QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.
Benjamin, S
2000-12-22
Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.
Single photon quantum cryptography.
Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe
2002-10-28
We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, K. V.; Vachtomin, Yu. B.; Ozhegov, R. V.; Pentin, I. V.; Slivinskaya, E. V.; Korneev, A. A.; Goltsman, G. N.
2008-11-01
At present superconducting detectors become increasingly attractive for various practical applications. In this paper we present results on the depelopment of fiber coupled receiver systems for the registration of IR single photons, optimized for telecommunication and quantum-cryptography. These receiver systems were developed on the basis of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) of VIS and IR wavelength ranges. The core of the SSPD is a narrow (~100 nm) and long (~0,5 mm) strip in the form of a meander which is patterned from a 4-nm-thick NbN film (TC=10-11 K, jC=~5-7•106 A/cm2); the sensitive area dimensions are 10×10 μm2. The main problem to be solved while the receiver system development was optical coupling of a single-mode fiber (9 microns in diameter) with the SSPD sensitive area. Characteristics of the developed system at the optical input are as follows: quantum efficiency >10 % (at 1.3 μm), >4 % (at 1.55 μm) dark counts rate <=1 s-1; duration of voltage pulse <=5 ns; jitter <=40 ps. The receiver systems have either one or two identical channels (for the case of carrying out correlation measurements) and are made as an insert in a helium storage Dewar.
Faint laser pulses versus a single-photon source in free space quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2016-03-01
In this letter we present estimates for the distance of secret key transmission through free space for three different protocols of quantum key distribution: for BB84 and phase time-coding protocols in the case of a strictly single-photon source, and for the relativistic quantum key distribution protocol in the case of faint laser pulses.
Quantum-tomographic cryptography with a semiconductor single-photon source
Kaszlikowski, D.; Yang, L.J.; Yong, L.S.; Willeboordse, F.H.; Kwek, L.C.
2005-09-15
We analyze the security of so-called quantum-tomographic cryptography with the source producing entangled photons via an experimental scheme proposed by Fattal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 37903 (2004)]. We determine the range of the experimental parameters for which the protocol is secure against the most general incoherent attacks.
Quantum cryptography in free space.
Jacobs, B C; Franson, J D
1996-11-15
The range of quantum cryptography systems using optical fibers is limited to roughly 30 km because amplifiers cannot be used. A fully operational system for quantum cryptography based on the transmission of single photons in free space under daylight conditions has been demonstrated. The feasibility of a global system for quantum cryptography based on a network of ground stations and satellites is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2013-12-01
Thanks to the high-speed self-differencing single-photon detector (SD-SPD), the secret key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), which can, in principle, offer unconditionally secure private communications between two users (Alice and Bob), can exceed 1 Mbit/s. However, the SD-SPD may contain loopholes, which can be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to hack into the unconditional security of the high-speed QKD systems. In this paper, we analyze the fact that the SD-SPD can be remotely controlled by Eve in order to spy on full information without being discovered, then proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. Here, we point out that this loophole is introduced directly by the operating principle of the SD-SPD, thus, it cannot be removed, except for the fact that some active countermeasures are applied by the legitimate parties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehr, Serge
2010-05-01
Quantum cryptography makes use of the quantum-mechanical behavior of nature for the design and analysis of cryptographic schemes. Optimally (but not always), quantum cryptography allows for the design of cryptographic schemes whose security is guaranteed solely by the laws of nature. This is in sharp contrast to standard cryptographic schemes, which can be broken in principle, i.e., when given sufficient computing power. From a theory point of view, quantum cryptography offers a beautiful interplay between the mathematics of adversarial behavior and quantum information theory. In this review article, we discuss the traditional application of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution (QKD), from a modern perspective, and we discuss some recent developments in the context of quantum two-party cooperation (2PC). QKD allows two distant parties to communicate in a provably-secure way in the presence of an outside eavesdropper, whereas 2PC is concerned with protecting information against possibly malicious insiders. We show the basic idea of constructing quantum cryptographic schemes, but we also show some connections to quantum information theory as needed for the rigorous security analyses, and we discuss some of the relevant quantum-information-theoretic results.
Quantum cryptography using optical fibers.
Franson, J D; Lives, H
1994-05-10
Quantum cryptography permits the transmission of secret information whose security is guaranteed by the uncertainty principle. An experimental system for quantum crytography is implemented based on the linear polarization of single photons transmitted by an optical fiber. Polarization-preserving optical fiber and a feedback loop are employed to maintain the state of polarization. Error rates of less than 0.5% are obtained.
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.
1997-08-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%. PMID:10990782
Threshold quantum cryptography
Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2005-01-01
We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-01
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-01
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle. PMID:20366133
Quantum teleportation with a quantum dot single photon source.
Fattal, D; Diamanti, E; Inoue, K; Yamamoto, Y
2004-01-23
We report the experimental demonstration of a quantum teleportation protocol with a semiconductor single photon source. Two qubits, a target and an ancilla, each defined by a single photon occupying two optical modes (dual-rail qubit), were generated independently by the single photon source. Upon measurement of two modes from different qubits and postselection, the state of the two remaining modes was found to reproduce the state of the target qubit. In particular, the coherence between the target qubit modes was transferred to the output modes to a large extent. The observed fidelity is 80%, in agreement with the residual distinguishability between consecutive photons from the source. An improved version of this teleportation scheme using more ancillas is the building block of the recent Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn proposal for efficient linear optics quantum computation.
Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire.
Deshpande, Saniya; Heo, Junseok; Das, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Pallab
2013-01-01
In a classical light source, such as a laser, the photon number follows a Poissonian distribution. For quantum information processing and metrology applications, a non-classical emitter of single photons is required. A single quantum dot is an ideal source of single photons and such single-photon sources in the visible spectral range have been demonstrated with III-nitride and II-VI-based single quantum dots. It has been suggested that short-wavelength blue single-photon emitters would be useful for free-space quantum cryptography, with the availability of high-speed single-photon detectors in this spectral region. Here we demonstrate blue single-photon emission with electrical injection from an In0.25Ga0.75N quantum dot in a single nanowire. The emitted single photons are linearly polarized along the c axis of the nanowire with a degree of linear polarization of ~70%.
Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire.
Deshpande, Saniya; Heo, Junseok; Das, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Pallab
2013-01-01
In a classical light source, such as a laser, the photon number follows a Poissonian distribution. For quantum information processing and metrology applications, a non-classical emitter of single photons is required. A single quantum dot is an ideal source of single photons and such single-photon sources in the visible spectral range have been demonstrated with III-nitride and II-VI-based single quantum dots. It has been suggested that short-wavelength blue single-photon emitters would be useful for free-space quantum cryptography, with the availability of high-speed single-photon detectors in this spectral region. Here we demonstrate blue single-photon emission with electrical injection from an In0.25Ga0.75N quantum dot in a single nanowire. The emitted single photons are linearly polarized along the c axis of the nanowire with a degree of linear polarization of ~70%. PMID:23575679
Relativistic Quantum Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeffrey, Evan; Kwiat, Paul
2006-03-01
We present results from a relativistic quantum cryptography system which uses photon storage to avoid bit sifting, in principle doubling the useful key rate. Bob stores the photon he receives from Alice in an optical delay line until she sends him the classical basis information, allowing him to measure every photon in the correct basis. Accounting for loss in our 489-ns storage cavity, we achieve a 66% increase in the BB84 key rate. The same system could be used for even greater gains in either the six-state protocol or cryptography using a larger Hilbert space. We show that the security of this protocol is equivalent to standard BB84: assuming the quantum and classical signals are space-like separated, no eavesdropper bound by special relativity can access both simultaneously.
Introduction to optical quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamski, Tomasz
2008-01-01
In recent years very fast progress in the domain of Optical Quantum Cryptography is observed both in theoretical and practical aspects. The paper is a short tutorial review of basic concepts of Optical Quantum Cryptography (OQC) and Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).
Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography.
Akhlaghi, Mohsen K; Majedi, A Hamed; Lundeen, Jeff S
2011-10-24
Single Photon Detectors are integral to quantum optics and quantum information. Superconducting Nanowire based detectors exhibit new levels of performance, but have no accepted quantum optical model that is valid for multiple input photons. By performing Detector Tomography, we improve the recently proposed model [M.K. Akhlaghi and A.H. Majedi, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 361 (2009)] and also investigate the manner in which these detectors respond nonlinearly to light, a valuable feature for some applications. We develop a device independent model for Single Photon Detectors that incorporates this nonlinearity. PMID:22108981
Interferometric Quantum-Nondemolition Single-Photon Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kok, Peter; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan
2007-01-01
Two interferometric quantum-nondemolition (QND) devices have been proposed: (1) a polarization-independent device and (2) a polarization-preserving device. The prolarization-independent device works on an input state of up to two photons, whereas the polarization-preserving device works on a superposition of vacuum and single- photon states. The overall function of the device would be to probabilistically generate a unique detector output only when its input electromagnetic mode was populated by a single photon, in which case its output mode would also be populated by a single photon. Like other QND devices, the proposed devices are potentially useful for a variety of applications, including such areas of NASA interest as quantum computing, quantum communication, detection of gravity waves, as well as pedagogical demonstrations of the quantum nature of light. Many protocols in quantum computation and quantum communication require the possibility of detecting a photon without destroying it. The only prior single- photon-detecting QND device is based on quantum electrodynamics in a resonant cavity and, as such, it depends on the photon frequency. Moreover, the prior device can distinguish only between one photon and no photon. The proposed interferometric QND devices would not depend on frequency and could distinguish between (a) one photon and (b) zero or two photons. The first proposed device is depicted schematically in Figure 1. The input electromagnetic mode would be a superposition of a zero-, a one-, and a two-photon quantum state. The overall function of the device would be to probabilistically generate a unique detector output only when its input electromagnetic mode was populated by a single photon, in which case its output mode also would be populated by a single photon.
Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons
Patel, Monika; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem
2014-12-04
We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.
Single-photon transistor in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Neumeier, Lukas; Leib, Martin; Hartmann, Michael J
2013-08-01
We introduce a circuit quantum electrodynamical setup for a "single-photon" transistor. In our approach photons propagate in two open transmission lines that are coupled via two interacting transmon qubits. The interaction is such that no photons are exchanged between the two transmission lines but a single photon in one line can completely block or enable the propagation of photons in the other line. High on-off ratios can be achieved for feasible experimental parameters. Our approach is inherently scalable as all photon pulses can have the same pulse shape and carrier frequency such that output signals of one transistor can be input signals for a consecutive transistor.
Quantum Probability Cancellation Due to a Single-Photon State
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.
1996-01-01
When an N-photon state enters a lossless symmetric beamsplitter from one input port, the photon distribution for the two output ports has the form of Bernouli Binormial, with highest probability at equal partition (N/2 at one outport and N/2 at the other). However, injection of a single photon state at the other input port can dramatically change the photon distribution at the outputs, resulting in zero probability at equal partition. Such a strong deviation from classical particle theory stems from quantum probability amplitude cancellation. The effect persists even if the N-photon state is replaced by an arbitrary state of light. A special case is the coherent state which corresponds to homodyne detection of a single photon state and can lead to the measurement of the wave function of a single photon state.
Multi-user quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bing C.; Kumavor, Patrick; Yelin, Susanne F.; Beal, Alan C.
2005-10-01
Quantum cryptography applies the uncertainty principle and the no-cloning theorem of quantum mechanics to provide ultra-secure encryption key distribution between two parties. Present quantum cryptography technologies provide encryption key distribution between two parties. However, practical implementations encryption key distribution schemes require establishing secure quantum communications amongst multiple users. In this talk, we survey some of the state of the art quantum encryption deployment in communication networks. We will also discuss some common topologies that are being considered for multi-user quantum encryption networks. The performance of the multi-user quantum key distribution systems is then compared for four different optical network topologies: the Sagnac-based fiber ring, the wavelength routed, the passive star and the bus network. Their performances are compared and analyzed using quantum bit error rate analysis.
Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard
2011-03-01
One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.
Transform-limited single photons from a single quantum dot
Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Prechtel, Jonathan H.; Houel, Julien; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Warburton, Richard J.
2015-01-01
Developing a quantum photonics network requires a source of very-high-fidelity single photons. An outstanding challenge is to produce a transform-limited single-photon emitter to guarantee that single photons emitted far apart in the time domain are truly indistinguishable. This is particularly difficult in the solid-state as the complex environment is the source of noise over a wide bandwidth. A quantum dot is a robust, fast, bright and narrow-linewidth emitter of single photons; layer-by-layer growth and subsequent nano-fabrication allow the electronic and photonic states to be engineered. This represents a set of features not shared by any other emitter but transform-limited linewidths have been elusive. Here, we report transform-limited linewidths measured on second timescales, primarily on the neutral exciton but also on the charged exciton close to saturation. The key feature is control of the nuclear spins, which dominate the exciton dephasing via the Overhauser field. PMID:26348157
Quantum private query based on single-photon interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song
2016-08-01
Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-05-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-10-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Quantum Memory with a Single Photon in a Cavity
Maitre, X.; Hagley, E.; Nogues, G.; Wunderlich, C.; Goy, P.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.M.; Haroche, S.
1997-07-01
The quantum information carried by a two-level atom was transferred to a high-Q cavity and, after a delay, to another atom. We realized in this way a quantum memory made of a field in a superposition of 0 and 1 photon Fock states. We measured the {open_quotes}holding time{close_quotes} of this memory corresponding to the decay of the field intensity or amplitude at the single photon level. This experiment implements a step essential for quantum information processing operations. {copyright} {ital 1997 } {ital The American Physical Society}
POVM Receivers for Quantum Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, H. E.
1997-04-01
Positive operator valued measures (POVMs) are finding increasing use in quantum cryptography.(A. Peres, Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1993).) I present quantum circuit analyses of two recently proposed (H. E. Brandt, J. M. Myers, and S. J. Lomonaco Jr., "New Results in Entangled Translucent Eavesdropping in Quantum Cryptography," in Photonic Quantum Computing, S. P. Hotaling and A. R. Pirich, Editors, Proc. SPIE 3076 (1997)) all-optical designs for POVM receivers to be used in conjunction with Bennett's B92 protocol for key distribution based on two photon polarization states. Expectation values for the POVM operators are calculated and shown to be faithfully realized by the POVM detectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Bissell, Luke J.; Gehring, George M.; Winkler, Justin M.; Boyd, Robert W.
2015-03-01
We present here our results on using liquid crystals in experiments with nonclassical light sources: (1) single-photon sources exhibiting antibunching (separation of all photons in time), which are key components for secure quantum communication systems, and (2) entangled photon source with photons exhibiting quantum interference in a Hong-Ou- Mandel interferometer. In the first part, cholesteric liquid crystal hosts were used to create definite circular polarization of antibunched photons emitted by nanocrystal quantum dots. If the photon has unknown polarization, filtering it through a polarizer to produce the desired polarization for quantum key distribution with bits based on polarization states of photons will reduce by half the efficiency of a quantum cryptography system. In the first part, we also provide our results on observation of a circular polarized microcavity resonance in nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence in a 1-D chiral photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystal microcavity. In the second part of this paper with indistinguishable, time-entangled photons, we demonstrate our experimental results on simulating quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip (quantum interference effect) is shifted when a phase change was introduced on the way of one of entangled photons in pair (one arm of the interferometer) by inserting in this arm an electrically controlled planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal layer between two prisms in the conditions close to a frustrated total internal reflection. By applying different AC-voltages to the planar-aligned nematic layer and changing its refractive index, we can obtain various conditions for incident photon propagation - from total reflection to total transmission. Measuring changes of tunnelling times of photon through this structure with femtosecond resolution permitted us to answer some unresolved questions in quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena.
State-independent quantum contextuality with single photons.
Amselem, Elias; Rådmark, Magnus; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adán
2009-10-16
We present an experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories on single particles. We show that 20 different single-photon states violate an inequality which involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements by at least 419 standard deviations. Our results show that, for any physical system, even for a single system, and independent of its state, there is a universal set of tests whose results do not admit a noncontextual interpretation. This sheds new light on the role of quantum mechanics in quantum information processing.
Shomroni, Itay; Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Bechler, Orel; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak
2014-08-22
The prospect of quantum networks, in which quantum information is carried by single photons in photonic circuits, has long been the driving force behind the effort to achieve all-optical routing of single photons. We realized a single-photon-activated switch capable of routing a photon from any of its two inputs to any of its two outputs. Our device is based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator. A single reflected control photon toggles the switch from high reflection (R ~ 65%) to high transmission (T ~ 90%), with an average of ~1.5 control photons per switching event (~3, including linear losses). No additional control fields are required. The control and target photons are both in-fiber and practically identical, making this scheme compatible with scalable architectures for quantum information processing.
Single-Photon Superradiance from a Quantum Dot.
Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël S; Lehmann, Tau B; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren
2016-04-22
We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and the hole comprising the exciton gives rise to an anharmonic spectrum, which we exploit to prepare the superradiant quantum state deterministically with a laser pulse. We observe a fivefold enhancement of the oscillator strength compared to conventional quantum dots. The enhancement is limited by the base temperature of our cryostat and may lead to oscillator strengths above 1000 from a single quantum emitter at optical frequencies. PMID:27152804
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-03-15
A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.
Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.
Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H
2014-03-24
We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack. PMID:24664022
Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.
Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H
2014-03-24
We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.
Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.
2014-03-01
We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jing; Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Ru
2010-11-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with authentication. The authentication key expansion method is introduced to improve the life of the keys with security. In the first scheme, the third party, called Trent is introduced to authenticate the users that participate in the communication. He sends the polarized photons in blocks to authenticate communication parties Alice and Bob using the authentication keys. In the communication process, polarized single photons are used to serve as the carriers, which transmit the secret messages directly. The second QSDC process with authentication between two parties is also discussed.
Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Haiqiang; Wei, Kejin; Yang, Xiuqing; Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu
2016-07-01
In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application.
Quantum cryptography: Security criteria reexamined
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Liang, Y.C.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Gopinathan, Ajay; Kwek, L.C.
2004-09-01
We find that the generally accepted security criteria are flawed for a whole class of protocols for quantum cryptography. This is so because a standard assumption of the security analysis, namely that the so-called square-root measurement is optimal for eavesdropping purposes, is not true in general. There are rather large parameter regimes in which the optimal measurement extracts substantially more information than the square-root measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salih, Hatim
2016-05-01
The phenomenon of quantum erasure has long intrigued physicists, but has surprisingly found limited practical application. Here, we propose a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on quantum erasure, promising inherent security against detector attacks. We particularly demonstrate its security against a powerful detector-blinding attack.
Quantum cryptography and applications in the optical fiber network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yuhui
2005-09-01
Quantum cryptography, as part of quantum information and communications, can provide absolute security for information transmission because it is established on the fundamental laws of quantum theory, such as the principle of uncertainty, No-cloning theorem and quantum entanglement. In this thesis research, a novel scheme to implement quantum key distribution based on multiphoton entanglement with a new protocol is proposed. Its advantages are: a larger information capacity can be obtained with a longer transmission distance and the detection of multiple photons is easier than that of a single photon. The security and attacks pertaining to such a system are also studied. Next, a quantum key distribution over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical fiber networks is realized. Quantum key distribution in networks is a long-standing problem for practical applications. Here we combine quantum cryptography and WDM to solve this problem because WDM technology is universally deployed in the current and next generation fiber networks. The ultimate target is to deploy quantum key distribution over commercial networks. The problems arising from the networks are also studied in this part. Then quantum key distribution in multi-access networks using wavelength routing technology is investigated in this research. For the first time, quantum cryptography for multiple individually targeted users has been successfully implemented in sharp contrast to that using the indiscriminating broadcasting structure. It overcomes the shortcoming that every user in the network can acquire the quantum key signals intended to be exchanged between only two users. Furthermore, a more efficient scheme of quantum key distribution is adopted, hence resulting in a higher key rate. Lastly, a quantum random number generator based on quantum optics has been experimentally demonstrated. This device is a key component for quantum key distribution as it can create truly random numbers, which is an
Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.
2016-05-01
Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. Although it has been extensively studied theoretically, quantum discord has yet to become a standard tool in experimental studies of correlation. We propose a class of experiments in which quantum correlations are present in the absence of entanglement, and are best understood in terms of quantum discord.. These utilize X-states of two qubits, which correspond to the polarization and the optical path of a single photon within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show how to produce states with diverse measures of discord and entanglement, including the case of discord without entanglement. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we analytically study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations.
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-03-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.
Quantum cryptography without switching.
Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-10-22
We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.
Security of counterfactual quantum cryptography
Yin Zhenqiang; Li Hongwei; Chen Wei; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan
2010-10-15
Recently, a 'counterfactual' quantum-key-distribution scheme was proposed by T.-G. Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009)]. In this scheme, two legitimate distant peers may share secret keys even when the information carriers are not traveled in the quantum channel. We find that this protocol is equivalent to an entanglement distillation protocol. According to this equivalence, a strict security proof and the asymptotic key bit rate are both obtained when a perfect single-photon source is applied and a Trojan horse attack can be detected. We also find that the security of this scheme is strongly related to not only the bit error rate but also the yields of photons. And our security proof may shed light on the security of other two-way protocols.
Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states.
Nagali, E; Sciarrino, F; De Martini, F; Piccirillo, B; Karimi, E; Marrucci, L; Santamato, E
2009-10-12
The orbital angular momentum of photons, being defined in an infinite-dimensional discrete Hilbert space, offers a promising resource for high-dimensional quantum information protocols in quantum optics. The biggest obstacle to its wider use is presently represented by the limited set of tools available for its control and manipulation. Here, we introduce and test experimentally a series of simple optical schemes for the coherent transfer of quantum information from the polarization to the orbital angular momentum of single photons and vice versa. All our schemes exploit a newly developed optical device, the so-called "q-plate", which enables the manipulation of the photon orbital angular momentum driven by the polarization degree of freedom. By stacking several q-plates in a suitable sequence, one can also have access to higher-order angular momentum subspaces. In particular, we demonstrate the control of the orbital angular momentum m degree of freedom within the subspaces of |m| = 2h and |m| = 4h per photon.
Quantum Cryptography for Secure Communications to Low-Earth Orbit Satellites
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Twyeffort, E.; Simmons, C.M.; Nordholt, J.E.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit. We have developed an experimental quantum cryptography system based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on in orbit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Górska, M.; Latta, C.; Zwiller, V.; Pearlman, A.; Cross, A.; Korneev, A.; Kouminov, P.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.; Verevkin, A.; Currie, M.; Sobolewski, R.
2005-09-01
We present the design and performance of a novel, two-channel single-photon receiver, based on two fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). The SSPDs are nanostructured superconducting meanders covering an area of 100 μm2 and are known for ultrafast and efficient counting of single, visible-to-infrared photons. Their operation has been explained within a phenomenological hot-electron photoresponse model. Our receiver is intended for fiber-based quantum cryptography and communication systems, operational at near-infrared (NIR) telecommunication wavelengths, λ = 1.3 μm and λ = 1.55 μm. Coupling between the NbN detector and a single-mode optical fiber was achieved using a specially designed, micromechanical photoresist ring, positioned directly over the SSPD active area. The positioning accuracy of the ring was below 1 μm. The receiver with SSPDs was placed (immersed) in a standard liquid-helium transport Dewar and kept without interruption for over two months at 4.2 K. At the same time, the optical fiber inputs and electrical outputs were kept at room temperature. Our best system reached a system quantum efficiency of up to 0.3 % in the NIR radiation range, with the detector coupling efficiency of about 30 %. The response time was measured to be about 250 ps and was limited by our read-out electronics. The measured jitter was close to 35 ps. The presented performance parameters show that our NIR single photon detectors are suitable for practical quantum cryptography and for applications in quantum-correlation experiments.
Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide.
Lohrmann, A; Iwamoto, N; Bodrog, Z; Castelletto, S; Ohshima, T; Karle, T J; Gali, A; Prawer, S; McCallum, J C; Johnson, B C
2015-01-01
Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing.
Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide.
Lohrmann, A; Iwamoto, N; Bodrog, Z; Castelletto, S; Ohshima, T; Karle, T J; Gali, A; Prawer, S; McCallum, J C; Johnson, B C
2015-01-01
Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing. PMID:26205309
Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions
Hughes, Richard J.
1998-03-01
The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.
Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2015-09-25
Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks.
Young's double-slit experiment with single photons and quantum eraser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rueckner, Wolfgang; Peidle, Joseph
2013-12-01
An apparatus for a double-slit interference experiment in the single-photon regime is described. The apparatus includes a which-path marker that destroys the interference as well as a quantum eraser that restores it. We present data taken with several light sources, coherent and incoherent and discuss the efficacy of these as sources of single photons.
Dissipation-enabled efficient excitation transfer from a single photon to a single quantum emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautmann, N.; Alber, G.
2016-05-01
We propose a scheme for triggering a dissipation-dominated highly efficient excitation transfer from a single-photon wave packet to a single quantum emitter. This single-photon-induced optical pumping turns dominant dissipative processes, such as spontaneous photon emission by the emitter or cavity decay, into valuable tools for quantum information processing and quantum communication. It works for an arbitrarily shaped single-photon wave packet with sufficiently small bandwidth provided a matching condition is satisfied which balances the dissipative rates involved. Our scheme does not require additional laser pulses or quantum feedback and does not rely on high finesse optical resonators. In particular, it can be used to enhance significantly the coupling of a single photon to a single quantum emitter implanted in a one-dimensional waveguide or even in a free space scenario. We demonstrate the usefulness of our scheme for building a deterministic quantum memory and a deterministic frequency converter between photonic qubits of different wavelengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel
2005-05-01
The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.
2009-04-01
Quantum cryptography, and especially quantum key distribution (QKD), is steadily progressing to become a viable tool for cryptographic services. In recent years we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the secure bit rate of QKD, as well as its extension to ever longer fibre- and air-based links and the emergence of metro-scale trusted networks. In the foreseeable future even global-scale communications may be possible using quantum repeaters or Earth-satellite links. A handful of start-ups and some bigger companies are already active in the field. The launch of an initiative to form industrial standards for QKD, under the auspices of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute, described in the paper by Laenger and Lenhart in this Focus Issue, can be taken as a sign of the growing commercial interest. Recent progress has seen an increase in the secure bit rate of QKD links, by orders of magnitude, to over 1 Mb s-1. This has resulted mainly from an improvement in the detection technology. Here changes in the way conventional semiconductor detectors are gated, as well as the development of novel devices based on non-linear processes and superconducting materials, are leading the way. Additional challenges for QKD at GHz clock rates include the design of high speed electronics, remote synchronization and high rate random number generation. Substantial effort is being devoted to increasing the range of individual links, which is limited by attenuation and other losses in optical fibres and air links. An important advance in the past few years has been the introduction of protocols with the same scaling as an ideal single-photon set-up. The good news is that these schemes use standard optical devices, such as weak laser pulses. Thanks to these new protocols and improvements in the detection technology, the range of a single fibre link can exceed a few hundred km. Outstanding issues include proving the unconditional security of some of the schemes. Much of the
Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
A quantum memory is a key component for quantum networks, which will enable the distribution of quantum information. Its successful development requires storage of single-photon light. Encoding photons with spatial shape through higher-dimensional states significantly increases their information-carrying capability and network capacity. However, constructing such quantum memories is challenging. Here we report the first experimental realization of a true single-photon-carrying orbital angular momentum stored via electromagnetically induced transparency in a cold atomic ensemble. Our experiments show that the non-classical pair correlation between trigger photon and retrieved photon is retained, and the spatial structure of input and retrieved photons exhibits strong similarity. More importantly, we demonstrate that single-photon coherence is preserved during storage. The ability to store spatial structure at the single-photon level opens the possibility for high-dimensional quantum memories. PMID:24084711
Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers
Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.
1996-05-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``
Single-photon filtering by a cavity quantum electrodynamics system
Koshino, Kazuki
2008-02-15
The nonlinear dynamics of a classical photon pulse in a cavity-QED system is investigated theoretically. It is shown that this system can work as a single-photon filter, which drastically suppresses the multiple-photon probability of the output. The output photon statistics is sensitive to the input pulse length. A suitable choice of pulse length produces a photon pulse with the single-photon probability of 0.32, while the multiple-photon probability is suppressed to 0.01.
