramine and chlorpromazine distribution patterns revealed greater organ transfer for the N-desmethyl metabolites than for the more stably-located parent compounds. The N-desmethyl metabolites of chlorimipramine apparently moved from liver to lung, kidney and spleen, whereas N-desmethylchlopromazine moved preferentially to the brain and lung tissue. This single dose study of chlorimipramine and chlorpromazine kinetics, highlights the two distinct dispositional processes at work in the rat in all likelihood, attributable to

  8. Corticosterone in drinking water: altered kinetics of a single oral dose of corticosterone and concentrations of plasma sodium, albumin, globulin, and total protein.

    PubMed

    Pung, Thitiya; Zimmerman, Kurt; Klein, Bradley; Ehrich, Marion

    2003-10-01

    Effects of chronic exposure to corticosterone in drinking water on corticosterone kinetics, blood chemistry, and concentrations of catecholamines in parts of brain were studied in Long-Evans rats. Rats were randomly grouped into 3 x 2 treatments (n=4), with three treatments of drinking water (tap water, or 2.5% ethanol, or 400 microg/mL of corticosterone in 2.5% ethanol) for 28 days and two treatments of gavage with a single dose of either corn oil or corticosterone 20 mg/kg on day 28. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 720 min after dosing to determine plasma corticosterone concentrations. Blood samples were collected for clinical pathology on day 42. Hippocampus, cerebral cortex, caudate-putamen, and pons were examined to determine concentrations of catecholamines and activities of esterases. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone before gavage of the corticosterone-drinking rats (47.61 +/- 1.13 ng/mL) were lower than the water (418.47 +/- 1.13 ng/mL) or the ethanol rats (383.71 +/- 1.13 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Plasma corticosterone rose to peak concentrations by 15 min after gavage in all three groups of drinking rats. Corticosterone-drinking rats had concentrations of plasma corticosterone that returned to basal levels slower than water- and ethanol-drinking rats. Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations were lower in the corticosterone-drinking rats than the water-drinking rats (P < 0.01). Plasma albumin, globulin, and total protein were highest in the corticosterone-drinking rats when compared to the other groups of drinking rats (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively). Corticosterone in drinking water did not affect activities of brain neurotoxic esterase, carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase, or concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites. A single oral dose of corticosterone reduced neurotoxic esterase activity in the cerebral cortex (P < 0.05) and increased norepinephrine concentrations in the hippocampus

  9. Pharmacokinetic comparison of a single oral dose of polymorph form i versus form V capsules of the antiorthopoxvirus compound ST-246 in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Honeychurch, Kady M; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R; Bolken, Tove' C; Jordan, Robert; Jones, Kevin F; Marbury, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Israel; Pickens, Margaret; Corrado, Michael; Landis, Patrick; Clarke, Jean M; Frimm, Annie M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2012-07-01

    ST-246, a novel compound that inhibits egress of orthopoxvirus from mammalian cells, is being tested as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. This phase I, double-blind, randomized, crossover, exploratory study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single daily 400-mg oral dose of ST-246 polymorph form I versus polymorph form V administered to fed, healthy human volunteers. Both forms appeared to be well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. The order of administration of the two forms had no effect on the results of the PK analyses. Form I and form V both exhibited comparable plasma concentration versus time profiles, but complete bioequivalence between the two forms was not found. Maximum drug concentration (C(max)) met the bioequivalence criteria, as the 90% confidence interval (CI) was 80.6 to 96.9%. However, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC(0-t)) and AUC(0-∞) did not meet the bioequivalence criteria (CIs of 67.8 to 91.0% and 73.9 to 104.7%, respectively). The extent of absorption of form I, as defined by AUC(0-∞), was 11.7% lower than that of form V. Since ST-246 form I is more thermostable than form V, form I was selected for further development and use in all future studies.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Single Oral Dose of Polymorph Form I versus Form V Capsules of the Antiorthopoxvirus Compound ST-246 in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Honeychurch, Kady M.; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Jordan, Robert; Jones, Kevin F.; Marbury, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Israel; Pickens, Margaret; Corrado, Michael; Landis, Patrick; Clarke, Jean M.; Frimm, Annie M.

    2012-01-01

    ST-246, a novel compound that inhibits egress of orthopoxvirus from mammalian cells, is being tested as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. This phase I, double-blind, randomized, crossover, exploratory study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single daily 400-mg oral dose of ST-246 polymorph form I versus polymorph form V administered to fed, healthy human volunteers. Both forms appeared to be well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. The order of administration of the two forms had no effect on the results of the PK analyses. Form I and form V both exhibited comparable plasma concentration versus time profiles, but complete bioequivalence between the two forms was not found. Maximum drug concentration (Cmax) met the bioequivalence criteria, as the 90% confidence interval (CI) was 80.6 to 96.9%. However, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t) and AUC0-∞ did not meet the bioequivalence criteria (CIs of 67.8 to 91.0% and 73.9 to 104.7%, respectively). The extent of absorption of form I, as defined by AUC0-∞, was 11.7% lower than that of form V. Since ST-246 form I is more thermostable than form V, form I was selected for further development and use in all future studies. PMID:22526314

  11. The acute effects of single-dose orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on natural infections of Syphacia muris in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Alper; Doğan, Nurhan; Bülbül, Aziz

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the acute effects of a single-dose of orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on Syphacia muris infection in rats. Rats, naturally infected with S. muris, were divided into four groups: three different treatment groups (n=7) and one positive control (n=7). Cellophane tape preparations were obtained from the treated rats on day 0 pre-treatment and on days 2, 4 and 6 post-treatment. Syphacia sp. eggs were counted. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective in eliminating eggs on two post-treatment. However when egg counts on day 6 post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment egg counts, doramectin and selamectin were found to be 99.32 and 98.77% effective in eliminating eggs, respectively. On day 7 post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from all groups, and then the rats were necropsied. Doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin were found to be 100% effective in eliminating adult S. muris, when compared with the positive control group.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone in a combination oral liquid formulation, administered as single and multiple doses in healthy Chinese volunteers, and comparison with data for individual compounds formulated as Antuss®.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuhua; Huang, Wencan; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Haoyang; Wang, Zhanzhang; Hu, Jinqing; Zhu, Xiuqing; Qiu, Chang; Shang, Dewei; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Linghui; Wen, Yuguan

    2017-10-01

    1. A new oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone is effective in improving the symptoms of common cold. The pharmacokinetic properties of the individual components were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, four-period study in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers following single and multiple doses. The data were compared with data for the individual ingredients in Antuss®. 2. In the single-dose period, exposure levels (AUC and Cmax) for guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone increased directly as the dose of the oral liquid formulation increased from 5 to 15 mL. Only minor amounts of guaifenesin and hydrocodone were excreted in urine (∼0.10% and 4.66%, respectively). Pseudoephedrine was mainly excreted unchanged, with 44.95% of the dose excreted in urine within 24 h. After multiple dosing, there was no obvious accumulation of any drug, as assessed by AUC. When considering Cmax, there was a trend toward accumulation of hydrocodone and pseudoephedrine. The pharmacokinetic profiles of guaifenesin and pseudoephedrine in the oral liquid formulation were similar to those in the branded preparation, Antuss®. 3. The newly developed oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone was safe and well tolerated and might provide a reliable alternative to the branded formulation for patients with common colds.

  13. Randomized, Controlled Human Challenge Study of the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of a Single Dose of Peru-15, a Live Attenuated Oral Cholera Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell B.; Giannella, Ralph A.; Bean, Judy; Taylor, David N.; Parker, Susan; Hoeper, Amy; Wowk, Stephen; Hawkins, Jennifer; Kochi, Sims K.; Schiff, Gilbert; Killeen, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    Peru-15 is a live attenuated oral vaccine derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by a series of deletions and modifications, including deletion of the entire CT genetic element. Peru-15 is also a stable, motility-defective strain and is unable to recombine with homologous DNA. We wished to determine whether a single oral dose of Peru-15 was safe and immunogenic and whether it would provide significant protection against moderate and severe diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human volunteer cholera challenge model. A total of 59 volunteers were randomly allocated to groups to receive either 2 × 108 CFU of reconstituted, lyophilized Peru-15 vaccine diluted in CeraVacx buffer or placebo (CeraVacx buffer alone). Approximately 3 months after vaccination, 36 of these volunteers were challenged with approximately 105 CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Among vaccinees, 98% showed at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers. After challenge, 5 (42%) of the 12 placebo recipients and none (0%) of the 24 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (≥3,000 g of diarrheal stool) (P = 0.002; protective efficacy, 100%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 75%). A total of 7 (58%) of the 12 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 24 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P < 0.001; protective efficacy, 93%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 62%). The total number of diarrheal stools, weight of diarrheal stools, incidence of fever, and peak stool V. cholerae excretion among vaccinees were all significantly lower than in placebo recipients. Peru-15 is a well-tolerated and immunogenic oral cholera vaccine that affords protective efficacy against life-threatening cholera diarrhea in a human volunteer challenge model. This vaccine may therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers and is a strong candidate for further evaluation to prevent cholera

  14. A Single-Dose, Single-Period Pharmacokinetic Assessment of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablet of Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Ann; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Stark, Jeffrey G.; McMahen, Russ; Tengler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of a proprietary formulation of methylphenidate (MPH) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a phase 1 study. Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) combine two technologies in a single-tablet formulation—an extended-release profile that was designed for once-daily dosing in an ODT that does not require water or chewing for ingestion. Methods: This was a single-dose, open-label, single-period, single-treatment study, in which 32 children with ADHD who were receiving MPH in doses of 40 or 60 mg before beginning the study each received a 60-mg dose (2 × 30 mg) of MPH XR-ODT. The following plasma PK parameters of MPH were determined for participants grouped by age (6–7, 8–9, 10–12, and 13–17 years old): maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), elimination half-life (T½), area under the curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUCinf), oral clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution in the terminal phase (Vz/F). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: A total of 32 participants received the study drug. For all participants, plasma concentration–time profiles of MPH exhibited a broad peak after administration of MPH XR-ODT through ∼8 hours, indicating extended release from the formulation, followed by an apparent first-order elimination phase. As age increased, MPH exposure decreased and mean estimates of CL/F increased; however, weight-normalized CL/F values were comparable across age groups. Similarly, mean estimates of Vz/F increased with age, but weight-normalization decreased differences across age groups, with the exception of the youngest age group, which had higher values. All adverse events (AEs) were mild. Conclusion: This XR-ODT formulation of MPH demonstrated weight-normalized clearance rates that were consistent across all age groups, a PK profile

  15. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single, Escalating Oral Doses of JDTic

    PubMed Central

    Buda, Jeffrey J; Carroll, F I; Kosten, Thomas R; Swearingen, Dennis; Walters, Bradford B

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that kappa opioid receptor antagonists (KORAn) potentially could treat a wide variety of addictive and depressive disorders. We assessed the KORAn JDTic for safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial evaluating single oral doses in healthy adult males. Predose and postdose safety assessments included orthostatic vital signs; 6-lead continuous telemetry monitoring (approximately 16 h predose to 24 h postdose); 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs); clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis; psychomotor functioning (using the Wayne Saccadic Fixator (WSF)); and adverse events. As a potential indicator of JDTic effects on affect, the POMS Standard instrument was administered predose and daily postdose Days 1–6. At 1 mg, 2 of the 6 JDTic (and 0/6 placebo) subjects experienced a single, asymptomatic event of multiple beats of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Their events were temporally similar with respect to time postdose (and the postdose timing of an NSVT event in a monkey). These events triggered a study stopping rule. No differences were observed between the placebo and JDTic subjects with respect to clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, orthostatic vital signs, WSF, or 12-lead ECG parameters. Plasma JDTic levels were below the lower limit of quantitation (0.1 nM) in all subjects. There were no significant differences in POMS scores between the placebo and JDTic groups. Although the evidence is circumstantial, it suggests that NSVT is a potential JDTic toxicity in humans. Given the therapeutic potential of KORAn, further investigation is needed to determine whether a significant JDTic human cardiac effect indeed exists, and if so, whether it is specific to JDTic or represents a KORAn class effect. PMID:25628006

  16. Effect of fat on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels after a single oral dose of vitamin D in young healthy adults: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Fabiana Viegas; Lang, Maria Augusta Britto; Scopel, Luciano; Marcondes, Natália Aydos; Araújo, Mirna Griselda Anocibar; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-04-01

    This double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels after the oral intake of a single dose of cholecalciferol during one of the three meals, containing different amounts of fat or placebo. Sixty-four healthy medical residents or students of a university hospital in Porto Alegre, latitude 30° S, Brazil, were divided into four groups. Three groups received a single 50,000 IU oral dose of cholecalciferol during a meal containing 0 g (Group 1), 15 g (Group 2) or 30 g (Group 3) of fat, and one group received placebo (Group 4), according to randomization. Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, total calcium, albumin, magnesium, and creatinine levels, and urinary calcium, magnesium, and creatinine levels were measured at baseline and after 14 days. Baseline mean serum 25(OH)D levels were low in all groups. Vitamin D given during breakfast increased the mean change of serum 25(OH)D levels, when compared to placebo. Furthermore, the intake of fat with vitamin D increased the mean change of serum 25(OH)D levels. A single oral dose of vitamin D given with food increased mean serum 25(OH)D levels, after 2 weeks, and the mean increase was larger, when the meal had at least 15 g of fat. These findings can have important implications to oral vitamin D supplementation.

  17. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Preston, S L; Briceland, L L

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single daily dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-daily therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.

  18. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam in healthy volunteers: an interethnic comparative study between Japanese and European volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, J M; Uchida, E; Uchida, N; Pieters, M S; Meinders, A J; Schoemaker, R C; Nanhekhan, L V; Kroon, J M; de Visser, S J; Altorf, B; Yasuda, K; Yasuhara, H; Cohen, A F

    1998-12-01

    Potential interethnic differences in drug disposition and effects between Japanese and white subjects hamper the registration in Japan of medications already used in Western countries. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted to compare the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of nitrazepam (5 mg) in age- and sex-matched Japanese (n = 8) and white (n = 8) healthy volunteers. The study was performed in centers in Japan and the Netherlands using the same methods and study design. Subjects were individually matched for gender, age, and body stature. Drug effects were measured by means of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements and visual analog lines obtained from the scales of Bond and Lader. There were no pharmacokinetic differences between the Japanese and white subjects. Clearance of nitrazepam was 0.91 +/- 0.165 mL/min/kg and 1.17 +/- 0.492 mL/min/kg, and half-life (t1/2) was 22.1 +/- 4.96 hours and 21.5 +/- 7.51 hours for the Japanese and European groups, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant correlation with age, height, or weight. The average time-effect curves for the different parameters were comparable between groups. Compared with placebo, both groups showed similar significant reductions in average peak velocity and increases in saccadic inaccuracy and reaction time. Visual analog scores showed clear sedation in the white subjects, but insignificant effects in the Japanese subjects. Smooth pursuit did not change significantly in either group. Slope and intercept of the concentration-effect relationships for saccadic peak velocity showed considerable intersubject variability, but no clear differences between groups. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nitrazepam were similar in matched healthy Japanese and white subjects. Interethnic comparative studies are feasible, and provide meaningful information about potential racial differences in disposition and action of drugs

  19. Bradycardia following a single low dose of trazodone.

    PubMed

    Li, Tien-Chun; Chiu, Hsiu-Wen; Ho, Kai-Jen; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Symptomatic bradycardia following a single low dose of oral trazodone is rare. Herein, we report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder who developed and was able to resolve symptomatic bradycardia following administration of a single low dose of trazodone 50mg, and then discontinuation. This is the first case report of symptomatic bradycardia which might be attributed to a single lowest dose of trazodone in the world.

  20. Concentrations in plasma, urinary excretion, and bactericidal activity of linezolid (600 milligrams) versus those of ciprofloxacin (500 milligrams) in healthy volunteers receiving a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wydra, Stephan; Onda, Hajime; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sörgel, Fritz; Naber, Kurt G

    2003-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 12 volunteers (6 males, 6 females) received a single oral dose of 600 mg of linezolid or 500 mg of ciprofloxacin to assess the concentrations in plasma (up to 24 h), urinary excretion (by high-pressure liquid chromatography), and bactericidal titers in urine (UBT) at intervals up to 120 h. The mean maximum concentration of linezolid in plasma was 13.1 mg/liter, and that of ciprofloxacin was 2.46 mg/liter. The median cumulative levels of renal excretion of the administered dose of the parent drug were 44% for linezolid (range, 28 to 47%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 7.8%) and 43% for ciprofloxacin (range, 20 to 56%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 9.3%). The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilution (with antibiotic-free urine used as the diluent) of urine that was still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and five gram-positive clinical uropathogens for which the MICs of linezolid and ciprofloxacin were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 27278, 2 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 16 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), 2 and 64 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus saprophyticus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively; and Enterococcus faecium, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively. The median UBTs of linezolid measured within the first 6 h were 1:96 for each of the two enterococcal strains and between 1:128 and 1:256 for the four staphylococcal strains. The median UBTs of ciprofloxacin were 1:64 for the two enterococcal strains; between 1:384 and 1:512 for the two ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains; and 1 (bactericidal activity of undiluted urine only) and 1:2 for the two resistant staphylococcal strains, respectively. The areas under the UBT-time curve (AUBT) for linezolid and ciprofloxacin showed no statistically significant (P<0

  1. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18–55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. PMID:26316698

  2. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18-55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant.

  3. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Rufinamide Following Single and Multiple Oral Doses and Effect of Food on Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingzhen; Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2016-10-01

    Rufinamide is a triazole derivative that is structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic medications for add-on treatment of seizures in the setting of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients from the age of 4 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of single and multiple doses of rufinamide in healthy Chinese subjects. The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide were also evaluated. In the single-dose study, volunteers were randomly assigned to 4 dose groups and received a single dose of 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg rufinamide tablets under fasting condition. Ten subjects in the 200-mg dose group were randomly assigned to either a high-fat or non-high-fat breakfast group in each study period. The drug administration was separated by a washout period of 7 calendar days. In the multiple-dose study, 10 subjects were administered on an empty stomach rufinamide 200 mg twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine plasma concentration of rufinamide. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max), the time to peak concentration (t max), the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2), apparent volume of distribution (V d), apparent clearance (CL), average residence time (MRT), area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration at steady state (AUCss), peak concentration (C max,ss) and trough level concentration (C min,ss) at steady state were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed based on investigator inquiries, spontaneous reports and clinical evaluations. Rufinamide displayed a dose-dependent, but sub-proportional increase in exposure

  5. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: tissue distribution, identification, and quantitation of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Brewster, D W; Warren, J; Hopkins, W E

    1991-07-01

    Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered a mixture of [14C]- and [12C]-glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight. The majority of radioactivity 2 hr after administration was associated with the gastrointestinal contents and small intestinal tissue. Approximately 35-40% of the administered dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and urine and feces were equally important routes of elimination. The total body burden 7 days after administration was approximately 1% of the administered dose and was primarily associated with the bone. Total recovery for this study ranged from 95 to 102% of the administered dose. Metabolic profiles of tissues containing greater than 1% of the administered dose at various times after administration indicated that nearly 100% of the body burden of radioactivity was present as unmetabolized parent glyphosate. A minor component constituting less than 0.1% of the administered dose (less than 0.4 ppm) was observed in colon tissue from animals 2 hr after the administration of glyphosate and was also present in the GI contents of one animal 28 hr after administration of the radiolabel. The retention time for this metabolite was similar, but not identical, to the retention time for AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), the major bacterial metabolite of glyphosate found in soil. Tissue extraction efficiency was always greater than 90% and stability assays indicated no significant effect of storage on either parent glyphosate or AMPA. The results from this study indicate that virtually no toxic metabolites of glyphosate were produced since there was little evidence of metabolism and essentially 100% of the body burden was parent compound with no significant persistence of material.

  6. No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: a pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men.

    PubMed

    Kasbia, Gursevak S; Arnason, Jon Thor; Imbeault, Pascal

    2009-10-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men. Five healthy overweight men were supplemented on three randomized conditions where (1) no MC (placebo), (2) 50 mg/kg body weight (MC50) or (3) 100 mg/kg body weight of freeze dried MC were administered orally prior to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured before and during the OGTT. Energy expenditure as well as carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite profile. Plasma glucose and insulin levels significantly increased during the OGTT (p < or =0.05) but no significant difference was observed between experimental conditions. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates as well as appetite profile did not differ between experimental conditions. These results suggest that from an acute standpoint, a freeze dried MC extraction in its present dose form does not affect plasma glucose/insulin levels, energy expenditure, substrate mixture and appetite scores following an oral glucose load in non-diabetic overweight men.

  7. Persistent liver lesions in rats after a single oral dose of polybrominated biphenyls (firemaster FF-1) and concomitant PBB tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Burse, V W; Liddle, J A

    1978-04-01

    In a preliminary study, 12 male and 12 female weanling Sherman strain rats were given a single dose of 1000 mg polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) FireMaster FF1 Lot 7042 kg/body weight as a 5% solution in corn oil. Three male and three female weanling rats were given corn oil. One day after dosing PBB blood levels ranged from 78 to 162 ppm and 42 days later they ranged from 1.1 to 2.99 ppm. The liver was the only organ with pathological changes. In a long-term recovery study groups of 20 male and female rats, 2 months old, were given 0 or 1000 mg PBBs/kg body weight as a single dose in peanut oil. Five rats per group killed 2, 6, 10, and 14 months after dosing had pronounced liver pathology, including hepatic porphyria in the female rats and neoplastic nodules also mainly in female rats. Chemical analyses of blood, liver, and adipose tissue for PPBs 10 and 14 months after dosing gave the following mean results. Blood levels in females were 2.9 and 2.92 ppm, respectively, and males 0.94 and 1.34 ppm, respectively. Adipose tissue levels in females were 1202 and 783 ppm and in males 713 and 866 ppm, respectively. The liver levels in females were 37 and 22 ppm and in males 60 and 63 ppm, respectively.

