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Sample records for single-crystal diamond-based thermal

  1. A single-crystal diamond-based thermal neutron beam monitor for instruments at pulsed neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Verona Rinati, G.; Verona, C.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2009-11-01

    Single-crystal diamond detectors manufactured through a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) technique are recent technology devices that have been employed in reactor and Tokamak environments in order to detect both thermal and almost monochromatic 14 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-tritium ( d-t) nuclear fusion reactions. Their robustness and compactness are the key features that can be exploited for different applications as well. Aim of the present experimental investigation is the assessment of the performance of a diamond detector as a thermal neutron beam monitor at pulsed neutron sources. To this aim, a test measurement was carried out on the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source (Great Britain). The experiment has shown the capability of these devices to work at a pulsed neutron source for beam monitoring purposes. Other interesting possible applications are also suggested.

  2. Thermal properties of UO2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofryk, K.; Du, S.; Andersson, A. D.; Stanek, C. R.; Schulze, R.; Safarik, D.; Mihaila, B.; Lashley, J. C.; Smith, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    For decades UO2 has been the most widely studied actinide oxide because of its technological importance as fuel material for nuclear reactors. Therefore there is a large interest in understanding its thermal, transport and thermodynamic properties. We present recent experimental results for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of high quality UO2 single crystal, obtained for different crystallographic directions, and compare with results of molecular dynamics simulations. We will discuss the implications of this study.

  3. Thermal debracketing of single crystal sapphire brackets.

    PubMed

    Rueggeberg, F A; Lockwood, P E

    1992-01-01

    Because of their optical clarity, single crystal sapphire brackets provide an esthetic advantage over many other types of orthodontic brackets. However, debonding of these brackets has caused iatrogenic damage to enamel. Thermal debonding has been proposed for use in removing sapphire brackets without causing damage to teeth. This study determined the temperature required at the enamel/resin interface to thermally debond sapphire brackets from etched bovine enamel using 23 different commercially available orthodontic resins and one experimental product. The results indicate a wide range of debonding temperatures for the various resins. As a group, the powder-liquid materials had a statistically lower debonding temperature than the two-paste, the no-mix products, or the light-cured materials, for which the temperatures were all similar. This paper presents relative information a clinician can use in selecting an orthodontic bonding resin to minimize thermal damage to the teeth while debonding sapphire brackets.

  4. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Wu, Henry; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Blanchard, James P.; Venkataramanan, Giri; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-05-01

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  5. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Venkataramanan, Giri; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wu, Henry; Morgan, Dane; Blanchard, James P.; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin

    2016-05-28

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  6. Thermal and dielectric studies of nickel malonate dihydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Varghese; Mathai, K. C.; Mahadeven, C. K.; Abraham, K. E.

    2011-02-01

    Single crystals of nickel malonate dihydrate were grown by the gel technique, employing the single diffusion method. Thermal dehydration of the crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The title compound exhibits a steady thermal behaviour at higher temperature range of 350-800 °C. The dielectric properties of the prepared sample were analyzed as a function of frequency in the range of 1 kHz-1 MHz and at temperatures between 40 and 140 °C.

  7. Thermally triggered solid-state single-crystal-to-single-crystal structural transformation accompanies property changes.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan-Quan; Ren, Chun-Yan; Huang, Yang-Yang; Li, Jian-Li; Liu, Ping; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-03-16

    The 1D complex [(CuL0.5H2O)⋅H2O]n (1) (H4L = 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid) undergoes an irreversible thermally triggered single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformation to produce the 3D anhydrous complex [CuL0.5]n (2). This SCSC structural transformation was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns, variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (VT-PXRD) patterns, and IR spectroscopy. Structural analyses reveal that in complex 2, though the initial 1D chain is still retained as in complex 1, accompanied with the Cu-bound H2O removed and new O(carboxyl)-Cu bond forming, the coordination geometries around the Cu(II) ions vary from a distorted trigonal bipyramid to a distorted square pyramid. With the drastic structural transition, significant property changes are observed. Magnetic analyses show prominent changes from antiferromagnetism to weak ferromagnetism due to the new formed Cu1-O-C-O-Cu4 bridge. The catalytic results demonstrate that, even though both solid-state materials present high catalytic activity for the synthesis of 2-imidazolines derivatives and can be reused, the activation temperature of complex 1 is higher than that of complex 2. In addition, a possible pathway for the SCSC structural transformations is proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  9. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  10. Thermal neutron dosimeter by synthetic single crystal diamond devices.

    PubMed

    Almaviva, S; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Tucciarone, A; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M

    2009-07-01

    We report on a new solid state dosimeter based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single crystal diamond fabricated at Roma "Tor Vergata" University laboratories. The dosimeter has been specifically designed for direct neutron dose measurements in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The response to thermal neutrons of the proposed diamond dosimeter is directly due to (10)B and, therefore, the dosimeter response is directly proportional to the boron absorbed doses in BNCT. Two single crystal diamond detectors are fabricated in a p-type/intrinsic/metal configuration and are sandwiched together with a boron containing layer in between the metallic contacts (see Fig.1). Neutron irradiations were performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) using the 2.5 MeV neutrons produced through the D(d,n)(3)He fusion reaction. Thermal neutrons were then produced by slowing down the 2.5 MeV neutrons using a cylindrical polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) moderator. The diamond dosimeter was placed in the center of the moderator. The products of (10)B(n,alpha)Li nuclear reaction were collected simultaneously giving rise to a single peak. Stable performance, high reproducibility, high efficiency and good linearity were observed.

  11. Thermal conductivity of single crystal and ceramic AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaikhi, A.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2008-04-01

    We have applied the Callaway theory and used a detailed account of three-phonon scattering processes to calculate the thermal conductivity of three AlN single crystal samples containing different amounts of oxygen and two AlN ceramic samples with different grain sizes and oxygen contamination levels. The N-drift contribution to the total conductivity has been quantified. The influence on the thermal conductivity of oxygen-related defects, and grain boundaries in ceramic samples, has been investigated. The theoretical results obtained from this work are in good agreement with available experimental data. Our calculations suggest that the "effective" boundary length is greater than the reported grain size for each of the two ceramic samples studied by Watari et al. [J. Mater. Res. 17, 2940 (2002)].

  12. Solar thermal thruster made of single crystal molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Morio; Itoh, Katsuya; Sato, Hitoshi; Fujii, Tadayuki; Igarashi, Tadashi; Okamoto, Ken-ichi

    1997-07-01

    The heart element of solar thermal propulsion (STP) system is a thruster made of refractory metals such as tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum or advance high temperature ceramics because of the high operating temperature (1000-2500 K) involved. In this paper, design, fabrication and preliminary experimental results in the JSUS Research Plan are presented, using 20 mm diameter of thrusters made of single crystal molybdenum which NRIM has patented and is a perfect (non-defect) material, namely no brittleness due to recrystallization under high operating temperature conditions. The working gas temperature within the thruster chamber reached higher than 1850 K (namely, the Isp is approximately 700 s for hydrogen gas propellant) at 0.2 MPa of the plenum chamber pressure, using the small solar concentrator (1.6 m diameter of half paraboloid and 0.65 m of the focal length).

  13. Single crystal Mo solar thermal thruster for microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Mono; Itoh, Katsuya; Sato, Hitoshi; Fujii, Tadayuki; Okamoto, Ken-ichi; Takaoka, Shigehiko; Shiina, Kotaro; Nakamura, Yoshihiro

    1999-09-01

    One potentially attractive propulsion concept offering significant payload gains for orbit transfer from LEO to higher orbits, station keeping and attitude control of spacecraft is thermal propulsion using light gas (typically hydrogen) as propellant and various kinds of heat energy. Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) is a typical thermal propulsion with high Isp (500 - 1,000 s) in an appropriate thrust magnitude range and provides possibly much less space pollution than conventional chemical propulsion. This paper presents the test results of a 30 mm dia. (medium-sized) windowless type of single crystal Mo thruster for orbit transfer of 50 kg class microsatellites. The cavity dia. is 20 mm, double the size of the previous model, and can apply to a primary solar reflector of up to 3.5 m dia., which is the maximum size containable in the H-II rocket fairing without segmentation. The performed mission analyses indicate that this size of STP is suitable to orbit transfer of 50 kg class microsatellites, such as LEO to GEO, or only multiple apogee kicks from GTO to GEO or deep space missions.

  14. Thermal and Nonthermal Processes on Single Crystal Transition Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingcai

    This dissertation contains three parts. Part I, "Fundamentals", provides concise description of concepts, detailed accounts of historic studies, and extensive reviews of current activities. Chapter 1 deals with thermal processes (adsorption and desorption), and Chapter 2 with nonthermal processes induced by electrons and by photons. Part II, "Experimental" (Chapter 3), describes the ultrahigh vacuum apparatus, surface science techniques, and procedures for single crystal preparation and gas exposure. Part III, "Results", is a collection of ten selected publications in refereed journals. Each chapter is self-contained. Thermal desorption of CO from Pd(111) (Chapter 4) has been studied by temperature programmed desorption. It is demonstrated that the effective desorption kinetic parameters extracted from desorption spectra are correlated with the adlayer structures and dependent on the sizes of ordered domains--a nonequilibrium effect. Site exchange of CO (Chapter 5) and site retention of O_2 (Chapter 6) on Pt(112) during thermal desorption are observed with isotope labeled adsorption on specific sites--steps or terraces. The adsorption and desorption kinetics of O _2 are compared on Pt(111) and Pt(112) surfaces (Chapter 7). The mechanisms of adsorption and the effect of well-defined defects are elucidated. O_2 adsorbed on Pd(111) is studied with thermal activation (Chapter 8), electron impact (Chapter 9), and photon irradiation (Chapter 10 -12). Various thermal processes are delineated with isotopic mixing experiments. Electron-induced conversion, dissociation, and desorption processes are observed. Cross sections (10^{-17} cm^2 ) and their electron energy dependences (0-500 eV) are measured. A resonance-enhanced desorption of atomic oxygen from Pd(111) is found at ~10 eV. Photon-induced conversion, dissociation, and desorption processes are observed. Cross sections (10^ {-19} cm^2) and photon energy dependence (1.4-5.4 eV) are extracted. Possible mechanisms are

  15. Growth, mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of pure and doped KHP single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Lakshmipriya.; Babu, D. Rajan; Vizhi, R. Ezhil

    2015-06-01

    L-Arginine doped potassium hydrogen phthalate and L-Histidine doped potassium hydrogen phthalate single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The grown crystal crystallizes in orthorhombic system which is confirmed by single crystal XRD analysis. The grown crystals are subjected to thermal, mechanical and dielectric analysis.

  16. Photoacoustic determination of thermal and electron transport properties of single crystal NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, P. M.; Lukovic, D.; Savic, S.; Vasiljevic Radovic, D.; Radulovic, K.; Vujatovic, S.; Lukic, L.; Nikolic, M. V.; Bojicic, A.; Djuric, S.

    2005-06-01

    Thermal and electron transport properties of single crystal NiO were determined using the photoacoustic technique. NiO single crystals were prepared using the Verneuil method and were easily cleaved parallel to the (100) plane. All samples were of the p type. Atomic force microscopy images of cleaved NiO samples were made enabling a view of steps along the (001) direction and terraces, which were between 20 nm and 100 nm thick.

  17. Thermal Shock Behavior of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High Temperatures Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been considered as refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermal mechanical reliability of the oxide components in severe thermal environments during space mission sun/shade transitions is of great concern. In this paper, critical mechanical properties of these oxide crystals are determined by the indentation technique. Thermal shock resistance of the oxides is evaluated using a high power CO, laser under high temperature-high thermal gradients. Thermal stress fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated under various temperature and heating conditions.

  18. Thermal Shock Behavior of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High Temperatures Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been considered as refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermal mechanical reliability of the oxide components in severe thermal environments during space mission sun/shade transitions is of great concern. In this paper, critical mechanical properties of these oxide crystals are determined by the indentation technique. Thermal shock resistance of the oxides is evaluated using a high power CO, laser under high temperature-high thermal gradients. Thermal stress fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated under various temperature and heating conditions.

  19. Thermal decomposition study of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2013-06-01

    The Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis were carried out on the as-grown Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals in inert nitrogen atmosphere. All these thermal analysis were done from ambient temperature to 1223 K. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were determined from the thermal curves using Broido, Horowitz-Metzger (H-M), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Coats-Redfern (C-R) relations. The results are reported in this paper.

  20. Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal and optical studies of pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarna Sowmya, N.; Sampathkrishnan, S.; Vidyalakshmi, Y.; Sudhahar, S.; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2015-06-01

    Organic nonlinear optical material, pyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate-4-nitrophenol (PCN) was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure and lattice parameters of PCN crystals. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectral analyses were used to elucidate the functional groups present in the compound. The thermal behavior of synthesized compound was studied by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The photoluminescence property was studied by exciting the crystal at 360 nm. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal was estimated by using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  1. The dynamics of thermal expansion in single crystal beryllium from nanosecond x-ray pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Eric N; Greenfield, Scott; Luo, Shengnian; Johnson, Randall; Shimada, Tom; Cobble, Jim; Seifter, Achim; Montgomery, David

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of beryllium were exposed to nanosecond x-ray pulses generated from laser irradiated (1.5 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) gold targets. The characteristic gold M-band centered at 2.5 keV was measured by time integrated transmission grating spectroscopy and time resolved (spectrally integrated) x-ray photodiodes through beryllium targets of various thickness. Approximately decaying exponential temperature profiles were immediately induced in 100 {mu}m thick single crystal targets producing nearly instand surface motion as measured by free surface velocity interferometry. This temperature profile gave rise to a similar velocity history between a c-axis single crystal and a (10{bar 1}0) single crystal where a large initial acceleration gave way to a profile due to the internal temperature gradient. A smooth rise to the peak velocity was then followed by a sharp release originating from the opposite free surface. Differences between the velocities in each of these regions were found between the two single crystals investigated, which were due to the thermal expansion properties as a function of direction (including plasticity). These results can be used to predict behavior of polycrystalline targets relevant to instability seeding in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ablators.

  2. Thermal-Diffusivity Dependence on Temperature of Gadolinium Calcium Oxoborate Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefon-Radziejewska, D.; Bodzenta, J.; Łukasiewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal diffusivities of pure and doped gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB) single crystals were measured as a function of the temperature along optical indicatrix axes X, Y, and Z. Three GdCOB samples were investigated, chemically pure single crystal, the one doped with 4 at% of Nd and the next one doped with 7 at% of Yb. Measurements were carried out for temperature range 40 °C to 300 °C. Determination of the thermal diffusivity based on an analysis of thermal wave propagation in the sample. For a detection of temperature disturbance propagating in the sample the mirage effect was used. Obtained results show that the thermal diffusivity decreases with the increase of sample temperature for all investigated crystals. The GdCOB single crystals reveal a strong anisotropy. The thermal diffusivity along Y direction has the highest value while values obtained in X and Z axes are much lower. Dopants cause decrease in the thermal diffusivity for all investigated directions.

  3. Rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase transformation and thermal depolarization in relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. S.; Lim, L. C.; Yang, P.; Tu, C.-S.

    2008-08-01

    The rhombohedral-to-tetragonal (R-T) transformation in relaxor single crystals occurs over a temperature range, manifested by the coexistence of rhombohedral (R ) and tetragonal (T) microscopic and nanotwin domains, a string of thermal current signals, and continued degradation of dielectric and electromechanical properties. Thermal current and high-resolution x-ray diffraction results suggest TRT≅100-135 °C for [001]-poled PZN-4.5%PT and 90-115 °C for [001]-poled PZN-7%PT. The "TRT" determined from the dielectric permittivity-temperature plot of poled crystals corresponds to the lower bound of TRT, which is also a good indication of the depolarization temperature (TDP) of relaxor ferroelectric single crystals above which perceptible property degradation begins.

  4. Growth aspects, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of benzotriazole pyridine-2-carboxylic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunavukkarsu, A.; Sujatha, T.; Umarani, P. R.; Nizam Mohideen, M.; Silambarasan, A.; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2017-02-01

    Benzotriazole pyridine-2-carboxylic acid single crystal (BTPCA) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The cell parameters and crystallinity of BTPCA crystal were found by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies. The presence of functional groups was studied by FT-IR analysis. UV-vis-NIR transmission studies reveal that the BTPCA crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with lower optical cut-off wavelength of 306 nm. The thermal stability, melting point and decomposition stages of BTPCA were analysed from the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The second harmonic output power of BTPCA was measured to be 2.5 times that of KDP reference crystal. Hardness studies reveal that grown crystal shows the reverse indentation size effect and breakeven point due to release of internal fatigue generated during indentation.

  5. Temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of single-crystal SmS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, V. V. Luguev, S. M.; Omarov, Z. M.; Sharenkova, N. V.; Golubkov, A. V.; Vasil'ev, L. N.; Solov'ev, S. M.

    2007-01-15

    The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of single-crystal SmS has been measured in the temperature range 300-850 K by dilatometry and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the difference in the results obtained by these two methods is due to the heating-induced formation of SmS phases with small lattice parameters (5.62-5.8 A) close to that for the metallic SmS phase.

  6. Thermal and dielectric properties of gel-grown cobalt malonate dihydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Varghese; Xavier, Lizymol; Mahadevan, C. K.; Abraham, K. E.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystals of cobalt malonate dihydrate were grown in a silica gel medium by the single diffusion method. The thermal behavior of the crystals was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity of the crystals were estimated as a function of temperature in the range 40-140 °C for four different frequencies. The results indicate that the grown crystals are thermally stable up to about 150 °C and exhibit a phase transition at 130 °C.

  7. Work function engineering of SnO single crystal microplates with thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Doh, Won Hui; Jeong, Wooseok; Lee, Hyunsoo; Park, Jonghyurk; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-08-19

    We synthesized black SnO single-crystal microplates via a sonochemical process and engineered the work function of the SnO microplates using thermal treatments. The as-synthesized SnO microplates have a wide (001) plane, as is clearly evident from TEM images and diffraction patterns. Surface potential measurements on the SnO microplates show that the work function changes as the annealing temperature increases. The TEM and XAS results after thermal treatments imply that the micro-sized SnO(001) single-crystals are stable up to about 400 °C in air, after which the surface starts to become locally oxidized. Consequently, the long-range ordering and lattice parameter of the SnO(001) single crystals started to change to make polycrystalline SnO2 at about 600 °C. These results demonstrate the ability to tune the work function of the microplates and suggest an intriguing way to engineer the electrical properties of nanostructures.

  8. Work function engineering of SnO single crystal microplates with thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Won Hui; Jeong, Wooseok; Lee, Hyunsoo; Park, Jonghyurk; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized black SnO single-crystal microplates via a sonochemical process and engineered the work function of the SnO microplates using thermal treatments. The as-synthesized SnO microplates have a wide (001) plane, as is clearly evident from TEM images and diffraction patterns. Surface potential measurements on the SnO microplates show that the work function changes as the annealing temperature increases. The TEM and XAS results after thermal treatments imply that the micro-sized SnO(001) single-crystals are stable up to about 400 °C in air, after which the surface starts to become locally oxidized. Consequently, the long-range ordering and lattice parameter of the SnO(001) single crystals started to change to make polycrystalline SnO2 at about 600 °C. These results demonstrate the ability to tune the work function of the microplates and suggest an intriguing way to engineer the electrical properties of nanostructures.

  9. Anisotropy of thermal conductivity in single crystals YBa 2Cu 3O 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, Vasilii; Jezowski, Andrzej; Barilo, Sergey; Kalanda, Nikolay; Saiko, Alexandr

    2000-07-01

    The anisotropy of thermal conductivity k in single crystals YBa 2Cu 3O 7 has been studied. The temperature dependence of k in c-direction is well described by the lattice thermal conductivity ( T max=60 K; k max=4 W/ mK; T D=140 K) . The precise measurements reveal the hysteretic behavior of out-of-plane thermal conductivity. In ab-direction the upturn in k for temperatures below Tc is observed and temperatures of thermal conductivity peaks in ab- and c-direction coincide. Theoretical analysis suggests a model in which an observed peak below Tc in thermal conductivity for ab-direction is ascribed to a quasiparticle contribution.

  10. Anisotropy of thermal conductivity in YBaCuO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, V.; Jezowski, A.; Barilo, S.; Kalanda, N.; Saiko, A.

    2000-11-01

    The anisotropy of thermal conductivity (k) in single crystals YBa 2Cu 3O 7 have been studied. The temperature dependence of k in c-direction is well described by the lattice thermal conductivity ( Tmax = 60K; k max = 4W/mK; T D = 140K). The precise measurements reveal the hysteretic behavior of out-of-plane thermal conductivity. In ab-direction the upturn in k for temperatures below T c is observed and temperatures of thermal conductivity peaks in ab- and c-direction are coincided. Theoretical analysis suggests a model in which an observed peak below T c in thermal conductivity for ab-direction is ascribed to a quasiparticle contribution.

  11. Beryllium, zinc and lead single crystals as a thermal neutron monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Bashter, I. I.; Morcos, H. N.; El-Mesiry, M. S.; Mansy, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The monochromatic features of Be, Zn and Pb single crystals are discussed in terms of orientation, mosaic spread, and thickness within the wavelength band from 0.04 up to 0.5 nm. A computer program MONO written in "FORTRAN-77", has been adapted to carry out the required calculations. Calculations show that a 5 mm thick of beryllium (HCP structure) single crystal cut along its (0 0 2) plane having 0.6° FWHM are the optimum parameters when it is used as a monochromator with high reflected neutron intensity from a thermal neutron flux. Furthermore, at wavelengths shorter than 0.16 nm it is free from the accompanying higher order ones. Zinc (HCP structure) has the same parameters, with intensity much less than the latter. The same features are seen with lead (FCC structure) cut along its (3 1 1) plane with less reflectivity than the former. However, Pb (3 1 1) is more preferable than others at neutron wavelengths ⩽ 0.1 nm, since the glancing angle (θ ∼ 20°) is more suitable to carry out diffraction experiments. For a cold neutron flux, the first-order neutrons reflected from beryllium is free from the higher orders up to 0.36 nm. While for Zn single crystal is up to 0.5 nm.

  12. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  13. Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-03-28

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path ℓ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than ℓ, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5–10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 μm. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order ℓ, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of ±8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  14. Thermal expansion coefficient of single-crystal silicon from 7 K to 293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelmann, Thomas; Walkov, Alexander; Bartl, Guido; Schödel, René

    2015-11-01

    We measured the absolute lengths of three single-crystal silicon samples by means of an imaging Twyman-Green interferometer in the temperature range from 7 K to 293 K with uncertainties of about 1 nm. From these measurements we extracted the coefficient of thermal expansion with uncertainties on the order of 1 ×10-9/K . To access the functional dependence of the length on the temperature, usually polynomials are fitted to the data. Instead we used a physically motivated model equation with seven fit parameters for the whole temperature range. The coefficient of thermal expansion is obtained from the derivative of the best fit. The measurements conducted in 2012 and 2014 demonstrate a high reproducibility, and the agreement of two independently produced samples supports single-crystal silicon as a reference material for thermal expansion. Although the results for all three samples agree with each other and with measurements performed at other institutes, they significantly differ from the currently recommended values for the thermal expansion of crystalline silicon.

  15. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  16. Silver- and Gold-Ordered Structures on Single-Crystal Silicon Surface After Thermal Deposition.

    PubMed

    Karbivskyy, Vladimir; Karbivska, Love; Artemyuk, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    The formation mechanisms of Ag- and Au-ordered structures on single-crystal silicon (Si) (111) and Si (110) surfaces were researched using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy method. It was shown that different patterns of self-assembled nanostructures with very precise and regular geometric shapes can be produced by controlling process parameters of thermal metal spraying on the substrate. The surfaces of nanorelieves at each stage of deposition were researched, and the main stages of morphological transformation were fixed.Self-ordered hexagonal pyramid-shaped nanostructures were formed at thermal deposition of gold on the Si (111), whereas only monolayer hexagonal formation could be observed on the plane Si (110). Gold monolayer flake nanostructures were obtained under certain technological parameters.Atomically smooth Ag film cannot be obtained on the Si (111) surface by means of thermal spraying at room temperature. The formation of two-dimensional (2D) clusters takes place; heating of these clusters at several hundred degrees Celsius leads to their transformation into atomically smooth covering.The weak interaction between Ag multilayer coatings and substrate was established that allows to clear crystal surface from metal with reproduction of the reconstructed Si (111) 7 × 7 surface by slight warming. The offered method can be used for single-crystal surface protection from destruction.

  17. Optical, mechanical and thermal characterization of l-threonine single crystals grown in dimethyl urea solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2013-09-01

    An organic material of a noncentrosymmetric l-threonine single crystal was grown in a dimethyl urea solution using the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was transparent and colorless, with a size of about 20 × 7 × 4 mm3, obtained within a period of 10 days. The grown crystal was subjected to various studies, such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), microhardness, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) transmittance, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and second harmonic generation (SHG). l-threonine crystals grown in a dimethyl urea solution show relative SHG efficiency of 0.92 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The functional groups of the crystals have been confirmed by FTIR analysis. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by the Vickers hardness test. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were determined by single crystal XRD and powder XRD studies, and the diffraction peaks were indexed. A UV-Vis spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm to find the suitability of the crystal for nonlinear optical applications. The thermal stability of l-threonine crystal grown in dimethyl urea was checked using the TGA/DTA analysis.

  18. Structural, thermal, optical and nonlinear optical properties of ethylenediaminium picrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indumathi, C.; T. C., Sabari Girisun; Anitha, K.; Alfred Cecil Raj, S.

    2017-07-01

    A new organic optical limiting material, ethylenediaminium picrate (EDAPA) was synthesized through acid base reaction and grown as single crystals by solvent evaporation method. Single crystal XRD analysis showed that EDAPA crystallizes in orthorhombic system with Cmca as space group. The formation of charge transfer complex during the reaction of ethylenediamine and picric acid was strongly evident through the recorded Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. Thermal (TG-DTA and DSC) curves indicated that the material possesses high thermal stability with decomposition temperature at 243 °C. Optical (UV-Visible-NIR) analysis showed that the grown crystal was found to be transparent in the entire visible and NIR region. Z-scan studies with intense short pulse (532 nm, 5 ns, 100 μJ) excitations, revealed that EDAPA exhibited two photon absorption behaviour and the nonlinear absorption coefficient was found to be two orders of magnitude higher than some of the known optical limiter like Cu nano glasses. EDAPA exhibited a strong optical limiting action with low limiting threshold which make them a potential candidate for eye and photosensitive component protection against intense short pulse lasers.

  19. Enhanced optical, thermal and piezoelectric behavior in dye doped potassium acid phthalate (KAP) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Pure and 0.1 mol% amaranth doped KAP single crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystals are up to the dimension of 12×10×3 mm3. Attempt is made to improve the growth rate, optical, piezoelectric and photoconductive properties of pure KAP single crystal with addition of amaranth dye as a dopant. Various characterization studies were made for both pure and dye doped KAP. Thermal stability of the crystals is tested from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). There is only one endothermic peak indicating decomposition point. Higher optical transparency for dye doped KAP crystal was identified from the UV-vis spectrum. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with amaranth dye. The positive photoconductive nature is observed from both pure and amaranth doped KAP.

  20. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet, and magnesium oxide.

  1. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  2. Thermal-mechanical stability of single crystal oxide refractive concentrators for high-temperature solar thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Jacobson, S.; Miller, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  3. Mechanical, thermal, linear and nonlinear optical properties of barium L-tartrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, K.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    A potential semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystal of barium L-tartrate (BaTr) was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single and powder x-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The hardness of the material was carried out by a Vickers micro hardness tester. Thermal behavior of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA thermal analyzer. Optical and electrical conductivity of the crystal was measured by photo conductivity and dielectric studies. NLO property of the crystal is confirmed by Kurt–Perry powder technique. Laser damage threshold (LDT) value of the grown crystal has been carried out using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam.

  4. Thermal expansion, heat capacity and magnetostriction of RAl3 (R = Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bud'ko, S.; Frenerick, J.; Mun, E.; Canfield, P.; Schmiedeshoff, G.

    2007-12-13

    We present thermal expansion and longitudinal magnetostriction data for cubic RAl{sub 3} (R = Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals. The thermal expansion coefficient for YbAl{sub 3} is consistent with an intermediate valence of the Yb ion, whereas the data for TmAl{sub 3} show crystal electric field contributions and have strong magnetic field dependences. de Haas-van Alphen like oscillations were observed in the magnetostriction data for YbAl{sub 3} and LuAl{sub 3}, several new extreme orbits were measured and their effective masses were estimated. Specific heat data taken at 0 and 140 kOe for both LuAl{sub 3} and TmAl{sub 3} for T {le} 200 K allow for the determination of a crystal electric field splitting scheme for TmAl{sub 3}.

  5. Thermal stimulated current response in cupric oxide single crystal thin films over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kungan; Wu, Shuxiang; Yu, Fengmei; Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yunjia; Meng, Meng; Wang, Gaili; Zhang, Yueli; Li, Shuwei

    2017-01-01

    Cupric oxide single crystal thin films (~26 nm) were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction show that the thin films are 2  ×  2 reconstructed with an in-plane compression and out-of-plane stretching. A thermal stimulated current measurement indicates that the electric polarization response is shown in the special 2D cupric oxide single crystal thin film over a wide temperature range from 130 K to near-room temperature. We infer that the abnormal electric response involves the changing of phase transition temperature induced by structure distortion, the spin frustration and the magnetic fluctuation effect of a short-range magnetic order, or the combined action of both of the two factors mentioned above. This work suggests a promising clue for finding new room temperature single phase multiferroics or tuning phase transition temperatures.

  6. Single crystal growth, magnetic and thermal properties of perovskite YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Wu, Anhua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jiayue

    2016-11-01

    High quality YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal was grown by floating zone technique using a four-mirror-image-furnace under flowing air. Powder X-ray diffraction gives well evidence that the specimen has an orthorhombic structure, with space group Pbnm. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal were studied under ZFC and FC modes in the temperature range from 5 K to 400 K. A clear spin reorientation transition behavior (Γ4→Γ1) is observed in the temperature range of 322-316 K, due to the substitution of Mn at the Fe site of YFeO3. Its Néel temperature is around 385 K. Moreover, the spin reorientation is verified by the change of magnetic hysteresis loops of the sample along [001] axis in the temperature range of 50-385 K. The thermal properties of the sample were measured by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from 300 K to 500 K, which also clearly appear anomaly in the spin reorientation region.

  7. Fabrication of Fe nanowires on yittrium-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates by thermal CVD methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahito, A.; Yanase, T.; Endo, T.; Nagahama, T.; Shimada, T.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic nanowires (NWs) are promising as material for use in spintronics and as the precursor of permanent magnets because they have unique properties due to their high aspect ratio. The growth of magnetic Fe whiskers was reported in the 1960s, but the diameter was not on a nanoscale level and the growth mechanism was not fully elucidated. In the present paper, we report the almost vertical growth of Fe NWs on a single crystal yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 0.15}Zr{sub 0.85}O{sub 2}) by a thermal CVD method. The NWs show a characteristic taper part on the bottom growing from a trigonal pyramidal nucleus. The taper angle and length can be controlled by changing the growth condition in two steps, which will lead to obtaining uniformly distributed thin Fe NWs for applications.

  8. Critical Fields, Thermally Activated Transport, and Critical Current Density of Beta-FeSe Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Lei, H.; Hu, R.

    2011-07-27

    We present critical fields, thermally activated flux flow (TAFF), and critical current density of tetragonal phase {beta}-FeSe single crystals. The upper critical fields H{sub c2}(T) for H {parallel} (101) and H {perpendicular} (101) are nearly isotropic and are likely governed by the Pauli limiting process. The large Ginzburg-Landau parameter {Kappa} {approx} 72.3(2) indicates that {beta}-FeSe is a type-II superconductor with a smaller penetration depth than in Fe(Te, Se). The resistivity below T{sub c} follows Arrhenius TAFF behavior. For both field directions below 30 kOe, single-vortex pinning is dominant, whereas collective creep becomes important above 30 kOe. The critical current density J{sub c} from M-H loops for H {parallel} (101) is about five times larger than for H {perpendicular} (101), yet much smaller than in other iron-based superconductors.

  9. Thermally stimulated current studies on deep levels in hydrothermally grown single crystal ZnO bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, K.; Ooi, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Kushida, K.

    2006-12-01

    The evaluation of the deep levels in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal bulk is studied using a thermally stimulated current (TSC) method with excitation above (below) the band gap. Two broad TSC spectra are resolved by four traps, P1 (165meV), P2 (255meV), P3 (300meV), and P4 (375meV). P2, P3, and P4 traps are responsible for excitation by the blue and green lights, but P1 trap is weakly responsible. Possible origins of P1 and P2 are attributed to native point defects and Li acceptor, respectively. P3 is correlated to oxygen vacancy as an origin of the green luminescence.

  10. Numerical simulation of thermal history for Czochralski growth of silicon single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, Kazumasa . Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.); Nakayama, Wataru . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering of Production); Sugino, Yuji . Kofu Works)

    1994-03-01

    A numerical analysis was conducted to study the thermal history of Czochralski growth of large silicon single crystals. The computations were performed for various crystal diameters and emissivities of the crucible inner wall. The analysis predicts the change of temperature distributions in the crystal and the shape of the solid-melt interface. The computed results show the importance of the effects of radiation from the crucible inner wall and the melt-free surface on crystal growth. Also, increasing the crystal diameter decreases the pull speed and increases the concavity of the solid-melt interface into the crystal. The result of this analysis is in good agreement with measurement of the pull rate on production apparatus, and the shape of the crystal-melt interface showed a tendency to agree qualitatively with the observations of X-ray diffraction.

  11. Growth, spectral, optical and thermal characterisation of semiorganic NLO material: L-histidinium hexaflurosilicate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilayaraja, P.; Srividya, J.; Anbalagan, G.

    2017-06-01

    Semiorganic L-histidinium hexaflurosilicate single crystal was grown by solvent evaporation solution growth technique. From PXRD, the crystallographic data were found as a=8.3496 Å, b=8.3376 Å, c=29.2973 Å and α= β=γ=90˚ with tetragonal crystal system (S. G. P41212). The crystalline perfection was studied by HRXRD. The molecular structure was identified using FT-IR and FTRaman spectral analysis. The crystal has 60% transparent in the visible region with a lower cutoff wavelength of 224 nm and optical band gap 4.15 eV. Laser damage threshold and frequency conversion efficiency were calculated as 3.89 GW/cm2 and 52 mV, respectively. Thermal studies indicate that the crystal was stable up to 260°C.

  12. Fabrication of Fe nanowires on yittrium-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates by thermal CVD methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, A.; Yanase, T.; Endo, T.; Nagahama, T.; Shimada, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanowires (NWs) are promising as material for use in spintronics and as the precursor of permanent magnets because they have unique properties due to their high aspect ratio. The growth of magnetic Fe whiskers was reported in the 1960s, but the diameter was not on a nanoscale level and the growth mechanism was not fully elucidated. In the present paper, we report the almost vertical growth of Fe NWs on a single crystal yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y0.15Zr0.85O2) by a thermal CVD method. The NWs show a characteristic taper part on the bottom growing from a trigonal pyramidal nucleus. The taper angle and length can be controlled by changing the growth condition in two steps, which will lead to obtaining uniformly distributed thin Fe NWs for applications.

  13. Thermal spray forming of refractory sample ampoule cartridges for single crystal growth space furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Poorman, Richard; Holmes, Richard; Mckechnie, Timothy; Krotz, Phil; Liaw, Yoon

    1993-01-01

    A thermal spray process is being used to build up refractory metals and ceramics into a containment cartridge for high temperature, single crystal semiconductor growth experiments. This process uses high energy plasma inside a low pressure (100-200 torr) inert environment to apply layers of material onto a removable mandrel. A variety of materials are being characterized and evaluated against a demanding set of requirements, including high service temperature (1700 C), oxidation resistance, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Techniques to spray form refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum) and ceramics (alumina, boron nitride) are being developed in the Plasma Spray Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center. These plasma spray formed materials have been evaluated for mechanical properties, density, microstructure, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Forming techniques and the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties will be presented.

  14. Thermal spray forming of refractory sample ampoule cartridges for single crystal growth space furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Poorman, Richard; Holmes, Richard; Mckechnie, Timothy; Krotz, Phil; Liaw, Yoon

    1993-01-01

    A thermal spray process is being used to build up refractory metals and ceramics into a containment cartridge for high temperature, single crystal semiconductor growth experiments. This process uses high energy plasma inside a low pressure (100-200 torr) inert environment to apply layers of material onto a removable mandrel. A variety of materials are being characterized and evaluated against a demanding set of requirements, including high service temperature (1700 C), oxidation resistance, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Techniques to spray form refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum) and ceramics (alumina, boron nitride) are being developed in the Plasma Spray Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center. These plasma spray formed materials have been evaluated for mechanical properties, density, microstructure, and resistance to liquid metal attack. Forming techniques and the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties are presented.

  15. Spectral and Lensing Characteristics of Gel-Derived Strontium Tartrate Single Crystals Using Dual-Beam Thermal Lens Technique.

    PubMed

    Rejeena, I; Thomas, V; Mathew, S; Lillibai, B; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-09-01

    The Dual Beam mode-matched thermal lens spectrometry is a sensible technique for direct measurements of the thermal properties of tartrate crystalline materials. Here we report the measurement of thermal diffusivity of Strontium Tartrate single crystals incorporated with Rhodamine 6G using the thermal lens experiment. The respective crystals were prepared by solution-gel method at room temperature. The absorption characteristics of three different Strontium Tartrate crystals viz. pure, electric field applied and magnetic field applied were also carried out.

  16. Pore and ligament size control, thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous single crystals of gold.

    PubMed

    Koifman Khristosov, Maria; Dishon, Shiri; Noi, Imrit; Katsman, Alex; Pokroy, Boaz

    2017-10-05

    Nanoporous gold is widely used in research and nanotechnology because of its diverse properties, including high surface area and catalytic activity. The ligament size is usually considered as one of the main parameters controlling thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous gold. Recently we developed a method for creating nanoporous single crystal gold particles using eutectic decomposition of Au-Ge, followed by selective etching of Ge. Here, we used this novel method to create nanoporous gold particles with controlled ligament sizes by changing the initial sample's relative concentrations of gold and germanium. When investigated over 1-4 h at 250-400 °C the material was thermally stable up to 350 °C, which is higher than the thermal stability of "classical" nanoporous gold prepared by dealloying. Mechanical properties were examined utilizing nanoindentation of nanoporous gold before and after annealing. For smaller ligament sizes, hardness increased with annealing temperature up to 300 °C and then strongly decreased. For larger ligament sizes, hardness decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Young's modulus was unchanged up to 300 °C.

  17. Growth and thermal properties of GeSePb0.4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.; Gosai, N. N.; Patel, Ruchita R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of GeSePb0.4 were grown by Direct Vapor Transport (DVT) technique, in a two zone horizontal furnace with temperature difference of 50 K between growth and source zones. The material crystallizes in the form of shining gray and platelets like crystals at the end of growth cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for many years to evaluate thermal stability of material as it will determine the range of stable operation for a device made up out of these materials under investigation. Thermal characteristics of GeSePb0.4 crystals were studied employing thermoanalytical techniques, viz. TGA and DTA. Thermal analysis experiments were carried out with constant heating rate of 10°C/ min in air. The DTA pattern of GeSePb0.4 crystals shows a strong endothermic peak at 472°C. The objective of this study is to determine activation energy and other kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals. Broido and Coats-Redfern models are used to evaluate different kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals viz. activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs mean free energy etc.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Neutron Diffraction Measurements of a Thermally Fatigued Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guang-Ai; Chen, Bo; Wu, Er-Dong; Li, Jin-Chao; Pirling, T.; Hughes, D.

    2009-08-01

    The thermally fatigued single crystal superalloy DZ125L is investigated by neutron diffraction measurements. The measurements, made using the phi angle oscillating method, provide more detailed and reliable data than those with the phi angle fixed. Diffraction studies show that the influence of thermal fatigue on the lattice parameters of the alloy is very limited. The stress analysis reveals that triaxial elastic hydrostatic stress plays a major role during thermal fatigue. The magnitude of the macrostress increases with the fatigue cycles, with the stress of the γ phase increasing more significantly than that of the γ' phase, and becoming fragile after many cycles. The changes in the microstrain are dependent on the reflection planes. The microstrains at the center of the sample are released by the thermal fatigue in comparison with those at the outlying locations, which has been attributed to the advance of the dislocation slips.

  19. Structural, thermal and dielectric properties of cobaltous malonate single crystals grown in limited diffusion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincy, A.; Mahalakshmi, V.; Tinto, A. J.; Thomas, J.; Saban, K. V.

    2010-11-01

    Well-faceted crystals of cobaltous malonate (C 6 H 12 Co 2 O 12) have been grown by the controlled diffusion of ionic species in hydrosilica gel. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with space group C2/m. The unit cell dimensions are a=12.6301(9) Å, b=7.3857(9) Å, c=7.2945(7) Å, α= γ=90°, β=120.193(9)°. The functional groups, elucidated from the FT-IR spectrum, are in conformity with the information derived from the X-ray diffraction studies. The thermal behaviour of the material has been investigated using TG-DTA in the temperature range 30-1050 °C. The optical band gap of the sample is estimated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal have been studied over wide temperature and frequency ranges. AC conductivity measurements reveal a thermally activated process and the mechanism behind the conduction process has been discussed.

  20. Thermal Mechanical Stability of Single-Crystal-Oxide Refractive Concentrators Evaluated for High-Temperature Solar-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, refractive secondary solar concentrator systems were developed for solar thermal power and propulsion (ref. 1). Single-crystal oxides-such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO), and sapphire (Al2O3)-are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials. However, the refractive concentrator system will experience high-temperature thermal cycling in the solar thermal engine during the sun/shade transition of a space mission. The thermal mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a controlled heat flux test approach was developed for investigating the thermal mechanical stability of the candidate oxide. This approach used a 3.0-kW continuous-wave (wavelength, 10.6 mm) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (ref. 2). The CO2 laser is especially well-suited for single-crystal thermal shock tests because it can directly deliver well-characterized heat energy to the oxide surfaces. Since the oxides are opaque at the 10.6-mm wavelength of the laser beam, the light energy is absorbed at the surfaces rather than transmitting into the crystals, and thus generates the required temperature gradients within the specimens. The following figure is a schematic diagram of the test rig.

  1. Electrical and Thermal Transport Properties of Bi2Sr2Co2O9-δ Single Crystals and Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Zhenyu; Lee, H. N.; Chisholm, M.; Jin, Rongying

    2012-02-01

    Layered Bi2Sr2Co2O9-δ possesses rich physical properties, promising for thermoelectric applications. We have successfully synthesized Bi2Sr2Co2O9-δ in both single crystal and epitaxial thin film forms by applying various oxygen pressures. We found that their electrical and thermal transport properties are sensitive to the oxygen content, suggesting that the oxidation state of Co plays an important role in thermoelectric properties. Comparison of power factor between single crystals and thin films will be presented.

  2. Investigation of thermal diffusivity dependence on temperature in a group of optical single crystals doped with rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefon-Radziejewska, D.; Bodzenta, J.

    2015-07-01

    The group of YAG, YVO4 and GdCOB single crystals was examined to determine the thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature in range from 30 °C to 300 °C. Further investigations concerned on analysis of the influence of dopants on these dependencies. The experimental setup based on thermal wave method with mirage detection was used. The samples represented different crystallographic systems such as cubic (YAG) tetragonal (YVO4) and monoclinic (GdCOB). The anisotropy of thermal conductivity of investigated samples was taken into account in the investigations. The crystals were doped with calcium ions, rare earth ions such as ytterbium, neodymium, and thulium, and also with transition metal vanadium. The results confirmed that influence of doping on the thermal diffusivity of investigated materials strongly depends on temperature. In general the thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing of sample temperature from 30 °C to 300 °C, however the drop in thermal diffusivity is the highest for pure single crystals. Doping is another factor reducing the heat transport in single crystals. Introduction of dopant ions into a crystal lattice leads to a significant decrease in the thermal diffusivity at lower temperatures in comparison with pure crystals. However, the influence of dopants becomes less pronounced with increasing temperature, and in case of weakly doped crystals it becomes negligible at higher temperatures. The interpretation of thermal diffusivity dependence on temperature for single crystals was based on the Debye model of lattice thermal conductivity of solids. The results allowed to conclude that the decrease of thermal diffusivity with temperature and increasing concentration of impurities is caused by shortening of the phonons mean free path due to phonon-phonon and phonon-point defect scatterings.

  3. Growth Stresses in Thermally Grown Oxides on Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Luke H.; Laux, Britta; He, Ming Y.; Hovis, David; Heuer, Arthur H.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-03-01

    Growth stresses that develop in α-Al2O3 scale that form during isothermal oxidation of three Ni-based single crystal alloys have been studied to elucidate their role in coating and substrate degradation at elevated temperatures. Piezospectroscopy measurements at room temperature indicate large room temperature compressive stresses in the oxides formed at 1255 K or 1366 K (982 °C or 1093 °C) on the alloys, ranging from a high of 4.8 GPa for René N4 at 1366 K (1093 °C) to a low of 3.8 GPa for René N5 at 1255 K (982 °C). Finite element modeling of each of these systems to account for differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of the oxide and substrate indicates growth strains in the range from 0.21 to 0.44 pct at the oxidation temperature, which is an order of magnitude higher than the growth strains measured in the oxides on intermetallic coatings that are typically applied to these superalloys. The magnitudes of the growth strains do not scale with the parabolic oxidation rate constants measured for the alloys. Significant spatial inhomogeneities in the growth stresses were observed, due to (i) the presence of dendritic segregation and (ii) large carbides in the material that locally disrupts the structure of the oxide scale. The implications of these observations for failure during cyclic oxidation, fatigue cycling, and alloy design are considered.