Quantum random number generators and their applications in cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stipcevic, Mario
2012-06-01
Random number generators (RNG) are an important resource in many areas: cryptography (both quantum and classical), probabilistic computation (Monte Carlo methods), numerical simulations, industrial testing and labeling, hazard games, scientific research etc. Because today's computers are deterministic, they can not create random numbers unless complemented with a physical RNG. Randomness of a RNG can be defined and scientifically characterized and measured. Especially valuable is the information-theoretic provable RNG which, at state of the art, seem to be possible only by harvest of randomness inherent to certain (simple) quantum systems and such a generator we call Quantum RNG (QRNG). On the other hand, current industry standards dictate use of RNGs based on free running oscillators (FRO) whose randomness is derived from electronics noise present in logic circuits and which, although quantum in nature, cannot be strictly proven. This approach is currently used in FPGA and ASIC chips. We compare weak and strong aspects of the two approaches for use in cryptography and in general. We also give an alternative definition of randomness, discuss usage of single photon detectors in realization of QRNGs and give several examples where QRNG can significantly improve security of a cryptographic system.
Elliptical quantum dots as on-demand single photons sources with deterministic polarization states
Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Demory, Brandon; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui
2015-11-09
In quantum information, control of the single photon's polarization is essential. Here, we demonstrate single photon generation in a pre-programmed and deterministic polarization state, on a chip-scale platform, utilizing site-controlled elliptical quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a top-down approach. The polarization from the QD emission is found to be linear with a high degree of linear polarization and parallel to the long axis of the ellipse. Single photon emission with orthogonal polarizations is achieved, and the dependence of the degree of linear polarization on the QD geometry is analyzed.
Single photons on-demand from light-hole excitons in strain-engineered quantum dots.
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Huo, Yongheng; Rastelli, Armando; Zopf, Michael; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G
2015-01-14
We demonstrate for the first time on-demand and wavelength-tunable single-photon emission from light-hole (LH) excitons in strain engineered GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The LH photon emission from tensile-strained GaAs QDs is systematically investigated with polarization-resolved, power-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy, and photon-correlation measurements. By integrating QD-containing nanomembranes onto a piezo-actuator and driving single QDs with picosecond laser pulses, we achieve triggered and wavelength-tunable LH single-photon emission. Fourier transform spectroscopy is also performed, from which the coherence time of the LH single-photon emission is studied. We envision that this new type of LH exciton-based single-photon source (SPS) can be applied to realize an all-semiconductor based quantum interface in distributed quantum networks [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 096602]. PMID:25471544
Field locked to a Fock state by quantum feedback with single photon corrections.
Zhou, X; Dotsenko, I; Peaudecerf, B; Rybarczyk, T; Sayrin, C; Gleyzes, S; Raimond, J M; Brune, M; Haroche, S
2012-06-15
Fock states with photon numbers n up to 7 are prepared on demand in a microwave superconducting cavity by a quantum feedback procedure that reverses decoherence-induced quantum jumps. Circular Rydberg atoms are used as quantum nondemolition sensors or as single-photon emitter or absorber actuators. The quantum nature of these actuators matches the correction of single-photon quantum jumps due to relaxation. The flexibility of this method is suited to the generation of arbitrary sequences of Fock states. PMID:23004271
Single photon delayed feedback: a way to stabilize intrinsic quantum cavity electrodynamics.
Carmele, Alexander; Kabuss, Julia; Schulze, Franz; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Knorr, Andreas
2013-01-01
We propose a scheme to control cavity quantum electrodynamics in the single photon limit by delayed feedback. In our approach a single emitter-cavity system, operating in the weak coupling limit, can be driven into the strong coupling-type regime by an external mirror: The external loop produces Rabi oscillations directly connected to the electron-photon coupling strength. As an expansion of typical cavity quantum electrodynamics, we treat the quantum correlation of external and internal light modes dynamically and demonstrate a possible way to implement a fully quantum mechanical time-delayed feedback. Our theoretical approach proposes a way to experimentally feedback control quantum correlations in the single photon limit.
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
2010-09-10
We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave.
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
2010-09-10
We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave. PMID:20867556
Ultrafast room temperature single-photon source from nanowire-quantum dots.
Bounouar, S; Elouneg-Jamroz, M; Hertog, M den; Morchutt, C; Bellet-Amalric, E; André, R; Bougerol, C; Genuist, Y; Poizat, J-Ph; Tatarenko, S; Kheng, K
2012-06-13
Epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots are particularly promising as realistic single-photon sources for their compatibility with manufacturing techniques and possibility to be implemented in compact devices. Here, we demonstrate for the first time single-photon emission up to room temperature from an epitaxial quantum dot inserted in a nanowire, namely a CdSe slice in a ZnSe nanowire. The exciton and biexciton lines can still be resolved at room temperature and the biexciton turns out to be the most appropriate transition for single-photon emission due to a large nonradiative decay of the bright exciton to dark exciton states. With an intrinsically short radiative decay time (≈300 ps) this system is the fastest room temperature single-photon emitter, allowing potentially gigahertz repetition rates.
Ates, Serkan; Agha, Imad; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik
2013-01-01
Single epitaxially-grown semiconductor quantum dots have great potential as single photon sources for photonic quantum technologies, though in practice devices often exhibit nonideal behavior. Here, we demonstrate that amplitude modulation can improve the performance of quantum-dot-based sources. Starting with a bright source consisting of a single quantum dot in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity, we use synchronized amplitude modulation to temporally filter the emitted light. We observe that the single photon purity, temporal overlap between successive emission events, and indistinguishability can be greatly improved with this technique. As this method can be applied to any triggered single photon source, independent of geometry and after device fabrication, it is a flexible approach to improve the performance of systems based on single solid-state quantum emitters, which often suffer from excess dephasing and multi-photon background emission. PMID:23466520
Single photon emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots
Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Lee, Leung-Kway; Ku, Pei-Cheng
2013-11-04
Single photon emission was observed from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified by the second-order correlation function up to 90 K, the highest temperature to date for site-controlled quantum dots. Micro-photoluminescence study on individual quantum dots showed linearly polarized single exciton emission with a lifetime of a few nanoseconds. The dimensions of these quantum dots were well controlled to the precision of state-of-the-art fabrication technologies, as reflected in the uniformity of their optical properties. The yield of optically active quantum dots was greater than 90%, among which 13%–25% exhibited single photon emission at 10 K.
Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2006-01-15
The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack.
Ultrafast single photon emitting quantum photonic structures based on a nano-obelisk
Kim, Je-Hyung; Ko, Young-Ho; Gong, Su-Hyun; Ko, Suk-Min; Cho, Yong-Hoon
2013-01-01
A key issue in a single photon source is fast and efficient generation of a single photon flux with high light extraction efficiency. Significant progress toward high-efficiency single photon sources has been demonstrated by semiconductor quantum dots, especially using narrow bandgap materials. Meanwhile, there are many obstacles, which restrict the use of wide bandgap semiconductor quantum dots as practical single photon sources in ultraviolet-visible region, despite offering free space communication and miniaturized quantum information circuits. Here we demonstrate a single InGaN quantum dot embedded in an obelisk-shaped GaN nanostructure. The nano-obelisk plays an important role in eliminating dislocations, increasing light extraction, and minimizing a built-in electric field. Based on the nano-obelisks, we observed nonconventional narrow quantum dot emission and positive biexciton binding energy, which are signatures of negligible built-in field in single InGaN quantum dots. This results in efficient and ultrafast single photon generation in the violet color region. PMID:23828558
Ultrafast single photon emitting quantum photonic structures based on a nano-obelisk.
Kim, Je-Hyung; Ko, Young-Ho; Gong, Su-Hyun; Ko, Suk-Min; Cho, Yong-Hoon
2013-01-01
A key issue in a single photon source is fast and efficient generation of a single photon flux with high light extraction efficiency. Significant progress toward high-efficiency single photon sources has been demonstrated by semiconductor quantum dots, especially using narrow bandgap materials. Meanwhile, there are many obstacles, which restrict the use of wide bandgap semiconductor quantum dots as practical single photon sources in ultraviolet-visible region, despite offering free space communication and miniaturized quantum information circuits. Here we demonstrate a single InGaN quantum dot embedded in an obelisk-shaped GaN nanostructure. The nano-obelisk plays an important role in eliminating dislocations, increasing light extraction, and minimizing a built-in electric field. Based on the nano-obelisks, we observed nonconventional narrow quantum dot emission and positive biexciton binding energy, which are signatures of negligible built-in field in single InGaN quantum dots. This results in efficient and ultrafast single photon generation in the violet color region.
Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics
Mogilevtsev, D.
2010-08-15
I show that calibration of the single-photon detector can be performed without knowledge of the signal parameters. Only partial information about the state statistics is sufficient for that. If one knows that the state is the squeezed one or the squeezed one mixed with the incoherent radiation, one can infer both the parameters of the state and the efficiency of the detector. For that one needs only to measure on/off statistics of detector clicks for the number of known absorbers placed before the detector. Thus, I suggest a scheme that performs a tomography of the signal and the measuring apparatus simultaneously.
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z Y; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source. PMID:27419568
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z Y; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.
Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao
2002-09-01
We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.
Femtosecond Laser--Pumped Source of Entangled Photons for Quantum Cryptography Applications
Pan, D.; Donaldson, W.; Sobolewski, R.
2007-07-31
We present an experimental setup for generation of entangled-photon pairs via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, based on the femtosecond-pulsed laser. Our entangled-photon source utilizes a 76-MHz-repetition-rate, 100-fs-pulse-width, mode-locked, ultrafast femtosecond laser, which can produce, on average, more photon pairs than a cw laser of an equal pump power. The resulting entangled pairs are counted by a pair of high-quantum-efficiency, single-photon, silicon avalanche photodiodes. Our apparatus is intended as an efficient source/receiver system for the quantum communications and quantum cryptography applications.
Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2009-10-15
We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.
Short Distance Applications of Quantum Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huttner, Bruno; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Barnett, Steve M.
We present an identification protocol based on quantum mechanics. The first user, Alice, needs to identify herself in front of a second user, Bob, by means of a password, known only to both. The safety requirement for Alice is that somebody impersonating Bob, who only pretended to know Alice’s password, shall not be able to obtain information on the password from the exchange. This is an example of a potentially practical new application of quantum mechanics to cryptography.
Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Hong-chun
2016-07-01
We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality.
Podoshvedov, S. A.
2008-03-15
We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.
Single photon transport in two waveguides chirally coupled by a quantum emitter.
Cheng, Mu-Tian; Ma, Xiao-San; Zhang, Jia-Yan; Wang, Bing
2016-08-22
We investigate single photon transport in two waveguides coupled to a two-level quantum emitter (QE). With the deduced analytical scattering amplitudes, we show that under condition of the chiral coupling between the QE and the photon in the two waveguides, the QE can play the role of ideal quantum router to redirect a single photon incident from one waveguide into the other waveguide with a probability of 100% in the ideal condition. The influences of cross coupling between two waveguides and dissipations on the routing are also shown. PMID:27557274
Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yi
Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.
Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide
Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.
Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2015-10-23
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.
Single-photon router: Implementation of Information-Holding of Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Guo-an; Lu, Hua; Chen, Ai-xi
2016-07-01
The quantum router is an indispensable element in the future quantum network. In this study, by calculating the fidelity of the atom, we show that the quantum router proposed by J. Lu et al. (Phys. Rev. A 89, 013805, 2014) achieves quantum information-holding. After the single photon passes through the atom, the fidelity of the atom decreases from the maximum value after a period of time and rises to the maximum value of 1. Even upon changing the size of the classical field, this phenomenon will not disappear, only undergo a cycle change. This means such a single-photon quantum router can be applied experimentally since quantum state can be perfectly held after the routing.
Heralded single-photon sources for quantum-key-distribution applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiavon, Matteo; Vallone, Giuseppe; Ticozzi, Francesco; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-01-01
Single-photon sources (SPSs) are a fundamental building block for optical implementations of quantum information protocols. Among SPSs, multiple crystal heralded single-photon sources seem to give the best compromise between high pair production rate and low multiple photon events. In this work, we study their performance in a practical quantum-key-distribution experiment, by evaluating the achievable key rates. The analysis focuses on the two different schemes, symmetric and asymmetric, proposed for the practical implementation of heralded single-photon sources, with attention on the performance of their composing elements. The analysis is based on the protocol proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 and on its improvement exploiting decoy state technique. Finally, a simple way of exploiting the postselection mechanism for a passive, one decoy state scheme is evaluated.
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-11-07
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-01-01
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-01-01
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231
Quantum Cryptography in Existing Telecommunications Infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Daniel; Bienfang, Joshua; Mink, Alan; Hershman, Barry; Nakassis, Anastase; Tang, Xiao; Ma, Lijun; Su, David; Williams, Carl; Clark, Charles
2006-03-01
Quantum cryptography has shown the potential for ultra-secure communications. However, all systems demonstrated to date operate at speeds that make them impractical for performing continuous one-time-pad encryption of today's broadband communications. By adapting clock and data recovery techniques from modern telecommunications engineering practice, and by designing and implementing expeditious error correction and privacy amplification algorithms, we have demonstrated error-corrected and privacy-amplified key rates up to 1.0 Mbps over a free-space link with a 1.25 Gbps clock. Using new detectors with improved timing resolution, careful wavelength selection and an increased clock speed, we expect to quadruple the transmission rate over a 1.5 km free-space link. We have identified scalable solutions for delivering sustained one-time-pad encryption at 10 Mbps, thus making it possible to integrate quantum cryptography with first-generation Ethernet protocols.
Quantum teleportation of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field
Walborn, S. P.; Ether, D. S.; Matos Filho, R. L. de; Zagury, N.
2007-09-15
We propose a quantum teleportation scheme for the angular spectrum of a single-photon field, which allows for the transmission of a large amount of information. Our proposal also provides a method to tune the frequencies of spatially entangled fields, which is useful for interactions with stationary qubits.
Multiphoton entanglement concentration and quantum cryptography.
Durkin, Gabriel A; Simon, Christoph; Bouwmeester, Dik
2002-05-01
Multiphoton states from parametric down-conversion can be entangled both in polarization and photon number. Maximal high-dimensional entanglement can be concentrated postselectively from these states via photon counting. This makes them natural candidates for quantum key distribution, where the presence of more than one photon per detection interval has up to now been considered undesirable. We propose a simple multiphoton cryptography protocol for the case of low losses.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Hoang, Thang B; Akselrod, Gleb M; Mikkelsen, Maiken H
2016-01-13
Efficient and bright single photon sources at room temperature are critical components for quantum information systems such as quantum key distribution, quantum state teleportation, and quantum computation. However, the intrinsic radiative lifetime of quantum emitters is typically ∼10 ns, which severely limits the maximum single photon emission rate and thus entanglement rates. Here, we demonstrate the regime of ultrafast spontaneous emission (∼10 ps) from a single quantum emitter coupled to a plasmonic nanocavity at room temperature. The nanocavity integrated with a single colloidal semiconductor quantum dot produces a 540-fold decrease in the emission lifetime and a simultaneous 1900-fold increase in the total emission intensity. At the same time, the nanocavity acts as a highly efficient optical antenna directing the emission into a single lobe normal to the surface. This plasmonic platform is a versatile geometry into which a variety of other quantum emitters, such as crystal color centers, can be integrated for directional, room-temperature single photon emission rates exceeding 80 GHz. PMID:26606001
Hoang, Thang B; Akselrod, Gleb M; Mikkelsen, Maiken H
2016-01-13
Efficient and bright single photon sources at room temperature are critical components for quantum information systems such as quantum key distribution, quantum state teleportation, and quantum computation. However, the intrinsic radiative lifetime of quantum emitters is typically ∼10 ns, which severely limits the maximum single photon emission rate and thus entanglement rates. Here, we demonstrate the regime of ultrafast spontaneous emission (∼10 ps) from a single quantum emitter coupled to a plasmonic nanocavity at room temperature. The nanocavity integrated with a single colloidal semiconductor quantum dot produces a 540-fold decrease in the emission lifetime and a simultaneous 1900-fold increase in the total emission intensity. At the same time, the nanocavity acts as a highly efficient optical antenna directing the emission into a single lobe normal to the surface. This plasmonic platform is a versatile geometry into which a variety of other quantum emitters, such as crystal color centers, can be integrated for directional, room-temperature single photon emission rates exceeding 80 GHz.
Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiß, M.; Kapfinger, S.; Reichert, T.; Finley, J. J.; Wixforth, A.; Kaniber, M.; Krenner, H. J.
2016-07-01
A coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity-quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a fSAW ≃ 800 MHz surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function, g(2). All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of g(2), demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system.
Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P.; Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman; Liu Yuxi
2009-07-15
We propose and study an approach to realize quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator (TLR) array with one controllable hopping interaction. We find that the single photon with arbitrary wave vector can transport in a controllable way in this system. We also study how to realize controllable hopping interaction between two TLRs via a Cooper-pair box (CPB). When the frequency of the CPB is largely detuned from those of the two TLRs, the variables of the CPB can be adiabatically eliminated and thus a controllable interaction between two TLRs can be obtained.
Weng, Q. C.; Zhu, Z. Q.; An, Z. H.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.
2014-02-03
The authors present a systematic study of an introduced reset operation on quantum dot (QD) single photon detectors operating at 77 K. The detectors are based on an AlAs/GaAs/AlAs double-barrier resonant tunneling diode with an adjacent layer of self-assembled InAs QDs. Sensitive single-photon detection in high (dI)/(dV) region with suppressed current fluctuations is achieved. The dynamic detection range is extended up to at least 10{sup 4} photons/s for sensitive imaging applications by keeping the device far from saturation by employing an appropriate reset frequency.
FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.
2000-01-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
Theoertical investigation of quantum waveform shaping for single photon emitters.
Pedrotti, Leno M; Agha, Imad
2016-07-25
We investigate a new technique for quantum-compatible waveform shaping that extends the time lens method, and relies only on phase operations. Under realistic experimental conditions, we show that it is possible to both temporally compress and shape optical waveforms in the nanosecond to tens of picoseconds range, which is generally difficult to achieve using standard dispersive pulse-shaping techniques. PMID:27464122
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qing; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to solve the fault tolerant filtering and fault detection problem for a class of open quantum systems driven by a continuous-mode bosonic input field in single photon states when the systems are subject to stochastic faults. Optimal estimates of both the system observables and the fault process are simultaneously calculated and characterized by a set of coupled recursive quantum stochastic differential equations.
Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2014-10-01
We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.
Experimental quantum secret sharing and third-man quantum cryptography.
Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Zhao, Zhi; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Chao-Yang; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-11-11
Quantum secret sharing (QSS) and third-man quantum cryptography (TQC) are essential for advanced quantum communication; however, the low intensity and fragility of the multiphoton entanglement source in previous experiments have made their realization an extreme experimental challenge. Here, we develop and exploit an ultrastable high intensity source of four-photon entanglement to report an experimental realization of QSS and TQC. The technology developed in our experiment will be important for future multiparty quantum communication.
A high-temperature single-photon source from nanowire quantum dots.
Tribu, Adrien; Sallen, Gregory; Aichele, Thomas; André, Régis; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Bougerol, Catherine; Tatarenko, Serge; Kheng, Kuntheak
2008-12-01
We present a high-temperature single-photon source based on a quantum dot inside a nanowire. The nanowires were grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. We utilize a two-step process that allows a thin, defect-free ZnSe nanowire to grow on top of a broader, cone-shaped nanowire. Quantum dots are formed by incorporating a narrow zone of CdSe into the nanowire. We observe intense and highly polarized photoluminescence even from a single emitter. Efficient photon antibunching is observed up to 220 K, while conserving a normalized antibunching dip of at most 36%. This is the highest reported temperature for single-photon emission from a nonblinking quantum-dot source and principally allows compact and cheap operation by using Peltier cooling.
Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength
Felle, M.; Huwer, J. Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Penty, R. V.
2015-09-28
The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.
Observation of quasiperiodic dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum walk of single photons in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Peng; Qin, Hao; Tang, Bao; Sanders, Barry C.
2014-05-01
We realize the quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable 10 quantum-walk steps to be reached. By varying the half-wave-plate setting, we control the quantum-coin bias thereby observing a transition from quasi-periodic dynamics to ballistic diffusion.
Entanglement-Based Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilinger, Anton
2007-03-01
Quantum entanglement, to Erwin Schroedinger the essential feature of quantum mechanics, has become a central resource in various quantum communication protocols including quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. From a fundamental point of view what is exploited in these experiments is the very fact which led Schroedinger to his statement namely that in entangled states joint properties of the entangled systems may be well defined while the individual subsystems may carry no information at all. In entanglement-based quantum cryptography it leads to the most elegant possible solution of the classic key distribution problem. It implies that the key comes into existence at spatially distant location at the same time and does not need to be transported. A number recent developments include for example highly efficient, robust and stable sources of entangled photons with a broad bandwidth of desired features. Also, entanglement-based quantum cryptography is successfully joining other methods in the work towards demonstrating quantum key distribution networks. Along that line recently decoy-state quantum cryptography over a distance of 144 km between two Canary Islands was demonstrated successfully. Such experiments also open up the possibility of quantum communication on a really large scale using LEO satellites. Another important possible future branch of quantum communication involves quantum repeaters in order to cover larger distances with entangled states. Recently the connection of two fully independent lasers in an entanglement swapping experiment did demonstrate that the timing control of such systems on a femtosecond time scale is possible. A related development includes recent demonstrations of all-optical one-way quantum computation schemes with the extremely short cycle time of only 100 nanoseconds.
Quantum detector tomography of a single-photon frequency upconversion detection system.
Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Xiuliang; Hu, Huiqin; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2016-09-01
We experimentally presented a full quantum detector tomography of a synchronously pumped infrared single-photon frequency upconversion detector. A maximum detection efficiency of 37.6% was achieved at the telecom wavelength of 1558 nm with a background noise about 1.0 × 10^{-3} counts/pulse. The corresponding internal quantum conversion efficiency reached as high as 84.4%. The detector was then systematically characterized at different pump powers to investigate the quantum decoherence behavior. Here the reconstructed positive operator valued measure elements were equivalently illustrated with the Wigner function formalism, where the quantum feature of the detector is manifested by the presence of negative values of the Wigner function. In our experiment, pronounced negativities were attained due to the high detection efficiency and low background noise, explicitly showing the quantum feature of the detector. Such quantum detector could be useful in optical quantum state engineering, quantum information processing and communication. PMID:27607700
Quantum detector tomography of a single-photon frequency upconversion detection system.
Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Xiuliang; Hu, Huiqin; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2016-09-01
We experimentally presented a full quantum detector tomography of a synchronously pumped infrared single-photon frequency upconversion detector. A maximum detection efficiency of 37.6% was achieved at the telecom wavelength of 1558 nm with a background noise about 1.0 × 10^{-3} counts/pulse. The corresponding internal quantum conversion efficiency reached as high as 84.4%. The detector was then systematically characterized at different pump powers to investigate the quantum decoherence behavior. Here the reconstructed positive operator valued measure elements were equivalently illustrated with the Wigner function formalism, where the quantum feature of the detector is manifested by the presence of negative values of the Wigner function. In our experiment, pronounced negativities were attained due to the high detection efficiency and low background noise, explicitly showing the quantum feature of the detector. Such quantum detector could be useful in optical quantum state engineering, quantum information processing and communication.
Linearly polarized single photon antibunching from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot
Jemsson, Tomas; Machhadani, Houssaine; Karlsson, K. Fredrik; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Holtz, Per-Olof
2014-08-25
We report on the observation of linearly polarized single photon antibunching in the excitonic emission from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot. The measured second order coherence function exhibits a significant dip at zero time difference, corresponding to g{sub m}{sup 2}(0)=0.90 under continuous laser excitation. This relatively high value of g{sub m}{sup 2}(0) is well understood by a model as the combination of short exciton life time (320 ps), limited experimental timing resolution and the presence of an uncorrelated broadband background emission from the sample. Our result provides the first rigorous evidence of InGaN quantum dot formation on hexagonal GaN pyramids, and it highlights a great potential in these dots as fast polarized single photon emitters if the background emission can be eliminated.
Limitations on practical quantum cryptography
Brassard; Lutkenhaus; Mor; Sanders
2000-08-01
We provide limits to practical quantum key distribution, taking into account channel losses, a realistic detection process, and imperfections in the "qubits" sent from the sender to the receiver. As we show, even quantum key distribution with perfect qubits might not be achievable over long distances when the other imperfections are taken into account. Furthermore, existing experimental schemes (based on weak pulses) currently do not offer unconditional security for the reported distances and signal strength. Finally we show that parametric down-conversion offers enhanced performance compared to its weak coherent pulse counterpart.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed. PMID:18978887
Quantum Simulation of Multiple-Exciton Generation in a Nanocrystal by a Single Photon
Witzel, Wayne M.; Shabaev, Andrew; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Jacobs, Verne L.; Efros, Alexander L.
2010-09-22
We have shown theoretically that efficient multiple-exciton generation (MEG) by a single photon can be observed in small nanocrystals. Our quantum simulations that include hundreds of thousands of exciton and multiexciton states demonstrate that the complex time-dependent dynamics of these states in a closed electronic system yields a saturated MEG effect on a picosecond time scale. Including phonon relaxation confirms that efficient MEG requires the exciton-biexciton coupling time to be faster than exciton relaxation time.
Comment on "Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Jia, Xin; Xia, Juan; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Hua
2012-12-01
The security of the quantum secure direct communication protocol with authentication expansion using single photons is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error by implementing a simple man-in-the-middle attack after the authentication is successfully carried out. Furthermore, a denial-of-service attack is also discussed. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.
Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon.
Gao, W B; Fallahi, P; Togan, E; Miguel-Sanchez, J; Imamoglu, A
2012-11-15
Entanglement has a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, a main challenge is the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and propagating (photon) quantum bits. Here we report the observation of quantum entanglement between a semiconductor quantum dot spin and the colour of a propagating optical photon. The demonstration of entanglement relies on the use of fast, single-photon detection, which allows us to project the photon into a superposition of red and blue frequency components. Our results extend the previous demonstrations of single-spin/single-photon entanglement in trapped ions, neutral atoms and nitrogen-vacancy centres to the domain of artificial atoms in semiconductor nanostructures that allow for on-chip integration of electronic and photonic elements. As a result of its fast optical transitions and favourable selection rules, the scheme we implement could in principle generate nearly deterministic entangled spin-photon pairs at a rate determined ultimately by the high spontaneous emission rate. Our observation constitutes a first step towards implementation of a quantum network with nodes consisting of semiconductor spin quantum bits.
Enhanced autocompensating quantum cryptography system.
Bethune, Donald S; Navarro, Martha; Risk, William P
2002-03-20
We have improved the hardware and software of our autocompensating system for quantum key distribution by replacing bulk optical components at the end stations with fiber-optic equivalents and implementing software that synchronizes end-station activities, communicates basis choices, corrects errors, and performs privacy amplification over a local area network. The all-fiber-optic arrangement provides stable, efficient, and high-contrast routing of the photons. The low-bit error rate leads to high error-correction efficiency and minimizes data sacrifice during privacy amplification. Characterization measurements made on a number of commercial avalanche photodiodes are presented that highlight the need for improved devices tailored specifically for quantum information applications. A scheme for frequency shifting the photons returning from Alice's station to allow them to be distinguished from backscattered noise photons is also described.
Free-space quantum cryptography
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1998-12-31
An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined. Possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.
Quantum Router for Single Photons Carrying Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2016-06-01
Quantum router is an essential element in the quantum network. Here, we present a fully quantum router based on interaction free measurement and quantum dots. The signal photonic qubit can be routed to different output ports according to one control electronic qubit. Besides, our scheme is an interferometric method capable of routing single photons carrying either spin angular momentum (SAM) or orbital angular momentum (OAM), or simultaneously carrying SAM and OAM. Then we describe a cascaded multi-level quantum router to construct a one-to-many quantum router. Subsequently we analyze the success probability by using a tunable controlled phase gate. The implementation issues are also discussed to show that this scheme is feasible.