  8. A Single Oral Dose of Geranylgeranylacetone Upregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Protects against Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Cell Death: Involvement of the Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yukari; Fujiki, Minoru; Uchida, Susumu; Morishige, Masaki; Momii, Yasutomo; Ishii, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the cytoprotective effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat shock protein inducer, against ischemic insult or kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal cell death. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt is thought to be an important factor that mediates neuroprotection. However, the signaling pathways in the brain in vivo after oral GGA administration remain unclear. We measured and compared hippocampal neuron density to investigate the effect of GGA on KA-induced cell death in rats. We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with wortmannin (Wort), a specific PI3K inhibitor, on GGA-induced neuroprotection against KA-induced cell death. To clarify the relationship between PI3K/Akt activation and neuroprotection, we used immunoblot analysis to determine the amounts of p-Akt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins present after GGA administration with or without Wort treatment. Neuroprotective effects of GGA (pretreatment with a single oral dose of GGA, 800 mg/kg, 48 h before KA injection) were prevented by Wort pretreatment, which indicates that the selective PI3K/Akt pathway may mediate the GGA-dependent protection. Oral GGA-induced p-Akt and VEGF, and GGA pretreatment enhanced KA-induced VEGF, both of which were prevented by Wort pretreatment. These results suggest that a single oral dose of GGA induces p-Akt and that GGA plays an important role in neuroprotection against KA-induced neuronal cell death through VEGF induction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-04-04

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. A single clinical research unit. In total, 20 male participants, 18-55 years old, entered and completed the study. All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration-time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC0-∞); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-tz); maximum observed concentration (Cmax); time to Cmax (Tmax)). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC0-tz and AUC0-∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). Cmax was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median Tmax was shorter (difference 1.0 and 1.5 hours postdose, respectively) versus intact capsules (2.0 hours). Single 10 mg doses of

  10. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. Design A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. Setting A single clinical research unit. Participants In total, 20 male participants, 18–55 years old, entered and completed the study. Interventions All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration–time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC0–∞); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–tz); maximum observed concentration (Cmax); time to Cmax (Tmax)). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC0–tz and AUC0–∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). Cmax was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median Tmax was shorter

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Omadacycline following a Single Intravenous or Oral Dose of 14C-Omadacycline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Flarakos, Jimmy; Du, Yancy; Hu, Wenyu; He, Handan; Mangold, James; Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of omadacycline, a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, were evaluated in rats. Tissue distribution was investigated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in male Long-Evans Hooded (LEH) rats. Following an intravenous (i.v.) dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight, radioactivity widely and rapidly distributed into most tissues. The highest tissue-to-blood concentration ratios (t/b) were observed in bone mineral, thyroid gland, and Harderian gland at 24 h post-i.v. dose. There was no evidence of stable accumulation in uveal tract tissue, suggesting the absence of a stable binding interaction with melanin. Following a 90 mg/kg oral dose in LEH rats, the highest t/b were observed in bone mineral, Harderian gland, liver, spleen, and salivary gland. The plasma protein binding levels were 26% in the rat and 15% to 21% in other species. Omadacycline plasma clearance was 1.2 liters/h/kg, and its half-life was 4.6 h; the steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 6.89 liters/kg. Major circulating components in plasma were intact omadacycline and its epimer. Consistent with observations in human, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted into the feces as unchanged omadacycline after i.v. administration. Fecal excretion was primarily the result of biliary excretion (∼40%) and direct gastrointestinal secretion (∼30%). However, urinary excretion (∼30%) was equally prominent after i.v. dosing. PMID:27821446

  12. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release oral formulations of cilostazol in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, 3-part, sequential, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, food-effect, and multiple-dose study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-12-01

    A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P < 0.0001), yielding

  13. Single dose pharmacokinetics of terbinafine in cats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ang; Ding, Huanzhong; Liu, Yiming; Gao, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2012-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of terbinafine was studied in six healthy fasted cats following a single intravenous and oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, respectively, according to a two-period crossover design. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were determined using a reverse phase liquid chromatographic method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis with WinNonlin 5.2.1 software. After intravenous administration, the terminal half-life and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity were 10.40 ± 4.56 h, 15.20 ± 3.61 h·µg/ml, respectively. After oral dosing, the mean maximum concentration was 3.22 ± 0.60 µg/ml, reached at 1.33 ± 0.41 h. The terminal half-life, area under the curve from time 0 to infinity and apparent volume of distribution were 8.01 ± 3.46 h, 13.77 ± 4.99 h·µg/ml, 25.63 ± 6.29 l/kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailability of terbinafine hydrochloride tablets after oral administration was 31.00 ± 10.85%. Although bioavailability was low, excellent penetration at the site of infection and low minimum inhibitory concentrations values provided terbinafine with good efficacy against dermatophyte infections.

  14. Exposure-safety-efficacy analysis of single-agent ixazomib, an oral proteasome inhibitor, in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: dose selection for a phase 3 maintenance study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Labotka, Richard; Liu, Guohui; Hui, Ai-Min; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik

    2016-06-01

    Background Ixazomib is the first oral, small molecule proteasome inhibitor to reach phase 3 trials. The current analysis characterized the exposure-safety and exposure-efficacy relationships of ixazomib in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) with a purpose of recommending an approach to ixazomib dosing for maintenance therapy. Methods Logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between ixazomib plasma exposure (area under the curve/day; derived from individual apparent clearance values from a published population pharmacokinetic analysis) and safety/efficacy outcomes (hematologic [grade ≥ 3 vs ≤ 2] or non-hematologic [grade ≥ 2 vs ≤ 1] adverse events [AEs], and clinical benefit [≥stable disease vs progressive disease]) using phase 1 data in relapsed/refractory MM (NCT00963820; N = 44). Results Significant relationships to ixazomib exposure were observed for five AEs (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, rash, fatigue, and diarrhea) and clinical benefit (p < 0.05). Dose-response relationships indicated a favorable benefit/risk ratio at 3 mg and 4 mg weekly, which are below the maximum tolerated dose of 5.5 mg. At 3 mg, the model predicted that: 37 % of patients will achieve clinical benefit; incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia will be 10 % and 23 %, respectively; and incidence of grade ≥ 2 rash, fatigue, and diarrhea will be 8 %, 19 %, and 19 %, respectively. Conclusions Based on the findings, patients in the phase 3 maintenance trial will initiate ixazomib at a once-weekly dose of 3 mg, increasing to 4 mg if acceptable tolerability after 4 cycles, to provide maximum clinical benefit balanced with adequate tolerability.

  15. Single- and repeated-dose oral toxicity studies of citicoline free-base (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Schauss, A G; Somfai-Relle, S; Financsek, I; Glavits, R; Parent, S C; Endres, J R; Varga, T; Szücs, Z; Clewell, A

    2009-01-01

    The dietary supplement Citicoline free-base (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate) was toxicologically evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using oral gavage. In an acute 14-day study, 2000 mg/kg was well tolerated. In a 90-day study, 100, 350, and 1000 mg/kg/day doses resulted in no mortality. In males, slight significant increases in serum creatinine (350 and 1000 mg/kg/day), and decreases in urine volume (all treated groups) were observed. In females, slight significant increases in total white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts (1000 mg/kg/day), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (100 and 350, but not 1000 mg/kg/day) were noted. A dose-related increase in renal tubular mineralization, without degenerative or inflammatory reaction, was found in females (all treated groups) and two males (1000 mg/kg/day). Renal mineralization in rats (especially females) is influenced by calcium:phosphorus ratios in the diet. A high level of citicoline consumption resulted in increased phosphorus intake in the rats, and likely explains this result.

  16. Efficacy of two low-dose oral tylosin regimens in controlling the relapse of diarrhea in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its wide acceptance as a treatment for canine chronic enteropathies, the macrolide antibiotic tylosin lacks official oral dosage recommendations. Not even textbooks share consensus about the dose; daily recommendations vary from 25 to 80 mg/kg and dosing intervals from one to three times daily. The objective of this prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial was to determine whether doses of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin administered orally once daily for seven days would have a similar effect on fecal consistency in diarrhea relapses to that of a 25 mg/kg dose of tylosin administered once daily for seven days, a dosage that has proved effective in controlling canine tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD). A further objective was to compare the efficacy of the 5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages. Fifteen client-owned dogs diagnosed with TRD that had responded to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days were enrolled in the study. After a relapse of diarrhea the dogs were allocated into two groups receiving tylosin orally in doses of either 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg once daily for seven days. The owners were blinded to the dosage. The elimination of diarrhea was the main criterion in assessing treatment success. The mean fecal consistency score of the last three treatment days for all dosages, including 25 mg/kg, as evaluated by the owners according to a standardized fecal scoring system, served as the primary outcome measures. Results All eight dogs responded to the 5 mg/kg dose, and six of seven dogs responded to the 15 mg/kg dose. The mean fecal consistency scores at the 25 mg/kg tylosin dosage were no significantly different from scores at the 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages (P = 0.672, P = 0.345). Conclusions Interestingly, 14/15 (93%) of the dogs responding to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days also responded to the lower dosages at diarrhea relapse. The data indicate

  17. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants

  18. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jayne; Meseguer, Fuensanta; Faura, Clara; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena

    2010-09-08

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls.Over 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with oral dipyrone 500 mg compared to 30

  19. A phase-3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and safety of single oral doses of secnidazole 2 g for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Schwebke, Jane R; Morgan, Franklin G; Koltun, William; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2017-09-01

    A novel single oral dose granule formulation of secnidazole 2 g, a 5-nitroimidazole with a longer half-life (∼17 hours) than metronidazole (∼8 hours), is being developed to treat bacterial vaginosis. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-dose secnidazole 2 g compared to placebo for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. In all, 189 women with bacterial vaginosis were randomized 2:1 to receive a single oral dose of secnidazole 2 g (N = 125) or matched placebo (N = 64) at 21 centers in the United States. The primary endpoint was the proportion of clinical outcome responders, defined as those with: (1) normal vaginal discharge; (2) negative 10% potassium hydroxide whiff test; and (3) <20% clue cells of total epithelial cell count on microscopic examination of the vaginal wet mount, using saline at the test of cure/end of study visit (study days 21-30). Secondary efficacy analyses included clinical cure rates, defined as: (1) responders with normal discharge or abnormal discharge not consistent with bacterial vaginosis after treatment; (2) negative potassium hydroxide whiff tests; and (3) clue cells <20% assessed at the interim visit (study days 7-14), and test of cure/end of study (study days 21-30). In addition, based on the 2016 US Food and Drug Administration draft guidance, patients with baseline Nugent scores 7-10 were evaluated for clinical cure using the following clinical assessments on study days 7-14: (1) resolution of the abnormal vaginal discharge; (2) a negative potassium hydroxide whiff test; and (3) clue cells <20%. The study was designed and powered to demonstrate the efficacy of single-dose secnidazole 2 g compared to placebo; safety and tolerability were also assessed. Due to a prespecified institutional review board-approved protocol calling for withdrawal of randomized, treated patients with a Nugent score <4 or with a separate sexually transmitted infection, this modified intent-to-treat population was the

  20. SODIUM BICARBONATE FACILITATES LOW-DOSE ORAL TOLERANCE TO PEANUT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Oral tolerance specifically inhibits production of allergic IgE antibody and is therefore a potential method for suppressing food allergy. We have previously demonstrated that a single oral dose of one mg is sufficient to induce oral tolerance to egg white but not pean...

  1. SODIUM BICARBONATE FACILITATES LOW-DOSE ORAL TOLERANCE TO PEANUT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Oral tolerance specifically inhibits production of allergic IgE antibody and is therefore a potential method for suppressing food allergy. We have previously demonstrated that a single oral dose of one mg is sufficient to induce oral tolerance to egg white but not pean...

  2. Single dose pharmacokinetics and tolerance of pancopride in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dewland, P; Pérez Campos, A; Martinez-Tobed, A

    1995-02-01

    Pancopride (LAS 30451, CAS 121650-80-4) is a new selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist which has demonstrated antiemetic properties in animal models. The tolerance and pharmacokinetics of pancopride and its effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine flare test were examined in healthy male volunteers, in three single-dose studies. The studies consisted of two rising dose tolerance and kinetic studies with placebo control, each involving 14 volunteers, and an absolute bioavailability study involving 12 volunteers. The doses used in the rising dose studies were 0.5-20 mg intravenous pancopride in the first study, and 5-40 mg pancopride as oral solution in the second study. For the absolute bioavailability study, 20 mg doses as intravenous infusion, oral tablet and oral solution were compared. Pancopride was well tolerated at these doses in these studies. There were no significant effects on pulse rate, blood pressure, or electrocardiograms, or on haematology or serum biochemistry. Few adverse events were recorded, the most significant being gastrointestinal effects (including diarrhoea and soft stools) seen particularly with the 40 mg oral dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the 24 h after dosing were derived from plasma and urine pancopride levels, determined using a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Linear kinetics appeared to apply over the intravenous dose range 5-20 mg. Urinary recovery of unchanged pancopride was in the order of 10-17% over the 24 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    YamazakI, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

  4. Single dose dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J E; McQuay, H J; Moore, R A

    2000-01-01

    Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Published reports were identified from a variety of electronic databases including Medline, Biological Abstracts, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of patients to treatment groups, double blind design, adult patients, pain of moderate to severe intensity at baseline, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis: Summed pain intensity and pain relief data over 4-6 hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of patients obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat for one patient to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-harm. Fifty-two reports were identified as possible randomised trials which assessed dihydrocodeine in postoperative pain. Four reports met the inclusion criteria; all assessed oral dihydrocodeine. Three reports (194 patients) compared

  5. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2016-12-26

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and Cmax ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients.

  6. Blood phenylalanine concentrations in patients with PAH-deficient hyperphenylalaninaemia off diet without and with three different single oral doses of tetrahydrobiopterin: assessing responsiveness in a model of statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M; Gramer, G; Garbade, S F; Burgard, P

    2009-08-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) cofactor loading is a standard procedure to differentiate defects of BH(4) metabolism from phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. BH(4) responsiveness also exists in PAH-deficient patients with high residual PAH activity. Unexpectedly, single cases with presumed nil residual PAH activity have been reported to be BH(4) responsive, too. BH(4) responsiveness has been defined either by a >or=30% reduction of blood Phe concentration after a single BH(4) dose or by a decline greater than the individual circadian Phe level variation. Since both methods have methodological disadvantages, we present a model of statistical process control (SPC) to assess BH(4) responsiveness. Phe levels in 17 adult PKU patients of three phenotypic groups off diet were compared without and with three different single oral dosages of BH(4) applied in a double-blind randomized cross-over design. Results are compared for >or=30% reduction and SPC. The effect of BH(4) by >or=30% reduction was significant for groups (p < 0.01) but not for dose (p = 0.064), with no interaction of group with dose (p = 0.24). SPC revealed significant effects for group (p < 0.01) and the interaction for group with dose (p < 0.05) but not for dose alone (p = 0.87). After one or more loadings, seven patients would be judged to be BH(4) responsive either by the 30% criterion or by the SPC model, but only three by both. Results for patients with identical PAH genotype were not very consistent within (for different BH(4) doses) and between the two models. We conclude that a comparison of protein loadings without and with BH(4) combined with a standardized procedure for data analysis and decision would increase the reliability of diagnostic results.

  7. Comparison of peripheral and central effects of single and repeated oral dose administrations of bilastine, a new H1 antihistamine: a dose-range study in healthy volunteers with hydroxyzine and placebo as control treatments.

    PubMed

    García-Gea, Consuelo; Martínez-Colomer, Joan; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Valiente, Román; Barbanoj, Manuel-José

    2008-12-01

    Peripheral anti-H1 and central nervous system (CNS) activities after single (day 1) and repeated (day 7) administrations of increasing doses of bilastine (BIL) were assessed in 20 healthy volunteers throughout a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled study. Repeated doses of BIL 20, 40, or 80 mg and hydroxyzine 25 mg (HYD) as positive standard were administered on 7 consecutive days. Before and at several time points after drug intake, skin reactivity to the intradermal injection of histamine, objective tests of psychomotor performance, and subjective mood scales were evaluated. All active treatments led to a significant and similar reduction in the wheal reaction in relation to PLA after both the single (P < 0.001) and repeated administrations (P < 0.001). No delay was observed in the onset of its peripheral activity after the first dose of BIL as compared with HYD. No tolerance or sensitization was seen when comparing acute and repetitive assessments. Central nervous system effects showed that HYD induced the greatest psychomotor impairment (P < 0.05). Repeated HYD intake showed a lower number of significant alterations in comparison to acute administration. Bilastine 80 mg also showed some impairment (P < 0.05). Subjectively, the only active treatment that could not be differentiated from PLA was BIL 20 mg. Hydroxyzine 25 mg showed the greatest differentiation (P < 0.01). A clear dissociation between peripheral anti-H1 and CNS activity was found after BIL treatment. Significant and sustained peripheral H1-blocking effects were observed after both single and repeated administrations of the therapeutic dose of 20 mg BIL. The 40-mg dose of BIL produced subjective report of sedation, whereas unwanted objective CNS side effects were observed only with the 80-mg dose.

  8. Bioequivalence of a single 400-mg dose of imatinib 100-mg oral tablets and a 400-mg tablet in healthy adult Korean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Won; Seong, Sook Jin; Park, Sung Min; Lee, Joomi; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Sung Mook; Lim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Woomi; Yang, Dong Heon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new once-daily 400-mg film-coated tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Korea. The present study was designed to assess and compare the PK parameters, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of the new imatinib 400-mg formulation (test) versus the conventional 100-mg formulation (reference) administered as a single 400-mg dose in healthy adult male volunteers. This randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 400 mg of the test (one 400-mg tablet) or reference (four 100-mg tablets) formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞)ž were within the predetermined range of 0.80 - 1.25. In total, 35 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse event was reported during the study. The 90% CIs of the adjusted geometric mean ratios of the test formulation to the reference formulation for C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞)ž of imatinib were all within the bioequivalence criteria range of 0.8 - 1.25. The test formulation of imatinib met the Korean regulatory requirements for bioequivalence. Both imatinib formulations were well-tolerated in all subjects.

  9. Efficacy and safety of premedication with single dose of oral pregabalin in children with dental anxiety: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Soleymanzade, Rojin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a relatively frequent problem that can lead to more serious problems such as a child entering a vicious cycle as he/she becomes reluctant to accept the required dental treatments. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effect of pregabalin in children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children were randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Two visits were scheduled for each patient. At the first visit, 75 mg pregabalin or placebo was given randomly, and the alternative was administered at the next visit. Anxiolytic and sedative effects were measured using the visual analogue scale. The child's behavior was rated with the Frankl behavioral rating scale and the sedation level during the dental procedure was scored using the Ramsay sedation scale. The unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare the mean changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for anxiety in the pregabalin group with that of the placebo group. A repeated measures MANOVA model was used to detect differences in sedation level in the pregabalin and placebo groups regarding the interaction of 3-time measurements; sub-group analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyze the nonparametric data of the Frankl and Ramsay scales. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The reduction of the VAS-anxiety score from 2 h post-dose was statistically significant in the pregabalin group. From 2 h to 4 h post-dose, the VAS-sedation score increased significantly in the pregabalin group. The child's behavior rating was not significantly different between the groups. The number of “successful” treatment visits was higher in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: Significant anxiolytic and sedative effects can be anticipated 2 h after oral administration of pregabalin without serious side effects. PMID

  10. Urinary excretion of [2H4]folate by nonpregnant women following a single oral dose of [2H4]folic acid is a functional index of folate nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J F; Williamson, J; Bailey, L B; Toth, J P

    1998-11-01

    In a 10-wk study with nonpregnant women (21-27 y, n = 5-6 per group), subjects were fed a diet containing approximately 68 nmol/d (30 microg/d) folate from food that was supplemented with folic acid in apple juice to yield a constant intake of 454, 680 or 907 nmol/d (200, 300 or 400 microg/d) to evaluate folate status and long-term in vivo kinetics. Reported here is an additional phase of this protocol conducted to determine the relationship between short-term urinary excretion after a single isotopically labeled dose and various measures of folate nutritional status. It was hypothesized that urinary excretion from a single [glutamate-2H4]folic acid ([2H4]folic acid) dose would increase in proportion to folate nutritional status due to saturable cellular uptake and retention processes along with saturation of renal reabsorption. Each subject was given 1.13 micromol (500 microg) of [2H4]folic acid orally on the morning of d 70 of the study, followed by a complete 24-h urine collection. Urine was analyzed to determine the isotopic enrichment of urinary folate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the concentration of urinary folate by HPLC. Urinary excretion of [2H4]folate was greatest at the 907 nmol/d intake and was positively correlated with serum folate concentration but was not correlated with erythrocyte folate. Excretion of [2H4]folate tended to be greatest when plasma homocysteine concentrations were low (<8 micromol/L), although this relation was not significant. These results suggest that 24-h urinary excretion after a single oral dose of isotopically labeled folate is a functional indicator of folate nutritional status that complements other measures of folate nutriture.