  4. Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of Urea tartaric acid single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinothkumar, P.; Rajeswari, K.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhaskaran, A.

    2015-06-01

    Urea tartaric acid (UT) an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material was synthesized from aqueous solution and the crystals were grown by the slow evaporation technique. The single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the UT crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system. The functional groups of UT have been identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectral studies. The optical transparent window in the visible and near the IR regions was investigated. The transmittance of UT has been used to calculate the refractive index (n) as a function of the wavelength. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by the Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test. The birefringence of the crystal was determined using a tungsten halogen lamp source. The laser induced surface damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using the Nd:YAG laser. The anisotropic in mechanical property of the grown crystals was studied using Vicker's microhardness tester at different planes. The etch pit density of UT crystals was investigated. The thermal behavior of UT was investigated using the TG-DTA and DSC studies.

  5. Thermal oxidation of 3C silicon carbide single-crystal layers on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C. D.; Kopanski, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal oxidation of thick single-crystal 3C SiC layers on silicon substrates was studied. The oxidations were conducted in a wet O2 atmosphere at temperatures from 1000 to 1250 C for times from 0.1 to 50 h. Ellipsometry was used to determine the thickness and index of refraction of the oxide films. Auger analysis showed them to be homogeneous with near stoichiometric composition. The oxide growth followed a linear parabolic relationship with time. Activation energy of the parabolic rate constant was found to be 50 kcal/mole, while the linear rate constant was 74 kcal/mole. The latter value corresponds approximately to the energy required to break a Si-C bond. Electrical measurements show an effective density of 4-6 x 10 to the 11th per sq cm for fixed oxide charges at the oxide-carbide interface, and the dielectric strength of the oxide film is aproximately 6 x 10 to the 6th V/cm.

  6. Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of Urea tartaric acid single crystals.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, P; Rajeswari, K; Kumar, R Mohan; Bhaskaran, A

    2015-06-15

    Urea tartaric acid (UT) an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material was synthesized from aqueous solution and the crystals were grown by the slow evaporation technique. The single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the UT crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system. The functional groups of UT have been identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectral studies. The optical transparent window in the visible and near the IR regions was investigated. The transmittance of UT has been used to calculate the refractive index (n) as a function of the wavelength. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by the Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test. The birefringence of the crystal was determined using a tungsten halogen lamp source. The laser induced surface damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using the Nd:YAG laser. The anisotropic in mechanical property of the grown crystals was studied using Vicker's microhardness tester at different planes. The etch pit density of UT crystals was investigated. The thermal behavior of UT was investigated using the TG-DTA and DSC studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling thermal stresses and defects in single crystal indium phosphide grown from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalan, Robert J.

    A theoretical and computational model is developed, using the finite element method, to analyze the thermal stresses and defects, specifically dislocation density, in single crystal semiconductors grown from the melt. The model is based on the Alexander and Haasen dislocation model. This model is a microstructural based constitutive model developed for elemental semiconductors loaded in a single slip orientation. It consists of a set of scalar equations, which incorporate dislocation density as a state variable and relates the plastic deformation in the crystal to the movement and multiplication of dislocations, coupling inelastic deformation with dislocation density. In this work the Alexander and Haasen model is expanded and generalized to account for the kinematics of crystal plasticity and the sphalerite structure of compound semiconductors. The generalized model permits the modeling of both single slip and multiple slip configurations. It also accounts for the latent hardening due to slip system interactions. The computational model includes a radial return algorithm for integrating the constitutive equations and a consistent tangent matrix for solving the nonlinear system of equations resulting from the finite element discretization. A Lagrangian based interpolation scheme is used along with a time step variation to model the evolution of the material and the growth of the finite element mesh at the solid/liquid interface. Result for the model specialized for InP are presented.

  8. Characterization of oxide scales thermally formed on single-crystal silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Chayasombat, B; Kato, T; Hirayama, T; Tokunaga, T; Sasaki, K; Kuroda, K

    2010-08-01

    Microstructures of oxide scales thermally formed on single-crystal silicon carbide were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The oxide scales were formed on the Si-face of 6H-SiC at 1273-1473 K in dry oxygen. Spherical patterns were observed on the surfaces of the oxidized samples by an optical microscope in some regions. In these regions, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the oxide scale was divided into two layers; the upper layer (surface side) was composed of crystalline silica, and the lower layer on the silicon carbide substrate was amorphous silica, while the oxide scales in the surroundings of the patterns were composed of only amorphous silica. The oxidation activation energy in the amorphous silica layer of the Si-face of 6H-SiC was found to be 408 kJ/mol by the evolution of thickness directly measured from the cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and TEM images.

  9. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    In single crystal form, SiC and Al2O3 are attractive reinforcing components for high temperature composites. In this study, the axial coefficients of thermal expansion and single crystal elastic constants of SiC and Al2O3 were used to determine their coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature. SiC and Al2O3 exhibit a strong variation of Young's modulus with orientation; however, their moduli and anisotropies are weak functions of temperature below 1000 C. The coefficients of thermal expansion exhibit significant temperature dependence, and that of the non-cubic Al2O3 is also a function of crystallographic orientation.

  10. Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.; Arivanandhan, M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Single crystals of L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of L-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method.

  11. Spectral and Non Radiative Decay Studies of Lead Di Bromide Single Crystals by Mode Matched Thermal Lens Technique.

    PubMed

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Thomas, V; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, the investigations on the non radiative decay mechanism, optical band gap determination from absorption spectroscopic studies and fluorescence emission by photo luminescence techniques using different excitation wavelengths on gel derived lead di bromide single crystals are reported. Non radiative decay of the sample is studied using high sensitive dual beam mode matched thermal lens technique. For the thermal lensing experiment the crystal in solution phase is incorporated with rhodamine 6G dye for enhancing the absorption of the crystal sample. The thermal diffusivity of lead di bromide is determined using the probe beam intensity v/s time measurements.

  12. A NEW SINGLE-CRYSTAL FILTERED THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Brockman; David W. Nigg; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2008-09-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron flux produced at the irradiation location is on the order of 9.5x108 neutrons/cm2-s, with a measured cadmium ratio (Au foils) of 105, indicating a well-thermalized spectrum.

  13. Crystallographic, electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties of single-crystal SrCo2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Abhishek; Quirinale, D. G.; Jayasekara, W.; ...

    2013-07-01

    In tetragonal SrCo2As2 single crystals, inelastic neutron scattering measurements demonstrated that strong stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations occur at a temperature T = 5 K [W. Jayasekara et al., arXiv:1306.5174] that are the same as in the isostructural AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) parent compounds of high-Tc superconductors. This surprising discovery suggests that SrCo2As2 may also be a good parent compound for high-Tc superconductivity. Here, structural and thermal expansion, electrical resistivity ρ, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), heat capacity Cp, magnetic susceptibility χ, 75As NMR and neutron diffraction measurements of SrCo2As2 crystals are reported together with LDA band structure calculations thatmore » shed further light on this fascinating material. The c-axis thermal expansion coefficient αc is negative from 7 to 300 K, whereas αa is positive over this T range. The ρ(T) shows metallic character. The ARPES measurements and band theory confirm the metallic character and in addition show the presence of a flat band near the Fermi energy EF. The band calculations exhibit an extremely sharp peak in the density of states D(EF) arising from a flat dx2-y2 band. A comparison of the Sommerfeld coefficient of the electronic specific heat with χ(T → 0) suggests the presence of strong ferromagnetic itinerant spin correlations which on the basis of the Stoner criterion predicts that SrCo2As2 should be an itinerant ferromagnet, in conflict with the magnetization data. The χ(T) does have a large magnitude, but also exhibits a broad maximum at 115 K suggestive of dynamic short-range AFM spin correlations, in agreement with the neutron scattering data. The measurements show no evidence for any type of phase transition between 1.3 and 300 K and we propose that metallic SrCo2As2 has a gapless quantum spin-liquid ground state.« less

  14. Growth, spectral, thermal, optical, mechanical and etching studies of L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, V.; Renuka, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-02-01

    Organic nonlinear optical material, L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals were grown by slow cooling solution growth technique. The crystal system of grown L-LSM was confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyzes. Functional groups of the grown crystal have been identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectral analysis. The proton and carbon NMR spectral studies confirm the presence of hydrogen and carbon in the grown L-LSM. The melting and thermal decomposition temperatures of the crystal were determined using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Optical transparency, second harmonic generation efficiency, micro hardness, dielectric constant and loss, refractive index and birefringence have also been measured. Further, the growth patterns and dislocations present in the grown crystal are studied.

  15. Thermal Degradation of Single Crystal Zinc Oxide and the Growth of Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, K. G.; Tan, G. L.; Hassan, Z.; Yam, F. K.; Ng, S. S.

    2010-07-07

    Heat treatment of (0001) single crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) seems to degrade the surface morphology at high temperature. The degradation, however, does not suppress the growth of ZnO nanostructures on selective regions of the single crystal ZnO that have been sputtered with metallic zinc (Zn) and annealed at 800 degree sign C. On the uncoated regions, no growth occurs but the presence of pits suggests material loss from the surface. The formation of ZnO nanostructures on the selective regions could be aided by the preferential loss of oxygen as well as zinc suboxides from the uncoated regions. Indirect evidence of the role of oxygen and zinc suboxides can be inferred from the formation of nickel zinc oxide Ni{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}O and nickel oxide NiO{sub 2} when Zn is replaced by Ni and annealed under similar conditions.

  16. Growth, optical, thermal and mechanical studies of methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Gunasekaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2003-08-01

    Bulk single crystals of methyl 4-hydroxy benzoate have been successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The grown crystals have been subjected to spectroscopic studies like FT-IR and FT-Raman. The hardness of the crystal was measured by Vicker's microhardness tester. The lattice parameters have been calculated by X-ray diffraction technique and the values are in good agreement with the reported JCPDS file.

  17. Spectral Performance of a Composite Single-Crystal Filtered Thermal Neutron Beam for BNCT Research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    J. Brockman; D. W. Nigg; M. F. Hawthorne; C. McKibben

    2009-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron fluxes produced at the irradiation location are 9.6x108 and 8.8x108 neutrons/cm2-s, respectively. Calculated and measured cadmium ratios (Au foils) are 217 and 132. These results indicate a well-thermalized neutron spectrum with sufficient thermal neutron flux for a variety of small animal BNCT studies.

  18. Correlation between thermal fluctuation effects and phase coherence factor in carrier transport of single-crystal organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Tatsuya; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Uemura, Takafumi; Sakai, Kenichi; Okada, Yugo; Takeya, Jun; Hirose, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    We find that the phase coherence factor derived from Hall effect measurements of single-crystal thin-film field-effect transistors of pentacene, which relates the intrinsic charge transport with the phase coherence, has a strong correlation with the thermal fluctuations of transfer energies between neighboring molecules. This observation also holds true for other organic semiconductors such as tetracene, dianthrathiophene (DAT)-V, and dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT). This gives us clues for constructing flexible molecular systems with high carrier mobility.

  19. New thermal-neutron solid-state electronic detector based on HgI/sub 2/ single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Melamud, M.; Burshtein, Z.; Levi, A.; Schieber, M.M.

    1983-08-01

    The use of HgI/sub 2/ as a thermal-neutron solid-state electronic detector, in particular its application for neutron diffractometry, is demonstrated for the first time. A single crystal HgI/sub 2/ detector is used to count prompt gamma emissions (0.2--5 MeV) from (n,..gamma..) nuclear reactions in Gd or Cd foils. The neutron counting efficiency depends on the HgI/sub 2/ detector thickness. For a 1-mm thickness of HgI/sub 2/ the efficiency is about 10% compared to the efficiency of a /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ gas detector.

  20. Growth, structural, spectral, optical, and thermal studies on amino acid based new NLO single crystal: L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Prakash, M; Lydia Caroline, M; Geetha, D

    2013-05-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPAPN) belonging to the amino acid group has been successfully grown by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional group and molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectrum. Thermal strength of the grown crystal has been studied using TG-DTA analyses. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  1. Growth, structural, spectral, optical, and thermal studies on amino acid based new NLO single crystal: L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Lydia Caroline, M.; Geetha, D.

    2013-05-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical single crystal, L-phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPAPN) belonging to the amino acid group has been successfully grown by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional group and molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectrum. Thermal strength of the grown crystal has been studied using TG-DTA analyses. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  2. Investigation on growth, structural, optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of organic L-prolinium trichloroacetate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: L-Prolinium trichloroacetate is an organic nonlinear optical crystal has been grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that L-PTCA crystallizes in trigonal crystal system. The optical band gab is found to be 4.26 eV. Second harmonic conversion efficiency of L-PTCA has been found to be half that of KDP. Highlights: ► It deals with the synthesis, growth and characterization of L-PTCA an organic NLO crystal. ► Wide optical transparency window between 260 nm and 1100 nm. ► Thermal study reveals that the grown crystal is stable up to 127 °C. ► L-PTCA crystal exhibits the second order nonlinear optical properties. -- Abstract: A new organic nonlinear optical material L-prolinium trichloroacetate (L-PTCA) single crystal has been synthesized and grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature using water as solvent. Single-crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameters and to confirm lattice parameter. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown L-PTCA has been indexed. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in the sample were identified by the FTIR spectral analysis. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength of the L-PTCA have been identified by UV–vis–NIR studies. Thermal stability of the L-prolinium trichloroacetate was determined by TGA/DTA measurements. Dielectric measurements were carried out at various temperatures at frequency range 10–1 MHz. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been analyzed by Vickers microhardness method. The chemical etching studies were carried out on the grown crystals. Its SHG efficiency has been tested by Kurtz powder method.

  3. Application of ZnO single-crystal wire grown by the thermal evaporation method as a chemical gas sensor for hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Park, N K; Lee, S Y; Lee, T J

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide single-crystal wire was synthesized for application as a gas-sensing material for hydrogen sulfide, and its gas-sensing properties were investigated in this study. The gas sensor consisted of a ZnO thin film as the buffer layer and a ZnO single-crystal wire. The ZnO thin film was deposited over a patterning silicon substrate with a gold electrode by the CFR method. The ZnO single-crystal wire was synthesized over the ZnO thin film using zinc and activated carbon as the precursor for the thermal evaporation method at 800 degrees C. The electrical properties of the gas sensors that were prepared for the growth of ZnO single-crystal wire varied with the amount of zinc contained in the precursor. The charged current on the gas sensors increased with the increasing amount of zinc in the precursor. It was concluded that the charged current on the gas sensors was related to ZnO single-crystal wire growth on the silicon substrate area between the two electrodes. The charged current on the gas sensor was enhanced when the ZnO single-crystal wire was exposed to a H2S stream. The experimental results obtained in this study confirmed that a ZnO single-crystal wire can be used as a gas sensor for H2S.

  4. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 - triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna21. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  5. Single-crystal sapphire resonator at millikelvin temperatures: Observation of thermal bistability in high- Q factor whispering gallery modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Duty, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire (α-Al2O3) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q factors ( ≈109 at 4 K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the cool down of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid-helium temperature (1.6 K) to as low as 25 mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterized at microwave frequencies, and we report the observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material T3 dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultralow dielectric loss tangent. We identify “magic temperatures” between 80 and 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultrastable clock applications, including the possible realization of the quantum-limited sapphire clock.

  6. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  7. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  8. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of an organic Urea maleic acid single crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinothkumar, P.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.; Bhaskaran, A.

    2016-07-01

    A potential organic urea maleic acid (UMA) was synthesized and single crystals were grown at room temperature by slow evaporation and seed rotation methods. The grown crystal has been subjected to single crystal XRD analysis and found to have been crystallized in a noncentrosymmetric monoclinic crystal system with Cc as space group. The High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the specimen is free from structural grain boundaries. The transparency of the grown crystal was confirmed by optical absorption and transmittance spectra with lower cut-off wavelength of 285 nm. The microhardness test was carried out on different planes to study the load dependent hardness values. The dislocation density of the UMA crystal was estimated from the etching studies. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of the grown crystal was carried out as a function of frequency for different temperatures along three crystallographic axes. Thermal properties of UMA crystals were studied by TG-DTA analysis and it is stable upto 112 °C. The laser induced surface damage threshold of the grown crystal was measured using Nd: YAG laser. The birefringence of the crystal measured in the visible region was found to vary with the wavelength. The particle size dependent SHG of the sample was measured with different input energies by Kurtz's powder method using Nd:YAG laser.

  9. Growth, thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid: A nonlinear optical single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvan, S.; Vimalan, M.; Vetha Potheher, I.; Rajasekar, S.; Jeyasekaran, R.; Antony Arockiaraj, M.; Madhavan, J.

    2013-10-01

    An efficient amino acid family nonlinear optical single crystal L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid (LPB) was conveniently grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystal system and the lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The grown crystal has excellent transmission in the entire visible region and its lower cut-off wavelength was found to be 248 nm. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was found to be 1.6 times higher than that of KDP crystal. The Laser damage threshold value of LPB has been found to be 6.5 GW/cm2. The sample was thermally stable up to 134 °C. Microhardness, dielectric and AC/DC conductivity measurements were made along (0 0 1) plane and reported for the first time. Microhardness studies revealed that the sample belongs to hard nature. Frequency dependent dielectric constant was measured for different temperatures and found maximum dielectric constant of 14 for 363 K. Photoconductivity studies of LPB divulged its negative photoconducting nature.

  10. Growth, thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid: a nonlinear optical single crystal.

    PubMed

    Tamilselvan, S; Vimalan, M; Potheher, I Vetha; Rajasekar, S; Jeyasekaran, R; Arockiaraj, M Antony; Madhavan, J

    2013-10-01

    An efficient amino acid family nonlinear optical single crystal L-phenylalanine-benzoic acid (LPB) was conveniently grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystal system and the lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The grown crystal has excellent transmission in the entire visible region and its lower cut-off wavelength was found to be 248 nm. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was found to be 1.6 times higher than that of KDP crystal. The Laser damage threshold value of LPB has been found to be 6.5 GW/cm(2). The sample was thermally stable up to 134°C. Microhardness, dielectric and AC/DC conductivity measurements were made along (001) plane and reported for the first time. Microhardness studies revealed that the sample belongs to hard nature. Frequency dependent dielectric constant was measured for different temperatures and found maximum dielectric constant of 14 for 363 K. Photoconductivity studies of LPB divulged its negative photoconducting nature.

  11. Synthesis, structure, spectral, thermal and first-order molecular hyperpolarizability of 4-benzoylpyridine isonicotinyl hydrazone monohydrate single crystals.

    PubMed

    Meenatchi, V; Muthu, K; Rajasekar, M; Meenakshisundaram, S P

    2014-04-24

    Single crystals of 4-benzoylpyridine isonicotinyl hydrazone monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from ethanol at room temperature. It belongs to triclinic system with space group P1¯ and the cell parameters are, a=8.9250(2) Å, b=9.1540(2) Å, c=10.87500(10) Å and V=797.88(3) Å(3). Powder XRD closely resembles with that of simulated pattern from single crystal XRD. The characteristic functional groups present in the molecule are confirmed by FT-IR and FT-Raman analyses. The crystal is transparent in the visible region having a lower optical cut-off at ∼420 nm and the band gap energies are estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm. Thermal analysis by TG/DTA indicates the stability of the material. The scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the surface morphology of the as-grown crystal. Mass spectrometry provides information pertaining to the structure and molecular weight of the compound. Theoretical calculations were performed using Hartree-Fock method with 6-31G(d,p) as the basis set for to derive the optimized geometry, dipole moment and first-order molecular hyperpolarizality (β) values.

  12. Magnetic and Thermal Properties of TmV2Al20 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qiankun; Namiki, Takahiro; Isikawa, Yosikazu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Hutchison, Wayne D.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetization and specific heat of TmV2Al20 single crystals were measured in the temperature range from 0.5 to 300 K in external magnetic fields up to 7 T. TmV2Al20 was found to be paramagnetic above 0.5 K. Clear magnetic anisotropy was observed along the three principal crystallographic axes in the field above 1 T at 0.5 K. The magnetically easy axis is along the [100] direction, and the hard axis is along the [111] direction. On cooling below 2 K in zero external field, the magnetic part of specific heat divided by temperature, Cmag/T, increases up to 6 J/mol K2 near 0.6 K. The magnetic entropy in zero field reaches R ln 5 near 10 K, suggesting that the ground state of Tm3+ ions is a nonmagnetic doublet state with the first excited state of a magnetic triplet state nearby (a pseudo-fivefold degenerate state). The experimental results were reproduced by the crystalline electric field calculations, and an energy level scheme was proposed. The enhanced value of Cmag/T in the lowest temperature region in zero field was explained by assuming an energy splitting of the doublet ground state.

  13. Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ba1- x R x F2 + x ( R = La, Ce, Nd, or Gd) solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, P. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Konyushkin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ba1- x R x F2 + x ( R = La, Ce, Nd, or Gd) solid solutions has been experimentally investigated in the temperature range of 50-300 K. With an increase in the content of rare-earth elements, the thermal-conductivity behavior in these series changes from that characteristic of defect single crystals to the behavior typical of glasslike materials. The thermal-conductivity concentration dependences are almost identical, which can be explained by the same type of defect clusters arising upon heterovalent ion substitution.

  14. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Rao, Shailaja P.; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2017-02-28

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  15. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T; Rao, Shailaja P; Gibb, Shawn Robert; Schowalter, Leo J

    2015-05-12

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  16. Thermal analysis of Bridgman-Stockbarger growth. [mercury cadmium telluride single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopf, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    A thermal analysis of a cylindrical HgCdTe sample in a Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth configuration was conducted with emphasis on the thermal profile, interface shape and position, and the thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface. Alloys of HgTe and CdTe with compositions approximating 20 percent CdTe, 80 percent HgTe were used. This composition results in a bandgap suited for the detection of 10.6 micron CO2 radiation. The sensitivity of the sample thermal characteristics to important growth parameters, such as thermal diffusivities, thermal conductivities, furnace temperature profile, ampoule dimensions, and growth velocity was assessed. Numerical techniques and associated computational models necessary to analyze the heat transfer process within the sample and the Bridgman-Stockbarger boundary conditions were developed. This thermal analysis mode was programmed in FORTRAN V, and is currently operational on the MSFC Univac 1100 system.

  17. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of pure doped RAgSb2 (R = Y, Sm, La) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bud'ko, S.; Law, S.; Canfield, P.; Samolyuk, G.; Torikachvili, M.; Schmiedeshoff, G.

    2008-02-20

    Data on temperature-dependent, anisotropic thermal expansion in pure and doped RAgSb{sub 2} (R = Y, Sm, La) single crystals are presented. Using the Ehrenfest relation and heat capacity measurements, uniaxial pressure derivatives for long range magnetic ordering and charge density wave transition temperatures are evaluated and compared with the results of the direct measurements under hydrostatic pressure. In-plane and c-axis pressure have opposite effects on the phase transitions in these materials, with in-plane effects being significantly weaker. Quantum oscillations in magnetostriction were observed for the three pure compounds, with the possible detection of new frequencies in SmAgSb{sub 2} and LaAgSb{sub 2}. The uniaxial (along the c-axis) pressure derivatives of the dominant extreme orbits ({beta}) were evaluated for YAgSb{sub 2} and LaAgSb{sub 2}.

  18. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of pure and doped RAgSb(2) (R = Y, Sm, La) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Bud'ko, S L; Law, S A; Canfield, P C; Samolyuk, G D; Torikachvili, M S; Schmiedeshoff, G M

    2008-03-19

    Data on temperature-dependent, anisotropic thermal expansion in pure and doped RAgSb(2) (R = Y, Sm, La) single crystals are presented. Using the Ehrenfest relation and heat capacity measurements, uniaxial pressure derivatives for long range magnetic ordering and charge density wave transition temperatures are evaluated and compared with the results of the direct measurements under hydrostatic pressure. In-plane and c-axis pressure have opposite effects on the phase transitions in these materials, with in-plane effects being significantly weaker. Quantum oscillations in magnetostriction were observed for the three pure compounds, with the possible detection of new frequencies in SmAgSb(2) and LaAgSb(2). The uniaxial (along the c-axis) pressure derivatives of the dominant extreme orbits (β) were evaluated for YAgSb(2) and LaAgSb(2).

  19. Thermal, mechanical, electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties of a nonlinear optical L-ornithine monohydrochloride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, S.; Pari, S.; Joseph, Ginson P.; Sagayaraj, P.; Madhavan, J.

    2009-08-01

    Optically transparent semiorganic nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-ornithine monohydrochloride (LOMHCL) of dimension 11×3×2 mm 3 has been grown from its aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystal was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction to confirm the crystal structure. Investigation has been carried out to assign the vibrational frequencies of the grown crystals by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. Thermal behavior of the grown crystals was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of LOMHCL was determined by Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The optical absorption study confirms the suitability of the crystal for device applications. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers microhardness tester. Dielectric and photoconductivity studies are also carried out for the grown samples.

  20. Thermoelectric thermal detectors based on ultra-thin heavily doped single-crystal silicon membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Timofeev, Andrey V.; Shchepetov, Andrey; Grigoras, Kestutis; Hassel, Juha; Ahopelto, Jouni; Ylilammi, Markku; Prunnila, Mika

    2017-06-01

    We present thermal detectors based on 40 nm-thick strain tuned single crystalline silicon membranes shaped into a heater area supported by narrow n- and p-doped beams, which also operate as a thermocouple. The electro-thermal characterization of the devices reveals a noise equivalent power of 13 pW/Hz1/2 and a thermal time constant of 2.5 ms. The high sensitivity of the devices is due to the high Seebeck coefficient of 0.39 mV/K and reduction of thermal conductivity of the Si beams from the bulk value. The performance enables fast and sensitive detection of low levels of thermal power and infrared radiation at room temperature. The devices operate in the Johnson-Nyquist noise limit of the thermocouple, and the performance improvement towards the operation close to the temperature fluctuation limit is discussed.

  1. Effect of position of nitrogen in pyridine ring on structural, optical and thermal properties of chalcone single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Anthoni Praveen; Jayarama, A.

    2015-06-01

    Crystals are unacknowledged pillars of the world of contemporary technology. Single crystals of a set of three chalcone derivatives, 1-(pyridin-2-yl)-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (C1), 1-(pyridin-3-yl)-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (C2) and 1-(pyridin-4-yl)-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (C3) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The thermal analysis reveals that the chalcone derivatives possess good thermal and chemical stability. Crystal C1 is nonlinear optically (NLO) active with SHG efficiency of 0.7 times that of KDP. The position of nitrogen in the pyridine ring has a significant effect on thermal, structural and NLO properties of these materials. The UV-Visible spectrum discloses that the crystals have adequate transmission in the entire visible region. Due to good thermal stability, optical transparency and SHG response, crystal C1 is an useful candidate for NLO applications such as frequency doubling down to 433 nm.

  2. Synthesis, growth and spectral, optical and thermal characterization studies on L-Tryptophan p-nitrophenol (LTPN) single crystals for NLO applications.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P; Janarthanan, S; Sugaraj Samuel, R; Jestin Lenus, A; Shanthi, C

    2015-01-25

    The novel nonlinear optical single crystal of L-Tryptophan p-nitrophenol (LTPN) has been successfully synthesized by taking the appropriate amount of L-Tryptophan and p-nitrophenol. The single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single crystal XRD studies confirmed that the grown crystal belongs to the monoclinic system. The various functional groups presented in the crystal were confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies. The absorptions of the grown crystals were analyzed using UV-Vis-NIR spectral studies. The thermal analysis was performed to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation behavior of L-Tryptophan p-nitrophenol crystal was tested by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  3. Thermal and Electrical Conduction of Single-crystal Bi2Te3 Nanostructures grown using a one step process

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dambi; Park, Sungjin; Jeong, Kwangsik; Jeong, Hong-Sik; Song, Jea Yong; Cho, Mann–Ho

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) and nanoribbons (NRs) were synthesized by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method from Bi2Te3 powder. To investigate the thermal properties of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure, a nondestructive technique based on temperature dependent Raman mapping was carried out. The Raman peaks were red shifted with increasing temperature. In addition, the fraction of the laser power absorbed inside the Bi2Te3 nanostructures was estimated by optical simulation and used to calculate the thermal conductivity value (κ). The thermal conductivity value obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR was 1.47 Wm−1K−1 and 1.81 Wm−1K−1 at 300 K, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure was also measured. In particular, an excellent electrical conductivity value of 1.22 * 103 Ω−1 cm−1 was obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW at 300 K. This result can be attributed to topological insulator surface states. As a result of our study, the figure of merit (ZT) for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR can be significantly improved. PMID:26750563

  4. Thermal and Electrical Conduction of Single-crystal Bi2Te3 Nanostructures grown using a one step process.

    PubMed

    Park, Dambi; Park, Sungjin; Jeong, Kwangsik; Jeong, Hong-Sik; Song, Jea Yong; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-01-11

    Single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) and nanoribbons (NRs) were synthesized by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method from Bi2Te3 powder. To investigate the thermal properties of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure, a nondestructive technique based on temperature dependent Raman mapping was carried out. The Raman peaks were red shifted with increasing temperature. In addition, the fraction of the laser power absorbed inside the Bi2Te3 nanostructures was estimated by optical simulation and used to calculate the thermal conductivity value (κ). The thermal conductivity value obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR was 1.47 Wm(-1)K(-1) and 1.81 Wm(-1)K(-1) at 300 K, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure was also measured. In particular, an excellent electrical conductivity value of 1.22 * 10(3 )Ω(-1) cm(-1) was obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW at 300 K. This result can be attributed to topological insulator surface states. As a result of our study, the figure of merit (ZT) for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR can be significantly improved.

  5. Thermal and fast neutron detection in chemical vapor deposition single-crystal diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Lattanzi, D.; Pillon, M.; Montereali, R. M.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, a compact solid-state neutron detector capable of simultaneously detecting thermal and fast neutrons was proposed [M. Marinelli et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143509 (2006)]. Its design is based on a p-type/intrinsic/metal layered structure obtained by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of homoepitaxial diamond followed by thermal evaporation of an Al contact and a {sup 6}LiF converting layer. Fast neutrons are directly detected in the CVD diamond bulk, since they have enough energy to produce the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be reaction in diamond. Thermal neutrons are instead converted into charged particles in the {sup 6}LiF layer through the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T nuclear reaction. These charged particles are then detected in the diamond layer. The thickness of the {sup 6}LiF converting layer and the CVD diamond sensing layer affect the counting efficiency and energy resolution of the detector both for low- (thermal) and high-energy neutrons. An analysis is carried out on the dynamics of the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T and the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be reactions products, and the distribution of the energy released inside the sensitive layer is calculated. The detector counting efficiency and energy resolution were accordingly derived as a function of the thickness of the {sup 6}LiF and CVD diamond layers, both for thermal and fast neutrons, thus allowing us to choose the optimum detector design for any particular application. Comparison with experimental results is also reported.

  6. Theoretical determination of anisotropic thermal conductivity for initially defect-free and defective TATB single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropic thermal conductivity was determined for initially defect-free and defective crystals of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), a material that exhibits a graphitic-like packing structure with stacked single-molecule-thick layers, using the reverse non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method and an established TATB molecular dynamics force field. Thermal conduction in TATB is predicted to be substantially higher and more anisotropic than in other related organic molecular explosives, with conduction along directions nominally in the plane of the molecular layers at least 68% greater than conduction along the direction exactly perpendicular to the layers. Finite-size effects along the conduction directions were assessed. The conductivity along directions nominally in the plane of the molecular layers was found to be insensitive to the supercell length along the conduction direction—a result commensurate with the estimated phonon mean free path, ˜6 Å. A small decrease in the conductivity normal to the layers was found for longer supercells and is likely due to increased phonon scattering as a result of dynamic structural transitions in the crystal. The thermal conductivity of TATB crystals containing vacancy defects was also determined and the variation of conductivity with crystal density was found to be both linear and anisotropic, with the introduction of vacancy defects leading to a greater percentage reduction in conduction for the direction perpendicular to the molecular layers.

  7. Theoretical determination of anisotropic thermal conductivity for initially defect-free and defective TATB single crystals.

    PubMed

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Sewell, Thomas D

    2014-11-14

    The anisotropic thermal conductivity was determined for initially defect-free and defective crystals of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), a material that exhibits a graphitic-like packing structure with stacked single-molecule-thick layers, using the reverse non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method and an established TATB molecular dynamics force field. Thermal conduction in TATB is predicted to be substantially higher and more anisotropic than in other related organic molecular explosives, with conduction along directions nominally in the plane of the molecular layers at least 68% greater than conduction along the direction exactly perpendicular to the layers. Finite-size effects along the conduction directions were assessed. The conductivity along directions nominally in the plane of the molecular layers was found to be insensitive to the supercell length along the conduction direction-a result commensurate with the estimated phonon mean free path, ∼6 Å. A small decrease in the conductivity normal to the layers was found for longer supercells and is likely due to increased phonon scattering as a result of dynamic structural transitions in the crystal. The thermal conductivity of TATB crystals containing vacancy defects was also determined and the variation of conductivity with crystal density was found to be both linear and anisotropic, with the introduction of vacancy defects leading to a greater percentage reduction in conduction for the direction perpendicular to the molecular layers.

  8. The growth of ZnWO{sub 4} and CdWO{sub 4} single crystals from melt by the low thermal gradient Czochralski technique

    SciTech Connect

    Galashov, E. N.; Gusev, V. A.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

    2009-07-15

    The features of growth of single crystals of cadmium and zinc tungstates by the low thermal gradient Czochralski technique have been investigated. The effect of change in the growth conditions on the crystal morphology and the capture of macroinclusions is studied. Crystals 45 mm in diameter and up to 150 mm long (cylindrical part) are obtained. Their optical and scintillation characteristics are measured.

  9. Solubility, thermal, photoconductivity and laser damage threshold studies on L-serine acetate (LSA) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, K.; Thayanithi, V.; Mani, A.; Amudha, M.; Kumar, P. Praveen

    2015-06-01

    L-serine acetate crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility of L-Serine Acetate was determined at different temperatures. L-Serine Acetate was characterized by SEM is to identify the morphology of the crystal. TG and DTA study reveals the thermal stability of the grown crystal. Dielectric measurement was carried out for different temperature ranges. Photo conductivity study revealed the nature of conductivity of the crystal under halogen light. Laser damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser source. NLO property of the crystal is confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  10. Structural, vibrational, thermal and optical studies of organic single crystal: Benzotriazolium p-toluene sulfonate (BTPTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R. Ramesh; Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-05-06

    Benzotriazolium p-toluene sulfonate (BTPTS) was grown by solution growth technique. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to evaluate crystal system of the compound. LeBail Profile fitting analysis was performed to extract the individual peak intensities. FTIR spectrum analysis was recorded to study vibration frequencies of the prepared organic salt. Thermal studies were carried out using TG-DSC analysis. Optical absorption and energy band gap of the title compound was evaluated by UV-Vis spectral study.

  11. Thermal oxidation of single-crystal silicon carbide - Kinetic, electrical, and chemical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petit, J. B.; Neudeck, P. G.; Matus, L. G.; Powell, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents kinetic data from oxidation studies of the polar faces for 3C and 6H SiC in wet and dry oxidizing ambients. Values for the linear and parabolic rate constants were obtained, as well as preliminary results for the activation energies of the rate constants. Examples are presented describing how thermal oxidation can be used to map polytypes and characterize defects in epitaxial layers grown on low tilt angle 6H SiC substrates. Interface widths were measured using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with Ar ion beam depth profiling and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) with effective medium approximation (EMA) models. Preliminary electrical measurements of MOS capacitors are also presented.

  12. Significant Gas Adsorption and Catalytic Performance by a Robust Cu(II) -MOF Derived through Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Transmetalation of a Thermally Less-Stable Zn(II) -MOF.

    PubMed

    Pal, Tapan K; De, Dinesh; Neogi, Subhadip; Pachfule, Pradip; Senthilkumar, S; Xu, Qiang; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2015-12-21

    By using a bent tetracarboxylic acid ligand that incorporates a pendent-NH2 functional group, a 3D Zn(II)-framework (1) based on Zn2 (CO2)4 secondary building units and Zn12 (CO2)24 supramolecular building blocks has been synthesized. Framework 1 is thermally less stable, which precludes its application as a porous framework for gas adsorption or catalytic studies. This framework undergoes single-crystal to single-crystal transmetalation to give isostructural 1Cu. Unlike 1, the Cu(II) analogue is very stable and can be activated by removing metal-bound lattice solvent molecules by heating to afford 1Cu'. The activated 1Cu' exhibits excellent H2 storage (2.29 wt%) at 77 K and a high 32.1 wt% CO2 uptake at 273 K. Additionally, it displays significant selectivity for CO2 adsorption over N2 and H2 and can catalyse size-selective Knoevenagel condensation reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  14. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of an organic single crystal: Quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohana, J.; Ahila, G.; Bharathi, M. Divya; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Organic single crystals of quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (QN) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol and water as a mixed solvent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. The functional groups present in the crystallized material confirmed its molecular structure. The optical transparency range and the lower cutoff wavelength were identified from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants were determined by UV-visible transmission spectrum at normal incidence, measured over the 200-700 nm spectral range. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occur within the molecule. Electronic excitation properties were discussed within the framework of two level model on the basis of an orbital analysis. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) of QN was measured by Z-scan technique and reported here. Thermal stability of QN was determined using TGA/DSC curves. Vicker's microhardness studies were carried out on the (1 1 ̅0) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The microhardness measurements showed a Vickers hardness value as 18.4 kg/mm2 which is comparable to well-known organic crystal, urea.

  15. Thermally activated flux flow in FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconducting single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, R. M.; Kayed, T. S.; Kunwar, S.; Ziq, Kh A.

    2017-07-01

    The current-voltage (J-E) isotherms of single crystal FeSe0.5Te0.5 sample have been measured at several temperatures near the transition temperature (Tc) and under applied magnetic fields (H). A power law (E ˜ Jβ ) has been used to fit the data and evaluate the activation energy Uo (T) using β = Uo/kBT. At low current density (J << Jc), the initial behaviour is associated with thermally activated flux Flow (TAFF) while at J >> Jc vortex flux flow (FF) behavior is expected. The effects of applied magnetic field on FF and TAFF also been investigated. We found that Uo(FF) was reduced with by about an order of magnitude in magnetic fields as low as ˜1.5 Tesla-the reduction in Uo(TAFF) is even faster than in Uo(FF)-hence reflecting the low pinning nature (defects, vacancies etc.) of FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconductor.

  16. Growth, structural, spectral, mechanical, thermal and dielectric characterization of phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, A. S. J. Lucia; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

    2011-10-01

    Phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 18 mm × 12 mm × 8 mm have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colorless and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV-visible transmittance spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied.

  17. Growth, structural, spectral, mechanical, thermal and dielectric characterization of phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Rose, A S J Lucia; Selvarajan, P; Perumal, S

    2011-10-15

    Phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 18 mm×12 mm×8 mm have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colorless and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV-visible transmittance spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied.

  18. Thermal chemistry of copper(I)-N,N '-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Qiang; Zaera, Francisco; Gordon, Roy G.

    2012-01-15

    The surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces has been characterized under ultrahigh vacuum by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A series of thermal stepwise conversions were identified, starting with the partial dissociative adsorption of the copper acetamidinate dimers into a mixture of monomers and dimers on the surface. An early dissociation of a C-N bond leads to the production of N-sec-butylacetamidine, which is detected in TPD experiments in three temperature regimes, the last one centered around 480 K. Butene, and a small amount of butane, is also detected above approximately 500 K, and hydrogen production, an indication of dehydrogenation of surface fragments, is observed at 460, 550 and 670 K. In total, only about 10% of the initial copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate adsorbed monolayer decomposes, and only about {approx}3% of carbon is left behind on the surface after heating to high temperatures. The implications of this surface chemistry to the design of chemical film growth processes using copper acetamidinates as precursors are discussed.

  19. Investigation of magnetic, thermal and hyperfine properties of Tb 3+ in the single crystal of terbium trifluoromethanesulfonate nonahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogy, D.; Paul, P.; Chattopadhyay, K. N.

    2004-12-01

    The single crystals of terbium trifluoromethanesulfonate nonahydrates Tb(CF3SO3)3·9H2O (TbTFMS) were grown and the principal magnetic susceptibilities measured from 300 K down to 13 K, for external field orientations both parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis which is the symmetry axis of this hexagonal crystal. The non-Kramers ion Tb3+ occupies a site of C3h symmetry in this uniaxial crystal. The principal magnetic susceptibilities, observed by us and the Friedberg group, over the range of temperature, 300 down to ∼1.0 K, are explained very well by the theoretical expressions of susceptibility obtained from the crystal field perturbed J-mixed eigenvectors with due consideration of the intermediate coupling effects. No noticeable ordering effects were observed down to ∼13 K; this indicates the interionic interactions to be weak, being predominantly of the dipolar type, which is consistent with the detection of a ferromagnetic transition at T ∼ 0.24 K by the Friedberg group. The g-values derived from other sources are also reasonably accounted for. The crystal field energy level structure predicts a Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity at around 0.23 K, which agrees well with that observed by Friedberg et al.; another Schottky peak appears at around 48 K. One interesting aspect of the present analysis is that almost all the principal features of the magnetic, thermal and optical properties of TbTFMS at high temperatures as well as liquid helium temperatures could be explained quite satisfactorily with a single CF alone. Present analysis also suggests that two singlets lie lowest whose separation is 0.37 cm-1; this profoundly influences the magnetic and thermal properties. The interaction of the nuclear spin with the electric field gradient and the hyperfine magnetic field has also been discussed.

  20. Adsorption and thermal chemistry of formic acid on clean and oxygen-predosed Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunxi; Zaera, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The thermal chemistry of formic acid on clean and oxygen-predosed Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Key results reported in the past were confirmed, including the partial switchover from H2 to H2O desorption upon oxygen addition on the surface and the development of a second decomposition regime at 420 K, in addition to the one observed at 460 K on the clean substrate. In addition, new observations were added, including the previously missed desorption of H2 at 420 K and the existence of a normal kinetic isotope effect in both TPD peaks. Peak fitting of the XPS data afforded the identification of an asymmetric geometry for the formate intermediate, which was established to form by 200 K, and the presence of coadsorbed molecular formic acid up to the temperatures of decomposition, probably in a second layer and held by hydrogen bonding. Quantitative analysis of the TPD data indicated a one-to-one correspondence between the increase in oxygen coverage beyond θO = 0.5 ML and a decrease in formic acid uptake that mainly manifests itself in a decrease in the decomposition seen in the 460 K TPD peak. All these observations were interpreted in terms of a simple decomposition mechanism involving hydrogen abstraction from adsorbed formate species, possibly aided by coadsorbed oxygen, and a change in reaction activation energy as a function of the structure of the oxygen overlayer, which reverts from a O-c(6 × 2) structure at high oxygen coverages to the O-(2 × 1) order seen at θO = 0.5 ML.

  1. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals. [Synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Thermal chemistry of hydrazine on clean and oxygen- and water-predosed Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunxi; Zaera, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    The chemistry of hydrazine on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces was probed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Survey TPD experiments identified molecular nitrogen and ammonia as the main desorbing products from thermal activation of the adsorbate, but small amounts of diazene and NH2· radicals were also detected. At saturation coverage, N2 production leads NH3 desorption by approximately 10 K (with TPD peaks at 350 K versus 360 K, respectively), indicating a preference for dehydrogenation over N-N bond scission steps, and additional nitrogen was seen at even lower temperatures (320 K) in experiments starting with even higher doses of hydrazine. On the other hand, the formation of NH3 and NH2·, which desorb in a wide range of temperatures between approximately 300 K and 700 K, dominates in experiments with low N2H4 doses, presumably because a stronger interaction of the N-N bond with the metal in the flat adsorption geometry expected at such low coverages. Dosing at room temperature seems to also facilitate the dissociative adsorption, albeit via dehydrogenation steps that lead to the subsequent production of more significant amounts of diazene and of molecular hydrogen (in addition to N2, NH3, and NH2·). Preadsorption of oxygen on the Cu(110) surface helps stabilize the hydrazine, increasing its desorption temperature and helping with the low-temperature (320 K) production of N2. Coadsorption of hydrazine with water leads to facile proton exchange, as indicated by the production of NH2D in TPD experiments with N2H4 + D2O. This isotope scrambling must occur at cryogenic temperatures because all water desorbs from the surface below 200 K and no other changes in surface chemistry are observed after that. The implications of all this chemistry to practical applications that may use hydrazine in surface reactions with copper, including its use as a reducing agent in atomic layer

  3. How to derive robust thermal histories from 'over-dispersed' single crystal apatite (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. W.; Beucher, R.; Roper, S.; Gallagher, K.; Persano, C.; Stuart, F.

    2012-04-01

    The (U-Th)/He thermochronometry technique has revolutionised our ability to investigate low temperature processes within the shallow crust (e.g. Farley, 2002). It is now standard practice to analyse single grains rather than multigrain aliquots for a variety of reasons, but in many instances the single grain ages from a given sample are severely dispersed, and often uncorrelated with either grain size or U or Th content. This suggests that there must be another common cause of dispersion other than absolute grain size or differences in 4He diffusivity caused by radiation damage accumulation. Using a numerical model and a finite cylinder geometry to approximate 4He diffusion in apatite we show that much of the range of this 'over dispersion' is explained when broken grains are treated explicitly as fragments of larger grains. This situation is clearly indicated by the common occurrence of only 1 or no clear crystal terminations present on separated apatite grains. Here we show that the shape of the 4He distribution within an individual crystal is indeed inherent in the pattern of dispersion of individual fragment ages, and we describe and demonstrate a new inversion approach that exploits this information by modelling the single grain ages explicitly as fragments of larger grains to obtain robust constraints on a sample's thermal history. Our new approach yields similar thermal history constraints to those obtained from the single crystal 4He/3He technique (e.g. Shuster et al., 2005) with the added advantage that it does not require the analysis to be performed on whole crystals. The advantage of our new approach is that it can explicitly accommodate all the details of the current approach such as the effects of temporally variable diffusivity (e.g. radiation damage models), zonation of U and Th and arbitrary grain size variations, and it will work equally effectively for whole or broken crystals, or indeed the more likely situation where there is a mixture of both

  4. Thermal-independent properties of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal linear-array ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Ho Lam, Kwok; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PMNPT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, having a -6-dB bandwidth of 66% and an insertion loss of 37 dB. The results suggest that the potential of PIN-PMN-PT linear-array ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature ultrasonic transducer applications is promising.