Quantum Router for Single Photons Carrying Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum
Chen, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2016-01-01
Quantum router is an essential element in the quantum network. Here, we present a fully quantum router based on interaction free measurement and quantum dots. The signal photonic qubit can be routed to different output ports according to one control electronic qubit. Besides, our scheme is an interferometric method capable of routing single photons carrying either spin angular momentum (SAM) or orbital angular momentum (OAM), or simultaneously carrying SAM and OAM. Then we describe a cascaded multi-level quantum router to construct a one-to-many quantum router. Subsequently we analyze the success probability by using a tunable controlled phase gate. The implementation issues are also discussed to show that this scheme is feasible. PMID:27256772
Quantum Router for Single Photons Carrying Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum.
Chen, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2016-06-03
Quantum router is an essential element in the quantum network. Here, we present a fully quantum router based on interaction free measurement and quantum dots. The signal photonic qubit can be routed to different output ports according to one control electronic qubit. Besides, our scheme is an interferometric method capable of routing single photons carrying either spin angular momentum (SAM) or orbital angular momentum (OAM), or simultaneously carrying SAM and OAM. Then we describe a cascaded multi-level quantum router to construct a one-to-many quantum router. Subsequently we analyze the success probability by using a tunable controlled phase gate. The implementation issues are also discussed to show that this scheme is feasible.
Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Georg; Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Ho, Melvyn; Chavez, Matias; Teo, Colin; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-05-01
We report on a single photon source with highly tunable photon shape based on a cold ensemble of Rubidium atoms. We follow the DLCZ scheme to implement an emissive quantum memory, which can be operated as a photon pair source with controllable delay. We find that the temporal wave shape of the emitted read photon can be precisely controlled by changing the shape of the driving read pulse. We generate photons with temporal durations varying over three orders of magnitude up to 10 μs without a significant change of the read-out efficiency. We prove the non-classicality of the emitted photons by measuring their antibunching, showing near single photon behavior at low excitation probabilities. We also show that the photons are emitted in a pure state by measuring unconditional autocorrelation functions. Finally, to demonstrate the usability of the source for realistic applications, we create ultra-long single photons with a rising exponential or doubly peaked time-bin wave shape which are important for several quantum information tasks. ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain.
Controlling single-photon transport with three-level quantum dots in photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Cong-Hua; Jia, Wen-Zhi; Wei, Lian-Fu
2014-03-01
We investigate how to control single-photon transport along the photonic crystal waveguide with the recent experimentally demonstrated artificial atoms [i.e., Λ-type quantum dots (QDs)] [S. G. Carter et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 329 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2013.41] in an all-optical way. Adopting full quantum theory in real space, we analytically calculate the transport coefficients of single photons scattered by a Λ-type QD embedded in single- and two-mode photonic crystal cavities (PCCs), respectively. Our numerical results clearly show that the photonic transmission properties can be exactly manipulated by adjusting the coupling strengths of waveguide-cavity and QD-cavity interactions. Specifically, for the PCC with two degenerate orthogonal polarization modes coupled to a Λ-type QD with two degenerate ground states, we find that the photonic transmission spectra show three Rabi-splitting dips and the present system could serve as single-photon polarization beam splitters. The feasibility of our proposal with the current photonic crystal technique is also discussed.
Time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packets for free-space quantum communication.
Trautmann, N; Alber, G; Agarwal, G S; Leuchs, G
2015-05-01
Readout and retrieval processes are proposed for efficient, high-fidelity quantum state transfer between a matter qubit, encoded in the level structure of a single atom or ion, and a photonic qubit, encoded in a time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packet. They are based on controlling spontaneous photon emission and absorption of a matter qubit on demand in free space by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. As these processes do not involve mode selection by high-finesse cavities or photon transport through optical fibers, they offer interesting perspectives as basic building blocks for free-space quantum-communication protocols.
Near-Transform-Limited Single Photons from an Efficient Solid-State Quantum Emitter.
Wang, Hui; Duan, Z-C; Li, Y-H; Chen, Si; Li, J-P; He, Y-M; Chen, M-C; He, Yu; Ding, X; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-05-27
By pulsed s-shell resonant excitation of a single quantum dot-micropillar system, we generate long streams of 1000 near-transform-limited single photons with high mutual indistinguishability. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two photons is measured as a function of their emission time separation varying from 13 ns to 14.7 μs, where the visibility slightly drops from 95.9(2)% to a plateau of 92.1(5)% through a slow dephasing process occurring at a time scale of 0.7 μs. A temporal and spectral analysis reveals the pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons are close to the transform limit, which are readily useful for multiphoton entanglement and interferometry experiments. PMID:27284656
Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höckel, David; Martin, Eugen; Benson, Oliver
2010-02-01
We describe a combined ultranarrow bandpass filtering setup for single-photon experiments in quantum optics. The filter is particularly suitable for single-photon electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) experiments, but can also be used in several similar applications. A multipass planar Fabry-Pérot etalon together with polarization filters and spatial filtering allows 114 dB pump beam suppression, while the signal beam is attenuated by just 4 dB, although both wavelengths are only separated by 0.025 nm (9.2 GHz). The multipass etalon alone accounts for 46 dB suppression while it has a peak transmission of 65%. We demonstrate EIT experiments in Cs vapor at room temperature with probe power in the femtowatt regime using this filter.
Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot
Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab
2014-10-06
We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sridharan, Deepak
Over the last decade, exponential increase of information bandwidth over the internet and other communication media has increased the total power consumed by the devices associated with information exchange. With ever increasing number of users, and packing of a higher number of devices onto a chip, there is a great need for reduction in not only the power consumption of the devices but also the costs associated with information transfer. Currently, the benchmark in the energy consumption per logic operation is at femtojoule level and is set by the CMOS industry. However, optical devices based on single photon emitters coupled to a microcavity have the potential to reduce the optical power dissipation down to attojoule levels wherein only few 10s of photons are consumed for a logic operation. This work presents our theoretical and experimental efforts towards realization of all optical device based on the enhanced nonlinearities of a single photon emitter in a photonic crystal cavity. We show that a single quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity can be used to route an incoming optical beam with optical power dissipation of 14 attojoules, corresponding to only 65 photons. This value is well below the operational level for current CMOS devices indicating the potential for chip based optical transistors for reduction in energy consumption. The single photon emitters that we use to create the nonlinearity are the quantum dots, which are semiconductor nanostructures that exhibit a discrete energy spectrum. The interaction of the quantum dot, with light confined inside a photonic crystal cavity, results in strong atom-photon interactions which can be used for ultra-low power all optical switching. The strong interactions between a quantum dot and photonic crystal cavity can be further utilized to realize quantum computation schemes on a chip. I also describe techniques for integrating this transistor into an optical circuit, and discuss methods for post
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable
Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2015-01-01
Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks. PMID:26404010
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takemoto, Kazuya; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yorozu, Shinichi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2015-09-01
Advances in single-photon sources (SPSs) and single-photon detectors (SPDs) promise unique applications in the field of quantum information technology. In this paper, we report long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) by using state-of-the-art devices: a quantum-dot SPS (QD SPS) emitting a photon in the telecom band of 1.5 μm and a superconducting nanowire SPD (SNSPD). At the distance of 100 km, we obtained the maximal secure key rate of 27.6 bps without using decoy states, which is at least threefold larger than the rate obtained in the previously reported 50-km-long QKD experiment. We also succeeded in transmitting secure keys at the rate of 0.307 bps over 120 km. This is the longest QKD distance yet reported by using known true SPSs. The ultralow multiphoton emissions of our SPS and ultralow dark count of the SNSPD contributed to this result. The experimental results demonstrate the potential applicability of QD SPSs to practical telecom QKD networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaggero, A.; Nejad, S. Jahanmiri; Marsili, F.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Bitauld, D.; Sahin, D.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Nötzel, R.; Sanjines, R.; Fiore, A.
2010-10-01
We demonstrate efficient nanowire superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) based on NbN thin films grown on GaAs. NbN films ranging from 3 to 5 nm in thickness have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on GaAs substrates at 350 °C. These films show superconducting properties comparable to similar films grown on sapphire and MgO. In order to demonstrate the potential for monolithic integration, SSPDs were fabricated and measured on GaAs/AlAs Bragg mirrors, showing a clear cavity enhancement, with a peak quantum efficiency of 18.3% at λ =1300 nm and T=4.2 K.
Generating Entangled Spin States for Quantum Metrology by Single-Photon Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; Cuk, Senka; Hu, Jiazhong; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Vuletic, Vladan
2014-05-01
We present a proposal and latest experimental results on a probabilistic but heralded scheme to generate non-Gaussian entangled states of collective spin in large atomic ensembles by means of single-photon detection. One photon announces the preparation of a Dicke state, while two or more photons announce Schrödinger cat states. The entangled states thus produced allow interferometry below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). The method produces nearly pure states even for finite photon detection efficiency and weak atom-photon coupling. The entanglement generation can be made quasi-deterministic by means of repeated trial and feedback.
Multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction using single photons as message carrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Gong-Lin; Xu, Yong; Chen, Zhen-Yu; An, Xing-Xing; Ji, Fu-Gao; Gnitou, Gnim Tchalim
2016-02-01
In this study, a novel multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction protocol using the single photons as the message carrier of bids is proposed, followed by an example of three-party auction. Compared with those protocols based on the entangled states (GHZ state, EPR pairs, etc.), the present protocol is more economic and feasible within present technology. In order to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction, the decoy photon checking technique and an improved post-confirmation mechanism with EPR pairs are introduced, respectively.
Delayed-choice test of quantum complementarity with interfering single photons.
Jacques, Vincent; Wu, E; Grosshans, Frédéric; Treussart, François; Grangier, Philippe; Aspect, Alain; Roch, Jean-François
2008-06-01
We report an experimental test of quantum complementarity with single-photon pulses sent into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an output beam splitter of adjustable reflection coefficient R. In addition, the experiment is realized in Wheeler's delayed-choice regime. Each randomly set value of R allows us to observe interference with visibility V and to obtain incomplete which-path information characterized by the distinguishability parameter D. Measured values of V and D are found to fulfill the complementarity relation V2+D2 < or =1. PMID:18643406
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaggero, A.; Sahin, D.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J. P.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Fiore, A.
2013-05-01
We present our progress in the development of an integrated technology suitable for the photonic quantum information processing, showing the first autocorrelator based on two separated detectors integrated on top of the same ridge waveguide. An efficiency of ~1% at 1300 nm for both detectors and independent of the polarization of the incoming photons, is reported. This ultracompact device enables the on-chip measurement of the second-order correlation function g(2)(τ) . We will further discuss ongoing work on the integration of detectors with single-photon sources.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lydersen, Lars; Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marøy, Øystein; Skaar, Johannes; Marquardt, Christoph; Makarov, Vadim; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-09-01
We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.
Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography
Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-09-15
We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.
A controllable single photon beam-splitter as a node of a quantum network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautam, Gaurav; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Kumar, Deepak
2016-03-01
A model for a controlled single-photon beam-splitter is proposed and analyzed. It consists of two crossed optical-cavities with overlapping waists, dynamically coupled to a single flying atom. The system is shown to route a single photon with near-unity efficiency in an effective ‘weak-coupling’ regime. Furthermore, two such nodes, forming a segment of a quantum network, are shown to perform several controlled quantum operations. All one-qubit operations involve a transfer of a photon from one cavity to another in a single node, while two-qubit operations involve transfer from one node to a next one, coupled via an optical fiber. Novel timing protocols for classical optical fields are found to simplify possible experimental realizations along with achievable effective parameter regime. Though our analysis here is based on a cavity-QED scenario, basic features of the model can be extended to various other physical systems including gated quantum dots, circuit-QED or opto-mechanical elements.
A controllable single photon beam-splitter as a node of a quantum network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Santosh; Gautam, Gaurav; Ghosh, Saikat; Kumar, Deepak; Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India Collaboration; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Collaboration
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for a controlled single-photon beam-splitter is proposed and analysed. It consists of two crossed optical-cavities with overlapping waists, dynamically coupled to a single flying atom. The system is shown to route a single photon with near-unity efficiency in an effective ``weak-coupling'' regime. Furthermore, two such nodes, forming a segment of a quantum network, are shown to perform several controlled quantum operations. All one-qubit operations involve a transfer of a photon from one cavity to another in a single node, while two-qubit operations involve transfer from one node to a next one, coupled via an optical fiber. Novel timing protocols for classical optical fields are found to simplify possible experimental realizations along with achievable effective parameter regime. This model can be extended to various other physical systems including gated quantum dots, circuit-QED or opto-mechanical elements. This work is supported by DST-SERB, and DAE, Government of India.
On protection against a bright-pulse attack in the two-pass quantum cryptography system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Korol'kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2016-06-01
The security of keys in quantum cryptography systems, in contrast to mathematical cryptographic algorithms, is guaranteed by fundamental quantum-mechanical laws. However, the cryptographic resistance of such systems, which are distributed physical devices, fundamentally depends on the method of their implementation and particularly on the calibration and control of critical parameters. The most important parameter is the number of photons in quasi-single-photon information states in a communication channel. The sensitivity to a bright-pulse attack has been demonstrated in an explicit form for a number of systems. A method guaranteeing the resistance to such attacks has been proposed and implemented. Furthermore, the relation of physical observables used and obtained at the control of quantum states to the length of final secret keys has been obtained for the first time.
Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol
Molotkov, S. N.
2008-07-15
In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency ({eta} {approx} 20%) and dark count probability (p{sub dark} {approx} 10{sup -7})
Electrically driven single photon emission from a CdSe/ZnSSe single quantum dot at 200 K
Quitsch, Wolf; Kümmell, Tilmar; Bacher, Gerd; Gust, Arne; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef
2014-09-01
High temperature operation of an electrically driven single photon emitter based on a single epitaxial quantum dot is reported. CdSe/ZnSSe/MgS quantum dots are embedded into a p-i-n diode architecture providing almost background free excitonic and biexcitonic electroluminescence from individual quantum dots through apertures in the top contacts. Clear antibunching with g{sup 2}(τ = 0) = 0.28 ± 0.20 can be tracked up to T = 200 K, representing the highest temperature for electrically triggered single photon emission from a single quantum dot device.
Bidault, Sébastien; Devilez, Alexis; Maillard, Vincent; Lermusiaux, Laurent; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bonod, Nicolas; Wenger, Jérôme
2016-04-26
Minimizing the luminescence lifetime while maintaining a high emission quantum yield is paramount in optimizing the excitation cross-section, radiative decay rate, and brightness of quantum solid-state light sources, particularly at room temperature, where nonradiative processes can dominate. We demonstrate here that DNA-templated 60 and 80 nm diameter gold nanoparticle dimers, featuring one fluorescent molecule, provide single-photon emission with lifetimes that can fall below 10 ps and typical quantum yields in a 45-70% range. Since these colloidal nanostructures are obtained as a purified aqueous suspension, fluorescence spectroscopy can be performed on both fixed and freely diffusing nanostructures to quantitatively estimate the distributions of decay rate and fluorescence intensity enhancements. These data are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations and demonstrate that millions of bright fluorescent nanostructures, with radiative lifetimes below 100 ps, can be produced in parallel. PMID:26972678
Quantum and classical control of single photon states via a mechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R.; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, G. J.
2016-06-01
Optomechanical systems typically use light to control the quantum state of a mechanical resonator. In this paper, we propose a scheme for controlling the quantum state of light using the mechanical degree of freedom as a controlled beam splitter. Preparing the mechanical resonator in non-classical states enables an optomechanical Stern-Gerlach interferometer. When the mechanical resonator has a small coherent amplitude it acts as a quantum control, entangling the optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. As the coherent amplitude of the resonator increases, we recover single photon and two-photon interference via a classically controlled beam splitter. The visibility of the two-photon interference is particularly sensitive to coherent excitations in the mechanical resonator and this could form the basis of an optically transduced weak-force sensor.
On the complexity of search for keys in quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2016-03-01
The trace distance is used as a security criterion in proofs of security of keys in quantum cryptography. Some authors doubted that this criterion can be reduced to criteria used in classical cryptography. The following question has been answered in this work. Let a quantum cryptography system provide an ɛ-secure key such that ½‖ρ XE - ρ U ⊗ ρ E ‖1 < ɛ, which will be repeatedly used in classical encryption algorithms. To what extent does the ɛ-secure key reduce the number of search steps (guesswork) as compared to the use of ideal keys? A direct relation has been demonstrated between the complexity of the complete consideration of keys, which is one of the main security criteria in classical systems, and the trace distance used in quantum cryptography. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of search steps for the determination of the actual key have been presented.
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn “photon-switches” to “OFF” state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn ``photon-switches'' to ``OFF'' state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.
2009-04-01
Quantum cryptography, and especially quantum key distribution (QKD), is steadily progressing to become a viable tool for cryptographic services. In recent years we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the secure bit rate of QKD, as well as its extension to ever longer fibre- and air-based links and the emergence of metro-scale trusted networks. In the foreseeable future even global-scale communications may be possible using quantum repeaters or Earth-satellite links. A handful of start-ups and some bigger companies are already active in the field. The launch of an initiative to form industrial standards for QKD, under the auspices of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute, described in the paper by Laenger and Lenhart in this Focus Issue, can be taken as a sign of the growing commercial interest. Recent progress has seen an increase in the secure bit rate of QKD links, by orders of magnitude, to over 1 Mb s-1. This has resulted mainly from an improvement in the detection technology. Here changes in the way conventional semiconductor detectors are gated, as well as the development of novel devices based on non-linear processes and superconducting materials, are leading the way. Additional challenges for QKD at GHz clock rates include the design of high speed electronics, remote synchronization and high rate random number generation. Substantial effort is being devoted to increasing the range of individual links, which is limited by attenuation and other losses in optical fibres and air links. An important advance in the past few years has been the introduction of protocols with the same scaling as an ideal single-photon set-up. The good news is that these schemes use standard optical devices, such as weak laser pulses. Thanks to these new protocols and improvements in the detection technology, the range of a single fibre link can exceed a few hundred km. Outstanding issues include proving the unconditional security of some of the schemes. Much of the
Spatially resolved quantum nano-optics of single photons using an electron microscope.
Tizei, L H G; Kociak, M
2013-04-12
We report on the experimental demonstration of single-photon state generation and characterization in an electron microscope. In this aim we have used low intensity relativistic (energy between 60 and 100 keV) electrons beams focused in a ca. 1 nm probe to excite diamond nanoparticles. This triggered individual neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers to emit photons which could be gathered and sent to a Hanbury Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer. The detection of a dip in the correlation function at small time delays clearly demonstrates antibunching and thus the creation of nonclassical light states. Specifically, we have also demonstrated single-photon states detection. We unveil the mechanism behind quantum states generation in an electron microscope, and show that it clearly makes cathodoluminescence the nanometer scale analog of photoluminescence. By using an extremely small electron probe size and the ability to monitor its position with subnanometer resolution, we also show the possibility of measuring the quantum character of the emitted beam with deep subwavelength resolution. PMID:25167267
Observation of the quantum paradox of separation of a single photon from one of its properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashby, James M.; Schwarz, Peter D.; Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2016-07-01
We report an experimental realization of the quantum paradox of the separation of a single photon from one of its properties (the so-called "quantum Cheshire cat"). We use a modified Sagnac interferometer with displaced paths to produce appropriately pre- and postselected states of heralded single photons. Weak measurements of photon presence and circular polarization are performed in each arm of the interferometer by introducing weak absorbers and small polarization rotations and analyzing changes in the postselected signal. The absorber is found to have an appreciable effect only in one arm of the interferometer, while the polarization rotation significantly affects the signal only when performed in the other arm. We carry out both sequential and simultaneous weak measurements and find good agreement between measured and predicted weak values. In the language of Aharonov et al. and in the sense of the ensemble averages described by weak values, the experiment establishes the separation of a particle from one its properties during the passage through the interferometer.
Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon.
Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-26
Quantum teleportation provides a 'disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies. PMID:25719668
Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-01
Quantum teleportation provides a `disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.
Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon.
Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-26
Quantum teleportation provides a 'disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motes, Keith R.; Mann, Ryan L.; Olson, Jonathan P.; Studer, Nicholas M.; Bergeron, E. Annelise; Gilchrist, Alexei; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.; Rohde, Peter P.
2016-07-01
Fock states are a fundamental resource for many quantum technologies such as quantum metrology. While much progress has been made in single-photon source technologies, preparing Fock states with a large photon number remains challenging. We present and analyze a bootstrapped approach for nondeterministically preparing large photon-number Fock states by iteratively fusing smaller Fock states on a beamsplitter. We show that by employing state recycling we are able to exponentially improve the preparation rate over conventional schemes, allowing the efficient preparation of large Fock states. The scheme requires single-photon sources, beamsplitters, number-resolved photodetectors, fast-feedforward, and an optical quantum memory.
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.
2015-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550 nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10−19 W/Hz−1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35 ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283
Proposal for founding mistrustful quantum cryptography on coin tossing
Kent, Adrian
2003-07-01
A significant branch of classical cryptography deals with the problems which arise when mistrustful parties need to generate, process, or exchange information. As Kilian showed a while ago, mistrustful classical cryptography can be founded on a single protocol, oblivious transfer, from which general secure multiparty computations can be built. The scope of mistrustful quantum cryptography is limited by no-go theorems, which rule out, inter alia, unconditionally secure quantum protocols for oblivious transfer or general secure two-party computations. These theorems apply even to protocols which take relativistic signaling constraints into account. The best that can be hoped for, in general, are quantum protocols which are computationally secure against quantum attack. Here a method is described for building a classically certified bit commitment, and hence every other mistrustful cryptographic task, from a secure coin-tossing protocol. No security proof is attempted, but reasons are sketched why these protocols might resist quantum computational attack.
Gaisler, V. A. Gaisler, A. V.; Jaroshevich, A. S.; Derebezov, I. A.; Kachanova, M. M.; Zhivodkov, Yu. A.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Medvedev, A. S.; Nenasheva, L. A.; Grachev, K. V.; Sandyrev, V. K.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Shayahmetov, V. M.; Kalagin, A. K.; Bakarov, A. K.; Dmitriev, D. V.; Toropov, A. I.; Shcheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Aseev, A. L.
2015-01-15
A semiconductor Bragg microcavity structure for single photon emitters is designed and implemented. The design provides the efficient current pumping of selectively positioned InAs quantum dots within a micrometer-size aperture, high external quantum yield, and low divergence of the emitted radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiraz, A.; Atatüre, M.; Imamoǧlu, A.
2004-03-01
An optical source that produces single-photon pulses on demand has potential applications in linear optics quantum computation, provided that stringent requirements on indistinguishability and collection efficiency of the generated photons are met. We show that these are conflicting requirements for anharmonic emitters that are incoherently pumped via reservoirs. As a model for a coherently pumped single photon source, we propose cavity-assisted spin-flip Raman transitions in a single electron charged quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. We demonstrate that using such a source, arbitrarily high collection efficiency and indistinguishability of the generated photons can be obtained simultaneously with increased cavity coupling. We analyze the role of errors that arise from distinguishability of the single-photon pulses in linear optics quantum gates by relating the gate fidelity to the strength of the two-photon interference dip in photon cross-correlation measurements. We find that performing controlled phase operations with error <1 % requires nanocavities with Purcell factors FP ⩾40 in the absence of dephasing, without necessitating the strong coupling limit.
Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory
Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-01-01
Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan–Lukin–Cirac–Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices. PMID:26468996
Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory.
Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-10-15
Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices.
Cernoch, Antonin; Soubusta, Jan; Celechovska, Lucie; Dusek, Miloslav; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2009-12-15
We report on experimental implementation of the optimal universal asymmetric 1->2 quantum cloning machine for qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. Our linear-optical machine performs asymmetric cloning by partially symmetrizing the input polarization state of signal photon and a blank copy idler photon prepared in a maximally mixed state. We show that the employed method of measurement of mean clone fidelities exhibits strong resilience to imperfect calibration of the relative efficiencies of single-photon detectors used in the experiment. Reliable characterization of the quantum cloner is thus possible even when precise detector calibration is difficult to achieve.
Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr., C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.
2006-08-18
This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time.
Multiple intrinsically identical single-photon emitters in the solid state.
Rogers, L J; Jahnke, K D; Teraji, T; Marseglia, L; Müller, C; Naydenov, B; Schauffert, H; Kranz, C; Isoya, J; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F
2014-01-01
Emitters of indistinguishable single photons are crucial for the growing field of quantum technologies. To realize scalability and increase the complexity of quantum optics technologies, multiple independent yet identical single-photon emitters are required. However, typical solid-state single-photon sources are inherently dissimilar, necessitating the use of electrical feedback or optical cavities to improve spectral overlap between distinct emitters. Here we demonstrate bright silicon vacancy (SiV(-)) centres in low-strain bulk diamond, which show spectral overlap of up to 91% and nearly transform-limited excitation linewidths. This is the first time that distinct single-photon emitters in the solid state have shown intrinsically identical spectral properties. Our results have impact on the application of single-photon sources for quantum optics and cryptography. PMID:25162729
Agha, Imad; Ates, Serkan; Sapienza, Luca; Srinivasan, Kartik
2014-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate spectral broadening and shaping of exponentially-decaying nanosecond pulses via nonlinear mixing with a phase-modulated pump in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. 1550 nm pump light is imprinted with a temporal phase and used to upconvert a weak 980 nm pulse to 600 nm while simultaneously broadening the spectrum to that of a Lorentzian pulse up to 10 times shorter. While the current experimental demonstration is for spectral shaping, we also provide a numerical study showing the feasibility of subsequent spectral phase correction to achieve temporal compression and reshaping of a 1 ns mono-exponentially decaying pulse to a 250 ps Lorentzian, which would constitute a complete spectrotemporal waveform shaping protocol. This method, which uses quantum frequency conversion in PPLN with >100:1 signal-to-noise ratio, is compatible with single photon states of light. PMID:25360957
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epp, S. W.; Steinbrügge, R.; Bernitt, S.; Rudolph, J. K.; Beilmann, C.; Bekker, H.; Müller, A.; Versolato, O. O.; Wille, H.-C.; Yavaş, H.; Ullrich, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.
2015-08-01
We study two fundamental transitions from the ground state S10 to P11 (w line) and P31 (y line) in heliumlike Kr34 + by resonant single-photon excitation using an electron-beam ion trap and monochromatic x rays at PETRA III. Our results for the transition energies E (w )=13 114.47 (14 ) eV and E (y )=13 026.15 (14 ) eV are in excellent agreement with quantum electrodynamics calculations, but disagree for w with the average of the hitherto reported experimental results E¯Lit(w ) =13 115.15 (17 ) eV. Independently of any energy calibration, we obtain a value E (w )/E (y )=1.006 780 (7 ) , also in consistency with predictions.
Optimal eavesdropping in cryptography with three-dimensional quantum states.
Bruss, D; Macchiavello, C
2002-03-25
We study optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography with three-dimensional systems, and show that this scheme is more secure against symmetric attacks than protocols using two-dimensional states. We generalize the according eavesdropping transformation to arbitrary dimensions, and discuss the connection with optimal quantum cloning.
Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography.
Mérolla, J M; Mazurenko, Y; Goedgebuer, J P; Porte, H; Rhodes, W T
1999-01-15
We describe a new method for quantum key distribution that utilizes phase modulation of sidebands of modulation by use of integrated electro-optic modulators at the transmitting and receiving modules. The system is shown to produce constructive or destructive interference with unity visibility, which should allow quantum cryptography to be carried out with high flexibility by use of conventional devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Dirk; Breddermann, Dominik; Zrenner, Artur; Schumacher, Stefan
2015-10-01
Sources of single photons are key elements for applications in quantum information science. Among the different sources available, semiconductor quantum dots excel with their integrability in semiconductor on-chip solutions and the potential that photon emission can be triggered on demand. Usually, the photon is emitted from a single-exciton ground state. Polarization of the photon and time of emission are either probabilistic or pre-determined by electronic properties of the system. Here, we study the direct two-photon emission from the biexciton. The two-photon emission is enabled by a laser pulse driving the system into a virtual state inside the band gap. From this intermediate state, the single photon of interest is then spontaneously emitted. We show that emission through this higher-order transition provides a versatile approach to generate a single photon. Through the driving laser pulse, polarization state, frequency and emission time of the photon can be controlled on-the-fly.
Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.
Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato
2009-01-16
We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem.
Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.
Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato
2009-01-16
We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem. PMID:19257257
Tommila, J.; Hakkarainen, T. V.; Schramm, A. Guina, M.; Belykh, V. V.; Sibeldin, N. N.; Heinonen, E.
2014-05-26
We report on the emission dynamics of single In(Ga)As quantum dots formed in etched GaAs pits and integrated into micropillar cavities. The site-controlled quantum dots were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on nanoimprint lithography patterned GaAs(001) surfaces. Triggered single photon emission confirmed by photon autocorrelation measurements is demonstrated. Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments clearly show an effect of the cavity on the spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot.
Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.
Fisher, Kent A G; England, Duncan G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J
2016-01-01
The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion. PMID:27045988
Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory
Fisher, Kent A. G.; England, Duncan G.; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.
2016-01-01
The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion. PMID:27045988
Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission.
Sapienza, Luca; Davanço, Marcelo; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik
2015-01-01
Self-assembled, epitaxially grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are promising semiconductor quantum emitters that can be integrated on a chip for a variety of photonic quantum information science applications. However, self-assembled growth results in an essentially random in-plane spatial distribution of QDs, presenting a challenge in creating devices that exploit the strong interaction of single QDs with highly confined optical modes. Here, we present a photoluminescence imaging approach for locating single QDs with respect to alignment features with an average position uncertainty <30 nm (<10 nm when using a solid-immersion lens), which represents an enabling technology for the creation of optimized single QD devices. To that end, we create QD single-photon sources, based on a circular Bragg grating geometry, that simultaneously exhibit high collection efficiency (48%±5% into a 0.4 numerical aperture lens, close to the theoretically predicted value of 50%), low multiphoton probability (g(2)(0) <1%), and a significant Purcell enhancement factor (≈3). PMID:26211442
Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.
Fisher, Kent A G; England, Duncan G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J
2016-01-01
The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion.
Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Kent A. G.; England, Duncan G.; Maclean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.
2016-04-01
The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion.
Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission
Sapienza, Luca; Davanço, Marcelo; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik
2015-01-01
Self-assembled, epitaxially grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are promising semiconductor quantum emitters that can be integrated on a chip for a variety of photonic quantum information science applications. However, self-assembled growth results in an essentially random in-plane spatial distribution of QDs, presenting a challenge in creating devices that exploit the strong interaction of single QDs with highly confined optical modes. Here, we present a photoluminescence imaging approach for locating single QDs with respect to alignment features with an average position uncertainty <30 nm (<10 nm when using a solid-immersion lens), which represents an enabling technology for the creation of optimized single QD devices. To that end, we create QD single-photon sources, based on a circular Bragg grating geometry, that simultaneously exhibit high collection efficiency (48%±5% into a 0.4 numerical aperture lens, close to the theoretically predicted value of 50%), low multiphoton probability (g(2)(0) <1%), and a significant Purcell enhancement factor (≈3). PMID:26211442
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, LiLi; Ma, WenPing; Wang, MeiLing; Shen, DongSu
2016-05-01
We present an efficient three-party quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The three legal parties' messages can be encoded on the polarization and the spatial-mode states of single photons independently with desired unitary operations. A party can obtain the other two parties' messages simultaneously through a quantum channel. Because no extra public information is transmitted in the classical channels, the drawback of information leakage or classical correlation does not exist in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the comprehensive security analysis shows that the presented QSDC network protocol can defend the outsider eavesdropper's several sorts of attacks. Compared with the single photons with only one degree of freedom, our protocol based on the single photons in two degrees of freedom has higher capacity. Since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques, the proposed protocol is practical.
Fabrication of Single-Photon Sources by Use of Pyramidal Quantum-Dot Microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rülke, Daniel; Reinheimer, C.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M.
In recent years the interest in single-photon emitters for quantum-optical applications is strongly increasing. For this purpose, we have investigated In(Ga)As quantum-dots (QDs) embedded in reversed pyramidal GaAs microcavities (Fig. 52.1a). Even though it has been shown recently, that such cavities can act as high-Q optical resonators [1], our focus has been on the directional radiation of the QD emission due to reflection at the facets of the reversed pyramids. With QDs embedded close to the vertex of the four facets and a base angle adaptable between 35° and 55° the pyramids can be perceived as a kind of retroreflector. Since the QD layer is inserted near the tip of the predicted reversed pyramid during molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) growth, the average number of QDs inside the cavity can be reduced to one, depending on the size of the pyramid and density of QDs. The pyramidal cavities are shaped after MBE growth by a wet-chemical etching process with a solution of H3PO4, H2O2 and H2O [2, 3].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Hyunseok; Bae, Seunglee; Choi, Seongjeon
2016-02-01
We study quantum teleportation between two different types of optical qubits using hybrid entanglement as a quantum channel under decoherence effects. One type of qubit employs the vacuum and single-photon states for the basis, called a single-rail single-photon qubit, and the other utilizes coherent states of opposite phases. We find that teleportation from a single-rail single-photon qubit to a coherent-state qubit is better than the opposite direction in terms of fidelity and success probability. We compare our results with those using a different type of hybrid entanglement between a polarized single-photon qubit and a coherent state.
Analysis of limiting information characteristics of quantum-cryptography protocols
Sych, D V; Grishanin, Boris A; Zadkov, Viktor N
2005-01-31
The problem of increasing the critical error rate of quantum-cryptography protocols by varying a set of letters in a quantum alphabet for space of a fixed dimensionality is studied. Quantum alphabets forming regular polyhedra on the Bloch sphere and the continual alphabet equally including all the quantum states are considered. It is shown that, in the absence of basis reconciliation, a protocol with the tetrahedral alphabet has the highest critical error rate among the protocols considered, while after the basis reconciliation, a protocol with the continual alphabet possesses the highest critical error rate. (quantum optics and quantum computation)
Quantum cryptography on multi-user network architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumavor, Patrick D.; Beal, Alan C.; Yelin, Susanne; Donkor, Eric; Wang, Bing C.
2006-05-01
Quantum cryptography applies the uncertainty principle and the no-cloning theorem to allow to parties to share a secret key over an ultra-secure link. Present quantum cryptography technologies provide encryption key distribution only between two users. However, practical implementations of encryption key distribution schemes require establishing secure quantum communications amongst multiple users. This paper looks at some of the advantages and drawbacks of some common network topologies that could be used in sending cryptographic keys across a network consisting of multiple users. These topologies are the star, ring, and bus networks. Their performances are compared and analyzed using quantum bit error rate analysis. The paper also presents an experimental demonstration of a six-user quantum key distribution network implemented on a bus topology.
Controlling single-photon Fock-state propagation through opaque scattering media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Thomas J.; Huisman, Simon R.; Mosk, Allard P.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.
2014-09-01
The control of light scattering is essential in many quantum optical experiments. Wavefront shaping is a technique used for ultimate control over wave propagation through multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We control the propagation of single-photon Fock states through opaque scattering media by spatial phase modulation of the incident wavefront. We enhance the probability that a single photon arrives in a target output mode with a factor 30. Our proof-of-principle experiment shows that the propagation of quantum light through multiple-scattering media can be controlled, with prospective applications in quantum communication and quantum cryptography.
Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond
Naydenov, B.; Kolesov, R.; Batalov, A.; Meijer, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Rogalla, D.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.
2009-01-01
Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center. PMID:19956415
Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond.
Naydenov, B; Kolesov, R; Batalov, A; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S; Rogalla, D; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2009-11-01
Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center. PMID:19956415
Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naydenov, B.; Kolesov, R.; Batalov, A.; Meijer, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Rogalla, D.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.
2009-11-01
Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center.
Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond.
Naydenov, B; Kolesov, R; Batalov, A; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S; Rogalla, D; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2009-11-01
Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center.
Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu-Ming; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yi-Nan; He, Yu; Wu, Dian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-11-12
Single photons are attractive candidates of quantum bits (qubits) for quantum computation and are the best messengers in quantum networks. Future scalable, fault-tolerant photonic quantum technologies demand both stringently high levels of photon indistinguishability and generation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate deterministic and robust generation of pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons from a single semiconductor quantum dot using adiabatic rapid passage, a method robust against fluctuation of driving pulse area and dipole moments of solid-state emitters. The emitted photons are background-free, have a vanishing two-photon emission probability of 0.3% and a raw (corrected) two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility of 97.9% (99.5%), reaching a precision that places single photons at the threshold for fault-tolerant surface-code quantum computing. This single-photon source can be readily scaled up to multiphoton entanglement and used for quantum metrology, boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.
He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Y-J; Jiang, X; Chen, M-C; Xiong, F-L; Zhao, Y; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-12-01
This Letter reports all-optically tunable and highly indistinguishable single Raman photons from a driven single quantum dot spin. The frequency, linewidth, and lifetime of the Raman photons are tunable by varying the driving field power and detuning. Under continuous-wave excitation, subnatural linewidth single photons from off-resonant Raman scattering show an indistinguishability of 0.98(3). Under π pulse excitation, spin- and time-tagged Raman fluorescence photons show an almost vanishing multiphoton emission probability of 0.01(2) and a two-photon quantum interference visibility of 0.95(3). Lastly, Hong-Ou-Mandel interference is demonstrated between two single photons emitted from remote, independent quantum dots with an unprecedented visibility of 0.87(4). PMID:24476302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-11-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-01-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances. PMID:26597223
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-11-24
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-10-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.
Security of two quantum cryptography protocols using the same four qubit states
Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara; Scarani, Valerio
2005-09-15
The first quantum cryptography protocol, proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 (BB84), has been widely studied in recent years. This protocol uses four states (more precisely, two complementary bases) for the encoding of the classical bit. Recently, it has been noticed that by using the same four states, but a different encoding of information, one can define a protocol which is more robust in practical implementations, specifically when attenuated laser pulses are used instead of single-photon sources [V. Scarani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004), referred to as the SARG04 protocol]. We present a detailed study of SARG04 in two different regimes. In the first part, we consider an implementation with a single-photon source: we derive bounds on the error rate Q for security against all possible attacks by the eavesdropper. The lower and the upper bound obtained for SARG04 (Q < or approx. 10.95% and Q > or approx. 14.9%, respectively) are close to those obtained for BB84 (Q < or approx. 12.4% and Q > or approx. 14.6%, respectively). In the second part, we consider a realistic source consisting of an attenuated laser and improve on previous analysis by allowing Alice to optimize the mean number of photons as a function of the distance. The SARG04 protocol is found to perform better than BB84, both in secret-key rate and in maximal achievable distance, for a wide class of Eve's attacks.
Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the ekert protocol
Naik; Peterson; White; Berglund; Kwiat
2000-05-15
Using polarization-entangled photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion, we have implemented Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. The near-perfect correlations of the photons allow the sharing of a secret key between two parties. The presence of an eavesdropper is continually checked by measuring Bell's inequalities. We investigated several possible eavesdropper strategies, including pseudo-quantum-nondemolition measurements. In all cases, the eavesdropper's presence was readily apparent. We discuss a procedure to increase her detectability.
Indistinguishability of independent single photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, F. W.; Wong, C. W.
2009-01-01
The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform-limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform-limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform-limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down-conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.
Natarajan, Chandra M; Zhang, Lijian; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik; Donati, Gaia; Dorenbos, Sander N; Zwiller, Val; Walmsley, Ian A; Hadfield, Robert H
2013-01-14
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are widely used in telecom wavelength optical quantum information science applications. Quantum detector tomography allows the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) of a single-photon detector to be determined. We use an all-fiber telecom wavelength detector tomography test bed to measure detector characteristics with respect to photon flux and polarization, and hence determine the POVM. We study the SNSPD both as a binary detector and in an 8-bin, fiber based, Time-Multiplexed (TM) configuration at repetition rates up to 4 MHz. The corresponding POVMs provide an accurate picture of the photon number resolving capability of the TM-SNSPD. PMID:23388983
Single-photon emission from a type-B InP/GaInP quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beirne, G. J.; Michler, P.; Jetter, M.; Schweizer, H.
2005-11-01
Type-B InP/GaInP quantum dots are expected to exhibit a type-II electronic structure. Evidence for this is provided by the variation in decay time of the ensemble as a function of excitation power density. Photon correlation measurements were subsequently performed on a single type-B InP/GaInP quantum dot using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss setup [Nature 178, 1447 (1956)]. Autocorrelation measurements were carried out under both continuous-wave and pulsed excitation conditions with single-photon emission observed in each case. The continuous-wave measurements display a pronounced antibunching dip at zero time delay while pulsed measurements enable the triggered generation of single photons on demand at a wavelength of approximately 750 nm.
Leuenberger, Michael N; Flatté, Michael E; Awschalom, D D
2005-03-18
We propose a teleportation scheme that relies only on single-photon measurements and Faraday rotation, for teleportation of many-qubit entangled states stored in the electron spins of a quantum dot system. The interaction between a photon and the two electron spins, via Faraday rotation in microcavities, establishes Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement in the spin-photon-spin system. The appropriate single-qubit measurements, and the communication of two classical bits, produce teleportation. This scheme provides the essential link between spintronic and photonic quantum information devices by permitting quantum information to be exchanged between them.
Wang, Qin; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
In this paper, we put forward a new approach towards realizing measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with passive heralded single-photon sources. In this approach, both Alice and Bob prepare the parametric down-conversion source, where the heralding photons are labeled according to different types of clicks from the local detectors, and the heralded ones can correspondingly be marked with different tags at the receiver’s side. Then one can obtain four sets of data through using only one-intensity of pump light by observing different kinds of clicks of local detectors. By employing the newest formulae to do parameter estimation, we could achieve very precise prediction for the two-single-photon pulse contribution. Furthermore, by carrying out corresponding numerical simulations, we compare the new method with other practical schemes of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. We demonstrate that our new proposed passive scheme can exhibit remarkable improvement over the conventional three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with either heralded single-photon sources or weak coherent sources. Besides, it does not need intensity modulation and can thus diminish source-error defects existing in several other active decoy-state methods. Therefore, if taking intensity modulating errors into account, our new method will show even more brilliant performance. PMID:27759085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lili; Ma, Wenping
2016-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. Based on the defined local collective unitary operations, the sender’s secret messages can be transmitted directly to the receiver through encoding secret messages on the particles. Only with the help of the third side, the receiver can reconstruct the secret messages. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information, so the cost of our protocol is less than others using entangled qubits. Moreover, the security of our QSDC network protocol is discussed comprehensively. It is shown that our new CQSDC protocol cannot only defend the outsider eavesdroppers’ several sorts of attacks but also the inside attacks. Besides, our protocol is feasible since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.
Jafari Salim, A. Eftekharian, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.
2014-02-07
In this paper, we theoretically show that a multi-layer superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) is capable of approaching characteristics of an ideal SNSPD in terms of the quantum efficiency, dark count, and band-width. A multi-layer structure improves the performance in two ways. First, the potential barrier for thermally activated vortex crossing, which is the major source of dark counts and the reduction of the critical current in SNSPDs is elevated. In a multi-layer SNSPD, a vortex is made of 2D-pancake vortices that form a stack. It will be shown that the stack of pancake vortices effectively experiences a larger potential barrier compared to a vortex in a single-layer SNSPD. This leads to an increase in the experimental critical current as well as significant decrease in the dark count rate. In consequence, an increase in the quantum efficiency for photons of the same energy or an increase in the sensitivity to photons of lower energy is achieved. Second, a multi-layer structure improves the efficiency of single-photon absorption by increasing the effective optical thickness without compromising the single-photon sensitivity.
England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J
2015-02-01
We report the storage and retrieval of single photons, via a quantum memory, in the optical phonons of a room-temperature bulk diamond. The THz-bandwidth heralded photons are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and mapped to phonons via a Raman transition, stored for a variable delay, and released on demand. The second-order correlation of the memory output is g((2))(0)=0.65±0.07, demonstrating a preservation of nonclassical photon statistics throughout storage and retrieval. The memory is low noise, high speed and broadly tunable; it therefore promises to be a versatile light-matter interface for local quantum processing applications.
Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications
Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-02-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P
2015-05-01
Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.
A diamond nanowire single-photon source.
Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko
2010-03-01
The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy. PMID:20154687
A diamond nanowire single-photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babinec, Thomas M.; Hausmann, Birgit J. M.; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Lončar, Marko
2010-03-01
The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.
Quantum cryptography as a retrodiction problem.
Werner, A H; Franz, T; Werner, R F
2009-11-27
We propose a quantum key distribution protocol based on a quantum retrodiction protocol, known as the Mean King problem. The protocol uses a two way quantum channel. We show security against coherent attacks in a transmission-error free scenario, even if Eve is allowed to attack both transmissions. This establishes a connection between retrodiction and key distribution.
Quantum cryptography as a retrodiction problem.
Werner, A H; Franz, T; Werner, R F
2009-11-27
We propose a quantum key distribution protocol based on a quantum retrodiction protocol, known as the Mean King problem. The protocol uses a two way quantum channel. We show security against coherent attacks in a transmission-error free scenario, even if Eve is allowed to attack both transmissions. This establishes a connection between retrodiction and key distribution. PMID:20366080
Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z-C; Gregersen, Niels; Chen, M-C; Unsleber, S; Maier, S; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-01-15
Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots.
Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z-C; Gregersen, Niels; Chen, M-C; Unsleber, S; Maier, S; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-01-15
Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots. PMID:26824530
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazawa, T.; Takemoto, K.; Nambu, Y.; Miki, S.; Yamashita, T.; Terai, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Sasaki, M.; Sakuma, Y.; Takatsu, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, Y.
2016-09-01
We have demonstrated highly pure single-photon emissions from an InAs/InP quantum dot at the wavelength of 1.5 μm. By applying quasi-resonant excitation, one exciton is deterministically generated in an excited state, which then relaxes to the exciton ground state before recombining to emit a single photon. The photon-correlation function of the emission from the exciton ground state exhibits a record g(2)(0) value of (4.4 ± 0.2) × 10-4 measured using high-performance super-conducting single-photon detectors, without any background subtraction. This single-photon source with extremely low multi-photon emission probability paves the way to realize long distance quantum key distribution and low error-rate quantum computation.
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Quantum cryptography with 3-state systems.
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H; Peres, A
2000-10-01
We consider quantum cryptographic schemes where the carriers of information are 3-state particles. One protocol uses four mutually unbiased bases and appears to provide better security than obtainable with 2-state carriers. Another possible method allows quantum states to belong to more than one basis. Security is not better, but many curious features arise.
Some conservative estimates in quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2006-08-15
Relationship is established between the security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol and the forward and converse coding theorems for quantum communication channels. The upper bound Q{sub c} {approx} 11% on the bit error rate compatible with secure key distribution is determined by solving the transcendental equation H(Q{sub c})=C-bar({rho})/2, where {rho} is the density matrix of the input ensemble, C-bar({rho}) is the classical capacity of a noiseless quantum channel, and H(Q) is the capacity of a classical binary symmetric channel with error rate Q.
Infeasibility of Quantum Cryptography Without Eavesdropping Check
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang; Wang, Qiyan
Secure key distribution is impossible in pure classical environment. Unconditional secure key distribution is available when quantum means are introduced, assisted by a classical communication channel. What is possible when a quantum key distribution scheme is without classical communication? We present a general model with this constraint and show that quantum key distribution without classical eavesdropping check is in principle impossible. For an adversary can always succeed in obtaining the secret key via a special case of man-in-the-middle attack, namely intercept-and-forward attack without any risk of being captured.
High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Weedbrook, Christian; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Lloyd, Seth; Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2015-06-01
Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task—the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction has been the introduction of measurement-device independence, where the secret key between two parties is established by the measurement of an untrusted relay. Unfortunately, although qubit-implemented protocols can reach long distances, their key rates are typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that a solution can come from the use of continuous-variable systems. We design a coherent-state network protocol able to achieve remarkably high key rates at metropolitan distances, in fact three orders of magnitude higher than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers.
Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography.
Mo, Xiao-Fan; Zhu, Bing; Han, Zheng-Fu; Gui, You-Zhen; Guo, Guang-Can
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution provides unconditional security for communication. Unfortunately, current experimental schemes are not suitable for long-distance fiber transmission because of phase drift or Rayleigh backscattering. In this Letter we present a unidirectional intrinsically stable scheme that is based on Michelson-Faraday interferometers, in which ordinary mirrors are replaced with 90 degree Faraday mirrors. With the scheme, a demonstration setup was built and excellent stability of interference fringe visibility was achieved over a fiber length of 175 km. Through a 125 km long commercial communication fiber cable between Beijing and Tianjin, the key exchange was performed with a quantum bit-error rate of less than 6%, which is to our knowledge the longest reported quantum key distribution experiment under field conditions.
Quantum cryptography with perfect multiphoton entanglement.
Luo, Yuhui; Chan, Kam Tai
2005-05-01
Multiphoton entanglement in the same polarization has been shown theoretically to be obtainable by type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), which can generate bright pulses more easily than type-II SPDC. A new quantum cryptographic protocol utilizing polarization pairs with the detected type-I entangled multiphotons is proposed as quantum key distribution. We calculate the information capacity versus photon number corresponding to polarization after considering the transmission loss inside the optical fiber, the detector efficiency, and intercept-resend attacks at the level of channel error. The result compares favorably with all other schemes employing entanglement.
Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.
Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-02-01
We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, Lucie; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav
2007-10-01
We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.
Soubusta, Jan; Cernoch, Antonin; Bartuskova, Lucie; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Dusek, Miloslav
2007-10-15
We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.
High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.
Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C
2013-08-01
Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources. PMID:23952378
High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.
Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C
2013-08-01
Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.
Deterministic and efficient quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem
Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei; Zhang Qiang; Bao Xiaohui; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-05-15
We propose a double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation, and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similar to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under the current technology.
POST Quantum Cryptography from Mutant Prime Knots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzuoli, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giandomenico
By resorting to basic features of topological knot theory we propose a (classical) cryptographic protocol based on the `difficulty' of decomposing complex knots generated as connected sums of prime knots and their mutants. The scheme combines an asymmetric public key protocol with symmetric private ones and is intrinsecally secure against quantum eavesdropper attacks.
Ates, Serkan; Agha, Imad; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Rakher, Matthew T; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik
2012-10-01
We show that quantum frequency conversion (QFC) can overcome the spectral distinguishability common to inhomogeneously broadened solid-state quantum emitters. QFC is implemented by combining single photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) at 980 nm with a 1550 nm pump laser in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide to generate photons at 600 nm with a signal-to-background ratio exceeding 100:1. Photon correlation and two-photon interference measurements confirm that both the single photon character and wave packet interference of individual QD states are preserved during frequency conversion. Finally, we convert two spectrally separate QD transitions to the same wavelength in a single PPLN waveguide and show that the resulting field exhibits nonclassical two-photon interference.
Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2014-12-18
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD, together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.
Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2014-12-18
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD,more » together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Shao-Hua; Wen, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Jing; Song, Ke-Hui
2016-06-01
We characterize the non-Gaussianity of continuous-variable quantum states in terms of the cumulant theory and derive the exact formula of the cumulant of any order for such states. Exploiting the fourth-order cumulant method, we evaluate the quantum non-Gaussianity of two-mode single-photon squeezed Bell states and investigate their dynamics under the influence of two different types of decoherence models. It is shown that in a two-reservoir model, all the fourth-order cumulants of these states are very fragile, while in single-reservoir model, the fourth-order cumulants of one such state are insensitive to thermal noise, showing the time-invariant non-Gaussianity.
England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J
2015-02-01
We report the storage and retrieval of single photons, via a quantum memory, in the optical phonons of a room-temperature bulk diamond. The THz-bandwidth heralded photons are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and mapped to phonons via a Raman transition, stored for a variable delay, and released on demand. The second-order correlation of the memory output is g((2))(0)=0.65±0.07, demonstrating a preservation of nonclassical photon statistics throughout storage and retrieval. The memory is low noise, high speed and broadly tunable; it therefore promises to be a versatile light-matter interface for local quantum processing applications. PMID:25699439
Hach, Edwin E. III; Elshaari, Ali W.; Preble, Stefan F.
2010-12-15
We analyze the dynamics of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a micro-optical resonator by using a fully quantum-mechanical model. We examine the propagation of a single-photon Gaussian packet through the system under various coupling conditions. We review the theory of single-photon transport phenomena as applied to the system and we develop a discussion on the numerical technique we used to solve for dynamical behavior of the quantized field. To demonstrate our method and to establish robust single-photon results, we study the process of adiabatically lowering or raising the energy of a single photon trapped in an optical resonator under active tuning of the resonator. We show that our fully quantum-mechanical approach reproduces the semiclassical result in the appropriate limit and that the adiabatic invariant has the same form in each case. Finally, we explore the trapping of a single photon in a system of dynamically tuned, coupled optical cavities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie
2016-06-01
The information leakage problem in the efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is pointed out. Next, a way to revise this protocol to a truly secure one is given. We hope people pay more attention to the information leakage problem in order to design truly secure quantum communication protocols.
Quantum storage of heralded single photons in a praseodymium-doped crystal.
Rieländer, Daniel; Kutluer, Kutlu; Ledingham, Patrick M; Gündoğan, Mustafa; Fekete, Julia; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2014-01-31
We report on experiments demonstrating the reversible mapping of heralded single photons to long-lived collective optical atomic excitations stored in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. A cavity-enhanced spontaneous down-conversion source is employed to produce widely nondegenerate narrow-band (≈2 MHz) photon pairs. The idler photons, whose frequency is compatible with telecommunication optical fibers, are used to herald the creation of the signal photons, compatible with the Pr3+ transition. The signal photons are stored and retrieved using the atomic frequency comb protocol. We demonstrate storage times up to 4.5 μs while preserving nonclassical correlations between the heralding and the retrieved photon. This is more than 20 times longer than in previous realizations in solid state devices, and implemented in a system ideally suited for the extension to spin-wave storage.
Quantum storage of heralded single photons in a praseodymium-doped crystal.
Rieländer, Daniel; Kutluer, Kutlu; Ledingham, Patrick M; Gündoğan, Mustafa; Fekete, Julia; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2014-01-31
We report on experiments demonstrating the reversible mapping of heralded single photons to long-lived collective optical atomic excitations stored in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. A cavity-enhanced spontaneous down-conversion source is employed to produce widely nondegenerate narrow-band (≈2 MHz) photon pairs. The idler photons, whose frequency is compatible with telecommunication optical fibers, are used to herald the creation of the signal photons, compatible with the Pr3+ transition. The signal photons are stored and retrieved using the atomic frequency comb protocol. We demonstrate storage times up to 4.5 μs while preserving nonclassical correlations between the heralding and the retrieved photon. This is more than 20 times longer than in previous realizations in solid state devices, and implemented in a system ideally suited for the extension to spin-wave storage. PMID:24580428
Practical free-space quantum cryptography
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.
1998-12-01
An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approx} 1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined, and the effectiveness of privacy amplification procedures is discussed. The conclusions are that free-space QKD is both effective and secure; possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-17
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-01
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies. PMID:22252558
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-01
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies. PMID:22252558
No information flow using statistical fluctuations and quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsson, Jan-Åke
2004-04-01
The communication protocol of Home and Whitaker [
Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-12-01
Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1239 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-12-15
Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Experimental quantum cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states: preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-04-01
Since, in general, non-orthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a Quantum Communication scheme using non-orthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in Quantum Cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (7), pp. 12391243, 1995] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets which travel along separate channels, i.e. two different paths inside a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Liang, Lin-Mei
2015-08-01
The security of source has become an increasingly important issue in quantum cryptography. Based on the framework of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), the source becomes the only region exploitable by a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Phase randomization is a cornerstone assumption in most discrete-variable (DV) quantum communication protocols (e.g., QKD, quantum coin tossing, weak-coherent-state blind quantum computing, and so on), and the violation of such an assumption is thus fatal to the security of those protocols. In this paper, we show a simple quantum hacking strategy, with commercial and homemade pulsed lasers, by Eve that allows her to actively tamper with the source and violate such an assumption, without leaving a trace afterwards. Furthermore, our attack may also be valid for continuous-variable (CV) QKD, which is another main class of QKD protocol, since, excepting the phase random assumption, other parameters (e.g., intensity) could also be changed, which directly determine the security of CV-QKD.
Discriminating single-photon states unambiguously in high dimensions.