  11. Absorption of cyclosporine A after oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J

    1986-12-01

    Variability in the absorption of CsA seems to contribute to the observed lack of correlation between the size of the oral dose and the trough concentration at steady state. Absorption is probably improved by thorough dispersion of the oral solution of CsA in the drink the patient prefers. Evidence for GI metabolism of CsA has only been gathered in animal experiments. The importance of bile for absorption of CsA into the portal blood is established. The bioavailability of CsA does not seem to be determined by the metabolism during the first passage through the liver. Enterohepatic recycling is likely for CsA metabolites and unlikely for unchanged CsA. A pharmacokinetic model that assumes zero-order absorption of CsA describes human data better than a model with first-order absorption. According to the zero-order model, CsA is absorbed only in the upper part of the small intestine by a mechanism that operates under saturation. Two independent findings in transplantation patients support this model. First, it was shown that small doses of CsA produce disproportionally high blood concentrations, probably due to a better bioavailability. Second, accelerated transit times in the intestine (diarrhea) lead to unexpectedly low blood concentrations, probably due to poor bioavailability. Further factors have been identified that cause low absorption of CsA: liver dysfunction and external bile drainage after liver transplantation. The influence of food on the absorption of CsA is still not determined conclusively, but it seems that giving CsA together with a standard breakfast results in higher blood concentrations. The observed increase in the bioavailability of CsA with time after transplantation could be caused by the attempt to steadily lower the dose.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of oral cyanocobalamin formulated with sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]caprylate (SNAC): an open-label, randomized, single-dose, parallel-group study in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Castelli, M Cristina; Wong, Diane F; Friedman, Kristen; Riley, M Gary I

    2011-07-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency may be caused by inadequate dietary intake of B12 or by conditions that result in malabsorption of the vitamin. Crystalline vitamin B12, usually in the form of cyanocobalamin, is administered parenterally (ie, intramuscularly) or orally for treating deficiency states. Intramuscular administration is widely accepted as a treatment method. Oral B12 supplementation is also used, but it is considered to be less reliable. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 2 oral formulations of cyanocobalamin-a marketed cyanocobalamin tablet (immediate-release B12 5 mg) and cyanocobalamin formulated with a proprietary carrier, sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]caprylate (SNAC)-to establish the feasibility of using an absorption enhancer with B12 to improve uptake of the vitamin. This was the first clinical study conducted with the cyanocobalamin/SNAC coformulation. An open-label, randomized, single-dose, parallel-group study was conducted in healthy male subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: Treatment A subjects (n = 4) received 2 tablets of 5-mg cyanocobalamin formulated with 100-mg SNAC as part of a dose range-finding arm included to determine a dose to provide a measurable concentration of vitamin B12 at all time points when tested with the available vitamin B12 assay; treatment B subjects (n = 6) received 1 tablet of 5-mg cyanocobalamin formulated with 100-mg SNAC; treatment C subjects (n = 6) received 1 commercially available 5-mg cyanocobalamin tablet; and treatment D subjects (n = 4) received commercially available 1-mg cyanocobalamin IV. Treatment A was completed 3 weeks before treatments B, C, and D were studied. Human serum B12 was analyzed by chemiluminescence assay method. Validation procedures established that samples could be diluted up to 100 times without any effects on accuracy and precision. The pharmacokinetic properties of vitamin B12 were characterized by

  13. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double-masked clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Goepogui, André; Afghani, Tayyab; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Bourcier, Tristan; Robert, Pierre-Yves

    2007-05-01

    Efficacy and safety of a short-duration treatment of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus oral azithromycin to treat active trachoma. Randomised, controlled, double-masked, double-dummy, non-inferiority explanatory study including 670 children from Guinea Conakry and Pakistan if: 1-10 years old; active trachoma (TF+TI0 or TF+TI+ on simplified World Health Organisation (WHO) scale). Three groups received either: azithromycin 1.5% eye drops twice daily for 2 days, for 3 days or azithromycin single 20 mg/kg oral dose. Patients' contacts were treated whenever possible. Clinical evaluation was performed using a binocular loupe. Primary efficacy variable was the cure (no active trachoma (TF0)) at day 60. Non-inferiority margin for difference between cure rates was 10%. Cure rate in per protocol set was as follows: 93.0%, 96.3% and 96.6% in 2-day group 3-day group, and oral treatment group, respectively. Azithromycin 1.5% groups were non-inferior to oral azithromycin. The intend to treat (ITT) analysis supported the results. Clinical re-emergence rate was low: 4.2%. Ocular tolerance was similar for all groups. No treatment related adverse events were reported. Logistic regression analyses found prognostic factors such as: country (p<0.001) and trachoma severity (p = 0.003). In active trachoma, azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 2 or 3 days are as efficient as the WHO's reference treatment and represent an innovative alternative to oral azithromycin.

  14. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double‐masked clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Goepogui, André; Afghani, Tayyab; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Bourcier, Tristan; Robert, Pierre‐Yves

    2007-01-01

    Aims Efficacy and safety of a short‐duration treatment of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus oral azithromycin to treat active trachoma. Methods Randomised, controlled, double‐masked, double‐dummy, non‐inferiority explanatory study including 670 children from Guinea Conakry and Pakistan if: 1–10 years old; active trachoma (TF+TI0 or TF+TI+ on simplified World Health Organisation (WHO) scale). Three groups received either: azithromycin 1.5% eye drops twice daily for 2 days, for 3 days or azithromycin single 20 mg/kg oral dose. Patients' contacts were treated whenever possible. Clinical evaluation was performed using a binocular loupe. Primary efficacy variable was the cure (no active trachoma (TF0)) at day 60. Non‐inferiority margin for difference between cure rates was 10%. Results Cure rate in per protocol set was as follows: 93.0%, 96.3% and 96.6% in 2‐day group 3‐day group, and oral treatment group, respectively. Azithromycin 1.5% groups were non‐inferior to oral azithromycin. The intend to treat (ITT) analysis supported the results. Clinical re‐emergence rate was low: 4.2%. Ocular tolerance was similar for all groups. No treatment related adverse events were reported. Logistic regression analyses found prognostic factors such as: country (p<0.001) and trachoma severity (p = 0.003). Conclusions In active trachoma, azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 2 or 3 days are as efficient as the WHO's reference treatment and represent an innovative alternative to oral azithromycin. PMID:17005549

  15. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  16. The efficacy of single-high dose inhaled corticosteroid versus oral prednisone treatment on exhaled leukotriene and 8-isoprostane levels in mild to moderate asthmatic children with asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Keskin, O; Uluca, U; Keskin, M; Gogebakan, B; Kucukosmanoglu, E; Ozkars, M Y; Kul, S; Bayram, H; Coskun, Y

    2016-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in children with asthma exacerbation is unknown. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of single-high dose ICS versus oral prednisone treatment followed by a course of six day high-dose ICS or oral prednisone (P) treatment on the concentrations of Cys-LTs and 8-isoprostane levels in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of children with asthma exacerbation. Ninety-four children with moderate-severe asthma exacerbation were evaluated with asthma scores, peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and exhaled Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane levels before and after treatment. EBC was collected from 52 patients before and four hours after treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (4000 μg) or P and after six days of treatment with FP-1000 μg/day or P. Cys-LTs and 8-isoprostane concentrations were determined using a specific immunoassay kit. Both single high-dose FP (n=59) and p (n=35) treatment resulted in a significant improvement in asthma score (p<0.0001), PEF (p<0.0001), and FEV1 (p<0.0001). Cys-LT concentration in the EBC decreased significantly both after the initial treatment (p=0.001), and at the end of the six-day period in the FP group (p<0.0001). 8-Isoprostane concentration was lower only after six days of treatment with FP-1000 μg/day in the FP group (p=0.023). There was a significant decrease in exhaled Cys-LTs after four hours (p=0.012) and six days of P treatment (p=0.018) in children with asthma exacerbation. High-dose ICS treatment may be useful in the treatment of children with asthma exacerbation. The effects start as early as after four hours. The suppression of Cys-LTs production contributes to the early effects. Suppression of both Cys-LTs and oxidants may favourably contribute to the effects observed later. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of pharmacokinetic data of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin and the flavonoids quercetin and isorhamnetin revealed from single and multiple oral dose studies with a hypericum extract containing tablet in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Schürer, Michael; Bässler, Dagmar; Weiser, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Hypericins, hyperforin and flavonoids are discussed as the main components contributing to the antidepressant action of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Therefore, the objective of the two open phase I clinical trials was to obtain pharmacokinetic data of these constituents from a hypericum extract containing tablet: hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, the flavonoid aglycone quercetin, and its methylated form isorhamnetin. Each trial included 18 healthy male volunteers who received the test preparation, containing 900 mg dry extract of St John's wort (STW 3-VI, Laif 900), either as a single oral dose or as a multiple once daily dose over a period of 14 days. Concentration/time curves were determined for the five constituents, for 48 h after single dosing and for 24 h on day 14 at the end of 2 weeks of continuous daily dosing. After single dose intake, the key pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as follows: Hypericin: Area under the curve (AUC(0-infinity)) = 78.33 h x ng/ml, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) = 3.8 ng/ml, time to reach Cmax (tmax) = 7.9 h, and elimination half-life (t1/2) = 18.71 h; pseudohypericin: AUC(0-infinity) = 97.28 h x ng/ml, Cmax = 10.2 ng/ml, tmax = 2.7 h, t1/2 = 17.19 h; hyperforin: AUC(0-infinity) = 1550.4 h x ng/ml, Cmax = 122.0 ng/ml, tmax = 4.5 h, t1/2 = 17.47 h. Quercetin and isorhamnetin showed two peaks of maximum plasma concentration separated by about 3-3.5 h. Quercetin: AUC(0-infinity) = 417.38 h x ng/ml, Cmax (1) = 89.5 ng/ml, tmax (1) = 1.0 h, Cma (2) = 79.1 ng/ml, tmax (2) = 4.4 h, t1/2 = 2.6 h; isorhamnetin: AUC(0-infinity) = 155.72 h x ng/ml, Cmax (1) = 12.5 ng/ml, tmax (1) = 1.4 h, Cmax (2) = 14.6 ng/ml, tmax (2) = 4.5 h, t1/2 = 5.61 h. Under steady state conditions reached during multiple dose administration similar results were obtained. Further pharmacokinetic characteristics calculated from the obtained data were the mean residence time (MRT), the lag-time, the peak-trough fluctuation (PTF), the

  18. Pharmacology of rising oral doses of 5-hydroxytryptophan with carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Smarius, L J C A; Jacobs, G E; Hoeberechts-Lefrandt, D H M; de Kam, M L; van der Post, J P; de Rijk, R; van Pelt, J; Schoemaker, R C; Zitman, F G; van Gerven, J M A; Gijsman, H J

    2008-06-01

    5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a direct 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) precursor used to assess central serotonergic function. Its use has been limited by a narrow window between neuroendocrine changes and side effects, and variable kinetics related to inconsistent administration modes. By combining 5-HTP with carbidopa (CBD), increased bioavailability for brain penetration and decreased peripheral side effects would be expected, due to reduced peripheral decarboxylation of 5-HTP to 5-HT. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, single rising dose, four-way crossover trial with placebo randomisation was performed in 15 healthy male volunteers to investigate the neuroendocrine dose-response relationship at various 5-HTP levels; the tolerability and subjective effects of oral 5-HTP at 100, 200 and 300 mg combined with CBD and the pharmacokinetic properties of the 5-HTP/CBD-challenge. Dose-dependent increases in average cortisol concentrations were observed. Mean response (area-under-the-curve) over the first 4 hours (SD): 172.0 nmol/L (22.3) for placebo, 258.3 nmol/L (72.6) for 100 mg, 328.47 nmol/L (84.6) for 200 mg and 387.3 nmol/L (82.4) for 300 mg 5-HTP. Similar dose-dependent increases for prolactin were seen while adreno-corticotrophic hormone response was more variable. 5-HTP kinetics were adequately described using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time (mean oral clearance 28 L/h interindividual coefficient of variation 31%). Nausea and vomiting occurred dose-dependently as most frequent side effects, resulting in dose-related dropout of 6.6% at 100 mg and 45.5% at 300 mg 5-HTP. Orally administered 5-HTP combined with CBD is an effective serotonergic challenge test, exhibiting dose-related plasma concentrations and neuroendocrine responsiveness. Frequent occurrence of nausea and vomiting limits the applicability of this challenge at 5-HTP doses above 100 mg.

  19. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  20. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  1. Single-Dose Therapy of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fong, I.W.

    1987-01-01

    Single-dose antimicrobial therapy has clear advantages over multiple-dose therapy. Long-acting penicillins have been used for many years in single doses for treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and early syphilis. More recently, shorter-acting agents are used for non-invasive mucosal infections. In trichomonas vaginitis, for instance, a 2g single dose of metronidazole is approximately 92% effective and is considered the treatment of choice. Controversy still exists about the value of single-dose therapy in women who have bacterial cystitis. However, there is good evidence that 2 or 3 double-strength tablets of co-trimoxazole are very effective and safe in the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in healthy women. PMID:21263934

  2. [A study in the Ivory Coast (1985-1987) of the efficacy and tolerance of ivermectin (Mectizan) in human onchocerciasis. III. The tolerance and efficacy of a single oral dose of 150 mcg/kg in children].

    PubMed

    Larivière, M; Beauvais, B; Aziz, M; Garin, J F; Peignot, C; Abeloos, J; Kouakou, P; Ferly-Therizol, M; Derouin, F; Sarfati, C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and three male and female children of 6 to 14 years old with onchocerciasis, having or not ocular involvement and a mean skin microfilariae level of 36.1 mf/mg, received, in October 1986, a single oral dose of 150 mcg/kg ivermectin and controlled at day 4, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post treatment. After the last control they were retreated with the same dose. The skin microfilariae count fell down to 94% of the initial level at day 4 and to 99% at 3 months. At 6 months the microfilariae count was 2% of the initial level and 5% at 12 months. The percentage of patients having microfilariae in the anterior chamber of the eye which was 33% before treatment fell down to 6% at 12 months. The percentage of patients having microfilariae in the cornea was 39% before treatment and 18% at 12 months. In the cornea and anterior chamber there was a very reduced number of microfilariae still present. 65% of the children had lesions of keratitis before treatment and 34% two months later. Adverse effects (fever, headache, pruritus, oedemas, myalgias, arthralgias) occurred in 64% of children after the first treatment and 50% after the second. They were of weak or moderate intensity and receded rapidly after administration of aspirin and/or anti-histaminic. The administration of ivermectin is an efficient and well tolerated drug in children above 5 years old.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose oral thiamine hydrochloride in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Smithline, Howard A; Donnino, Michael; Greenblatt, David J

    2012-02-04

    High dose oral thiamine may have a role in treating diabetes, heart failure, and hypermetabolic states. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of oral thiamine hydrochloride at 100 mg, 500 mg and 1500 mg doses in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, 4-way crossover study. Pharmacokinetic measures were calculated. The AUC₀₋₁₀ hr and C(max) values increased nonlinearly between 100 mg and 1500 mg. The slope of the AUC₀₋₁₀ hr vs dose, as well as the C(max) vs dose, plots are steepest at the lowest thiamine doses. Our study demonstrates that high blood levels of thiamine can be achieved rapidly with oral thiamine hydrochloride. Thiamine is absorbed by both an active and nonsaturable passive process. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose oral thiamine hydrochloride in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High dose oral thiamine may have a role in treating diabetes, heart failure, and hypermetabolic states. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of oral thiamine hydrochloride at 100 mg, 500 mg and 1500 mg doses in healthy subjects. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, 4-way crossover study. Pharmacokinetic measures were calculated. Results The AUC0-10 hr and Cmax values increased nonlinearly between100 mg and 1500 mg. The slope of the AUC0-10 hr vs dose, as well as the Cmax vs dose, plots are steepest at the lowest thiamine doses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that high blood levels of thiamine can be achieved rapidly with oral thiamine hydrochloride. Thiamine is absorbed by both an active and nonsaturable passive process. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 PMID:22305197

  5. Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Taylor, J B

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1, lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four hours after exposure chlorate residues were dose dependent (P < 0.05) in small intestinal contents, serum, and urine, but chlorate residues were not consistently detected in cecal or colonic contents. In Exp. 2, non-pregnant yearling ewes (BW = 74.8 ± 5.6 kg; mean ± SD) were orally dosed with 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Across dose, chlorate residues averaged from 47 to 114, 0.6 to 4.5, and were not detectable to 0.2 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, in serum of treated animals; in feces, residues averaged 29 to 82, 0.8 to 14, and were not detectable to 1.2 μg/mL at the same respective time periods. In Exp. 3, six lactating ewes (BW = 76.3 ± 8.0 kg) were dosed orally with 450 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate; residues were measured in serum, milk, urine and feces in periods encompassing 0 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 24, 24 to 32, 32 to 40, and 40 to 48 h. Chlorate residues in milk were detectable at all time periods with concentrations averaging from 287 ± 67 to 26 ± 13 μg/mL during the first and last collection periods, respectively. Urine contained the greatest concentration of chlorate at each time point and averaged 480 ± 268 μg/mL at 40 to 48 h. Depletion half-lives in serum, milk, urine, and feces were estimated to be 6.2, 27, 19, and 10 h, respectively; milk, urinary and fecal half-lives are likely overestimated due to the fact that 8-h sample pools were used in half-life estimations. In Exp. 4, three wethers (BW = 87.1 ± 5.3 kg) each were orally dosed with 14 or 42 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate; blood samples were serially collected for 48 h, and urine samples were collected at 0 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 24, 24 to 36, and 36 to 48 h. Estimates of absorption and

  6. Effect of small bowel bacterial overgrowth on the immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Lagos, R; Fasano, A; Wasserman, S S; Prado, V; San Martin, O; Abrego, P; Losonsky, G A; Alegria, S; Levine, M M

    1999-11-01

    Several live oral vaccines (polio, bovine rotavirus, CVD 103-HgR cholera) are less immunogenic in developing than in industrialized countries. It was hypothesized that proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth (common in children in less developed countries but rare in industrialized settings) diminishes the vibriocidal antibody response to CVD 103-HgR. In total, 202 fasting Santiago schoolchildren aged 5-9 years had lactulose breath H2 tests to detect proximal small bowel bacteria 1 day before ingesting CVD 103-HgR. Florid small bowel overgrowth was observed in 10 (5.6%) of 178 analyzable children. In children with florid overgrowth, vibriocidal seroconversion differed little from other children (60% vs. 67%), but the geometric mean titer was lower (160 vs. 368; P=.25). By logistic regression, increased peak breath H2 at small bowel time points was associated with diminished seroconversion (P=.04), as was the interaction of H2 value and weight (children >25 kg had lower seroconversion rates among subjects with heaviest overgrowth).

  7. Doxylamine and diphenhydramine pharmacokinetics in women on low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Luna, B G; Scavone, J M; Greenblatt, D J

    1989-03-01

    Thirteen women chronically using low-dose estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (50 micrograms or less of ethinyl estradiol or its equivalent for a minimum of 3 months) and 12 age-matched drug-free control women received a single 25 mg oral dose of doxylamine succinate in the fasting state. Ten women taking oral contraceptives and ten controls received a single 50 mg oral dose of diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Multiple plasma samples drawn during 30 hours following the dose of doxylamine, and 12 hours after diphenhydramine dosage, were analyzed by gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for doxylamine in control and oral contraceptive groups were: peak plasma concentration, 103 vs 100 ng/ml; time of peak, 2.40 vs 1.87 hours after dosage, elimination half-life, 10.1 vs 10.2 hours; and total clearance, 3.70 vs 3.88 ml/min/kg. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for diphenhydramine in control and oral contraceptive groups were: peak plasma concentration, 63.7 vs 73.8 ng/ml; time of peak, 2.7 vs 2.2 hours after dosage; elimination half-life, 6.0 vs 5.1 hours; and total clearance, 21.8 vs 25.5 ml/min/kg. None of these differences were statistically significant. Thus, low-dose estrogen-containing oral contraceptives do not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of the antihistamines doxylamine or diphenhydramine.

  8. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide in healthy volunteers: dose proportionality, food effect, and racial sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, N; Kasserra, C; Reyes, J; Liu, L; Lau, H

    2012-11-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with efficacy in various hematological malignancies. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide, including dose proportionality, food effect, and racial sensitivity. Three studies were conducted including a total of 58 healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blind, alternating group, single-ascending dose study; a randomized, two-way crossover food effect study; and a randomized, double-blind, two-group, within-subject, single-ascending dose study. Oral absorption of lenalidomide was rapid and the maximum plasma concentration (C (max)) was observed approximately 1 h post-dose. Co-administration with a high-fat meal reduced the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and C (max) by approximately 20 and 50 %, respectively, and delayed time to C (max) (t (max)) by 1.63 h. However, phase III trials were dosed without regard to food; therefore, clinical relevance of the food effect was minimal. The terminal elimination half-life (t (½)) was 3-4 h at doses up to 50 mg and was not affected by food. The AUC and C (max) were proportional to lenalidomide single doses (5-400 mg), and total and renal clearance were dose-independent. The R- to S-lenalidomide ratio in plasma was stable over time, approximately 45-55 % of total drug. There were no differences in pharmacokinetic parameters, dose-exposure relationship, or enantiomeric ratio, between Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Lenalidomide displayed linear pharmacokinetics from doses 5-400 mg in healthy subjects. Although food reduced bioavailability, this was not considered clinically relevant. Lenalidomide was generally well tolerated in both ethnic groups.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of repeated oral doses of loxiglumide.