  5. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of cytosinium hydrogen selenite: A novel nonlinear optical single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jaikumar, P.; Sathiskumar, S.; Balakrishnan, T.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Growth of bulk single crystals of cytosinium hydrogen selenite (CHS) is reported. • Dielectric constant of CHS is measured as a function of Frequency and temperature. • Lower cut off value of UV–vis-NIR spectrum of CHS crystal is observed at 210 nm. • Meyer’s index value of CHS crystal calculated identifies it as a soft material. • Powder SHG efficiency of CHS is about 1.5 times that of KDP crystal. - Abstract: A novel nonlinear optical single crystal of cytosinium hydrogen selenite was grown from aqueous solution of cytosinium hydrogen selenite by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. The structural properties of grown crystal have been studied by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of various functional groups was identified from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical transmittance and absorbance spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer and the grown crystal possesses good transparency in the entire visible region. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were calculated as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The mechanical strength of the cytosinium hydrogen selenite crystal was estimated using Vicker’s microhardness tester. Etch patterns of the cytosinium hydrogen selenite crystal were obtained using distilled water as etchant for different etching time. Second harmonic generation efficiency tested using Nd:YAG laser is about 1.5 times that of KDP.

  6. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  7. Study on growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of organic single crystal ethyl p-amino benzoate (EPAB) grown using vertical Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuraja, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ethyl p-aminobenzoate (EPAB) single crystal was grown using vertical Bridgman technique (VBT). The crystal system of grown crystal was identified, and lattice parameters have been measured from the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The optical transparency of EPAB single crystal was 55%, and the cut-off wavelength was found to be 337 nm. The thermal stability of EPAB single crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Etching studie were carried out for the grown crystal using different solvents, and etch pit density (EPD) was calculated and compared. Vickers microhardness (Hv) measurements revealed that EPAB belongs to the category of soft material. The dielectric studies reveal that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of grown crystal decreases with increasing frequency for various temperatures. The third-order nonlinear optical property of EPAB was investigated and compared with other organic crystals. The evaluation of third-order optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) have found to be in the range of 10-11 m2/W, 10-4 m/W and 10-5 esu respectively. The Laser damage threshold energy of EPAB was measured using Nd: YAG laser. The blue emission of the grown crystal was identified by photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements. The second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown EPAB crystal was confirmed by Kurtz powder technique.

  8. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  9. Mechanical and thermal transitions in morphotropic PZN-pT and PMN-PT single crystals and their implication for sound projectors.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Robinson, Harold; Ewart, Lynn

    2007-06-01

    Isothermal compression experiments on multidomain [001] oriented and poled ferroelectric rhombohedral PZN-0.07PT and PMN-0.30PT single crystals revealed elastic instabilities corresponding to zero field ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition under mechanical compression. The application of an appropriate dc bias field doubled the stability range of the ferroelectric rhombohedral state under uniaxial compression for both crystals and maintained a linear elastic response. Young's modulus as derived from the quasistatic, zero field stress-strain linear response agreed well with that derived from small signal resonance for the ferroelectric rhombohedral FR state of both PZN-PT and PMN-PT. Elastic compliances s(E)33 as determined from high temperature resonance revealed a monotonically decreasing Young's modulus as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric rhombohedral state with a sudden stiffening near the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric tetragonal (FT) transition. The reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition of morphotropic PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals as accessed by mechanical compression is discussed in terms of strain calculations from Devonshire's theory, domain unfolding, and morphotropic phase boundary shift with mechanical stress. The mechanically-induced and thermally-induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition trajectories are discussed in terms of the Devonshire theory. Implications of these observations for sound projectors are discussed. A single crystal tonpilz projector fabricated into a 16-element array and a segmented cylinder transducer demonstrated the outstanding capabilities of single crystals to achieve compact, broadband, and high-source level projectors when compared to conventional lead zirconate-titanate PZT8 projectors.

  10. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a Mg-doped insulating β-Ga2O3 single crystal along [100], [010] and [001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handwerg, M.; Mitdank, R.; Galazka, Z.; Fischer, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    The monoclinic crystal structure of β-{{Ga}}2{{{O}}}3 leads to significant anisotropy of the thermal properties. The 2ω-method is used to measure the thermal diffusivity D in [010] and [001] direction respectively and to determine the thermal conductivity values λ of the [100], [010] and [001] direction from the same insulating Mg-doped β-{{Ga}}2{{{O}}}3 single crystal. We detect a temperature independent anisotropy factor of both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity values of {D}[010]/{D}[001]={λ }[010]/{λ }[001]=1.4+/- 0.1. The temperature dependence is in accord with phonon-phonon-Umklapp-scattering processes from 300 K down to 150 K. Below 150 K point-defect-scattering lowers the estimated phonon-phonon-Umklapp-scattering values.

  11. Nucleation kinetics, growth, crystalline perfection, mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical characterization of brucinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate dihydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, P.; Gayathri, K.; Sivakumar, N.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Single crystals of brucinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate dihydrate (B2C6ND) have been grown by the slow evaporation solution technique at room temperature using water-ethanol (1:1) mixed solvent. The metastable zone width and induction period have been experimentally determined for the growth conditions. Nucleation kinetics and fundamental growth parameters such as surface free energy, critical radius and critical free energy change are also evaluated according to the experimental data. The crystal system and the lattice parameters have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystalline perfection of the grown B2C6ND crystals has been characterized by HRXRD method. Optical band gap and Urbach tail width of the sample have been studied employing UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The Vickers microhardness number (Hv), yield strength (σv) and stiffness constant (C11) of the grown crystal have been evaluated. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of the grown B2C6ND crystal have been investigated as a function of frequency in the temperature range 313-353 K. The laser damage threshold value of B2C6ND crystal was estimated to be 2.8 GW/cm2 using a Nd:YAG laser.

  12. Thermal-Independent Properties of PIN-PMN-PT Single-Crystal Linear-Array Ultrasonic Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Lam, Kwok Ho; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, having a −6-dB bandwidth of 66% and an insertion loss of 37 dB. The results suggest that the potential of PIN-PMN-PT linear-array ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature ultrasonic transducer applications is promising. PMID:23221227

  13. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, surface analysis and third order nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: 1-(2-Methyl-6-nitro-4-phenyl-3-quinolyl) ethanone.

    PubMed

    Nirosha, M; Kalainathan, S; Sarveswari, S; Vijayakumar, V; Srikanth, A

    2015-02-25

    Single crystal of 1-(2-Methyl-6-nitro-4-phenyl-3-quinolyl) ethanone was grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals the lattice parameters of the grown crystal. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in 2M6NQE were identified by FTIR spectral analysis. Its optical behavior was examined through UV-vis-NIR absorption and PL emission spectrum. They signify that the crystal has transparency in the region between 383 and 1100 nm. The PL spectrum of the title compound shows green emission in the crystal. From the thermal analysis, 2M6NQE has found to be thermally stable up to 263°C, and the melting point of the material is 170°C. The estimations of third order non-linear optical properties like non-linear absorption coefficient (β), non-linear refractive index (n2) and susceptibility [χ(3)] were calculated using Z-scan technique. It has observed that, crystal exhibits reverse saturation absorption and self-defocusing performance. Etching study was carried out for the grown crystal using different solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single crystal elasticity of majoritic garnets: Stagnant slabs and thermal anomalies at the base of the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamato, Martha G.; Kurnosov, Alexander; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Frost, Daniel J.; Ziberna, Luca; Giannini, Mattia; Speziale, Sergio; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Zhuravlev, Kirill K.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-10-01

    The elastic properties of two single crystals of majoritic garnet (Mg3.24Al1.53Si3.23O12 and Mg3.01Fe0.17Al1.68Si3.15O12), have been measured using simultaneously single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Brillouin spectroscopy in an externally heated diamond anvil cell with Ne as pressure transmitting medium at conditions up to ∼30 GPa and ∼600 K. This combination of techniques makes it possible to use the bulk modulus and unit-cell volume at each condition to calculate the absolute pressure, independently of secondary pressure calibrants. Substitution of the majorite component into pyrope garnet lowers both the bulk (Ks) and shear modulus (G). The substitution of Fe was found to cause a small but resolvable increase in Ks that was accompanied by a decrease in ∂Ks / ∂ P, the first pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Fe substitution had no influence on either the shear modulus or its pressure derivative. The obtained elasticity data were used to derive a thermo-elastic model to describe Vs and Vp of complex garnet solid solutions. Using further elasticity data from the literature and thermodynamic models for mantle phase relations, velocities for mafic, harzburgitic and lherzolitic bulk compositions at the base of Earth's transition zone were calculated. The results show that Vs predicted by seismic reference models are faster than those calculated for all three types of lithologies along a typical mantle adiabat within the bottom 150 km of the transition zone. The anomalously fast seismic shear velocities might be explained if laterally extensive sections of subducted harzburgite-rich slabs pile up at the base of the transition zone and lower average mantle temperatures within this depth range.

  15. Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, M. Divya; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Organic single crystals of 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (4M3N) have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4M3N crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The crystalline perfection of the crystal was analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The functional groups present in 4M3N have been identified from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The lower cut-off wavelength of 4M3N is found to be 404 nm and the optical band gap is calculated as 2.91 eV. The refractive index shows normal behavior with wavelength. The physio chemical changes, decomposition and stability of the 4M3N compound were established by TG-DTA studies. Vickers microhardness measurement concludes that 4M3N belongs to soft material (n=2.5) category. The LDT value is found to be higher than that of KDP and some of the important organic NLO materials. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the 4M3N have been measured by Z-scan studies. The imaginary and real parts of the third-order susceptibility values were determined as Im χ3=9.129×10-11 esu and Re χ3=1.4034×10-9 esu respectively. The dislocation density was calculated to be 3.0448×106 cm-2 which indicates the quality of the crystal.

  16. Experimental determination of single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat from -75°C to 300°C

    DOE PAGES

    Urquhart, Alexander; Bauer, Stephen

    2015-05-19

    The thermal properties of halite have broad practical importance, from design and long-term modeling of nuclear waste repositories to analysis and performance assessment of underground natural gas, petroleum and air storage facilities. Using a computer-controlled transient plane source method, single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from -75°C to 300°C. These measurements reproduce historical high-temperature experiments and extend the lower temperature extreme into cryogenic conditions. Measurements were taken in 25-degree increments from -75°C to 300°C. Over this temperature range, thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of 3.7, from 9.975 to 2.699 W/mK , and thermal diffusivitymore » decreases by a factor of 3.6, from 5.032 to 1.396 mm²/s. Specific heat does not appear to be temperature dependent, remaining near 2.0 MJ/m³K at all temperatures. This work is intended to develop and expand the existing dataset of halite thermal properties, which are of particular value in defining the parameters of salt storage thermophysical models. The work was motivated by a need for thermal conductivity values in a mixture theory model used to determine bulk thermal conductivity of reconsolidating crushed salt.« less

  17. Experimental determination of single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat from -75°C to 300°C

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, Alexander; Bauer, Stephen

    2015-05-19

    The thermal properties of halite have broad practical importance, from design and long-term modeling of nuclear waste repositories to analysis and performance assessment of underground natural gas, petroleum and air storage facilities. Using a computer-controlled transient plane source method, single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from -75°C to 300°C. These measurements reproduce historical high-temperature experiments and extend the lower temperature extreme into cryogenic conditions. Measurements were taken in 25-degree increments from -75°C to 300°C. Over this temperature range, thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of 3.7, from 9.975 to 2.699 W/mK , and thermal diffusivity decreases by a factor of 3.6, from 5.032 to 1.396 mm²/s. Specific heat does not appear to be temperature dependent, remaining near 2.0 MJ/m³K at all temperatures. This work is intended to develop and expand the existing dataset of halite thermal properties, which are of particular value in defining the parameters of salt storage thermophysical models. The work was motivated by a need for thermal conductivity values in a mixture theory model used to determine bulk thermal conductivity of reconsolidating crushed salt.

  18. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 – triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-23

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna2{sub 1}. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  19. Structural, transport, magnetic and thermal properties of La0.7Ca0.24Sr0.06MnO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodhaye, Ashish; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Mukovskii, Y. M.

    2008-04-01

    La0.7Ca0.24Sr0.06MnO3 single crystals with high quality have been prepared by using floating zone technique. The structural, transport, magnetic and thermal properties of the hole doped La0.7Ca0.24Sr0.06MnO3 single crystal, have been studied using various experimental techniques. The resistivity data shows the metal to insulator transition (MI) occurs at TMI = 281 K along the c-axis and TMI = 270 K along the ab-plane. It is observed that the TMI data is higher along the C-axis as compared to that in the ab-plane, thus indicating more favourable hoping of electrons is along the c-axis. This MI transition and large magnetoresistance peak 79% is closely near to the ferromagnetic—paramagnetic transition Tc, which was confirmed from the magnetization data (at ˜275 K), it was also confirmed from the ac susceptibility data (at ˜275 K) and the specific heat data (at ˜270 K), which in term is indicative of the onset of long range order. The entropy change associated with this transition is found to be 2.3 J/mol K. For bolometric applications point of view, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) along ab-plane is found ˜23%K-1.

  20. Structural, optical, thermal, photoconductivity, laser damage threshold and fluorescence analysis of an organic material: β-P-amino benzoic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, SenthilKumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-02-01

    β-P-amino benzoic acid, an organic single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the grown crystal has β-polymorph of P-amino benzoic acid [β-PABA] form and the lattice parameters are a = 6.30 Å, b = 8.61 Å, c = 12.43 Å α = γ = 90° and β = 100.20°. FTIR analysis confirms that bands at 1588 cm-1, 1415 cm-1 are assigned to ring skeletal vibrations of title compound. The molecular structure of the grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral study. The optical absorbance spectrum from 200 to 1100 nm shows that there is an edge absorbance in UV region. Optical band gap of the crystal has been assessed from the absorbance spectrum. The thermal properties of crystals were evaluated from TG-DTA analysis, it exhibits that there is no weight loss up to 187 °C. Laser damage threshold indicates that the grown crystal has no surface damage up to 35 mJ. Photoconductivity and fluorescence spectral experiments are also carried out and the results are discussed.

  1. Self-assembled supramolecular structure of 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol monohydrate single crystal: Synthesis, growth, thermal and photo physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagapandiselvi, P.; Baby, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-08-01

    A new photoactive organic crystal, 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate-4-nitrophenol monohydrate (MP4NPM) has been synthesised at 35 °C. Good quality single crystals of MP4NPM have successfully been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that MP4NPM belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/n. The molecular structure was further confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was performed to understand the range of optical transparency and the results showed its suitability for nonlinear optical applications. Fluorescence emission revealed that MP4NPM can serve as a photo active material. Thermal properties of MP4NPM were investigated using simultaneous TG-DSC analysis. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range 500 Hz-5 MHz and 40-50 °C, respectively. Vicker's microhardness measurements revealed that MP4NPM belongs to the category of soft material. Kurtz and Perry powder technique shows that MP4NPM has SHG efficiency 0.89 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  2. Self-assembled supramolecular structure of 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol monohydrate single crystal: Synthesis, growth, thermal and photo physical properties.

    PubMed

    Nagapandiselvi, P; Baby, C; Gopalakrishnan, R

    2015-08-05

    A new photoactive organic crystal, 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate-4-nitrophenol monohydrate (MP4NPM) has been synthesised at 35 °C. Good quality single crystals of MP4NPM have successfully been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that MP4NPM belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group P2₁/n. The molecular structure was further confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was performed to understand the range of optical transparency and the results showed its suitability for nonlinear optical applications. Fluorescence emission revealed that MP4NPM can serve as a photo active material. Thermal properties of MP4NPM were investigated using simultaneous TG-DSC analysis. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range 500 Hz-5 MHz and 40-50 °C, respectively. Vicker's microhardness measurements revealed that MP4NPM belongs to the category of soft material. Kurtz and Perry powder technique shows that MP4NPM has SHG efficiency 0.89 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  3. Growth, optical, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies of sodium succinate hexahydrate (β phase) single crystal: A promising third order NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mageshwari, P. S. Latha; Priya, R.; Krishnan, S.; Joseph, V.; Das, S. Jerome

    2016-11-01

    A third order nonlinear optical (NLO)single crystals of sodium succinate hexahydrate (SSH) (β phase) has been grown by a slow evaporation growth technique using aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The lattice parameters and morphology of SSH were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. SSH crystallizes in centrosymmetric monoclinic system with space group P 21 / c and the crystalline purity was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region. The recorded FT-IR spectrum verified the presence of various functional groups in the material. NMR analysis of the grown crystal confirms the structural elucidation and detects the major and minor functional groups present in the title compound. ICP-OES analysis proved the presence of sodium in SSH. TG-DTA/DSCanalysis was used to investigate the thermal stability of the material. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of SSH were carried out as a function of frequency for different temperatures and the results were discussed. The mechanical stability was evaluated from Vicker's microhardness test. The third order nonlinear optical properties of SSH has been investigated employing Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength.

  4. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Peer Mohamed, M.; Krishnan, P.; Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G.; Lydia Caroline, M.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C9H11NO2. C8H8O3], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy Eg is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm2. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (Hv), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σy), stiffness constant C11 were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz-5 MHz at various temperatures.

  5. Synthesis, structural, thermal, mechanical, second harmonic generation efficiency and laser damage threshold studies of 4-dimethylaminopyridinium-3,5-dicarboxybenzoate trihydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, M.; Saravanabhavan, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-10-01

    4-dimethylaminopyridinium-3,5-dicarboxybenzoate trihydrate was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature. The single crystal XRD analysis was carried out to establish the molecular structure of the title crystal. Further, the data indicate that the title salt crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system with the non-centrosymmetric space group, Pna21. The established molecular structure was further confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies. The grown crystal has been subjected to FT-IR spectral study to identify the various functional groups. The UV-Vis-NIR transmission spectrum was recorded on powdered sample of crystal to determine the lower wavelength cut-off and optical band gap. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to investigate the luminescence properties of the salt crystal. The thermal and mechanical stabilities of the crystal were established by TG/DTA analyses and Vickers microhardness study, respectively. The dielectric studies of the grown crystal were executed at different temperatures as a function of frequency to investigate its electrical properties. The SHG efficiency of the title crystal was investigated and its value is 0.89 times that of KDP crystal. The laser damage threshold value is found to be 1.06 GW/cm2.

  6. Magnetic, electronic, and thermal transport properties of the quasi-two-dimensional Sr3Fe2O6.6 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Yang, J.; Luo, X.; Tong, W.; Song, J. Y.; Zou, Y. M.; Pei, Q. L.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2017-06-01

    The structural, magnetic, electronic, and thermal transport properties of Sr3Fe2O6.6 single crystal were investigated by the room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical resistivity ρ (T), specific heat Cp (T), and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The single crystal has been grown by the floating zone method. The as-grown crystal can be indexed by a tetragonal lattice with the space group I 4 / mmm. The oxygen content determined by the XPS measurement is approximately 6.6, which was verified in the magnetic susceptibility measurement. The incommensurate antiferromagnetic-transition temperature is about TN = 62 K, and the magnetic susceptibility of the sample were anisotropic. The electrical resistivity ρ (T) shows a semiconducting behavior with an energy gap Eα = 0.134eV and non-magnetoresistance behavior. The Cp (T) data exhibits that the Debye temperature ΘD is larger than the theoretical value. The reciprocal of magnetic susceptibility to CW law is verified by the ESR results. The resonance field and the g-factor exhibit anisotropy.

  7. Impacts of thermal stress and doping on intrinsic point defect properties and clustering during single crystal silicon and germanium growth from a melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Jan; Kamiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Kozo; Śpiewak, Piotr; Sueoka, Koji

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews recent considerable progress made in the last few years in understanding the behavior and properties of intrinsic point defects close to moving melt/solid Si interfaces during single crystal Si growth from a melt. The so called Voronkov criterion allows to determine whether the grown Si crystal is interstitial I- or vacancy V-rich. This criterion is written as the ratio Γ of the pulling rate v over the thermal gradient G at the interface. Crystals pulled with Γ above a critical value Γcrit are vacancy-rich while below Γcrit, they are interstitial-rich. Various expressions based on the intrinsic point defect thermal equilibrium concentration and diffusivity have been proposed to calculate Γcrit and are briefly discussed in this paper. Recently it was shown that the thermal stress at the interface and heavy doping with neutral and/or electrically active impurities, have a considerable impact on the intrinsic point defect balance and thus also on Γcrit. Furthermore, high energy barriers of formation energies of I and V around three or four atom layers from (001) free surface support a model in which the boundary conditions of the point defect concentrations at the surface in simulations can be set at fixed values. The situation is quite different for Ge single crystal pulling where the vacancy is always the dominant intrinsic point defect so that the Voronkov criterion cannot be applied. Prediction of vacancy cluster concentration/size distributions as a function of the pulling conditions is however still possible. The possibility of reaching Voronkov criterion conditions for Ge by doping with specific impurities is also discussed. Finally, impacts of stress and doping on self-diffusion in Si and Ge are evaluated with comparing the previous experimental results.

  8. Materials Chemistry Issues in the Development of a Single-Crystal Solar/Thermal Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Biering, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    A translucent crystal concentrates and transmits energy to a heat exchanger, which in turn heats a propellant gas, working gas of a dynamic power system, or a thermopile. Materials are the limiting issue in such a system. Central is the durability of the crystal, which must maintain the required chemical, physical/optical, and mechanical properties as it is heated and cooled. This report summarizes available data to date on the materials issues with this system. We focus on the current leading candidate materials, which are sapphire (Al2O3) for higher temperatures and silica (SiO2) for lower temperatures. We use data from thermochemical calculations; laboratory coupon tests with silica and sapphire; and system tests with sapphire. The required chemical properties include low-vapor pressure and interfacial stability with supporting structural materials. Optical properties such as transmittance and index of refraction must be maintained. Thermomechanical stability is a major challenge for a large, single-crystal ceramic and has been discussed in another report. In addition to the crystal, other materials in the proposed system include refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re), carbon (C), and high-temperature ceramic insulation. The major issue here is low levels of oxygen, which lead to volatile refractory metal oxides and rapid consumption of the refractory metal. Interfacial reactions between the ceramic crystal and refractory metal are also discussed. Finally, high-temperature ceramic insulating materials are also likely to be used in this system. Outgassing is a major issue for these materials. The products of outgassing are typically reactive with the refractory metals and must be minimized.

  9. Studies on the growth aspects, structural, thermal, dielectric and third order nonlinear optical properties of solution grown 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, S. Reena; Kalaiyarasi, S.; Zahid, I. MD.; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2016-11-01

    An ionic organic optical crystal of 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate was grown from methanol by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. Powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystal system and its crystalline perfection. The rocking curve recorded from HRXRD study confirmed the crystal quality. FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the functional groups present in the title compound. UV-visible spectral study revealed the optical window and band gap of grown crystal. The thermal, electrical and surface laser damage threshold properties of harvested crystal were examined by using TGA/DTA, LCR/Impedance Analyzer and Nd:YAG laser system respectively. The third order nonlinear optical property of grown crystal was elucidated by Z-scan technique.

  10. Temperature dependencies of the lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients of Sm3Fe5O12 and Er3Fe5O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, M.; Rodic, D.; Mitric, M.

    1993-05-01

    The temperature dependencies of the lattice parameters of erbium and samarium iron garnets (ErIG and SmIG) are refined from precise x-ray diffraction data obtained on small spherical single crystals in the 20-300 K temperature range; the variations of the thermal linear expansion coefficients are immediately deduced. For ErIG, the lattice constants and the expansion coefficients present anomalies observed at 20, 59, 75, and 105 K, respectively, whereas for SmIG singularities are situated at 40 and 68 K. These anomalies are interpreted as originating from spin-reorientation transition and from the onset of noncollinear magnetic structure of the rare-earth magnetic moments.

  11. Thermally Processed High-Mobility MOS Thin-Film Transistors on Transferable Single-Crystal Elastically Strain-Sharing Si/SiGe/Si Nanomembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, H.-C.; Kelly, M. M.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Celler, G. K.; Zhenqiang, M.

    2008-03-01

    Demonstration of high-performance MOS thin-film transistors (TFTs) on elastically strain-sharing single-crystal Si/SiGe/Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) that are transferred to foreign substrates is reported. The transferable SiNMs are realized by first growing pseudomorphic SiGe and Si layers on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates, and then, selectively removing the buried oxide (BOX) layer from the SOI. Before the release, only the SiGe layer is compressively strained. Upon release, part of the compressive strain in the SiGe layer is transferred to the thin Si layers, and the Si layers, thus, become tensile strained. Both the initial compressive strain state in the SiGe layer and the final strain sharing state between the SiGe and the Si layers are verified with X-ray diffraction measurements. The TFTs are fabricated employing the conventional high-temperature MOS process on the strain-shared SiNMs that are transferred to an oxidized Si substrate. The transferred strained-sharing SiNMs show outstanding thermal stability and can withstand the high-temperature TFT process on the new host substrate. The strained-channel TFTs fabricated on the new host substrate show high current drive capability and an average electron effective mobility of 270 cm{sup 2}/V ldr s. The results suggest that transferable and thermally stable single-crystal elastically strain- sharing SiNMs can serve as excellent active material for high-speed device application with a simple and scalable transfer method. The demonstration of MOS TFTs on the transferable nanomembranes may create the opportunity for future high-speed Si CMOS heterogeneous integration on any substrate.

  12. Performance of a New Composite Single-Crystal Filtered Thermal Neutron Beam for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Brockman; David W. Nigg; M. Frederick Hawthorne; Charles McKibben

    2008-11-01

    The University of Missouri (MU) Institute for Nano and Molecular Medicine, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) have undertaken a new collaborative research initiative to further the development of improved boron delivery agents for BNCT. The first step of this effort has involved the design and construction of a new thermal neutron beam irradiation facility for cell and small-animal radiobological research at the MURR. In this paper we present the beamline design with the results of pertinent neutronic design calculations. Results of neutronic performance measurements, initiated in February 2008, will also be available for inclusion in the final paper. The new beam will be located in an existing 152.4 mm (6’) diameter MURR beam tube extending from the core to the right in Figure 1. The neutron beam that emanates from the berylium reflector around the reactor is filtered with single-crystal silicon and single-crystal bismuth segments to remove high energy, fission spectrum neutrons and reactor gamma ray contamination. The irradiation chamber is downstream of the bismuth filter section, and approximately 3.95 m from the central axis of the reactor. There is sufficient neutron flux available from the MURR at its rated power of 10 MW to avoid the need for cryogenic cooling of the crystals. The MURR operates on average 150 hours per week, 52 weeks a year. In order to take advantage of 7800 hours of operation time per year the small animal BNCT facility will incorparate a shutter constucuted of boral, lead, steel and polyethylene that will allow experimenters to access the irradiation chamber a few minutes after irradiation. Independent deterministic and stochastic models of the coupled reactor core and beamline were developed using the DORT two-dimensional radiation transport code and the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code, respectively. The BUGLE-80 47-neutron, 20-gamma group cross section library was employed for the DORT

  13. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, J. A.; Li, Z.; Bradt, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The crystalline thermal expansion and elastic anisotropies of SiC and Al2O3 whiskers are considered in the process of evaluation of the anisotropy of the alpha-E product, the thermoelastic stress index. It is demonstrated to exhibit considerable crystalline anisotropy and a substantial temperature dependence, both of which will influence the thermal and residual stresses in composites using these materials for reinforcement.

  14. Anisotropy in the thermal hysteresis of resistivity and charge density wave nature of single crystal SrFeO3-δ: X-ray absorption and photoemission studies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S H; Solanki, R S; Wang, Y F; Shao, Y C; Lee, S H; Yao, C H; Du, C H; Wang, H T; Chiou, J W; Chin, Y Y; Tsai, H M; Chen, J-L; Pao, C W; Cheng, C-M; Chen, W-C; Lin, H J; Lee, J F; Chou, F C; Pong, W F

    2017-12-01

    The local electronic and atomic structures of the high-quality single crystal of SrFeO3-δ (δ~0.19) were studied using temperature-dependent x-ray absorption and valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) to investigate the origin of anisotropic resistivity in the ab-plane and along the c-axis close to the region of thermal hysteresis (near temperature for susceptibility maximum, Tm~78 K). All experiments herein were conducted during warming and cooling processes. The Fe L 3,2-edge X-ray linear dichroism results show that during cooling from room temperature to below the transition temperature, the unoccupied Fe 3d e g states remain in persistently out-of-plane 3d 3z(2)-r(2) orbitals. In contrast, in the warming process below the transition temperature, they change from 3d 3z(2)-r(2) to in-plane 3d x(2)-y(2) orbitals. The nearest-neighbor (NN) Fe-O bond lengths also exhibit anisotropic behavior in the ab-plane and along the c-axis below Tm. The anisotropic NN Fe-O bond lengths and Debye-Waller factors stabilize the in-plane Fe 3d x(2)-y(2) and out-of-plane 3d 3z(2)-r(2) orbitals during warming and cooling, respectively. Additionally, a VB-PES study further confirms that a relative band gap opens at low temperature in both the ab-plane and along the c-axis, providing the clear evidence of the charge-density-wave nature of SrFeO3-δ (δ~0.19) single crystal.

  15. Influence of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate on the structural, optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical behavior of a KDP single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasal, Y. B.; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Kalainathan, S.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    A single crystal of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate (BTNN) doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been grown from solution at room temperature by a slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined using single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The improved optical parameters of the grown crystal have been evaluated in the range of 200–900 nm using UV–visible spectral analysis. The grown crystal was transparent in the entire visible region and the band gap value was found to be 4.96 eV. The influence of BTNN on the third order nonlinear optical properties of KDP crystal has been investigated by means of the Z-scan technique. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal measured using a Nd-YAG laser is 1.98 times higher than that of pure KDP. The third order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ 3) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) of BTNN doped KDP crystal is found to be 1.77  ×  10‑5 esu and 5.57  ×  10‑6 cm W‑1 respectively. The laser damage threshold (LDT) energy for the grown crystal has been measured by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source. The bis-thiourea nickel nitrate shows authoritative impact on the dielectric properties of doped crystal. The influence of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate on the mechanical behavior of KDP crystal has been investigated using Vickers microhardness intender. The thermal behavior of BTNN doped KDP crystal has been analyzed by TGA/DTA analysis.

  16. Effect of fast neutron, gamma-ray and combined radiations on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herley, P. J.; Wang, C. S.; Varsi, G.; Levy, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal decomposition kinetics have been determined for ammonium perchlorate crystals subjected to a fast neutron irradiation or to a fast neutron irradiation followed by a gamma-ray irradiation. Qualitatively, the radiation induced changes are similar to those obtained in this and in previous studies, with samples exposed only to gamma rays. The induction period is shortened and the rate constants, obtained from an Avrami-Erofeyev kinetic analysis, are modified. The acceleratory period constant increases and the decay period constant decreases. When compared on an equal deposited energy basis, the fast neutron induced changes are appreciably larger than the gamma-ray induced changes. Some, or all, of the fast neutron induced effects might be attributable to the introduction of localized regions of concentrated radiation damage ('spikes') by lattice atom recoils which become thermal decomposition sites when the crystals are heated.

  17. Single Crystal Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Morrison, A.

    1974-01-01

    Single crystal a- and c-axis tubes and ribbons of sodium beta-alumina and sodium magnesium beta-alumina were grown from sodium oxide rich melts. Additional experiments grew ribbon crystals containing sodium magnesium beta, beta double prime, beta triple prime, and beta quadruple prime. A high pressure crystal growth chamber, sodium oxide rich melts, and iridium for all surfaces in contact with the melt were combined with the edge-defined, film-fed growth technique to grow the single crystal beta-alumina tubes and ribbons. The crystals were characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques, and wet chemical analysis was used to determine the sodium, magnesium, and aluminum content of the grown crystals.

  18. Impact of thermal annealing on nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in single-crystal, freestanding GaAs mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulics, M.; Hardtdegen, H.; Adam, R.; Grützmacher, D.; Gregušová, D.; Novák, J.; Kordoš, P.; Sofer, Z.; Serafini, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobolewski, Roman; Marso, M.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the impact of thermal annealing to carrier transport and transient, subpicosecond photoresponse of freestanding GaAs mesostructures. Our measurements included micro-photoluminescence and dark current and responsivity studies as well as optical femtosecond characterization. The fabricated GaAs mesostructures consisted of both mesowires and platelets that were integrated into coplanar striplines to form a photoconductive switch. We demonstrate that an optimized annealing process of our mesostructures, performed at 600 °C for 20 min, led to restoring bulklike properties of our freestanding devices. They exhibited dark currents below 600 pA at 10 V bias, responsivity of 0.2 A W-1 at 30 V, and mobility as high as 7300 cm2 V s-1. The annealed freestanding GaAs photodetectors were characterized by subpicosecond carrier relaxation dynamics with negligible trapping and a cutoff frequency of 1.3 THz. The latter characteristics make them excellent candidates for THz-bandwidth optoelectronics.

  19. Effect of Nickel sulphate on Growth, Structural, Optical, Mechanical and thermal properties of L-alanine Single Crystals (LANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothimani, R.; Selvarajan, P.

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear optical materials find excellent place in frequency conversion, optical telecommunication, image processing, optical computing, and data storage. Due to possessing chiral symmetry and nature of crystallize in noncentro-symmetric space groups, the amino acids are applicable in NLO applications. A transparent nickel sulphate admixtured L-alanine crystal has been developed by solution method. X ray diffraction analysis depicts the orthorhombic crystal system of the sample. NLO efficiency of the sample was found to be highly pronounced compare to KDP. An enhanced linear optical property of the sample shows its suitability for NLO applications. Thermal behaviour of the sample was found by TGA/DTA analysis. Hardness parameters were also found for the sample by microhardness measurements. Laser damage threshold were also measured using Nd: YAG laser.

  20. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  1. Seeing is believing: Visualization of He distribution in zircon and implications for thermal history reconstruction on single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Danišík, Martin; McInnes, Brent I. A.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; McDonald, Brad J.; Evans, Noreen J.; Becker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is an established radiometric dating technique used to place temporal constraints on a range of thermally sensitive geological events, such as crustal exhumation, volcanism, meteorite impact, and ore genesis. Isotopic, crystallographic, and/or mineralogical heterogeneities within analyzed grains can result in dispersed or anomalous (U-Th)/He ages. Understanding the effect of these grain-scale phenomena on the distribution of He in analyzed minerals should lead to improvements in data interpretation. We combine laser ablation microsampling and noble gas and trace element mass spectrometry to provide the first two-dimensional, grain-scale zircon He “maps” and quantify intragrain He distribution. These maps illustrate the complexity of intracrystalline He distribution in natural zircon and, combined with a correlated quantification of parent nuclide (U and Th) distribution, provide an opportunity to assess a number of crystal chemistry processes that can generate anomalous zircon (U-Th)/He ages. The technique provides new insights into fluid inclusions as potential traps of radiogenic He and confirms the effect of heterogeneity in parent-daughter isotope abundances and metamictization on (U-Th)/He systematics. Finally, we present a new inversion method where the He, U, and Th mapping data can be used to constrain the high- and low-temperature history of a single zircon crystal. PMID:28246632

  2. Seeing is believing: Visualization of He distribution in zircon and implications for thermal history reconstruction on single crystals.

    PubMed

    Danišík, Martin; McInnes, Brent I A; Kirkland, Christopher L; McDonald, Brad J; Evans, Noreen J; Becker, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is an established radiometric dating technique used to place temporal constraints on a range of thermally sensitive geological events, such as crustal exhumation, volcanism, meteorite impact, and ore genesis. Isotopic, crystallographic, and/or mineralogical heterogeneities within analyzed grains can result in dispersed or anomalous (U-Th)/He ages. Understanding the effect of these grain-scale phenomena on the distribution of He in analyzed minerals should lead to improvements in data interpretation. We combine laser ablation microsampling and noble gas and trace element mass spectrometry to provide the first two-dimensional, grain-scale zircon He "maps" and quantify intragrain He distribution. These maps illustrate the complexity of intracrystalline He distribution in natural zircon and, combined with a correlated quantification of parent nuclide (U and Th) distribution, provide an opportunity to assess a number of crystal chemistry processes that can generate anomalous zircon (U-Th)/He ages. The technique provides new insights into fluid inclusions as potential traps of radiogenic He and confirms the effect of heterogeneity in parent-daughter isotope abundances and metamictization on (U-Th)/He systematics. Finally, we present a new inversion method where the He, U, and Th mapping data can be used to constrain the high- and low-temperature history of a single zircon crystal.

  3. Localized excitons and defects in PbWO4 single crystals: a luminescence and photo-thermally stimulated disintegration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, A.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.

    The cover picture refers to the article by Aleksei Krasnikov et al., that was selected as Editor's Choice [1]. It depicts a fragment of a lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal lattice structure and illustrates the complex anion (WO4)2- tetrahedra bonded to the Pb2+ cation. Perturbation of the (WO4)2- tetrahedra by defects nearby results in exciton localization near the defects and a slightly different emission spectrum, which is shown in the diagram. Localized excitons are evidenced for the first time in the PbWO4 structure. Under selective irradiation of PbWO4 crystals in the ultraviolet spectral region, the decay of various localized excitons into stable defects takes place, which can be detected by a sensitive thermally stimulated luminescence method. Aleksei Krasnikov is a PhD student at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Martin Nikl holds a position as a senior scientist and head of the Laboratory of Luminescence and Scintillation Materials at the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Svetlana Zazubovich is a senior scientist at the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The research groups of Martin Nikl and Svetlana Zazubovich have been collaborating closely for the last 15 years mainly in the field of optical spectroscopy of wide band-gap scintillation materials

  4. Growth, structural, thermal, linear and nonlinear optical and laser damage threshold studies of picolinium tartrate monohydrate single crystals.

    PubMed

    Peramaiyan, G; Pandi, P; Sornamurthy, B M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Mohan Kumar, R

    2012-09-01

    Picolinium tartrate monohydrate (PTM), a novel organic nonlinear optical material was synthesized and bulk crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow cooling technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystal were found by single and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystals has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The presence of functional groups in the grown crystal was identified by FTIR and FT-Raman spectral analyses. UV-Vis spectral studies reveal PTM crystals are transparent in the wavelength region of 295-1100 nm. The thermal characteristics of PTM were analyzed by TGA/DTA studies. The dielectric and mechanical behaviours of PTM crystals were investigated. Dislocation density was estimated to be 2.89 × 10(3) cm(-2) on the flat-surface of PTM crystals from the etching studies. The laser induced surface damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Its second harmonic generation relative efficiency was measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and was observed to be comparable with KDP crystal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase separation and superconductivity in K1-xFe2-ySe2 single crystals under different thermal treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hai-Hu; Ding, Xiaxin; Tao, Jian; Yang, Huan

    2013-03-01

    Single crystals with the starting composition of K0.8Fe2Se2 have been thermally treated in three different ways: slow furnace cooling (SFC) from 1020 °C, retreated for 2 hours at 250 °C (S250) and 350 °C (S350:) and followed by quenching. The DC magnetization measurements on them exhibit very different behavior: the SFC samples show a tiny diamagnetic signal, while the sample S350 shows a quite large Meissner shielding volume with the S250 in the middle. The resistive measurements on the sample S350 show zero resistance below 31 K with a sharp transition; while those from the sample SFC or S250 show much larger residual resistance together with a much wider transition. By using the SEM, we have successfully identified that, in SFC, the superconducting areas have relatively larger sizes (about one micrometer) and are widely separated; the superconducting area change into many thin but well connected networks in the sample S350, which construct a 3D spider-web. This explains both the magnetic shielding and the resistive transitions in the three samples. In addition, the superconducting area has a composition of about K0.64Fe1.8Se2. We suggest that the thermodynamically stable phase for the superconducting state has probably one vacancy in every 10 Fe-sites.

  6. Thermally activated transport and vortex-glass phase transition of {{\\rm{K}}}_{0.78}Fe{}_{1.70}Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Chunchang; Li, Qiuju; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Changjin

    2017-08-01

    The transport property (ρ -T) and flux motion together with the superconductivity of {{{K}}}0.78 Fe{}1.70 Se2 single crystals are studied. In the transport measurement, contrasting behavior is observed under two different magnetic field orientations, i.e., {{{H}}}//c-{{axis}} and {{{H}}}\\perp c-{{axis}}, which is ascribed to different vortex configurations. In the flux motion study, the tail of the ρ -T well fits the description of the vortex-glass (VG) critical behavior, which is confirmed by VG scaling. The strong pinning nature of {{{K}}}0.78Fe{}1.70Se2 implies great sustainability under high magnetic fields and the potential for practical application of the system. The ρ -T relation under T c follows Arrhenius thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) behavior. The existence of a crossover behavior in a magnetic field is discovered via the magnetic dependence of the effective pinning barrier, which is related to the change in pinning strength of the point defects and the entanglements of the flux lines. Finally, a vortex phase diagram is proposed based on the evolution of upper critical field and other dynamic characteristics.

  7. Low interfacial trap density and high-temperature thermal stability in atomic layer deposited single crystal Y2O3/n-GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hsun; Fu, Chien-Hua; Lin, Keng-Yung; Chen, Kuan-Hsiung; Chang, Tsong-Wen; Raynien Kwo, J.; Hong, Minghwei

    2016-08-01

    A low interfacial trap density (D it) of 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 has been achieved with an atomic layer deposited (ALD) single crystal Y2O3 epitaxially on n-GaAs(001), along with a small frequency dispersion of 10.3% (2.6%/decade) at the accumulation region in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves. The D it and frequency dispersion in the C-V curves in this work are the lowest among all of the reported ALD-oxides on n-type GaAs(001). The D it was measured using the conductance-voltage (G-V) and quasi-static C-V (QSCV) methods. Moreover, the heterostructure was thermally stable with rapid annealing at 900 °C under various durations in He and N2, which has not been achieved in the heterostructures of ALD-Al2O3 or HfO2 on GaAs.

  8. Single crystals of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Cartier, N; Domard, A; Chanzy, H

    1990-10-01

    Lamellar single crystals of chitosan were prepared at 125 degrees C by adding ammonia to a low DP fraction of chitosan dissolved in water. The crystals gave sharp electron diffraction diagrams which could be indexed in an orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) unit cell with a = 8.07 A, b = 8.44 A, c = 10.34 A. The unit cell contained two anti-parallel chitosan chains and no water molecules. It was found that cellulose microfibrils from Valonia ventricosa could act as nuclei for inducing the crystallization of chitosan on cellulose. This produced a shish-kebab morphology.

  9. Bioperformance of shape memory alloy single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yahia, L'h; Manceur, A; Chaffraix, P

    2006-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) represent a large family of alloys that show unique characteristics. They have been exploited in several fields for diverse applications. For the last 20 years, these alloys and more particularly Ni-Ti alloys have revolutionized the field of metallic biomaterials. Applications in the biomedical area are multiple and these materials improve significantly the quality of the diagnostics, treatments and surgeries. To our knowledge, most devices are made of SMAs in the polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, the single crystal form shows several promising advantages especially concerning its mechanical performances. In this paper we describe the advantages, advances and limits of using different SMA single crystals for biomedical applications, including biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. We also discuss the low response time of classical thermal SMAs as well as the new advances in research on magnetic SMA single crystals.

  10. Upper critical fields and thermally-activated transport of Nd(0.7Fe0.3) FeAs single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirev, Fedor F; Jaroszynski, J; Hunte, F; Balicas, L; Jo, Youn - Jung; Raicevic, I; Gurevich, A; Larbalestier, D C; Fang, L; Cheng, P; Jia, Y; Wen, H H

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the resistivity and the upper critical field H{sub c2} of Nd(O{sub 0.7}F{sub 0.3})FeAs single crystals in strong DC and pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T and 60 T, respectively. We found that the field scale of H{sub c2} is comparable to {approx}100 T of high T{sub c} cuprates. H{sub c2}(T) parallel to the c-axis exhibits a pronounced upward curvature similar to what was extracted from earlier measurements on polycrystalline samples. Thus this behavior is indeed an intrinsic feature of oxypnictides, rather than manifestation of vortex lattice melting or granularity. The orientational dependence of H{sub c2} shows deviations from the one-band Ginzburg-Landau scaling. The mass anisotropy decreases as T decreases, from 9.2 at 44K to 5 at 34K. Spin dependent magnetoresistance and nonlinearities in the Hall coefficient suggest contribution to the conductivity from electron-electron interactions modified by disorder reminiscent that of diluted magnetic semiconductors. The Ohmic resistivity measured below T{sub c} but above the irreversibility field exhibits a clear Arrhenius thermally activated behavior over 4--5 decades. The activation energy has very different field dependencies for H{parallel}ab and H{perpendicular}ab. We discuss to what extent different pairing scenarios can manifest themselves in the observed behavior of H{sub c2}, using the two-band model of superconductivity. The results indicate the importance of paramagnetic effects on H{sub c2}(T), which may significantly reduce H{sub c2}(0) as compared to H{sub c2}(0) {approx}200--300 T based on extrapolations of H{sub c2}(T) near T{sub c} down to low temperatures.

  11. Crystallographic, electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties of single-crystal SrCo2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Abhishek; Quirinale, D. G.; Jayasekara, W.; Sapkota, A.; Kim, M. G.; Dhaka, R. S.; Lee, Y.; Heitmann, T. W.; Stephens, P. W.; Ogloblichev, V.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.; Kaminski, Adam; Harmon, B. N.; Furukawa, Y.; Johnston, D. C.