Agnew, Megan; Bolduc, Eliot; Resch, Kevin J; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Leach, Jonathan
2014-07-11
The ability to uniquely identify a quantum state is integral to quantum science, but for nonorthogonal states, quantum mechanics precludes deterministic, error-free discrimination. However, using the nondeterministic protocol of unambiguous state discrimination enables the error-free differentiation of states, at the cost of a lower frequency of success. We discriminate experimentally between nonorthogonal, high-dimensional states encoded in single photons; our results range from dimension d=2 to d=14. We quantify the performance of our method by comparing the total measured error rate to the theoretical rate predicted by minimum-error state discrimination. For the chosen states, we find a lower error rate by more than 1 standard deviation for dimensions up to d=12. This method will find immediate application in high-dimensional implementations of quantum information protocols, such as quantum cryptography.
Discriminating single-photon states unambiguously in high dimensions.
Agnew, Megan; Bolduc, Eliot; Resch, Kevin J; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Leach, Jonathan
2014-07-11
The ability to uniquely identify a quantum state is integral to quantum science, but for nonorthogonal states, quantum mechanics precludes deterministic, error-free discrimination. However, using the nondeterministic protocol of unambiguous state discrimination enables the error-free differentiation of states, at the cost of a lower frequency of success. We discriminate experimentally between nonorthogonal, high-dimensional states encoded in single photons; our results range from dimension d=2 to d=14. We quantify the performance of our method by comparing the total measured error rate to the theoretical rate predicted by minimum-error state discrimination. For the chosen states, we find a lower error rate by more than 1 standard deviation for dimensions up to d=12. This method will find immediate application in high-dimensional implementations of quantum information protocols, such as quantum cryptography. PMID:25062151
Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation
Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.
2007-06-15
The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.
Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InP/GaInP quantum dots
Braun, T.; Unsleber, S.; Baumann, V.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Gschrey, M.; Rodt, S.; Reitzenstein, S.
2013-11-04
We report on the optical characterization of site-controlled InP/GaInP quantum dots (QDs). Spatially resolved low temperature cathodoluminescence proves the long-range ordering of the buried emitters, revealing a yield of ∼90% of optically active, positioned QDs and a strong suppression of emitters on interstitial positions. The emission of single QDs shows a pronounced degree of linear polarization along the [0,−1,1] crystal axis with an average degree of polarization of 94%. Photon correlation measurements of the emission from a single QD indicate the single-photon character of the exciton and biexciton emission lines as well as the cascaded nature of the photon pair.
Devaraj, Vasanthan; Baek, Jongseo; Jang, Yudong; Jeong, Hyuk; Lee, Donghan
2016-04-18
We have designed a single photon emitter based on a single quantum dot embedded within a single mode parabolic solid immersion lens (pSIL) and a capping low-index pSIL. Numerical simulations predicted that the emitter performance should exhibit a high photon collection efficiency with excellent far-field emission properties, broadband operation, and good tolerance in its geometric (spatial configuration) parameters. Good geometric tolerance in a single-mode pSIL without yielding significant losses in the photon collection efficiency is advantageous for device fabrication. The low-index top pSIL layer provided this structure with a high photon collection efficiency, even in the case of a small numerical aperture (NA). Photon collection efficiencies of 64% and 78% were expected for NA values of 0.41 and 0.5, respectively. In addition to the benefits listed above, our combined pSIL design provided excellent broadband performance in a 100 nm range.
Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography.
Bugge, Audun Nystad; Sauge, Sebastien; Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim
2014-02-21
We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ∼1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ∼1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.
Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography.
Bugge, Audun Nystad; Sauge, Sebastien; Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim
2014-02-21
We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ∼1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ∼1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications. PMID:24579579
Security in Quantum Cryptography vs. Nonlocal Hidden Variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Pawłowski, Marcin
2007-02-01
In order to prove equivalence of quantum mechanics with nonlocal hidden-variable theories of a Bohm type one assumes that all the possible measurements belong to a restricted class: (a) we measure only positions of particles and (b) have no access to exact values of initial conditions for Bohm's trajectories. However, in any computer simulation based on Bohm's equations one relaxes the assumption (b) and yet obtains agreement with quantum predictions concerning the results of positional measurements. Therefore a theory where (b) is relaxed, although in principle allowing for measurements of a more general type, cannot be experimentally falsified within the current experimental paradigm. Such generalized measurements have not been invented, or have been invented but the information is qualified, but we cannot exclude their possibility on the basis of known experimental data. Since the measurements would simultaneously allow for eavesdropping in standard quantum cryptosystems, the arguments for security of quantum cryptography become logically circular: Bohm-type theories do not allow for eavesdropping because they are fully equivalent to quantum mechanics, but the equivalence follows from the assumption that we cannot measure hidden variables, which would be equivalent to the possibility of eavesdropping… Here we break the vicious circle by a simple modification of entangled-state protocols that makes them secure even if our enemies have more imagination and know how to measure hidden-variable initial conditions with arbitrary precision.
Rengstl, U.; Schwartz, M.; Herzog, T.; Hargart, F.; Paul, M.; Portalupi, S. L.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.
2015-07-13
We present an on-chip beamsplitter operating on a single-photon level by means of a quasi-resonantly driven InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot. The single photons are guided by rib waveguides and split into two arms by an evanescent field coupler. Although the waveguides themselves support the fundamental TE and TM modes, the measured degree of polarization (∼90%) reveals the main excitation and propagation of the TE mode. We observe the preserved single-photon nature of a quasi-resonantly excited quantum dot by performing a cross-correlation measurement on the two output arms of the beamsplitter. Additionally, the same quantum dot is investigated under resonant excitation, where the same splitting ratio is observed. An autocorrelation measurement with an off-chip beamsplitter on a single output arm reveal the single-photon nature after evanescent coupling inside the on-chip splitter. Due to their robustness, adjustable splitting ratio, and their easy implementation, rib waveguide beamsplitters with embedded quantum dots provide a promising step towards fully integrated quantum circuits.
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-15
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-15
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix. PMID:27628348
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan
2016-08-01
Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g 2(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.
Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan
2016-12-01
Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.
Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan
2016-12-01
Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission. PMID:27576522
Information investigation for B92 protocol in quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Ming; Zhang, Guoping
2005-01-01
In this paper, we simulate the quantum channel with a binary symmetric channel and a binary erasure channel, a series channel and a Markovian chain channel in classical information theory, then calculate respectively the mutual information between the signal's deliverer, the legal receiver and the eavesdropper, the bit error rate during propagating the signals with the theory about the quantum measurement channel and the quantum information theory. For B92 protocol, a simple quantum cryptography distribution scheme, we study the bound and the property of mutual information obtained by the legal receiver and the eavesdropper, seek the relationship between the bit error rates and the eavesdropper's way, in two cases of the opaque eavesdropping and the translucent eavesdropping. A new criteria for checking the eavesdropper and ensuring the legal correspondent is estimated. Furthermore, the comparison in bit error rates caused respectively in two different measuring ways indicates that POVM is better than the standard measurement by the way of orthogonal projecting for reducing the bit error rate and increasing effective communication.
Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.
2011-11-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.
Room Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Individual Perovskite Quantum Dots.
Park, Young-Shin; Guo, Shaojun; Makarov, Nikolay S; Klimov, Victor I
2015-10-27
Lead-halide-based perovskites have been the subject of numerous recent studies largely motivated by their exceptional performance in solar cells. Electronic and optical properties of these materials have been commonly controlled by varying the composition (e.g., the halide component) and/or crystal structure. Use of nanostructured forms of perovskites can provide additional means for tailoring their functionalities via effects of quantum confinement and wave function engineering. Furthermore, it may enable applications that explicitly rely on the quantum nature of electronic excitations. Here, we demonstrate that CsPbX3 quantum dots (X = I, Br) can serve as room-temperature sources of quantum light, as indicated by strong photon antibunching detected in single-dot photoluminescence measurements. We explain this observation by the presence of fast nonradiative Auger recombination, which renders multiexciton states virtually nonemissive and limits the fraction of photon coincidence events to ∼6% on average. We analyze limitations of these quantum dots associated with irreversible photodegradation and fluctuations ("blinking") of the photoluminescence intensity. On the basis of emission intensity-lifetime correlations, we assign the "blinking" behavior to random charging/discharging of the quantum dot driven by photoassisted ionization. This study suggests that perovskite quantum dots hold significant promise for applications such as quantum emitters; however, to realize this goal, one must resolve the problems of photochemical stability and photocharging. These problems are largely similar to those of more traditional quantum dots and, hopefully, can be successfully resolved using advanced methodologies developed over the years in the field of colloidal nanostructures.
Room Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Individual Perovskite Quantum Dots.
Park, Young-Shin; Guo, Shaojun; Makarov, Nikolay S; Klimov, Victor I
2015-10-27
Lead-halide-based perovskites have been the subject of numerous recent studies largely motivated by their exceptional performance in solar cells. Electronic and optical properties of these materials have been commonly controlled by varying the composition (e.g., the halide component) and/or crystal structure. Use of nanostructured forms of perovskites can provide additional means for tailoring their functionalities via effects of quantum confinement and wave function engineering. Furthermore, it may enable applications that explicitly rely on the quantum nature of electronic excitations. Here, we demonstrate that CsPbX3 quantum dots (X = I, Br) can serve as room-temperature sources of quantum light, as indicated by strong photon antibunching detected in single-dot photoluminescence measurements. We explain this observation by the presence of fast nonradiative Auger recombination, which renders multiexciton states virtually nonemissive and limits the fraction of photon coincidence events to ∼6% on average. We analyze limitations of these quantum dots associated with irreversible photodegradation and fluctuations ("blinking") of the photoluminescence intensity. On the basis of emission intensity-lifetime correlations, we assign the "blinking" behavior to random charging/discharging of the quantum dot driven by photoassisted ionization. This study suggests that perovskite quantum dots hold significant promise for applications such as quantum emitters; however, to realize this goal, one must resolve the problems of photochemical stability and photocharging. These problems are largely similar to those of more traditional quantum dots and, hopefully, can be successfully resolved using advanced methodologies developed over the years in the field of colloidal nanostructures. PMID:26312994
Choi, Sumin; Berhane, Amanuel M; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor
2015-03-18
Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography, and quantum communications. However, the majority of room temperature emitters to date are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically driven light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit in the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open possibilities for building new ZnO-based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies. PMID:25741632
Choi, Sumin; Berhane, Amanuel M; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor
2015-03-18
Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography, and quantum communications. However, the majority of room temperature emitters to date are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically driven light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit in the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open possibilities for building new ZnO-based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies.
Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang; Sumikura, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shinji; Taniyama, Hideaki; van Veldhoven, Peter J.; Nötzel, Richard; Notomi, Masaya
2012-01-01
High-bit-rate nanocavity-based single photon sources in the 1,550-nm telecom band are challenges facing the development of fibre-based long-haul quantum communication networks. Here we report a very fast single photon source in the 1,550-nm telecom band, which is achieved by a large Purcell enhancement that results from the coupling of a single InAs quantum dot and an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. At a resonance, the spontaneous emission rate was enhanced by a factor of 5 resulting a record fast emission lifetime of 0.2 ns at 1,550 nm. We also demonstrate that this emission exhibits an enhanced anti-bunching dip. This is the first realization of nanocavity-enhanced single photon emitters in the 1,550-nm telecom band. This coupled quantum dot cavity system in the telecom band thus provides a bright high-bit-rate non-classical single photon source that offers appealing novel opportunities for the development of a long-haul quantum telecommunication system via optical fibres. PMID:22432053
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication. PMID:26502993
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication. PMID:26502993
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-10-27
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication.
Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector.
Hadfield, Robert H; Stevens, Martin J; Gruber, Steven S; Miller, Aaron J; Schwall, Robert E; Mirin, Richard P; Nam, Sae Woo
2005-12-26
Superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) based on nanopatterned niobium nitride wires offer single photon counting at fast rates, low jitter, and low dark counts, from visible wavelengths well into the infrared. We demonstrate the first use of an SSPD, packaged in a commercial cryocooler, for single photon source characterization. The source is an optically pumped, microcavity-coupled InGaAs quantum dot, emitting single photons at 902 nm. The SSPD replaces the second silicon Avalanche Photodiode (APD) in a Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometer measurement of the source second-order correlation function, g(2)( ?). The detection efficiency of the superconducting detector system is >2 % (coupling losses included). The SSPD system electronics jitter is 170 ps, versus 550 ps for the APD unit, allowing the source spontaneous emission lifetime to be measured with improved resolution.
Nonlinear interaction between single photons.
Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T
2014-10-24
Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution.
Single photonics: Generation and detection of heralded single photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jungsang
Single photons are useful for experiments where the quantum nature of a particle plays a key role, since they make an ideal candidate for a single quantum system. Such a single quantum system is indispensable in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics where nonclassical properties, like non-locality and entanglement, are studied. Such a system is also useful in a more recently developed field of quantum information technology where these properties are utilized to perform secure communication and information processing. In the source of single photons utilized in these experiments, the arrival time of the photon is completely random and obeys Poissonian statistics. Efficiency of these experiments can be greatly enhanced when the arrival time of the photons can be controlled. Also, a technology that provides high quantum efficiency and low noise detection of single photons is crucial to improve the performance of these experimental schemes. This thesis reports an experimental effort towards realization of a single photon turnstile device where the emission time of a single photon can be controlled by means of an external modulation signal. This is achieved in a mesoscopic double barrier p- i-n junction operating in an ultra-low temperature environment, where the Coulomb charging energy of a single electron and a single hole is large enough to suppress the thermal fluctuation of carrier injection. One and only one electron-hole pair is injected into the active region, resulting in the emission of a single photon per modulation period. This thesis also reports a single photon counting system using a visible light photon counter (VLPC), which utilizes the impact ionization of As impurity atoms in Si as the multiplication process. Our system features a fast (~2 ns) detection of single photons with high quantum efficiency (~88%) and low multiplication noise (excess noise factor ~1.02). The detector system also has a unique capability of distinguishing a single photon
Quantum Optics with Superconducting Circuits: From Single Photons to Schrodinger Cats
Schoelkopf, Rob
2013-01-09
Over the last decade and a half, superconducting circuits have advanced to the point where we can generate and detect highly-entangled states, and perform universal quantum gates. Meanwhile, the coherence properties of these systems have improved more than 10,000-fold. I will describe recent experiments, such as the latest advance in coherence using a three-dimensional implementation of qubits interacting with microwave cavities, called “3D circuit QED.” The control and strong interactions possible in superconducting circuits make it possible to generate non-classical states of light, including large superpositions known as “Schrodinger cat” states. This field has many interesting prospects both for applications in quantum information processing, and fundamental investigations of the boundary between the macroscopic classical world and the microscopic world of the quantum.
Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons.
Ramelow, Sven; Mech, Alexandra; Giustina, Marissa; Gröblacher, Simon; Wieczorek, Witlef; Beyer, Jörn; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Zeilinger, Anton; Ursin, Rupert
2013-03-25
Single photons are an important prerequisite for a broad spectrum of quantum optical applications. We experimentally demonstrate a heralded single-photon source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in collinear bulk optics, and fiber-coupled bolometric transition-edge sensors. Without correcting for background, losses, or detection inefficiencies, we measure an overall heralding efficiency of 83%. By violating a Bell inequality, we confirm the single-photon character and high-quality entanglement of our heralded single photons which, in combination with the high heralding efficiency, are a necessary ingredient for advanced quantum communication protocols such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution.
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-01
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in the free space. Compared to existing scattering theories that treat incident light semi-classically, the theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states. This non-perturbative method provides exact scattering matrix.
High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector
Munro, W.J.; Nemoto, Kae; Beausoleil, R.G.; Spiller, T.P.
2005-03-01
We discuss an approach to the problem of creating a photon-number-resolving detector using the giant Kerr nonlinearities available in electromagnetically induced transparency. Our scheme can implement a photon-number quantum-nondemolition measurement with high efficiency ({approx}99%) using fewer than 1600 atoms embedded in a dielectric waveguide.
Pisanello, Ferruccio; Leménager, Godefroy; Martiradonna, Luigi; Carbone, Luigi; Vezzoli, Stefano; Desfonds, Pascal; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Hermier, Jean-Pierre; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Cingolani, Roberto; De Vittorio, Massimo; Bramati, Alberto
2013-04-11
Blinking and single-photon emission can be tailored in CdSe/CdS core/shell colloidal dot-in-rods. By increasing the shell thickness it is possible to obtain almost non-blinking nanocrystals, while the shell length can be used to control single-photon emission probability.
Modification of error reconciliation scheme for quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuritsyn, Konstantin
2003-07-01
Quantum cryptography is essentially the quantum key distribution (QKD). In the context of QKD, one from two partners (Alice) generates and sends a sequence of qubits through a private quantum channel to another partner (Bob) and Bob receives the sequence and measures the state of each qubit. After the quantum transmission stage, Alice and Bob have almost identical qubit sequences. The erros are due to physical imperfections in the channel and presence of an eavesdropper. The next stage in QKD is key reconciliation (i.e. finding and correcting discrepancies between Alice's string and that of Bob). This reconciliation can be done by public discussion. Let us suppose there is a secret quantum channel between Alice and Bob through which Alice transmits a n-bit string A=(A1, A2,...,An)ɛ{0,1}n. Then Bob receives a n-bit string B=(B1, B2,...,Bn)ɛ{0,1)n. The string B differs from A due to the presence of noise and eavesdropper in the channel. One can estimate the bit error probability in the channel. For example, Bob can choose a random subset from his string and send it to Alice in public. Then Alice compares the received string with her corresponding subset and calculates the total number of protocol steps. The cascade scheme uses the interaction over the public channel to correct the secret strings by dividing them into the blocks of a fixed length. The length is determined from the bit error probability. A simple interactive routine is applied in each of these blocks. An error found in some block results in some action with other blocks. It is important to optimize the error-finding routines in standalone blocks as well as to organize the effective constrution of blocks with the object of protocol benchmark, information leakage and number of interactions between partners.
The (in)adequacy of applicative use of quantum cryptography in wireless sensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turkanović, Muhamed; Hölbl, Marko
2014-10-01
Recently quantum computation and cryptography principles are exploited in the design of security systems for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are consequently named as quantum WSN. Quantum cryptography is presumably secure against any eavesdropper and thus labeled as providing unconditional security. This paper tries to analyze the aspect of the applicative use of quantum principles in WSN. The outcome of the analysis elaborates a summary about the inadequacy of applicative use of quantum cryptography in WSN and presents an overview of all possible applicative challenges and problems while designing quantum-based security systems for WSN. Since WSNs are highly complex frameworks, with many restrictions and constraints, every security system has to be fully compatible and worthwhile. The aim of the paper was to contribute a verdict about this topic, backed up by equitable facts.
Multiple time scale blinking in InAs quantum dot single-photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davanço, Marcelo; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Ates, Serkan; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik
2014-04-01
We use photon correlation measurements to study blinking in single, epitaxially grown self-assembled InAs quantum dots situated in circular Bragg grating and microdisk cavities. The normalized second-order correlation function g(2)(τ) is studied across 11 orders of magnitude in time, and shows signatures of blinking over time scales ranging from tens of nanoseconds to tens of milliseconds. The g(2)(τ) data is fit to a multilevel system rate equation model that includes multiple nonradiating (dark) states, from which radiative quantum yields significantly less than 1 are obtained. This behavior is observed even in situations for which a direct histogramming analysis of the emission time-trace data produces inconclusive results.
Fiber-integrated diamond-based single photon source.
Schröder, Tim; Schell, Andreas W; Kewes, Günter; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2011-01-12
An alignment free, micrometer-scale single photon source consisting of a single quantum emitter on an optical fiber operating at room temperature is demonstrated. It easily integrates into fiber optic networks for quantum cryptography or quantum metrology applications.(1) Near-field coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center is achieved in a bottom-up approach by placing a preselected nanodiamond directly on the fiber facet. Its high photon collection efficiency is equivalent to a far-field collection via an objective with a numerical aperture of 0.82. Furthermore, simultaneous excitation and re-collection through the fiber is possible by introducing a fiber-connected single emitter sensor. PMID:21138271
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roßbach, R.; Schulz, W.-M.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.
2008-11-01
InP/GaInP quantum dots emitting in the red spectral range have been grown on an AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector in order to increase the single-photon emission efficiency. We have observed an increase in ensemble photoluminescence by a factor of 28 in comparison to the reference InP/GaInP quantum dots grown without such a reflector underneath. Photon correlation measurements performed under pulsed excitation show a clear antibunching behavior ( g(0)=0.17) as expected for a single-photon emitter. Using aluminum containing barriers to surround the quantum dots the ensemble luminescence intensity could be increased by a factor of 500 at 240 K in comparison to the reference sample at 240 K.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Practical Quantum Communication and Cryptography for WDM Optical Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Prem
2004-11-01
Keeping in mind the ubiquitous standard optical fiber for long-distance transmission and the widespread availability of efficient active and passive fiber devices, we have been developing telecom-band resources for practical quantum communication and cryptography in wave-division-multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. In this talk I present our recent results on two fronts: i) telecom-band in-fiber entanglement generation, storage, and long-distance distribution and ii) quantum-noise protected high-speed data encryption through an optically-amplified WDM line. Along the first front, with our in-fiber entanglement source all four Bell states can be readily produced and we have demonstrated violation of Bell's inequalities by up to 10 standard deviations of measurement uncertainty. With such a source we have demonstrated storage of entanglement for up to 1/8 of a millisecond. Furthermore, when each photon of the entangled pair is propagated in separate 25km-long standard fibers, high visibility quantum interference is still observed, demonstrating that this system is capable of long-distance (> 50 km) entanglement distribution. Along the second front, we have implemented a new quantum cryptographic scheme, based on Yuen's KCQ protocol, in which the inherent quantum noise of coherent states of light is used to perform the cryptographic service of data encryption. In this scheme a legitimate receiver, with use of a short, shared, secret-key, executes a simple binary decision rule on every transmitted bit. An eavesdropper, on the other hand, who does not possess the secret-key, is subjected to an irreducible quantum uncertainty in each measurement, even with the use of ideal detectors. We have implemented this scheme to demonstrate quantum-noise-protected data encryption at 650 Mbps through a 200 km, in-line amplified, WDM line. The line simultaneously carried two 10 Gbps standard data channels, 100 GHz on either side of the encrypted channel, which shows that this scheme
High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Padgett, Miles J.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Boyd, Robert W.
2015-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems often rely on polarization of light for encoding, thus limiting the amount of information that can be sent per photon and placing tight bounds on the error rates that such a system can tolerate. Here we describe a proof-of-principle experiment that indicates the feasibility of high-dimensional QKD based on the transverse structure of the light field allowing for the transfer of more than 1 bit per photon. Our implementation uses the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons and the corresponding mutually unbiased basis of angular position (ANG). Our experiment uses a digital micro-mirror device for the rapid generation of OAM and ANG modes at 4 kHz, and a mode sorter capable of sorting single photons based on their OAM and ANG content with a separation efficiency of 93%. Through the use of a seven-dimensional alphabet encoded in the OAM and ANG bases, we achieve a channel capacity of 2.05 bits per sifted photon. Our experiment demonstrates that, in addition to having an increased information capacity, multilevel QKD systems based on spatial-mode encoding can be more resilient against intercept-resend eavesdropping attacks.
Single-photon quantum efficiency of Geiger-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsyth, Keith W.; Dries, J. C.
2004-06-01
The single-photon detection efficiency of various commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in the Geiger mode has been reported previously. These studies showed substantial photon detection efficiency variation between individual devices, but did not indicate what device parameters might be responsible for this variation. We present data on the external single-photon detection efficiency of APDs operated as near-infrared single photon counters, and show how detection efficiency is related to both device design and operating conditions. We have fabricated APDs with near-infrared single-photon detection efficiency exceeding 50% at 10% excess bias, demonstrating that InGaAs/InP APDs of the proper design are well suited to many practical applications of photon counting in the 1.0 to 1.7 micron wavelength band.
Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhicheng
In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Jachura, Michał; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech
2016-09-01
The spatial structure of single photons is becoming an extensively explored resource to facilitate free-space quantum communication and quantum computation as well as for benchmarking the limits of quantum entanglement generation with orbital angular momentum modes or reduction of the photon free-space propagation speed. Although accurate tailoring of the spatial structure of photons is now routinely performed using methods employed for shaping classical optical beams, the reciprocal problem of retrieving the spatial phase-amplitude structure of an unknown single photon cannot be solved using complementary classical holography techniques that are known for excellent interferometric precision. Here, we introduce a method to record a hologram of a single photon that is probed by another reference photon, on the basis of a different concept of the quantum interference between two-photon probability amplitudes. As for classical holograms, the hologram of a single photon encodes the full information about the photon's ‘shape’ (that is, its quantum wavefunction) whose local amplitude and phase are retrieved in the demonstrated experiment.
Weng, Q. C.; An, Z. H. E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Xiong, D. Y.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Chen, P. P.; Li, T. X.; Lu, W. E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn
2014-07-21
We present the photocurrent spectrum study of a quantum dot (QD) single-photon detector using a reset technique which eliminates the QD's “memory effect.” By applying a proper reset frequency and keeping the detector in linear-response region, the detector's responses to different monochromatic light are resolved which reflects different detection efficiencies. We find the reset photocurrent tails up to 1.3 μm wavelength and near-infrared (∼1100 nm) single-photon sensitivity is demonstrated due to interband transition of electrons in QDs, indicating the device a promising candidate both in quantum information applications and highly sensitive imaging applications operating in relative high temperatures (>80 K).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roßbach, Robert; Reischle, Matthias; Beirne, Gareth J.; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter
2008-02-01
Using micro-photoluminescence, we demonstrate single-photon emission in the visible (red) spectral range using self-assembled InP quantum dots embedded in a planar microcavity realized by monolithically grown high reflectivity AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors. A full width at half maximum of 130μeV at 5K was observed from a single quantum dot coupled to the fundamental cavity resonance. Photon correlation measurements performed under continuous wave excitation show a clear antibunching behavior [g(2)(0)=0.13] as expected for a single-photon emitter. Saturation count rates up to 1.5MHz (8.1MHz into the first lens, with an extraction efficiency of 4.1%) were observed.
Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.
Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara
2003-08-29
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.
A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu
1996-01-01
The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.
Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju
2015-01-01
Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju
2015-08-01
Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.
Security improvement by using a modified coherent state for quantum cryptography
Lu, Y.J.; Zhu, Luobei; Ou, Z.Y.
2005-03-01
Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have a limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multiphoton events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4-dB improvement in the secure data rate or a nearly twofold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible.
Jemsson, Tomas; Machhadani, Houssaine; Holtz, Per-Olof; Karlsson, K Fredrik
2015-02-13
We report on excitonic single photon emission and biexcitonic photon bunching from an InGaN quantum dot formed on the apex of a hexagonal GaN micropyramid. An approach to suppress uncorrelated emission from the pyramid base is proposed, a metal film is demonstrated to effectively screen background emission and thereby significantly enhance the signal-to-background ratio of the quantum dot emission. As a result, the second order coherence function at zero time delay g(2)(0) is significantly reduced (to g(2)(0) = 0.24, raw value) for the excitonic autocorrelation at a temperature of 12 K under continuous wave excitation, and a dominating single photon emission is demonstrated to survive up to 50 K. The deterioration of the g(2)(0)-value at elevated temperatures is well understood as the combined effect of reduced signal-to-background ratio and limited time resolution of the setup. This result underlines the great potential of site-controlled pyramidal dots as sources of fast polarized single photons. PMID:25597532
Zhou, P. Y.; Dou, X. M.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Li, M. F.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Jiang, D. S.; Sun, B. Q.
2014-01-01
We developed a new approach to test the single-photon emissions of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in the optical communication band. A diamond-anvil cell pressure device was used for blue-shifting the 1.3 μm emissions of InAs/GaAs QDs to 0.9 μm for detection by silicon avalanche photodiodes. The obtained g(2)(0) values from the second-order autocorrelation function measurements of several QD emissions at 6.58 GPa were less than 0.3, indicating that this approach provides a convenient and efficient method of characterizing 1.3 μm single-photon source based on semiconductor materials. PMID:24407193
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermannstädter, C.; Witzany, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Schulz, W.-M.; Eichfelder, M.; Rossbach, R.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.; Wang, L.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.