    PubMed

    Setnikar, I; Chisté, R; Giacovelli, G; Rovati, L C

    1989-11-01

    The study was conducted on 6 adult healthy subjects (5 males and 1 female) in order to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of repeated b.i.d. oral administration for 7 days of tablets containing 400 mg of loxiglumide (CR 1505). The pharmacokinetics of loxiglumide in plasma after the first single dose of 400 mg is characterized by a lag time of 16 +/- 4 min, a rapid invasion (kinv = 10 h-1), a Cmax of 11.9 +/- 5.1 mg/l at tmax of 2.3 +/- 0.8 h, a mean residence time (MRT) of 6.9 +/- 1.1 h and an AUC of 60.6 +/- 16.3 (mg/l) x h. After the last dose of 400 mg the lag time was 17 +/- 6 min, the Cmax 12.7 +/- 3.8 mg/l at tmax of 2.1 +/- 0.8 h, a MRT of 11.0 +/- 1.9 h and an AUC of 109.8 +/- 39.9 (mg/l) x h. The increases of the AUC and of MRT were statistically significant and are probably due to an accumulation of loxiglumide which occurs during the repeated dose course and reaches the steady state within 48 h of repeated administration. Due to this accumulation the Cmax increased by 7%. The increase was not statistically significant or clinically relevant. No dose adjustment seems required during a repeated dose dosing schedule with 400 mg b.i.d. In the urine loxiglumide and 3 metabolites were found, which were called Metabolite (Met.) 11.2, Met. 12.0 and Met. 12.8. Met. 12.0 was the most abundant, accounting for 45% of the loxiglumide related substances excreted in the urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. An open-label, single-dose, crossover study of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of two oral formulations of 1-octanol in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Nahab, Fatta B; Wittevrongel, Loretta; Ippolito, Dominic; Toro, Camilo; Grimes, George J; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Bowen, Daniel; Buchwald, Peter; Dong, Chuanhui; Kalowitz, Daniel; Hallett, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Existing therapeutic options for management of essential tremor are frequently limited by poor efficacy and adverse effects. Likely the most potent tremor suppressant used is ethanol, although its use is prohibitive due to a brief therapeutic window, and the obvious implications of excessive alcohol use. Longer-chain alcohols have been shown to suppress tremor in harmaline animal models, and appear to be safe and well tolerated in 2 prior studies in humans. Here we report on the findings of a phase I/II study of 1-octanol designed to explore pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. The most significant finding was the identification of octanoic acid as the product of rapid 1-octanol metabolism. Furthermore, the temporal profile of efficacy closely matches the plasma concentration of octanoic acid. Therefore, these findings identify a novel class of compound (e.g., carboxylic acids) with tremor suppressive properties in ET. Administration of 1-octanol also appears to be safe based on various measures collected. Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder, with tremors occurring during static posturing or movement. These tremors are known to briefly improve in many cases after alcohol (ethanol) consumption. Two previous studies of a longer chain alcohol, 1-octanol, have demonstrated longer duration tremor-suppressive effects without the occurrence of intoxication. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 1-octanol and its primary metabolite octanoic acid using two formulations, along with additional safety and efficacy measures. Participants with proven ethanol-responsive ET were recruited into 1 of 2 parts: (part A) a dose escalation study (1-64 mg/kg; n = 4), and (part B) a fixed dose (64 mg/kg; n = 10) balanced, open-label crossover design. Two participants in part B then completed an exploratory part C evaluating 128 mg/kg.Plasma samples were collected at 10 intervals during a 6-hour period postingestion. Efficacy was

  11. A novel probe drug interaction study to investigate the effect of selected antiretroviral combinations on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of maraviroc in HIV-positive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Anton L; Boffito, Marta; Russell, Deborah; Ridgway, Caroline E; Muirhead, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    Aims Maraviroc (UK-427 857), an antagonist of the CCR5 receptor with potent anti-HIV activity, was recently approved for use in treatment-experienced patients infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) combinations on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of maraviroc 300 mg in HIV-positive subjects compared with historical controls. Methods In this study, four cohorts of HIV-positive patients (n = 8 each) receiving one of the following combination therapies were recruited: cohort 1 – efavirenz + Combivir® (lamivudine/zidovudine); cohort 2 – efavirenz + didanosine + tenofovir; cohort 3 – nevirapine + lamivudine + tenofovir; cohort 4 – Kaletra® (lopinavir/ritonavir) + stavudine + lamivudine. Subjects continued on their prescribed ART and also received a single oral dose of maraviroc 300 mg. Serial blood samples and urine for determination of maraviroc pharmacokinetics were collected over 12 h postdose. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters from this study were compared with historical data generated in HIV-positive subjects receiving maraviroc monotherapy in a Phase IIa study. Results A total of 29 subjects were recruited (eight each in cohorts 1–3, and five in cohort 4). The geometric mean ratios for AUC12 and Cmax for each treatment group compared with maraviroc monotherapy were: 47% and 67% (cohort 1); 48% and 76% (cohort 2); 101% and 154% (cohort 3); and 265% and 180% (cohort 4), respectively. Tmax was similar in all treatment groups. Mean values for renal clearance ranged from 8.2 l h−1 (cohort 1) to 13.2 l h−1 (cohort 4). There were no renal clearance data collected in the comparator study. Conclusions The results of this study support those previously seen in healthy volunteer studies that showed that efavirenz reduces maraviroc exposure, whereas lopinavir/ritonavir increases maraviroc exposure. These data also suggest that nevirapine does not lead

  12. Developmental toxicity of clarified slurry oil, syntower bottoms, and distillate aromatic extract administered as a single oral dose to pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO), syntower bottoms (STB), and distillate aromatic extract (DAE) are refinery streams produced by processing crude oil. Available data indicate that some refinery streams are developmentally toxic by the dermal route of exposure. However, there is no conclusive evidence for their being teratogenic. The present studies were designed to further explore the suspected teratogenic potency of refinery streams while at the same time limiting embryolethality. In general, evidence of maternal toxicity (i.e., decreased body weight gain, decreased thymus weight) was observed at doses greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg. For each refinery stream tested, the incidence of resorption was greatest on GD 11. A common pattern of fetal malformations was observed for all of the refinery streams tested and included cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia, and paw and tail defects. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations were greatest on GD 11 and 12 for fetuses exposed to CSO; on GD 13 and 14, the incidence of malformation was comparable for CSO- and STB-exposed fetuses. The incidence of visceral anomalies was greatest on GD 11-13 for fetuses exposed to CSO and STB; on Gestation D 14, the incidence was comparable for each of the refinery streams tested. In general, the ability to produce adverse effects on development was greatest for CSO and least for DAE. Effects produced by STB were comparable to or less severe than those observed for CSO. 24 refs., 11 tabs.

  13. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of a single oral dose of talnetant (SB223412) in healthy volunteers compared with placebo or haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Liem-Moolenaar, M; Gray, F A; de Visser, S J; Franson, K L; Schoemaker, R C; Schmitt, J A J; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A

    2010-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) effects of talnetant, an NK-3 antagonist in development for schizophrenia, were compared to those of haloperidol and placebo. The study was randomised, double-blind, three-way crossover of talnetant 200 mg, haloperidol 3 mg or placebo. Twelve healthy males participated and EEG, saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, adaptive tracking, body sway, finger tapping, hormones, visual analogue scales (VAS) for alertness, mood and calmness and psychedelic effects, left/right distraction task, Tower of London and Visual and Verbal Learning Task were assessed. Haloperidol showed (difference to placebo; 95% CI; p-value) decreases in EEG alpha power (-0.87microV; -1.51/-0.22; p = 0.0110), saccadic inaccuracy (2.0%; 0.5/3.6; p = 0.0133), smooth pursuit eye movements (-7.5%; -12.0/-3.0; p = 0.0026), adaptive tracking (-3.5%; -5.4/-1.7; p = 0.0009), alertness (-6.8 mm; -11.1/-2.4; p = 0.0039), negative mood (-4.6 mm; -8.6/-0.6; p = 0.0266), the ability to control thoughts (1.2 mm; 0.2/2.3; p = 0.0214), and an increase of serum prolactin (ratio 4.1; 3.0/5.6; p < 0.0001). Talnetant showed decreased alpha power (-0.69 muV; -1.34/-0.04; p = 0.0390), improved adaptive tracking (1.9%; 0.1/3.7; p = 0.0370) and reduced calmness on VAS Bond and Lader (-4.5 mm; -8.0/-1.0; p = 0.0151). Haloperidol effects were predominantly CNS-depressant, while those of talnetant were slightly stimulatory. The results suggest that talnetant penetrates the brain, but it remains to be established whether this dose is sufficient and whether the observed effect profile is class-specific for NK3-antagonists.

  14. Blood plasma levels of deoxynivalenol and its de-epoxy metabolite in broilers after a single oral dose of the toxin.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Valenta, Hana; Abdel-Raheem, Sherif M; Döll, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Böhm, Josef

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the transfer of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its de-epoxy metabolite (de-epoxy-DON) in the plasma of chicken, mashed oats naturally contaminated with 9.5 mg DON/kg were fed to four broilers (35 days age) at a dose of 20 g/bird. Blood samples were then collected from two birds at 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h post-feeding, while from the other two birds at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding. Analysis of DON and de-epoxy-DON was carried out by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after clean-up with immunoaffinity columns. At 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h post-feeding, the average values of plasma DON were 0.35 ng/ml, 0.20 ng/ml, and 0.15 ng/ml, respectively. The corresponding average values of de-epoxy-DON at these time points were 0.70 ng/ml, 0.80 ng/ml, and 0.25 ng/ml, respectively. The sum of DON and de-epoxy-DON appearing in the plasma at 1 h post-feeding in these birds was estimated to be 0.044% of the total DON fed. At 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding, the average values of plasma DON were 0.85 ng/ml, 0.45 ng/ml, and 0.30 ng/ml. De-epoxy-DON could not be detected in the birds sampled at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding. The total amount of DON appearing in the plasma at 2 h post-feeding in these birds was estimated to be 0.036% of the DON fed. These data show that the absorption rate of DON is very low in broilers and that there is also a rapid transformation, and clearance from plasma. Furthermore, there appeared to be individual variability in the capacity of birds to de-epoxidise DON.

  15. Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of sodium selenite and selenomethionine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The toxicokinetics of selenium (Se) absorption, distribution, and elimination were determined in serum and whole blood of lambs that were orally dosed with various doses of Se as sodium selenite (inorganic Se) or selenomethionine (organic Se). Thirty-two lambs were randomly assigned to eight treatm...

  16. Cardiovascular abnormalities with single dose of tapentadol.

    PubMed

    Vachhani, A; Barvaliya, M; Naik, V; Tripathi, C B

    2014-01-01

    This case represents the development of dizziness, palpitation, tightness in chest, flushing, and tremor on consumption of a single dose of tapentadol (100 mg) for acute lower back pain. The patient was admitted in the intensive cardiac care unit for continuous monitoring. At admission, electrocardiogram showed tachycardia (140/min) along with ST segment elevation in second chest lead (V2). The patient was monitored and advised not to take further doses of tapentadol. He was discharged after 36 hours of admission. Tapentadol should be used cautiously in patients with cardiovascular diseases and receiving sympathomimetic drugs.

  17. Dose-response effects of oral yohimbine in unrestrained primates.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, L A; Coplan, J D; Friedman, S; Bassoff, T

    1991-04-01

    Six unrestrained bonnet macaques were each observed after oral administration of four dosages of yohimbine hydrochloride (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg) and a placebo. Yohimbine significantly increased episodes of motoric activation and affective response interspersed with intervals of behavioral enervation. Yohimbine scores correlated closely with baseline levels; there was no dose-response relationship. Response to oral yohimbine differed in several ways from subcutaneous and intravenous sodium lactate infusions, including prominent enervative symptoms and the appearance of sexual arousal. In light of the appearance of cyclic enervative episodes, this study suggests limitations to primate models of panic disorder utilizing oral yohimbine.

  18. Effect of a single dose of mesoglycan on the human fibrinolytic system, and the profibrinolytic action of nine daily doses.

    PubMed

    Vittoria, A; Messa, G L; Frigerio, C; Celasco, G; Auteri, A

    1988-01-01

    The profibrinolytic activity of orally administered Mesoglycan was evaluated in 18 patients affected by impaired plasma fibrinolytic activity. Mesoglycan was administered by a single oral dose of 24, 48 or 72 mg on 1 day, and by repeated doses of 48 mg twice a day for 9 consecutive days. After the single administration all the fibrinolytic parameters were significantly and positively influenced with an order of magnitude and a duration of effects proportional to the dose employed. After the repeated administration, a constant and reproducible activation of the fibrinolytic system was observed without any interference with haemocoagulative parameters. These results confirm that Mesoglycan is endowed with a relevant profibrinolytic activity in man after oral administration. The pharmacological activity of Mesoglycan could possibly involve the liberation of a certain amount of plasminogen tissue activator.

  19. Efficacy of two low-dose oral tylosin regimens in controlling the relapse of diarrhea in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas; Westermarck, Elias

    2014-08-06

    Despite its wide acceptance as a treatment for canine chronic enteropathies, the macrolide antibiotic tylosin lacks official oral dosage recommendations. Not even textbooks share consensus about the dose; daily recommendations vary from 25 to 80 mg/kg and dosing intervals from one to three times daily. All eight dogs responded to the 5 mg/kg dose, and six of seven dogs responded to the 15 mg/kg dose. The mean fecal consistency scores at the 25 mg/kg tylosin dosage were no significantly different from scores at the 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages (P=0.672, P=0.345). Interestingly, 14/15 (93%) of the dogs responding to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days also responded to the lower dosages at diarrhea relapse. The data indicate that a suitable dose of tylosin for treating diarrhea relapse in canine TRD could be as low as 5 mg/kg once daily for seven days.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine following single doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate

    PubMed Central

    KOCH, K M; DAVIS, I M; GOODING, A E; YIN, Y

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine derived from ranitidine bismuth citrate given in single oral doses ranging from 200 mg to 1600 mg were evaluated in healthy subjects. Bismuth was only minimally absorbed (<0.5% of the amount dosed) after administration of ranitidine bismuth citrate, and peak plasma concentrations never exceeded 33 ng ml−1 in any subject. Plasma concentrations and urinary recoveries of bismuth at doses up to and including 800 mg were relatively constant and not proportional to dose. Bismuth absorption was increased more than proportionally with the dose at 1600 mg. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine after administration of ranitidine bismuth citrate were dose-proportional and consistent with previous observations for ranitidine administered alone. Ranitidine bismuth citrate was well-tolerated in single oral doses of up to 1600 mg. PMID:8864318

  1. Preparation of personalized-dose salbutamol sulphate oral films with thermal ink-jet printing.

    PubMed

    Buanz, Asma B M; Saunders, Mark H; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the use of thermal ink-jetting as a method for dosing drugs onto oral films. A Hewlett-Packard printer cartridge was modified so that aqueous drug solutions replaced the ink. The performance of the printer as a function of print solution viscosity and surface tension was determined; viscosities between 1.1 and 1.5 mm(2) s(-1) were found to be optimal, while surface tension did not affect deposition. A calibration curve for salbutamol sulphate was prepared, which demonstrated drug deposition onto an acetate film varied linearly with concentration (r(2) = 0.9992). The printer was then used to deposit salbutamol sulphate onto an oral film made of potato starch. It was found that when doses were deposited in a single pass under the print head, then the measured dose was in good agreement with the theoretical dose. With multiple passes the measured dose was always significantly less than the theoretical dose. It is proposed that the losses arise from erosion of the printed layer by shearing forces during paper handling. The losses were predictable, and the variance in dose deposited was always less than the BP limits for tablet and oral syrup salbutamol sulphate preparations. TIJ printing offers a rapid method for extemporaneous preparation of personalized-dose medicines.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-03-28

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  4. Pharmacokinetic profile of extended-release versus immediate-release oral naproxen sodium after single and multiple dosing under fed and fasting conditions: two randomized, open-label trials.

    PubMed

    Laurora, Irene; Wang, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Extended-release (ER) naproxen sodium provides pain relief for up to 24 hours with a single dose (660 mg/day). Its pharmacokinetic profile after single and multiple dosing was compared to immediate release (IR) naproxen sodium in two randomized, open-label, crossover studies, under fasting and fed conditions. Eligible healthy subjects were randomized to ER naproxen sodium 660-mg tablet once daily or IR naproxen sodium 220-mg tablet twice daily (440 mg initially, followed by 220 mg 12 hours later). Primary variables: pharmacokinetic parameters after singleday administration (day 1) and at steady state after multiple-day administration (day 6). Total exposure was comparable for both treatments under fasting and fed conditions. After fasting: peak naproxen concentrations were slightly lower with ER naproxen sodium than with IR naproxen sodium but were reached at a similar time. Fed conditions: mean peak concentrations were comparable but reached after a longer time with ER vs. IR naproxen sodium. ER naproxen sodium was well tolerated, with a similar safety profile to IR naproxen sodium. The total exposure of ER naproxen sodium (660 mg) is comparable to IR naproxen sodium (220 mg) when administered at the maximum over the counter (OTC) dose of 660-mg daily dose on a single day and over multiple days. The rate of absorption is delayed under fed conditions.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of tiropramide after single doses in man.

    PubMed

    Arigoni, R; Chisté, R; Drovanti, A; Makovec, F; Senin, P; Setnikar, I

    1986-04-01

    The plasma levels and urinary excretions of (+/-) alpha-(benzoylamino)-4-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]-N, N-dipropyl-benzenepropanamide (tiropramide) and of some of its metabolites were studied in healthy volunteers after the following single-dose administrations of tiropramide hydrochloride: a) i.v. 50 mg, oral 100 mg or rectal 200 mg; b) i.v. 50 mg or i.m. 50 mg; c) oral 100, 200 or 400 mg. After i.v. bolus the plasma levels of tiropramide are consistent with a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. The steady-state volume of distribution is 221 l. The terminal elimination constant is 0.279 h-1 (t1/2 = 2.5 h). After i.m. injection the plasma levels increase rapidly (invasion t1/2 = 2 min) and then are similar to those found after i.v. bolus. After oral administration appreciable plasma levels are found after lag times of 18-27 min. They increase with an invasion t1/2 of 14-22 min. The peak is reached 1-1.7 h after administration and the elimination occurs with a constant of 0.20-0.23 h-1. After rectal administration appreciable plasma levels are found after a lag time of 11 min and increase with an invasion t1/2 of 6 min. The peak is reached at 2.2 h. The elimination constant is 0.21 h-1. Tiropramide and some of its metabolites can be determined in the urine by gas-liquid chromatography. The following percentages of the administered dose of tiropramide and tiropramide-related substances can be found in the 24-h urines. After i.v. bolus: 16.2; after i.m. injection: 17.0; after oral administration: 19.6; after rectal administration 13.1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Relation of oral dose of oxtriphylline to serum theophylline level.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, G. H.; Desai, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Serum theophylline levels were studied in relation to oral doses of oxtriphylline in 30 patients with reversible airway obstruction. A wide scattering of levels was observed and was attributed to widely differing rates of metabolism of the drug. From the data obtained it was concluded that the most commonly prescribed daily dose of oxtriphylline, 800 mg, will produce a therapeutic level of theophylline in only about one quarter of patients. A daily starting dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg, however, will produce therapeutic levels in approximately one third of patients without significant toxic effects. Once the patient's conditions is stable the serum theophylline concentration should be measured; if it is subtherapeutic the dose of oxtriphylline should be increased slowly and the serum theophylline concentration remeasured until a level of 10 to 20 microgram/ml is achieved. PMID:7034918

  7. The effect of single-dose tramadol on oxycodone clearance.

    PubMed

    Curry, Steven C; Watts, David J; Katz, Kenneth D; Bikin, Dale; Bukaveckas, Bonny L

    2007-11-01

    We have noticed increased prescribing of tramadol by emergency physicians for breakthrough pain in patients chronically taking oxycodone. Both oxycodone and tramadol undergo oxidative metabolism by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, suggesting the possibility that tramadol may compete with oxycodone for metabolism. A randomized controlled trial in 10 human volunteers was performed to determine if single-dose tramadol therapy would impair oxycodone clearance. Subjects were randomized whether to enter the control or experimental arm of the study first, with each subject serving as his or her own control. In the control arm, each subject received 10 mg immediate-release oxycodone orally and had serial plasma oxycodone and oxymorphone concentrations measured over 8 h. The experimental arm was identical except that 100 mg tramadol was ingested 1.5 h before oxycodone. Clearance divided by fraction absorbed (CL/f) was calculated using the dose and the area under the 8-h time-plasma oxycodone concentration curve. Peak plasma oxycodone concentrations (C(max)) and time until peak oxycodone concentrations (T(max)) were secondary outcome parameters. Group size was chosen to produce a power of 0.8 to detect a 20% difference in CL/f between study arms. Values for CL/f, C(max), and T(max) were compared between study arms using two-tailed, paired t-tests. No statistically significant difference between groups was demonstrated for any parameter. We failed to demonstrate that single doses of tramadol impaired oxycodone clearance.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of BILR 355 after Multiple Oral Doses Coadministered with a Low Dose of Ritonavir ▿

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fenglei; Drda, Kristin; MacGregor, Thomas R.; Scherer, Joseph; Rowland, Lois; Nguyen, Thuy; Ballow, Charles; Castles, Mark; Robinson, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of BILR 355 following oral repeated dosing coadministered with low doses of ritonavir (RTV) were investigated in 12 cohorts of healthy male volunteers with a ratio of 6 to 2 for BILR 355 versus the placebo. BILR 355 was given once a day (QD) coadministered with 100 mg RTV (BILR 355/r) at 5 to 50 mg in a polyethylene glycol solution or at 50 to 250 mg as tablets. BILR 355 tablets were also dosed at 150 mg twice a day (BID) coadministered with 100 mg RTV QD or BID. Following oral dosing, BILR 355 was rapidly absorbed, with the mean time to maximum concentration of drug in serum reached within 1.3 to 5 h and a mean half-life of 16 to 20 h. BILR 355 exhibited an approximately linear pharmacokinetics for doses of 5 to 50 mg when given as a solution; in contrast, when given as tablets, BILR 355 displayed a dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, with a dose range of 50 to 100 mg; from 100 to 150 mg, a slightly downward nonlinear pharmacokinetics occurred. The exposure to BILR 355 was maximized at 150 mg and higher due to a saturated dissolution/absorption process. After oral dosing of BILR 355/r, 150/100 mg BID, the values for the maximum concentration of drug in plasma at steady state, the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the dose interval at steady state, and the minimum concentration of drug in serum at steady state were 1,500 ng/ml, 12,500 h·ng/ml, and 570 ng/ml, respectively, providing sufficient suppressive concentration toward human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Based on pharmacokinetic modeling along with the in vitro virologic data, several BILR 355 doses were selected for phase II trials using Monte Carlo simulations. Throughout the study, BILR 355 was safe and well tolerated. PMID:18955519

  9. Prophylactic oral ganciclovir after renal transplantation-dosing and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Filler, G; Lampe, D; von Bredow, M A; Lappenberg-Pelzer, M; Rocher, S; Strehlau, J; Ehrich, J H

    1998-01-01

    Ganciclovir alone or in combination with hyperimmunoglobulin is replacing other treatment modalities for the prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. No dose recommendations are available for oral ganciclovir therapy in children with impaired renal function after renal transplantation of a kidney from a CMV IgG-positive donor. We undertook a pharmacokinetic study in 14 pediatric renal transplant recipients who were CMV IgG negative and had received a graft from a CMV IgG-positive donor. We estimated the daily dosage of oral ganciclovir in relation to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Oral ganciclovir was administered at a starting dose of 3 x 1 g for children with a weight above 50 kg, 3 x 750 mg for children between 50 and 37.5 kg, and 3 x 500 mg for children between 37.5 and 24 kg. The starting dose was reduced by 50% for GFR values < or = 50 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and by 75% for GFR values < or = 25 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The daily dose was divided into three daily doses unless GFR was < 40 ml/ min per 1.73 m2, when only two daily doses were given. Doses were adjusted according to the measured plasma trough concentrations (c) using the simple formula: c(ganciclovir)(measured)/c(ganciclovir)(desired) = dosage rate(used)/dosage rate(adjusted). Mean stable plasma trough concentration was 0.91 +/- 0.68 microg/ml. The dosage rate, adjusted to a trough concentration of 1.0 microg/ml, correlated with the GFR. The dose per day could be calculated according to a simple equation for a GFR < 100 ml/min per 1.73 m2: dosage per day (mg/kg per day) = GFR. No CMV disease developed in any of the patients during oral ganciclovir, but 1 patient developed an acute rejection episode and a positive pp65 antigen 5 weeks after discontinuation of ganciclovir. The drug was well tolerated and without side effects.