    2013-07-01

    In tetragonal SrCo2As2 single crystals, inelastic neutron scattering measurements demonstrated that strong stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations occur at a temperature T = 5 K [W. Jayasekara et al., arXiv:1306.5174] that are the same as in the isostructural AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) parent compounds of high-Tc superconductors. This surprising discovery suggests that SrCo2As2 may also be a good parent compound for high-Tc superconductivity. Here, structural and thermal expansion, electrical resistivity ρ, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), heat capacity Cp, magnetic susceptibility χ, 75As NMR and neutron diffraction measurements of SrCo2As2 crystals are reported together with LDA band structure calculations that shed further light on this fascinating material. The c-axis thermal expansion coefficient αc is negative from 7 to 300 K, whereas αa is positive over this T range. The ρ(T) shows metallic character. The ARPES measurements and band theory confirm the metallic character and in addition show the presence of a flat band near the Fermi energy EF. The band calculations exhibit an extremely sharp peak in the density of states D(EF) arising from a flat dx2-y2 band. A comparison of the Sommerfeld coefficient of the electronic specific heat with χ(T → 0) suggests the presence of strong ferromagnetic itinerant spin correlations which on the basis of the Stoner criterion predicts that SrCo2As2 should be an itinerant ferromagnet, in conflict with the magnetization data. The χ(T) does have a large magnitude, but also exhibits a broad maximum at 115 K suggestive of dynamic short-range AFM spin correlations, in agreement with the neutron scattering data. The measurements show no evidence for any type of phase

  12. Thermal Equation of State of Fe7C3 by Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction with Implications for Carbon in the Inner Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Chen, B.; Zhu, F.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Dera, P.; Zhang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon is one of the principle candidates for the light elements in Earth's core partly due to its high cosmic abundance and high solubility in Fe-Ni alloy [1,2]. Its alloys with iron (Fe), iron carbides, are also found in reducing environment in the Earth's mantle [3]. Eckstrom-Adcock carbide Fe7C3 is likely to be the first phase to solidify from Fe-C melt under core conditions, and has thus been proposed to be an inner core candidate [4]. The crystal structure of Fe7C3, however, remains controversial and its thermoelastic properties, crucial for extrapolating the room-temperature mineral physics data to high temperature conditions, were rarely investigated approaching core pressures. In this study, we performed synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements using externally-heated diamond anvil cells and determined the crystal structure, lattice parameters and atomic positions of Fe7C3 up to 75 GPa and 800 K. The ambient pressure unit cell volume (V0), bulk modulus (K0) and its first derivative (K0') at 300 K were determined by fitting the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The pressure-volume-temperature data set for Fe7C3 could be well represented by a Mie-Grüneisen-Debye thermal equation of state. We found that the c/a ratio of Fe7C3 decreases continuously up to 45 GPa and increases abruptly at around 55 GPa at 300K, probably due to the high-spin to low-spin transition. The thermal expansion of c axis is notably larger than other axes. The determined thermoelastic property of Fe7C3 will permit stringent test of a Fe-C inner core compositional model. References: [1] Wood, Bernard J. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 117.3 (1993): 593-607. [2] Wood, Bernard J., Jie Li, and Anat Shahar. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75 (2013): 231-250. [3] Kaminsky, Felix V., and Richard Wirth. Can. Mineral. 49.2 (2011): 555-572. [4] Fei, Yingwei, and Eli Brosh. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 408 (2014): 155-162.

  13. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-25

    65E-3/C GRADHOF NO. Gr=9.8* B*(T1-T2)*dA3W2 Gr= 19804 THERMAL CONDUTIVITY ke=k*(C (Gr Pr)An * (Ud)Am ke= 1.42 W/m C FOR CONSTANT SEE TABLE 2-3...should allow higher resolution (no phosphor grains) and higher thermal conductivity. (See Study submitted by Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ, P.O...envelope. The glass faceplates have limited (poor) thermal conductivity. Also, the powder phosphor grains do not conduct heat well. With the advent of

  14. Designed three-dimensional freestanding single-crystal carbon architectures.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Ha-Chul; Ahn, Sung-Joon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Lee, Changgu; Ahn, Joung Real

    2014-11-25

    Single-crystal carbon nanomaterials have led to great advances in nanotechnology. The first single-crystal carbon nanomaterial, fullerene, was fabricated in a zero-dimensional form. One-dimensional carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional graphene have since followed and continue to provide further impetus to this field. In this study, we fabricated designed three-dimensional (3D) single-crystal carbon architectures by using silicon carbide templates. For this method, a designed 3D SiC structure was transformed into a 3D freestanding single-crystal carbon structure that retained the original SiC structure by performing a simple single-step thermal process. The SiC structure inside the 3D carbon structure is self-etched, which results in a 3D freestanding carbon structure. The 3D carbon structure is a single crystal with the same hexagonal close-packed structure as graphene. The size of the carbon structures can be controlled from the nanoscale to the microscale, and arrays of these structures can be scaled up to the wafer scale. The 3D freestanding carbon structures were found to be mechanically stable even after repeated loading. The relationship between the reversible mechanical deformation of a carbon structure and its electrical conductance was also investigated. Our method of fabricating designed 3D freestanding single-crystal graphene architectures opens up prospects in the field of single-crystal carbon nanomaterials and paves the way for the development of 3D single-crystal carbon devices.

  15. Magnetoelasticity of Fe-Si single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Q; Wu, D.; Lograsso, T. A.

    2010-04-20

    The tetragonal magnetostriction constant, (3/2){lambda}{sub 100}, of Fe-Si single crystals was measured and was found to be structure dependent. Similar to that of Fe-Ge single crystals, (3/2){lambda}{sub 100} is positive in the single phase A2 regime, becomes negative in the single phase D0{sub 3} regime, and changes from positive to negative between the two regimes. Short-range order in the A2 regime decreases the magnetostriction prior to the onset of long range order. In the single phase regions of both A2 and D0{sub 3}, thermal history does not show any obvious effect on the magnetostriction, contrary to that found for Fe-Ga alloys. However, in the regions of phase mixture involving A2, B2, and D0{sub 3} phases, quenching pushes the change in magnetostriction from positive to negative to higher Si contents.

  16. Structural, thermal, laser damage, photoconductivity, NLO and mechanical properties of modified vertical Bridgman method grown AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-08-01

    AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal was grown using modified vertical Bridgman method. The structural perfection of the AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements. The structural and compositional uniformities of AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 were studied using Raman scattering spectroscopy at room temperature. The FWHM of the Γ1 (W1) and Γ5L (Γ15) measured at different regions of the crystal confirms that the composition throughout its length is fairly uniform. Thermal properties of the as-grown crystal, including specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been investigated. The multiple shot surface laser damage threshold value was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Photoconductivity measurements with different temperatures have confirmed the positive photoconducting behavior. Second harmonic generation (SHG) on powder samples has been measured using the Kurtz and Perry technique and the results display that AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 is a phase-matchable NLO material. The hardness behavior has been measured using Vickers micro hardness measurement and the indentation size effect has been observed. The classical Meyer's law, propositional resistance model and modified propositional resistance model have been used to analyse the micro hardness behavior.

  17. Optical properties of lithium niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatnikov, M. N.; Sidorov, N. V.; Biryukova, I. V.; Kalinnikov, V. T.; Bormanis, K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of thermal and -irradiation effects on the optical properties in congruous lithium niobate single crystals containing Y, Mg, Gd, B, and Zn dopants including samples with double dopants Y, Mg and Gd, Mg are reported. Formation of defects at irradiation and thermal treatment of the samples is explored by electron absorption spectra. Considerable increase of absorption with the dose of -radiation is observed at 500 nm. The changes of absorption examined under different conditions are explained by creation and destruction of Nb4+ defects.

  18. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, X-ray single crystal of new RuCl₂(dppb)diamine complexes and their application in hydrogenation of Cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Hussain, Hanan; Al-Far, Rawhi; Mahfouz, Refaat; Hammouti, Belkheir; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2012-09-01

    The preparation of new three trans-[RuCl(2)(dppb)(N-N)] with mixed diamine (N-N) and 1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) ligands, starting from RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3) as precursor is presented. The complexes are characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H}NMR, FAB-MS, TG/DTA and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex (2L(1)) crystallizes in the monoclinic unit cells with the space group P2(1). The catalysts are evaluated for their Cinnamic aldehyde hydrogenation. The catalysts show excellent activity and selectivity for the unsaturated carbonyl compound under mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, X-ray single crystal of new RuCl2(dppb)diamine complexes and their application in hydrogenation of Cinnamic aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Hussain, Hanan; Al-Far, Rawhi; Mahfouz, Refaat; Hammouti, Belkheir; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    The preparation of new three trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(N-N)] with mixed diamine (N-N) and 1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) ligands, starting from RuCl2(PPh3)3 as precursor is presented. The complexes are characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C and 31P{1H}NMR, FAB-MS, TG/DTA and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex (2L1) crystallizes in the monoclinic unit cells with the space group P21. The catalysts are evaluated for their Cinnamic aldehyde hydrogenation. The catalysts show excellent activity and selectivity for the unsaturated carbonyl compound under mild conditions.

  20. Anisotropic thermal expansion and phase transitions in Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-0.3PbTiO 3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yanxue; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Xiangyong; Jin, Weiqing; Luo, Haosu

    2006-06-01

    The thermal expansion and phase transitions of [0 0 1], [1 1 1], and [1 1 2bar] oriented unpoled and poled 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-0.3PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.3PT) single crystals were investigated by a dilatometer technique. The temperature dependence of thermal strain and thermal expansion coefficient for all three orientations showed nonlinearity and large anomalies, which related with polar regions and phase transitions. Unpoled crystals exhibited similar feature in thermal expansion. However, [0 0 1] poled crystal showed an intermediate monoclinic (M) state between rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) ferroelectric states. Negative thermal expansion along [1 1 1] direction while a positive thermal expansion along [1 1 2bar] direction were observed over a wide temperature range when poled along [1 1 1] direction. The results reveal that the lattice thermal expansion and phase transitions in the crystals are anisotropic and strongly dependent upon temperature and electrical history.

  1. Growth of organic benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique and its structural, spectral, thermal, optical, mechanical and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuraja, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystal was successfully grown by the vertical Bridgman technique (VBT). The crystal system was identified and lattice parameters have been measured from the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurement. Fourier transforms infrared spectral studies have been carried out to find out the functional groups of BMZ crystal. The optical transmittance and the cut-off wavelength of BMZ were identified using UV-Vis NIR studies and the cut-off wavelength was found to be 294 nm. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss as a function of frequency and temperature was measured for the grown BMZ crystal. Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify the mechanical stability of the grown crystal. Chemical etching study was carried out using different etchants and the etch pit density (EPD) was calculated and compared. The third order nonlinear optical property of BMZ crystal was studied by using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The magnitude of nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) have been found to be in the range of 10-11 m2/W, 10-4 m/W and 10-5 esu respectively. Photoluminescence spectrum was recorded using a xenon lamp in the range of 330-585 nm and it exhibits ultraviolet light emission.

  2. Phase transitions and thermal-stress-induced structural changes in a ferroelectric Pb (Zr0.80Ti0. 20)O3 single crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; ...

    2014-12-22

    Zirconium-rich lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) Pb(Zr0.80Ti0.20)O3 single crystal is studied by polarized-Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature. We show that the crystal possesses complex domain boundaries which show no sign of instability even 200 K above the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition. The boundary stabilized the domains which had the same orientation after cyclic heating and cooling up to 773 K. The domains transformed normally to the cubic paraelectric phase, but returned to their original state after cooling. Physical mechanism behind the reversible behavior is related to the strain between the boundary region and domain, which forces the domain to grow similarlymore » after each heating and cooling cycle. Electron backscattering diffraction measurements show that macroscopic domains, lengths scale in hundreds of microns, are divided into regions whose Pb-displacements are not correlated. The results are notably interesting for non-volatile memory development as it implies that the original ferroelectric state can be restored after the material has been transformed to a paraelectric phase. Incoherent Pbdisplacements play a role for polarization switching.« less

  3. Thermal Conductivity Investigation of {Ca}_{9} {RE}({VO}_{4})_{7} (RE = La, Nd, Gd) and {Ca}_{10}M(VO_{4})_{7} (M = Li, Na, K) Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, P. A.; Skrobov, S. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Kosmyna, M. B.; Puzikov, V. M.; Nazarenko, B. P.; Shekhovtsov, A. N.; Behrooz, A.; Paszkowicz, W.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Shereshovets, N. N.; Voitikov, S. V.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The {Ca}9{RE}({VO}4)7 (RE = La, Nd, Gd) and {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method. The binary vanadates are isostructural to "whitlockite" mineral (rhombohedral symmetry, R3 c space group). Their thermal conductivity has been investigated in the range 50 K-300 K parallel to the c axis. For {Ca}9{Gd}({VO}4)7 crystals, the thermal conductivity has been investigated in the range 300 K-550 K also. Additionally, for the {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) crystals the heat capacity has been studied in the temperature range 80 K-300 K. The character of the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is close to that of glasses. The possible reasons of the observed features of the thermal conductivity have been analyzed. Raman spectra of {Ca}_{10}{M}({VO}4)7 (M = Li, Na, K) crystals have been measured and discussed. The spectral lines were broad and similar to polycrystalline or amorphous solids. These crystals are expected to be suitable for application as efficient nonlinear optic and laser materials.

  4. Single crystal: Urea bisthiourea sodium acetate synthesis, growth and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, R.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Crystals of urea bisthiourea sodium acetate (UBTSA) were successfully grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Recrystallization process was used to increase the purity of the grown crystal. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal XRD, FT-Raman, UV and TGA/DTA analysis. Structure and unit cell parameters were determined by single crystal XRD. Functional groups of grown crystal and their modes of vibration were identified using FT-Raman spectral analysis. Absorbance percentage of the grown crystal was studied using UV analysis. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis reveal that the good thermal stability of the material.

  5. GALLIUM ARSENIDE DENDRITE SINGLE CRYSTAL PROGRAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARSENIDES, *GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, *LABORATORY FURNACES, * SOLAR CELLS , CRUCIBLES, DESIGN, DIFFUSION, EXPLOSIONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, MATERIALS, PHOSPHORUS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, ZINC

  6. Stacking fault energy in some single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2012-06-01

    The stacking fault energy of single crystals has been reported using the peak shift method. Presently studied all single crystals are grown by using a direct vapor transport (DVT) technique in the laboratory. The structural characterizations of these crystals are made by XRD. Considerable variations are shown in deformation (α) and growth (β) probabilities in single crystals due to off-stoichiometry, which possesses the stacking fault in the single crystal.

  7. Anisotropic electrical and thermal conductivity in Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ [AE = Ca, Sr1-xBax (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0)] single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Song-Tao; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Xiong, Ye; Lv, Yang-Yang; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ (AE represents alkaline earth), constructed by stacking of rock-salt Bi2AE2O4 and triangle CoO2 layers alternatively along c-axis, is one of promising thermoelectric oxides. The most impressive feature of Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ, as reported previously, is their electrical conductivity mainly lying along CoO2 plane, adjusting Bi2AE2O4 layer simultaneously manipulates both thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. It in turn optimizes thermoelectric performance of these materials. In this work, we characterize the anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivity along both ab-plane and c-direction of Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sr1-xBax) single crystals. The results substantiate that isovalence replacement in Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ remarkably modifies their electrical property along ab-plane; while their thermal conductivity along ab-plane only has a slightly difference. At the same time, both the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity along c-axis of these materials also have dramatic changes. Certainly, the electrical resistance along c-axis is too high to be used as thermoelectric applications. These results suggest that adjusting nano-block Bi2AE2O4 layer in Bi2AE2Co2O8+δ cannot modify the thermal conductivity along high electrical conductivity plane (ab-plane here). The evolution of electrical property is discussed by Anderson localization and electron-electron interaction U. And the modification of thermal conductivity along c-axis is attributed to the microstructure difference. This work sheds more light on the manipulation of the thermal and electrical conductivity in the layered thermoelectric materials.

  8. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, Joshua; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Lee, Sangkwon; Yan, Haoquan; Choi, Heon-Jin; Yang, Peidong

    2003-04-10

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an 'epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200 nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50 nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

  9. Coupled theoretical interpretation and experimental investigation of the anisotropy of the lattice thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquot, A.; Bayer, B.; Winkler, M.; Boettner, H.; Jaegle, M.

    2012-09-15

    The Debye model is modified for the calculation of the lattice thermal conductivity and used to gain insight into the anisotropy of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. In this work, the Debye temperature is not used to estimate the cutoff frequencies of the phonons that carry heat. The cutoff frequencies are defined by setting an upper limit to the energy of acoustic phonons using the complete dispersion relations. The anisotropy of the thermal conductivity is found to be unrelated to the anisotropy of the sound velocities. It is found that the sound velocity is almost isotropic when the longitudinal and two transversal waves are added together. In addition the relaxation time must be a function of the cutoff frequencies and counterbalances the anisotropy arising from the variation of the number of acoustic phonons traveling in various directions. It is concluded that the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity is mostly related to the Grueneisen's constant. - Graphical abstract: Dispersion relations of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} along c-axis. The cutoff frequencies are found to be anisotropic and are defined exactly in this article where the acoustic branch crosses the optical branch. This affects both the number of phonons that carry heat in a given direction and the number of phonons that can scatter them. This is decisive for understanding the lattice thermal conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the anisotropy of the lattice thermal conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provide a definition of the cutoff frequencies that makes sense. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of the number of frees parameter in phenomenological model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction that the anisotropy is a function of the scattering mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of experimental verification of theory.

  10. On the observation of physical, chemical, optical and thermal changes induced by 50 MeV silicon ion in benzimidazole single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, T.; Mythili, P.; Srinivasan, P.; Vijayan, N.; Kanjilal, D.; Gopalakrishnan, R. Ramasamy, P.

    2008-04-01

    The 50 MeV Si ion irradiation-induced modifications on structural, chemical, optical and thermal properties of Vertical Bridgman grown benzimidazole (BMZ) crystals have been studied. The FTIR studies have been used to analyze the variation in various bonds that are associated with the functional groups in the native and the irradiated sample. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the compressive strains that are generated due to irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the conductivity of BMZ crystals has been studied. The fluorescence spectrum shows the existence of some energy levels, which remains unaffected after irradiation. The thermal analysis reveals that the melting point remains unaffected and the sample does not decompose as a result of irradiation.

  11. Growth and characterization of organic single crystal benzyl carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Solanki, S. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Suthan, T.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl carbamate single crystal is grown by a solution and vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. The cell parameters and morphologies are assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the crystalline perfection of the grown benzyl carbamate crystal. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy study has been applied to arrive at the different functional groups. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to study its thermal behavior. The microhardness test is carried out and the load dependent hardness is measured.

  12. Apparatus And Method For Producing Single Crystal Metallic Objects

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Shyh-Chin; Gigliotti, Jr., Michael Francis X.; Rutkowski, Stephen Francis; Petterson, Roger John; Svec, Paul Steven

    2006-03-14

    A mold is provided for enabling casting of single crystal metallic articles including a part-defining cavity, a sorter passage positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the part-defining cavity, and a seed cavity positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the sorter passage. The sorter passage includes a shape suitable for encouraging a single crystal structure in solidifying molten metal. Additionally, a portion of the mold between the sorter passage and the part-defining cavity includes a notch for facilitating breakage of a cast article proximate the notch during thermal stress build-up, so as to prevent mold breakage or the inclusion of part defects.

  13. Controlled Folding of Single Crystal Graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Huang, Ming; Kim, Na Yeon; Cunning, Benjamin V; Huang, Yuan; Qu, Deshun; Chen, Xianjue; Jin, Sunghwan; Biswal, Mandakini; Zhang, Xu; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lim, Hyunseob; Yoo, Won Jong; Lee, Zonghoon; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2017-03-08

    Folded graphene in which two layers are stacked with a twist angle between them has been predicted to exhibit unique electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties. We report the folding of a single crystal monolayer graphene film grown on a Cu(111) substrate by using a tailored substrate having a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic region. Controlled film delamination from the hydrophilic region was used to prepare macroscopic folded graphene with good uniformity on the millimeter scale. This process was used to create many folded sheets each with a defined twist angle between the two sheets. By identifying the original lattice orientation of the monolayer graphene on Cu foil, or establishing the relation between the fold angle and twist angle, this folding technique allows for the preparation of twisted bilayer graphene films with defined stacking orientations and may also be extended to create folded structures of other two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  14. Comment on the paper "Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material" by P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan [Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130].

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Dhuri, Sunder N; Nadkarni, V S

    2014-01-03

    We argue that (trans)-4-chloro-4'-nitrostilbene is not a new organic nonlinear optical material as claimed by Dinakaran and Kalainathan [P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan, Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material, Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130], but instead a well-known compound whose synthesis, spectral data, single crystal structure and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency are well documented in the literature. The title paper is completely erroneous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single Crystal Synthesis and STM Studies of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    This is a final report for the work initiated in September of 1994 under the grant NAG8-1085 - NASA/OMU, on the fabrication of bulk and single crystal synthesis, specific heat measuring and STM studies of high temperature superconductors. Efforts were made to fabricate bulk and single crystals of mercury based superconducting material. A systematic thermal analysis on the precursors for the corresponding oxides and carbonates were carried out to synthesized bulk samples. Bulk material was used as seed in an attempt to grow single crystals by a two-step self flux process. On the other hand bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, We studied the specific heat behavior in the range from 80 to 300 K. Some preliminary attempts were made to study the atomic morphology of our samples. As part of our efforts we built an ac susceptibility apparatus for measuring the transition temperature of our sintered samples.

  16. Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Shaw, B.; Bayya, S.; Askins, C.; Peele, J.; Rhonehouse, D.; Meyers, J.; Thapa, R.; Gibson, D.; Sanghera, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the recent progress in the development of cladded single crystal fibers for high power single frequency lasers. Various rare earth doped single crystal YAG fibers with diameters down to 17 μm with length > 1 m have been successfully drawn using a state-of-the-art Laser Heated Pedestal Growth system. Single and double cladding on rare earth doped YAG fibers have been developed using glasses where optical and physical properties were precisely matched to doped YAG core single crystal fiber. The double clad Yb:YAG fiber structures have dimensions analogous to large mode area (LMA) silica fiber. We also report successful fabrications of all crystalline core/clad fibers where thermal and optical properties are superior over glass cladded YAG fibers. Various fabrication methods, optical characterization and gain measurements on these cladded YAG fibers are reported.

  17. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  18. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This methodmore » can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.« less

  19. Development of single crystal membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Cocks, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design and construction of a high pressure crystal growth chamber was accomplished which would allow the growth of crystals under inert gas pressures of 2 MN/sq m (300 psi). A novel crystal growth technique called EFG was used to grow tubes and rods of the hollandite compounds, BaMgTi7O16, K2MgTi7O16, and tubes of sodium beta-alumina, sodium magnesium-alumina, and potassium beta-alumina. Rods and tubes grown are characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques. The hollandite compounds are found to be two or three-phase, composed of coarse grained orientated crystallites. Single crystal c-axis tubes of sodium beta-alumina were grown from melts containing excess sodium oxide. Additional experiments demonstrated that crystals of magnesia doped beta-alumina and potassium beta-alumina also can be achieved by this EFG technique.

  20. Growth kinetics and bulk growth of inversely soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    To facilitate controlled nucleation rate to grow good quality inversely soluble LSMH single crystals, the nucleation kinetics was studied. The number of molecules in a critical nucleus and nucleation rate in LSMH crystallization process have been determined from experimentally measured induction period using classical nucleation theory. A good quality bulk size single crystal of Lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) has been grown with higher growth rate by modified Sankaranarayanan - Ramasamy (SR) method. A systematic investigation on UV-Vis-NIR transmittance, second harmonic generation and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LSMH single crystals has been carried out to evaluate the optical behavior of the LSMH single crystal. This work also investigates the third order nonlinear optical properties of the LSMH single crystals. Finally thermal behavior of the grown crystal was studied to know the first order phase transition in the grown LSMH single crystals.

  1. Thermally activated cation ordering in ZnGa2Se4 single crystals studied by Raman scattering, optical absorption, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, R; Gomis, O; Pérez-González, E; Ortiz, H M; Manjón, F J; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Muñoz, A; Alonso-Gutiérrez, P; Sanjuán, M L; Ursaki, V V; Tiginyanu, I M

    2013-04-24

    Order-disorder phase transitions induced by thermal annealing have been studied in the ordered-vacancy compound ZnGa2Se4 by means of Raman scattering and optical absorption measurements. The partially disordered as-grown sample with tetragonal defect stannite (DS) structure and I4¯2m space group has been subjected to controlled heating and cooling cycles. In situ Raman scattering measurements carried out during the whole annealing cycle show that annealing the sample to 400 °C results in a cation ordering in the sample, leading to the crystallization of the ordered tetragonal defect chalcopyrite (DC) structure with I4¯ space group. On decreasing temperature the ordered cation scheme of the DC phase can be retained at ambient conditions. The symmetry of the Raman-active modes in both DS and DC phases is discussed and the similarities and differences between the Raman spectra of the two phases emphasized. The ordered structure of annealed samples is confirmed by optical absorption measurements and ab initio calculations, that show that the direct bandgap of DC-ZnGa2Se4 is larger than that of DS-ZnGa2Se4.

  2. Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped KDP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresan, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Anbarasan, P. M.

    2008-05-01

    Amino acids ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phospate crystals are grown by solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 mol% to 10 mol%. The solubility data for all dopants concentration were determined. There is variation in pH value and hence, there is habit modification of the grown crystals were characterized with UV-VIS, FT-IR studies, SHG trace elements and dielectric studies reveal slight distortion of lattice parameter for the heavily doped KDP crystals. UV-Visible spectra confirm the improvement in the transparency of these crystals on doping metal ions. FT-IR spectra reveal strong absorption band between 1400 and 1600 cm -1 for metal ion doped crystals. TGA-DTA studies reveal good thermal stability. The dopants increase the hardness value of the material and it also depends on the concentration of the dopants. Amino acids doping improved the NLO properties. The detailed results on the spectral parameters, habit modifications and constant values will be presented.

  3. A Coupled Thermal, Fluid Flow, and Solidification Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a new laser-based additive manufacturing technology under development at the Georgia Institute of Technology. SLE is aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal deposits of nickel-based superalloys through the melting of alloy powders onto superalloy substrates using a fast scanning Nd:YAG laser beam. The fast galvanometer control movement of the laser (0.2 to 2 m/s) and high-resolution raster scanning (20 to 200 µm line spacing) enables superior thermal control over the solidification process and allows the production of porosity-free, crack-free deposits of more than 1000 µm thickness. Here, we present a combined thermal and fluid flow model of the SLE process applied to alloy CMSX-4 with temperature-dependent thermo-physical properties. With the scanning beam described as a moving line source, the instantaneous melt pool assumes a convex hull shape with distinct leading edge and trailing edge characteristics. Temperature gradients at the leading and trailing edges are of order 2 × 105 and 104 K/m, respectively. Detailed flow analysis provides insights on the flow characteristics of the powder incorporating into the melt pool, showing velocities of order 1 × 10-4 m/s. The Marangoni effect drives this velocity from 10 to 15 times higher depending on the operating parameters. Prediction of the solidification microstructure is based on conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool. Time tracking of solidification history is incorporated into the model to couple the microstructure prediction model to the thermal-fluid flow model, and to predict the probability of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition. Qualitative agreement is obtained between simulation and experimental result.

  4. Diamond based adsorbents and their application in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peristyy, Anton A; Fedyanina, Olga N; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2014-08-29

    The idea of using diamond and diamond containing materials in separation sciences has attracted a strong interest in the past decade. The combination of a unique range of properties, such as chemical inertness, mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic stability, excellent thermal conductivity with minimal thermal expansion and intriguing adsorption properties makes diamond a promising material for use in various modes of chromatography. This review summarises the recent research on the preparation of diamond and diamond based stationary phases, their properties and chromatographic performance. Special attention is devoted to the dominant retention mechanisms evident for particular diamond containing phases, and their subsequent applicability to various modes of chromatography, including chromatography carried out under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced single crystal for SSME turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this program was to evaluate the influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and alternate heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy. The alloy chosen for the study was PWA 1480, a well characterized, commercial alloy which had previously been chosen as a candidate for the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbopump turbine blades. Microstructural characterization evaluated the influence of casting thermal gradient on dendrite arm spacing, casting porosity distribution and alloy homogeneity. Hot isostatic pressing was evaluated as a means of eliminating porosity as a preferred fatigue crack initiation site. The alternate heat treatment was chosen to improve hydrogen environment embrittlement resistance and for potential fatigue life improvement. Mechanical property evaluation was aimed primarily at determining improvements in low cycle and high cycle fatigue life due to the advanced processing methods. Statistically significant numbers of tests were conducted to quantitatively demonstrate life differences. High thermal gradient casting improves as-cast homogeneity, which facilitates solution heat treatment of PWA 1480 and provides a decrease in internal pore size, leading to increases in low cycle and high cycle fatigue lives.

  6. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  7. Confinement stabilises single crystal vaterite rods.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Anna S; Albarracin, Eduardo J; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Ihli, Johannes; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2014-05-11

    Single-crystals of vaterite, the least-stable anhydrous polymorph of CaCO3, are rare in biogenic and synthetic systems. We here describe the synthesis of high aspect ratio single crystal vaterite rods under additive-free conditions by precipitating CaCO3 within the cylindrical pores of track-etch membranes.

  8. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  9. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    ScienceCinema

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  10. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  11. Synthesis and structural characterization of a single-crystal to single-crystal transformable coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuyang; Allan, Phoebe K; Renouf, Catherine L; He, Xiang; McCormick, Laura J; Morris, Russell E

    2014-01-28

    A single-crystal to single-crystal transformable coordination polymer compound was hydrothermally synthesized. The structural rearrangement is induced by selecting a ligand that contains both strong and weaker coordinating groups. Both hydrated and dehydrated structures were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  12. Method of making single crystal fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Leonard J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Single crystal fibers are made from miniature extruded ceramic feed rods. A decomposable binder is mixed with powders to inform a slurry which is extruded into a small rod which may be sintered, either in air or in vacuum, or it may be used in the extruded and dried condition. A pair of laser beams focuses onto the tip of the rod to melt it thereby forming a liquid portion. A single crystal seed fiber of the same material as the feed rod contacts this liquid portion to establish a zone of liquid material between the feed rod and the single crystal seed fiber. The feed rod and the single crystal feed fiber are moved at a predetermined speed to solidify the molten zone onto the seed fiber while simultaneously melting additional feed rod. In this manner a single crystal fiber is formed from the liquid portion.

  13. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  14. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Smith, Edward; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, Dwight; Moore, Jim, Jr.; Patrick, Brian

    2005-05-01

    TRS is developing new actuators based on single crystal piezoelectric materials such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)x-1TixO3 (PMN-PT) which exhibit very high piezoelectric coefficients (d33 = 1800-2200 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 0.9), respectively, for a variety of applications, including active vibration damping, active flow control, high precision positioning, ultrasonic motors, deformable mirrors, and adaptive optics. The d32 cut crystal plate actuators showed d32 ~ -1600 pC/N, inter-digital electroded (IDE) plate actuators showed effective d33 ~ 1100 pC/N. Single crystal stack actuators with stroke of 10 μm-100 μm were developed and tested at both room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with either stack driver or plate driver were developed with stroke 70 μm - > 250 μm. For large stroke cryogenic actuation (> 1mm), a single crystal piezomotor was developed and tested at temperature of 77 K-300K and stroke of > 10mm and step resolution of 20 nm were achieved. In order to demonstrate the significance of developed single crystal actuators, modeling on single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors and helicopter flap control using single crystal actuators were conducted and the modeling results show that more than 20 wavelength wavefront error could be corrected by using the single crystal deformable mirrors and +/- 5.8 ° flap deflection will be obtained for a 36" flap using single crystal stack actuators.

  15. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  16. Microscale Laser Peen Forming of Single Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Y.; Fan, Y.; Kysar, J.; Vukelic, S.; Yao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of quickly increased requirement in many industrial products resulting from microtechnology, laser thermal microforming and microsurface treatment [microscale laser shock peening (?LSP)] have been well studied. By combining the beneficial effects of these two processes with a controlled bending deformation, microscale laser peen forming (?LPF) attracts more attention recently since it not only improves the fatigue life of the material but also shapes microscale metallic parts at the same time. In the present study, ?LSP of single crystal aluminum was presented to study anisotropic material response. Local plastic deformation was characterized by lattice rotation measured through electron backscatter diffraction. Residual stress distributions of both sides of a peened sample, characterized by x-ray microdiffraction, were compared with the results obtained from finite element method simulation. ?LPF anisotropic behavior was investigated in three effective slip systems via both the anisotropic slip line theory and numerical method. Also, the work hardening effect resulted from self-hardening, and latent hardening was analyzed through comparing the results with and without considering hardening.

  17. Ultrahigh-quality silicon carbide single crystals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Gunjishima, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ito, Tadashi; Okamoto, Atsuto; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Onda, Shoichi; Takatori, Kazumasa

    2004-08-26

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has a range of useful physical, mechanical and electronic properties that make it a promising material for next-generation electronic devices. Careful consideration of the thermal conditions in which SiC [0001] is grown has resulted in improvements in crystal diameter and quality: the quantity of macroscopic defects such as hollow core dislocations (micropipes), inclusions, small-angle boundaries and long-range lattice warp has been reduced. But some macroscopic defects (about 1-10 cm(-2)) and a large density of elementary dislocations (approximately 10(4) cm(-2)), such as edge, basal plane and screw dislocations, remain within the crystal, and have so far prevented the realization of high-efficiency, reliable electronic devices in SiC (refs 12-16). Here we report a method, inspired by the dislocation structure of SiC grown perpendicular to the c-axis (a-face growth), to reduce the number of dislocations in SiC single crystals by two to three orders of magnitude, rendering them virtually dislocation-free. These substrates will promote the development of high-power SiC devices and reduce energy losses of the resulting electrical systems.

  18. Single crystal plasticity by modeling dislocation density rate behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Benjamin L; Bronkhorst, Curt; Beyerlein, Irene; Cerreta, E. K.; Dennis-Koller, Darcie

    2010-12-23

    The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive model for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation rates within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive models relies on thermally-activated models which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain rates of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal model to the strain rate region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic model includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic model transitions from the low-rate thermally-activated regime to the high-rate drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions rates adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive model is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-rate response in fcc systems. The proposed material model incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening model tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance based on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain rates. The material model is fit to copper.

  19. β-NMR on single-crystal surfaces: Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdra, W.; Detje, M.; Ebinger, H.-D.; Jänsch, H. J.; Preyss, W.; Reich, H.; Veith, R.; Fick, D.; Röckelein, M.; Völk, H.-G.

    1995-03-01

    A new and highly sensitive β-NMR method to study adsorbates on single-crystal surfaces is presented. Contrary to conventional NMR, this method combines (via optical pumping) a high, nonthermal polarization of the adsorbed species with a particle counting method. Here, the β-active isotope 8Li is produced in the nuclear reaction D(7Li, 8Li)H using a high-pressure deuterium gas target. The fast 8Li ions are subsequently implanted into a hot graphite block where they thermally diffuse to the surface and desorb. The desorbing thermal velocity 8Li atoms are shaped into an atomic beam. Using a frequency modulated laser beam the atoms are transferred into a single hyperfine state by optical pumping. The so-achieved nuclear polarization of the atoms (before impinging on the single-crystal surface) is approximately 0.8 and can be switched in sign by an adiabatic high-frequency transition. The atoms adsorb on the single-crystal surface and their polarization—either freely decaying on the surface or driven by an external radio-frequency field—is observed via the decay asymmetry of the nuclear β-decay of the 8Li nuclei. This method realizes an effective sensitivity to the active NMR isotope of 5×103 atoms/cm2, which corresponds to a stationary coverage of 10-11 of a monolayer. The typical electron count rate is 400 Hz during β-NMR experiments.

  20. Single crystals fiber technology design. Where we are today?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebbou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Because of its performed mechanical, physical and optical properties, today single crystal fiber shape (SCFS) can be used for a large wide of application. As a function of the needed, it can be used as active or passive element in the component. The potential of single crystal fiber is extremely high. Intensive research has been devoted to design and optimize the technology process, but the increased technological requirements require continuous improvements at all stages of the fiber design: Fiber processing (growth fiber machine), starting raw materials, crucibles, growth direction, thermal gradient, gas atmosphere, fibers polishing, dopants segregation, packaging … This is demonstrated by the successful fiber pulling from the melt of more than 1 m length of sapphire, YAG and LuAG with performed properties.

  1. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  2. Design and fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-12-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN- 0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160 degrees C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the PMN-PT transducers.

  3. Laser-Aided Direct Writing of Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Super Alloy (N5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yichen; Choi, Jeongyoung; Mazumder, Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    This communication reports direct writing of René N5 nickel-based Super alloy. N5 powder was deposited on (100) single-crystal substrate of René N5, for epitaxial growth, using laser and induction heating with a specially designed closed-loop thermal control system. A thin wall (1 mm width) of René N5 single crystal of 22.1 mm (including 3 mm SX substrate) in height was successfully deposited within 100 layers. SEM and EBSD characterized the single-crystal nature of the deposit.

  4. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Horton, Peter N.; Castro, Fernando A.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics. PMID:27874001

  5. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Horton, Peter N; Castro, Fernando A; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-11-22

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics.

  6. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Horton, Peter N.; Castro, Fernando A.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics.

  7. Performance of Single Crystal Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Singer, Waldemar; Singer, Xenia; Reschke, Detlef; Brinkmann, A.

    2008-07-01

    We have fabricated and tested a total of six single cell niobium cavities, made from single crystal, high purity niobium. Two of the three cavities of the TESLA shape (1300 MHz) were made from Heraeus niobium by extending a smaller single crystal by rolling and annealing steps; the third cavity was made by spinning from CBMM material. The three other cavities of the scaled "Low Loss" (LL) shape (two) and "High Gradient" (HG) shape (one) resonated at 2.3 GHz and were fabricated from "as received" single crystals, both from Heraeus and CBMM niobium. After appropriate surface treatments by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing most cavities performed quite nicely and peak surface magnetic fields of ~ 160 mT or above corresponding to accelerating gradients between 38 MV/m and 45 MV/m were reached. This paper reports about the performance of these cavities.

  8. Anisotropic Shock Propagation in Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Cox, J; Unites, W; Collins, G; McWilliams, R; Jeanloz, R; Bruygoo, S; Loubeyre, P

    2005-05-26

    Most single-crystal shock experiments have been performed in high-symmetry directions while the nature of shock propagation in low-symmetry directions remains relatively unstudied. It is well known that small-amplitude, linear acoustic waves propagating in low-symmetry directions can focus and/or form caustics (Wolfe, 1995). In this report we provide evidence for similar focusing behavior in nonlinear (shock) waves propagating in single crystals of silicon and diamond. Using intense lasers, we have driven non-planar (divergent geometry) shock waves through single-crystals of silicon or diamond and into an isotropic backing plate. On recovery of the backing plates we observe a depression showing evidence of anisotropic plastic strain with well-defined crystallographic registration. We observe 4-, 2-, and 3-fold symmetric impressions for [100], [110], and [111] oriented crystals respectively.

  9. The growth of Ho:YAG single crystals by Czochralski method and investigating the formed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hasani Barbaran, J. Ghani Aragi, M. R.; Javaheri, I.; Baharvand, B.; Tabasi, M.; Layegh Ahan, R.; Jangjo, E.

    2015-12-15

    Ho:YAG single crystals were grown by Czochralski technique, and investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical methods. The crystals were cut and polished in order to observe and analyze their cores. It was found that the deviation of the cores formed in the Czochralski grown Ho:YAG single crystals are resulted from non-symmetrical status of thermal insulation around the Iridium crucible.

  10. Growth of lithium triborate single crystals from molten salt solution under various temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guretskii, S. A.; Ges, A. P.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Ignatenko, A. A.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Luginets, A. M.; Milovanov, A. S.; Molchan, P. V.

    1995-12-01

    Single crystals of lithium triborate LiB 3O 5 (LBO) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method with B 2O 3 as a solvent using different temperature gradients in the zone of crystallization. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LBO single crystals have been investigated. The influence of post-growth thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere on the optical properties has been studied.

  11. Development of single crystal filaments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque-McConnell, M.M.

    1995-04-01

    The program just completed addresses a route to a more efficient longer-lasting electric light bulb filament. All current filaments for light bulbs are metallic in nature. They are subject to embrittlement with age (large grain growth) and relatively high vapor pressures which limits their operating temperature. There is evidence which suggests advantages to using high temperature refractory single crystal fibers as a filament for a light bulb. These refractory materials may include materials such as hafnium or tantalum carbide which have melting points about 500{degrees}C higher than tungsten. Another advantage is that single crystal fibers have a very high degree of crystalline perfection with very few voids and dislocations. Without these imperfections, the atomic mobility at high temperatures is highly restricted. Thus single crystal fibers are very stable at high temperature and will last longer. The efficiencies result from running these single crystal ceramic fiber filaments at higher temperatures and the higher emissivity of the carbide filaments compared to tungsten. The amount of visible light is proportional to the 4the power of the temperature thus a 500{degrees}C higher operating give about a 3-fold increase in radiation in the visible range. The program accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Single crystal fibers of JfC sufficient crystal quality for light bulb filament applications were made. (2) The HfC fiber furnace growth chamber, power control and data collection system was developed for the laboratory scale plant. (3) method for mounting and apparatuses for testing the single crystal fiber filaments were developed and built.

  12. Large-lattice-parameter perovskite single-crystal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uecker, Reinhard; Bertram, Rainer; Brützam, Mario; Galazka, Zbigniew; Gesing, Thorsten M.; Guguschev, Christo; Klimm, Detlef; Klupsch, Michael; Kwasniewski, Albert; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2017-01-01

    The pseudobinary system LaLuO3-LaScO3 was explored in hopes of discovering new perovskite-type substrates with pseudocubic lattice parameters above 4 Å. A complete solid solution of the type (LaLuO3)1-x(LaScO3)x forms between the end members LaLuO3 and LaScO3, enabling large single crystals of (LaLuO3)1-x(LaScO3)x to be grown from the melt. A single crystal with x≈0.34 was demonstrated. Considering the maximum thermal load of the iridium crucibles appropriate for Czochralski growth of this solid solution, the theoretically maximum achievable x-value is 0.67. Based on the phase diagram determined, it is anticipated that single crystals with pseudocubic lattice constants between 4.09 and 4.18 Å can be grown in this system by the Czochralski method.

  13. Characterization of KHCO3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhassan, S.; Salman, F.; Elmansy, M.; Sheha, E.

    Single crystals of KHCO3 were grown by the slow evaporation technique of an aqueous solution. Characterization of the sample was done using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra (IR) and the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the sample was a single crystal. The results obtained by IR and DSC indicated the presence of phase transition. From the analysis of DSC, the activation energy of transition was carried out by two methods (Kissinger and Ozawa).

  14. Single crystals of selected titanates and tungstates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The compound preparation and crystal growth of a number of mixed titanate compositions was investigated. None of the compounds studied were found to melt congruently and therefore, crystal growth was extremely difficult. Various single crystal preparation methods always resulted in mixed phases from which 1-2 mm size crystals could be separated. It is concluded from this study that before successful single crystal growth can be accomplished, a detailed study of the phase diagrams in each of the systems of interest must be completed.

  15. Radiation damage in single crystal CVD diamond material investigated with a high current relativistic 197Au beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietraszko, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Grilj, V.; Koenig, W.; Spataro, S.; Träger, M.

    2014-11-01

    Single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition (ScCVD) diamond based prototype detectors have been constructed for the high intensity heavy ion experiments HADES and CBM at the future FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. Their properties have been studied with a high current density beam (about 2-3×106/s/mm2) of 1.25A GeV Au69+197 ions. Details of the design, the intrinsic properties of the detectors and their performance after irradiation with such a beam are reported.

  16. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.

  17. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; ...

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the mainmore » reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.« less

  18. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-01

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k ) ˜2000 W m-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ˜200 W m-1K-1 . To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single-crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k . This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very-high-quality single-crystal samples can be synthesized.

  19. Growth of single-crystal gallium nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, R.; Richman, D.; Tietjen, J.

    1970-01-01

    Use of ultrahigh purity ammonia prevents oxygen contamination of GaN during growth, making it possible to grow the GaN at temperatures as high as 825 degrees C, at which point single crystal wafers are deposited on /0001/-oriented sapphire surfaces.

  20. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. `Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4cm2V-1s-1. This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  1. Wet etching and infrared absorption of AlN bulk single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiwei, Li; Youwen, Zhao; Zhiyuan, Dong; Jun, Yang; Weijie, Hu; Jianhong, Ke

    2009-07-01

    The defects and the lattice perfection of an AlN (0001) single crystal grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method were investigated by wet etching, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared absorption, respectively. A regular hexagonal etch pit density (EPD) of about 4000 cm-2 is observed on the (0001) Al surface of an AlN single crystal. The EPD exhibits a line array along the slip direction of the wurtzite structure, indicating a quite large thermal stress born by the crystal in the growth process. The XRD full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the single crystal is 35 arcsec, suggesting a good lattice perfection. Pronounced infrared absorption peaks are observed at wave numbers of 1790, 1850, 2000, and 3000 cm-1, respectively. These absorptions might relate to impurities O, C, Si and their complexes in AlN single crystals.