2009-06-01
Single lateral InGaAs quantum dot molecules have been embedded in a planar microcavity in order to increase the luminescence extraction efficiency. Using a combination of metal-organic vapor phase and molecular beam epitaxy samples could be produced that exhibit a 30 times enhanced single-photon emission rate. We also show that the single-photon emission is fully switchable between two different molecular excitonic recombination energies by applying a lateral electric field. Furthermore, the presence of a polarization fine structure splitting of the molecular neutral excitonic states is reported which leads to two polarization split classically correlated biexciton-exciton cascades. The fine structure splitting is found to be on the order of 10 μeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, P. Y.; Dou, X. M.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Li, M. F.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Jiang, D. S.; Sun, B. Q.
2014-01-01
We developed a new approach to test the single-photon emissions of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in the optical communication band. A diamond-anvil cell pressure device was used for blue-shifting the 1.3 μm emissions of InAs/GaAs QDs to 0.9 μm for detection by silicon avalanche photodiodes. The obtained g(2)(0) values from the second-order autocorrelation function measurements of several QD emissions at 6.58 GPa were less than 0.3, indicating that this approach provides a convenient and efficient method of characterizing 1.3 μm single-photon source based on semiconductor materials.
Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a Space-Earth quantum communication link.
Bonato, Cristian; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Jennewein, Thomas; Pernechele, Claudio; Villoresi, Paolo; Zeilinger, Anton
2006-10-16
In a Space quantum-cryptography experiment a satellite pointing system is needed to send single photons emitted by the source on the satellite to the polarization analysis apparatus on Earth. In this paper a simulation is presented regarding how the satellite pointing systems affect the polarization state of the single photons, to help designing a proper compensation system.
Schmidt, Gordon Berger, Christoph; Veit, Peter; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Bläsing, Jürgen; Dadgar, Armin; Strittmatter, André; Christen, Jürgen; Callsen, Gordon; Kalinowski, Stefan; Hoffmann, Axel
2015-06-22
Intense emission from GaN islands embedded in AlN resulting from GaN/AlN quantum well growth is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Line widths down to 440 μeV are measured in a wavelength region between 220 and 310 nm confirming quantum dot like electronic properties in the islands. These quantum dot states can be structurally correlated to islands of slightly enlarged thicknesses of the GaN/AlN quantum well layer preferentially formed in vicinity to dislocations. The quantum dot states exhibit single photon emission in Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments with a clear antibunching in the second order correlation function at zero time delay.
Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2011-01-15
Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.
Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2011-01-01
Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natarajan, Chandra M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Hadfield, Robert H.
2012-06-01
Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity.
Muñoz-Matutano, G; Barrera, D; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Chulia-Jordan, R; Seravalli, L; Trevisi, G; Frigeri, P; Sales, S; Martínez-Pastor, J
2016-06-03
New optical fiber based spectroscopic tools open the possibility to develop more robust and efficient characterization experiments. Spectral filtering and light reflection have been used to produce compact and versatile fiber based optical cavities and sensors. Moreover, these technologies would be also suitable to study N-photon correlations, where high collection efficiency and frequency tunability is desirable. We demonstrated single photon emission of a single quantum dot emitting at 1300 nm, using a Fiber Bragg Grating for wavelength filtering and InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes operated in Geiger mode for single photon detection. As we do not observe any significant fine structure splitting for the neutral exciton transition within our spectral resolution (46 μeV), metamorphic QD single photon emission studied with our all-fiber Hanbury Brown &Twiss interferometer could lead to a more efficient analysis of entangled photon sources at telecom wavelength. This all-optical fiber scheme opens the door to new first and second order interferometers to study photon indistinguishability, entangled photon and photon cross correlation in the more interesting telecom wavelengths.
Muñoz-Matutano, G.; Barrera, D.; Fernández-Pousa, C.R.; Chulia-Jordan, R.; Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Sales, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.
2016-01-01
New optical fiber based spectroscopic tools open the possibility to develop more robust and efficient characterization experiments. Spectral filtering and light reflection have been used to produce compact and versatile fiber based optical cavities and sensors. Moreover, these technologies would be also suitable to study N-photon correlations, where high collection efficiency and frequency tunability is desirable. We demonstrated single photon emission of a single quantum dot emitting at 1300 nm, using a Fiber Bragg Grating for wavelength filtering and InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes operated in Geiger mode for single photon detection. As we do not observe any significant fine structure splitting for the neutral exciton transition within our spectral resolution (46 μeV), metamorphic QD single photon emission studied with our all-fiber Hanbury Brown & Twiss interferometer could lead to a more efficient analysis of entangled photon sources at telecom wavelength. This all-optical fiber scheme opens the door to new first and second order interferometers to study photon indistinguishability, entangled photon and photon cross correlation in the more interesting telecom wavelengths. PMID:27257122
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz-Matutano, G.; Barrera, D.; Fernández-Pousa, C. R.; Chulia-Jordan, R.; Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Sales, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.
2016-06-01
New optical fiber based spectroscopic tools open the possibility to develop more robust and efficient characterization experiments. Spectral filtering and light reflection have been used to produce compact and versatile fiber based optical cavities and sensors. Moreover, these technologies would be also suitable to study N-photon correlations, where high collection efficiency and frequency tunability is desirable. We demonstrated single photon emission of a single quantum dot emitting at 1300 nm, using a Fiber Bragg Grating for wavelength filtering and InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes operated in Geiger mode for single photon detection. As we do not observe any significant fine structure splitting for the neutral exciton transition within our spectral resolution (46 μeV), metamorphic QD single photon emission studied with our all-fiber Hanbury Brown & Twiss interferometer could lead to a more efficient analysis of entangled photon sources at telecom wavelength. This all-optical fiber scheme opens the door to new first and second order interferometers to study photon indistinguishability, entangled photon and photon cross correlation in the more interesting telecom wavelengths.
Muñoz-Matutano, G; Barrera, D; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Chulia-Jordan, R; Seravalli, L; Trevisi, G; Frigeri, P; Sales, S; Martínez-Pastor, J
2016-01-01
New optical fiber based spectroscopic tools open the possibility to develop more robust and efficient characterization experiments. Spectral filtering and light reflection have been used to produce compact and versatile fiber based optical cavities and sensors. Moreover, these technologies would be also suitable to study N-photon correlations, where high collection efficiency and frequency tunability is desirable. We demonstrated single photon emission of a single quantum dot emitting at 1300 nm, using a Fiber Bragg Grating for wavelength filtering and InGaAs Avalanche Photodiodes operated in Geiger mode for single photon detection. As we do not observe any significant fine structure splitting for the neutral exciton transition within our spectral resolution (46 μeV), metamorphic QD single photon emission studied with our all-fiber Hanbury Brown &Twiss interferometer could lead to a more efficient analysis of entangled photon sources at telecom wavelength. This all-optical fiber scheme opens the door to new first and second order interferometers to study photon indistinguishability, entangled photon and photon cross correlation in the more interesting telecom wavelengths. PMID:27257122
Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth
2008-11-14
We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.
Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth
2008-11-14
We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication. PMID:19113324
On a two-pass scheme without a faraday mirror for free-space relativistic quantum cryptography
Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Korol'kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2013-05-15
The stability of destructive interference independent of the input polarization and the state of a quantum communication channel in fiber optic systems used in quantum cryptography plays a principal role in providing the security of communicated keys. A novel optical scheme is proposed that can be used both in relativistic quantum cryptography for communicating keys in open space and for communicating them over fiber optic lines. The scheme ensures stability of destructive interference and admits simple automatic balancing of a fiber interferometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen
2016-06-01
Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen; Wang, Yong-Bin
2016-09-01
A dynamic quantum private comparison protocol based on the single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is proposed. In this protocol, any two parties of n(n ≥ 4) parties can compare their private information with the help of others n - 2 parties. And any party can join in the protocol to take part in the comparison of n parties. Correctness analysis shows that the proposed protocol can be used to compare their information correctly. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol can resist the general active attacks from an outside eavesdropper. And it can overcomes the problem of information leakage.
Gerry, Christopher C.
2003-04-01
Two-photon interferometric quantum photon lithography for light of wavelength {lambda} is capable of beating the Rayleigh diffraction limit of resolution {lambda}/4 to the level of {lambda}/8. The required twin single-photon states |1>{sub a}|1>{sub b}, which are converted into maximally entangled states by a 50:50 beam splitter, can be generated from a nondegenerate parametric amplifier initially in vacuum states and with a weak pump field. Increasing the pump strength can slightly increase the production rate of the desired state and it will also increase the production of the twin two-photon states |2>{sub a}|2>{sub b}, which leads to an unwanted background term. In this paper we show that, assuming a weak pair coherent state as input to the amplifier, quantum interference can be used to quench the production of the |2>{sub a}|2>{sub b} state and to enhance the production of the |1>{sub a}|1>{sub b} state by almost sixfold.
Stroing single-photons in microcavities arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirza, Imran M.; Enk, S. J. Van; Kimble, H. J.
2014-03-01
Coupling light to arrays of microcavities is one of the most promising avenues to store/delay classical light pulses [F. Krauss, Nat. Phot. 2, 448-450 (2008)]. However, from the perspective of benefiting quantum communication protocols, the same ideas in principle can be extended down to the single-photon (quantum) level as well. Particularly, for the purposes of entanglement purification and quantum repeaters a reliable storage of single photons is needed. We consider in our work [I. M. Mirza, S. Van Enk, H. Kimble JOSA B, 30,10 (2013)] cavities that are coupled through an optical fiber which is assumed to be forming a Markovian bath. For this study two powerful open quantum system techniques, Input-Output theory for cascaded quantum systems and the Quantum Trajectory approach are used in combination. For the confirmation of photon delays the Time-Dependent Spectrum of such a single photon is obtained. Interestingly this leads to a hole-burning effect showing that only certain frequency components in the single photon wavepackets are stored inside the cavities and hence are delayed in time. Since on-demand production of single photons is not an easy task we include in our description the actual generation of the single photon by assuming a single emitter in one the resonators.
Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.
Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T
2001-09-15
We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.
Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.
Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T
2001-09-15
We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained. PMID:18049627
Comment on 'Two-way protocols for quantum cryptography with a nonmaximally entangled qubit pair'
Qin Sujuan; Gao Fei; Wen Qiaoyan; Guo Fenzhuo
2010-09-15
Three protocols of quantum cryptography with a nonmaximally entangled qubit pair [Phys. Rev. A 80, 022323 (2009)] were recently proposed by Shimizu, Tamaki, and Fukasaka. The security of these protocols is based on the quantum-mechanical constraint for a state transformation between nonmaximally entangled states. However, we find that the second protocol is vulnerable under the correlation-elicitation attack. An eavesdropper can obtain the encoded bit M although she has no knowledge about the random bit R.
Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality
Cabello, Adan; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio
2011-09-15
Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.
Zero-Area Single-Photon Pulses.
Costanzo, L S; Coelho, A S; Pellegrino, D; Mendes, M S; Acioli, L; Cassemiro, K N; Felinto, D; Zavatta, A; Bellini, M
2016-01-15
Broadband single photons are usually considered not to couple efficiently to atomic gases because of the large mismatch in bandwidth. Contrary to this intuitive picture, here we demonstrate that the interaction of ultrashort single photons with a dense resonant atomic sample deeply modifies the temporal shape of their wave packet mode without degrading their nonclassical character, and effectively generates zero-area single-photon pulses. This is a clear signature of strong transient coupling between single broadband (THz-level) light quanta and atoms, with intriguing fundamental implications and possible new applications to the storage of quantum information. PMID:26824539
Zero-Area Single-Photon Pulses.
Costanzo, L S; Coelho, A S; Pellegrino, D; Mendes, M S; Acioli, L; Cassemiro, K N; Felinto, D; Zavatta, A; Bellini, M
2016-01-15
Broadband single photons are usually considered not to couple efficiently to atomic gases because of the large mismatch in bandwidth. Contrary to this intuitive picture, here we demonstrate that the interaction of ultrashort single photons with a dense resonant atomic sample deeply modifies the temporal shape of their wave packet mode without degrading their nonclassical character, and effectively generates zero-area single-photon pulses. This is a clear signature of strong transient coupling between single broadband (THz-level) light quanta and atoms, with intriguing fundamental implications and possible new applications to the storage of quantum information.
Shaping single photons and biphotons by inherent losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Wei-Ming; Chinnarasu, Ravikumar; Kuo, Chang-Hau; Chuu, Chih-Sung
2016-09-01
Inherent loss is always to be avoided in generating single photons or biphotons, but interestingly it provides opportunities for manipulating the photon wave packet. In this paper we show how inherent loss in parametric down-conversion can be employed to tailor the wave packets of single photons and biphotons. As an example, we propose a scheme to realize a single photon in a single cycle using inherent loss. Our work has potential applications in quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum interface.
Single photon emission at 1.55 μm from charged and neutral exciton confined in a single quantum dash
Dusanowski, Ł. Syperek, M.; Mrowiński, P.; Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Misiewicz, J.; Sęk, G.; Somers, A.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Reithmaier, J. P.
2014-07-14
We investigate charged and neutral exciton complexes confined in a single self-assembled InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dash emitting at 1.55 μm. The emission characteristics have been probed by measuring high-spatial-resolution polarization-resolved photoluminescence and cross-correlations of photon emission statistics at T = 5 K. The photon auto-correlation histogram of the emission from both the neutral and charged exciton indicates a clear antibunching dip with as-measured g{sup (2)}(0) values of 0.18 and 0.31, respectively. It proves that these exciton complexes confined in single quantum dashes of InP-based material system can act as true single photon emitters being compatible with standard long-distance fiber communication technology.
Braun, T.; Baumann, V.; Iff, O.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.
2015-01-26
We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission in the visible red spectral range from site-controlled InP/GaInP quantum dots by resonant coupling to Tamm-plasmon modes confined beneath gold disks in a hybrid metal/semiconductor structure. The enhancement of the emission intensity is confirmed by spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence area scans and temperature dependent measurements. Single photon emission from our coupled system is verified via second order autocorrelation measurements. We observe bright single quantum dot emission of up to ∼173 000 detected photons per second at a repetition rate of the excitation source of 82 MHz, and calculate an extraction efficiency of our device as high as 7%.
The Modeling Library of Eavesdropping Methods in Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie
2016-07-01
The most crucial issue of quantum cryptography protocols is its security. There exists many ways to attack the quantum communication process. In this paper, we present a model checking method for modeling the eavesdropping in quantum information protocols. So when the security properties of a certain protocol are needed to be verified, we can directly use the models which are already built. Here we adopt the probabilistic model checking tool—PRISM to model these attack methods. The verification results show that the detection rate of eavesdropping is approximately close to 1 when enough photons are transmitted.
Timofeev, A. V.; Pomozov, D. I.; Makkaveev, A. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2007-05-15
Quantum cryptography systems combine two communication channels: a quantum and a classical one. (They can be physically implemented in the same fiber-optic link, which is employed as a quantum channel when one-photon states are transmitted and as a classical one when it carries classical data traffic.) Both channels are supposed to be insecure and accessible to an eavesdropper. Error correction in raw keys, interferometer balancing, and other procedures are performed by using the public classical channel. A discussion of the requirements to be met by the classical channel is presented.
Active stabilization of the optical part in fiber optic quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2016-03-01
The method of active stabilization of the polarization and other parameters of the optical part of a two-pass fiber optic quantum cryptography has been proposed and implemented. The method allows the completely automated maintenance of the visibility of interference close to an ideal value ( V ≥ 0.99) and the reduction of the instrumental contribution to the error in primary keys (QBER) to 0.5%.
Martín-Sánchez, J; Muñoz-Matutano, G; Herranz, J; Canet-Ferrer, J; Alén, B; González, Y; Alonso-González, P; Fuster, D; González, L; Martínez-Pastor, J; Briones, F
2009-06-23
We present a fabrication method to produce site-controlled and regularly spaced InAs/GaAs quantum dots for applications in quantum optical information devices. The high selectivity of our epitaxial regrowth procedure can be used to allocate the quantum dots only in positions predefined by ex-situ local oxidation atomic force nanolithography. The quantum dots obtained following this fabrication process present a high optical quality which we have evaluated by microphotoluminescence and photon correlation experiments.
Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T. Reitzenstein, S.; Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M.
2015-07-27
We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Ke; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2007-10-15
For the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution, longer distance and higher key generating rate is shown with a heralded single-photon source (HSPS) [Phys. Rev. A. 73, 032331 (2006)]. In this paper, the performance of the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisim (SARG) protocol utilizing the HSPS sources is considered and the numerical simulation turns out that still a significant improvement in secret key generating rate can also be observed. It is shown that the security distance for HSPS+SARG is 120 km. However, compared with the HSPS+BB84 protocols, the HSPS+SARG protocol has a lower secret key rate and a shorter distance. Thus we show the HSPS+BB84 implementation is a preferable protocol for long distance transmittance.
Single-photon detection, truth, and misinterpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berloffa, E. H.
2013-10-01
Within this investigation it is critically questioned, if we really can detect "single photons", respectively the response of a single quantum transition by use of modern photon detectors. In the course it is shown that avalanche photodiodes (AVDs) especially in the "Geiger" mode by virtue of its geometry (effective area) indeed can detect "single photon" events as proclaimed by the manufacturers, but they tacitly assume the bandwidth of originating visible source being not greater than ~ 2.107 [Hz]. A short excurse to solid state basic physics makes it obvious applying the adequate doping accomplishes "single photon detection". Nevertheless this does not mean there is a 1:1 correspondence between a photon emanated from the source location and that detected within the detector module. Propagation characteristics were simply overlooked during the numerous discussions about "single photon" detection. Practical examples are worked out on hand of a pin- / and a AVDphotodiode.
Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.
Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2009-04-13
We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.
Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.
Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya
2004-03-19
In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
Lamoureux, L.-P.; Cerf, N. J.; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.; Macchiavello, C.
2006-03-15
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks.
Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.
Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2009-04-13
We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479
Solid-state single-photon emitters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos
2016-10-01
Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.
Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks.
Acín, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Scarani, Valerio
2007-06-01
We present the optimal collective attack on a quantum key distribution protocol in the "device-independent" security scenario, where no assumptions are made about the way the quantum key distribution devices work or on what quantum system they operate. Our main result is a tight bound on the Holevo information between one of the authorized parties and the eavesdropper, as a function of the amount of violation of a Bell-type inequality.
Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-03-01
We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.
Ha, S.-K.; Song, J. D.; Lim, J. Y.; Choi, W. J.; Han, I. K.; Lee, J. I.; Bounouar, S.; Donatini, F.; Dang, L. S.; Poizat, J. P.
2011-12-23
The GaAs quantum dots in AlGaAs barriers were grown by droplet epitaxy, emitting around 700 nm in wavelength which is compatible with low cost Si based detectors. The excitation power dependent and time resolved micro-photoluminescence measurements identified optical characteristics of exciton and biexciton states which are attributed to good quantum confinements in GaAs QDs.
Cryptography in the Bounded-Quantum-Storage Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaffner, Christian
2007-09-01
This thesis initiates the study of cryptographic protocols in the bounded-quantum-storage model. On the practical side, simple protocols for Rabin Oblivious Transfer, 1-2 Oblivious Transfer and Bit Commitment are presented. No quantum memory is required for honest players, whereas the protocols can only be broken by an adversary controlling a large amount of quantum memory. The protocols are efficient, non-interactive and can be implemented with today's technology. On the theoretical side, new entropic uncertainty relations involving min-entropy are established and used to prove the security of protocols according to new strong security definitions. For instance, in the realistic setting of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) against quantum-memory-bounded eavesdroppers, the uncertainty relation allows to prove the security of QKD protocols while tolerating considerably higher error rates compared to the standard model with unbounded adversaries.
A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan
2009-02-01
In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okunev, O.; Chulkova, G.; Milostnaya, I.; Antipov, A.; Smirnov, K.; Morozov, D.; Korneev, A.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.; Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Górska, M.; Pearlman, A.; Cross, A.; Kitaygorsky, J.; Sobolewski, Roman
2008-03-01
Single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the foundation of all quantum communications (QC) protocols. Among different classes of SPDs currently studied, NbN superconducting SPDs (SSPDs) are established as the best devices for ultrafast counting of single photons in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. The SSPDs are nanostructured, 100 μm2 in total area, superconducting meanders, patterned by electron lithography in ultra-thin NbN films. Their operation has been explained within a phenomenological hot-electron photoresponse model. We present the design and performance of a novel, two-channel SPD receiver, based on two fiber-coupled NbN SSPDs. The receivers have been developed for fiber-based QC systems, operational at 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm telecommunication wavelengths. They operate in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 2 K, in which the NbN SSPDs exhibit their best performance. The receiver unit has been designed as a cryostat insert, placed inside a standard liquid-heliumstorage dewar. The input of the receiver consists of a pair of single-mode optical fibers, equipped with the standard FC connectors and kept at room temperature. Coupling between the SSPD and the fiber is achieved using a specially designed, precise micromechanical holder that places the fiber directly on top of the SSPD nanostructure. Our receivers achieve the quantum efficiency of up to 7% for near-IR photons, with the coupling efficiency of about 30%. The response time was measured to be < 1.5 ns and it was limited by our read-out electronics. The jitter of fiber-coupled SSPDs is < 35 ps and their dark-count rate is below 1s-1. The presented performance parameters show that our single-photon receivers are fully applicable for quantum correlation-type QC systems, including practical quantum cryptography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz
2016-06-01
The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.
Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states
Tittel; Brendel; Zbinden; Gisin
2000-05-15
We present a setup for quantum cryptography based on photon pairs in energy-time Bell states and show its feasibility in a laboratory experiment. Our scheme combines the advantages of using photon pairs instead of faint laser pulses and the possibility to preserve energy-time entanglement over long distances. Moreover, using four-dimensional energy-time states, no fast random change of bases is required in our setup: Nature itself decides whether to measure in the energy or in the time base, thus rendering eavesdropper attacks based on "photon number splitting" less efficient.
Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.
Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio
2006-11-10
We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.
Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system.
Gerhardt, Ilja; Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim
2011-06-14
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote parties to grow a shared secret key. Its security is founded on the principles of quantum mechanics, but in reality it significantly relies on the physical implementation. Technological imperfections of QKD systems have been previously explored, but no attack on an established QKD connection has been realized so far. Here we show the first full-field implementation of a complete attack on a running QKD connection. An installed eavesdropper obtains the entire 'secret' key, while none of the parameters monitored by the legitimate parties indicate a security breach. This confirms that non-idealities in physical implementations of QKD can be fully practically exploitable, and must be given increased scrutiny if quantum cryptography is to become highly secure.
Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system.
Gerhardt, Ilja; Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim
2011-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote parties to grow a shared secret key. Its security is founded on the principles of quantum mechanics, but in reality it significantly relies on the physical implementation. Technological imperfections of QKD systems have been previously explored, but no attack on an established QKD connection has been realized so far. Here we show the first full-field implementation of a complete attack on a running QKD connection. An installed eavesdropper obtains the entire 'secret' key, while none of the parameters monitored by the legitimate parties indicate a security breach. This confirms that non-idealities in physical implementations of QKD can be fully practically exploitable, and must be given increased scrutiny if quantum cryptography is to become highly secure. PMID:21673670
Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-12-20
It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch.
A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodambashi, Siavash; Zakerolhosseini, Ali
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a sessional blind signature protocol whose security is guaranteed by fundamental principles of quantum physics. It allows a message owner to get his message signed by an authorized signatory. However, the signatory is not capable of reading the message contents and everyone can verify authenticity of the message. For this purpose, we took advantage of a sessional signature as well as quantum entangled pairs which are generated with respect to it in our proposed protocol. We describe our proposed blind signature through an example and briefly discuss about its unconditional security. Due to the feasibility of the protocol, it can be widely employed for e-payment, e-government, e-business and etc.
Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-12-20
It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch. PMID:21197067
High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, Horace P.
1996-01-01
Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.
Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.
Nadeem, Muhammad
2014-10-27
A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular.
Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.
Nadeem, Muhammad
2014-01-01
A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular. PMID:25346509
Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography
Nadeem, Muhammad
2014-01-01
A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular. PMID:25346509
Interactive Screen Experiments with Single Photons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Meyn, Jan-Peter
2009-01-01
Single photons are used for fundamental quantum physics experiments as well as for applications. Originally being a topic of advance courses, such experiments are increasingly a subject of undergraduate courses. We provide interactive screen experiments (ISE) for supporting the work in a real laboratory, and for students who do not have access to…
Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.
2003-06-01
Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states.
Memory Attacks on Device-Independent Quantum Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).
Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party). PMID:23383767
Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).
Delacour, Cécile; Pannetier, Bernard; Villegier, Jean-Claude; Bouchiat, Vincent
2012-07-11
We present low-temperature electronic transport properties of superconducting nanowires obtained by nanolithography of 4-nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate. Below 6 K, clear evidence of phase slippages is observed in the transport measurements. Upon lowering the temperature, we observe the signatures of a crossover between a thermal and a quantum behavior in the phase slip regimes. We find that phase slips are stable even at the lowest temperatures and that no hotspot is formed. The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films.
Meng, He; Chen, Ji-Yao; Mi, Lan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Ge, Mei-Ying; Yue, Yang; Dai, Ning
2011-01-01
Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (BSA-QDs) were selected to conjugate with folic acid (FA), forming FA-BSA-QDs. This study aims to develop these small FA-BSA-QDs (less than 10 nm) for the diagnosis of cancers in which the FA receptor (FR) is overexpressed. The enhancement of cellular uptake in FR-positive human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (KB cells) for FA-BSA-QDs was found by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy under single-photon and two-photon excitation. The uptake enhancement for FA-BSA-QDs was further evaluated by flow-cytometric analysis in 10(4) KB cells, and was about 3 times higher than for BSA-QDs on average. The uptake enhancement was suppressed when KB cells had been pretreated with excess FA, reflecting that the enhancement was mediated by the association of FR at cell membranes with FA-BSA-QDs. When human embryonic kidney cells (293T) (FR-negative cells) and KB cells, respectively, were incubated with FA-BSA-QDs (1 μM) for 40 min, the FA-BSA-QD uptake by 293T cells was much weaker than that by KB cells, demonstrating that FA-BSA-QDs could undergo preferential binding on FR-positive cancer cells. These characteristics suggest that FA-BSA-QDs are potential candidates for cancer diagnosis.
Ma, Jian; Bai, Bing; Wang, Liu-Jun; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-20
InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are widely used in practical applications requiring near-infrared photon counting such as quantum key distribution (QKD). Photon detection efficiency and dark count rate are the intrinsic parameters of InGaAs/InP SPADs, due to the fact that their performances cannot be improved using different quenching electronics given the same operation conditions. After modeling these parameters and developing a simulation platform for InGaAs/InP SPADs, we investigate the semiconductor structure design and optimization. The parameters of photon detection efficiency and dark count rate highly depend on the variables of absorption layer thickness, multiplication layer thickness, excess bias voltage, and temperature. By evaluating the decoy-state QKD performance, the variables for SPAD design and operation can be globally optimized. Such optimization from the perspective of specific applications can provide an effective approach to design high-performance InGaAs/InP SPADs. PMID:27661574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jian; Bai, Bing; Wang, Liu-Jun; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-01
InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are widely used in practical applications requiring near-infrared photon counting such as quantum key distribution (QKD). Photon detection efficiency and dark count rate are the intrinsic parameters of InGaAs/InP SPADs, due to the fact that their performances cannot be improved using different quenching electronics given the same operation conditions. After modeling these parameters and developing a simulation platform for InGaAs/InP SPADs, we investigate the semiconductor structure design and optimization. The parameters of photon detection efficiency and dark count rate highly depend on the variables of absorption layer thickness, multiplication layer thickness, excess bias voltage and temperature. By evaluating the decoy-state QKD performance, the variables for SPAD design and operation can be globally optimized. Such optimization from the perspective of specific applications can provide an effective approach to design high-performance InGaAs/InP SPADs.