  10. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2017-08-28

    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens (i.e., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group (P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% (P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% (P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% (P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% (P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% (P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation (P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  11. Single dose dipyrone (metamizole) for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Leslie; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2016-04-20

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in other countries because of an association with life-threatening blood disorders. This review replaces a 2010 Cochrane review that has been withdrawn. To assess the analgesic efficacy and associated adverse events of single dose dipyrone for moderate to severe acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS to 11 August 2015; the Oxford Pain Relief Database; two clinical trial registries; and the reference lists of articles. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We accepted oral, rectal, intramuscular, and intravenous routes of administration. Two review authors independently considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used summed total pain relief or pain intensity difference (TOTPAR or SPID) over four to six hours to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. From derived results, we calculated the risk ratio and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared to placebo. We looked at use of rescue medication and time to use of rescue medication as additional measures of efficacy. We also looked for information on adverse events and withdrawals. We included eight studies, involving 809 participants, comparing oral dipyrone 500 mg (143 participants), oral dipyrone 1000 mg (57 participants), and intramuscular dipyrone 2000 mg (35 participants) with

  12. Esomeprazole administered through a nasogastric tube provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Sostek, M B; Chen, Y; Skammer, W; Winter, H; Zhao, J; Andersson, T

    2003-09-15

    To determine if nasogastric tube administration of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened esomeprazole capsule provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing with the intact capsule. A randomized, single-centre, open-label, two-period crossover pharmacokinetic study consisting of two 5-day dosing periods separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period was conducted. Healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years received esomeprazole 40 mg once daily either orally as an intact capsule, or as a suspension of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened capsule in water through a nasogastric tube. In 47 evaluable subjects, the 90% confidence intervals were 0.87-1.08 and 0.93-1.25 for the geometric mean of the ratio of nasogastric tube administration relative to administration of the intact capsule for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and for maximum plasma concentration, respectively, on day 1, demonstrating bioequivalence. Oral and nasogastric administration also demonstrated similar bioavailabilities on day 5. Esomeprazole was well tolerated regardless of the mode of administration. Nasogastric tube administration of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened esomeprazole 40 mg capsule provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing. Administration of the contents of an opened esomeprazole 40 mg capsule in water through a nasogastric tube is a practical alternative for patients with feeding tubes who require effective gastric acid suppression, but cannot swallow an oral preparation.

  13. Single toxin dose-response models revisited

    PubMed Central

    Glaholt, SP; Kyker-Snowman, E; Shaw, JR; Chen, CY

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer a rigorous analysis of the sigmoid shape single toxin dose-response relationship. The toxin efficacy function is introduced and four special points, including maximum toxin efficacy and inflection points, on the dose-response curve are defined. The special points define three phases of the toxin effect on mortality: (1) toxin concentrations smaller than the first inflection point or (2) larger then the second inflection point imply low mortality rate, and (3) concentrations between the first and the second inflection points imply high mortality rate. Probabilistic interpretation and mathematical analysis for each of four models, Hill, logit, probit, and Weibull is provided. Two general model extensions are introduced: (1) the multi-target hit model that accounts for the existence of several vital receptors affected by the toxin, and (2) model with a nonzero mortality at zero concentration to account for natural mortality. Special attention is given to statistical estimation in the framework of the generalized linear model with the binomial dependent variable as the mortality count in each experiment, contrary to the widespread nonlinear regression treating the mortality rate as continuous variable. The models are illustrated using standard EPA Daphnia acute (48 hours) toxicity tests with mortality as a function of NiCl or CuSO4 toxin. PMID:27847315

  14. Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole in rats dosed orally or intravenously

    SciTech Connect

    El Dareer, S.M.; Kalin, J.R.; Tillery, K.F.; Hill, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The disposition of (/sup 14/C)-labeled 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) in male Fischer-344 rats dosed orally (49 or 0.5 mg/kg) or intravenously (0.5 mg/kg) was determined. Absorption of the oral dose was evident, since, in 72 h, most of the radioactivity administered by either route appeared in the urine. Smaller amounts appeared in the feces. In 4 h, 12% of the radioactivity from an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg was excreted in the bile of rats with biliary cannulas. For rats dosed intravenously, the half-life for disappearance of unchanged MBI from plasma was 125 min. In contrast, the terminal half-life for loss of radioactivity from blood was 83 h. The concentration of total radioactivity was higher in liver and kidney tissue than in blood. One of the major urinary metabolites was identified as benzimidazole, and a minor component was tentatively identified as unchanged MBI. Neither of these could be detected in bile. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  15. Safety and tolerability of an oral zonisamide loading dose.

    PubMed

    Jongeling, Amy C; Richins, Rachel J; Bazil, Carl W

    2015-11-01

    There are a limited number of anticonvulsant medications that can be administered with an oral loading dose in order to rapidly achieve an effective serum level, and most of these have associated adverse effects. Zonisamide is approved for the treatment of partial onset epilepsy, and is used in practice for both generalized and partial onset epilepsy. It is generally well-tolerated, has a long half-life, and can be administered once daily. Unfortunately, the recommended titration schedule for initiating therapy takes several weeks to reach target dose and therapeutic serum levels. We initiated zonisamide therapy using a large initial dose of zonisamide in 32 patients in our epilepsy monitoring unit over the past four years. Adverse effects were rare and involved nausea/vomiting (9.4%) or drowsiness (6.3%). In patients where serum levels were available for review, therapeutic or near-therapeutic levels were achieved after an oral load of 600-900 mg given as divided doses over a 6-12h period. This report is the first to suggest a method of rapidly initiating zonisamide therapy, achieving therapeutic serum levels in a shorter time frame, with an adverse effect profile similar to the recommended titration schedule. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Derivation of a chronic oral reference dose for cobalt.

    PubMed

    Finley, Brent L; Monnot, Andrew D; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Gaffney, Shannon H

    2012-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential element in humans as a component of vitamin B12. However, at high levels Co exposure has been shown to have detrimental effects. This study was designed to identify a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) for Co. Currently available data indicate that non-cancer health effects associated with Co exposure may include hematological, neurological, immunological, reproductive, cardiovascular, and endocrine responses. This analysis employs the standard US EPA risk assessment methodology for establishing a chronic RfD. In this analysis, the Jaimet and Thode (1955) 10-week, multiple dose human study of thyroid effects (decreased iodine uptake) in children was determined to be the most robust and sensitive study for identifying a potential point of departure dose (POD). A dose of 0.9 mgCo/kg-day was chosen as the POD. Consistent with the US EPA's previous derivation of the perchlorate RfD, which is also based on decreased iodine uptake in humans, we considered several uncertainly factors (UFs), and determined that a factor of 10 for human variability was appropriate, as well as a factor of three for database adequacy. Applying an aggregate uncertainty factor of 30 to the POD yields a chronic oral RfD of 0.03 mg/kg-day. We believe this value would be protective of non-cancer health effects in the general population for a lifetime of daily exposure to Co.

  17. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  18. Studies on single-dose toxicity of hydrophobically modified hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in rats.

    PubMed

    Obara, S; Muto, H; Kokubo, H; Ichikawa, N; Kawanabe, M; Tanaka, O

    1992-02-01

    Single-dose toxicological studies of hydrophobically modified hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HM-HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modified with stearylglycidylether) were conducted. A dispersion of HM-HPMC was administered to rats orally or by dermal application at doses up to 900 mg/kg. After the oral administration, the mean body weight of the 900 mg/kg group on the first day after administration was slightly but significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than that of the control group, and one rat had loose stools at 30 min. after the administration. No other abnormalities were noted. In the case of dermal application, no abnormalities were observed. No rats died, and no abnormalities in their organs were found by either route. In conclusion, there was no observed toxicity of HM-HMPC after oral or dermal administration at single dose up to 900 mg/kg under the conditions of these studies.

  19. Single-Dose Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Rifapentine in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Conte, John E.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; McQuitty, Mari; Kipps, Juliana; Lin, Emil T.; Zurlinden, Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    The intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of rifapentine were studied in 30 volunteers who received a single, oral dose of rifapentine (600 mg). Subgroups of five subjects each underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at timed intervals following drug administration. Drug concentrations, including the concentration of the primary metabolite 25-desacetyl rifapentine, were determined in plasma, BAL fluid, and alveolar cells (AC) by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were calculated by the urea diffusion method. The concentration-time data were fit to two-compartment (plasma) or one-compartment (AC and ELF) models. The peak concentrations in plasma, ELF, and AC, 26.2, 3.7, and 5.3 μg/ml, respectively, occurred at 5, 5, and 7 h after drug administration, respectively. The half-lives and areas under the curve for plasma, ELF, and AC were 18.3 h and 520 μg · h/ml, 20.8 h and 111 μg · h/ml, and 13.0 h and 133 μg · h/ml, respectively. Although the intrapulmonary rifapentine concentrations were less than the plasma rifapentine concentrations at all time periods, they remained above the proposed breakpoint for M. tuberculosis (0.5 μg/ml) for the 48-h observation period. These data provide a pharmacokinetic rationale for extended-interval dosing. The optimum dosing regimen for rifapentine will have to be determined by controlled clinical trials. PMID:10722501

  20. Rhabdomyolysis associated with single-dose intravenous esomeprazole administration

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Dae-Hong; Kim, Yire; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Hyun Seop; Bae, Eun Jin; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Proton pump inhibitors are usually safe, although serious adverse effects can occur. We report the first case of rhabdomyolysis associated with single-dose intravenous esomeprozole administration. Methods: A 45-year-old Korean male visited our emergency room because of persistent lower chest discomfort that started 10 hours before. He had been diagnosed with diabetes and coronary heart disease, but discontinued oral hypoglycemic agents 1 month earlier. He continued to take medications for coronary heart disease. There was no abnormality on an electrocardiogram or in cardiac enzymes. Initial laboratory findings did not show abnormalities for muscle enzymes. Esomeprozole 40 mg was administrated intravenously for the control of his ambiguous chest discomfort. Then, 12 hours later, he complained of abrupt severe right buttock pain. An area of tender muscle swelling 8 cm in diameter was seen on his right buttock area. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated to 40,538 and 1326 U/L, respectively. A bone scan using 20 mCi of 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate was compatible with rhabdomyolysis. Results: His muscular symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings improved markedly with conservative management, including hydration and urine alkalinization. He is being followed in the outpatient department with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: We should keep in mind that single-dose intravenous administration of esomeprazole can induce rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27442680

  1. Comparison of Time to First Dose of Oral Morphine in the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah T; Costello, Tracy J; Nedderman, Kara M

    2017-07-01

    To compare time to first dose of oral morphine used in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) versus a special care nursery (SCN) setting. A retrospective chart review was completed of patient data from two community hospitals in a single health network. Infants born at either facility between January 2013 and August 2015 were eligible for inclusion in the study if treated for NAS with a course of oral morphine. The primary outcome was time from birth to first dose of oral morphine. Secondary outcomes included details about the morphine treatment course, length of stay, and complications from NAS. A total of 54 patients (19 NICU patients and 35 SCN patients) fulfilled inclusion criteria for the study. The primary outcome of median time from birth to first dose of oral morphine did not differ between the two groups (42.5 hrs [NICU] vs 43 hrs [SCN], p=0.53). No significant differences were found between the morphine regimens used in the two units. The median length of hospital stay (27 days [NICU] vs 26 days [SCN], p=0.66) and median length of NICU/SCN stay (26 days [NICU] vs 23 days [SCN], p=0.75) were not statistically significantly different. Time between transfer to the NICU or SCN and administration of the first dose of oral morphine was significantly shorter in the SCN setting (28 hrs [NICU] vs 4 hrs [SCN], p=0.009). This study found that infants treated for NAS had similar treatment in an NICU and an SCN. No difference was observed in time from birth to initiation of medication therapy. In addition, no differences were seen in all but one marker for quality of care including length of stay and cumulative morphine dose. Infants treated for NAS, whether in an NICU or SCN setting, can receive similar treatment and comparable outcomes. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Human pharmacokinetics and toxicity of high-dose metronidazole administered orally and intravenously

    SciTech Connect

    Urtasun, R.C.; Rabin, H.R.; Partington, J.

    1983-01-01

    This study is part of a clinical program to assess the use of nitroimidazoles as radiosensitizers of hypoxic tumor cells. A total of 37 patients with malignant tumors have been entered into the study to receive oral high-dose metronidazole in conjunction with radiation. Twenty-eight patients with malignant brain tumors received 6 gm/m2 three times a week for 3 weeks (a mean total dose of 5.3 gm/m2). Maximum mean plasma drug concentration of 1 mM was obtained at 4 hours after drug ingestion with a mean half-life of 13 hours. Tissue and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 80% to 90% of the plasma levels were obtained at 4 to 6 hours. A linear relationship between increased drug dose and increased plasma concentration was observed at doses of 2.5 gm/m2 up to 6 gm/m2. Acute gastrointestinal and central nervous system toxicity was the dose-limiting factor (50% and 25%, respectively, at total doses of 5.3 gm/m2). Pharmacokinetic studies of intravenous metronidazole were performed in eight consenting patients. Single doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 gm were administered intravenously by zero-order infusion pump. Seven of the eight patients received a second identical dose orally 1 week later and the results were compared. Open two-compartment kinetic characteristics of metronidazole were computed from simultaneous plasma infusion and urine excretion rate equations, by use of a nonlinear least-squares regression analysis program (NONLIN). The mean (+/- SD) for alpha half-life was 1.2 +/- 1.3 hours, and that for the beta half-life was 9.8 +/- 5.9 hours. The absolute oral bioavailability was estimated to approximate 100%.

  3. Comparative oral dose toxicokinetics of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium accumulator plants.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Welch, K D; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Hall, J O

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Se/kg BW) of sodium selenate or MeSeCys were determined. The Se concentrations in serum and whole blood for both chemical forms of Se followed simple dose-dependent relationships. Se-methylselenocysteine was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent in whole blood than sodium selenate, as observed by a greater peak Se concentration (Cmax; P < 0.0001), and faster time to peak concentration (Tmax; P < 0.0001) and rate of absorption (P < 0.0001). The rate of absorption and Tmax were also faster (P < 0.0001) in serum of lambs dosed with MeSeCys compared with those dosed sodium selenate at equimolar doses; however, Cmax in serum was greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with sodium selenate compared with those dosed MeSeCys at equimolar doses. The MeSeCys was absorbed 4 to 5 times faster into serum and 9 to 14 times faster into whole blood at equimolar Se doses. There were dose-dependent increases in the area under the curve (AUC) for Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with both sodium selenate and MeSeCys. In whole blood the MeSeCys was approximately twice as bioavailable as sodium selenate at equimolar doses as observed by the AUC, whereas in serum there were no differences (P > 0.05) in AUC at the same doses. At 168 h postdosing the Se concentration in whole blood remained much greater (P < 0.0001) in lambs dosed with MeSeCys as compared with lambs dosed with sodium selenate; however, the serum Se concentrations were not different between treatments at the same time point. The results presented in this study demonstrate that there are differences between the kinetics of different

  4. [Administration of a single Winter oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin D3 in adolescents in Normandy: evaluation of the safety and vitamin D status obtained].

    PubMed

    Mallet, E; Philippe, F; Castanet, M; Basuyau, J-P

    2010-07-01

    Adolescence, a period of growth and acquisition of bone mass, requires adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. This study was designed to assess the impact of a single loading dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin D(3) on the winter vitamin D status of healthy adolescents. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25-OH-D levels before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after this single dose, and safety was assessed by serum calcium and PTH and urinary calcium excretion in random samples from 27, 23, and 17 healthy adolescents derived from the same institution. The 25-OH-D peak value 2 weeks after the vitamin D supplement of 71-129 nmol/l (mean, 96 nmol/l), and a residual level at 3 months of 29-83 nmol/l (mean, 57 nmol/l) serum calcium and urinary calcium excretion expressed by the calcium/creatinine ratio were normal and stable at 2 weeks and 3 months, remaining less than 0.5 for the calcium/creatinine ratio. This simple measure, ensuring good compliance during adolescence, ensures optimal winter vitamin D status with no signs of overload. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Okada, Yu; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that a large subset of children (approximately 70%) who react to unheated milk or egg can tolerate extensively heated forms of these foods. A diet that includes baked milk or egg is well tolerated and appears to accelerate the development of regular milk or egg tolerance when compared with strict avoidance. However, the indications for an oral food challenge (OFC) using baked products are limited for patients with high specific IgE values or large skin prick test diameters. Oral immunotherapies (OITs) are becoming increasingly popular for the management of food allergies. However, the reported efficacy of OIT is not satisfactory, given the high frequency of symptoms and requirement for long-term therapy. With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe symptomatic acute hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury responded very rapidly to a single 15 mg dose of oral tolvaptan; a Mayo Clinic Health System hospital experience - need for caution with tolvaptan in younger patients with preserved renal function.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma

    2017-01-01

    Tolvaptan is now well established as a potent pharmaceutical agent for symptomatic hyponatremia from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. Previous studies had recruited older (63-65 years) patients with mild renal impairment (serum creatinine, 1.3-1.4 mg/dl). A 2012 report in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry described tolvaptan as a "lifesaving drug". A major outcome concern in the treatment of chronic hyponatremia is potentially fatal pontine demyelination from over-rapid correction of serum sodium >0.5 mEq/dL/h. The maximum reported correction of serum sodium within 24 hours was 13 mEq/L in a case of SIADH. We recently experienced the dramatic correction of hyponatremia at 1 mEq/dL/h over 18 hours, following 15 mg of oral tolvaptan in a 32-year old male patient with normal kidney function (serum creatinine 0.76 mg/dL), following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tolvaptan is indeed an effective and life-saving drug for post-TBI hyponatremia. However, we strongly recommend the use of lower doses of tolvaptan (≤15 mg/d) in younger patients with more preserved renal function to avoid the development of life-threatening pontine demyelination.

  7. A comparative study of pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and tissue distribution of platinum in rats following a single-dose oral administration of two platinum(IV) complexes LA-12 (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)(1-adamantylamine)amminedichloroplatinum(IV) and satraplatin (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV).