  2. Environmental Qualification of a Single-Crystal Silicon Mirror for Spaceflight Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Chambers, John; Rohrback. Scott; Bly, Vincent; Morell, Armando; Budinoff, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is the environmental qualification of a single-crystal silicon mirror for spaceflight use. The single-crystal silicon mirror technology is a previous innovation, but until now, a mirror of this type has not been qualified for spaceflight use. The qualification steps included mounting, gravity change measurements, vibration testing, vibration- induced change measurements, thermal cycling, and testing at the cold operational temperature of 225 K. Typical mirrors used for cold applications for spaceflight instruments include aluminum, beryllium, glasses, and glass-like ceramics. These materials show less than ideal behavior after cooldown. Single-crystal silicon has been demonstrated to have the smallest change due to temperature change, but has not been spaceflight-qualified for use. The advantage of using a silicon substrate is with temperature stability, since it is formed from a stress-free single crystal. This has been shown in previous testing. Mounting and environmental qualification have not been shown until this testing.

  3. Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  4. Single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7 particle formation by aerosol decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodas, Toivo; Datye, Abhaya; Lee, Victor; Engler, Edward

    1989-03-01

    Single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7 particles have been formed in a carbon-free gaseous flow system by thermally decomposing droplets containing the nitrate salts of Y, Ba, and Cu in water followed by calcining and annealing in the gas phase. The electron diffraction pattern for particles ranging in size from 0.1 to 1.5 μm corresponded to single crystals of orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7 while the powder x-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of single-phase material. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed a similar composition for all particles examined. Iodometric titration showed that the particles were fully oxygenated. Two types of single-crystal particles were observed, equiaxed and elongated. Formation of solid single-crystal particles is favored by operation near the melting point of the material and by long reactor-residence times.

  5. Lightweight optical mirrors formed in single crystal substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for manufacturing a lightweight mirror from a single crystal material, such as single crystal silicon. As a near perfect single crystal material, single crystal silicon has much lower internal stress than a conventional material. This means much less distortion of the optical surface during the light weighting process. After being ground and polished, a single crystal silicon mirror is light weighted by removing material from the back side using ultrasonic machining. After the light weighting process, the single crystal silicon mirror may be used as-is or further figured by conventional polishing or ion milling, depending on the application and the operating wavelength.

  6. Optimizing Scale Adhesion on Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    To improve scale adhesion, single crystal superalloys have been desulfurized to levels below 1 ppmw by hydrogen annealing. A transition to fully adherent behavior has been shown to occur at a sulfur level of about 0.2 ppmw, as demonstrated for PWA 1480, PWA 1484, and Rene N5 single crystal superalloys in 1100-1150 C cyclic oxidation tests up to 2000 h. Small additions of yttrium (15 ppmw) also have been effective in producing adhesion for sulfur contents of about 5 ppmw. Thus the critical Y/S ratio required for adhesion was on the order of 3-to-1 by weight (1-to-1 atomic), in agreement with values estimated from solubility products for yttrium sulfides. While hydrogen annealing greatly improved an undoped alloy, yielding <= 0.01 ppmw S, it also produced benefits for Y-doped alloys without measurably reducing the sulfur content.

  7. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, L.; Fan, D.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M.; Suo, T.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. L.; Qi, M. L.; Zhu, M. H.; Luo, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (˜106 s-1 ) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates.

  8. Oxygen Incorporation in Rubrene Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D. T.; Mayer, Jeff; Wan, Alan S.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.; Podzorov, Vitaly; Feldman, Leonard C.; Garfunkel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal rubrene is a model organic electronic material showing high carrier mobility and long exciton lifetime. These properties are detrimentally affected when rubrene is exposed to intense light under ambient conditions for prolonged periods of time, possibly due to oxygen up-take. Using photoelectron, scanning probe and ion-based methods, combined with an isotopic oxygen exposure, we present direct evidence of the light-induced reaction of molecular oxygen with single crystal rubrene. Without a significant exposure to light, there is no reaction of oxygen with rubrene for periods of greater than a year; the crystal's surface (and bulk) morphology and chemical composition remain essentially oxygen-free. Grand canonical Monte Carlo computations show no sorbtion of gases into the bulk of rubrene crystal. A mechanism for photo-induced oxygen inclusion is proposed. PMID:24786311

  9. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  10. Biomineralization of nanoscale single crystal hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Omokanwaye, Tiffany; Wilson, Otto C; Gugssa, Ayelle; Anderson, Winston

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles which formed during the subcutaneous implantation of crab shell in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The initial SAED characterization evidence indicated the presence of an amorphous calcium phosphate phase. The electron dense nanophase particles which formed in the wound healing zone displayed broad diffuse rings which usually indicate a low crystalline order or amorphous phase. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these mineralized regions contained discrete single crystal particles less than 5nm in size. Micrographs taken at successively higher magnifications revealed very small nanoparticles with a hexagonal arrangement of ion channels with characteristic spacing of 0.54nm and 0.23nm. This study revealed that single crystal hydroxyapatite nanoparticles consisting of only a few unit cells formed via a biomineralization directed process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Crystals Grown Under Unconstrained Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunagawa, Ichiro

    Based on detailed investigations on morphology (evolution and variation in external forms), surface microtopography of crystal faces (spirals and etch figures), internal morphology (growth sectors, growth banding and associated impurity partitioning) and perfection (dislocations and other lattice defects) in single crystals, we can deduce how and by what mechanism the crystal grew and experienced fluctuation in growth parameters through its growth and post-growth history under unconstrained condition. The information is useful not only in finding appropriate way to growing highly perfect and homogeneous single crystals, but also in deciphering letters sent from the depth of the Earth and the Space. It is also useful in discriminating synthetic from natural gemstones. In this chapter, available methods to obtain molecular information are briefly summarized, and actual examples to demonstrate the importance of this type of investigations are selected from both natural minerals (diamond, quartz, hematite, corundum, beryl, phlogopite) and synthetic crystals (SiC, diamond, corundum, beryl).

  12. Brittle crack propagation in silicon single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Brede, M.; Hsia, K.J.; Argon, A.S. )

    1991-07-15

    Viewing the brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture in intrinsically brittle solids as a crack tip initiated critical event of either nucleation of dislocation loops from the crack tip or the motion away of such dislocations from the crack tip, experiments have been devised to measure the critical activation energy of such events by measuring the arrest temperature of cleavage cracks with different velocities in experiments that were conducted on large Si single crystals subjected to a steep temperature gradient. While such experiments can provide precise information that can be related directly to mechanisms of crack tip bifurcation behavior, they are hampered by nontrivial perturbations that must be controlled. Here in the first of a series of communications we discuss the nature of these perturbations in Si single crystals, cleaving either on the {l brace}111{r brace} or the {l brace}110{r brace} planes.

  13. Ionic diffusion in single crystals of vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Maraqah, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Novel guest-host compounds, based on single crystal vermiculite, were synthesized by diffusive techniques through a new hydrogen vermiculite. Single crystals were chosen because of the ease of characterization. An investigation of the ion transport properties of these single crystals was done to determine the mechanism of conductivity including the predominant charge carrier. Measurements of the ionic conductivity using impedance spectroscopy and X-ray lattice parameters of the ion-exchanged samples strongly suggest that the native cations and not protons are the major current carriers. Single crystals of hydrogen vermiculite were synthesized at room temperature by ion exchange from sodium-vermiculite using 1 molar acetic acid for a one week. Subsequent ion exchange with other cations was found to be much enhanced. Thus transition metals were exchanged in about a week in contrast to the need of several months using previous methods. The ionic conductivity of hydrogen vermiculite was measured and shown to be much lower than that of many other monovalent cations in the same host lattice. Its enthalpy of motion is also much lower. These marked differences suggest that protonic species do not play a significant role in charge transport in these layered materials. These materials were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and acid-base titration. Hydrogen-vermiculite was found to react with organic bases, like methylamine, ethylamine, n-butylamine, n-hexylamine, n-octylamine, n-decylamine, aniline, acrylamide, methacrylaminde, urea, 1,10phenanthroline, and 1,1phenanthroline ferrous sulfate complex, to undergo ion exchange with metal cations like sodium, zinc, copper(II) ions and polymerization reactions could be performed in the galleries of the structure like pyrrole and aniline. Its behavior was compared with that of powdered montmorillonite.

  14. Growth of single crystals under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popolitov, Vladislav Ivanovich; Litvin, Boris Nikolaevich

    The book summarizes the available theoretical, methodological, and experimental data on the hydrothermal growth of inorganic compounds, such as simple and complex oxides, sulfides, silicates, germanates, phosphates, niobates, and tantalates. Attention is given to the physicochemical, hydrodynamic, and kinetic characteristics of the growth of these compounds, as well as hydrothermal growth techniques and equipment. The discussion also covers the morphogenetic characteristics of hydrothermally grown single crystals, their principal physical properties, and X-ray diffraction and structural data.

  15. Anisotropy of sapphire single crystal sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Minnebaev, K. F.; Tolpin, K. A.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2015-08-15

    We have studied the spatial distribution of particles sputtered from the base (0001) plane of a sapphire single crystal with trigonal crystalline lattice (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that can be considered a superposition of two hexagonal close packed (hcp) structures–the ideal sublattice of oxygen and a somewhat deformed sublattice of aluminum. It is established that the particles sputtered from the base plane of sapphire are predominantly deposited along the sides of an irregular hexagon with spots at its vertices. The patterns of spots have been also studied for sputtering of particles from the (0001) face of a zinc single crystal with the hcp lattice. The spots of sputtered Zn atoms are arranged at the vertices of concentric equilateral hexagons. In both cases, the observed anisotropy of sputtering is related to focused collisions (direct and assisted focusing) and the channeling process. The chemical composition of spots has been determined in various regions of sputtered sapphire deposition. The results are discussed in comparison to analogous earlier data for secondary ion emission from an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal.

  16. Secondary particle emission from sapphire single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnebaev, K. F.; Khvostov, V. V.; Zykova, E. Yu.; Tolpin, K. A.; Colligon, J. S.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2015-07-01

    Secondary ion emission from sapphire single crystal has been studied experimentally and by means of computer simulation. The particular oscillations of secondary ion energy spectra and two specific maxima of O+ and Al+ ions were observed under irradiation of (0001) sapphire face by 1 and 10 keV Ar+ ions. We have explained this by the interplay of the charge exchange processes between moving particles and solids. The existence of two maxima in energy spectra of O+ and Al+ secondary ions can be also connected with special features of single-crystal sputtering: the low-energy peak can be formed by random sputtering and the high-energy peak from focusing collisions. In addition some similarity was found between the positions of low-energy maximum in energy spectra of Al+ ions emitted from sapphire and the principal maxima of Al+ ions ejected from the aluminum single crystal. This indicates a possibility to explain the presence of low-energy maximum in energy spectra of secondary ions ejecting from sapphire by emission of Al+ ions from aluminum islands appearing in a number of cases on the sapphire surface due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. These different mechanisms of creating the energy spectra of ions emitted from sapphire should be taken in account.

  17. Single crystal complex oxide on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Lee, Oukjae; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Flexible ferroelectrics are needed for various applications such as biocompatible energy harvesting and flexible memory. In this sector, most of the current research is focused on organic piezoelectric materials which have advantage of flexibility but suffers severely from poor energy conversion and generation efficiency. On the contrary, owing to very high electromechanical coupling factor (representing energy conversion efficiency) complex oxides are the best choices as energy harvesting and transduction elements, especially for transforming mechanical energies into electronic energy. Still their usage in energy harvesting is very limited mainly due to the stringent growth conditions of single crystals, high temperature needed for crystallization and lack of flexibility and stretchability. We have shown that single crystal Pb0.8Zr0.2TiO3 can be epitaxially transferred on flexible plastic substrate. The transferred PZT shows 70 uC/cm2 remnant polarization and dielectric constant over 100 even when it is bent. These results suggest the possibility of single crystal complex oxide devices on flexible platform.

  18. Single crystal diamond detector for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirru, F.; Kisielewicz, K.; Nowak, T.; Marczewska, B.

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of synthetic diamonds grown as a CVD single crystal on a high pressure high temperature substrate offers a wide range of applications. In particular, because of the near tissue equivalence and its small size (good spatial resolution), CVD single crystal diamond finds applicability in radiotherapy as a dosemeter of ionizing radiation. In this paper we report the electrical and dosimetric properties of a new diamond detector which was fabricated at IFJ based on a single crystal detector-grade CVD diamond provided with a novel contact metallization. Diamond properties were assessed at IFJ using a Theratron 680E therapeutic 60Co gamma rays unit and at COOK with 6 and 18 MV x-rays Varian Clinac CL2300 C/D accelerator. The new dosemeter showed high electric and dosimetric performances: low value of dark current, high current at the level of some nanoamperes during irradiation, very fast dynamic response with a rise time amounting to parts of a second, good stability and repeatability of the current and linearity of the detector signal at different dose and dose rate levels typically applied in radiotherapy. The results confirm the potential applicability of diamond material as a dosemeter for applications in radiotherapy.

  19. Growth of shaped single crystals of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Abel; Rondón, Deyanira; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.

    1996-09-01

    We present a procedure for obtaining protein single crystals that fill the capillary tubes in which they grow. The implementation was typical of the gel acupuncture method and the four different proteins are used as examples: lysozyme (HEW), thaumatin I, ferritin and insulin. Rod- and prismatic-shaped protein single crystals of these four proteins were grown inside capillary tubes of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mm in diameter and, for the case of lysozyme, up to 1.2 mm in diameter. The maximum length measured along the long axes of the rod crystals was 1.6 mm again for lysozyme crystals. It was observed that, once the capillary tube was filled, the crystal continues to grow by diffusion of the precipitating agent throughout the porous network formed by the protein crystal structure. We also discuss the possibility of growing these cylinders of crystalline proteins by the addition of protein solution to the mother liquor through the upper end of the glass capillary while the precipitating agent diffuses through the protein crystal itself. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the single crystal character of the protein rods.

  20. Growth and characterization of morpholinium dihydrogenphosphate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, D. Rajan; Arul, H.; Vizhi, R. Ezhil

    2016-10-01

    Morpholinium dihydrogenphosphate (MDP) single crystals were synthesized, and were subsequently grown by controlled evaporation technique at room temperature for nonlinear optical applications. The grown crystal, which belongs to the monoclinic system with the space group P21, was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction to confirm the structure. UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy was done on the grown crystal and it showed good optical transparency in the entire visible region with a minimum cut-off wavelength of 289 nm. The optical band gap was computed as a function of photon energy using Tauc's plot. The refractive index of the grown crystal was determined using a Metricon Prism Coupler. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) traces disclosed the thermal stability of the compound. The mechanical strength of the crystal was investigated by a Vickers microhardness tester. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were calculated and plotted as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The second harmonic conversion efficiency was determined using the Kurtz-Perry powder technique, and the efficiency was found to be 1.2 times greater than that of standard KDP.

  1. Characterization of damage induced by heavy neutron irradiation on multilayered {sup 6}LiF-single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2009-10-01

    High performance neutron detectors sensitive to both thermal and fast neutrons are of great interest to monitor the high neutron flux produced, e.g., by fission and fusion reactors. An obvious requirement for such an application is neutron irradiation hardness. This is why diamond based neutron detectors are currently under test in some of these facilities. In this paper the damaging effects induced in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond based detectors by a neutron fluence of approx2x10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} have been studied and significant changes in spectroscopic, electrical, and optical properties have been observed. The detectors are fabricated using high quality synthetic CVD single crystal diamond using the p-type/intrinsic/Schottky metal/{sup 6}LiF layered structure recently proposed by Marinelli et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143509 (2006)], which allows simultaneous detection of thermal and fast neutrons. Neutron radiation hardness up to at least 2x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} fast (14 MeV) neutron fluence has been confirmed so far [see Pillon et al., (Fusion Eng. Des. 82, 1174 (2007)]. However, at the much higher neutron fluence of approx2x10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} damage is observed. The detector response to 5.5 MeV {sup 241}Am alpha-particles still shows a well resolved alpha-peak, thus confirming the good radiation hardness of the device but a remarkable degradation and a significant instability with time of charge collection efficiency and energy resolution arise. Symmetric, nearly Ohmic I-V (current-voltage) characteristics have been recorded from the metal/intrinsic/p-doped diamond layered structure, which before neutron irradiation acted as a Schottky barrier diode with a strong rectifying behavior. The nature and the distribution of the radiation induced damage have been deeply examined by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A more heavily damaged area into the intrinsic diamond at the same position and with the same extension of

  2. Gallium arsenide single crystal solar cell structure and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A production method and structure for a thin-film GaAs crystal for a solar cell on a single-crystal silicon substrate (10) comprising the steps of growing a single-crystal interlayer (12) of material having a closer match in lattice and thermal expansion with single-crystal GaAs than the single-crystal silicon of the substrate, and epitaxially growing a single-crystal film (14) on the interlayer. The material of the interlayer may be germanium or graded germanium-silicon alloy, with low germanium content at the silicon substrate interface, and high germanium content at the upper surface. The surface of the interface layer (12) is annealed for recrystallization by a pulsed beam of energy (laser or electron) prior to growing the interlayer. The solar cell structure may be grown as a single-crystal n.sup.+ /p shallow homojunction film or as a p/n or n/p junction film. A Ga(Al)AS heteroface film may be grown over the GaAs film.

  3. Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

  4. Growth and characterization of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystals by modified vertical Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, S. Siva Bala; Rajesh, N. P.; Suthan, T.

    2017-08-01

    The ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystals were grown by modified vertical Bridgman technique using two different temperature profiles. The grown ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies is used to identify the functional groups of the grown ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. The thermal behaviour of the ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate was analyzed by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The grown crystals were subjected to UV-Vis-NIR, fluorescence, photoconductivity, Vickers microhardness, dielectric studies and these results were compared.

  5. Shock response of He bubbles in single crystal Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Wang, L.; E, J. C.; Ma, H. H.; Luo, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    With large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate shock response of He nanobubbles in single crystal Cu. For sufficient bubble size or internal pressure, a prismatic dislocation loop may form around a bubble in unshocked Cu. The internal He pressure helps to stabilize the bubble against plastic deformation. However, the prismatic dislocation loops may partially heal but facilitate nucleation of new shear and prismatic dislocation loops. For strong shocks, the internal pressure also impedes internal jetting, while a bubble assists local melting; a high speed jet breaks a He bubble into pieces dispersed among Cu. Near-surface He bubbles may burst and form high velocity ejecta containing atoms and small fragments, while the ejecta velocities do not follow the three-dimensional Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions expected for thermal equilibrium. The biggest fragment size deceases with increasing shock strength. With a decrease in ligament thickness or an increase in He bubble size, the critical shock strength required for bubble bursting decreases, while the velocity range, space extension and average velocity component along the shock direction, increase. Small bubbles are more efficient in mass ejecting. Compared to voids and perfect single crystal Cu, He bubbles have pronounced effects on shock response including bubble/void collapse, Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), deformation mechanisms, and surface jetting. HEL is the highest for perfect single crystal Cu with the same orientations, followed by He bubbles without pre-existing prismatic dislocation loops, and then voids. Complete void collapse and shear dislocations occur for embedded voids, as opposed to partial collapse, and shear and possibly prismatic dislocations for He bubbles. He bubbles lower the threshhold shock strength for ejecta formation, and increase ejecta velocity and ejected mass.

  6. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformations in discrete hydrated dimeric copper complexes.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Shaikh M; Srivastava, Ashwini K; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2010-02-14

    The single crystals of discrete hydrated [(OAc)Cu(mu-hep)(2)Cu(OAc)].2H(2)O (.2H(2)O) and [(OAc)Cu(mu-hep)(2) Cu(O(n)Pr)].2H(2)O (.2H(2)O) (the lattice H(2)O molecules exist as a tetrameric water cluster, hep-H = 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine), OAc(-) = acetate and O(n)Pr(-) = n-propionate) undergo single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformations to the dehydrated and , respectively, under the influence of heat. The reverse SCSC processes of /-->.2H(2)O/.2H(2)O involving the regeneration of the lattice water tetramers take place on exposure of / to water vapour. However, the blue single crystal of discrete hydrated [(O(n)Pr)Cu(mu-hep)(2)Cu(O(n)Pr)].2H(2)O (.2H(2)O), incorporating the two bulkier O(n)Pr(-) terminal bidentate ligands, irreversibly converts to the green single crystal of a unique discrete tetrameric [Cu(4)(mu(3)hep)(2)(mu-hep)(2)(mu-O(n)Pr)(2)(O(n)Pr)(2)] () with double open cubane core either by heating or by a simple vapour diffusion technique via the breaking and forming of multiple covalent bonds.

  7. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function

  8. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker's microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  9. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-06-24

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of graphene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Tour, James M

    2014-04-15

    As a two-dimensional (2D) sp(2)-bonded carbon allotrope, graphene has attracted enormous interest over the past decade due to its unique properties, such as ultrahigh electron mobility, uniform broadband optical absorption and high tensile strength. In the initial research, graphene was isolated from natural graphite, and limited to small sizes and low yields. Recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have emerged as an important method for the scalable production of large-size and high-quality graphene for various applications. However, CVD-derived graphene is polycrystalline and demonstrates degraded properties induced by grain boundaries. Thus, the next critical step of graphene growth relies on the synthesis of large graphene single crystals. In this Account, we first discuss graphene grain boundaries and their influence on graphene's properties. Mechanical and electrical behaviors of CVD-derived polycrystalline graphene are greatly reduced when compared to that of exfoliated graphene. We then review four representative pathways of pretreating Cu substrates to make millimeter-sized monolayer graphene grains: electrochemical polishing and high-pressure annealing of Cu substrate, adding of additional Cu enclosures, melting and resolidfying Cu substrates, and oxygen-rich Cu substrates. Due to these pretreatments, the nucleation site density on Cu substrates is greatly reduced, resulting in hexagonal-shaped graphene grains that show increased grain domain size and comparable electrical properties as to exfoliated graphene. Also, the properties of graphene can be engineered by its shape, thickness and spatial structure. Thus, we further discuss recently developed methods of making graphene grains with special spatial structures, including snowflakes, six-lobed flowers, pyramids and hexagonal graphene onion rings. The fundamental growth mechanism and practical applications of these well-shaped graphene structures should be interesting topics and

  11. Characterization of zinc selenide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, Rosario A.

    1996-01-01

    ZnSe single crystals of high quality and low impurity levels are desired for use as substrates in optoelectronic devices. This is especially true when the device requires the formation of homoepitaxial layers. While ZnSe is commercially available, it is at present extremely expensive due to the difficulty of growing single crystal boules with low impurity content and the resultant low yields. Many researchers have found it necessary to heat treat the crystals in liquid Zn in order to remove the impurities, lower the resistivity and activate the photoluminescence at room temperature. The physical vapor transport method (PVT) has been successfully used at MSFC to grow many single crystals of II-VI semiconducting materials including ZnSe. The main goal at NASA has been to try to establish the effect of gravity on the growth parameters. To this effect, crystals have been grown vertically upwards or horizontally. Both (111) and (110) oriented ZnSe crystals have been obtained via unseeded PVT growth. Preliminary characterization of the horizontally grown crystals has revealed that Cu is a major impurity and that the low temperature photoluminescence spectra is dominated by the copper peak. The ratio of the copper peak to the free exciton peak is being used to determine variations in composition throughout the crystal. It was the intent of this project to map the copper composition of various crystals via photoluminescence first, then measure their electrical resistivity and capacitance as a function of frequency before proceeding with a heat treatment designed to remove the copper impurities. However, equipment difficulties with the photoluminescence set up, having to establish a procedure for measuring the electrical properties of the as-grown crystals and time limitations made us re-evaluate the project goals. Vertically grown samples designated as ZnSe-25 were chosen to be measured electrically since they were not expected to show as much variation in their

  12. A creep mechanism for metal single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cuitino, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we present a mechanism of creep for metal single crystals. This creep mechanism is consistent with the hardening mechanism in metals single crystals, i.e. forest hardening. Hardening in metals is mainly due to the resistance to the dislocation motion opposed by obstacles. In single crystals, obstacles are generated by dislocation segments crossing the glide plane (forest dislocations). When a dislocation is released from an obstacle, it moves until stopped at the following obstacle inducing plastic deformation. It has been proposed as a mechanisms of creep that obstacles can be overcome by dislocation climb. However, the kind of obstacles remains in planes parallel to the gliding plane. Thus, the dislocation segment after climb is still stopped at the same obstacle and unable to glide, unless, a second jog moving in the forest dislocation meets simultaneously with the jog in the gliding segment. In this case, the gliding segment can move by the height of the forest jog. The gliding area is proportional to this height and the distance between obstacles. We call this mechanism of glide by congruent climb. Creep rate depends on the jog density and jog velocity. For a well-annealed material the number of jogs is relatively low. As plastic deformation proceeds, new jogs are formed by mainly two mechanisms: dislocation intersection and double cross slip. For a crystal undergoing single slip, the cross-slip contribution dominates jog generation, since dislocation intersections are relatively rare due to the low forest dislocation density. The situation is reversed for multiple glide as a consequence of the rapid dislocation multiplication which takes place in the active slip systems, which results in a high rate of dislocation intersection. The number of cross slip events and dislocation intersections can be readily estimated by our dislocation model of plastic deformation. Jog velocity is determined based on vacancy diffusion along the dislocation core.

  13. Swimming photochromic azobenzene single crystals in triacrylate solution.

    PubMed

    Milam, Kenneth; O'Malley, Garrett; Kim, Namil; Golovaty, Dmitry; Kyu, Thein

    2010-06-17

    Self-motion of a growing single crystal of azobenzene chromophore in triacrylate solution (TA) is investigated in relation to the solid-liquid phase diagram bound by the solidus and liquidus lines. Upon thermal quenching from the isotropic melt to the crystal + liquid gap, various single crystals develop in a manner dependent on concentration and supercooling depth. During the crystal growth, TA solvent is rejected from the growing faceted fronts, enriching with TA in close proximity to the crystal-solution interface. The concentration gradient that formed as the result of TA expulsion induces convective flows in the solution and generates spatial variability of surface tension usually responsible for Marangoni effect. Either or both of these phenomena may have contributed to the observed self-motion including swimming, sinking, and floating of the azobenzene rhomboidal crystal in TA solution. A stationary rhomboidal crystal is also shown to swim upon irradiation with the UV light because of a mechanical torque generated by the trans-cis isomerization. Judging from the sinking or floating behavior of the azobenzene crystal, it may be inferred that the nucleation occurs at the solution-air interface.

  14. OSL studies of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Raja, A.; Madhusoodanan, U.; Annalakshmi, O.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry. The perovskite-like KMgF3, NaMgF3 and LiBaF3 polycrystalline compounds doped with rare earths (Eu2+ and Ce3+) were synthesized by standard solid state reaction technique. Phase purity of the synthesized compounds was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction technique. Single crystals of these compounds have been grown from melt by using vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The Linearly Modulated OSL and Continuous Wave OSL measurements were performed in these alkali fluorides using blue light stimulation. Thermal bleaching experiments have shown that OSL signals originate from traps which are unstable near 200 °C, thus proving the suitability of the signals for dosimetric purposes. Optical bleaching measurements were also performed for these fluoride samples. OSL dose response was studied as a function of dose which was found to increase with beta dose.

  15. Growth rate study of canavalin single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence on supersaturation of the growth rate of single crystals of the protein canavalin is studied. In the supersaturation ranges studied, the rate-limiting step for growth is best described by a screw dislocation mechanism associated with interface attachment kinetics. Using a ln-ln plot, the growth-rate data is found to fit a predictive relationship of the form G = 0.012 x the supersaturation to the 6.66, which, together with the solubility curves, allows the growth rate to be estimated under a variety of conditions.

  16. Optical properties of ladder type single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Babonas, G.J.; Leonyuk, L.; Reza, A.; Dapkus, L.; Szymczak, R.

    1999-12-01

    The optical properties of (M{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub m}(CuO{sub 2}){sub n} (M = Ca, Sr, Y, Bi) crystals containing the ladder-type plane Cu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry method in the range 0.5--5.0 eV. The experimental data were analyzed in order to reveal the difference in the microstructure between superconducting (SC) and non-superconducting (NSC) single crystals. The contributions to the optical response due to the electronic excitations of free and bound carriers were analyzed.

  17. Single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. F.; Austin, A. E.; Richard, N.; Griesenauer, N. M.; Moak, D. P.; Mehrabian, M. R.; Gelles, S. H.

    1974-01-01

    The following definitions were sought in the research on single crystals of metal solid solutions: (1) the influence of convection and/or gravity present during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; (2) the influence of a magnetic field applied during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; and (3) requirements for a space flight experiment to verify the results. Growth conditions for the selected silver-zinc alloy system are described, along with pertinent technical and experimental details of the project.

  18. Devices made on single crystal silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ying

    The interchip delay and performance mismatch at the chip level degrades the system performance. Further increases in system performance will require one to move from integrated circuits assembled on a board to true integrated systems. All the devices that perform different functions are put on a single substrate. Using this method, the interconnect distance decreases from centimeters to micrometers, thus dramatically decreasing the delay. Also, much of the chip level mismatch is eliminated. The single crystal silicon nanoparticle is a good candidate for one of the primary building blocks of such an integrated system. The devices made on silicon are stable; carrier mobility in single crystal silicon is reasonably high; modern silicon manufacturing infrastructure can be used to make silicon nanoparticle devices easily; and there exists a technology to localize the particles. In addition, the particle is a 3-D structure, making it possible to build a compact 3-D integrated system. In this thesis, a vacuum system was built to generate single crystal silicon nanoparticles. The particles were generated in a silane plasma, focused by aerodynamic lens and annealed in flight using a high temperature furnace. Single crystal silicon nanoparticles as large as 100 nm have been obtained. MSM (Metal-Silicon-Metal) structure was made on the silicon particles and the current-voltage (I-V) relationship through the particles was obtained. Thermionic theory and space charge limited current theory were used to explain the operation of the device. Schottky barrier height and trap density were obtained. SBFETs (Schottky Barrier Field Effect Transistors) were also built. Devices show PMOS characteristics and asymmetric characteristics to the zero drain voltage. Numerical simulation was performed on the MSM structure and SBFET to help understand the mechanism of device performance. I-V relationship generally shows good agreement with the measured result. Contours of band structure and

  19. Charge transport in single crystal organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    Organic electronics have engendered substantial interest in printable, flexible and large-area applications thanks to their low fabrication cost per unit area, chemical versatility and solution processability. Nevertheless, fundamental understanding of device physics and charge transport in organic semiconductors lag somewhat behind, partially due to ubiquitous defects and impurities in technologically useful organic thin films, formed either by vacuum deposition or solution process. In this context, single-crystalline organic semiconductors, or organic single crystals, have therefore provided the ideal system for transport studies. Organic single crystals are characterized by their high chemical purity and outstanding structural perfection, leading to significantly improved electrical properties compared with their thin-film counterparts. Importantly, the surfaces of the crystals are molecularly flat, an ideal condition for building field-effect transistors (FETs). Progress in organic single crystal FETs (SC-FETs) is tremendous during the past decade. Large mobilities ~ 1 - 10 cm2V-1s-1 have been achieved in several crystals, allowing a wide range of electrical, optical, mechanical, structural, and theoretical studies. Several challenges still remain, however, which are the motivation of this thesis. The first challenge is to delineate the crystal structure/electrical property relationship for development of high-performance organic semiconductors. This thesis demonstrates a full spectrum of studies spanning from chemical synthesis, single crystal structure determination, quantum-chemical calculation, SC-OFET fabrication, electrical measurement, photoelectron spectroscopy characterization and extensive device optimization in a series of new rubrene derivatives, motivated by the fact that rubrene is a benchmark semiconductor with record hole mobility ~ 20 cm2V-1s-1. With successful preservation of beneficial pi-stacking structures, these rubrene derivatives form

  20. Phase transition in sarcosine phosphite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Single crystals of sarcosine phosphite (SarcH3PO3) have been grown. The amino acid sarcosine is an isomer of the protein amino acid alanine. Both amino acids are described by the same chemical formula but have different structures; or, more specifically, in contrast to the alanine molecule, the sarcosine molecule has a symmetric structure. It has been found that the sarcosine phosphite compound undergoes a structural phase transition at a temperature of approximately 200 K. This result has demonstrated that compounds of achiral amino acids are more susceptible to structural phase transitions.

  1. Conduction mechanism of single-crystal alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Fritz G.; Delorenzi, Horst G.; Janora, Kevin H.

    1992-01-01

    The fully guarded three-terminal technique was used to perform conductivity measurements on single-crystal alumina at temperatures of 400-1300 C. The conductivity was also determined as a function of time at various temperatures and applied fields. Further, the fractions of the current carried by Al and O ions (ionic transference numbers) were determined from long-term transference experiments in the temperature range 1100-1300 C. A mathematical model of the conduction mechanism is proposed, and model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  2. A novel synthetic single crystal diamond device for in vivo dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G. Tonnetti, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Falco, M. D.; Bagalà, P.; Pimpinella, M.; Guerra, A. S.; De Coste, V.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Aim of the present work is to evaluate the synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode developed at the laboratories of “Tor Vergata” University in Rome in a new dosimeter configuration specifically designed for offline wireless in vivo dosimetry (IVD) applications. Methods: The new diamond based dosimeter, single crystal diamond detector (SCDD-iv), consists of a small unwired detector and a small external reading unit that can be connected to commercial electrometers for getting the detector readout after irradiation. Two nominally identical SCDD-iv dosimeter prototypes were fabricated and tested. A basic dosimetric characterization of detector performances relevant for IVD application was performed under irradiation with {sup 60}Co and 6 MV photon beams. Preirradiation procedure, response stability, short and long term reproducibility, leakage charge, fading effect, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence, and angular response were investigated. Results: The SCDD-iv is simple, with no cables linked to the patient and the readout is immediate. The range of response with dose has been tested from 1 up to 12 Gy; the reading is independent of the accumulated dose and dose rate independent in the range between about 0.5 and 5 Gy/min; its temperature dependence is within 0.5% between 25 and 38 °C, and its directional dependence is within 2% from 0° to 90°. The combined relative standard uncertainty of absorbed dose to water measurements is estimated lower than the tolerance and action level of 5%. Conclusions: The reported results indicate the proposed novel offline dosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode as a promising candidate for in vivo dosimetry applications with photon beams.

  3. A novel synthetic single crystal diamond device for in vivo dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G; Tonnetti, A; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Bagalà, P; Pimpinella, M; Guerra, A S; De Coste, V

    2015-08-01

    Aim of the present work is to evaluate the synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode developed at the laboratories of "Tor Vergata" University in Rome in a new dosimeter configuration specifically designed for offline wireless in vivo dosimetry (IVD) applications. The new diamond based dosimeter, single crystal diamond detector (SCDD-iv), consists of a small unwired detector and a small external reading unit that can be connected to commercial electrometers for getting the detector readout after irradiation. Two nominally identical SCDD-iv dosimeter prototypes were fabricated and tested. A basic dosimetric characterization of detector performances relevant for IVD application was performed under irradiation with (60)Co and 6 MV photon beams. Preirradiation procedure, response stability, short and long term reproducibility, leakage charge, fading effect, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence, and angular response were investigated. The SCDD-iv is simple, with no cables linked to the patient and the readout is immediate. The range of response with dose has been tested from 1 up to 12 Gy; the reading is independent of the accumulated dose and dose rate independent in the range between about 0.5 and 5 Gy/min; its temperature dependence is within 0.5% between 25 and 38 °C, and its directional dependence is within 2% from 0° to 90°. The combined relative standard uncertainty of absorbed dose to water measurements is estimated lower than the tolerance and action level of 5%. The reported results indicate the proposed novel offline dosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode as a promising candidate for in vivo dosimetry applications with photon beams.

  4. Investigation of structural phase transition behavior by thermal analysis, high temperature X-ray single crystal and vibrational study of Rb2HAsO4ṡTe(OH)6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechibani, I.; Litaiem, H.; Ktari, L.; Garcia-Granda, S.; Dammak, M.

    2014-10-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of Rb2HAsO4ṡTe(OH)6 (RbAsTe) material shows three phase transitions at 332 K, 464 K and 476 K. In order to identify the first phase transition, we have conducted the X-ray single crystal analysis at high temperature (363 K). X-ray powder diffraction and Raman studies at different temperatures confirmed the presence of the phase transitions in this material as well as the presence of reconstructive phase transition, with such considerable changes of structural parameters. In fact, at T = 363 K, the crystal structure of (RbAsTe) is found to crystallize in the monoclinic system I2/a with the following cell parameters: a = 16.7279(11) Å, b = 7.1339(6) Å, c = 12.4841(10) Å, β = 90.295(6)°, Z = 8, V = 1489.5(2) Å3. At this temperature, the structure is made up of planes of TeO6 groups alternating with those of AsO4 polyhedra. The Rb+ cations are intercalated between these pure planes. The increase in temperature affected the structural arrangement in which the coordinated polyhedra are distorted and the “a” lattice cell dimension increases with a slight variation of the other parameters. The planes of octahedra and tetrahedra were parallel to the c direction like those in the structure at room temperature but the planes formed by the cations atoms changed their direction.

  5. Phase transitions and thermal-stress-induced structural changes in a ferroelectric Pb (Zr0.80Ti0. 20)O3 single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Xie, Y; Ye, Z. -G.; Parish, Chad M.; Glazer, A. M.

    2014-12-22

    Zirconium-rich lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) Pb(Zr0.80Ti0.20)O3 single crystal is studied by polarized-Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature. We show that the crystal possesses complex domain boundaries which show no sign of instability even 200 K above the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition. The boundary stabilized the domains which had the same orientation after cyclic heating and cooling up to 773 K. The domains transformed normally to the cubic paraelectric phase, but returned to their original state after cooling. Physical mechanism behind the reversible behavior is related to the strain between the boundary region and domain, which forces the domain to grow similarly after each heating and cooling cycle. Electron backscattering diffraction measurements show that macroscopic domains, lengths scale in hundreds of microns, are divided into regions whose Pb-displacements are not correlated. The results are notably interesting for non-volatile memory development as it implies that the original ferroelectric state can be restored after the material has been transformed to a paraelectric phase. Incoherent Pbdisplacements play a role for polarization switching.

  6. A nanoporous two-dimensional polymer by single-crystal-to-single-crystal photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Kissel, Patrick; Murray, Daniel J; Wulftange, William J; Catalano, Vincent J; King, Benjamin T

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the wide number and variety of available synthetic routes to conventional linear polymers, the synthesis of two-dimensional polymers and unambiguous proof of their structure remains a challenge. Two-dimensional polymers-single-layered polymers that form a tiling network in exactly two dimensions-have potential for use in nanoporous membranes and other applications. Here, we report the preparation of a fluorinated hydrocarbon two-dimensional polymer that can be exfoliated into single sheets, and its characterization by high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The procedure involves three steps: preorganization in a lamellar crystal of a rigid monomer bearing three photoreactive arms, photopolymerization of the crystalline monomers by [4 + 4] cycloaddition, and isolation of individual two-dimensional polymer sheets. This polymer is a molecularly thin (~1 nm) material that combines precisely defined monodisperse pores of ~9 Å with a high pore density of 3.3 × 10(13) pores cm(-2). Atomic-resolution single-crystal X-ray structures of the monomer, an intermediate dimer and the final crystalline two-dimensional polymer were obtained and prove the single-crystal-to-single-crystal nature and molecular precision of the two-dimensional photopolymerization.

  7. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. Short range ordering and magnetostriction in Fe-Ga and other Fe alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruswamy, Sivaraman; Jayaraman, Tanjore V.; Corson, Robert P.; Garside, Gavin; Thuanboon, Swieng

    2008-12-01

    The magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Ga, Fe-Mo, Fe-W, and other Fe alloys have been observed to be sensitive to their thermal history. In this work, the changes in the structure with thermal history and how they correlate with the observed magnetostriction values in Fe-Ga, Fe-W, and Fe-Mo single crystals are examined. Single crystals were grown using the vertical Bridgman crystal growth technique. The magnetostriction constant (3/2)λ100 measured in (i) as-grown and air-cooled (DG) and (ii) annealed and water quenched single crystal samples of Fe-Ga and Fe-W alloys clearly indicate that annealing in the α-phase region followed by rapid quenching improves the magnetostriction values. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on [100]-oriented Fe-Ga as well as other Fe alloy single crystals show (i) a diffuse scattering peak indicative of short range ordering, the extent of which depends on composition and thermal history, and (ii) (200) peak splitting and broadening indicative of the presence of long range ordered coherent second phases and associated coherency strains. A detailed examination of the XRD patterns suggests that the changes in magnetostriction with composition and thermal history are related to the local strain modulations associated with the solutes, short range order, long range ordered coherent second phases, incoherent precipitates, and other structural defects.

  9. Design considerations for a Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade made of single crystal material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; August, R.; Nagpal, V.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear finite-element structural analyses were performed on the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The analyses examined the structural response and the dynamic characteristics at typical operating conditions. Single crystal material PWA-1480 was considered for the analyses. Structural response and the blade natural frequencies with respect to the crystal orientation were investigated. The analyses were conducted based on typical test stand engine cycle. Influence of combined thermal, aerodynamic, and centrifugal loadings was considered. Results obtained showed that the single crystal secondary orientation effects on the maximum principal stresses are not highly significant.

  10. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal: Nicotinic L-tartaric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheelarani, V.; Shanthi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear optical single crystals were grown from Nicotinic and L-Tartaric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, The crystallinity of the Nicotinic L-Tartaric (NLT) crystals was confirmed from the powder XRD pattern. The transparent range and cut off wavelength of the grown crystal was studied by the UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis.The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of NLT was confirmed by Kurtz Perry technique.

  11. Iron-based composition for magnetocaloric effect (MCE) applications and method of making a single crystal

    DOEpatents

    Evans, III, Boyd Mccutchen; Kisner, Roger A.; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Melin, Alexander M.; Nicholson, Donald M.; Parish; , Chad M.; Rios, Orlando; Sefat, Athena S.; West, David L.; Wilgen, John B.

    2016-02-09

    A method of making a single crystal comprises heating a material comprising magnetic anisotropy to a temperature T sufficient to form a melt of the material. A magnetic field of at least about 1 Tesla is applied to the melt at the temperature T, where a magnetic free energy difference .DELTA.G.sub.m between different crystallographic axes is greater than a thermal energy kT. While applying the magnetic field, the melt is cooled at a rate of about 30.degree. C./min or higher, and the melt solidifies to form a single crystal of the material.

  12. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal: Nicotinic L-tartaric

    SciTech Connect

    Sheelarani, V.; Shanthi, J.

    2015-06-24

    Nonlinear optical single crystals were grown from Nicotinic and L-Tartaric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, The crystallinity of the Nicotinic L-Tartaric (NLT) crystals was confirmed from the powder XRD pattern. The transparent range and cut off wavelength of the grown crystal was studied by the UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis.The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of NLT was confirmed by Kurtz Perry technique.

  13. Growth of Bulk Single Crystals of Dicyanovinyl-Ansiole and its Derivatives for Nonlinear Optical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebre, T.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Metzl, R.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Romero, Melvin; Clark, Ronald D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of a series of thermally stable nonlinear optical organic materials, Dicyanovinyl-anisole (DIVA) and their methoxy derivatives, have been successfully grown using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The growth conditions are chosen to be temperature gradient of 5 to 10 C/cm and lowering rate of 0.1 to 0.3 mm/h. Single crystals of DIVA and its derivatives, of 8 x 8 x 50 cu mm in size, have been grown while maintaining a flat solid-liquid growth interface.

  14. Growth of Bulk Single Crystals of Dicyanovinyl-Ansiole and its Derivatives for Nonlinear Optical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebre, T.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Metzl, R.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Romero, Melvin; Clark, Ronald D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of a series of thermally stable nonlinear optical organic materials, Dicyanovinyl-anisole (DIVA) and their methoxy derivatives, have been successfully grown using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The growth conditions are chosen to be temperature gradient of 5 to 10 C/cm and lowering rate of 0.1 to 0.3 mm/h. Single crystals of DIVA and its derivatives, of 8 x 8 x 50 cu mm in size, have been grown while maintaining a flat solid-liquid growth interface.

  15. Guest exchange through single crystal-single crystal transformations in a flexible hydrogen-bonded framework.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenchang; Hu, Chunhua; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-08

    A molecular framework based on guanidinium cations and 1,2,4,5-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)benzene (TSPB), an aromatic tetrasulfonate with nominal 2-fold and mirror symmetry, exhibits three crystallographically unique one-dimensional channels as a consequence of molecular symmetry and complementary hydrogen bonding between the guanidinium (G) ions and the sulfonate (S) groups of TSPB. Unlike previous GS frameworks, this new topology is sufficiently flexible to permit reversible release and adsorption of guest molecules in large single crystals through a cyclic shrinkage and expansion of the channels with retention of single crystallinity, as verified by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the G4TSPB framework permits guest exchange between various guest molecules through SCSCTs as well as exchange discrimination based on the size and character of the three different channels. The exchange of guest molecules during single crystal-single crystal transformations (SCSCT), a rare occurrence for hydrogen-bonded frameworks, is rather fast, with diffusivities of approximately 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Rapid diffusion in the two channels having cross sections sufficient to accommodate two guest molecules can be explained by two-way or ring diffusion, most likely vacancy assisted. Surprisingly, rapid guest exchange also is observed in a smaller channel having a cross-section that accommodates only one guest molecule, which can only be explained by guest-assisted single-file unidirectional diffusion. Several single crystals of inclusion compounds can be realized only through guest exchange in the intact framework, suggesting an approach to the synthesis of single crystalline inclusion compounds that otherwise cannot be attained through direct crystallization methods.

  16. Path to meter class single crystal silicon (SCSi) space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Douglas R.

    2012-03-01

    With the global financial crisis affecting funding for space systems development, customers are calling for lower cost systems. Yet, at the same time, these lower cost systems must have increased thermal response to operational environments and load survivability. We submit that single crystal silicon (SCSi) meets both of these requirements. This paper will highlight some key SCSi material properties, discuss the opportunities that led to the development of McCarter processing methods, and present the latest steps in the manufacturing path of McCarter Mirrors using SCSi, GFB (glass frit bonding) and MSF (McCarter super finish), including the concept drawing of a one meter SCSi lightweight mirror, which together sets up the last step toward a lower cost, high performing one meter SCSi space optic.