Bright Single Photon Emitter in Silicon Carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lienhard, Benjamin; Schroeder, Tim; Mouradian, Sara; Dolde, Florian; Trong Tran, Toan; Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk
Efficient, on-demand, and robust single photon emitters are of central importance to many areas of quantum information processing. Over the past 10 years, color centers in solids have emerged as excellent single photon emitters. Color centers in diamond are among the most intensively studied single photon emitters, but recently silicon carbide (SiC) has also been demonstrated to be an excellent host material. In contrast to diamond, SiC is a technologically important material that is widely used in optoelectronics, high power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. It is commercially available in sizes up to 6 inches and processes for device engineering are well developed. We report on a visible-spectrum single photon emitter in 4H-SiC. The emitter is photostable at both room and low temperatures, and it enables 2 million photons/second from unpatterned bulk SiC. We observe two classes of orthogonally polarized emitters, each of which has parallel absorption and emission dipole orientations. Low temperature measurements reveal a narrow zero phonon line with linewidth < 0.1 nm that accounts for more than 30% of the total photoluminescence spectrum. To our knowledge, this SiC color emitter is the brightest stable room-temperature single photon emitter ever observed.
Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Nitin; Anisimova, Elena; Khan, Imran; Makarov, Vadim; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2014-12-01
A quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be probed by an eavesdropper Eve by sending in bright light from the quantum channel and analyzing the back-reflections. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a setup for mounting such a Trojan-horse attack. We show it in operation against the quantum cryptosystem Clavis2 from ID Quantique, as a proof-of-principle. With just a few back-reflected photons, Eve discerns Bob's (secret) basis choice, and thus the raw key bit in the Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol, with higher than 90% probability. This would clearly breach the security of the cryptosystem. Unfortunately, Eve's bright pulses have a side effect of causing a high level of afterpulsing in Bob's single-photon detectors, resulting in a large quantum bit error rate that effectively protects this system from our attack. However, in a Clavis2-like system equipped with detectors with less-noisy but realistic characteristics, an attack strategy with positive leakage of the key would exist. We confirm this by a numerical simulation. Both the eavesdropping setup and strategy can be generalized to attack most of the current QKD systems, especially if they lack proper safeguards. We also propose countermeasures to prevent such attacks.
Characterization of the nonclassical nature of conditionally prepared single photons
U'Ren, Alfred B.; Silberhorn, Christine; Ball, Jonathan L.; Banaszek, Konrad; Walmsley, Ian A.
2005-08-15
A reliable single photon source is a prerequisite for linear optical quantum computation and for secure quantum key distribution. A criterion yielding a conclusive test of the single photon character of a given source, attainable with realistic detectors, is therefore highly desirable. In the context of heralded single photon sources, such a criterion should be sensitive to the effects of higher photon number contributions, and to vacuum introduced through optical losses, which tend to degrade source performance. In this Rapid Communication we present, theoretically and experimentally, a criterion meeting the above requirements.
Single photon emission from ZnO nanoparticles
Choi, Sumin; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R.; Aharonovich, Igor; Johnson, Brett C.; Castelletto, Stefania
2014-06-30
Room temperature single photon emitters are very important resources for photonics and emerging quantum technologies. In this work, we study single photon emission from defect centers in 20 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The emitters exhibit bright broadband fluorescence in the red spectral range centered at 640 nm with polarized excitation and emission. The studied emitters showed continuous blinking; however, bleaching can be suppressed using a polymethyl methacrylate coating. Furthermore, hydrogen termination increased the density of single photon emitters. Our results will contribute to the identification of quantum systems in ZnO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Schulz, W.-M.; Eichfelder, M.; Roßbach, R.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.
2010-01-01
We report electically pumped single-photon emission in the visible spectral range up to 80 K using InP quantum dots embedded in AlGaInP barriers. In order to confirm that the emission is from a single quantum dot we performed second-order autocorrelation measurements and observed strong antibunching at zero time delay. Deviations from a perfect single-photon emitter could be explained by detector limitations and background signal.
Purification of a single-photon nonlinearity.
Snijders, H; Frey, J A; Norman, J; Bakker, M P; Langman, E C; Gossard, A; Bowers, J E; van Exter, M P; Bouwmeester, D; Löffler, W
2016-01-01
Single photon nonlinearities based on a semiconductor quantum dot in an optical microcavity are a promising candidate for integrated optical quantum information processing nodes. In practice, however, the finite quantum dot lifetime and cavity-quantum dot coupling lead to reduced fidelity. Here we show that, with a nearly polarization degenerate microcavity in the weak coupling regime, polarization pre- and postselection can be used to restore high fidelity. The two orthogonally polarized transmission amplitudes interfere at the output polarizer; for special polarization angles, which depend only on the device cooperativity, this enables cancellation of light that did not interact with the quantum dot. With this, we can transform incident coherent light into a stream of strongly correlated photons with a second-order correlation value up to 40, larger than previous experimental results, even in the strong-coupling regime. This purification technique might also be useful to improve the fidelity of quantum dot based logic gates. PMID:27573361
Purification of a single-photon nonlinearity
Snijders, H.; Frey, J. A.; Norman, J.; Bakker, M. P.; Langman, E. C.; Gossard, A.; Bowers, J. E.; van Exter, M. P.; Bouwmeester, D.; Löffler, W.
2016-01-01
Single photon nonlinearities based on a semiconductor quantum dot in an optical microcavity are a promising candidate for integrated optical quantum information processing nodes. In practice, however, the finite quantum dot lifetime and cavity-quantum dot coupling lead to reduced fidelity. Here we show that, with a nearly polarization degenerate microcavity in the weak coupling regime, polarization pre- and postselection can be used to restore high fidelity. The two orthogonally polarized transmission amplitudes interfere at the output polarizer; for special polarization angles, which depend only on the device cooperativity, this enables cancellation of light that did not interact with the quantum dot. With this, we can transform incident coherent light into a stream of strongly correlated photons with a second-order correlation value up to 40, larger than previous experimental results, even in the strong-coupling regime. This purification technique might also be useful to improve the fidelity of quantum dot based logic gates. PMID:27573361
Purification of a single-photon nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snijders, H.; Frey, J. A.; Norman, J.; Bakker, M. P.; Langman, E. C.; Gossard, A.; Bowers, J. E.; van Exter, M. P.; Bouwmeester, D.; Löffler, W.
2016-08-01
Single photon nonlinearities based on a semiconductor quantum dot in an optical microcavity are a promising candidate for integrated optical quantum information processing nodes. In practice, however, the finite quantum dot lifetime and cavity-quantum dot coupling lead to reduced fidelity. Here we show that, with a nearly polarization degenerate microcavity in the weak coupling regime, polarization pre- and postselection can be used to restore high fidelity. The two orthogonally polarized transmission amplitudes interfere at the output polarizer; for special polarization angles, which depend only on the device cooperativity, this enables cancellation of light that did not interact with the quantum dot. With this, we can transform incident coherent light into a stream of strongly correlated photons with a second-order correlation value up to 40, larger than previous experimental results, even in the strong-coupling regime. This purification technique might also be useful to improve the fidelity of quantum dot based logic gates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping; Yang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Han
2014-04-01
This work proposes a new direction in quantum cryptography called quantum authencryption. Quantum authencryption (QA), a new term to distinguish from authenticated quantum secure direct communications, is used to describe the technique of combining quantum encryption and quantum authentication into one process for off-line communicants. QA provides a new way of quantum communications without the presence of a receiver on line, and thus makes many applications depending on secure one-way quantum communications, such as quantum E-mail systems, possible. An example protocol using single photons and one-way hash functions is presented to realize the requirements on QA.
Single-photon quadratic optomechanics
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128
Extraction of a single photon from an optical pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblum, Serge; Bechler, Orel; Shomroni, Itay; Lovsky, Yulia; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak
2016-01-01
Removing a single photon from a pulse is one of the most elementary operations that can be performed on light, having both fundamental significance and practical applications in quantum communication and computation. So far, photon subtraction, in which the removed photon is detected and therefore irreversibly lost, has been implemented in a probabilistic manner with inherently low success rates using low-reflectivity beam splitters. Here we demonstrate a scheme for the deterministic extraction of a single photon from an incoming pulse. The removed photon is diverted to a different mode, enabling its use for other purposes, such as a photon number-splitting attack on quantum key distribution protocols. Our implementation makes use of single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) with a single atom near a nanofibre-coupled microresonator. The single-photon extraction probability in our current realization is limited mostly by linear loss, yet probabilities close to unity should be attainable with realistic experimental parameters.
Multimode theory of single-photon subtraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averchenko, V.; Jacquard, C.; Thiel, V.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.
2016-08-01
We develop a general theory to describe the manipulation of a multimode quantum state of light via the subtraction of a single photon. The theory is applicable for various types of subtraction schemes independent of the physical nature of the light modes, their number or the embedded quantum states. We show that different subtraction schemes can be described in a unified approach through the characterization of their intrinsic subtraction modes. The conditional state of the multimode quantum light after the photon subtraction is defined by the number of subtraction modes and their matching with the light modes. We propose the manipulation of light states by controlling the subtraction modes. Performing a photon subtraction on a multimode quantum resource is promising for the implementation of a number of quantum information protocols in all-optical, multiplexed and scalable way.
Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source
Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J. Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.
2014-08-04
We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons.
Discrete and continuous variables for measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-11-16
In a recent Article in Nature Photonics, Pirandola et al.1 claim that the achievable secret key rates of discrete-variable (DV) measurementdevice- independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD) (refs 2,3) are “typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network” and introduce a continuous-variable (CV) MDI QKD protocol capable of providing key rates which, they claim, are “three orders of magnitude higher” than those of DV MDI QKD. We believe, however, that the claims regarding low key rates of DV MDI QKD made by Pirandola et al.1 are too pessimistic. Here in this paper, we show that the secretmore » key rate of DV MDI QKD with commercially available high-efficiency single-photon detectors (SPDs) (for example, see http://www.photonspot.com/detectors and http://www.singlequantum.com) and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long-distance communication but also metropolitan networks.« less
Discrete and continuous variables for measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-11-16
In a recent Article in Nature Photonics, Pirandola et al.1 claim that the achievable secret key rates of discrete-variable (DV) measurementdevice- independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD) (refs 2,3) are “typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network” and introduce a continuous-variable (CV) MDI QKD protocol capable of providing key rates which, they claim, are “three orders of magnitude higher” than those of DV MDI QKD. We believe, however, that the claims regarding low key rates of DV MDI QKD made by Pirandola et al.1 are too pessimistic. Here in this paper, we show that the secret key rate of DV MDI QKD with commercially available high-efficiency single-photon detectors (SPDs) (for example, see http://www.photonspot.com/detectors and http://www.singlequantum.com) and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long-distance communication but also metropolitan networks.
Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen
2012-07-15
We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Youn-Chang; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2016-01-01
The decoy-state method allows the use of weak coherent pulses in quantum cryptography, and to date, various strategies for the decoy state have been proposed. Here, we experimentally compare the secret key generation rates between the one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol through a 3.1-km optical fiber at 780 nm. Once the parameters of the experimental setup are optimized for the maximal secret key generation rate for each implementation, it is found that the two-decoy implementation outperforms the one-decoy implementation.
Paul, Matthias Kettler, Jan; Zeuner, Katharina; Clausen, Caterina; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter
2015-03-23
By metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, we have fabricated InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrate with an ultra-low lateral density (<10{sup 7} cm{sup −2}). The photoluminescence emission from the quantum dots is shifted to the telecom O-band at 1.31 μm by an InGaAs strain reducing layer. In time-resolved measurements, we find fast decay times for exciton (∼600 ps) and biexciton (∼300 ps). We demonstrate triggered single-photon emission (g{sup (2)}(0)=0.08) as well as cascaded emission from the biexciton decay. Our results suggest that these quantum dots can compete with their counterparts grown by state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy.
Witnessing trustworthy single-photon entanglement with local homodyne measurements.
Morin, Olivier; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Ho, Melvyn; Sekatski, Pavel; D'Auria, Virginia; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Sangouard, Nicolas
2013-03-29
Single-photon entangled states, i.e., states describing two optical paths sharing a single photon, constitute the simplest form of entanglement. Yet they provide a valuable resource in quantum information science. Specifically, they lie at the heart of quantum networks, as they can be used for quantum teleportation, swapped, and purified with linear optics. The main drawback of such entanglement is the difficulty in measuring it. Here, we present and experimentally test an entanglement witness allowing one to say whether a given state is path entangled and also that entanglement lies in the subspace, where the optical paths are each filled with one photon at most, i.e., refers to single-photon entanglement. It uses local homodyning only and relies on no assumption about the Hilbert space dimension of the measured system. Our work provides a simple and trustworthy method for verifying the proper functioning of future quantum networks. PMID:23581297
Study of narrowband single photon emitters in polycrystalline diamond films
Sandstrom, Russell G.; Shimoni, Olga; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor
2014-11-03
Quantum information processing and integrated nanophotonics require robust generation of single photon emitters on demand. In this work, we demonstrate that diamond films grown on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition can host bright, narrowband single photon emitters in the visible—near infra-red spectral range. The emitters possess fast lifetime (∼several ns), absolute photostability, and exhibit full polarization at excitation and emission. Pulsed and continuous laser excitations confirm their quantum behaviour at room temperature, while low temperature spectroscopy is performed to investigate inhomogeneous broadening. Our results advance the knowledge of solid state single photon sources and open pathways for their practical implementation in quantum communication and quantum information processing.
CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2016-09-01
Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.
Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing
Ma Xiaosong; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2011-04-15
An on-demand single-photon source is a fundamental building block in quantum science and technology. We experimentally demonstrate the proof of concept for a scheme to generate on-demand single photons via actively multiplexing several heralded photons probabilistically produced from pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversions (SPDCs). By utilizing a four-photon-pair source, an active feed-forward technique, and an ultrafast single-photon router, we show a fourfold enhancement of the output photon rate. Simultaneously, we maintain the quality of the output single-photon states, confirmed by correlation measurements. We also experimentally verify, via Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, that the router does not affect the indistinguishability of the single photons. Furthermore, we give numerical simulations, which indicate that photons based on multiplexing of four SPDC sources can outperform the heralding based on highly advanced photon-number-resolving detectors. Our results show a route for on-demand single-photon generation and the practical realization of scalable linear optical quantum-information processing.
Direct detection of a single photon by humans.
Tinsley, Jonathan N; Molodtsov, Maxim I; Prevedel, Robert; Wartmann, David; Espigulé-Pons, Jofre; Lauwers, Mattias; Vaziri, Alipasha
2016-01-01
Despite investigations for over 70 years, the absolute limits of human vision have remained unclear. Rod cells respond to individual photons, yet whether a single-photon incident on the eye can be perceived by a human subject has remained a fundamental open question. Here we report that humans can detect a single-photon incident on the cornea with a probability significantly above chance. This was achieved by implementing a combination of a psychophysics procedure with a quantum light source that can generate single-photon states of light. We further discover that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon, suggesting a priming process that temporarily enhances the effective gain of the visual system on the timescale of seconds. PMID:27434854
Direct detection of a single photon by humans
Tinsley, Jonathan N.; Molodtsov, Maxim I.; Prevedel, Robert; Wartmann, David; Espigulé-Pons, Jofre; Lauwers, Mattias; Vaziri, Alipasha
2016-01-01
Despite investigations for over 70 years, the absolute limits of human vision have remained unclear. Rod cells respond to individual photons, yet whether a single-photon incident on the eye can be perceived by a human subject has remained a fundamental open question. Here we report that humans can detect a single-photon incident on the cornea with a probability significantly above chance. This was achieved by implementing a combination of a psychophysics procedure with a quantum light source that can generate single-photon states of light. We further discover that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon, suggesting a priming process that temporarily enhances the effective gain of the visual system on the timescale of seconds. PMID:27434854
Ion crystal transducer for strong coupling between single ions and single photons.
Lamata, L; Leibrandt, D R; Chuang, I L; Cirac, J I; Lukin, M D; Vuletić, V; Yelin, S F
2011-07-15
A new approach for the realization of a quantum interface between single photons and single ions in an ion crystal is proposed and analyzed. In our approach the coupling between a single photon and a single ion is enhanced via the collective degrees of freedom of the ion crystal. Applications including single-photon generation, a memory for a quantum repeater, and a deterministic photon-photon, photon-phonon, or photon-ion entangler are discussed.
Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalaginov, M. Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Vorobyov, V. V.; Lagutchev, A. S.; Kildishev, A. V.; Akimov, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.
2015-06-01
Scientists are looking for new, breakthrough solutions that can greatly advance computing and networking systems. These solutions will involve quantum properties of matter and light as promised by the ongoing experimental and theoretical work in the areas of quantum computation and communication. Quantum photonics is destined to play a central role in the development of such technologies due to the high transmission capacity and outstanding low-noise properties of photonic information channels. Among the vital problems to be solved in this direction, are efficient generation and collection of single photons. One approach to tackle these problems is based on engineering emission properties of available single-photon sources using metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures with sub-wavelength features whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional materials. As promising single-photon sources, we have chosen nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond, which are capable to operate stably in a single-photon regime at room temperature in a solid state environment. In this chapter, we report both theoretical and experimental studies of the radiation from a nanodiamond single NV center placed near a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). In particular, we derive the reduction of excited-state lifetime and the enhancement of collected single-photon emission rate and compare them with the experimental observations. These results could be of great impact for future integrated quantum sources, especially owing to a CMOS-compatible approach to HMM synthesis.
Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources
Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2013-01-01
Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400
Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; de Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2013-11-01
Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources.
Renner, R; Cirac, J I
2009-03-20
We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.
Renner, R; Cirac, J I
2009-03-20
We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks. PMID:19392183
Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide
Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon Lee, Chang-Min; Lim, Hee-Jin; Schlereth, Thomas W.; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lee, Yong-Hee
2015-08-24
A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g{sup (2)}(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The measured g{sup (2)}(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber.
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.
2005-10-15
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.
Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min
2016-08-01
We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.
Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth.
Yin, Juan; Cao, Yuan; Liu, Shu-Bin; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Hong; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Yang, Fu-Min; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-08-26
Free-space quantum communication with satellites opens a promising avenue for global secure quantum network and large-scale test of quantum foundations. Recently, numerous experimental efforts have been carried out towards this ambitious goal. However, one essential step--transmitting single photons from the satellite to the ground with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at realistic environments--remains experimental challenging. Here, we report a direct experimental demonstration of the satellite-ground transmission of a quasi-single-photon source. In the experiment, single photons (~0.85 photon per pulse) are generated by reflecting weak laser pulses back to earth with a cube-corner retro-reflector on the satellite CHAMP, collected by a 600-mm diameter telescope at the ground station, and finally detected by single-photon counting modules after 400-km free-space link transmission. With the help of high accuracy time synchronization, narrow receiver field-of-view and high-repetition-rate pulses (76 MHz), a SNR of better than 16:1 is obtained, which is sufficient for a secure quantum key distribution. Our experimental results represent an important step towards satellite-ground quantum communication.
Differential phase shift quantum key distribution.
Inoue, Kyo; Waks, Edo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2002-07-15
A novel quantum cryptography scheme is proposed, in which a single photon is prepared in a linear superposition state of three basis kets. A photon split to three pulses is sent from Alice to Bob, where the phase difference between sequential two pulses carries bit information. Bob measures the phase difference by passive differential phase detection. This scheme is suitable for fiber transmission systems and offers a key creation efficiency higher than conventional fiber-based BB84. PMID:12144419
Multiboson Correlation Interferometry with Arbitrary Single-Photon Pure States.
Tamma, Vincenzo; Laibacher, Simon
2015-06-19
We provide a compact full description of multiboson correlation measurements of arbitrary order N in passive linear interferometers with arbitrary input single-photon pure states. This allows us to physically analyze the novel problem of multiboson correlation sampling at the output of random linear interferometers. Our results also describe general multiboson correlation landscapes for an arbitrary number of input single photons and arbitrary interferometers. In particular, we use two different schemes to demonstrate, respectively, arbitrary-order quantum beat interference and 100% visibility entanglement correlations even for input photons distinguishable in their frequencies. PMID:26196976
New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goltsman, G. N.
2015-09-01
We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.
Single-photon tunneling via localized surface plasmons.
Smolyaninov, I I; Zayats, A V; Gungor, A; Davis, C C
2002-05-01
Strong evidence of a single-photon tunneling effect, a direct analog of single-electron tunneling, has been obtained in the measurements of light tunneling through individual subwavelength pinholes in a gold film covered with a layer of polydiacetylene. The transmission of some pinholes reached saturation because of the optical nonlinearity of polydiacetylene at a very low light intensity of a few thousand photons per second. This result is explained theoretically in terms of a "photon blockade," similar to the Coulomb blockade phenomenon observed in single-electron tunneling experiments. Single-photon tunneling may find applications in the fields of quantum communication and information processing.
Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency.
Lita, Adriana E; Miller, Aaron J; Nam, Sae Woo
2008-03-01
Single-photon detectors operating at visible and near-infrared wavelengths with high detection efficiency and low noise are a requirement for many quantum-information applications. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are capable of detecting visible and near-infrared light at the single-photon level and are capable of discriminating between one- and two-photon absorption events; however these capabilities place stringent design requirements on the TES heat capacity, thermometry, and optical detection efficiency. We describe the fabrication and evaluation of a fiber-coupled, photon-number-resolving TES detector optimized for absorption at 1550 and 1310 nm wavelengths. The measured system detection efficiency at 1556 nm is 95 % +/- 2 %, which to our knowledge is the highest system detection efficiency reported for a near-infrared single-photon detector. PMID:18542389
Noiseless Conditional Teleportation of a Single Photon.
Fuwa, Maria; Toba, Shunsuke; Takeda, Shuntaro; Marek, Petr; Mišta, Ladislav; Filip, Radim; van Loock, Peter; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Furusawa, Akira
2014-11-28
We experimentally demonstrate the noiseless teleportation of a single photon by conditioning on quadrature Bell measurement results near the origin in phase space and thereby circumventing the photon loss that otherwise occurs even in optimal gain-tuned continuous-variable quantum teleportation. In general, thanks to this loss suppression, the noiseless conditional teleportation can preserve the negativity of the Wigner function for an arbitrary pure input state and an arbitrary pure entangled resource state. In our experiment, the positive value of the Wigner function at the origin for the unconditional output state, W(0,0)=0.015±0.001, becomes clearly negative after conditioning, W(0,0)=-0.025±0.005, illustrating the advantage of noiseless conditional teleportation. PMID:25494071
Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling
Xue, Zheng-Yuan Yang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jian
2015-07-13
In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.
Noiseless Conditional Teleportation of a Single Photon.
Fuwa, Maria; Toba, Shunsuke; Takeda, Shuntaro; Marek, Petr; Mišta, Ladislav; Filip, Radim; van Loock, Peter; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Furusawa, Akira
2014-11-28
We experimentally demonstrate the noiseless teleportation of a single photon by conditioning on quadrature Bell measurement results near the origin in phase space and thereby circumventing the photon loss that otherwise occurs even in optimal gain-tuned continuous-variable quantum teleportation. In general, thanks to this loss suppression, the noiseless conditional teleportation can preserve the negativity of the Wigner function for an arbitrary pure input state and an arbitrary pure entangled resource state. In our experiment, the positive value of the Wigner function at the origin for the unconditional output state, W(0,0)=0.015±0.001, becomes clearly negative after conditioning, W(0,0)=-0.025±0.005, illustrating the advantage of noiseless conditional teleportation.
Entangling single photons from independently tuned semiconductor nanoemitters.
Sanaka, Kaoru; Pawlis, Alexander; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Sleiter, Darin J; Lischka, Klaus; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2012-09-12
Quantum communication systems based on nanoscale semiconductor devices is challenged by inhomogeneities from device to device. We address this challenge using ZnMgSe/ZnSe quantum-well nanostructures with local laser-based heating to tune the emission of single impurity-bound exciton emitters in two separate devices. The matched emission in combination with photon bunching enables quantum interference from the devices and allows the postselection of polarization-entangled single photons. The ability to entangle single photons emitted from nanometer-sized sources separated by macroscopic distances provides an essential step for a solid-state realization of a large-scale quantum optical network. This paves the way toward measurement-based entanglement generation between remote electron spins localized at macroscopically separated fluorine impurities.
Pure single photons from a trapped atom source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higginbottom, D. B.; Slodička, L.; Araneda, G.; Lachman, L.; Filip, R.; Hennrich, M.; Blatt, R.
2016-09-01
Single atoms or atom-like emitters are the purest source of single photons, they are intrinsically incapable of multi-photon emission. To demonstrate this degree of photon number-state purity we have realized a single-photon source using a single ion trapped at the common focus of high numerical aperture lenses. Our trapped-ion source produces single-photon pulses with {g}2(0)=(1.9+/- 0.2)× {10}-3 without any background subtraction. After subtracting detector dark counts the residual {g}2(0) is less than 3 × 10‑4 (95% confidence interval). The multi-photon component of the source light field is low enough that we measure violation of a quantum non-Gaussian state witness, by this characterization the source output is indistinguishable from ideal attenuated single photons. In combination with efforts to enhance collection efficiency from single emitters, our results suggest that single trapped ions are not only ideal stationary qubits for quantum information processing, but promising sources of light for scalable optical quantum networks.
Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide.
Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe
2016-01-29
Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10(-4) only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.
Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide
Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe
2016-01-01
Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10−4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system. PMID:26822999
Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; de Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe
2016-01-01
Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10-4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Matthew
2003-01-01
Uses cryptography to demonstrate the importance of algebra and the use of technology as an effective real application of mathematics. Explains simple encoding and decoding of messages for student learning of modular arithmetic. This elementary encounter with cryptography along with its historical and modern background serves to motivate student…
Bonneau, Damien; Lobino, Mirko; Jiang, Pisu; Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H; Dorenbos, Sanders N; Zwiller, Val; Thompson, Mark G; O'Brien, Jeremy L
2012-02-01
We demonstrate fast polarization and path control of photons at 1550 nm in lithium niobate waveguide devices using the electro-optic effect. We show heralded single photon state engineering, quantum interference, fast state preparation of two entangled photons, and feedback control of quantum interference. These results point the way to a single platform that will enable the integration of nonlinear single photon sources and fast reconfigurable circuits for future photonic quantum information science and technology.
Ramirez, David A; Hayat, Majeed M; Rees, Graham J; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A
2012-01-16
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are primary devices in photon counting systems used in quantum cryptography, time resolved spectroscopy and photon counting optical communication. SPADs convert each photo-generated electron hole pair to a measurable current via an avalanche of impact ionizations. In this paper, a stochastically self-regulating avalanche model for passively quenched SPADs is presented. The model predicts, in qualitative agreement with experiments, three important phenomena that traditional models are unable to predict. These are: (1) an oscillatory behavior of the persistent avalanche current; (2) an exponential (memoryless) decay of the probability density function of the stochastic quenching time of the persistent avalanche current; and (3) a fast collapse of the avalanche current, under strong feedback conditions, preventing the development of a persistent avalanche current. The model specifically captures the effect of the load's feedback on the stochastic avalanche multiplication, an effect believed to be key in breaking today's counting rate barrier in the 1.55-μm detection window. PMID:22274495
Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce
2008-01-01
Superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N in the high-superconducting-transition temperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.
Single photon emission computed tomography
Piez, C.W. Jr.; Holman, B.L.
1985-07-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is becoming an increasingly important part of routine clinical nuclear medicine. By providing tomographic reconstructions in multiple planes through the patient, SPECT expands the clinical applications in nuclear medicine as well as providing better contrast, edge definition and separation of target from background activities. Imaging techniques have been developed for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow using radiolabeled amines. Thus, cerebral functional imaging can be used in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction, cerebral vascular disease, dementia and epilepsy. SPECT plays a complementary role in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, particularly when it is coupled with thallium-201 and exercise testing. SPECT extends our diagnostic capabilities in additional areas, such as liver and bone scintigraphy as well as tumor imaging with gallium-67.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xingmin; Wei, L. F.
2016-05-01
Weak dipolar interactions exist widely in various atomic, nuclear and molecular systems, and could be utilized to implement the desired quantum information processings. However, these interactions are relatively weak and hard to be measured precisely. Here, we propose an approach to detect such a weak interaction by probing the transport of a single waveguide-photon scattered by two aside qubits with a single dipolar exchange-interaction. By a full quantum theory of photon transports in optical waveguide, we show that the dipolar interaction between the aside two qubits significantly influence the transmitted spectra of the photon traveling along the one-dimensional waveguide. Thus, probing the relevant changes in the transmitted spectra and the transmission probability distribution specifically for the resonant photons, compared with those scattered by the two individual qubits, the information of the single dipolar interaction between the qubits could be extracted. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.