    PubMed

    Sova, Petr; Mistr, Adolf; Kroutil, Ales; Semerád, Martin; Chlubnová, Hana; Hrusková, Veronika; Chládková, Jirina; Chládek, Jaroslav

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and urinary excretion of platinum in rats after single oral doses of LA-12 and satraplatin. Both platinum derivatives were administered to male Wistar rats as suspensions in methylcellulose at four equimolar doses within the range of 37.5-300 mg LA-12/kg body weight. Blood sampling was performed until 72 h, and plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate were separated. Moreover, urine was collected until 72 h, and kidney and liver tissue samples were obtained at several times after administration. Platinum was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics of platinum was analyzed by population modelling and post hoc Bayesian estimation as well as using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of the mean concentration-time curves. Platinum was detected in all plasma and ultrafiltrate samples 15 min after oral administration of both compounds and peaked between 3-4 h and 1-3 h, respectively. Similar for LA-12 and satraplatin, the C (max) and AUC values of plasma and ultrafiltrate platinum increased less than in proportion to dose. The mean C (max) and AUC values of plasma platinum observed after administration of LA-12 were from 0.84 to 2.5 mg/l and from 20.2 to 75.9 mg h/l. For ultrafiltrate platinum, the corresponding ranges were 0.16-0.78 mg/l and 0.63-1.8 mg h/l, respectively. The AUC of plasma platinum was higher after satraplatin (P < 0.001). However, administration of LA-12 resulted in significantly higher AUC values of ultrafiltrate platinum after the doses of 150 mg and 300 mg/kg (P < 0.01), respectively, and the C (max) values were significantly higher starting from the dose of 75 mg/kg LA-12 and upward (P < 0.01). Cumulative 72-h urinary recovery of platinum dose was below 5% for both compounds, and it decreased with the dose of satraplatin (P < 0.01), while a numerical decrease was observed after administration of LA-12 that did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.41). The

  8. Speech Articulation of Low-Dose Oral Contraceptive Users.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Eliséa Maria; Fontoura, Giana Valeria Fagundez; Corleta, Helena von Eye; Capp, Edison

    2015-11-01

    In the female life cycle, hormonal fluctuations may result in impaired verbal efficiency and vocal worsening during the premenstrual phase. Oral contraceptives may interfere with vocal range. Voice, resonance, and articulation variations clarify speech content. To investigate the phonoarticulatory sounds produced by oral contraceptive users aged between 20 and 30 years. This is a cross-sectional study. Our study included four groups of women (n = 66): two groups used low-dose oral contraceptives and two groups did not use any oral contraceptives. Questionnaires and sound records were used. Acoustic analysis was performed using the Computerized Speech Laboratory program, Model 4341 (Kay Elemetrics Corp, Lincoln Park, New Jersey). The statistical analysis of the SPPS database, version 13.0, was performed by means of generalized estimating equation. In the groups that did not use oral contraceptives, sustained vowel tones were more acute in the two phases and cycles of women older than 25 years (w/oOC1, 175 ± 74 to 190 ± 55 Hz; w/oOC2, 194 ± 56 to 210 ± 32 Hz). At the midfollicular phase (Fph) and midluteal phase (Lph) of the two cycles, the speed of the speech was slower in this group (w/oOC1: Fph, 5.3 ± 1.6/s and Lph, 5.4 ± 1.4/s; w/oOC2: Fph, 4.5 ± 1.7/s and Lph, 4.8 ± 1.1/s). In both groups that used oral contraceptives, there was a higher modulation frequency in the sentences when compared with nonusers (OC1, 33 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC1, 28 ± 10 Hz; OC2, 34 ± 10 Hz; w/oOC2, 27 ± 10 Hz). Vocal intensity was closer between the OC1 (62 ± 4 dB), w/oOC1 (61 ± 3 dB), and OC2 (63 ± 4 dB) groups when compared with the w/oOC2 (67 ± 6 dB) group. We demonstrated hormonal influences on speech articulation of contraceptive users and nonusers. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of a single high oxfendazole dose against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis; Saumell, Carlos; Fusé, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Domingue, Gilbert; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Lanusse, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current experiment was to assess the clinical efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) administered as a single oral dose (30 mg/kg) to pigs naturally parasitized with Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Metastrongylus spp. and Trichuris suis. Thirty-six local ecotype piglets were divided into three independent experiments, named I, II and III (n=12 each), respectively. Each experiment involved two different groups (n=6): Untreated Control and OFZ treated. Animals were naturally parasitized with A. suum (Experiments I, II and III), Oesophagostomum spp. (Experiments I and II), T. suis (Experiments II and III) and Metastrongylus spp. (Experiment I). Pigs in the treated group received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30 mg/kg dose. At five (5) days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed and the clinical efficacy of the OFZ treatment was established following the currently available WAAVP guidelines for a controlled efficacy test. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse events during the study. OFZ treatment given as a single 30 mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against all the nematode parasites present in the three experiments. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions, OFZ orally administered to naturally parasitized piglets at a single dose of 30 mg/kg was safe and highly efficacious (100%) against adult stages of A. suum, Oesophagostomum spp., T. suis and Metastrongylus spp.

  10. Phase I study to determine the maximal tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities of orally administered idarubicin in dogs with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vail, D M; Husbands, B D; Kamerling, S G; Simpson, H; Kurzman, I D; McDonnell, A

    2012-01-01

    Idarubicin, a PO bioavailable anthracycline antibiotic-class chemotherapeutic, could have substantial convenience advantages over currently available similar class agents in use that require IV delivery. The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and basic pharmacokinetic parameters of oral idarubicin exposure in dogs with lymphoma after a single oral dose. A secondary objective was to document preliminary antitumor efficacy in an expanded treatment cohort using the established MTD. Client-owned dogs with measurable lymphoma. Dogs (n = 31) were enrolled in a prospective open label phase I study of oral idarubicin. By means of a 3 + 3 cohort design, dose escalations were made with 3 dogs per dose level, and the MTD was established based on the number of patients experiencing a DLT. Plasma concentrations of idarubicin and idarubicinol were determined by postdose sampling. Assessment of antitumor efficacy focused on evaluation of accessible, measurable lymph nodes and skin lesions by modified RECIST guidelines. The MTD in dogs > 15 kg body weight was 22 mg/m(2) . Adverse hematologic events (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) were the predominant DLT and generally correlated with higher plasma concentrations of idarubicin and idarubicinol. PO administered idarubicin was generally well-tolerated and had preliminary antitumor activity in dogs with lymphoma. Furthermore, the potential clinical advantage of a safe and efficacious oral anthracycline alternative supports further investigations of this agent in repeated-dose, randomized clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of temafloxacin in humans after multiple oral doses.

    PubMed Central

    Granneman, G R; Carpentier, P; Morrison, P J; Pernet, A G

    1992-01-01

    The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerance of temafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, were evaluated in healthy volunteers. Temafloxacin was found to be well tolerated when administered orally every 12 h for 7 days at doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 mg. Steady-state maximum and minimum concentrations in plasma were proportional to dose, averaging slightly over 1.0 and 0.5 microgram/ml/100 mg administered. Analyses of variance found no significant differences among the dosage groups in total apparent clearances (CLT/F), renal clearances (CLR), or nonrenal clearances, which averaged 197, 119, and 78 ml/min, respectively. The half-life increased slightly with dose, averaging 8.4 h overall. The extent of absorption of temafloxacin was quite reproducible, with day-to-day intrasubject variability in minima averaging under 10%. Renal glomerular filtration of unbound drug was the dominant elimination process; however, tubular secretion and reabsorption also appear to occur. Secretion was estimated to account for about 12% of CLT/F during a regimen of 600 mg every 12 h. CLR was relatively constant for urine flow rates above 1 ml/min, but reabsorption appeared to occur under low-flow conditions, resulting in day-versus-night differences in CLR. Intersubject variability in CLT/F over the eightfold range in dosage was only 20%, and 60% of this variance was accounted for by differences in body surface area (or lean body mass), concentration in plasma, and urine flow rate. Overall, it appears that the pharmacokinetics of temafloxacin are essentially linear, reproducible within a subject, and predictable among subjects. PMID:1318680

  12. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  13. Disposition and absorption of hydroxychloroquine enantiomers following a single dose of the racemate.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, A J; Tett, S E; Cutler, D J; Day, R O

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of hydroxychloroquine enantiomers has been investigated in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis following administration of a single dose of the racemate. Blood concentrations of (-)-(R)-hydroxychloroquine exceed those of (+)-(S)-hydroxychloroquine following both an oral and intravenous dose of the racemate. Maximum blood concentrations of (-)-(R)-hydroxychloroquine were higher than (+)-(S)-hydroxychloroquine after oral dosing (121 +/- 56 and 99 +/- 42 ng/ml, respectively, P = 0.009). The time to maximum concentration and the absorption half-life, calculated using deconvolution techniques, were similar for both enantiomers. The fractions of the dose of each enantiomer absorbed were similar, 0.74 and 0.77 for (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-hydroxychloroquine, respectively (P = 0.77). The data suggest that absorption of hydroxychloroquine is not enantioselective. The stereoselective disposition of hydroxychloroquine appears to be due to enantioselective metabolism and renal clearance, rather than stereoselectivity in absorption and distribution.

  14. The Impact of a One-Dose versus Two-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine Regimen in Outbreak Settings: A Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Ciglenecki, Iza; Grais, Rebecca F; Sack, David A; Lessler, Justin

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited. Innovative strategies are needed to maximize the health impact and minimize the logistical barriers to using available vaccine. Here we ask under what conditions the use of one dose rather than the internationally licensed two-dose protocol may do both. Using mathematical models we determined the minimum relative single-dose efficacy (MRSE) at which single-dose reactive campaigns are expected to be as or more effective than two-dose campaigns with the same amount of vaccine. Average one- and two-dose OCV effectiveness was estimated from published literature and compared to the MRSE. Results were applied to recent outbreaks in Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Guinea using stochastic simulations to illustrate the potential impact of one- and two-dose campaigns. At the start of an epidemic, a single dose must be 35%-56% as efficacious as two doses to avert the same number of cases with a fixed amount of vaccine (i.e., MRSE between 35% and 56%). This threshold decreases as vaccination is delayed. Short-term OCV effectiveness is estimated to be 77% (95% CI 57%-88%) for two doses and 44% (95% CI -27% to 76%) for one dose. This results in a one-dose relative efficacy estimate of 57% (interquartile range 13%-88%), which is above conservative MRSE estimates. Using our best estimates of one- and two-dose efficacy, we projected that a single-dose reactive campaign could have prevented 70,584 (95% prediction interval [PI] 55,943-86,205) cases in Zimbabwe, 78,317 (95% PI 57,435-100,150) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and 2,826 (95% PI 2,490-3,170) cases in Conakry, Guinea: 1.1 to 1.2 times as many as a two-dose campaign. While extensive sensitivity analyses were performed, our projections of cases averted in past epidemics are based on severely limited single-dose efficacy data and may not fully capture uncertainty due to imperfect surveillance data and

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a low dose and FDA-labeled dose of diclazuril administered orally as a pelleted topdressing in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Hunyadi, L; Papich, M G; Pusterla, N

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of the FDA-approved labeled dose of diclazuril and compare it to a low dose in plasma and CSF in adult horses. During each research period, six healthy adult horses received 0.5 mg/kg of 1.56% diclazuril pellets (Protazil(TM) , Merck Animal Health) compared to the approved labeled dose of 1 mg/kg orally once in two separate phases. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg was calculated to each horse's weight. Blood was then collected immediately before diclazuril administration and then at regular intervals up to a 168 h. After the last blood collection following the single dose at hour 168, a once daily oral dose was administered for the next 10 days to ensure the drug's concentration reached steady-state. To determine the CSF concentration at steady-state, CSF samples were collected after the 9th oral dose. Blood was then collected after the 10th dose and then at regular intervals up to 168 h. A washout period of 4 weeks was allowed before repeating this protocol for the FDA-labeled dose at 1 mg/kg. Plasma and CSF samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order oral absorption was fitted to the single administration data. Steady-state pharmacokinetics was performed using noncompartmental analysis for steady-state analysis. The mean (standard deviation) concentration of diclazuril in CSF following the low dose was 26 ng/mL (5 ng/mL), while CSF in the FDA-labeled dose was 25 ng/mL (4 ng/mL), P = 0.3750. Substantial accumulation in plasma occurred at steady-state after the 10th dose for both doses. The results of this study show that diclazuril pellets given at the approved label dose and a lower dose both produce similar plasma drug concentrations at steady-state and attain plasma and CSF concentrations known to inhibit Sarcocystis neurona in cell culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ≥5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are

  17. Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eliciting dose (ED) for a peanut allergic reaction in 5% of the peanut allergic population, the ED05, is 1.5 mg of peanut protein. This ED05 was derived from oral food challenges (OFC) that use graded, incremental doses administered at fixed time intervals. Individual patients’ threshold doses were used to generate population dose-distribution curves using probability distributions from which the ED05 was then determined. It is important to clinically validate that this dose is predictive of the allergenic response in a further unselected group of peanut-allergic individuals. Methods/Aims This is a multi-centre study involving three national level referral and teaching centres. (Cork University Hospital, Ireland, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.) The study is now in process and will continue to run until all centres have recruited 125 participates in each respective centre. A total of 375 participants, aged 1–18 years will be recruited during routine Allergy appointments in the centres. The aim is to assess the precision of the predicted ED05 using a single dose (6 mg peanut = 1.5 mg of peanut protein) in the form of a cookie. Validated Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ) will be self-administered prior to OFC and 1 month after challenge to assess the impact of a single dose OFC on FAQL. Serological and cell based in vitro studies will be performed. Conclusion The validation of the ED05 threshold for allergic reactions in peanut allergic subjects has potential value for public health measures. The single dose OFC, based upon the statistical dose-distribution analysis of past challenge trials, promises an efficient approach to identify the most highly sensitive patients within any given food-allergic population. PMID:24028324

  18. [A study in the Ivory Coast (1985-1987) of the efficacy and tolerance of ivermectin (Mectizan) in human onchocerciasis. I. A comparative double-blind study of 220 patients with onchocerciasis treated with a single oral dose of 100, 150 or 200 mcg/kg].

    PubMed

    Larivière, M; Beauvais, B; Aziz, M; Garin, J F; Abeloos, J; Derouin, F; Bamba, M; Bossebceuf, C; Ferly-Therizol, M; Sarfati, C

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty adult males living in endemic onchocerciasis areas in Ivory Coast, with a mean of 59 to 64 mf/mg of skin microfilariae, having or not ocular lesions, were divided into 4 homogeneous groups and treated by placebo or by a single oral dose of 100, 150 or 200 mcg/kg of ivermectin. Parasitological, clinical, ophthalmological, biological data were gathered before treatment (J less than 1) and at day 4 and 3, 6, 12 months post treatment. The doses of 150 to 200 mcg/kg gave the best results with a reduction of microfilariae of 75 to 79% at day 4 and of 97 to 99% at 3 months. A slight increase appears at six months reaching to 10% of the initial level, at 12 months. These posologies reduce also the number of ocular microfilariae 12 months after treatment. The percentage of patients presenting microfilariae in the cornea varies from 4 to 14% according to the given dose whereas it was initially between 26 and 33%, and in the anterior chamber from 22 to 16% instead of 62 to 67%. In patients who were still positive after treatment the detected number of ocular microfilariae was very small. Side effects starting 12 to 24 hours after treatment are similar to those appearing during the normal evolution of onchocerciasis. They were observed in 36% of subjects receiving a placebo and 56 to 65% of treated subjects. Statistically they are neither correlated with the intensity of parasitism nor to the given posology and disappear spontaneously few days later or after administration of aspirin and/or antihistaminic. Ivermectin given at a single oral dosage of 150 to 200 mcg/kg is a powerful microfilaricidal drug with a rapid and prolonged action and without major side effects.

  19. Oral anticancer drugs: how limited dosing options and dose reductions may affect outcomes in comparative trials and efficacy in patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R; Fojo, Tito

    2014-05-20

    Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials.

  20. Oral Anticancer Drugs: How Limited Dosing Options and Dose Reductions May Affect Outcomes in Comparative Trials and Efficacy in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R.; Fojo, Tito

    2014-01-01

    Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

  1. ELQ-300 prodrugs for enhanced delivery and single-dose cure of malaria.

    PubMed

    Miley, Galen P; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf; Nilsen, Aaron; Li, Yuexin; Kelly, Jane X; Stickles, Allison M; Mather, Michael W; Forquer, Isaac P; Pershing, April M; White, Karen; Shackleford, David; Saunders, Jessica; Chen, Gong; Ting, Li-Min; Kim, Kami; Zakharov, Lev N; Donini, Cristina; Burrows, Jeremy N; Vaidya, Akhil B; Charman, Susan A; Riscoe, Michael K

    2015-09-01

    ELQ-300 is a preclinical candidate that targets the liver and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, as well as the forms that are crucial to transmission of disease: gametocytes, zygotes, and ookinetes. A significant obstacle to the clinical development of ELQ-300 is related to its physicochemical properties. Its relatively poor aqueous solubility and high crystallinity limit absorption to the degree that only low blood concentrations can be achieved following oral dosing. While these low blood concentrations are sufficient for therapy, the levels are too low to establish an acceptable safety margin required by regulatory agencies for clinical development. One way to address the challenging physicochemical properties of ELQ-300 is through the development of prodrugs. Here, we profile ELQ-337, a bioreversible O-linked carbonate ester prodrug of the parent molecule. At the molar equivalent dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight, the delivery of ELQ-300 from ELQ-337 is enhanced by 3- to 4-fold, reaching a maximum concentration of drug in serum (C max) of 5.9 μM by 6 h after oral administration, and unlike ELQ-300 at any dose, ELQ-337 provides single-dose cures of patent malaria infections in mice at low-single-digit milligram per kilogram doses. Our findings show that the prodrug strategy represents a viable approach to overcome the physicochemical limitations of ELQ-300 to deliver the active drug to the bloodstream at concentrations sufficient for safety and toxicology studies, as well as achieving single-dose cures.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single-Dose Canagliflozin in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xia; Hu, Pei; Vaccaro, Nicole; Polidori, David; Curtin, Christopher R; Stieltjes, Hans; Sha, Sue; Weiner, Sveta; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-07-01

    Canagliflozin, an orally active sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is approved in many countries as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The recommended dose of canagliflozin is 100 or 300 mg once daily. This Phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety profile of canagliflozin in healthy Chinese subjects. In this double-blind, single-dose, 3-way crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to receive single oral doses of canagliflozin 100 mg, canagliflozin 300 mg, or placebo. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety assessments were made at prespecified time points. All participants are healthy Chinese adults. Mean AUC and Cmax of canagliflozin increased in a dose-dependent manner after single-dose administration (AUC0-∞, 10,521 ng · h/mL for 100 mg, 33,583 ng · h/mL for 300 mg; Cmax, 1178 ng/mL for 100 mg, 4113 ng/mL for 300 mg). The mean apparent t½ and the median Tmax of canagliflozin were independent of dose (t½, 16.0 hours for 100 mg, 16.2 hours for 300 mg; Tmax, ~1 hour). Mean CL/F and renal clearance of canagliflozin were comparable between the 2 doses. Mean plasma metabolite to parent molar ratios for Cmax and AUC0-∞ were similar with both doses. Canagliflozin decreased the 24-hour mean renal threshold for glucose, calculated by using measured creatinine clearance to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (67.9 and 60.7 mg/dL for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively) and 24-hour increased urinary glucose excretion (33.8 and 42.9 g for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner; the 24-hour plasma glucose profile remained largely unchanged. No deaths, hypoglycemic events, or discontinuations due to adverse events were observed. Pharmacokinetics (AUC and Cmax) of canagliflozin increased in a dose-dependent manner after single oral doses of canagliflozin (100 and 300 mg) in

  3. Single-dose versus multi-dose vaccine vials for immunization programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Nelson, Carib M.; Lloyd, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive vaccine wastage and safety concerns have prompted the international health community to develop and supply vaccines in formats other than the standard multi-dose vial. This article presents a programmatic and economic comparison of the major differences between the multi-dose vials and single-dose formats used for immunization services in developing countries. Multi-dose vials, in general, sell at a lower per-dose price and occupy less cold-chain capacity than single-dose formats. However, higher wastage rates may offset these benefits, especially for more expensive vaccines. Single-dose formats offer several important programmatic benefits, such as increased vaccination opportunities and improved vaccine safety. One single-dose format, the prefilled auto-disable (AD) device, provides additional injection safety and convenience features because it physically combines the vaccine and AD syringe. Selecting the appropriate vaccine presentation will depend on many factors. However, multi-dose vials are likely to be most appropriate for cheaper vaccines and in settings where cold-chain storage capacity is restricted. Single-dose formats will be most appropriate for more expensive vaccines and where there are problems with unsafe injection practices. Prefilled AD injection devices will be particularly useful in expanding outreach services while eliminating the possibility of needle reuse. PMID:14758432

  4. Repeated dosing with oral cocaine in humans: assessment of direct effects, withdrawal, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sharon L; Stoops, William W; Moody, David E; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E

    2009-08-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n = 9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses; 875 mg/day) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) two to threefold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects (liking, high, good effects) and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours.

  5. Oral dose of citrus peel extracts promotes wound repair in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Ansari, M N; Alam, A; Khan, T H

    2013-10-15

    Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon), Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise) and Orange (Citrus sinensis) promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatment with citrus peel extracts on wound repair of the skin of diabetic rats. The extracts were estimated for vitamin C and total carotenoid contents prior to animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg kg(-1) b.wt.). One week after diabetes induction, full thickness excision wounds were made in hyperglycemic rats and were divided groups, each containing 6 rats. The different test group animals were treated with different citrus peel extract orally at the dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight daily for 12 days. The blood glucose, body weight and rate of wound closure of each rat were measured every 3rd day during the experimental period. At the end of experiment, granular tissues of wounds were removed and estimated for hydroxylproline and total protein content. The results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and time to wound closure. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher as determined by total protein and hydroxyl proline content. From our experimental data, we propose that oral administration of citrus peel extracts has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes.