  17. Growth of bulk single crystals of urea for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranraj, Arumugam; Sathiyadhas, Sahaya Jude Dhas; Jose, Michael; Martin Britto Dhas, Sathiyadhas Amalapusham

    2017-08-01

    We report the growth of technologically important urea crystals of record size (48 × 16 × 8 mm3) by doping sulfuric acid and employing slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was identified by single crystal X-Ray diffraction and FTIR spectral analysis. Optical properties of the grown crystal were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum and the presence of H2SO4 was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Photo acoustic studies were also carried out to determine the thermal properties of the grown crystal. The dielectric properties for wide range of frequencies (1 Hz to 1 MHz) at different temperatures (35, 40, 60, 80, 100 °C) were analyzed. The second harmonic conversion efficiency of the grown H2SO4 doped urea crystal was found to be 3.75 times higher than the commercially available KDP crystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Electrical conduction in nanodomains in congruent lithium tantalate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yasuo

    2014-01-27

    The electrical current flow behavior was investigated for nanodomains formed in a thin congruent lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) single-crystal plate. When the nanodomains were relatively large, with diameters of about 100 nm, current flow was detected along the domain wall. However, when they were about 40 nm or smaller, the current flowed through the entire nanodomain. Schottky-like rectifying behavior was observed. Unlike the case of LiNbO{sub 3}, optical illumination was not required for current conduction in LiTaO{sub 3}. A clear temperature dependence of the current was found indicating that the conduction mechanism for nanodomains in LiTaO{sub 3} may involve thermally activated carrier hopping.

  19. Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a-?? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ??? clinoenstatite and w u ??rtzite ??? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO ?? nAl2O3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to

  20. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based transducers for naval sonar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, Kevin A.; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Markley, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    Transducers incorporating single crystal piezoelectric Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3) x-1Ti xO 3 (PMN-PT) exhibit significant advantages over ceramic piezoelectrics such as PZT, including both high electromechanical coupling (k 33 > 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 > 2000 pC/N). Conventional <001> orientation gives inherently larger bandwidth and output power than PZT ceramics, however, the anisotropy of the crystal also allows for tailoring of the performance by orienting the crystal along different crystallographic axes. This attribute combined with composition refinements can be used to improve thermal or mechanical stability, which is important in high power, high duty cycle sonar applications. By utilizing the "31" resonance mode, the high power performance of PMN-PT can be improved over traditional "33" mode single crystal transducers, due to an improved aspect ratio. Utilizing novel geometries, effective piezoelectric constants of -600 pC/N to -1200 pC/N have been measured. The phase transition point induced by temperature, pre-stress or field is close to that in the "33" mode, and since the prestress is applied perpendicular to the poling direction in "31" mode elements, they exhibit lower loss and can therefore be driven harder. The high power characteristics of tonpilz transducers can also be affected by the composition of the PMN-PT crystal. TRS modified the composition of PMN-PT to improve the thermal stability of the material, while keeping the loss as low as possible. Three dimensional modeling shows that the useable bandwidth of these novel compositions nearly equals that of conventional PMN-PT. A decrease in the source level of up to 6 dB was calculated, which can be compensated for by the higher drive voltages possible.

  1. Thermoluminescence characterization of Ag-doped Li2 B4 O7 single crystal materials.

    PubMed

    Kuralı, D; Ekdal Karalı, E; Kelemen, A; Holovey, V; Can, N; Karalı, T

    2016-12-13

    In this study, the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of Ag-doped and undoped lithium tetraborate (Li2 B4 O7 , LTB) materials, grown using the Czochralski method, were reported. The TL properties of LTB:Ag, such as glow curve structure, dose response, fading and reproducibility, were investigated. The glow curve of the Li2 B4 O7 :Ag single crystal consists of four peaks located at approximately 75, 130, 190 and 275°C; in undoped LTB, the single crystal shows a broad glow curve with peaks at 65, 90, 125, 160 and 190°C using a heating rate of 5°C/s in the 50-350°C temperature region. The high temperature peak of Ag-doped sample at 275°C has a nonlinear dose response within the range from 33 mGy to 9 Gy. There is a linear response in the range of 33-800 mGy; after which, a sublinear region appears up to 9 Gy for Ag-doped LTB single crystal. For undoped single crystal, the dose response is supralinear for low doses and linear for the region between 1 and 9 Gy. The thermal fading ratio of the undoped material is almost 60% for the high temperature peak after 7 days. Ag-doped LTB single crystal exhibits different behaviour over a period of 7 days.

  2. Molecular-weight-dependent changes in morphology of solution-grown polyethylene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jingbo; Baier, Moritz C; Mecking, Stefan; Reiter, Renate; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Reiter, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Polymer single crystals consisting of folded chains are always in a nonequilibrium state, even if they are faceted with a well-defined envelope reflecting the parameters of the crystal unit cell. Heterogeneities like small variations in the degree of chain folding within such crystals are responsible for a rather broad range in melting temperature. Consequently, upon annealing at a given temperature, some parts may be above and some below their respective melting temperatures, inducing a lamellar thickening process, which may vary locally. To emphasize such variations, controlled annealing experiments are performed at comparatively low temperatures and for long times. For single crystals of low-molecular-weight polyethylene, the formation of the well-known "Swiss-cheese"-like morphology with randomly distributed holes of varying sizes within the annealed single crystal is observed. However, for high-molecular-weight polyethylene, a regular pattern appeared upon annealing, characterized by branches of equal width that are oriented perpendicular to the crystal edge. All branches end at the nucleation site. Interestingly, the resulting pattern depends sensitively on both crystallization and annealing conditions. These thermally induced regular patterns within a single crystal are attributed to a stable crystalline framework formed within polyethylene single crystals in the course of growth. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction at megabar pressures and temperatures of thousands of degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovinsky, L.; Boffa-Ballaran, T.; Glazyrin, K.; Kurnosov, A.; Frost, D.; Merlini, M.; Hanfland, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Schouwink, P.; Pippinger, T.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2011-08-09

    The most reliable information about crystal structures and their response to changes in pressure and temperature is obtained from single-crystal diffraction experiments. We have developed a methodology to perform single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells and demonstrate that structural refinements and accurate measurements of the thermal equation of state of metals, oxides and silicates from single-crystal intensity data are possible in pressures ranging up to megabars and temperatures of thousands of degrees. A new methodology was applied to solve the in situ high pressure, high temperature structure of iron oxide and study structural variations of iron and aluminum bearing silicate perovskite at conditions of the Earth's lower mantle.

  4. Vibration-assisted machining of single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, S. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Vibration-assisted machining offers a solution to expanding needs for improved machining, especially where accuracy and precision are of importance, such as in micromachining of single crystals of metals and alloys. Crystallographic anisotropy plays a crucial role in determining on overall response to machining. In this study, we intend to address the matter of ultra-precision machining of material at the micron scale using computational modelling. A hybrid modelling approach is implemented that combines two discrete schemes: smoothed particle hydrodynamics and continuum finite elements. The model is implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine (VUMAT) and used to elucidate the effect of crystallographic anisotropy on a response of face centred cubic (f.c.c.) metals to machining.

  5. Gas hydrate single-crystal structure analyses.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Michael T; Boese, Roland; Billups, W Edward; Norman, Lewis R

    2004-08-04

    The first single-crystal diffraction studies on methane, propane, methane/propane, and adamantane gas hydrates SI, SII, and SH have been performed. To circumvent the problem of very slow crystal growth, a novel technique of in situ cocrystallization of gases and liquids resulting in oligocrystalline material in a capillary has been developed. With special data treatment, termed oligo diffractometry, structural data of the gas hydrates of methane, acetylene, propane, a propane/ethanol/methane-mixture and an adamantane/methane-mixture were obtained. Cell parameters are in accord with reported values. Host network and guest are subject to extensive disorder, reducing the reliability of structural information. It was found that most cages are fully occupied by a guest molecule with the exception of the dodecahedral cage in the acetylene hydrate which is only filled to 60%. For adamantane in the icosahedral cage a disordered model is proposed.

  6. Low-cobalt single crystal Rene 150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cobalt content on a single crystal version of the advanced, high gamma prime content turbine airfoil alloy Rene 150 were investigated. Cobalt contents under investigation include 12 wt.% (composition level of Rene 150), 6 wt.%, and 0 wt.%. Preliminary test results are presented and compared with the properties of standard DS Rene 150. DTA results indicate that the liquidus goes through a maximum of about 1435 C near 6 wt.% Co. The solidus remains essentially constant at 1390 C with decreasing Co content. The gamma prime solvus appears to go through a minimum of about 1235 C near 6 wt.% Co content. Preliminary as-cast tensile and stress rupture results are presented along with heat treat schedules and future test plans.

  7. Fatigue hardening in niobium single crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doner, M.; Diprimio, J. C.; Salkovitz, E. I.

    1973-01-01

    Nb single crystals of various orientations were cyclically deformed in tension-compression under strain control. At low strain amplitudes all crystals oriented for single slip and some oriented for multiple slip showed a two stage hardening. When present, the first stage was characterized with almost no cyclic work hardening. The rate of hardening in the second stage increased with strain amplitude and the amount of secondary slip. In crystals oriented for single slip kink bands developed on their side faces during rapid hardening stage which resulted in considerable amount of asterism in Laue spots. A cyclic stress-strain curve independent of prior history was found to exist which was also independent of crystal orientation. Furthermore, this curve differed only slightly from that of polycrystalline Nb obtained from data in literature.

  8. Hydrogen Annealing Of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, John C.; Murphy, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Annealing at temperature equal to or greater than 2,200 degrees F in atmosphere of hydrogen found to increase ability of single-crystal superalloys to resist oxidation when subsequently exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures almost as high. Supperalloys in question are principal constituents of hot-stage airfoils (blades) in aircraft and ground-based turbine engines; also used in other high-temperature applications like chemical-processing plants, coal-gasification plants, petrochemical refineries, and boilers. Hydrogen anneal provides resistance to oxidation without decreasing fatigue strength and without need for coating or reactive sulfur-gettering constituents. In comparison with coating, hydrogen annealing costs less. Benefits extend to stainless steels, nickel/chromium, and nickel-base alloys, subject to same scale-adhesion and oxidation-resistance considerations, except that scale is chromia instead of alumina.

  9. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  10. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; ...

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  11. Microhardness studies of sulfamic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh Kumar, A.; Joseph, Cyriac; Paulose, Reshmi; R, Rajesh; Joseph, Georgekutty; Louis, Godfrey

    2015-02-01

    Vicker's microhardness study of (100), (010) and (001) faces of a non-linear optical crystal sulfamic acid have been reported. Single crystals of sulfamic acid have been grown by slow evaporation method. The load dependence of the Vickers microhardness of sulfamic acid crystal were investigated and analyzed from the stand point of various theoretical models. Crystal samples in a, b and c-axes exhibit reverse indentation effect which is best described by Meyer's law, Hays-Kendall's approach and proportional specimen resistance (PSR) models. The negative values of load dependent quantities in Hays-Kendall's approach and PSR model suggest that the origin of indentation size effect is associated with the process of relaxation of indentation stresses.

  12. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald C.; Dame, L. Thomas; Jayaraman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A crystallographic approach to constitutive modeling of single crystal superalloys is discussed. The approach is based on identifying the active slip planes and slip directions. The shear stresses are computed on each of the slip planes from applied stress components. The slip rate is then computed on each slip system and the microscopic inelastic strain rates are the sum of the slip in the individual slip systems. The constitutive model was implemented in a finite element code using twenty noted isoparametric solid elements. Constants were determined for octahedral and cube slip systems. These constants were then used to predict tension-compression asymmetry and fatigue loops. Other data was used to model the tensile and creep response.

  13. Cutting fluid study for single crystal silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chargin, D.

    1998-05-05

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate cutting fluids for Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) of single crystal silicon. The pH of distilled waster was adjusted with various additives the examine the effect of pH on cutting operations. Fluids which seemed to promote ductile cutting appeared to increase tool wear as well, an undesirable tradeoff. High Ph sodium hydroxide solutions showed promise for further research, as they yielded the best combination of reduced tool wear and good surface finish in the ductile regime. Negative rake tools were verified to improve the surface finish, but the negative rake tools used in the experiments also showed much higher wear than conventional 0{degree} rake tools. Effects of crystallographic orientation on SPDT, such as star patterns of fracture damage forming near the center of the samples, were observed to decrease with lower feedrates. Silicon chips were observed and photographed, indicative of a ductile materials removal process.

  14. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, Frank R.; Gillies, Donald C.; Watring, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the effects of processing semiconducting, solid solution, single crystals in a microgravity environment on the metallurgical, compositional, electrical, and optical characteristics of the crystals. The alloy system being investigated is the solid solution semiconductor Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, with x-values appropriate for infrared detector applications in the 8 to 14 mm wavelength region. Both melt and Te-solvent growth are being performed. The study consists of an extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research effort followed by flight experimentation where appropriate. The ground-based portion of the investigation also includes the evaluation of the relative effectiveness of stabilizing techniques, such as applied magnetic fields, for suppressing convective flow during the melt growth of the crystals.

  15. Biaxial constitutive equation development for single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Current gas turbine engines utilize large single crystal superalloy components in the hot section. Structural analysis of these components requires a valid stress strain temperature constitutive equation. The goal of the program described is to create one or more models and verify these models. A constitutive equation based on an assumed slip behavior of a single slip system was formulated, programmed, and debugged. Specifically, the basic theory for a model based on aggravating slip behavior on individual slip systems was formulated and programmed and some simulations were run using assumed values of constants. In addition, a formulation allowing strain controlled simulations was completed. An approach to structural analysis of the specimen was developed. This approach uses long tube consistancy conditions and finite elements specially formulated to take advantage of the symmetry of 100 oriented specimens.

  16. Method of Making Lightweight, Single Crystal Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of making a mirror from a single crystal blank may include fine grinding top and bottom surfaces of the blank to be parallel. The blank may then be heat treated to near its melting temperature. An optical surface may be created on an optical side of the blank. A protector may be bonded to the optical surface. With the protector in place, the blank may be light weighted by grinding a non-optical surface of the blank using computer controlled grinding. The light weighting may include creating a structure having a substantially minimum mass necessary to maintain distortion of the mirror within a preset limit. A damaged layer of the non-optical surface caused by light weighting may be removed with an isotropic etch and/or repaired by heat treatment. If an oxide layer is present, the entire blank may then be etched using, for example, hydrofluoric acid. A reflecting coating may be deposited on the optical surface.

  17. CVT Growth of Single Crystal Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjar, Michael J.; Boone, Jack L.; Cantwell, Gene; Thomas, J. E.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of single crystal ZnO by chemical vapor transport using hydrogen as the transporting agent is being investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical model has been developed for the growth process using a quasi-equilibrium approach. By calculating the equilibrium constants at both the source and growing ends of the growth ampoule, a transport equation has been developed. The transport calculations have been made under the assumption of a "leaky" ampoule in which the hydrogen , water vapor, and inert gas pressures can be controlled externally. The chemical reactions at the source and growth surfaces are being investigated to ascertain their effect on the transport and growth processes. Also, the effects of varying the "communication" between the ampoule interior and the large containment vessel on the overall growth process have been investigated. The parameters for the growth process are being refined through a correlation of the theoretical model predictions with experimental data.

  18. Comparison of the optical parameters of a CaF{sub 2} single crystal and optical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Palashov, O V; Khazanov, E A; Mukhin, I B; Mironov, I A; Smirnov, A N; Dukel'skii, K V; Fedorov, Pavel P; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Basiev, Tasoltan T

    2007-01-31

    Single crystal and optical ceramic CaF{sub 2} samples are studied by the method of thermally induced depolarisation of laser radiation at 1076 nm. The absorption coefficients of the single crystal and ceramics are estimated as {alpha} < 4.5x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} and {alpha} < 1.33x10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, respectively. (letters)

  19. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  20. Improved hardware and software for single-crystal NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vosegaard, T; Hald, E; Langer, V; Skov, H J; Daugaard, P; Bildsoe, H; Jakobsen, H J

    1998-11-01

    Design of state-of-the-art instrumentation and software for acquisition and analysis of single-crystal NMR spectra is presented. The design involves highly accurate rotation of a goniometer, and the acquisition of all the spectra for each rotation axis is automatically controlled by the host computer of the spectrometer using a homebuilt interface between the computer and the single-crystal probe. Moreover, a software package (ASICS) for fast and routine assignment/analysis of complex single-crystal spectra has been developed. Employing this equipment, the acquisition and complete analysis of single-crystal NMR spectra may be performed in about the same time as required for powder methods (spinning or static). The hardware and software are compared to recent alternative approaches within single-crystal NMR. Finally, it has been observed that single-crystal NMR techniques may provide the desired data for samples where powder methods fail. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state-of-art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single-element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed.

  2. Development of novel growth methods for halide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    We developed novel growth methods for halide scintillator single crystals with hygroscopic nature, Halide micro-pulling-down [H-μ-PD] method and Halide Vertical Bridgman [H-VB] method. The H-μ-PD method with a removable chamber system can grow a single crystal of halide scintillator material with hygroscopicity at faster growth rate than the conventional methods. On the other hand, the H-VB method can grow a large bulk single crystal of halide scintillator without a quartz ampule. CeCl3, LaBr3, Ce:LaBr3 and Eu:SrI2 fiber single crystals could be grown by the H-μ-PD method and Eu:SrI2 bulk single crystals of 1 and 1.5 inch in diameter could be grown by the H-VB method. The grown fiber and bulk single crystals showed comparable scintillation properties to the previous reports using the conventional methods.

  3. Thermal, magnetic, and transport properties of single-crystal Sr{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3} (0{le}x{le}1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, G.; McCall, S.; Shepard, M.; Crow, J.E.; Guertin, R.P.

    1997-07-01

    SrRuO{sub 3} is a highly correlated, narrow d-band metal which undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at T{sub c}=165K. CaRuO{sub 3}, which is also a highly correlated metal, has the same crystal structure, comparable electrical resistivity and similar effective Ru moment, but it remains paramagnetic at least down to 1 K. High- and low-field magnetization and susceptibility, thermoremanent magnetization, low-temperature heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and Hall effect measurements are presented on as-grown, untwinned, orthorhombic single-crystal samples of Sr{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3} for the entire concentration range 0{le}x{le}1.0. T{sub c} is depressed uniformly with increasing x, all the way to x=1.0, with possible spin-glass-type ordering for x close to 1.0. The critical Sr doping of paramagnetic CaRuO{sub 3} required to cause magnetic correlations among the Ru moments is {congruent}1at.{percent}. Magnetization to 7 T shows strong hysteresis for mixed (x{gt}0) crystals only, with evidence for a rotation of the easy magnetic axis out of the ab plane. Low-temperature magnetization in dc fields to 30 T for x=0 shows a lack of saturation to the full S=1 moment, 2{mu}{sub B}/Ruatom, underscoring the itinerant character of the ferromagnetism. Similar data for x=1.0 show it to be a highly exchange enhanced paramagnet, a borderline antiferromagnet or ferromagnet. This is consistent with previous Ru-O in-plane and out-of-plane doping studies. Low-temperature heat capacity (1{lt}T{lt}20K) shows that the mass enhancement ({gamma}=29mJ/molK{sup 2} and m{sup {asterisk}}{approx}3 for x=0) and the Debye temperature ({Theta}{sub D}=390K for x=0) are nonmonotonically varying with increasing x. The large electrical resistivity suggests these materials are {open_quotes}bad{close_quotes} metals, with a mean free path at room temperature {approx}10A for x=0. The Hall effect shows a sign reversal for x=0 and x=1.0, but not for mixed crystals. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Siegrist, T; DeTitta, G T; Finger, L W; Evans, H T; Gabe, E J; Enright, G D; Armstrong, J T; Levenson, M; Cook, L P; Hubbard, C R

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material(®) for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies- are rhombohedral, with space group [Formula: see text]. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013

  5. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  6. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  7. MAGNETORESISTANCE AND HALL EFFECT IN SINGLE CRYSTALS OF ALUMINUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ALUMINUM, *SINGLE CRYSTALS, CRYSTALS, HALL EFFECT , IMPURITIES, LOW PRESSURE, MAGNETIC FIELDS, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, SURFACE PROPERTIES.

  8. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Yan, Chih-shiue

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  9. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  10. Dosimetric characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in clinical radiation therapy small photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ciancaglioni, I.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Consorti, R.; Petrucci, A.; De Notaristefani, F.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the potentialities of synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes for accurate dose measurements in radiation therapy small photon beams. Methods: The dosimetric properties of a diamond-based detector were assessed by comparison with a reference microionization chamber. The diamond device was operated at zero bias voltage under irradiation with high-energy radiotherapic photon beams. The stability of the detector response and its dose and dose rate dependence were measured. Different square field sizes ranging from 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} to 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} were used during comparative dose distribution measurements by means of percentage depth dose curves (PDDs), lateral beam profiles, and output factors. The angular and temperature dependence of the diamond detector response were also studied. Results: The detector response shows a deviation from linearity of less than {+-}0.5% in the 0.01-7 Gy range and dose rate dependence below {+-}0.5% in the 1-6 Gy/min range. PDDs and output factors are in good agreement with those measured by the reference ionization chamber within 1%. No angular dependence is observed by rotating the detector along its axis, while {approx}3.5% maximum difference is measured by varying the radiation incidence angle in the polar direction. The temperature dependence was investigated as well and a {+-}0.2% variation of the detector response is found in the 18-40 Degree-Sign C range. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate the investigated synthetic diamond-based detector as a candidate for small field clinical radiation dosimetry in advanced radiation therapy techniques.

  11. Dosimetric characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in clinical radiation therapy small photon beams.

    PubMed

    Ciancaglioni, I; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Consorti, R; Petrucci, A; De Notaristefani, F

    2012-07-01

    To determine the potentialities of synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes for accurate dose measurements in radiation therapy small photon beams. The dosimetric properties of a diamond-based detector were assessed by comparison with a reference microionization chamber. The diamond device was operated at zero bias voltage under irradiation with high-energy radiotherapic photon beams. The stability of the detector response and its dose and dose rate dependence were measured. Different square field sizes ranging from 1 × 1 cm(2) to 10 × 10 cm(2) were used during comparative dose distribution measurements by means of percentage depth dose curves (PDDs), lateral beam profiles, and output factors. The angular and temperature dependence of the diamond detector response were also studied. The detector response shows a deviation from linearity of less than ±0.5% in the 0.01-7 Gy range and dose rate dependence below ±0.5% in the 1-6 Gy∕min range. PDDs and output factors are in good agreement with those measured by the reference ionization chamber within 1%. No angular dependence is observed by rotating the detector along its axis, while ∼3.5% maximum difference is measured by varying the radiation incidence angle in the polar direction. The temperature dependence was investigated as well and a ±0.2% variation of the detector response is found in the 18-40 °C range. The obtained results indicate the investigated synthetic diamond-based detector as a candidate for small field clinical radiation dosimetry in advanced radiation therapy techniques.

  12. Single Crystal DMs for Space-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierden, Paul

    etched independently: one for the substrate and fixed electrode layer, one for the actuator layer, and one for the mirror layer. Subsequently, each of these wafers will be bonded through a thermal fusion process to the others. In an innovative new processing technique, we will employ sacrificial oxide pillars to add temporary support to the otherwise compliant device structures. These pillars will be dissolved after assembly. The result will be a stress-free, single crystal silicon device with broadly expanded design space for geometric parameters such as actuator pitch, mirror diameter, array size, and actuator gap. Consequently, this approach will allow us to make devices with characteristics that are needed for some important NASA applications in space-based coronography, especially where larger array sizes, greater actuator pitch, and better optical surface quality are needed. The significance of this work is that it will provide a technology platform that meets or exceeds the superb optical performance that has been demonstrated in conventional pizezoelectrically actuated DMs, while retaining the advantages in cost, repeatability, and thermal insensitivity that have been demonstrated in the newer generation of MEMS electrostatically actuated DMs. The shift to bonded single-crystal structures will eliminate the single biggest drawback in previously reported NASA-fielded MEMS DM technology: device susceptibility to stress-induced scalloping and print through artifacts resulting from polycrystalline thin film surface micromachining. With single crystal structures bonded at atomic scales, uncorrected surface topography can be controlled to subnanometer levels, enabling the advancement of NASA s next-generation space-based coronagraphs.

  13. Flux free growth of superconducting FeSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, P. K.; Joshi, L. M.; Gahtori, Bhasker; Srivastava, A. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Patnaik, S. P.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report flux free growth of superconducting FeSe single crystals by an easy and versatile high temperature melt and slow cooling method for first time. The room temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) on the surface of the piece of such obtained crystals showed single [101] plane of β-FeSe tetragonal phase. The bulk powder XRD, being obtained by crushing the part of crystal chunk showed majority (˜87%) β-FeSe tetragonal (space group P4/nmm) and minority (˜13%) δ-FeSe hexagonal (space group P63/mmc) crystalline phases. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscope images along with selected area electron diffraction showed the abundance of both majority β-FeSe and minority δ-FeSe phases. Both transport (ρ-T) and magnetization exhibited superconductivity at below around 10 K. Interestingly, the magnetization signal of these crystals is dominated by the magnetism of minority δ-FeSe magnetic phase, and hence the isothermal magnetization at 4 K was seen to be ferromagnetic like. Transport (ρ-T) measurements under magnetic field showed superconductivity onset at below 12 K, and ρ = 0 (T c) at 9 K. Superconducting transition temperature (T c) decreases with applied field to around 6 K at 7 T, with dT c/dH of ˜0.4 K T-1, giving rise to an H c2(0) value of around 50 , 30 and 20 T for normal resistivity ρ n = 90%, 50% and 10% respectively, which are calculated from conventional one band Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg equation. FeSe single crystal activation energy is calculated from thermally activated flux flow model which is found to decreases with field from 12.1 meV for 0.2 T to 3.77 meV for 7 T.

  14. Single Crystal Structure Determination of Alumina to 1 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, L.; Prakapenka, V.; Mao, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is an important ceramic material and a major oxide in the earth. Additionally, alumina is a widely used pressure standard in static high-pressure experiments (Cr3+-bearing corundum, ruby). The changes of its crystal structure with pressure (P) and temperature (T) are important for its applications and understanding its physical properties in the deep Earth. There have been numerous reports on the high P-T polymorphs of alumina. Previous theoretical calculations and experiments suggest that the crystal structure of Al2O3 evolves greatly at high P-T. In this study, we used the newly developed multigrain crystallography method combined with single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis technique for the structure determination of alumina at high P-T to provide single-crystal structure refinement for high-pressure phases of Al2O3. Alumina powder was mixed with ~10% Pt and Ne was used as both pressure transmitting media and thermal insulating layers during laser-heating. Coarse-grained aggregates of Al2O3 were synthesized in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The structure change of Al2O3 was monitored by in situ x-ray diffraction at ~1 Mbar and 2700 K. The results allow us to distinguish the structural differences between the Rh2O3 (II) structure (space group Pbcn) and perovskite structure (space group Pbnm) for the first high-pressure phase of Al2O3. More detailed results will be discussed in the later work.

  15. Some Properties Of Synthetic Single Crystal And Thin Film Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazu, Shuji; Sato, Shuichi; Fujimori, Naoji

    1989-01-01

    Large synthetic diamond single crystals, in sizes up to 1.4 ct, are produced on 4 commercial basis for some industrial application fields by Sumitomo Electric. The crystals are yellow colored type Ib stones which contain lower amounts of nitrogen (up to about 100 ppm) dispersed through the crystal structure in the form of singly substituting atoms. The impurity controlled type lb crystals have the highest thermal conductivity which is equivalent to that of pure type IIa crystals. Optical and thermal properties of diamond crystals are strongly affected by dispersed impurities. We studied the kinds of dispersed impurities and amounts of those impurity atoms in our synthesized crystals by SIMS. A relation of the thermal conductivities and the nitrogen concentrations of the crystals was examined. The state of nitrogen impurity in the crystals could be transformed by electron irradiation and subsequent high temperature annealing. The reaction rates for the transformation Ib nitrogen to type IaA aggregates and differences in crystal growth sectors have been studied. Vapor phase deposited diamond films are hopeful candidates for optical application of diamond. Preliminary spectroscopic analysis has been done for the free standing polycrystalline films.

  16. Large Seebeck Effect in CrSb2 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Brian; May, Andrew; McGuire, Michael; Singh, David; Mandrus, David

    2013-03-01

    CrSb2 is a narrow gap semiconductor (Eg = 0.14 meV) that orders antiferromagnetically at TN = 273 K. Resistivity, Hall effect, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and magnetic susceptibility data are reported for CrSb2 single crystals. In spite of some unusual features in electrical transport and Hall measurements below 100 K, only one phase transition occurs (TN) in the temperature range from 2 to 750 K. Many of the low temperature properties can be explained by the thermal depopulation of carriers from the conduction band into a low mobility impurity band about 16 meV below the conduction band edge. The Seebeck coefficient, S, is large and negative from 2 to 300 K, ranging from -70 μV/K at 300 K to -4500 μV/K at 18 K. The large magnitude of S at 18 K is likely due to phonon drag, with the large decrease in the magnitude of S below 18 K due to the thermal depopulation of the high mobility conduction band. The CrSb2 Seebeck data are compared to some of the data reported for FeSb2 and FeSi. This research was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  17. Direct Shear of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the strength of individual dislocation slip systems in olivine is fundamental to understanding the flow behavior and the development of lattice-preferred orientation in olivine-rich rocks. The most direct measurements of the strengths of individual slip systems are from triaxial compression experiments on olivine single crystals. However, such experiments only allow for determination of flow laws for two of the four dominate slip systems in olivine. In order to measure the strengths of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] slip systems independently, we performed deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine in a direct shear geometry. Experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1000° to 1300°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, shear stresses of 60 to 334 MPa, and resultant shear strain rates of 7.4 x 10-6 to 6.7 x 10-4 s-1. At high-temperature (≥1200°C) and low-stress (≤200 MPa) conditions, the strain rate of crystals oriented for direct shear on either the (001)[100] or the (100)[001] slip system follows a power law relationship with stress, whereas at lower temperatures and higher stresses, strain rate depends exponentially on stress. The flow laws derived from the mechanical data in this study are consistent with a transition from the operation of a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism during power-law creep to the operation of a glide-controlled dislocation mechanism during exponential creep. In the climb-controlled regime, crystals oriented for shear on the (001)[100] slip system are weaker than crystals orientated for shear on the (100)[001] slip system. In contrast, in the glide-controlled regime the opposite is observed. Extrapolation of flow laws determined for crystals sheared in orientations favorable for slip on these two slip systems to upper mantle conditions reveals that the (001)[100] slip system is weaker at temperatures and stresses that are typical of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the (100)[001] slip

  18. Direct shear of olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob A.; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the strengths of the individual dislocation slip systems in olivine is fundamental to understanding the flow behavior and the development of lattice-preferred orientation in olivine-rich rocks. The most direct measurements of the strengths of individual slip systems are from triaxial compression experiments on olivine single crystals. However, such experiments only allow for determination of flow laws for two of the four dominant slip systems in olivine. In order to measure the strengths of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] slip systems independently, we performed deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine in a direct shear geometry. Experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1000 ° to 1300 °C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, shear stresses of 60 to 334 MPa, and resultant shear strain rates of 7.4 × 10-6 to 2.1 × 10-3 s-1. At high-temperature (≥1200 °C) and low-stress (≤200 MPa) conditions, the strain rate of crystals oriented for direct shear on either the (001)[100] or the (100)[001] slip system follows a power law relationship with stress, whereas at lower temperatures and higher stresses, strain rate depends exponentially on stress. The flow laws derived from the mechanical data in this study are consistent with a transition from the operation of a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism during power-law creep to the operation of a glide-controlled dislocation mechanism during exponential creep. In the climb-controlled regime, crystals oriented for shear on the (001)[100] slip system are weaker than crystals orientated for shear on the (100)[001] slip system. In contrast, in the glide-controlled regime the opposite is observed. Extrapolation of flow laws determined for crystals sheared in orientations favorable for slip on these two slip systems to upper mantle conditions reveals that the (001)[100] slip system is weaker at temperatures and stresses that are typical of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the (100

  19. Excitonic polaritons of zinc diarsenide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrbu, N. N.; Stamov, I. G.; Zalamai, V. V.; Dorogan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Excitonic polaritons of ZnAs2 single crystals had been investigated. Parameters of singlet excitons with D2bar(z) symmetry and orthoexcitons 2D1bar(y)+D2bar(x) had been determined. Spectral dependencies of ordinary and extraordinary dispersion of refractive index had been calculated using interferential reflection and transmittance spectra. It was shown, that A excitonic series were due to hole (V1) and electron (C1) bands. The values of effective masses of electrons (mc*=0.10 m0) and holes (mv1*=0.89 m0) had been estimated. It was revealed that the hole mass mv1* changes from 1.03 m0 to 0.55 m0 at temperature increasing from 10 K up to 230 K and that the electron mass mc* does not depend on temperature. The integral absorption A (eV cm-1) of the states n=1, 2 and 3 of D2bar(z) excitons depends on the An≈n-3 equality, which it is characteristic for S-type excitonic functions. Temperature dependences of the integral absorption of ground states for D2bar(z) and D2bar(D) excitons differ. The ground states of B and C excitons formed by V3 - C1 and V4 - C1 bands and its parameters had been determined.

  20. Load relaxation of olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Reid F.; Stone, Donald S.; Plookphol, Thawatchai

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo88-90) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500°C and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log stress versus log strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different than that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, we argue, indicates flow that is rate limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  1. Thermodynamic forces in single crystals with dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Goethem, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    A simple model for the evolution of macroscopic dislocation regions in a single crystal is presented. This model relies on maximal dissipation principle within Kröner's geometric description of the dislocated crystal. Mathematical methods and tools from shape optimization theory provide equilibrium relations at the dislocation front, similarly to previous work achieved on damage modelling (J Comput Phys 33(16):5010-5044, 2011). The deformation state variable is the incompatible strain as related to the dislocation density tensor by a relation involving the Ricci curvature of the crystal underlying elastic metric. The time evolution of the model variables follows from a novel interpretation of the Einstein-Hilbert flow in terms of dislocation microstructure energy. This flow is interpreted as the dissipation of non-conservative dislocations, due to the climb mechanism, modelled by an average effect of mesoscopic dislocations moving normal to their glide planes by adding or removing points defects. The model equations are a fourth-order tensor parabolic equation involving the operator "incompatibility," here appearing as a tensorial counterpart of the scalar Laplacian. This work encompasses and generalizes results previously announced (C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:923-927, 2011), with in addition a series of physical interpretations to give a meaning to the newly introduced concepts.

  2. Molecular motor-driven abrupt anisotropic shape change in a single crystal of a Ni complex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Mito, Masaki; Kamachi, Takashi; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Azuma, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Kuirun; Nakanishi, Takumi; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Many molecular machines with controllable molecular-scale motors have been developed. However, transmitting molecular movement to the macroscopic scale remains a formidable challenge. Here we report a single crystal of a Ni complex whose shape changes abruptly and reversibly in response to thermal changes at around room temperature. Variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystalline shape change is induced by an unusual 90° rotation of uniaxially aligned oxalate molecules. The oxalate dianions behave as molecular-scale rotors, with their movement propagated through the entire crystalline material via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Consequently, the subnanometre-scale changes in the oxalate molecules are instantly amplified to a micrometre-scale contraction or expansion of the crystal, accompanied by a thermal hysteresis loop. The shape change in the crystal was clearly detected under an optical microscope. The large directional deformation and prompt response suggest a role for this material in microscale or nanoscale thermal actuators.

  3. Molecular motor-driven abrupt anisotropic shape change in a single crystal of a Ni complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Mito, Masaki; Kamachi, Takashi; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Azuma, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Kuirun; Nakanishi, Takumi; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Many molecular machines with controllable molecular-scale motors have been developed. However, transmitting molecular movement to the macroscopic scale remains a formidable challenge. Here we report a single crystal of a Ni complex whose shape changes abruptly and reversibly in response to thermal changes at around room temperature. Variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystalline shape change is induced by an unusual 90° rotation of uniaxially aligned oxalate molecules. The oxalate dianions behave as molecular-scale rotors, with their movement propagated through the entire crystalline material via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Consequently, the subnanometre-scale changes in the oxalate molecules are instantly amplified to a micrometre-scale contraction or expansion of the crystal, accompanied by a thermal hysteresis loop. The shape change in the crystal was clearly detected under an optical microscope. The large directional deformation and prompt response suggest a role for this material in microscale or nanoscale thermal actuators.

  4. Mercuric iodide single crystals for nuclear radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Li, Z.; Zhu, S.; Yin, S.; Zhao, B.; Chen, G.; Yin, S.; Yuan, H.; Xu, H.

    1996-06-01

    Large size HgI{sub 2} single crystals were grown using the Modified Temperature Oscillation Method (MTOM) with low dislocation densities in a relatively stable temperature environment. Radiation detectors were fabricated from the single crystals which showed good energy resolution with small polarization. Applications have been found in geological explorations, marine mineral analysis, environment pollution monitoring, industrial material quality assurance, and space explorations.

  5. A Quick Method for Determining the Density of Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how the Archimedes method is used to determine the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. Also shows how to calculate the density of other chemicals when they are available as single crystals. Experimental procedures and materials needed are included. (JN)

  6. A Quick Method for Determining the Density of Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how the Archimedes method is used to determine the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. Also shows how to calculate the density of other chemicals when they are available as single crystals. Experimental procedures and materials needed are included. (JN)

  7. Single crystal micromechanical resonator and fabrication methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Friedmann, Thomas A.; Homeijer, Sara Jensen; Wiwi, Michael; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Clark, Blythe; Bauer, Todd; Van Deusen, Stuart B.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a single crystal micromechanical resonator. In particular, the resonator includes a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate suspended plate. Also provided are improved microfabrication methods of making resonators, which does not rely on complicated wafer bonding, layer fracturing, and mechanical polishing steps. Rather, the methods allow the resonator and its components to be formed from a single crystal.

  8. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Di Venanzio, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Falco, M. D.; Bagala, P.; Santoni, R.; Pimpinella, M.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric properties of synthetic single crystal diamond based Schottky diodes under irradiation with therapeutic electron beams from linear accelerators. Methods: A single crystal diamond detector was fabricated and tested under 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams. The detector performances were evaluated using three types of commercial detectors as reference dosimeters: an Advanced Markus plane parallel ionization chamber, a Semiflex cylindrical ionization chamber, and a p-type silicon detector. Preirradiation, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, output factors, lateral field profiles, and percentage depth dose profiles were investigated and discussed. Results: During preirradiation the diamond detector signal shows a weak decrease within 0.7% with respect to the plateau value and a final signal stability of 0.1% (1{sigma}) is observed after about 5 Gy. A good linear behavior of the detector response as a function of the delivered dose is observed with deviations below {+-}0.3% in the dose range from 0.02 to 10 Gy. In addition, the detector response is dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.3% in the investigated dose rate range from 0.17 to 5.45 Gy/min. Percentage depth dose curves obtained from the diamond detector are in good agreement with the ones from the reference dosimeters. Lateral beam profile measurements show an overall good agreement among detectors, taking into account their respective geometrical features. The spatial resolution of solid state detectors is confirmed to be better than that of ionization chambers, being the one from the diamond detector comparable to that of the silicon diode. A good agreement within experimental uncertainties was also found in terms of output factor measurements between the diamond detector and reference dosimeters. Conclusions: The observed dosimetric properties indicate that the tested diamond detector is a suitable candidate for clinical electron beam dosimetry.

  9. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Bagalà, P; Santoni, R; Pimpinella, M

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the dosimetric properties of synthetic single crystal diamond based Schottky diodes under irradiation with therapeutic electron beams from linear accelerators. A single crystal diamond detector was fabricated and tested under 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams. The detector performances were evaluated using three types of commercial detectors as reference dosimeters: an Advanced Markus plane parallel ionization chamber, a Semiflex cylindrical ionization chamber, and a p-type silicon detector. Preirradiation, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, output factors, lateral field profiles, and percentage depth dose profiles were investigated and discussed. During preirradiation the diamond detector signal shows a weak decrease within 0.7% with respect to the plateau value and a final signal stability of 0.1% (1σ) is observed after about 5 Gy. A good linear behavior of the detector response as a function of the delivered dose is observed with deviations below ±0.3% in the dose range from 0.02 to 10 Gy. In addition, the detector response is dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.3% in the investigated dose rate range from 0.17 to 5.45 Gy∕min. Percentage depth dose curves obtained from the diamond detector are in good agreement with the ones from the reference dosimeters. Lateral beam profile measurements show an overall good agreement among detectors, taking into account their respective geometrical features. The spatial resolution of solid state detectors is confirmed to be better than that of ionization chambers, being the one from the diamond detector comparable to that of the silicon diode. A good agreement within experimental uncertainties was also found in terms of output factor measurements between the diamond detector and reference dosimeters. The observed dosimetric properties indicate that the tested diamond detector is a suitable candidate for clinical electron beam dosimetry.

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    PubMed Central

    Kidalov, Sergey V.; Shakhov, Fedor M.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K) and 400 W/(m·K), respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon); one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K). Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  11. Additive manufacturing of micrometric crystallization vessels and single crystals.

    PubMed

    Halevi, Oded; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-11-10

    We present an all-additive manufacturing method that is performed at mild conditions, for the formation of organic single crystals at specific locations, without any photolithography prefabrication process. The method is composed of two steps; inkjet printing of a confinement frame, composed of a water soluble electrolyte. Then, an organic semiconductor solution is printed within the confinement to form a nucleus at a specific location, followed by additional printing, which led to the growth of a single crystal. The specific geometry of the confinement enables control of the specific locations of the single crystals, while separating the nucleation and crystal growth processes. By this method, we printed single crystals of perylene, which are suitable for the formation of OFETs. Moreover, since this method is based on a simple and controllable wet deposition process, it enables formation of arrays of single crystals at specific locations, which is a prerequisite for mass production of active organic elements on flexible substrates.

  12. Additive manufacturing of micrometric crystallization vessels and single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Oded; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-additive manufacturing method that is performed at mild conditions, for the formation of organic single crystals at specific locations, without any photolithography prefabrication process. The method is composed of two steps; inkjet printing of a confinement frame, composed of a water soluble electrolyte. Then, an organic semiconductor solution is printed within the confinement to form a nucleus at a specific location, followed by additional printing, which led to the growth of a single crystal. The specific geometry of the confinement enables control of the specific locations of the single crystals, while separating the nucleation and crystal growth processes. By this method, we printed single crystals of perylene, which are suitable for the formation of OFETs. Moreover, since this method is based on a simple and controllable wet deposition process, it enables formation of arrays of single crystals at specific locations, which is a prerequisite for mass production of active organic elements on flexible substrates.

  13. Additive manufacturing of micrometric crystallization vessels and single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Halevi, Oded; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-additive manufacturing method that is performed at mild conditions, for the formation of organic single crystals at specific locations, without any photolithography prefabrication process. The method is composed of two steps; inkjet printing of a confinement frame, composed of a water soluble electrolyte. Then, an organic semiconductor solution is printed within the confinement to form a nucleus at a specific location, followed by additional printing, which led to the growth of a single crystal. The specific geometry of the confinement enables control of the specific locations of the single crystals, while separating the nucleation and crystal growth processes. By this method, we printed single crystals of perylene, which are suitable for the formation of OFETs. Moreover, since this method is based on a simple and controllable wet deposition process, it enables formation of arrays of single crystals at specific locations, which is a prerequisite for mass production of active organic elements on flexible substrates. PMID:27830827

  14. Field emission properties of single crystal chromium disilicide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Valentin, L. A.; Carpena-Nunez, J.; Yang, D.; Fonseca, L. F.

    2013-01-07

    The composition, crystal structure, and field emission properties of high-crystallinity chromium disilicide (CrSi{sub 2}) nanowires synthesized by a vapor deposition method have been studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction studies confirm the single-crystalline structure and composition of the CrSi{sub 2} nanowires. Field emission measurements show that an emission current density of 0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} was obtained at a turn-on electric field intensity of 2.80 V/{mu}m. The maximum emission current measured was 1.86 mA/cm{sup 2} at 3.6 V/{mu}m. The relation between the emission current density and the electric field obtained follows the Fowler-Nordheim equation, with an enhancement coefficient of 1140. The electrical conductivity of single nanowires was measured by using four-point-probe specialized microdevices at different temperatures, and the calculated values are close to those reported in previous studies for highly conductive single crystal bulk CrSi{sub 2}. The thermal tolerance of the nanowires was studied up to a temperature of 1100 Degree-Sign C. The stability of the field emission current, the I-E values, their thermal tolerance, and high electrical conductivity make CrSi{sub 2} nanowires a promising material for field emission applications.

  15. Growth and characterization of terbium fumarate heptahydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Want, B.; Shah, M. D.

    2014-03-01

    The growth of terbium fumarate heptahydrate single crystals was achieved by single gel diffusion technique using silica gel as a medium of growth. The effect of various growth parameters on the nucleation rate of these crystals was studied. The crystals were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques of characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that terbium fumarate is a crystalline compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed for the identification of water and other functional groups present in the compound. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometric experiments were carried out to study the optical properties of the grown crystals. Elemental analysis suggested the chemical formula of the crystals to be Tb2(C4H2O4)3·7H2O. The presence of seven molecules of water was also supported by the thermogravimetric analysis. The hydrated compound was found to be thermally stable upto a temperature of about 110 °C and its anhydrous form up to the temperature of 410 °C. The thermal decomposition of the compound in the nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of terbium oxide as the final product. An attempt was made to relate the experimental results with the classical nucleation theory.