  6. Single and multiple doses of rimonabant antagonize acute effects of smoked cannabis in male cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Boyd, Susan J; Heishman, Stephen J; Preston, Kenzie L; Bonnet, Denis; Le Fur, Gerard; Gorelick, David A

    2007-11-01

    A single 90-mg dose of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates effects of smoked cannabis in humans. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether repeated daily 40-mg doses of rimonabant can attenuate effects of smoked cannabis to the same extent as a single higher (90 mg) dose. Forty-two male volunteers received one of three oral drug regimens in a randomized, double blind, parallel group design: (1) 40 mg rimonabant daily for 15 days, (2) placebo for 14 days, then 90 mg rimonabant on day 15, or (3) placebo for 15 days. All participants smoked an active or placebo cannabis cigarette 2 h after medication on days 8 and 15. Subjective effects were measured with visual analog scales and the marijuana-scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Cannabis-induced tachycardia was significantly lower for the 40-mg group on day 8 and for the 40 and 90 mg rimonabant groups on day 15 as compared to placebo. The 40-mg dose significantly decreased peak subjective effects on day 8. Neither the 90-mg nor 40-mg doses significantly decreased peak subjective effects on day 15. Rimonabant treatment did not significantly affect Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinnol pharmacokinetics. Repeated lower daily rimonabant doses (40 mg) attenuated the acute physiological effects of smoked cannabis to a similar degree as a single 90-mg dose; repeated 40-mg doses attenuated subjective effects after 8 but not 15 days.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Ibuprofen and Paracetamol after Intravenous and Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Hartley C; Stanescu, Ioana; Frampton, Chris; Salem, Isam I; Beasley, Charles P H; Robson, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Previously published studies have suggested the lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between ibuprofen and paracetamol when they are delivered as a fixed-dose oral combination. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile and safety of a fixed-dose intravenous (IV) combination, containing 3 mg/mL ibuprofen and 10 mg/mL paracetamol, in comparison with its individual components. The study also assessed the relative bioavailability of the same doses of the active ingredients when they were administered as an oral formulation. A single-dose, open-label, randomized, five-period cross-over sequence pharmacokinetic study was undertaken in 30 healthy volunteers. Serial plasma samples were assayed for both paracetamol and ibuprofen concentrations, using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were computed using standard non-compartmental analyses. Adverse events were also assessed. The ratios of the maximum measured plasma concentration (C max), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to the time of the last measurable plasma concentration (AUCt ) and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) were analysed for bioequivalence as determined by 90% confidence intervals. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ibuprofen and paracetamol were very similar for the combination and monotherapy IV preparations; the ratios of the C max, AUC t and AUC∞ values fell within the 80-125% acceptable bioequivalence range. Precise dose proportionality for both compounds was also determined for the half dose of the IV formulation in comparison with the full dose. The relative bioavailability of paracetamol (93.78%) and ibuprofen (96.45%) confirmed the pharmacokinetic equivalence of the oral and IV formulations of the fixed-dose combination. Concomitant administration of 3 mg/mL ibuprofen and 10 mg/mL paracetamol in a fixed-dose IV combination does not alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of

  8. Efavirenz does not meaningfully affect the single dose pharmacokinetics of 1200 mg raltegravir.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajesh; East, Lilly; Larson, Patrick; Siringhaus, Tara; Herpok, Lisa; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Manthos, Helen; Brejda, John; Gartner, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice daily (BID). Raltegravir for once daily regimen (QD) at a dose of 1200 mg (2 x 600 mg) is under development and offers a new treatment option for HIV-1 infected treatment-naive subjects. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1 A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inducers may alter plasma levels of raltegravir. Efavirenz, an UGT1A1 inducer, was used to assess the impact of altered UGT activity on a 1200 mg QD dose of raltegravir. An open label, randomized, 2-period fixed-sequence Phase 1 study was performed in adult healthy male and female subjects (non-childbearing potential) ≥ 19 and ≤55 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and ≤32.0 kg/m(2) . Subjects (n = 21) received a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir at bedtime on an empty stomach on Day 1 in Period 1. After a washout period of at least 7 days, subjects received oral doses of 600 mg efavirenz QD at bedtime for 14 consecutive days in Period 2. Subjects received a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir co-administered with 600 mg efavirenz on Day 12 of Period 2. Pharmacokinetic (PK) samples were collected for 72 hours following raltegravir dosing and analyzed using a validated bioanalytical method to quantify raltegravir plasma concentrations. PK parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analysis. Administration of single 1200 mg oral doses of raltegravir alone and co-administered with multiple oral doses of efavirenz were generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. Co-administration with efavirenz yielded geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and their associated 90% confidence intervals (90% CIs) for raltegravir AUC0-∞, Cmax , and C24 of 0.86 (0.73, 1.01), 0.91 (0.70, 1.17), and 0.94 (0.76, 1.17), respectively. The results show that efavirenz

  9. Metabolism of oral ALA combined small dose HPD in the small rat glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Yan, Ming; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: Research on the metabolism of oral ALA combined small dose HPD in the small rat glioma to find the optimal oral dose and diagnostic time for the ALA-photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of brain glioma. Methods: Measure the fluorescence spectra of tumor in the treatment groups and control group and of brain tissue of no-tumor group with different doses of ALA taken orally combined injectd small dose HPD and different time before and after take ALA when irradiated by laser. We analyzed the spectrum of fluorescence of every groups with optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) and compared it each other. Result: The maximum ratio (Itumor/Inomal ) of fluorescence was obtained at 60mg/kg of ALA taken orally and 6-8h after ALA taken. Conclusion: The optimal oral dose is 60mg/kg of ALA and the optimal measure time is 6-8 hours after ALA taken.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of pholcodine in healthy volunteers: single and chronic dosing studies.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z R; Bochner, F; Somogyi, A

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of pholcodine after two single doses and after chronic administration were studied in healthy human volunteers. 2. Six subjects received single oral doses of 20 and 60 mg of pholcodine according to a balanced cross-over design with an interval of 3 weeks between the two treatments. Blood and saliva samples and all urine were collected over 168 h after each dosage administration. Subsequently, the same subjects received 20 mg pholcodine 8 hourly orally for 10 days. Blood and saliva samples and all urine were collected during an 8 h dosing interval after the last dose on day 11. 3. Plasma, saliva and urine concentrations of pholcodine were determined by a high performance liquid chromatographic assay. 4. After the single doses, pholcodine was absorbed rapidly (tmax = 1.6 +/- 1.2 h) and eliminated slowly with a mean half-life of 50.1 +/- 4.1 h. The renal clearance of pholcodine was 137 +/- 34 ml min-1 and was inversely correlated with urine pH (r = 0.60) but not with urine flow rate. 26.2 +/- 3.3% of the dose was excreted as unchanged pholcodine after both doses. The concentration of pholcodine in saliva was 3.6 times higher than in plasma. 5. After chronic administration, the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine were not statistically different from the single dose parameters. 6. Pholcodine did not appear to undergo conjugation. The plasma protein binding was 23.5%. Morphine, in unconjugated or conjugated form, was not detected in the urine of any subject after pholcodine administration. PMID:3190994

  11. Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Gemifloxacin Administered Orally to Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bygate, Elizabeth; Vousden, Marika; Oliver, Stuart; Johnson, Martin; Ward, Christopher; Cheon, Ae-Jin; Choo, Youn Sung; Kim, In-Chull

    2001-01-01

    Gemifloxacin mesylate (SB-265805-S, LB-20304a) is a potent, novel fluoroquinolone agent with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin were characterized in two parallel group studies in healthy male volunteers after doses of 160, 320, 480, and 640 mg once daily for 7 days. Multiple serum or plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 7 and were analyzed for gemifloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–fluorescence (study 1) or HPLC-mass spectrometry (study 2). Safety assessments included vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) readings, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and adverse experience monitoring. Gemifloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with a time to maximum concentration of approximately 1 h after dosing followed by a biexponential decline in concentration. Generally, maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased linearly with dose after either single or repeat doses. Mean ± standard deviation values of AUC0–τ on day 7 were 4.92 ± 1.08, 9.06 ± 2.20, 12.2 ± 3.69, and 20.1 ± 3.67 μg·h/ml following 160-, 320-, 480-, and 640-mg doses, respectively. The terminal-phase half-life was approximately 7 to 8 h, independent of dose, and was similar following single and repeated administrations. There was minimal accumulation of gemifloxacin after multiple dosing. Approximately 20 to 30% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. The renal clearance was 160 ml/min on average after single and multiple doses, which was slightly greater than the accepted glomerular filtration rate (approximately 120 ml/min). These data show that the pharmacokinetics of gemifloxacin are linear and independent of dose. Gemifloxacin was generally well tolerated, although one subject was withdrawn from the study after 6 days at 640 mg for mild, transient elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase not

  12. Effect of low dose oral contraceptives on exercise performance.

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, R W; Toffle, R C; Ullrich, I H; Yeater, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--to examine the effect of cycle phase or a low dose oral contraceptive on exercise performance in young women. METHODS--As controls, 15 men were tested twice by a maximal treadmill test (Vo2 max) and by an endurance run 14 d apart to determine performance variability from causes other than hormonal fluctuations. Ten women ages 18-30 were then tested for Vo2 max and endurance in the same way in both the follicular and the luteal phase (random order, ovulation assessed by sonography). They were then randomly assigned to placebo (n = 3) or oral contraceptive (1 mg norethindrone and 35 micrograms ethinyl oestradiol) (n = 7) for 21 days. Tests were repeated during the first and third weeks of treatment. Vo2 max and endurance tests were compared in the men and control cycle of the women by using independent t tests on percent change. The data for both cycles in the women were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS--There was no difference in per cent change in total test time, Vo2 max, or breathing frequency between the men and women in either test. Data obtained during the Vo2 max test revealed no difference between the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle for total test time [11.8 (SD 2.3) v 12.6 (2.3) min], Vo2 [41.6 (12.1) v 39.7 (11.4) ml.kg-1.min-1], or breathing frequency [26.8 (3.5) v 27.3 (9.9) breaths.min-1] respectively, or during the first and third weeks of treatment [total test time 12.0 (2.5) v 12.8 (2.4) min; Vo2 37.3 (7.4) v 41.0 (12.4) ml.kg-1.min-1; breathing frequency 27.8 (4.2) v 27.7 (3.4) breaths.min-1, respectively]. Data obtained during the endurance test revealed no difference between the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle for total test time [20.5 (15.7) v 16.2 (8.5) min], Vo2 [37.5 (9.4) v 32.9 (8.1) ml.kg-1.min-1], or breathing frequency [32.0 (6.0) v 33.2 (5.1) breaths.min-1, respectively], or during the first and third weeks of treatment [total test time 32.3 (34.9) v 30.6 (30.1) min; Vo2 33

  13. Flurbiprofen interaction with single doses of atenolol and propranolol.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, J; Petrie, J C; McLean, I; Hawksworth, G M

    1984-01-01

    In patients with mild hypertension, flurbiprofen in a dose of 100 mg daily for 7 days attenuated the hypotensive effect of a single dose of propranolol 80 mg but not of atenolol 100 mg. The attenuation was not due to an effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of either propranolol or atenolol. An alternative explanation is required. PMID:6529525

  14. Acute Dystonia After Single Dose of Bupropion.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Forouzan; Mahtiyan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Bupropion is an antidepressant that is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorders, smoking cessation, and sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acute dystonia is characterized by prolonged muscle contraction often represented by spasms of the head and neck muscles as well as occasional jaw clenching and temporomandibular joint syndrome. Although it is believed that dystonia is the result of an abnormality of the basal ganglia, its pathophysiology is still unclear. A few cases of dystonia resulting from bupropion have been reported in prior research papers. This case report discusses a patient who had a neck spasm painful enough to wake him up and dystonic distortion after taking only one dose of 75 mg bupropion. The patient was a young 34-year-old man with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with 60 mg fluoxetine. Bupropion was added to his medications because of sexual side effects caused by the fluoxetine. It seems that we must be careful to watch for dystonic symptoms when bupropion is mixed with other drugs that affect serotonin reuptake. Although dystonia is a rare side effect of bupropion, physicians should be aware of it and manage it if it occurs.

  15. Acute Dystonia After Single Dose of Bupropion

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi, Forouzan; Mahtiyan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Bupropion is an antidepressant that is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorders, smoking cessation, and sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acute dystonia is characterized by prolonged muscle contraction often represented by spasms of the head and neck muscles as well as occasional jaw clenching and temporomandibular joint syndrome. Although it is believed that dystonia is the result of an abnormality of the basal ganglia, its pathophysiology is still unclear. A few cases of dystonia resulting from bupropion have been reported in prior research papers. This case report discusses a patient who had a neck spasm painful enough to wake him up and dystonic distortion after taking only one dose of 75 mg bupropion. The patient was a young 34-year-old man with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with 60 mg fluoxetine. Bupropion was added to his medications because of sexual side effects caused by the fluoxetine. It seems that we must be careful to watch for dystonic symptoms when bupropion is mixed with other drugs that affect serotonin reuptake. Although dystonia is a rare side effect of bupropion, physicians should be aware of it and manage it if it occurs. PMID:27833231

  16. Disposition of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer in female rats: single dose intravenous and gavage studies.

    PubMed

    Gargas, Michael L; Collins, Brad; Fennell, Timothy R; Gaudette, Norman F; Sweeney, Lisa M

    2008-04-21

    Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer), a mixture of six isomers (four isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-alpha-methyl-1-naphthaleneacetonitrile [THAN] and two isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthaleneproprionitrile [THNP]), is a by-product of a specific production process of styrene-acrylonitrile polymer. Disposition studies in female rats were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of [3H]SAN Trimer following a single intravenous administration (26 mg/kg) to nonpregnant rats; a single gavage administration (nominal doses of 25 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) to nonpregnant rats; and a single gavage administration (nominal dose of 200 mg/kg in corn oil) to pregnant and lactating rats. SAN Trimer was rapidly eliminated from blood (T1/2 approximately 1h) following a single intravenous dose and following single oral doses (T1/2 approximately 3-4h). SAN Trimer was also rapidly excreted in the urine and feces following single oral doses, while total radioactivity was cleared more slowly. In pregnant rats, the concentrations of both radioactivity and SAN Trimer 2h after dosing were highest in the blood, followed by the placenta, with the lowest levels in the fetus. In lactating rats, the concentrations of both radioactivity and SAN Trimer were higher in milk than in maternal blood. Total radioactivity and SAN Trimer blood concentrations in nonpregnant, pregnant, and lactating rats were both higher in lactating rats compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats.

  17. Modifying a displacement pump for oral gavage dosing of solution and suspension preparations to adult and neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sherry M; Lee, Fei W; Ali, A Afshan; Allaben, William T; Weis, Constance C; Leakey, Julian E A

    2010-05-01

    To assess a drug's toxic or carcinogenic effects on neonatal and adult mice and rats, researchers often carry out oral gavage studies. Whether dosed singly or in various combinations, provided as soluble solutions or as colloidal suspensions, the drug must be delivered in accurate and precise doses. For studies that require newborn mice to receive multiple daily doses, delicately handling neonates to increase their chances of surviving is just as critical as the ability to accurately dose small volumes. To help ensure accurate and precise delivery of drug doses ranging from 5 microl for neonatal mice to 400 microl for adults, the authors adapted an automated pipetting system. By slightly modifying standard gavage needles, the authors delivered, on average, 98-99% of targeted dose volumes to neonatal mice.

  18. Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Kari; Anttila, Markku; Helminen, Antti; Karnani, Hari; Huupponen, Risto

    1999-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegiline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. Methods Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. Results The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). Conclusions Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced N-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest

  19. A dose-ranging study to evaluate the beta-adrenoceptor selectivity of single doses of betaxolol.

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, N A; Lipworth, B J; McDevitt, D G

    1990-01-01

    1. Six normal subjects were given single oral doses of betaxolol 10 mg (B10), 20 mg (B20), 40 mg (B40), 80 mg (B80), propranolol 40 mg (P40), or placebo (PL) in a single-blind randomised cross-over design. 2. beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade was assessed by reductions in exercise heart rate. Betaxolol produced dose-related reductions in exercise heart rate (beats min-1) up to a ceiling at B40, after which B80 showed a lesser effect: (158 +/- 8 PL, 128 +/- 3 B10, 123 +/- 2 B20, 116 +/- 4 B40, 136 +/- 10 B80, 135 +/- 4 P40). All doses of betaxolol (except B80) produced greater reductions compared with P40: (B10 P less than 0.001, B20 P less than 0.005, B40 P less than 0.001). 3. beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade was assessed by attenuation of finger tremor and cardiovascular responses to graded infusions of i.v. isoprenaline. Dose-response curves were constructed and the doses required to increase heart rate by 25 beats min-1, finger tremor by 200%, calf blood flow by 0.5 ml dl-1 min-1, and decrease diastolic blood pressure by 10 mm Hg, after each treatment were calculated. These were then compared with placebo responses and expressed as dose-ratios. 4. Dose-ratios for finger tremor showed significant attenuation by all doses of betaxolol (compared with PL): B10 1.5 +/- 0.18 (P less than 0.05), B20 2.62 +/- 0.45 (P less than 0.005), B40 2.55 +/- 0.33 (P less than 0.001), B80 2.48 +/- 0.48 (P less than 0.01); and by P40 6.49 +/- 1.12 (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1975196

  20. Single dose intravenous propacetamol or intravenous paracetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Tzortzopoulou, Aikaterini; McNicol, Ewan D; Cepeda, M Soledad; Francia, Marie Belle D; Farhat, Tamman; Schumann, Roman

    2011-10-05

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol and IV propacetamol, compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010, Week 18), LILACS (1992 to May 2010) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV propacetamol or IV paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse event information from the studies. Thirty-six studies (3896 participants) were included. Thirty-seven percent of participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT = 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 4.8). The proportion of participants in IV propacetamol/paracetamol groups experiencing at least 50% pain relief diminished over six hours, as reflected in a higher NNT of 5.3 (4.2 to 6.7). Participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol required 30% less opioid over four hours than those receiving placebo. However, this did not translate to a reduction in opioid-induced adverse events.Meta-analysis of efficacy comparisons between IV propacetamol/paracetamol and active comparators (opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs)) were either not statistically significant, not clinically significant, or both.Adverse events

  1. Bioequivalence study of two formulations of enalapril, at a single oral dose of 20 mg (tablets): A randomized, two-way, open-label, crossover study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Portolés, Antonio; Terleira, Ana; Almeida, Susana; García-Arenillas, Mar; Caturla, Mari-Cruz; Filipe, August; Vargas, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Background: Enalapril maleate is the monoethyl ester prodrug of enalapril- at, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor indicated in the management of essential and renovascular hypertension, and in the treatment of congestive heart failure and in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction of ≥35%. Enalapril has little pharmacologic activity until hydrolyzed in vivo to enalaprilat. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of 2 commercial brands (test and reference formulations) of enalapril tablets (20 mg), described as the rate and extent of absorption of the active moiety, to assess their bioequivalence. Methods: This single-dose, randomized, 2-way, open-label, crossover study in healthy volunteers aged 18 to 40 years was conducted at the Clinical Pharmacology Study Unit, Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, Spain). Subjects were randomized to receive (under fasting conditions) either the test or reference formulation of enalapril (20-mg tablet) at study period 1 and the opposite formulation at study period 2. Study periods were separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. During each study period, 15 plasma extractions were made to determine enalapril and enalaprilat plasma concentrations and to calculate the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties (maximal plasma drug concentration [Cmax], time to Cmax [Tmax], area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC] to the last measurable concentration [AUCt], AUC from time 0 to infinity [AUC0−∞], mean residence time, and elimination half-life [tl2]) of both. Physical examination, subject interview, laboratory analyses, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure (BP) were used to assess tolerability. Results: Twenty-four subjects were included in the study (12 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 22.8 [2.2] years [range, 19–30 years]). Of these, 1 subject (4.2%) withdrew from the study for personal reasons; thus, PK and statistical

  2. CLOBAZAM SINGLE OR DIVIDED DOSE AGAINST DIAZEPAM IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Channabasavanna, S.M.; Pereira, L.M. Pinto

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY One-hundred-and-fifteen patients diagnosed as anxiety neurotics randomly received in a double blind study 20 mg clobazam (Frisium) as a single nightly dose (37 patients) or 10 mg b.d. (38 patients) or diazepam 5 mg b.d. (40 patients) for six weeks, followed by two weeks on placebo. Both the single and divided doses of clobazam were therapeutically equivalent to diazepam. After drug withdrawal, all three treatment groups continued to improve. Patients on clobazam showed better motor performance than the diazepam series. Patients on clobazam divided dose performed significantly better than those on diazepam. Minor side-effects occurred in all patients. From the results clobazam as a single dose of 20 mg has good anxiolysis without any hungover effect. PMID:21927141

  3. Single dose treatment with Tiberal of Giardia lamblia infection in children.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, N; Lee, I L; Robinson, M J

    1978-01-01

    A new metronidazole derivative, Tiberal (Ro-07-0207, Roche Laboratories), was evaluated in 22 children with Giardia lamblia infection. Seven patients received an oral dose of 1 g twice daily for one day; the remaining 15 patients received a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Parasitological cure was noted in all 22 patients. Significant side effects were observed only in those children who received the drug at the higher dosage regime. The present study also confirms the findings of other authors that a mucosal imprint method is more reliable than examination of stools, duodenal juice or jejunal biopsy material for the detection of G. lamblia infection.

  4. The dose effects of short-term dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Huestis, Marilyn A; Murray, Jeannie A; Lee, Dayong

    2013-02-01

    Prior studies have separately examined the effects of dronabinol (oral THC) on cannabis withdrawal, cognitive performance, and the acute effects of smoked cannabis. A single study examining these clinically relevant domains would benefit the continued evaluation of dronabinol as a potential medication for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Thirteen daily cannabis smokers completed a within-subject crossover study and received 0, 30, 60 and 120mg dronabinol per day for 5 consecutive days. Vital signs and subjective ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving and sleep were obtained daily; outcomes under active dose conditions were compared to those obtained under placebo dosing. On the 5th day of medication maintenance, participants completed a comprehensive cognitive performance battery and then smoked five puffs of cannabis for subjective effects evaluation. Each dronabinol maintenance period occurred in a counterbalanced order and was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis use. Dronabinol dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal and resulted in few adverse side effects or decrements in cognitive performance. Surprisingly, dronabinol did not alter the subjective effects of smoked cannabis, but cannabis-induced increases in heart rate were attenuated by the 60 and 120mg doses. Dronabinol's ability to dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal may be therapeutically beneficial to individuals trying to stop cannabis use. The absence of gross cognitive impairment or side effects in this study supports safety of doses up to 120mg/day. Continued evaluation of dronabinol in targeted clinical studies of cannabis treatment, using an expanded range of doses, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Dose Effects of Short-Term Dronabinol (Oral THC) Maintenance in Daily Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Murray, Jeannie A.; Lee, Dayong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prior studies have separately examined the effects of dronabinol (oral THC) on cannabis withdrawal, cognitive performance, and the acute effects of smoked cannabis. A single study examining these clinically relevant domains would benefit the continued evaluation of dronabinol as a potential medication for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. METHODS Thirteen daily cannabis smokers completed a within-subject crossover study and received 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg dronabinol per day for 5 consecutive days. Vital signs and subjective ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving and sleep were obtained daily; outcomes under active dose conditions were compared to those obtained under placebo dosing. On the 5th day of medication maintenance, participants completed a comprehensive cognitive performance battery and then smoked 5 puffs of cannabis for subjective effects evaluation. Each dronabinol maintenance period occurred in a counterbalanced order and was separated by 9 days of ad-libitum cannabis use. RESULTS Dronabinol dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal and resulted in few adverse side effects or decrements in cognitive performance. Surprisingly, dronabinol did not alter the subjective effects of smoked cannabis, but cannabis-induced increases in heart rate were attenuated by the 60 and 120 mg doses. CONCLUSIONS Dronabinol’s ability to dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal may be therapeutically beneficial to individuals trying to stop cannabis use. The absence of gross cognitive impairment or side effects in this study supports safety of doses up to 120mg per day. Continued evaluation of dronabinol in targeted clinical studies of cannabis treatment, using an expanded range of doses, is warranted. PMID:22921474

  6. Chemotherapy of onchocerciasis with high doses of diethylcarbamazine or a single dose of ivermectin: microfilaria levels and side effects.