  16. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  17. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  18. Oxygen diffusion in single crystal barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Markus; De Souza, Roger A; Martin, Manfred

    2015-05-21

    Oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped, (100) oriented BaTiO3 single crystals has been studied by means of (18)O2/(16)O2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Experiments were carried out as a function of temperature 973 < T/K < 1173, at an oxygen activity of aO2 = 0.200, and as a function of oxygen activity 0.009 < aO2 < 0.900 at T = 1073 K. The oxygen isotope profiles comprise two parts: slow diffusion through a space-charge zone at the surface depleted of oxygen vacancies followed by faster diffusion in a homogeneous bulk phase. The entire isotope profile can be described by a single solution to the diffusion equation involving only three fitting parameters: the surface exchange coefficient ks*, the space-charge potential Φ0 and the bulk diffusion coefficient D*(∞). Analysis of the temperature and oxygen activity dependencies of D*(∞) and Φ0 yields a consistent picture of both the bulk and the interfacial defect chemistry of BaTiO3. Values of the oxygen vacancy diffusion coefficient DV extracted from measured D*(∞) data are compared with literature data; consequently a global expression for the vacancy diffusivity in BaTiO3 for the temperature range 466 < T/K < 1273 is obtained, with an activation enthalpy of vacancy migration, ΔHmig,V = (0.70 ± 0.04) eV.

  19. Hydrolytic weakening in olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob A.; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine under hydrous conditions were performed to investigate the microphysical processes responsible for hydrolytic weakening during dislocation creep. Hydrogen was supplied to the crystals using either talc or brucite sealed in nickel capsules with the crystal. Deformation experiments were carried out using a gas medium apparatus at temperatures of 1050° to 1250°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, differential stresses of 45 to 294 MPa, and resultant strain rates of 1.5 × 10-6 to 4.4 × 10-4 s-1. For talc-buffered (i.e., water and orthopyroxene-buffered) samples at high temperatures, the dependence of strain rate on stress follows a power law relationship with a stress exponent (n) of ˜2.5 and an activation energy of ˜490 kJ/mol. Brucite-buffered samples deformed faster than talc-buffered samples but contained similar hydrogen concentrations, demonstrating that strain rate is influenced by orthopyroxene activity under hydrous conditions. The values of n and dependence of strain rate on orthopyroxene activity are consistent with hydrolytic weakening occurring in the climb-controlled dislocation creep regime that is associated with deformation controlled by lattice diffusion under hydrous conditions and by pipe diffusion under anhydrous conditions. Analyses of postdeformation electron-backscatter diffraction data demonstrate that dislocations with [100] Burgers vectors are dominant in the climb-controlled regime and dislocations with [001] are dominant in the glide-controlled regime. Comparison of the experimentally determined constitutive equations demonstrates that under hydrous conditions crystals deform 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than under anhydrous conditions.

  20. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  1. Thermal activation energy of 3D vortex matter in NaFe1-x Co x As (x = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.07) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Choi, W J; Seo, Y I; Ahmad, D; Kwon, Yong Seung

    2017-09-07

    We report on the thermally activated flux flow dependency on the doping dependent mixed state in NaFe1-x Co x As (x = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.07) crystals using the magnetoresistivity in the case of B//c-axis and B//ab-plane. It was found clearly that irrespective of the doping ratio, magnetoresistivity showed a distinct tail just above the T c,offset associated with the thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) in our crystals. Furthermore, in TAFF region the temperature dependence of the activation energy follows the relation [Formula: see text] with q = 1.5 in all studied crystals. The magnetic field dependence of the activation energy follows a power law of [Formula: see text] where the exponent α is changed from a low value to a high value at a crossover field of B = ∼2 T, indicating the transition from collective to plastic pinning in the crystals. Finally, it is suggested that the 3D vortex phase is the dominant phase in the low temperature region as compared to the TAFF region in our series samples.

  2. Hall Effect in Bulk-Doped Organic Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Chika; Izawa, Seiichiro; Shinmura, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Watase, Seiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Hiramoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    The standard technique to separately and simultaneously determine the carrier concentration per unit volume (N, cm(-3) ) and the mobility (μ) of doped inorganic single crystals is to measure the Hall effect. However, this technique has not been reported for bulk-doped organic single crystals. Here, the Hall effect in bulk-doped single-crystal organic semiconductors is measured. A key feature of this work is the ultraslow co-deposition technique, which reaches as low as 10(-9) nm s(-1) and enables us to dope homoepitaxial organic single crystals with acceptors at extremely low concentrations of 1 ppm. Both the hole concentration per unit volume (N, cm(-3) ) and the Hall mobility (μH ) of bulk-doped rubrene single crystals, which have a band-like nature, are systematically observed. It is found that these rubrene single crystals have (i) a high ionization rate and (ii) scattering effects because of lattice disturbances, which are peculiar to this organic single crystal. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Single crystal to single crystal polymerization of a columnar assembled diacetylene macrocycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiwei

    Organic tubular materials have attracted lots of attentions for their potential applications as nanoscale fluidic transport systems, specific ion sensors, molecular sieves and confined molecular reaction containers. While conjugated polymers, due to delocalized Pi electrons, exhibit interesting solar cells and sensors applications. In this thesis, we developed a conjugated polymer which combines the attributes of conjugated polymers with tubular materials, which should have great potential to work as a sensing material. We reproduced and scaled-up the synthesis of a polymerizable macrocycle 1 that contains two rigidly separated diacetylene units. We found that, through hydrogen bonding, 1 can assemble into columnar crystals and can be polymerized under a single crystal to single crystal transformation process to afford porous polydiacetylene (PDA) crystals. We studied the assembly of the macrocycles 1 under different conditions to give three different crystalline forms and micro-phase crystals, and also investigated their subsequent polymerizations. The macrocycle assembly and polymerized materials were characterized by a variety of technique. Since the gas adsorption measurement exhibited PDA crystals still retained its porosity and the polymer should have ability to uptake suitable guest molecules, therefore the absorption of iodine for PDA crystals was investigated as well.

  4. Temperature and Field Induced Strain Measurements in Single Crystal Gd5Si2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, S. K.; Nersessian, N.; Carman, G. P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Schlagel, D. L.; Radousky, H. B.

    2016-06-01

    The first-order magneto-structural transformation that occurs in Gd5Si2Ge2 near room temperature makes it a strong candidate for many energy harvesting applications. Understanding the single crystal properties is crucial for allowing simulations of device performance. In this study, magnetically and thermally induced transformation strains were measured in a single crystal of Gd5Si2.05Ge1.95 as it transforms from a high-temperature monoclinic paramagnet to a lower-temperature orthorhombic ferromagnet. Thermally induced transformation strains of -8500 ppm, +960 ppm and +1800 ppm, and magnetically induced transformation strains of -8500 ppm, +900 ppm and +2300 ppm were measured along the a, b and c axes, respectively. Using experimental data coupled with general thermodynamic considerations, a universal phase diagram was constructed showing the transition from the monoclinic to the orthorhombic phase as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  5. Synthesis and physical properties of YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obolenskii, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Beletskii, V. I.; Morgun, V. N.; Popov, V. P.

    1990-09-01

    A method for growing YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals on the melt surface under gradient conditions is described, and the properties of crystals grown by this method are investigated in the normal and superconducting states. Based on the results obtained, a conclusion is made about the existence of a martensitic phase transformation in the range 200-230 K. It is shown that the elastic properties of the ceramic specimens and the thermal expansion coefficient of the single crystals are controlled by thermal activation processes. Fluctuation corrections for electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility are obtained from the temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of the crystals.

  6. Giant rotating magnetocaloric effect in RNi5 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, N. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we theoretically discuss the rotating magnetocaloric effect in RNi5 (R = Nd , Tb , Dy , Er) single crystals, by using a model of interacting magnetic moments including the interaction with the crystal electric field. Our theoretical calculations show that the rotating magnetocaloric effect in RNi5 single crystals is as large as the conventional one. This fact points out that these single crystals are also good candidates to be used in magnetic refrigerators working at low temperatures and based on the rotating magnetocaloric effect.

  7. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mads S; Kessler, Tommy O; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  8. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  9. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sankari, R. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-04-24

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

  10. Ultrashort light pulse selfdifraction in Si and CdSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltramejunas, R.; Vaitkus, J.; Veleckas, D.

    1981-10-01

    Interaction of mode-locked neodyme-glass laser pulses with Si and CdSe single crystals has been investigated. The dependence of light induced diffraction on time is demonstrated in differently doped Si and CdSe. the possibility to use semiconductors for light-coherence measurement is discussed and necessary conditions are determined. The influence of thermal heating is discussed. the mechanisms of recombination at high excitation level was determined in both materials.

  11. Adsorption and condensation of Cu on W single-crystal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, E.; Poppa, H.; Todd, G.; Bonczek, F.

    1974-01-01

    The adsorption and condensation of Cu up to several monolayers in thickness on tungsten 110 and 100 single-crystal surfaces are studied by combining low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, work-function measurements, and quartz microbalance thickness measurements in one experimental system. The results show drastic differences in the evolution of the structure, work function, and desorption behavior between 110 and 100 surfaces. These differences are understandable in terms of the atomic roughness of the surfaces.

  12. Thermographic analyses of the growth of Cd1-xZnxTe single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kopach, O.V.; Bolotnikov, A.; Shcherbak, Larysa P.; Fochuk, Petro M.; and James, Ralph B.

    2010-08-01

    Bulk Cd1-xZnxTe (0single crystals for gamma-ray detectors are grown mainly from near-stoichiometric melts. We discuss the influence of the thermal pre-history of the melts (superheating, thermo-cycling, and cooling rate) on various physical properties based on our thermographic analyses, electrical conductivity and viscosity measurements. Increasing the Zn content causes non-monotonic dependencies in the quality of the crystals structure.

  13. Anisotropic electrical and thermal conductivity in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} [AE = Ca, Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0)] single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Song-Tao; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Xiong, Ye; Yao, Shu-Hua E-mail: ybchen@nju.edu.cn; Chen, Y. B. E-mail: ybchen@nju.edu.cn; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-09-28

    Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (AE represents alkaline earth), constructed by stacking of rock-salt Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} and triangle CoO{sub 2} layers alternatively along c-axis, is one of promising thermoelectric oxides. The most impressive feature of Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}, as reported previously, is their electrical conductivity mainly lying along CoO{sub 2} plane, adjusting Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer simultaneously manipulates both thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. It in turn optimizes thermoelectric performance of these materials. In this work, we characterize the anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivity along both ab-plane and c-direction of Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}) single crystals. The results substantiate that isovalence replacement in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} remarkably modifies their electrical property along ab-plane; while their thermal conductivity along ab-plane only has a slightly difference. At the same time, both the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity along c-axis of these materials also have dramatic changes. Certainly, the electrical resistance along c-axis is too high to be used as thermoelectric applications. These results suggest that adjusting nano-block Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} cannot modify the thermal conductivity along high electrical conductivity plane (ab-plane here). The evolution of electrical property is discussed by Anderson localization and electron-electron interaction U. And the modification of thermal conductivity along c-axis is attributed to the microstructure difference. This work sheds more light on the manipulation of the thermal and electrical conductivity in the layered thermoelectric materials.

  14. Electrical transport properties of single-crystal Al nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunbauer, Florian M.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Majer, Johannes; Lugstein, Alois

    2016-09-01

    Single-crystal Al nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by thermally induced substitution of vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NWs by Al. The resistivity of the crystalline Al (c-Al) NWs was determined to be ρ = (131 ± 27) × 10-9 Ω m, i.e. approximately five times higher than for bulk Al, but they withstand remarkably high current densities of up to 1.78 × 1012 A m-2 before they ultimately melt due to Joule heating. The maximum current density before failure correlates with the NW diameter, with thinner NWs tolerating significantly higher current densities due to efficient heat dissipation and the reduced lattice heating in structures smaller than the electron-phonon scattering length. The outstanding current-carrying capacity of the c-Al NWs clearly exceeds those of common conductors and surpasses requirements for metallization of future high-performance devices. The linear temperature coefficient of the resistance of c-Al NWs appeared to be lower than for bulk Al and a transition to a superconducting state in c-Al NWs was observed at a temperature of 1.46 K.

  15. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U.; Morse, J.; Salome, M.

    2010-06-23

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (thermal conductivity, it is the only semiconductor material that can be used in intense synchrotron white beams. We report on tests made at ESRF and DESY using diamond beam position monitors of simple quadrant electrode designs with metal contacts, operated using wideband electronic readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of single crystals from polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianing; Muthukumar, M.

    2007-06-01

    A novel "anisotropic aggregation" model is proposed to simulate nucleation and growth of polymer single crystals as functions of temperature and polymer concentration in dilute solutions. Prefolded chains in a dilute solution are assumed to aggregate at a seed nucleus with an anisotropic interaction by a reversible adsorption/desorption mechanism, with temperature, concentration, and seed size being the control variables. The Monte Carlo results of this model resolve the long-standing dilemma regarding the kinetic and thermal roughenings, by producing a rough-flat-rough transition in the crystal morphology with increasing temperature. It is found that the crystal growth rate varies nonlinearly with temperature and concentration without any marked transitions among any regimes of polymer crystallization kinetics. The induction time increases with decreasing the seed nucleus size, increasing temperature, or decreasing concentration. The apparent critical nucleus size is found to increase exponentially with increasing temperature or decreasing concentration, leading to a critical nucleus diagram composed in the temperature-concentration plane with three regions of different nucleation barriers: no growth, nucleation and growth, and spontaneous growth. Melting temperatures as functions of the crystal size, heating rate, and concentration are also reported. The present model, falling in the same category of small molecular crystallization with anisotropic interactions, captures most of the phenomenology of polymer crystallization in dilute solutions.

  17. Properties of salt-grown uranium single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J. C.; Hanrahan, R. J.; Hults, W. L.; Lashley, J. C.; Manley, M. E.; Mielke, C. H.; Smith, J. L.; Thoma, D. J.; Clark, R. G.; Hamilton, A. R.; O'Brien, J. L.; Gay, E. C.; Lumpkin, N. E.; McPheeters, C. C.; Willit, J.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Touton, S.; Woodfield, B. F.; Lang, B. E.; Boerio-Goates, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Recently single crystals of {alpha}-uranium were grown from a liquid salt bath. The electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of these crystals have been surveyed. The ratio of the room temperature resistivity of these crystals to the saturation value at low temperature is three times larger than any previously reported demonstrating that the crystals are of higher purity and quality than those in past work. The resistive signatures of the CDW transitions at 43, 37 and 22 K are obvious to the naked eye. The transition at 22 K exhibits temperature hysteresis that increases with magnetic field. In addition the superconducting transition temperature from resistivity is 820 mK and the critical field is 80 mT. Contrary to earlier work where the Debye temperature ranged from 186 to 218 K, the Debye temperature extracted from the heat capacity is 254 K in good agreement with the predicted value of 250 K. Magnetoresistance, Hall effect and magnetic susceptibility measurements are underway. In time, measurements made on these crystals may help us to understand the origin of superconductivity and its relation to the CDW transitions in pure uranium.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES

    SciTech Connect

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

  19. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical bis-(dimethylsulfoxide) cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, C. M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-10-01

    Effect of pH on the stability of aqueous solution and growth kinetics of bis-(dimethylsulfoxide) cadmium mercury thiocyanate has been investigated. The solubility was estimated for the optimized pH value of 3.5. Bulk single crystals were grown from mixed solution of water:dimethylsulfoxide (3:1) by slow cooling and slow evaporation methods under the optimized pH value. The structure and morphology of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of functional groups and the coordination of dimethylsulfoxide to the parent compound of cadmium mercury thiocyanate were confirmed through Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and further they were confirmed by laser Raman spectroscopic analysis. Optical transparency of the grown crystal was observed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The thermal stability and thermal decomposition of cadmium mercury thiocyanate (CMTD) single crystals were investigated by means of thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The nonlinear optical efficiency of the grown crystal was estimated by Kurtz powder method.

  20. Sponge-like nanoporous single crystals of gold

    PubMed Central

    Khristosov, Maria Koifman; Bloch, Leonid; Burghammer, Manfred; Kauffmann, Yaron; Katsman, Alex; Pokroy, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals in nature often demonstrate fascinating intricate porous morphologies rather than classical faceted surfaces. We attempt to grow such crystals, drawing inspiration from biogenic porous single crystals. Here we show that nanoporous single crystals of gold can be grown with no need for any elaborate fabrication steps. These crystals are found to grow following solidification of a eutectic composition melt that forms as a result of the dewetting of nanometric thin films. We also present a kinetic model that shows how this nano-porous single-crystalline structure can be obtained, and which allows the potential size of the porous single crystal to be predicted. Retaining their single-crystalline nature is due to the fact that the full crystallization process is faster than the average period between two subsequent nucleation events. Our findings clearly demonstrate that it is possible to form single-crystalline nano porous metal crystals in a controlled manner. PMID:26554856

  1. Processing tungsten single crystal by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Zee, Ralph H.; Begg, Lester L.

    2000-01-01

    A tungsten single crystal layer has been fabricated on molybdenum single crystal substrate through the hydrogen (H2) reduction of the tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) in low pressure. Substrate temperature, reaction chamber pressure, and flow rate of WF6 and H2, are critical process parameters during deposition. A comprehensive analysis for the effects of these parameters on single crystal layer growth has been processed and optimized growth conditions have been achieved. The different orientation of the substrate shows the different deposition rate for tungsten. Low index plane has higher deposition rate than high index plane. The kinetics of the deposition process has also been investigated. SEM surface analysis indicates that the single crystal layer is smooth in macro-scale and rough and step-growth format in micro-scale. .

  2. High-temperature alloys: Single-crystal performance boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys are lightweight and have attractive properties for high-temperature applications. A new growth method that enables single-crystal production now boosts their mechanical performance.

  3. Fabrication of polypyrrole nano-arrays in lysozyme single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Matt W.; Lambert, Elizabeth M.; Li, Mei; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Patil, Avinash J.; Mann, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    A template-directed method for the synthesis and organization of partially oxidized polypyrrole (PPy) nanoscale arrays within the solvent channels of glutaraldehyde-cross-linked lysozyme single crystals is presented. Macroscopic single crystals of the periodically arranged protein-polymer superstructure are electrically conductive, insoluble in water and organic solvents, and display increased levels of mechanical plasticity compared with native cross-linked lysozyme crystals.A template-directed method for the synthesis and organization of partially oxidized polypyrrole (PPy) nanoscale arrays within the solvent channels of glutaraldehyde-cross-linked lysozyme single crystals is presented. Macroscopic single crystals of the periodically arranged protein-polymer superstructure are electrically conductive, insoluble in water and organic solvents, and display increased levels of mechanical plasticity compared with native cross-linked lysozyme crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical microscopy, SEM, TEM images, FTIR spectra and tables, conductivity plot. Experimental methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32413j

  4. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Kneisel, P.

    2007-08-09

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was build. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 {mu}m of Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120 deg. C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  5. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

    2007-09-01

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  6. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  7. Synthesis and Single-Crystal Growth of Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuji, Satoru; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2001-01-01

    For the study of the quasi-two-dimensional Mott transition system Ca{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}RuO{sub 4}, we have succeeded in synthesizing polycrystalline samples and also growing single crystals by a floating-zone method. Details of the preparations for the entire solution range are described. The structural, transport, and magnetic properties of both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples are fully in agreement.

  8. Inhomogeneities in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorjani, K.; Bohandy, J.; Kim, B. F.; Adrian, F. J.

    1991-01-01

    The next stage in the evolution of experimental research on the high temperature superconductors will require high quality single crystals and epitaxially grown crystalline films. However, inhomogeneities and other defects are not uncommon in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors, so a corollary requirement will be a reliable method for judging the quality of these materials. The application of magnetically modulated resistance methods in this task is briefly described and illustrated.

  9. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  10. Semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity laser and gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, M.P.

    1993-08-31

    A ring laser is described comprising: a semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity having a plurality of reflecting surfaces defined by the planes of the crystal and establishing a closed optical path; and a discrete laser medium disposed in said semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity for generating coherent light in said cavity, wherein said resonator cavity is decoupled from the laser medium.

  11. Brownmillerite Ca 2 Co 2 O 5 : Synthesis, Stability, and Re-entrant Single Crystal to Single Crystal Structural Transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Hong; Malliakas, Christos D.; ...

    2014-11-20

    We synthesized Ca2Co2O5 in the brownmillerite form using a high-pressure optical-image floating zone furnace, and single crystals with dimensions up to 1.4×0.8×0.5 mm3 were obtained. At room temperature, Ca2Co2O5 crystallizes as a fully ordered brownmillerite variant in the orthorhombic space group Pcmb (No. 57) with unit cell parameters a=5.28960(10) Å, b=14.9240(2) Å, and c=10.9547(2) Å. Furthermore, with decreasing temperature, it undergoes re-entrant sequence of first-order structural phase transitions (Pcmb→ P2/c11→ P121/m1→ Pcmb) that is unprecedented among brownmillerites, broadening the family of space groups available to these materials and challenging current approaches for sorting the myriad variants of brownmillerite structures. Magneticmore » susceptibility data indicate antiferromagnetic ordering in Ca2Co2O5 occurs near 240 K, corroborated by neutron powder diffraction. Below 140 K, Ca2Co2O5 shows a weak ferromagnetic component directed primarily along the b axis, and it also exhibits thermal and magnetic history dependence in magnetization.« less

  12. Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd2O3 W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

  13. Fatigue damage modeling for coated single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature, low-cycle fatigue life prediction method for coated single crystal nickel-base superalloys is being developed. The method is being developed for use in predicting crack initiation life of coated single crystal turbine airfoils. Although the models are being developed using coated single crystal PWA 1480, they should be readily adaptable to other coated nickel-base single crystal materials. The coatings choosen for this effort were of two generic types: a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY overlay, designated PWA 286, and an aluminide diffusion, designated PWA 273. In order to predict the useful crack initiation life of airfoils, the constitutive and failure behavior of the coating/substrate combination must be taken into account. Coatings alter the airfoil surface microstructure and are a primary source from which cracks originate. The adopted life prediction approach addresses this complexity by separating the coating and single crystal crack initiation regimes. This provides a flexible means for using different life model formulations for the coating and single crystal materials. At the completion of this program, all constitutive and life model formulations will be available in equation form and as software. The software will use the MARC general purpose finite element code to drive the constitutive models and calculate life parameters.

  14. Measurement of single crystal surface parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Bell, A. E.; Strayer, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The sticking coefficient and thermal desorption spectra of Cs from the (110) plane of W was investigated. A sticking coefficient of unity for the monolayer region was measured for T 250 K. Several distinct binding states were observed in the thermal desorption spectrum. Work function and electron reflection measurements were made on the (110) and (100) crystal faces of Mo. Both LEED and Auger were used to determine the orientation and cleanliness of the crystal surfaces. The work function values obtained for the (110) and (100) planes of Mo were 4.92 and 4.18 eV respectively.

  15. Growth of propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate single crystals and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunagaran, N.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of Propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) using methanol as a solvent. The PHB single crystal of dimension up to 27×16×8 mm3 has been grown in a period of 18 days at room temperature. The optical transparency of the grown PHB crystal has been measured on (212) plane by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystal has 60% of transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies reveal that the crystal is thermally stable up to 99°C. The mechanical strength of the grown PHB crystal is measured using Vickers microhardness tester. The chemical etching studies were carried out on (212) plane using methanol etchant. The laser damage threshold of PHB crystal is 1.3 GW/cm2. The dielectric properties have been investigated. The birefringence value is found to be 0.10148 at the wavelength of 504 nm. The refractive index of grown PHB single crystal is 1.6753.

  16. Mesoporous TiO2 single crystals delivering enhanced mobility and optoelectronic device performance.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Edward J W; Noel, Nakita; Sivaram, Varun; Leijtens, Tomas; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Snaith, Henry J

    2013-03-14

    Mesoporous ceramics and semiconductors enable low-cost solar power, solar fuel, (photo)catalyst and electrical energy storage technologies. State-of-the-art, printable high-surface-area electrodes are fabricated from thermally sintered pre-formed nanocrystals. Mesoporosity provides the desired highly accessible surfaces but many applications also demand long-range electronic connectivity and structural coherence. A mesoporous single-crystal (MSC) semiconductor can meet both criteria. Here we demonstrate a general synthetic method of growing semiconductor MSCs of anatase TiO2 based on seeded nucleation and growth inside a mesoporous template immersed in a dilute reaction solution. We show that both isolated MSCs and ensembles incorporated into films have substantially higher conductivities and electron mobilities than does nanocrystalline TiO2. Conventional nanocrystals, unlike MSCs, require in-film thermal sintering to reinforce electronic contact between particles, thus increasing fabrication cost, limiting the use of flexible substrates and precluding, for instance, multijunction solar cell processing. Using MSC films processed entirely below 150 °C, we have fabricated all-solid-state, low-temperature sensitized solar cells that have 7.3 per cent efficiency, the highest efficiency yet reported. These high-surface-area anatase single crystals will find application in many different technologies, and this generic synthetic strategy extends the possibility of mesoporous single-crystal growth to a range of functional ceramics and semiconductors.

  17. Analysis of the reverse I-V characteristics of diamond-based PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi, Mehdi; Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2017-07-01

    Diamond is one of the most promising candidates for high power and high temperature applications, due to its large bandgap and high thermal conductivity. As a result of the growth and fabrication process of diamond-based devices, structural defects such as threading dislocations (TDs) may degrade the electrical properties of such devices. Understanding and control of such defects are important for improving device technology, particularly the reverse breakdown characteristics. Here, we show that the reverse bias current-voltage characteristics in diamond PIN diodes can be described by hopping conduction and Poole-Frenkel emission through TDs over the temperature (T) range of 323 K < T < 423 K, for typical values of the TD density found in epitaxially grown materials.

  18. Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majdi, S. Kovi, K. K.; Isberg, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.; Radamson, H. H.; Balmer, R. S.

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 14 }< B < 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (−8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10{sup −15} V{sup 2}/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  19. Studies on various properties of pure and Li-doped Barium Hydrogen Phosphate (BHP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallamuthu, D.; Selvarajan, P.; Freeda, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Single crystals of pure and Li-doped barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) were grown by solution method with gel technique. Various properties of the harvested crystals were studied by carrying out single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, microhardness and dielectric studies. Atomic absorption study was carried out for Li-doped BHP crystal to check the presence of Li dopants. Unit cell dimensions and diffracting planes of the grown crystals have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Density of the grown crystals was calculated using the XRD data. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Mechanical and dielectric characterizations of the harvested pure and Li-doped BHP crystals reveal the mechanical strength and ferroelectric transition. The observed results are reported and discussed.

  20. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  1. High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron diffraction study of MnGe and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovskiy, G. A.; Yashina, E. G.; Dyadkin, V. A.; Tsvyashchenko, A. V.; Fomicheva, L. N.; Bykov, M.; Bykova, E.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Chernyshov, D. Yu; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystal synchrotron diffraction for pressures up to 50 GPa has revealed an essential difference in structural properties and compressibility of MnGe compared with Mn1-x Co x Ge and Mn1-x Fe x Ge solid solutions. A negative thermal expansion has been observed for MnGe at low-temperatures and high-pressures. The single crystal refinement has shown a discontinuous change of the atomic coordinates and Mn-Ge interatomic distances of MnGe in contrast to Mn0.1Co0.9Ge. These peculiarities of MnGe are likely to be associated with high-spin-low-spin transition. The relation between anisotropy of the coordination of Mn-atom and its magnetic moment is discussed.

  2. Two-dimensional single crystal diamond refractive x-ray lens

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S. Baryshev, S. V.; Butler, J. E.; Antipova, O.; Liu, Z.; Stoupin, S.

    2016-07-27

    The next generation light sources such as diffraction-limited storage rings and high repetition rate x-ray free-electron lasers will generate x-ray beams with significantly increased brilliance. These future machines will require X-ray optical components that are capable of handling higher instantaneous and average power densities while tailoring the properties of the x-ray beams for a variety of scientific experiments. Single crystal diamond is one of the best bulk materials for this application, because it is radiation hard, has a suitable uniform index of refraction and the best available thermal properties. In this paper we report on fabrication and experimental testing of a two-dimensional (2D) single crystal diamond compound refractive X-ray lenses (CRL). These lenses were manufactured using femto-second laser cutting and tested at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory.

  3. Synthesis, growth and characterization of L-Phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPNP) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Indirajith, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of L-Phenylalanine-4-nitrophenol (LPNP) were synthesis and grown by slow cooling solution growth technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterization techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction and Powder X-ray diffraction studies to confirm the lattice parameters. Transmittance of the grown crystals was analysed and optical band gap calculated to be 1.54 eV. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis showed that the compound decomposes beyond 170°C. Mechanical behavior of the grown LPNP crystal was analyzed by Vicker's microhardness test. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.3 greater than that of KDP.

  4. Single-crystal diamond pyramids: synthesis and application for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.

    2016-03-01

    Here we present the results of investigations aimed at the development and testing of robust, chemically inert single-crystal diamond probes for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The probes were prepared by assembling common silicon probes with micrometer-sized pyramid-shaped single-crystal diamonds (SCD). The SCD were obtained by the selective thermal oxidation of the polycrystalline films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Electrostatic spray of adhesive coating onto silicon probes was used to attach individual SCD. Geometrical parameters of produced AFM SCD probes were revealed with transmission electron microscopy: the apex angle of the pyramidal diamond crystallite was ˜10 deg, and the curvature radius at the apex was ˜2 to 10 nm. The diamond AFM probes were used for surface imaging of deoxyribonucleic acid deposited on graphite substrate. Obtained results demonstrate high efficiency of the diamond AFM probes, allowing improvement of the image quality compared to standard silicon probes.

  5. Synthesis of formamidinium lead iodide perovskite bulk single crystal and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hongge; Duan, Junjie; Dai, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) is a promising hybrid perovskite material for optoelectronic devices. We synthesized bulk single crystal FAPbI3 by a rapid solution crystallization method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed to characterize the crystal structure. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the bulk single crystal FAPbI3 were measured from 10 to 300 K to explain PL recombination mechanism. It shows that near band edge emission blueshifts with the temperature increasing from 10 to 120 K and from 140 K to room temperature, a sudden emission band redshift demonstrates near 140 K because of the phase transition from orthorhombic phase to cubic phase. From the temperature-dependent PL spectra, the temperature coefficients of the bandgap and thermal activation energies of FAPbI3 perovskite are fitted.

  6. Growth and characterization of large single crystals of L-serine methyl ester hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Anantharaja, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2012-02-01

    Single crystal of L-serine methyl ester hydrochloride (LSMEHCl), was grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional groups were identified by FT-IR analysis. From the Optical transmission spectra of the grown crystal the optical energy band gap is found to be 5 eV and the refractive indices ( nx, ny and nz) were found using Brewster's angle method. The melting point of the material obtained using melting point apparatus is 168 °C. The thermal stability of the crystal was investigated. The second harmonic generation was tested with different particle sizes of powdered LSMEHCl by Kurtz-Perry powder method using Nd:YAG laser, which established the existence of phase matching.

  7. Narrow Linewidth Excitonic Emission in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Diab, Hiba; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Lédée, Ferdinand; Jemli, Khaoula; Vilar, Christèle; Bouchez, Guillaume; Jacques, Vincent L R; Tejeda, Antonio; Even, Jacky; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Garrot, Damien

    2016-12-15

    Hybrid perovskite thin films have demonstrated impressive performance for solar energy conversion and optoelectronic applications. However, further progress will benefit from a better knowledge of the intrinsic photophysics of materials. Here, the temperature-dependent emission properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals are investigated and compared to those of thin polycrystalline films by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Single crystals photoluminescence present a sharp excitonic emission at high energy, with full width at half maximum of only 5 meV, assigned to free excitonic recombination. We highlight a strong thermal broadening of the free excitonic emission, due to exciton-LO-phonon coupling. The emission turned to be very short-lived with a subnanosecond dynamics, mainly induced by the fast trapping of the excitons. The free excitonic emission is completely absent of the thin film spectra, which are dominated by trap state bands.

  8. A temperature-dependent surface free energy model for solid single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tianbao; Fang, Daining; Yang, Yazheng

    2017-01-01

    A temperature-dependent theoretical model for the surface free energy of the solid single crystals is established. This model relates the surface free energy at the elevated temperatures to that at the reference temperature, the temperature-dependent specific heat at constant pressure and coefficient of the linear thermal expansion, the heat of phase transition, the melting heat, and the vapor heat. As examples, the surface free energies of Fe, Cu, Al, Ni, and Pb from 0 K to melting points are calculated and are in reasonable agreement with these from Tyson's theories and the experimental results. This model has obvious advantages compared to Tyson's semi-empirical equations from the aspect of physical meaning, applicable condition, and accuracy. The study shows that the surface free energy of the solid single crystals firstly remains approximately constant and then decreases linearly as temperature increases from 0 K to melting point.

  9. Growth of CuSO4 · 5H2O single crystals and study of some of their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manomenova, V. L.; Stepnova, M. N.; Grebenev, V. V.; Rudneva, E. B.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    Large single crystals of copper sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 · 5H2O of optical quality have been grown; they can be applied as broadband UV optical filters. Their transmission spectra are measured. The crystal thermal stability is investigated and the onset temperature of dehydration is determined to be 46°C.

  10. The effects of alloy purity on the mechanical behavior of soft oriented NiAl single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of the effects of alloy purity on the mechanical properties of NiAl single crystals are presented. Two stoichiometric NiAl single crystals with different impurity contents were studied. It is concluded that reductions in the interstitial and substitutional levels cause reduced yield strengths in NiAl. Heat treatment also results in reduced yield and flow stresses in both CP-NiAl and Hp-NiAl which are considered to be due to a reduction in the concentration of thermal vacancies due to vacancy coalescence during heat treatment.

  11. Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2009-09-09

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond.

  12. Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Lei, Shiming; Yu, Shih -Ying; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Liu, Wenjun; Poilvert, Nicolas; Xiong, Yihuang; Dabo, Ismaila; Mohney, Suzanne E.; Badding, John V.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-12-05

    Semiconductor core optical fibers with a silica cladding are of great interest in nonlinear photonics and optoelectronics applications. Laser crystallization has been recently demonstrated for crystallizing amorphous silicon fibers into crystalline form. Here we explore the underlying mechanism by which long single-crystal silicon fibers, which are novel platforms for silicon photonics, can be achieved by this process. Using finite element modeling, we construct a laser processing diagram that reveals a parameter space within which single crystals can be grown. Utilizing this diagram, we illustrate the creation of single-crystal silicon core fibers by laser crystallizing amorphous silicon deposited inside silica capillary fibers by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The single-crystal fibers, up to 5.1 mm long, have a very welldefined core/cladding interface and a chemically pure silicon core that leads to very low optical losses down to ~0.47-1dB/cm at the standard telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm). Furthermore, tt also exhibits a photosensitivity that is comparable to bulk silicon. Creating such laser processing diagrams can provide a general framework for developing single-crystal fibers in other materials of technological importance.

  13. Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Lei, Shiming; Yu, Shih -Ying; ...

    2016-12-05

    Semiconductor core optical fibers with a silica cladding are of great interest in nonlinear photonics and optoelectronics applications. Laser crystallization has been recently demonstrated for crystallizing amorphous silicon fibers into crystalline form. Here we explore the underlying mechanism by which long single-crystal silicon fibers, which are novel platforms for silicon photonics, can be achieved by this process. Using finite element modeling, we construct a laser processing diagram that reveals a parameter space within which single crystals can be grown. Utilizing this diagram, we illustrate the creation of single-crystal silicon core fibers by laser crystallizing amorphous silicon deposited inside silica capillarymore » fibers by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The single-crystal fibers, up to 5.1 mm long, have a very welldefined core/cladding interface and a chemically pure silicon core that leads to very low optical losses down to ~0.47-1dB/cm at the standard telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm). Furthermore, tt also exhibits a photosensitivity that is comparable to bulk silicon. Creating such laser processing diagrams can provide a general framework for developing single-crystal fibers in other materials of technological importance.« less

  14. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  15. Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Single-Crystal CVD Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Q.; Yan, C; Meng, Y; Lai, J; Krasnicki, S; Mao, H; Hemley, R

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness ({approx}78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond.

  16. Microstructural defects in some rare earth laves phase single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Y.J.; Abell, J.S. . School of Metallurgy and Materials.)

    1993-08-15

    With the extensive research in magnetic behavior of rare earth intermetallic compounds, more specific microstructural characterization on the available single crystals is obviously necessary because many interpretations of the physical property measurements can be particularly dependent on the knowledge of the microstructural defects, impurity distributions, etc. Among the more interesting and also the most extensively investigated rare earth intermetallics are RAl[sub 2](R = rare earth elements) compounds, which have the C15 cubic Laves phase structure with the tetrahedra of smaller Al atoms residing at the four corners of the cubic cell. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the nature of the magnetism of RAl[sub 2] single crystals by neutron diffraction, e.g. heat capacity measurements, x-ray topography, etc., little work has been performed on characterization of microstructural defects and their effects on physical property measurements. In this work, the authors report a microstructural study on as-grown single crystals of CeAl[sub 2] and TbAl[sub 2] by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of (001) growth faults in CeAl[sub 2] single crystals and (111) planar defects in TbAl[sub 2] single crystals have been identified, and the possible formation mechanism and the influence on the magnetic properties are discussed.

  17. Single crystal niobium tubes for particle colliders accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred °C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 °C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 °C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was

  18. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  19. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

    2009-02-13

    An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

  20. Low temperature acoustic characterization of PMN single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, E.; Sotnikov, A.; Ktitorov, S.; Schmidt, H.

    2017-08-01

    This acoustic study of the relaxor single crystal PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 is focused on the temperature evolution of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities as well as on their attenuation within the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. Temperature dependences of all three independent elastic constants for the cubic structure (C11, C44, and C12) along with the bulk modulus B, the Cauchy ratio, and the degree of lattice anisotropy were derived from the velocity data set. Important parameters such as the Debye temperature, the Grüneisen parameter H, and the Poisson ratio were determined at cryogenic temperatures as well. Deep minima were found for C11 and C44 around the temperature Tm where the dielectric constant reaches a maximum, followed by a drastic increase of C11 and C44 at decreasing temperature and ultimately by a saturation at temperatures below 25 K. The behavior of these constants at T < Tm corresponds well to relations resulting from the Einstein-oscillator model. A changeover of C12(T) dependence from increasing at T < Tm to unexpected monotonic decreasing behavior upon cooling from inflection temperature Ti ≈ 220 K followed by a saturation at T < 25 K was found. Furthermore, the behavior of C12 (T) and interrelated parameters such as B and H was analyzed on the basis of the concept of phonon pressure due to the thermal expansion. It is essential that the electrostriction contribution was taken into account, as well.

  1. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavatti, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Basiricò, L.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-04-01

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτcoplanar = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10-6 cm2/V and μτsandwich = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10-6 cm2/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  2. Structure and Growth Control of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronics: From Polycrystalline Films to Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yani; He, Minhong; Peng, Jiajun; Sun, Yong; Liang, Ziqi

    2016-04-01

    Recently, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have sparked tremendous research interest because of their ground-breaking photovoltaic performance. The crystallization process and crystal shape of perovskites have striking impacts on their optoelectronic properties. Polycrystalline films and single crystals are two main forms of perovskites. Currently, perovskite thin films have been under intensive investigation while studies of perovskite single crystals are just in their infancy. This review article is concentrated upon the control of perovskite structures and growth, which are intimately correlated for improvements of not only solar cells but also light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. We begin with the survey of the film formation process of perovskites including deposition methods and morphological optimization avenues. Strategies such as the use of additives, thermal annealing, solvent annealing, atmospheric control, and solvent engineering have been successfully employed to yield high-quality perovskite films. Next, we turn to summarize the shape evolution of perovskites single crystals from three-dimensional large sized single crystals, two-dimensional nanoplates, one-dimensional nanowires, to zero-dimensional quantum dots. Siginificant functions of perovskites single crystals are highlighted, which benefit fundamental studies of intrinsic photophysics. Then, the growth mechanisms of the previously mentioned perovskite crystals are unveiled. Lastly, perspectives for structure and growth control of perovskites are outlined towards high-performance (opto)electronic devices.

  3. Structure and Growth Control of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronics: From Polycrystalline Films to Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yani; He, Minhong; Peng, Jiajun; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, organic–inorganic halide perovskites have sparked tremendous research interest because of their ground‐breaking photovoltaic performance. The crystallization process and crystal shape of perovskites have striking impacts on their optoelectronic properties. Polycrystalline films and single crystals are two main forms of perovskites. Currently, perovskite thin films have been under intensive investigation while studies of perovskite single crystals are just in their infancy. This review article is concentrated upon the control of perovskite structures and growth, which are intimately correlated for improvements of not only solar cells but also light‐emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. We begin with the survey of the film formation process of perovskites including deposition methods and morphological optimization avenues. Strategies such as the use of additives, thermal annealing, solvent annealing, atmospheric control, and solvent engineering have been successfully employed to yield high‐quality perovskite films. Next, we turn to summarize the shape evolution of perovskites single crystals from three‐dimensional large sized single crystals, two‐dimensional nanoplates, one‐dimensional nanowires, to zero‐dimensional quantum dots. Siginificant functions of perovskites single crystals are highlighted, which benefit fundamental studies of intrinsic photophysics. Then, the growth mechanisms of the previously mentioned perovskite crystals are unveiled. Lastly, perspectives for structure and growth control of perovskites are outlined towards high‐performance (opto)electronic devices. PMID:27812463

  4. Recent progress in the growth and characterization of large Ge single crystals for IR optics and microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, Moshe; Gafni, Gabriella; Roth, Michael

    1991-11-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing demand for large homogeneous Ge single crystals to be used as optical components in high resolution thermal imaging systems. Thus, the authors' research focused on understanding the roles of dopant and stress distribution in large Ge crystals and their influence on the optical performance in the IR region, 8-12 micrometers . More recently, a new application for heavily dope, n-type Ge crystals with low resistivity (~0.1 Ω.cm) and high crystalline perfection (EPD ~5 X 103cm-2) has been reported. This paper presents the growth and characterization of large homogeneous Ge single crystals with diameters up to 240 mm for IR optics. Preliminary results on the growth of 75 mm diameter Ge single crystals for substrates preparation are given. These substrates can be used in GaAs solar cells for space applications.

  5. A study of the structure and scattering mechanisms of subterahertz phonons in lithium fluoride single crystals and optical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanov, E. N. Taranov, A. V.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Akchurin, M. Sh.; Basiev, T. T.; Konyushkin, V. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Osiko, V. V.

    2010-06-15

    The methods of optical, electron, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are applied to the study of the real structure of optical lithium fluoride ceramic obtained by hot deformation of single crystals. A comparative analysis is carried out of the scattering mechanisms of weakly nonequilibrium thermal phonons at liquid helium temperatures in LiF single crystals and ceramics. It is demonstrated that the phonon scattering in the original single crystals is determined by the forced vibrations of dislocations in the stress field of an elastic plane wave (a phonon), i.e., by the flutter mechanism. As the degree of deformation of the original material increases, the ceramics exhibit a change in the plastic deformation mechanisms, which leads to a decrease in the average size of grains and to an ordered structure. In this case, the dominant scattering is that by intergrain boundaries. The thickness and the acoustic impedance of these boundaries are evaluated.

  6. Growth and characterization of lead-free ferroelectric (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjun; Zheng, Limei; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rui; Huo, Xiaoqing; Sang, Shijing; Wu, Jie; Chang, Yunfei; Ning, Huanpo; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a large size lead-free piezoelectric single crystal, (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 (KNLNTS) with the dimensions of 8.5×8.5×13.5 mm3 was successfully grown by the top-seeded solution growth method. This KNLNTS single crystal with high compositional homogeneity is in the tetragonal phase at room temperature. The Curie temperature TC of the tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature is 210 °C. The piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors of the [001]C oriented KNLNTS single crystal are d33=172.55 pC/N, d31=-71.90 pC/N, k31=0.327, k33=0.523, and kt=0.541. In addition, the crystal shows good thermal stability so that it can be used for making high temperature electromechanical devices.

  7. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Single crystals of superconducting SmFeAsO1-xFy grown at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Weyeneth, S.; Puzniak, R.; Karpinski, J.

    2008-08-01

    Single crystals of SmFeAsO1-xFy of a size up to 120 × 100 µm2 have been grown from NaCl/KCl flux at a pressure of 30 kbar and temperature of 1350-1450 °C using the cubic anvil high-pressure technique. The superconducting transition temperature of the obtained single crystals varies between 45 and 53 K. Obtained crystals are characterized by a full diamagnetic response in low magnetic fields and by a high critical current density in high magnetic fields. Structural refinement has been performed on the single crystal. Differential thermal analysis investigations at 1 bar Ar pressure show decomposition of SmFeAsO1-xFy at 1302 °C.

  8. Room-temperature switching of magnetic hysteresis by reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal solvent exchange in imidazole-inspired Fe(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Shen, Fuxing; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Dayu; Pan, Feifei; Sato, Osamu

    2016-10-14

    The recent upsurge in molecular magnetism reflects its application in the areas of sensors and molecular switches. Thermal hysteresis is crucial to the molecular bistability and information storage, a wide hysteresis near room temperature is expected to be of practical sense for the molecular compound. In this work, spin crossover iron(ii) complexes [Fe(Liq)2](BF4)2·(CH3CH2)2O (1-Et2O) and [Fe(Liq)2](BF4)2·3H2O (1-3H2O) were prepared and structurally and magnetically analysed. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) solvation transformation and the influence on the crystal structures and magnetic hysteresis were investigated in an etherification-hydration cycle. At room temperature, X-ray diffraction experiments indicated a transformation from one crystal (1-Et2O, P21212) to another crystal (1-3H2O, P212121) upon humidity exposure and reversible recovery of its crystallinity upon exposure to ether vapor. The etherified phase 1-Et2O exhibits room temperature spin crossover (T1/2 = 305 K) but negligible thermal hysteresis, however the hydrated phase 1-3H2O exhibits the apparent hysteresis loop (T1/2↑ = 346 K, T1/2↓ = 326 K) which expands to room temperature. This effect is associated with the change of intermolecular cooperativity in the etherification-hydration recyclability.