    PubMed

    Albiez, E J; Newland, H S; White, A T; Kaiser, A; Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Büttner, D W

    1988-03-01

    Fifty adult male subjects with moderate to heavy onchocerciasis from the Liberian rain forest were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled chemotherapy study. The effects of high doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) - 30 mg/kg/d - over one week preceded by a one week initial treatment with normal oral doses of DEC or DEC lotion were compared with a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) and placebo. During the initial treatment DEC tablets or lotion caused distinctly more frequent and severe reactions than did invermectin. The reactions to ivermectin did not differ from those of the placebo patients. High doses of DEC caused, in about half of the patients, headache, dizziness, nausea or vomiting. DEC markedly increased the number of corneal microfilariae and of corneal opacities compared to ivermectin. All changes resolved with a return to pretreatment findings two months after treatment. The three treatment groups showed no differences at the ten months follow-up. In all treated patients skin microfilaria counts fell almost to zero by the end of the two week therapy. In the ivermectin group microfilaria counts remained significantly lower than in the DEC patients at the two and ten months examinations. In summary, ivermectin was much better tolerated than DEC and had a longer lasting effect on the microfilariae in the skin. Since high doses of DEC were less effective and caused more frequent and severe side effects, this approach cannot be recommended for treatment of onchocerciasis.

  7. Relative bioavailability of metaproterenol in humans utilizing a single dose, stable isotope approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, F.; McKellop, K.; Hansen, G.; MacGregor, T.

    1986-09-01

    The relative bioavailability of metaproterenol (3,5-dihydroxy-alpha-((isopropylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol) following a single dose (10-mg metaproterenol sulfate tablet) was studied in six normal male volunteers using coadministration of a solution of a deuterated analogue (metaproterenol-d7 sulfate). The bioavailability of the tablet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was 92 +/- 9%, with excellent power at the 5% significance level. Comparison of the coadministration of the labeled and unlabeled metaproterenol sulfate solutions in two subjects after a one-week washout demonstrated the absence of an isotope effect on either absorption or elimination. A GC-MS assay for metaproterenol was developed to measure plasma concentrations resulting from oral administration. The assay was linear over the range of 0.5-8 ng/mL, corresponding to typical plasma metaproterenol concentrations obtained after a single 10-mg oral dose. Accuracy and precision data were obtained at metaproterenol concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 ng/mL plasma to demonstrate the applicability of the assay for bioavailability studies. Following oral administration, metaproterenol showed peak plasma concentrations of 2.2 to 13 ng/mL at 0.75 to 3.0 h, with a terminal harmonic mean half-life of 2.1 h over the plasma concentration range studied. The renal clearance of 133-158 mL/min for metaproterenol slightly exceeds the glomerular filtration rate in humans.

  8. Toxicokinetics of cyanide in rats, pigs and goats after oral dosing with potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Altamir B; Manzano, Helena; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana L

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the species on the toxicokinetics of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate. Forty-two rats, six pigs and six goats were dosed orally with 3.0 mg KCN/kg body weight, and cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations in blood were measured within 24 h. After the single oral dose, KCN was rapidly absorbed by rats and goats, with a time of peak concentration ( T(max)) of 15 min. The maximum plasma concentration ( C(max)) of cyanide was observed in goats (93.5 micro mol/l), whereas the C(max) of thiocyanate was higher in rats (58.1 micro mol/l). The elimination half-life ( t(1/2)) and volume of distribution ( Vd(area)) of both cyanide and thiocyanate were higher in goats (1.28 and 13.9 h, and 0.41 and 1.76 l/kg, respectively). Whereas the area under the curve (AUC) of cyanide was significantly higher in goats (234.6 micro mol.l/h), the AUC of thiocyanate was higher in rats (846.5 micro mol.l/h). In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that the metabolism of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate, is species-linked, with the goat being more sensitive to the toxic effects of cyanide/thiocyanate.

  9. Interdisciplinary science and the design of a single-dose antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, William

    2011-09-01

    Azithromycin is a unique antibiotic due to its serum half-life of 69 h. This half-life is long enough to permit administration of an entire course of therapy in a single dose, if the gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of such a high dose can be minimized. A series of exploratory clinical pharmacology studies were carried out to understand the site-specific absorption and toleration constraints involved in delivering a 2 g oral single-dose regimen. These studies demonstrated that (a) GI side effects were locally mediated in the GI tract, (b) the duodenum was more sensitive than the ileocecal region, and (c) colonic absorption was limited. A novel controlled release suspension dosage form was designed to meet these constraints, and was shown to deliver the desired systemic dose with acceptable toleration. This dosage form, Zmax®, is an oral powder-for-constitution which possesses two major features: (a) 200 μm controlled release microspheres which release the drug as they transit down the small intestine, and (b) alkalizing agents which raise the pH of the gastric milieu for ~20 min to minimize gastric release of the drug (which has high solubility at low pH), in order to minimize exposure of the drug to the sensitive duodenal region. The ability to provide a high single dose of azithromycin results in "front-loading" the mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes which concentrate the drug and carry it to sites of infection. This provides high drug concentrations early on at infection sites, when the bacterial burden is greatest, potentially improving efficacy and potentially overcoming resistant bacterial strains. Finally, this revolutionary single dose formulation gives 100% compliance, which maximizes the likelihood of therapeutic success.

  10. Effect of neomycin on the bioavailability of spironolactone: a single-dose study.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Coates, P E; Fisher, M M; Louman, F J

    1979-12-01

    The effect of oral neomycin sulfate on the bioavailability of oral spironolactone in humans was studied. A 100-mg spironolactone tablet was administered alone or with two 500-mg neomycin sulfate tablets to 12 healthy, fasting men in a randomized crossover fashion. Levels of canrenone (an active spironolactone metabolite) in plasma and urine samples collected for 32 and 48 hours after dosing, respectively, were measured fluorimetrically. Neomycin significantly decreased the peak plasma canrenone concentration, significantly increased the time to reach peak concentration of canrenone, and significantly decreased the urinary excretion of canrenone over the first four hours (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in elimination half-life, area under the plasma curves or 48-hour urinary excretion of canrenone. Single doses of neomycin appear to delay the rate but not reduce the extent of spironolactone absorption. Thus, neomycin may not interfere with the clinical efficacy of spironolactone.

  11. Prolonged and symptomatic bradycardia following a single dose of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hans; Fischer, Hans-Jörg; Weber, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod-related bradycardia is usually asymptomatic, reaches its nadir within 6 hours post-dose and recovers spontaneously. Here we report the case of a 30-year-old MS patient with vagotonia who developed symptomatic bradycardia with 33 beats per minute at nadir 39 hours after a single dose of fingolimod. Bradycardia was responsive to atropine, but returned within 2 hours. Overall, it took a week until the patient recovered. Extended monitoring is advised in patients with symptomatic bradycardia.

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of supratherapeutic oral doses of Δ(9) -THC in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Charnigo, Richard J; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Hays, Lon R

    2013-07-01

    Oral Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC) has been evaluated as a medication for cannabis dependence, but repeated administration of acute oral doses up to 40 mg has not been effective at reducing drug-taking behavior. Larger doses might be necessary to affect cannabis use. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the physiological and behavioural effects of oral Δ(9) -THC at acute doses higher than those tested previously. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of oral Δ(9) -THC, administered in ascending order in 15 mg increments across separate sessions, up to a maximum of 90 mg, was determined in seven cannabis users. Five subjects received all doses and two experienced untoward side effects at lower doses. Δ(9) -THC produced a constellation of effects consistent with previous clinical studies. Low cannabinoid concentrations were associated with significant effects on drug-sensitive measures, although progressively greater levels did not lead to proportionately larger drug effects. Considerable variability in Cmax and tmax was observed. Doses of oral Δ(9) -THC larger than those tested previously can be administered to individuals with a history of cannabis use, although given the pharmacokinetic variability of oral Δ(9) -THC and individual differences in sensitivity, individualized dose adjustment is needed to avoid side effects and maximize therapeutic response.

  13. Bowel perforation after single-dose activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Green, Jason P; McCauley, William

    2006-09-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) after medication overdose are often given activated charcoal initially for gastrointestinal decontamination. Complications of charcoal are rare, but do occur. The following case describes a patient with pre-existing undiagnosed diverticular disease who developed sigmoid perforation after a single dose of activated charcoal, given without cathartic for a drug overdose. A literature search revealed no other cases of bowel perforation associated with single-dose activated charcoal. This case report discusses adverse effects associated with activated charcoal and the role of cathartics in gastrointestinal decontamination.

  14. Single-dose parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Creve, U; Hubens, A

    1980-01-01

    In the course of two consecutive, double-blind and prospective studies, the authors evaluated the prophylactic effect of a single peroperative intravenous dose of gentamicin (this study included 166 patients) or the combination gentamicin and clindamycin (this study included 127 patients), on the wound infection rate following interventions involving the incision of an abdominal hollow viscus. Antibiotic prophylaxis lowered the post-operative wound sepsis rate, especially following clinically contaminated interventions, but this reduction did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that a single peroperative parenteral dose of antibiotics does not constitute an entirely satisfactory means of wound infection prophylaxis in digestive surgery.

  15. The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the uptake, distribution and excretion of a single oral dose of [11,12-3H]retinyl acetate and on the vitamin A status in the rat.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, H; Ahlborg, U G

    1985-06-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 10 micrograms/kg body weight, p.o.) was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats 4 d before the oral administration of a physiological dose of [11,12-3H]retinyl acetate (RA). The rats were kept in metabolic cages for up to 192 h after RA administration. Radioactivity and/or vitamin A were determined in tissues and excreta. TCDD-pretreated and control rats excreted 41 and 23%, respectively, of the radioactivity of RA during the 192 h after administration. In control animals, 30% of the radioactivity of RA entered the liver within 6 h, the stores reaching 42% after 192 h. Maximum storage in TCDD-treated rats was 13% and after 192 h only 9% of the dose remained. A lag period of 12-24 h preceded the TCDD-induced increase in renal (175-671%) and serum (85-145%) radioactivity. In TCDD-treated rats less radioactivity was found in the intestine (45-79% decrease) and adrenals (14-73% decrease). Relative to the total body content, significantly more radioactivity was found in the kidney, serum, testes and epididymis of TCDD-treated rats. The decrease in vitamin A content after TCDD-treatment was 39-53% in the liver, 19-67% in the intestine and 18-44% in the epididymis. The kidneys of TCDD-treated rats contained more vitamin A (3-30 times more). TCDD treatment initially increased (42%) and later decreased (40%) the vitamin A content in the thymus as compared to controls. Pretreatment with a single low dose of TCDD thus affects both storage and excretion of radioactivity from newly administered RA as well as the vitamin A content in several tissues.

  16. Detection of fenspiride and identification of in vivo metabolites in horse body fluids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: administration, biotransformation and urinary excretion after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, M C; Houghton, E; Hyde, W; Greulich, D; Nelson, T; Peterson, Jackie

    2002-02-05

    Studies related to the in vivo biotransforrmation and urinary excretion of fenspiride hydrochloride in the horse are described. After oral administration, the drug is metabolised by both phase I functionalisation and phase II conjugation pathways. Following enzymatic deconjugation, fenspiride and its phase I metabolites were isolated from post-administration biofluids using bonded co-polymeric mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridges to isolate the basic compounds. Following trimethylsilylation (TMS), the parent drug and metabolites were identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fenspiride (A) and seven metabolites (B-->G) arising from oxidation on both the aromatic and heterocyclic substructures were detected in urine. The positive ion electron ionisation mass spectra of the TMS derivatives of fenspiride and its metabolites provided useful information on its metabolism. Positive ion methane chemical ionisation-GC-MS of the derivatives provided both derivatised molecular mass and structural information. Unchanged fenspiride can be detected in post-administration plasma and urine samples for up to 24 h. Maximum urinary levels of 100-200 ng ml(-1) were observed between 3 and 5 h after administration. After enzymatic deconjugation, the major phenolic metabolite (G) can be detected in urine for up to 72 h. This metabolite is the analyte of choice in the GC-MS screening of post-race equine urine samples for detection of fenspiride use. However, a distinct difference was observed in the urinary excretion of this metabolite between the thoroughbred horses used in UK study and the quarterbred and standardbred horses used for the USA administrations.

  17. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone J P M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Clarke, Robert; Schneede, Jörn; Ueland, Per M; Hoefnagels, Willibrord H L; van Staveren, Wija A

    2005-05-23

    Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. We conducted a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, dose-finding trial to determine the lowest oral dose of cyanocobalamin required to normalize biochemical markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency in older people with mild vitamin B(12) deficiency, defined as a serum vitamin B(12) level of 100 to 300 pmol/L (135-406 pg/mL) and a methylmalonic acid level of 0.26 mumol/L or greater. We assessed the effects of daily oral doses of 2.5, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mug of cyanocobalamin administered for 16 weeks on biochemical markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency in 120 people. The main outcome measure was the dose of oral cyanocobalamin that produced 80% to 90% of the estimated maximal reduction in the plasma methylmalonic acid concentration. Supplementation with cyanocobalamin in daily oral doses of 2.5, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mug was associated with mean reductions in plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations of 16%, 16%, 23%, 33%, and 33%, respectively. Daily doses of 647 to 1032 mug of cyanocobalamin were associated with 80% to 90% of the estimated maximum reduction in the plasma methylmalonic acid concentration. The lowest dose of oral cyanocobalamin required to normalize mild vitamin B(12) deficiency is more than 200 times greater than the recommended dietary allowance, which is approximately 3 mug daily.

  18. In Vivo Human Time-Exposure Study of Orally Dosed Commercial Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Mark A.; Radwanski, Przemyslaw; Hadlock, Greg C.; Stoddard, Greg; Shaaban, Akram; Falconer, Jonathan; Grainger, David W.; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human biodistribution, bioprocessing and possible toxicity of nanoscale silver receives increasing health assessment. Methods We prospectively studied commercial 10- and 32-ppm nanoscale silver particle solutions in a single-blind, controlled, cross-over, intent-to-treat, design. Healthy subjects (n=60) underwent metabolic, blood counts, urinalysis, sputum induction, and chest and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging. Silver serum and urine content was determined. Results No clinically important changes in metabolic, hematologic, or urinalysis measures were identified. No morphological changes were detected in the lungs, heart or abdominal organs. No significant changes were noted in pulmonary reactive oxygen species or pro-inflammatory cytokine generation. Conclusion In vivo oral exposure to these commercial nanoscale silver particle solutions does not prompt clinically important changes in human metabolic, hematologic, urine, physical findings or imaging morphology. Further study of increasing time exposure and dosing of silver nanoparticulate silver, and observation of additional organ systems is warranted to assert human toxicity thresholds. PMID:23811290

  19. Fatal placental hemorrhage in pregnant CD-1 mice following one oral dose of T-2 toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, C G; Nicholson, S; Schiefer, H B

    1985-01-01

    Forty-eight hours after oral administration of a single dose (3.0 mg/kg BW) of T-2 toxin to mice on days 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12 of pregnancy, 17% maternal mortality following vaginal hemorrhage was encountered. Necropsy examination of the dead females revealed that massive hemorrhages originating from the placental regions had occurred into the reproductive tract. This observation supports the studies in which hemorrhagic disease has been described as characteristic for intoxications with T-2 toxin. The results suggest that fatal hemorrhage during pregnancy can occur in hemochorial and hemoendotheliochorial placental mammals as a result of T-2 toxin administration. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3986684

  20. Biotin kinetics in serum of cattle after intravenous and oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Frigg, M; Hartmann, D; Straub, O C

    1994-01-01

    Single oral (p.o.) or intravenous (i.v.) doses of biotin were given to four cattle (400-450 kg body weight) in two consecutive tests two weeks apart. Dosages were p.o. 20, 40, 80 or 160 and i.v. 5, 10, 20, 40 mg biotin per 300 kg body weight. A three-compartment model was used to describe the course of serum concentrations with time. After i.v. administration, terminal half-lives of about 8 h were found. Areas under the curves were linearly related to both the p.o. and the i.v. doses. The systemically available fraction of the p.o. dose was 50 to 60%. On the basis of kinetic parameters, the biotin uptake via the feed was estimated to be 2.5 mg/day, which was about half of that estimated to be in the hay consumed. The data suggest that there was no relevant ruminal synthesis of biotin.

  1. The use of low dose oral contraceptives for the management of acne.

    PubMed

    Lemay, A; Langley, R G

    2002-12-01

    There is compelling evidence that oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in the management of mild-moderate acne vulgaris, as well as cumulative evidence that elevated levels of androgens in acne patients, relative to appropriate controls, are an underlying pathophysiological factor in acne. All low dose OCs reduce serum free testosterone (T) to a similar extent, which is contrary to the traditional concept that a patient who has acne should not use an OC containing a progestin with androgenic properties. The efficacy of various OCs to improve acne has been reported in transverse, cohort and comparative studies, and more recently in multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Recently, an ultra-low dose OC (Alesse, Wyeth) was shown to effectively reduce non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions in mild-to-moderate acne, while having a profile of side-effects similar to that of a placebo. Besides its contraceptive efficacy, an ultra-low dose OC represents an attractive alternative as a single or associated medication in the management of acne.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose primaquine in patients with chronic kidney dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shaunak P.; Shah, Sanjana R.; Kadam, Prashant P.; Sridharan, Kannan; Hase, Nivrutti K.; Shetty, Partha P.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Gogtay, Nithya J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The pharmacokinetics of primaquine has not been studied in special populations. Being a basic compound, preferential binding to alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and substrate for P-glycoprotein, may predispose the drug for an altered pharmacokinetics in states of renal dysfunction. This study attempts to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose (15 mg) of primaquine in severely impaired renal function and end stage renal dysfunction patients compared to healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients each with chronic kidney disease classified as either Stage IV or V (not on dialysis) were recruited. Data from 12 healthy participants was used as concurrent controls. Serial blood collections were performed following a single dose 15 mg Primaquine orally. Primaquine concentrations were measured in the plasma using a validated HPLC method. Results: The Cmax [median (range) in ng/ml] was 29.3 (14.6-104.3), 40.3 (14.8 - 78.6), and 49.8 (15 – 169.6) and the tmax [median (range) in hours] was 3.0 (1.0- 6.0), 2.0 (1.5 – 8) and 2.0 (1.0 – 4.0) for healthy and stage IV, V (not on dialysis) CKD participants, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy, stage IV and V CKD participants. Conclusion: Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose primaquine (15 mg) does not appear to be altered in patients with severely impaired renal function and end stage renal dysfunction. A change in dose or frequency of the drug administration perhaps may not be required in this population. PMID:24014905

  3. Single dose intravenous paracetamol or intravenous propacetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    McNicol, Ewan D; Ferguson, McKenzie C; Haroutounian, Simon; Carr, Daniel B; Schumann, Roman

    2016-05-23

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally, rectally, or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol, and IV propacetamol (a prodrug that is metabolized to paracetamol), compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for the treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We ran the search for the previous review in May 2010. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), EMBASE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), LILACS (2010 to 2016), a clinical trials registry, and reference lists of reviews for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language and we retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV paracetamol or IV propacetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently extracted data, which included demographic variables, type of surgery, interventions, efficacy, and adverse events. We contacted study authors for additional information. We graded each included study for methodological quality by assessing risk of bias and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We included 75 studies (36 from the original review and 39 from our updated review) enrolling a total of 7200 participants.Among primary outcomes, 36% of participants receiving IV paracetamol/propacetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7 to 5.6, high quality evidence). The proportion of participants in IV

  4. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  5. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  6. Single-dose pharmacokinetic studies of abiraterone acetate in men with hepatic or renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Marbury, Thomas; Lawitz, Eric; Stonerock, Robert; Gonzalez, Martha; Jiao, James; Breeding, Jim; Haqq, Christopher; Verboven, Peter; Stieltjes, Hans; Yu, Margaret; Molina, Arturo; Acharya, Milin; Chien, Caly; Tran, NamPhuong

    2014-07-01

    Three open-label, single-dose studies investigated the impact of hepatic or renal impairment on abiraterone acetate pharmacokinetics and safety/tolerability in non-cancer patients. Patients (n = 8 each group) with mild/moderate hepatic impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-, BMI-matched healthy controls received a single oral 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate (tablet dose); while patients (n = 8 each) with severe hepatic impairment and matched healthy controls received 125- and 2,000-mg abiraterone acetate (suspension doses), respectively (systemic exposure of abiraterone acetate suspension is approximately half to that of tablet formulation). Blood was sampled at specified timepoints up to 72 or 96 hours postdose to measure plasma abiraterone concentrations. Abiraterone exposure was comparable between healthy controls and patients with mild hepatic impairment or ESRD, but increased by 4-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Despite a 16-fold reduction in dose, abiraterone exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment was about 22% and 44% of the Cmax and AUC∞ of healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that abiraterone pharmacokinetics were not changed markedly in patients with ESRD or mild hepatic impairment. However, the capacity to eliminate abiraterone was substantially compromised in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A single-dose administration of abiraterone acetate was well-tolerated.

  7. The Impact of a One-Dose versus Two-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine Regimen in Outbreak Settings: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Ciglenecki, Iza; Grais, Rebecca F.; Sack, David A.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited. Innovative strategies are needed to maximize the health impact and minimize the logistical barriers to using available vaccine. Here we ask under what conditions the use of one dose rather than the internationally licensed two-dose protocol may do both. Methods and Findings Using mathematical models we determined the minimum relative single-dose efficacy (MRSE) at which single-dose reactive campaigns are expected to be as or more effective than two-dose campaigns with the same amount of vaccine. Average one- and two-dose OCV effectiveness was estimated from published literature and compared to the MRSE. Results were applied to recent outbreaks in Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Guinea using stochastic simulations to illustrate the potential impact of one- and two-dose