  9. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, A.; De, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals. PMID:21262492

  10. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  11. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  12. Aluminium segregation of TiAl during single crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Y.J.; Abell, J.S.

    1997-09-15

    {gamma}-TiAl single crystals have been successfully prepared by an induction-heated cold crucible Czochralski technique which offers more flexibility than vertical float zoning. Compositional analysis of the Czochralski grown single crystals indicates a homogeneous composition after initial transition; and the average composition is close to the peritectic composition. However, {gamma}-TiAl single crystals prepared by vertical float zoning show a small aluminium segregation profile along the growth direction; and the average composition of the as-grown crystals is close to that of the starting alloy. Compositional analysis further demonstrated the banded structure with alternative single {gamma}-phase and {alpha}{sub 2} + {gamma} lamellar regions in the vertical float zoned Ti-54 at.% Al.

  13. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, A; De, S

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we compute elastoplastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young's modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from the existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals.

  14. Segmentation Effect on Inhomogeneity of [110]-Single Crystal Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Nesterenko, E. A. Alfyorova V. P.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of segmentation process in FCC single crystals with compression axis [110] and side faces( ̅110) and (001) considering effect of octahedral shear crystal-geometry and basic stress concentrators. Sequence of meso-band systems formation on side faces is determined. Macro-segmentation patterns are specified, that are common to the FCC single crystals under investigation. It is proved that rectangular shape of highly compressed crystals, elongated in direction of operating planes, is conditioned by orientation symmetry of compression axis, single crystal side faces and shears directions, which are characteristic for the given orientation. The specified patterns are characteristic only for the samples with initial height-to-width ratio equal to 2. When varying sample height relative to the initial one, segmentation patterns will also vary due to crystal geometry variations.

  15. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy studies on triglycine sulphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Mohamed Asath, R.; Premkumar, R.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of triglycine sulphate (TGS) on silver (Ag) surface were investigated based on density functional theory calculations and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The single crystals of TGS were grown by slow evaporation method. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method and characterized. The calculated and observed structural parameters of TGS molecule were compared. Raman and SERS spectra for TGS single crystal were studied experimentally and validated theoretically. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis was carried out for TGS and TGS adsorbed on Ag surface. The second harmonic generation measurements confirm the nonlinear optical (NLO) activity of the TGS molecule. SERS spectral analysis reveals that the TGS adsorbed as tilted orientation on the silver surface. The theoretical and experimental results evidence the suitability of the grown TGS single crystal for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Synthesis and properties of erbium oxide single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Romero, R.S.; Mendoza, D.; Kukla, A.M.; Hoover, R.C.; McClellan, K.J.

    1999-04-01

    Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, erbia) is a highly stable cubic rare earth oxide with a high melting point of 2,430 C. Because of this, it may have potential applications where high temperature stability and corrosion resistance are required. However, relatively little is known about the properties of this oxide ceramic. The authors have employed a xenon optical floating zone unit with a temperature capability of 3,000 C to grow high quality single crystals of erbia. The conditions for single crystal growth of erbia have been established. The mechanical properties of erbia single crystals have been initially examined using microhardness indentation as a function of temperature.

  17. Growing intermetallic single crystals using in situ decanting

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, Cedomir; Canfield, Paul; Mellen, Jonathan

    2012-05-16

    High temperature metallic solution growth is one of the most successful and versatile methods for single crystal growth, and is particularly suited for exploratory synthesis. The method commonly utilizes a centrifuge at room temperature and is very successful for the synthesis of single crystal phases that can be decanted from the liquid below the melting point of the silica ampoule. In this paper, we demonstrate the extension of this method that enables single crystal growth and flux decanting inside the furnace at temperatures above 1200°C. This not only extends the number of available metallic solvents that can be used in exploratory crystal growth but also can be particularly well suited for crystals that have a rather narrow exposed solidification surface in the equilibrium alloy phase diagram.

  18. Self-Assembly of Ultralong Aligned Dipeptide Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Li, Qi; Riegler, Hans; Eickelmann, Stephan; Dai, Luru; Yang, Yang; Perez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Jia, Yi; Chen, Guoxiang; Fei, Jinbo; Holmberg, Krister; Li, Junbai

    2017-09-25

    Oriented arrangement of single crystal plays a key role in improving the performance of their functional devices. Herein we describe a method for the exceptionally fast fabrication (mm/min) of ultralong aligned dipeptide single crystals (several centimeters). It combines an induced nucleation step with a continuous withdrawal of substrate, leading to specific evaporation/composition conditions at three phase contact line, which makes the growth process controllable. These aligned dipeptide fibers possess uniform cross section with active optical waveguiding properties that can be used as waveguiding materials. The approach provides a guidance for the controlled arrangement of organic single crystals, a family of materials with considerable potential applications in large-scale functional devices.

  19. Constitutive modelling of single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    The trend towards improved engine efficiency and durability places increasing demands on materials that operate in the hot section of the gas turbine engine. These demands are being met by new coatings and materials such as single crystal and directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys which have greater creep/fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures and reduced susceptibility to grain boundary creep, corrosion and oxidation than conventionally cast alloys. Work carried out as part of a research program aimed at the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain-time behavior of single crystal and directionally solidified turbine blade superalloys is discussed. The program involves both development of suitable constitutive models and their verification through elevated temperature tension-torsion testing of single crystals of PWA 1480.

  20. Modeling of elastic and plastic waves for HCP single crystals in a 3D formulation based on zinc single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, Marina; Kobenko, Sergey; Tuch, Elena; Kozlova, Maria

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates elastic and plastic waves in HCP single crystals through the numerical simulation of strain processes in anisotropic materials based on a zinc single crystal. Velocity profiles for compression waves in the back surfaces of single-crystal zinc plates with impact loading oriented in 0001 and 10 1 ¯0 are presented in this work as a part of results obtained in numerical simulations. The mathematical model implemented in this study reflects the following characteristics of the mechanical properties inherent in anisotropic (transtropic) materials: varying degree of anisotropy of elastic and plastic properties, which includes reverse anisotropy, dependence of distribution of all types of waves on the velocity orientation, and the anisotropy of compressibility. Another feature of elastic and plastic waves in HCP single crystals is that the shock wave does not split into an elastic precursor and "plastic" compression shock wave, which is inherent in zinc single crystals with loading oriented in 0001. The study compares numerical results obtained in a three-dimensional formulation with the results of velocity profiles from the back surfaces of target plates obtained in real experiments. These results demonstrate that the mathematical model is capable of describing the properties of the above-mentioned anisotropic (transtropic) materials.

  1. Silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Eugen; Chen, Qun-Feng; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 h. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient (α). We found that α=4.6×10(-13)  K(-1) at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K α vanishes, with a derivative equal to -6×10(-10)  K(-2). The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 μK for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-10(-17) level.

  2. Transport Property Measurements in Doped Bi2Te3 Single Crystals Obtained via Zone Melting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Bhakti; Shah, Dimple; Ravindra, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of Se- and Fe-doped Bi2Te3 have been synthesized via the zone melting method. Energy-dispersive x-ray and x-ray powder diffraction analyses have been carried out to identify the constituent elements and determine the lattice parameters of the grown crystals. Surface topological features of the as-grown single crystals have been studied. The transport properties of doped stoichiometric Bi2Te3 single crystals have been studied by measuring the thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity in the temperature range from 303 K to 473 K. The thermoelectric power, S, effective mass, scattering parameter, and Fermi energy have been calculated from thermoelectric power measurements. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, σ, shows that the dopants in the crystals are thermally activated. All the crystals exhibit semiconducting behavior as confirmed by the temperature dependence of σ and S. The effective mass of electrons and the effective density of states have been determined and are reported for Bi2Te3- x Se x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) and Bi2- y Fe y Te3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3).

  3. Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Processing of Ion Implanted Single Crystal Silicon Carbide Thin Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Tuğrul; Thepsonthi, Thanongsak; Amarasinghe, Voshadhi P.; Celler, George K.

    The attractiveness of single crystal SiC in a variety of high power, high voltage, and high temperature device applications such as electric vehicles and jet engines is counteracted by the very high cost of substrates. Precision cutting of multiple micrometre thick SiC layers and transferring them to lower cost substrates would drive the cost down and allow expanding the use of single crystal SiC. In this study, laser beam processing has been utilized to exfoliate thin layers from a surface of single crystal SiC that was prepared with hydrogen and boron ion implantation. The layer thickness of 1 μm has been achieved by ion implantation that formed voids and microcracks under the surface at a layer of 150 nm thick. High energy laser pulses provided the layer removal and its transfer to bonded Si substrate has been shown. Exfoliated surfaces and topography have been evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, thermal modelling of pulse laser irradiation of implanted multi-layer SiC material has been conducted and temperature profiles are obtained at different peak pulse intensity settings to optimize exfoliation process parameters. It was found that laser exfoliation mechanism can be further improved by higher optical absorptance of defect rich layer obtained with boron ion implantation.

  4. Single Crystal Preparation for High-Pressure Experiments in the Diamond Anvil Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Aracne, C; Farber, D; Benterou, J; Occelli, F; Krisch, M; Antonangeli, D; Requardt, H; Fiquet, G

    2003-07-01

    Most research conducted in diamond anvil cells (DAC) is performed on polycrystalline samples. While data from polycrystalline samples are sufficient for determining the bulk properties, high-pressure experiments on single crystals allow for measurements on a range of tensor properties such as: thermal and electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; elasticity; and plasticity. However, in order to achieve pressures above 1 Mbar in a DAC, single crystal samples must be <50 m in diameter and <15 m thick while maintaining a high degree of crystallinity. Thus, we have developed new procedures for producing extremely high-quality micro single crystal samples from commercially available material. Our sample preparation steps include cutting, classical metallographic polishing, and laser ablation. The key to our new process is the preservation of crystallinity during cutting and thinning. We have been successful in maintaining orientation, along with an extremely high degree of crystallinity in completed metal samples. To date, we have analyzed cobalt and molybdenum samples with both white-light interferometry and synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and are in the process of extending these methods to other metals and ceramics.

  5. Bulk growth and characterization of novel organic piperazinium (bis) hydrogen succinate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizhi, R. Ezhil; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2016-10-01

    The new organic nonlinear optical material piperazinium (bis) hydrogen succinate single crystal (PPHS) was synthesized by the slow evaporation method. The solubility of PPHS was determined by gravimetric analysis and the metastable zonewidth was assessed by polythermal method. The induction period was measured by isothermal method. The experimentally calculated values of the interfacial energies are in agreement with the theoretical values. As an outcome of studying the nucleation parameters, a bulk single crystal of PPHS was grown by slow cooling method. The structure of PPHS was estimated from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. FT NMR spectrum was analyzed. The cut - off wavelength and energy band gap values were found to be 254 nm and 4.85 eV respectively from the UV-vis-NIR spectrum analysis. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied. The mechanical strength and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal were measured by Vicker's microhardness test and Z-scan technique respectively.

  6. Single-crystal silicon MEMS microactuator for high-density hard disk drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jianqiang; Chen, Shixin; Lu, Yi

    2001-11-01

    A single crystal silicon MEMS microactuator for high density hard disk drives is described in this paper. The microactuator is located between a slider and a suspension, and drives the slider on which a magnetic head is attached. The MEMS actuator is fabricated by improved LISA process. It has an electrically isolated 20:1 (40micrometers thick, 2micrometers width) high aspect ratio structure directly processed from a single crystal silicon substrate. The overall dimension of the micro-actuator is 1.4mm by 1.4mm and by a thickness of 0.15mm. Experiments show that +/- 0.6 micrometers displacement stroke of the Read/Write magnetic head, which is attached on the MEMS actuator, can be achieved when input voltage is 40V. The dynamic performances of the MEMS actuator integrated with a Head Gimbal Assembly (HGA) are analyzed by FEM Simulation. The simulation results demonstrated that the controllable in-plane resonance frequency of the MEMS actuator is 1.5 kHz, and the first uncontrollable out-of- plane resonance frequency of the MEMS actuator integrated with the HGA is 16.6kHz. The single crystal silicon microactuator has good shock reliability, and eliminates large material creep and thermal mismatch problems.

  7. Method for harvesting single crystals from a peritectic melt

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals unmelted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  8. Method for harvesting single crystals from a peritectic melt

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-08-27

    A method of preparing single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals unmelted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  9. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  10. Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers for ultrasound NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Snook, Kevin; Walker, Thomas; Portune, Andrew; Haber, Richard; Geng, Xuecang; Welter, John; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2008-03-01

    Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers including 75 MHz PC-MUT (piezoelectric composite micromachined ultrasound transducers), diced 10 MHz and 15 MHz 1-3 composite transducers were successfully demonstrated with broad bandwidth and high sensitivity. In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of composite transducers are reported. C-scan experiments for SiC ceramic samples were performed using these composite transducers as well as some commercial NDE transducers. The results suggest that significant improvements in resolution and penetration depth can be achieved in C-scan NDE imaging using single crystal composite broadband transducers.

  11. Growth of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhemyakin, G. N. Lutskiy, D. V.; Rom, M. A.; Mateychenko, P. V.

    2008-12-15

    The growth conditions and structural quality of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals with Bi content from 2 to 18 at %, grown by the Czochralski method with solid phase feed, are investigated. Bi distribution in the crystals along their pulling direction are studied by electron probe microanalysis and the change in the interplanar spacing is analyzed by double-crystal X-ray diffraction. It is established that the pulling rate and feed mass affect the Bi distribution in Sb-Bi single crystals.

  12. Ultrafast lattice dynamics of single crystal and polycrystalline gold nanofilms☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianbo; Karam, Tony E.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is employed to spatiotemporally visualize the lattice dynamics of 11 nm-thick single-crystal and 2 nm-thick polycrystalline gold nanofilms. Surprisingly, the electron-phonon coupling rates derived from two temperature simulations of the data reveal a faster interaction between electrons and the lattice in the case of the single-crystal sample. We interpret this unexpected behavior as arising from quantum confinement of the electrons in the 2 nm-thick gold nanofilm, as supported by absorption spectra, an effect that counteracts the expected increase in the electron scattering off surfaces and grain boundaries in the polycrystalline materials.

  13. Current Noise in Sodium Beta Alumina Ceramics and Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    AD-Ai7O 412 CURRENT NOISE IN SODIUM BETA ALUMINA CERAMICS AIND t/l SINGLE CRYSTALS(U) UTAH UNIV SALT LAKE CITY DEPT OF PHYSICS J J BROPHY’ 81 AUG 86...ZIP C-0- UNIVERSITY OF UTAH UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84112 Bandelier Hall West Albuquerque, NM 87131 go NAME OF FUNDING...bloeS nIumbe Conductivity fluctuations and contact noise observed in ceramic and single crystal silver 811 alumina are very pilar to those in sodium 8

  14. Lead pyrovanadate single crystal as a new SRS material

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Voronko, Yu K; Maslov, Vladislav A; Sobol, A A; Shukshin, V E

    2011-02-28

    Lead pyrovanadate Pb{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystals of optical quality suitable for laser experiments are obtained. Vibrational modes are identified based on the analysis of the polarised Raman spectra of the single crystals. The main parameters (width at half maximum, peak and integral intensities) of the spectral lines most promising for SRS conversion in this material are estimated. These parameters are compared with the corresponding parameters of the most frequently used lines of known Raman materials: yttrium and gadolinium vanadates, potassium and lead tungstates, and lead molybdate. (active media)

  15. Observation of plastic deformation in freestanding single crystal Au nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongyun; Zhao Manhong; Wei Xiaoding; Chen Xi; Jun, Seong C.; Hone, James; Herbert, Erik G.; Oliver, Warren C.; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2006-09-11

    Freestanding single crystal nanowires of gold were fabricated from a single grain of pure gold leaf by standard lithographic techniques, with center section of 7 {mu}m in length, 250 nm in width, and 100 nm in thickness. The ends remained anchored to a silicon substrate. The specimens were deflected via nanoindenter until plastic deformation was achieved. Nonlocalized and localized plastic deformations were observed. The resulting force-displacement curves were simulated using continuum single crystal plasticity. A set of material parameters which closely reproduce the experimental results suggests that the initial critical resolved shear stress was as high as 135 MPa.

  16. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.; Watring, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and serious has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; mercury cadmium telluride with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent respectively. These alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed of residual acceleration effects. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system by a previously processed sample, the sample was not received until May 1998, and the preliminary analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. Early results are indicating that the sample may not accomplish the desired objectives. As with the USMP-2 mission, the results of the ground based experiments were compared with the crystal grown in orbit under microgravity conditions. On the earth, it has been demonstrated that the

  17. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.; Watring, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and serious has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; mercury cadmium telluride with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent respectively. These alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed of residual acceleration effects. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system by a previously processed sample, the sample was not received until May 1998, and the preliminary analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. Early results are indicating that the sample may not accomplish the desired objectives. As with the USMP-2 mission, the results of the ground based experiments were compared with the crystal grown in orbit under microgravity conditions. On the earth, it has been demonstrated that the

  18. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and solidus has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent of HgTe respectively, the remainder being cadmium telluride. Such alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed correlating composition variations to measured residual acceleration. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system, analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. The results indicate that the sample did accomplish the desired objectives.

  19. Insertion of Guest Molecules into a Mixed Ligand Metal-Organic Framework via Single-Crystal-to-Single Crystal Guest Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Insertion of Guest Molecules into a Mixed Ligand Metal−Organic Framework via Single-Crystal-to-Single- Crystal Guest Exchange by Lily Giri...Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-7004 July 2014 Insertion of Guest Molecules into a Mixed Ligand Metal−Organic...Framework via Single-Crystal-to-Single- Crystal Guest Exchange Lily Giri, Rose Pesce-Rodriguez, Shashi P Karna, and Nirupam J Trivedi Weapons

  20. Roflumilast - A reversible single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition at 50 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertelhaus, Martin; Holst, Hans Christof; Volz, Jürgen; Hummel, Rolf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor and is marketed under the brand names Daxas®, Daliresp® and Libertec®. A phase transition of the drug substance roflumilast was observed at 50 °C. The low temperature form, the high temperature form and the phase transition were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry, variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. The phase transition of roflumilast at 50 °C is completely reversible, the high temperature form cannot be stabilised by quench cooling and the phase transition does not influence the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the drug product. It was observed to be a single crystal to single crystal phase transition.

  1. Lamb waves dispersion curves for diamond based piezoelectric layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, B. P.; Kvashnin, G. M.; Telichko, A. V.; Novoselov, A. S.; Burkov, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of spurious peaks in the amplitude-frequency response of diamond based piezoelectric layered structure was shown. Excitation of such peaks results in deterioration of an useful acoustical signal. It was shown that such spurious peaks should be associated with Lamb waves in a layered structure. By means of FEM analysis, the propagation of acoustic waves of different types in the piezoelectric layered structure "Al/AlN/Mo/(100) diamond" has been investigated in detail. By analyzing the elastic displacement patterns at frequencies from 0 up to 250 MHz, a set of all the possible acoustic waves, especially Lamb modes, have been studied, and dispersive curves of phase velocity have been plotted. A revised classification of Lamb modes has been introduced.

  2. Area detectors in single-crystal neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Garry J.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of area detectors has brought about a gentle revolution in the routine application of single-crystal neutron diffractometry. Implemented first for macromolecular crystallography, electronic detectors subsequently gradually spread to chemical and physics-oriented crystallography at steady-state sources. The volumetric surveying of reciprocal space implicit in the Laue technique has required area detectors right from the start, whether using film and more recently image plates and CCD-based detectors at reactors, or scintillation detectors at spallation sources. Wide-angle volumetric data collection has extended application of neutron single-crystal diffractometry to chemical structures, sample volumes, and physical phenomena previously deemed impossible. More than 30 of the dedicated single-crystal neutron diffractometers at steady-state reactor and neutron spallation sources worldwide and accessible via peer-review proposal mechanisms are currently equipped with area detectors. Here we review the historical development of the various types of area detectors used for single crystals, discuss experimental aspects peculiar to experiments with such detectors, highlight the scientific fields where the use of area detectors has had a special impact, and forecast future developments in hardware, implementation, and software.

  3. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Maier, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the tensile and stress rupture behavior of 52 Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures between 23 and 1093 C; stress rupture behavior was examined between 760 and 1038 C. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factor contours for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The tensile properties correlated well with the appropriate Schmid factor contours. The stress rupture lives at lower testing temperatures were greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce cross slip. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture life data generated for the Mar-M247 single crystals at 760 and 774 C under a stress of 724 MPa and the data reported for Mar-M200 single crystals tested at 760 C under a stress of 689 MPa. Based on this analysis, the stereographic triangle was divided into several regions which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime.

  4. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Maier, R. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of crystal orientation on the mechanical properties of single crystals of the nickel-based superalloy Mar-M247 are investigated. Tensile tests at temperatures from 23 to 1093 C and stress rupture tests at temperatures from 760 to 1038 C were performed for 52 single crystals at various orientations. During tensile testing between 23 and 760 C, single crystals with high Schmid factors were found to be favorably oriented for slip and to exhibit lower strength and higher ductility than those with low Schmid factors. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for cross slip were observed to have the shortest stress rupture lives at 760 C, while those which required little or no rotation had the longest lives. In addition, stereographic triangles obtained for Mar-M247 and Mar-M200 single crystals reveal that crystals with orientations near the -111 had the highest lives, those near the 001 had high lives, and those near the 011 had low lives.

  5. Some Debye temperatures from single-crystal elastic constant data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Edwards, J.L.

    1966-01-01

    The mean velocity of sound has been calculated for 14 crystalline solids by using the best recent values of their single-crystal elastic stiffness constants. These mean sound velocities have been used to obtain the elastic Debye temperatures ??De for these materials. Models of the three wave velocity surfaces for calcite are illustrated. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.

  6. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  7. Adhesion of single crystals on modified surfaces in crystallization fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Moriz; Augustin, Wolfgang; Scholl, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    In crystallization fouling it has been observed that during a certain initial phase the fouling is formed by a non-uniform layer consisting of a population of single crystals. These single crystals are frequently formed by inverse soluble salts such as CaCO3. During heterogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous growth an interfacial area between the crystal and the heat transfer surface occurs. The development of this interfacial area is the reason for the adhesion of each single crystal and of all individual crystals, once a uniform layer has been built up. The emerging interfacial area is intrinsic to the heterogeneous nucleation of crystals and can be explained by the thermodynamic principle of the minimum of the Gibbs free energy. In this study CaCO3 crystals were grown heterogeneously on untreated and on modified surfaces inside a flow channel. An untreated stainless steel (AISI 304) surface was used as a reference. Following surface modifications were investigated: enameled and electropolished stainless steel as well as diamond-like-carbon based coatings on stainless steel substrate. The adhesion was measured through a novel measurement technique using a micromanipulator to shear off single crystals from the substrate which was fixed to a spring table inside a SEM.

  8. Single crystal ternary oxide ferroelectric integration with Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Youun, Long; Khan, Asif; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    Integrating single crystal, ternary oxide ferroelectric thin film with Silicon or other arbitrary substrates has been a holy grail for the researchers since the inception of microelectronics industry. The key motivation is that adding ferroelectric materials to existing electronic devices could bring into new functionality, physics and performance improvement such as non-volatility of information, negative capacitance effect and lowering sub-threshold swing of field effect transistor (FET) below 60 mV/decade in FET [Salahuddin, S, Datta, S. Nano Lett. 8, 405(2008)]. However, fabrication of single crystal ferroelectric thin film demands stringent conditions such as lattice matched single crystal substrate and high processing temperature which are incompatible with Silicon. Here we report on successful integration of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 in single crystal form with by using a layer transfer method. The lattice structure, surface morphology, piezoelectric coefficient d33, dielectric constant, ferroelectric domain switching and spontaneous and remnant polarization of the transferred PZT are as good as these characteristics of the best PZT films grown by pulsed laser deposition on lattice matched oxide substrates. We also demonstrate Si based, FE gate controlled FET devices.

  9. Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi

    SciTech Connect

    Fente, A.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Nemes, N. M.; García-Hernández, M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2013-10-01

    We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

  10. Inspection of Single Crystal Aerospace Components with Ultrasonic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C. J. L.; Dunhill, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    Single crystal metal alloys are used extensively in the manufacture of jet engine components for their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The increasing use of these materials and demand for longer operational life and improved reliability motivates the requirement to have capable NDE methods available. Ultrasonic arrays are well established at detecting sub-surface defects however these methods are not currently suitable to the inspection of single crystal components due to their high elastic anisotropy causing directional variation in ultrasonic waves. In this paper a model of wave propagation in anisotropic material is used to correct an ultrasonic imaging algorithm and is applied to single crystal test specimens. The orientation of the crystal in a specimen must be known for this corrected-algorithm; therefore a crystal orientation method is also presented that utilizes surface skimming longitudinal waves under a 2D array. The work detailed in this paper allows an ultrasonic 2D array to measure the orientation of a single crystal material and then perform accurate volumetric imaging to detect and size defects.

  11. Study of single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Reising, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The parameters and requirements for growing single crystals of relatively high melting point metals in a zero gravity environment are studied. The crystal growth of metals such as silver, copper, gold, and alloys with a melting point between 900-1100 C is examined.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm2 Vs-1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  13. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm(2) Vs(-1), achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  14. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Maier, R. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of crystal orientation on the mechanical properties of single crystals of the nickel-based superalloy Mar-M247 are investigated. Tensile tests at temperatures from 23 to 1093 C and stress rupture tests at temperatures from 760 to 1038 C were performed for 52 single crystals at various orientations. During tensile testing between 23 and 760 C, single crystals with high Schmid factors were found to be favorably oriented for slip and to exhibit lower strength and higher ductility than those with low Schmid factors. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for cross slip were observed to have the shortest stress rupture lives at 760 C, while those which required little or no rotation had the longest lives. In addition, stereographic triangles obtained for Mar-M247 and Mar-M200 single crystals reveal that crystals with orientations near the -111 had the highest lives, those near the 001 had high lives, and those near the 011 had low lives.

  15. An analytical model for porous single crystals with ellipsoidal voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbiakop, A.; Constantinescu, A.; Danas, K.

    2015-11-01

    A rate-(in)dependent constitutive model for porous single crystals with arbitrary crystal anisotropy (e.g., FCC, BCC, HCP, etc.) containing general ellipsoidal voids is developed. The proposed model, denoted as modified variational model (MVAR), is based on the nonlinear variational homogenization method, which makes use of a linear comparison porous material to estimate the response of the nonlinear porous single crystal. Periodic multi-void finite element simulations are used in order to validate the MVAR for a large number of parameters including cubic (FCC, BCC) and hexagonal (HCP) crystal anisotropy, various creep exponents (i.e., nonlinearity), several stress triaxiality ratios, general void shapes and orientations and various porosity levels. The MVAR model, which involves a priori no calibration parameters, is found to be in good agreement with the finite element results for all cases considered in the rate-dependent context. The model is then used in a predictive manner to investigate the complex response of porous single crystals in several cases with strong coupling between the anisotropy of the crystal and the (morphological) anisotropy induced by the shape and orientation of the voids. Finally, a simple way of calibrating the MVAR with just two adjustable parameters is depicted in the rate-independent context so that an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results is obtained. In this last case, this proposed model can be thought as a generalization of the Gurson model in the context of porous single crystals and general ellipsoidal void shapes and orientations.

  16. Fatigue Failure Criteria for Single Crystal Nickel Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.

    1999-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry and NASA because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Single-crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the pan geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades is complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. A fatigue failure criteria based on the maximum shear stress amplitude [delta t max] on the 30 slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criteria reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data, for four different specimen orientations, for PWA 1484 at 1200 F in air, quite well. A power law curve fit of the failure parameter, delta t max, vs. cycles to failure is presented.

  17. A Study of Single Crystal Fatigue Failure Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayyah, Tarek; Swanson, Gregory R.; Schonberg, William P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study whose objective was to study the applicability of different failure equations in modeling low cycle fatigue (LCF) test data for single crystal test specimens. A total of four failure criteria were considered in this study. One of the failure equations was developed by Pratt & Whitney and is based on normal and shear strains on the primary crystallographic slip planes of the single crystal material. Other failure equations considered are based on isotropic criteria. Because these failure equations were originally developed for isotropic materials such as structural steel, they were modified to be applicable to the single crystal slip systems of the LCF specimen material. By observing how closely the various equations were able to reduce the scatter in the LCF test data, the applicability of those equations in modeling the LCF test data was assessed. It is desired to subsequently use the failure equation with the highest correlation in the development of a new single crystal failure criterion for the Alternative Turbopump Development (ATD) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP).

  18. Dynamic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Burek, Michael J.; Lončar, Marko; Kara, Vural; Kearns, Ryan

    2015-12-14

    We show the dielectrophoretic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical devices. Gradient radio-frequency electromagnetic forces are used to achieve actuation of both cantilever and doubly clamped beam structures, with operation frequencies ranging from a few MHz to ∼50 MHz. Frequency tuning and parametric actuation are also studied.

  19. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for ‘plastic electronics’. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps. PMID:27877287

  20. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  1. Growth and characterization of large CdSiP 2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawilski, Kevin T.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Pollak, Thomas C.; Zelmon, David E.; Fernelius, Nils C.; Kenneth Hopkins, F.

    2010-04-01

    Large, optically transparent crystals of CdSiP 2 (CSP) have been grown for the first time from a stoichiometric melt. The material is a high temperature analog to ZnGeP 2 with promising characteristics for IR frequency conversion. Crystals are birefringent and are transparent from 0.5 to 9 μm. Polycrystalline charges were successfully synthesized from high purity elemental starting materials by two-temperature vapor transport despite the very high equilibrium vapor pressure (˜22 atm) at the melting point of CdSiP 2 (1133 °C). Single crystals were grown using the horizontal gradient freeze (HGF) technique in high-temperature transparent furnaces. Over the course of several growth runs, the material proved to be prone to cracking and to twinning along (1 1 2) planes. Twinning was eliminated by seeded growth along directions normal to the 112 planar boundaries. Further modifications to growth conditions resulted in high optical quality, crack- and twin-free single crystals 70×25×8 mm 3. The largest CdSiP 2 single crystals previously reported in the literature were grown through either halogen assisted vapor transport or from a molten Sn flux and measured 2×2×0.2 mm 3. The HGF growth of large CdSiP 2 crystals has allowed several bulk properties to be measured for the first time, including the thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivity, and wavelength dependent birefringence and dispersion. Measurements of the optical and thermal properties reveal this to be an extremely promising material for 1-, 1.5-, and 2 μm-pumped mid-IR lasers.

  2. Investigation and characterization of ZnO single crystal microtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naser, Qusay A.H.; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Guizhen; Wang, Lin

    2016-04-15

    Morphological, structural, and optical characterization of microwave synthesized ZnO single crystal microtubes were investigated in this work. The structure and morphology of the ZnO microtubes are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), single crystal diffraction (SCD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the as-synthesized ZnO microtube has a highly regular hexagonal cross section and smooth surfaces with an average length of 650–700 μm, an average outer diameter of 50 μm and wall thickness of 1–3 μm, possessing a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Optical properties of ZnO single crystal microtubes were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption techniques. Room-temperature PL spectrum of the microtube reveal a strong UV emission peak at around 375.89 nm and broad and a weak visible emission with a main peak identified at 577 nm, which was assigned to the nearest band-edge emission and the deep-level emission, respectively. The band gap energy of ZnO microtube was found to be 3.27 eV. - Highlights: • ZnO microtube length of 650–700 μm, diameter of 50 μm, wall thickness of 1–3 μm • ZnO microtube possesses a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. • The crystal system is hexahedral oriented along a-axis with indices of (100). • A strong and sharp UV emission at 375.89 nm (3.29 eV) • One prominent absorption band around 378.88 nm (3.27 eV)

  3. On the growth of Hg2Cl(1-x)2Br(x2) single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Metz, E. P. A.; Stewart, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Hopkins, R.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Haley, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystals of mixed mercurous halides Hg2X2 (where X = Cl and Br) were grown by the physical vapor transport process. Structural parameters and optical properties were determined to examine the suitability of mixed crystals for acoustooptic devices. Mixed crystals grown in the low concentration region did not show striations or banding. Crystals grown in the high concentration region showed considerable inhomogeneity in the refractive index. Since we had used identical thermal conditions, inhomogeneity was attributed to the solutal convection caused by the difference in densities of mercurous chloride and bromide vapors. A low concentration of dopant did not change the acoustic velocity of the parent components.

  4. Amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams in single crystal fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Stefan; Délen, Xavier; Rumpel, Martin; Didierjean, Julien; Aubry, Nicolas; Graf, Thomas; Balembois, Francois; Georges, Patrick; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou

    2013-05-06

    Yb:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF) amplifiers have recently drawn much attention in the field of amplification of ultra-short pulses. In this paper, we report on the use of SCF amplifiers for the amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams, as such beams offer promising properties for numerous applications. While the amplification of cylindrically polarized beams is challenging with other amplifier designs due to thermally induced depolarization, we demonstrate the amplification of 32 W cylindrically polarized beams to an output power of 100 W. A measured degree of radial polarization after the SCF of about 95% indicates an excellent conservation of polarization.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth coordinated with thiourea single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Slathia, Goldy; Bamzai, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    Single crystal of yttrium chloride coordinated with thiourea was successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature using deionized water as a solvent. The structure of the crystal belongs to orthorhombic system and crystallizes in non-centro-symmetric space group Pn21a. The thermal stability was analyzed by thermo gravimetric / differential thermo analytical (TG/DTA). FTIR studies confirmed the compound formation and presence of functional groups in the crystal. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic studies show that the crystals possess wide transmittance in the visible region and significant optical band gap of 4.2ev with cut off wavelength of 246 nm.

  6. Strontium titanate - An index to the literature on properties and the growth of single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassau, K.; Miller, A. E.

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents a list of references to the most important information concerning properties and the growth conditions of single-crystal SrTiO3. References to a wide variety of crystal growth techniques are presented, with special consideration given to those for the Verneuil technique. References to the properties of strontium titanate are grouped into five categories: (1) structural, thermal, and mechanical properties; (2) electric and magnetic properties; (3) optical and related properties; (4) phase diagrams, mixed systems, and chemical properties; and (5) the dopants used and their properties. Some of the more useful numerical constants are also included.

  7. Temperature-dependent index of refraction of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Bhatt, R; Ganesamoorthy, S; Saxena, A; Karnal, A K; Gupta, P K; Sinha, A K; Deb, S K

    2011-11-01

    We present temperature-dependent refractive index along crystallographic b[010] and a direction perpendicular to (100)-plane for monoclinic phase (β) Ga(2)O(3) single crystal grown by the optical floating zone technique. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical result of Litimein et al.1. Also, the Sellmeier equation for wavelengths in the range of 0.4-1.55 μm is formulated at different temperatures in the range of 30-175 °C. The thermal coefficient of refractive index in the above specified range is ~10(-5)/°C. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Single crystal to single crystal transition in (10, 3)-d framework with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligand: Synthesis, structures and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qian; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Liu, Zhong-Yi

    2012-12-15

    Assembling of pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Pzc) acid with nickel chlorine under solvothermal condition with MeOH as solvent gave a porous complex 1 {l_brace}[Ni(Pzc)ClH{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MeOH{r_brace}{sub n} with 1D channels. In 1 the ligands and metal ions are connected by three of each other and a rare (10,3)-d topology net is gained. The MeOH molecules filled in the 1D channels as guests. It is interesting that 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another complex 2 when the guest MeOH molecules in the channels are exchanged by water molecules. Magnetic study indicates anti-ferromagnetic couplings exist in the two complexes and the guest exchange in the complex has little influence on the magnetism. - Graphical abstract: A porous complex 1 with rare (10,3)-d net was gained, and 1 underwent a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another phase 2. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New (10,3)-d net was obtained with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligands as a triangular node. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex 1 has a 1D channel filled with methanol molecules as guests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 could undergo SCSC structural transition to 2 after guests exchanged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 1 and 2.

  9. Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth

    DOE PAGES

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; ...

    2015-02-21

    Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, CaI2:Eu2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, CaI2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, atmore » least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the CaI2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of CaI2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both CaI2:Eu2+ and un-doped CaI2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the scintillation properties of CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 single crystals are presented that include studies of the effects of plastic deformation of the crystals on the scintillator performance.« less

  10. Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, John S.

    2015-02-21

    Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, CaI2:Eu2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, CaI2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, at least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the CaI2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of CaI2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both CaI2:Eu2+ and un-doped CaI2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the

  11. Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Forsterite Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Jin, S.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Fleet, M. E.; Jin, Z.

    2006-12-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4), the low-pressure polymorph of magnesium orthosilicate, is of great importance in the upper mantle due to its aboundance. Up to now, only powder samples of forsterite can be synthesized due to the difficulty of its crystal growth. Therefore, the exact crystal structure of forsterite is still an open question. The crystal structure of forsterite was firstly studied in 1926 by Brown and Bragg. Numerous experimental investigations have been performed in order to get the structure of the olivine group minerals at ambient conditions and a variety of temperature and pressures by using the advent of the computer, the single crystal diffractometer and the diamond cell. However, there are still considerable uncertaintes regarding the accuracy of its unit-cell parameter values. In this study, we synthesized for the first time high quality single crystals of forsterite using the Quickpress piston-cylinder apparatus. The single crystal of forsterite was synthesized by direct reaction of stoichiometric amounts of MgO and amorphous SiO2 (Alfa Aesar, 99.999%) in the presence of ~10-11 wt% distilled water at 2.0GPa, 1723 K for 12h. A colorless single crystal of Mg2SiO4 with size dimensions 0.16×0.11×0.04 mm was selected for single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The intensity data were collected with a Rigaku R-AXIS RAPID IP diffractometer by oscillation scans using graphite- monochromated Mo-K?0?6?0?6?7677?0?6?0?6?7699 radiation (λ=0.71073 Å). Cell refinement and data reduction were accomplished with RAPID AUTO program. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods with the SHELXL crystallographic software package. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows a crystal structure of orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62) with a = 10.2073(11) Å, b = 5.9863(5) Å, c = 4.7611(4) Å and Z = 4. Our new data provides new constraints for theoretical investigations of the physical and chemistry properties and behaviors of forsterite under various

  12. Improved pyroelectric detectors for single crystal adsorption calorimetry from 100 to 350 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Wanda; Lytken, Ole; Farmer, Jason A.; Crowe, Matthew C.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2010-02-01

    The adsorption of atoms and molecules on single crystal surfaces allows one to produce well-characterized atomic, molecular, or dissociated adsorbates. Microcalorimetric measurement of the resulting adsorption energies, i.e., single crystal adsorption calorimetry, allows determination of the standard enthalpies of formation of these adsorbates. Methods are described for making an improved heat detector for such measurements, which greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio, particularly at low temperatures (down to 100 K). The heat detector is an adaptation of a previously introduced design, based on a metallized pyroelectric polymer (β-polyvinylidene fluoride), which is pressed against the back of a single crystal during measurement but removed during sample preparation and annealing. The improvement is achieved by selectively etching the metal coating of the polymer, thus reducing the pyro- and piezoelectric noise from all nonessential regions of the polymer. We, furthermore, describe how to achieve a better thermal contact between the sample and the pyroelectric polymer, without increasing the thermal mass of the detector, resulting in significantly improved sensitivities for both 1 and 127 μm thick samples. The result is a detector which, using 1 μm samples, is ˜40 times more sensitive at 100 K than the traditional polymer-based detector, showing a pulse-to-pulse standard deviation in the heat of adsorption of just 1.3 kJ/mol with gas pulses containing only 1.1% of a monolayer onto Pt(111), for which 1 ML (monolayer) is 1.5×1015 species/cm2. For measurements at 300 K, where especially pyroelectric noise is likely of less concern, the new design improves the sensitivity 3.6-fold compared to the traditional detector. These improvements are furthermore used to propose a new detector design that is able to measure heats of adsorption on samples as thick as 127 μm with reasonable sensitivity.

  13. Creep Properties of NiAl-1Hf Single Crystals Re-Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Locci, Ivan E.; Darolia, Ram; Bowman, Randy R.

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-1Hf single crystals have been shown to be quite strong at 1027 C, with strength levels approaching those of advanced Ni-based superalloys. Initial testing, however, indicated that the properties might not be reproducible. Study of the 1027 C creep behavior of four different NiAl-1Hf single-crystal ingots subjected to several different heat treatments indicated that strength lies in a narrow band. Thus, we concluded that the mechanical properties are reproducible. Recent investigations of the intermetallic NiAl have confirmed that minor alloying additions combined with single-crystal growth technology can produce elevated temperature strength levels approaching those of Ni-based superalloys. For example, General Electric alloy AFN 12 {Ni-48.5(at.%) Al-0.5Hf-1Ti-0.05Ga} has a creep rupture strength equivalent to Rene 80 combined with a approximately 30-percent lower density, a fourfold improvement in thermal conductivity, and the ability to form a self-protective alumina scale in aggressive environments. Although the compositions of strong NiAl single crystals are relatively simple, the microstructures are complex and vary with the heat treatment and with small ingot-toingot variations in the alloy chemistry. In addition, initial testing suggested a strong dependence between microstructure and creep strength. If these observations were true, the ability to utilize NiAl single-crystal rotating components in turbine machinery could be severely limited. To investigate the possible limitations in the creep response of high-strength NiAl single crystals, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated an in depth investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and subsequent 1027 C creep behavior of [001]-oriented NiAl-1Hf with a nominal chemistry of Ni-47.5Al-1Hf-0.5Si. This alloy was selected since four ingots, grown over a number of years and possessing slightly different compositions, were available for study. Specimens taken from the

  14. Formation of auxetic surfaces in rhombic syngony single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raransky, Mykola D.; Balazyuk, Vitaliy N.; Gunko, Mikhailo M.; Gevik, Vasyl B.; Struk, Andriy Y.

    2015-11-01

    By using elasticity Cijkl and compliance moduli Sijkl for rhombic syngony single crystals the necessary and sufficient conditions for axial and non-axial auxetic properties occurrence were defined. Indicative surfaces for single crystals Ga, I2, SnSe, Hg2Cl2, CaCO3, AgN3, BaMnF4, C6H6, LiGaO2, Cd(COOH)2, (C6H5)2CO, C6H10(CH2)2, Ca(COOH)2, Na2CoGeO4, NH4B5O8.4H2O auxetic properties were built for the first time. The basic mechanisms and regularities of auxetic surfaces formation were stated. The auxetic oscillation effect in C6H6 was found.

  15. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-04-02

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  16. Growth of EuO single crystals at reduced temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Daniel C.; Besara, Tiglet; Whalen, Jeffrey B.; Siegrist, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of (E u1 -xB ax)O have been grown in a molten barium-magnesium metal flux at temperatures up to 1000 °C, producing single crystals of (E u1 -xB ax)O with barium doping levels ranging from x =0.03 to x =0.25 . Magnetic measurements show that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature TC correlates with the Ba doping levels, and a modified Heisenberg model was used to describe the stoichiometry dependence of TC. Extrapolation of the results indicates that a sample with Ba concentration of x =0.72 should have a TC of 0 K, potentially producing a quantum phase transition in this material.

  17. Single crystal plasticity with bend-twist modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhodary, Khalil I.; Bakr, Mohamed A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work a formulation is proposed and computationally implemented for rate dependent single crystal plasticity, which incorporates plastic bend-twist modes that arise from dislocation density based poly-slip mechanisms. The formulation makes use of higher order continuum theory and may be viewed as a generalized micromechanics model. The formulation is then linked to the burgers and Nye tensors, showing how their material rates are derivable from a newly proposed third-rank tensor Λp, which incorporates a crystallographic description of bend-twist plasticity through selectable slip-system level constitutive laws. A simple three-dimensional explicit finite element implementation is outlined and employed in three simulations: (a) bi-crystal bending; (b) tension on a notched single crystal; and (c) the large compression of a microstructure to induce the plastic buckling of secondary phases. All simulation are transient, for computational expediency. The results shed light on the physics resulting from dynamic inhomogeneous plastic deformation.

  18. Single-crystal structure of a covalent organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-Biao; Su, Jie; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Yun, Yifeng; Gándara, Felipe; Duong, Adam; Zou, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar M

    2013-11-06

    The crystal structure of a new covalent organic framework, termed COF-320, is determined by single-crystal 3D electron diffraction using the rotation electron diffraction (RED) method for data collection. The COF crystals are prepared by an imine condensation of tetra-(4-anilyl)methane and 4,4'-biphenyldialdehyde in 1,4-dioxane at 120 °C to produce a highly porous 9-fold interwoven diamond net. COF-320 exhibits permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 2400 m(2)/g and a methane total uptake of 15.0 wt % (176 cm(3)/cm(3)) at 25 °C and 80 bar. The successful determination of the structure of COF-320 directly from single-crystal samples is an important advance in the development of COF chemistry.

  19. Single-Crystal Structure of a Covalent Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, YB; Su, J; Furukawa, H; Yun, YF; Gandara, F; Duong, A; Zou, XD; Yaghi, OM

    2013-11-06

    The crystal structure of a new covalent organic framework, termed COF-320, is determined by single-crystal 3D electron diffraction using the rotation electron diffraction (RED) method for data collection. The COF crystals are prepared by an imine condensation of tetra-(4-anilyl)methane and 4,4'-biphenyldialdehyde in 1,4-dioxane at 120 degrees C to produce a highly porous 9-fold interwoven diamond net. COF-320 exhibits permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 2400 m(2)/g and a methane total uptake of 15.0 wt % (176 cm(3)/cm(3)) at 25 degrees C and 80 bar. The successful determination of the structure of COF-320 directly from single-crystal samples is an important advance in the development of COF chemistry.

  20. Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.

    1985-01-01

    The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.