Steudle, Gesine A.; Knauer, Sebastian; Herzog, Ulrike; Benson, Oliver; Stock, Erik; Bimberg, Dieter; Haisler, Vladimir A.
2011-05-15
We present an experimental implementation of optimum measurements for quantum state discrimination. Optimum maximum-confidence discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination of two mixed single-photon polarization states were performed. For the latter the states of rank 2 in a four-dimensional Hilbert space are prepared using both path and polarization encoding. Linear optics and single photons from a true single-photon source based on a semiconductor quantum dot are utilized.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas
2013-01-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas
2013-01-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme. PMID:24352610
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas
2013-12-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a ``qudit'') by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of ``quantum scissors'' they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang
2011-12-01
Interference and coincidence detection of two photons emitted by two remote ions can lead to an entangled state, which is a critical resource for scalable quantum-information processing. Currently the success probabilities of experimental realizations of this protocol are mainly limited by low coupling efficiency of a photon emitted by an ion into a single-mode fiber. Here we consider two strategies to enhance the collection probability of a photon emitted from a trapped Yb+ ion, using analytic methods that can be easily applied to other types of ions or neutral atoms. Our analysis shows that we can achieve fiber coupling efficiency of over 30% with an optical cavity made of a flat fiber tip and a spherical mirror. We also investigate ways to increase the fiber coupling efficiency using high-numerical-aperture optics, and show that collection probability of over 15% is possible with proper control of aberration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Marie A.
1993-01-01
Cryptography is the science that renders data unintelligible to prevent its unauthorized disclosure or modification. Presents an application of matrices used in linear transformations to illustrate a cryptographic system. An example is provided. (17 references) (MDH)
High-speed single-photon signaling for daytime QKD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bienfang, Joshua; Restelli, Alessandro; Clark, Charles
2011-03-01
The distribution of quantum-generated cryptographic key at high throughputs can be critically limited by the performance of the systems' single-photon detectors. While noise and afterpulsing are considerations for all single-photon QKD systems, high-transmission rate systems also have critical detector timing-resolution and recovery time requirements. We present experimental results exploiting the high timing resolution and count-rate stability of modified single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in our GHz QKD system operating over a 1.5 km free-space link that demonstrate the ability to apply extremely short temporal gates, enabling daytime free-space QKD with a 4% QBER. We also discuss recent advances in gating techniques for InGaAs SPADs that are suitable for high-speed fiber-based QKD. We present afterpulse-probability measurements that demonstrate the ability to support single-photon count rates above 100 MHz with low afterpulse probability. These results will benefit the design and characterization of free-space and fiber QKD systems. A. Restelli, J.C. Bienfang A. Mink, and C.W. Clark, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Electron 16, 1084 (2010).
Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.
Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter
2016-06-10
We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.
Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter
2016-06-01
We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.
Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.
Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter
2016-06-10
We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus. PMID:27341236
Total teleportation of a single-photon state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humble, Travis S.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Grice, Warren P.
2008-08-01
Recent demonstrations of teleportation have transferred quantum information encoded into either polarization or fieldquadrature degrees of freedom (DOFs), but an outstanding question is how to simultaneously teleport quantum information encoded into multiple DOFs. We describe how the transverse-spatial, spectral and polarization states of a single photon can be simultaneously teleported using a pair of multimode, polarization-entangled photons derived from spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Furthermore, when the initial photon pair is maximally entangled in the spatial, spectral, and polarization DOFs then the photon's full quantum state can be reliably teleported using a Bell-state measurement based on sum-frequency generation.
Total teleportation of a single-photon state
Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P
2008-01-01
Recent demonstrations of teleportation have transferred quantum information encoded into either polarization or field-quadrature degrees of freedom (DOFs), but an outstanding question is how to simultaneously teleport quantum information encoded into multiple DOFs. We describe how the transverse-spatial, spectral and polarization states of a single photon can be simultaneously teleported using a pair of multimode, polarization-entangled photons derived from spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Furthermore, when the initial photon pair is maximally entangled in the spatial, spectral, and polarization DOFs then the photon s full quantum state can be reliably teleported using a Bell-state measurement based on sum-frequency generation.
Experimental single-photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dequal, Daniele; Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-01-01
Extending the single-photon transmission distance is a basic requirement for the implementation of quantum communication on a global scale. In this work we report the single-photon exchange from a medium Earth orbit satellite (MEO) at more than 7000 km of slant distance to the ground station at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory. The single-photon transmitter was realized by exploiting the corner cube retroreflectors mounted on the LAGEOS-2 satellite. Long duration of data collection is possible with such altitude, up to 43 min in a single passage. The mean number of photons per pulse (μsat) has been limited to 1 for 200 s, resulting in an average detection rate of 3.0 counts/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.5. The feasibility of single-photon exchange from MEO satellites paves the way to tests of quantum mechanics in moving frames and to global quantum Information.
On-chip low loss heralded source of pure single photons.
Spring, Justin B; Salter, Patrick S; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Humphreys, Peter C; Moore, Merritt; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Barbieri, Marco; Jin, Xian-Min; Langford, Nathan K; Kolthammer, W Steven; Booth, Martin J; Walmsley, Ian A
2013-06-01
A key obstacle to the experimental realization of many photonic quantum-enhanced technologies is the lack of low-loss sources of single photons in pure quantum states. We demonstrate a promising solution: generation of heralded single photons in a silica photonic chip by spontaneous four-wave mixing. A heralding efficiency of 40%, corresponding to a preparation efficiency of 80% accounting for detector performance, is achieved due to efficient coupling of the low-loss source to optical fibers. A single photon purity of 0.86 is measured from the source number statistics without narrow spectral filtering, and confirmed by direct measurement of the joint spectral intensity. We calculate that similar high-heralded-purity output can be obtained from visible to telecom spectral regions using this approach. On-chip silica sources can have immediate application in a wide range of single-photon quantum optics applications which employ silica photonics.
Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.
2011-01-01
The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.
Graphene Josephson Junction Single Photon Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Evan D.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung
Single photon detectors (SPDs) have found use across a wide array of applications depending on the wavelength to which they are sensitive. Graphene, because of its linear, gapless dispersion near the Dirac point, has a flat, wide bandwidth absorption that can be enhanced to near 100 % through the use of resonant structures making it a promising candidate for broadband SPDs. Upon absorbing a photon in the optical to mid-infrared range, a small (~10 μm2) sheet of graphene at cryogenic temperatures can experience a significant increase in electronic temperature due to its extremely low heat capacity. At 1550 nm, for example, calculations show that the temperature could rise by as much as 500 %. This temperature increase could be detected with near perfect quantum efficiency by making the graphene the weak link in a Josephson junction (JJ). We present a theoretical model demonstrating that such a graphene JJ SPD could operate at the readily achievable temperature of 3 K with near zero dark count, sub-50 ps timing jitter, and sub-5 ns dead time and report on the progress toward experimentally realizing the device.
Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2005-04-01
In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Luetkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob's detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2{yields}3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2{yields}3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve's better strategy uses 2{yields}3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
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Single-photon superradiance and radiation trapping by atomic shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.; Li, Fu; Li, Hongyuan; Zhang, Xiwen; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Scully, Marlan O.
2016-04-01
The collective nature of light emission by atomic ensembles yields fascinating effects such as superradiance and radiation trapping even at the single-photon level. Light emission is influenced by virtual transitions and the collective Lamb shift which yields peculiar features in temporal evolution of the atomic system. We study how two-dimensional atomic structures collectively emit a single photon. Namely, we consider spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal shells with two-level atoms continuously distributed on the shell surface and find exact analytical solutions for eigenstates of such systems and their collective decay rates and frequency shifts. We identify states which undergo superradiant decay and states which are trapped and investigate how size and shape of the shell affects collective light emission. Our findings could be useful for quantum information storage and the design of optical switches.
Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.
2016-05-01
Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.
Funneling single photons into ridge-waveguide photonic integrated circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fattah poor, S.; Midolo, L.; Li, L. H.; Linfield, E. H.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Xia, T.; van Otten, F. W. M.; Hoang, T. B.; Fiore, A.
2013-02-01
The generation, manipulation and detection of single photons enable quantum communication, simulation and potentially computing protocols. However scaling to several qubits requires the integration of these functionalities in a single chip. A promising approach to the integration of single-photon sources in a chip is the use of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides or cavities. To this aim, efficient coupling of the emission from single quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities to low-loss ridge-waveguide (RWG) circuits is needed. This is usually hampered by the large mode mismatch between the two systems. In this work the emission of a photonic crystal (PhC) cavity realized on a GaAs/AlGaAs membrane and pumped by quantum dots has been effectively coupled and transferred through a long RWG (~1mm). By continuous tapering in both horizontal and vertical direction, transmission values (fiber-in, fiber-out) around 0.16 and 0.08% for RWG and coupled PhC waveguide-RWG have been achieved, respectively. This corresponds to about 2.8% coupling efficiency between the center of the PhC waveguide and the single-mode output fiber, a value much higher than what is achieved by top collection. It further shows that around 70% of the light in the PhC waveguide is coupled to the RWG. The emission from quantum dots in the cavity has been clearly identified by exciting from the top and collecting the photoluminescence from the cleaved facet of the device 1mm away from the cavity which enables the efficient coupling of single photons to RWG and detector circuits.
Generation of a single-photon source via a four-wave mixing process in a cavity
Fan Bixuan; Duan Zhenglu; Zhou Lu; Yuan Chunhua; Zhang Weiping; Ou, Z. Y.
2009-12-15
It is shown that an efficient, well-directional single-photon source can be realized via a four-wave mixing process in a cavity. The probability of producing a single-photon state nearly approaches 50%. The bandwidth of single-photons generated in this way is controllable, which is determined by that of the input pulse. Furthermore, we propose a scheme to generate a coherent multichannel single-photon source, which might have significant applications in wavelength division multiplexing quantum key distribution.
Private classical capacity with a symmetric side channel and its application to quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Graeme
2008-08-01
We study the symmetric-side-channel-assisted private capacity of a quantum channel, for which we provide a single-letter formula. This capacity is additive, convex, and, for degradable channels, equal to the unassisted private capacity. While a channel’s (unassisted) capacity for private classical communication may be strictly larger than its quantum capacity, we will show that these capacities are equal for degradable channels, thus demonstrating the equivalence of privacy and quantum coherence in this context. We use these ideas to find new bounds on the key rate of quantum key distribution protocols with one-way classical post-processing. For the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, our results demonstrate that collective attacks are strictly stronger than individual attacks.
Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol
Horoshko, D B
2007-12-31
The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacak, Monika; Melniczuk, Damian; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz; Gruber, Jacek; Jóźwiak, Piotr
2015-02-01
In order to assess the susceptibility of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to the hacking attack including simultaneous and frequent system self-decalibrations, we analyze the stability of the QKD transmission organized in two commercially available systems. The first one employs non-entangled photons as flying qubits in the dark quantum channel for communication whereas the second one utilizes the entangled photon pairs to secretly share the cryptographic key. Applying standard methods of the statistical data analysis to the characteristic indicators of the quality of the QKD communication (the raw key exchange rate [RKER] and the quantum bit error rate [QBER]), we have estimated the pace of the self-decalibration of both systems and the repeatability rate in the case of controlled worsening of the dark channel quality.
Special properties of single-photon optical fiber sensor for security needs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Karol, M.; Markowski, Piotr; Napierala, M. S.
2014-10-01
The rules of quantum physics are now fairly well understood and indisputable. On the basis of these principles are built safety systems to guarantee unconditional security of data transmission. This is possible due to the random behavior of the measured photon. Theorems of quantum mechanics are used currently in Quantum Key Distribution systems to determine the encryption key of cryptographic systems. Sending the single photons through the interferometer it is possible to determine the probability distribution of a photon detection at a given output depending on the interferometer imbalance. The use of single photon interference allows reduce the probability of detection of the transmission line protection. Additionally it provides high safety of transmitted information and minor disturbances. The quantum sensor can be a device which allows effectively protect transmission lines. In this paper we demonstrate measurement results of the using single-photon interferometers in security systems and potential capabilities use of such sensors.
Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise
Heid, Matthias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2007-08-15
We investigate the security against collective attacks of a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme in the asymptotic key limit for a realistic setting. The quantum channel connecting the two honest parties is assumed to be lossy and imposes Gaussian noise on the observed quadrature distributions. Secret key rates are given for direct and reverse reconciliation schemes including post-selection in the collective attack scenario. The effect of a nonideal error correction and two-way communication in the classical post-processing step is also taken into account.
Continuous-variable quantum cryptography is secure against non-Gaussian attacks.
Grosshans, Frédéric; Cerf, Nicolas J
2004-01-30
A general study of arbitrary finite-size coherent attacks against continuous-variable quantum cryptographic schemes is presented. It is shown that, if the size of the blocks that can be coherently attacked by an eavesdropper is fixed and much smaller than the key size, then the optimal attack for a given signal-to-noise ratio in the transmission line is an individual Gaussian attack. Consequently, non-Gaussian coherent attacks do not need to be considered in the security analysis of such quantum cryptosystems.
Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography.
Wang, Xiang-Bin
2005-06-17
We propose an efficient method to verify the upper bound of the fraction of counts caused by multiphoton pulses in practical quantum key distribution using weak coherent light, given whatever type of Eve's action. The protocol simply uses two coherent states for the signal pulses and vacuum for the decoy pulse. Our verified upper bound is sufficiently tight for quantum key distribution with a very lossy channel, in both the asymptotic and nonasymptotic case. So far our protocol is the only decoy-state protocol that works efficiently for currently existing setups.
SIMULTANEOUS TELEPORTATION OF MULTIPLE SINGLE-PHOTON DEGREES OF FREEDOM
Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P
2011-01-01
We report how quantum information encoded into multiple photonic degrees of freedom may be simultaneously teleported using a single, common physical process. The application of teleportation to the complete quantum state of a photon, i.e., the spectral, spatial, and polarization component states, permits the full photonic Hilbert space to be used for encoding information while simultaneously enabling subspaces to be addressed individually, e.g., for quantum information processing. We analyze the feasibility of teleporting the full quantum state through numerical analysis of the fidelity under nominal experimental conditions and for different types of input states, e.g., single-photon states that are separable and entangled in the physical degrees of freedom.
Single Photon diffraction and interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodge, John
2015-04-01
A previous paper based on the Scalar Theory of Everything studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, Toronto, Canada July 2012. http://intellectualarchive.com/?link=item&id=597). Several photons were required in the experiment at the same time. Interference experiments with one photon in the experiment at a time also showed interference patterns. The previous paper with the Bohm Interpretation, models of the screen and mask, and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics were combined. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation was provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The speed of the plenum wave was assumed to be much faster than the speed of photons/light. Using the assumptions of Fraunhofer diffraction resulted in the same equation for the photon distribution on a screen as the intensity pattern of the Fraunhofer diffraction. (http://myplace.frontier.com/ ~ jchodge/)
Scarani, Valerio; Acín, Antonio; Ribordy, Grégoire; Gisin, Nicolas
2004-02-01
We introduce a new class of quantum key distribution protocols, tailored to be robust against photon number splitting (PNS) attacks. We study one of these protocols, which differs from the original protocol by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) only in the classical sifting procedure. This protocol is provably better than BB84 against PNS attacks at zero error. PMID:14995344
Scarani, Valerio; Acín, Antonio; Ribordy, Grégoire; Gisin, Nicolas
2004-02-01
We introduce a new class of quantum key distribution protocols, tailored to be robust against photon number splitting (PNS) attacks. We study one of these protocols, which differs from the original protocol by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) only in the classical sifting procedure. This protocol is provably better than BB84 against PNS attacks at zero error.
Wiring up pre-characterized single-photon emitters by laser lithography.
Shi, Q; Sontheimer, B; Nikolay, N; Schell, A W; Fischer, J; Naber, A; Benson, O; Wegener, M
2016-01-01
Future quantum optical chips will likely be hybrid in nature and include many single-photon emitters, waveguides, filters, as well as single-photon detectors. Here, we introduce a scalable optical localization-selection-lithography procedure for wiring up a large number of single-photon emitters via polymeric photonic wire bonds in three dimensions. First, we localize and characterize nitrogen vacancies in nanodiamonds inside a solid photoresist exhibiting low background fluorescence. Next, without intermediate steps and using the same optical instrument, we perform aligned three-dimensional laser lithography. As a proof of concept, we design, fabricate, and characterize three-dimensional functional waveguide elements on an optical chip. Each element consists of one single-photon emitter centered in a crossed-arc waveguide configuration, allowing for integrated optical excitation and efficient background suppression at the same time. PMID:27507165
Wiring up pre-characterized single-photon emitters by laser lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Q.; Sontheimer, B.; Nikolay, N.; Schell, A. W.; Fischer, J.; Naber, A.; Benson, O.; Wegener, M.
2016-08-01
Future quantum optical chips will likely be hybrid in nature and include many single-photon emitters, waveguides, filters, as well as single-photon detectors. Here, we introduce a scalable optical localization-selection-lithography procedure for wiring up a large number of single-photon emitters via polymeric photonic wire bonds in three dimensions. First, we localize and characterize nitrogen vacancies in nanodiamonds inside a solid photoresist exhibiting low background fluorescence. Next, without intermediate steps and using the same optical instrument, we perform aligned three-dimensional laser lithography. As a proof of concept, we design, fabricate, and characterize three-dimensional functional waveguide elements on an optical chip. Each element consists of one single-photon emitter centered in a crossed-arc waveguide configuration, allowing for integrated optical excitation and efficient background suppression at the same time.
Wiring up pre-characterized single-photon emitters by laser lithography
Shi, Q.; Sontheimer, B.; Nikolay, N.; Schell, A. W.; Fischer, J.; Naber, A.; Benson, O.; Wegener, M.
2016-01-01
Future quantum optical chips will likely be hybrid in nature and include many single-photon emitters, waveguides, filters, as well as single-photon detectors. Here, we introduce a scalable optical localization-selection-lithography procedure for wiring up a large number of single-photon emitters via polymeric photonic wire bonds in three dimensions. First, we localize and characterize nitrogen vacancies in nanodiamonds inside a solid photoresist exhibiting low background fluorescence. Next, without intermediate steps and using the same optical instrument, we perform aligned three-dimensional laser lithography. As a proof of concept, we design, fabricate, and characterize three-dimensional functional waveguide elements on an optical chip. Each element consists of one single-photon emitter centered in a crossed-arc waveguide configuration, allowing for integrated optical excitation and efficient background suppression at the same time. PMID:27507165
Kaneda, Fumihiro; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B; Kwiat, Paul G
2016-05-16
We report on the generation of an indistinguishable heralded single-photon state, using highly nondegenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). Spectrally factorable photon pairs can be generated by incorporating a broadband pump pulse and a group-velocity matching (GVM) condition in a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal. The heralding photon is in the near IR, close to the peak detection efficiency of off-the-shelf Si single-photon detectors; meanwhile, the heralded photon is in the telecom L-band where fiber losses are at a minimum. We observe spectral factorability of the SPDC source and consequently high purity (90%) of the produced heralded single photons by several different techniques. Because this source can also realize a high heralding efficiency (> 90%), it would be suitable for time-multiplexing techniques, enabling a pseudo-deterministic single-photon source, a critical resource for optical quantum information and communication technology. PMID:27409894
Advanced techniques for free-space optical quantum cryptography over water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Alexander D.; Christensen, Bradley; Kwiat, Paul G.
2016-03-01
Free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) over water (e.g., ship to ship) may be limited by ship motion and atmospheric effects, such as mode distortion and beam wander due to turbulence. We report on a technique which reduces noise by excluding spatial modes which are less likely to contain QKD signal photons and experimentally demonstrate an improvement in QKD key generation rates in various noise and turbulence regimes.
Zhou, Ming; Chang, Shoude; Grover, Chander
2004-06-28
Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.
Continuous variable quantum cryptography: beating the 3 dB loss limit.
Silberhorn, Ch; Ralph, T C; Lütkenhaus, N; Leuchs, G
2002-10-14
We demonstrate that secure quantum key distribution systems based on continuous variable implementations can operate beyond the apparent 3 dB loss limit that is implied by the beam splitting attack. The loss limit was established for standard minimum uncertainty states such as coherent states. We show that, by an appropriate postselection mechanism, we can enter a region where Eve's knowledge on Alice's key falls behind the information shared between Alice and Bob, even in the presence of substantial losses.
Modeling light entangled in polarization and frequency: case study in quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, John M.
2005-08-01
With the recognition of a logical gap between experiments and equations of quantum mechanics comes: (1) a chance to clarify such purely mathematical entities as probabilities, density operators, and partial traces-separated out from the choices and judgments necessary to apply them to describing experiments with devices, and (2) an added freedom to invent equations by which to model devices, stemming from the corresponding freedom in interpreting how these equations connect to experiments. Here I apply a few of these clarifications and freedoms to model polarization-entangled light pulses called for in quantum key distribution (QKD). Available light pulses are entangled not only in polarization but also in frequency. Although absent from the simplified models that initiated QKD, the degree of frequency entanglement of polarization-entangled light pulses is shown to affect the amount of key that can be distilled from raw light signals, in one case by a factor of 4/3. Open questions remain, because QKD brings concepts of quantum decision theory, such as measures of distinguishability, mostly worked out in the context of finite-dimensional vector spaces, into contact with infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces needed to give expression to optical frequency spectra.
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-03-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-03-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-01-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-01-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053
Quantifying the leakage of quantum protocols for classical two-party cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian; Sotáková, Miroslava
2015-12-01
We study quantum protocols among two distrustful parties. By adopting a rather strict definition of correctness — guaranteeing that honest players obtain their correct outcomes only — we can show that every strictly correct quantum protocol implementing a non-trivial classical primitive necessarily leaks information to a dishonest player. This extends known impossibility results to all non-trivial primitives. We provide a framework for quantifying this leakage and argue that leakage is a good measure for the privacy provided to the players by a given protocol. Our framework also covers the case where the two players are helped by a trusted third party. We show that despite the help of a trusted third party, the players cannot amplify the cryptographic power of any primitive. All our results hold even against quantum honest-but-curious adversaries who honestly follow the protocol but purify their actions and apply a different measurement at the end of the protocol. As concrete examples, we establish lower bounds on the leakage of standard universal two-party primitives such as oblivious transfer.
Quantifying the leakage of quantum protocols for classical two-party cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian; Sotáková, Miroslava
2014-12-01
We study quantum protocols among two distrustful parties. By adopting a rather strict definition of correctness — guaranteeing that honest players obtain their correct outcomes only — we can show that every strictly correct quantum protocol implementing a non-trivial classical primitive necessarily leaks information to a dishonest player. This extends known impossibility results to all non-trivial primitives. We provide a framework for quantifying this leakage and argue that leakage is a good measure for the privacy provided to the players by a given protocol. Our framework also covers the case where the two players are helped by a trusted third party. We show that despite the help of a trusted third party, the players cannot amplify the cryptographic power of any primitive. All our results hold even against quantum honest-but-curious adversaries who honestly follow the protocol but purify their actions and apply a different measurement at the end of the protocol. As concrete examples, we establish lower bounds on the leakage of standard universal two-party primitives such as oblivious transfer.
Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.
2010-01-01
We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…
Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources.
Ampem-Lassen, E; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S
2009-07-01
The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a approximately 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-03-01
We have developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.
Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons
Xiong, C.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Z.; Collins, M. J.; Mahendra, A.; Helt, L. G.; Steel, M. J.; Choi, D. -Y.; Chae, C. J.; Leong, P. H. W.; Eggleton, B. J.
2016-01-01
It is a fundamental challenge in quantum optics to deterministically generate indistinguishable single photons through non-deterministic nonlinear optical processes, due to the intrinsic coupling of single- and multi-photon-generation probabilities in these processes. Actively multiplexing photons generated in many temporal modes can decouple these probabilities, but key issues are to minimize resource requirements to allow scalability, and to ensure indistinguishability of the generated photons. Here we demonstrate the multiplexing of photons from four temporal modes solely using fibre-integrated optics and off-the-shelf electronic components. We show a 100% enhancement to the single-photon output probability without introducing additional multi-photon noise. Photon indistinguishability is confirmed by a fourfold Hong–Ou–Mandel quantum interference with a 91±16% visibility after subtracting multi-photon noise due to high pump power. Our demonstration paves the way for scalable multiplexing of many non-deterministic photon sources to a single near-deterministic source, which will be of benefit to future quantum photonic technologies. PMID:26996317
Active temporal multiplexing of indistinguishable heralded single photons.
Xiong, C; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Collins, M J; Mahendra, A; Helt, L G; Steel, M J; Choi, D-Y; Chae, C J; Leong, P H W; Eggleton, B J
2016-03-21
It is a fundamental challenge in quantum optics to deterministically generate indistinguishable single photons through non-deterministic nonlinear optical processes, due to the intrinsic coupling of single- and multi-photon-generation probabilities in these processes. Actively multiplexing photons generated in many temporal modes can decouple these probabilities, but key issues are to minimize resource requirements to allow scalability, and to ensure indistinguishability of the generated photons. Here we demonstrate the multiplexing of photons from four temporal modes solely using fibre-integrated optics and off-the-shelf electronic components. We show a 100% enhancement to the single-photon output probability without introducing additional multi-photon noise. Photon indistinguishability is confirmed by a fourfold Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference with a 91 ± 16% visibility after subtracting multi-photon noise due to high pump power. Our demonstration paves the way for scalable multiplexing of many non-deterministic photon sources to a single near-deterministic source, which will be of benefit to future quantum photonic technologies.
A simple coherent attack and practical security of differential phase shift quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kronberg, D. A.
2014-02-01
The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol reveals good security against such powerful attacks as unambiguous state discrimination and beam splitting attacks. Its complete security analysis is complex due to high dimensions of the supposed spaces and density operators. In this paper, we consider a particular and conceptually simple coherent attack, available in practical implementations. The main condition for this attack is the length of used coherent state tuples of order 8-12. We show that under this condition, no high level of practical distance between legitimate users can be achieved.
High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.
2008-04-01
There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD
Cryptographic robustness of a quantum cryptography system using phase-time coding
Molotkov, S. N.
2008-01-15
A cryptographic analysis is presented of a new quantum key distribution protocol using phase-time coding. An upper bound is obtained for the error rate that guarantees secure key distribution. It is shown that the maximum tolerable error rate for this protocol depends on the counting rate in the control time slot. When no counts are detected in the control time slot, the protocol guarantees secure key distribution if the bit error rate in the sifted key does not exceed 50%. This protocol partially discriminates between errors due to system defects (e.g., imbalance of a fiber-optic interferometer) and eavesdropping. In the absence of eavesdropping, the counts detected in the control time slot are not caused by interferometer imbalance, which reduces the requirements for interferometer stability.
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-03-15
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.
Design of highly efficient metallo-dielectric patch antennas for single-photon emission.
Bigourdan, F; Marquier, F; Hugonin, J-P; Greffet, J-J
2014-02-10
Quantum emitters such as NV-centers or quantum dots can be used as single-photon sources. To improve their performance, they can be coupled to microcavities or nano-antennas. Plasmonic antennas offer an appealing solution as they can be used with broadband emitters. When properly designed, these antennas funnel light into useful modes, increasing the emission rate and the collection of single-photons. Yet, their inherent metallic losses are responsible for very low radiative efficiencies. Here, we introduce a new design of directional, metallo-dielectric, optical antennas with a Purcell factor of 150, a total efficiency of 74% and a collection efficiency of emitted photons of 99%.
Electrically pumped single-photon emission in the visible spectral range up to 80 K.
Reischle, M; Beirne, G J; Schulz, W-M; Eichfelder, M; Rossbach, R; Jetter, M; Michler, P
2008-08-18
We present an electrically pumped single-photon emitter in the visible spectral range, working up to 80 K, realized using a self-assembled single InP quantum dot. We confirm that the electroluminescense is emitted from a single quantum dot by performing second-order autocorrelation measurements and show that the deviation from perfect single-photon emission is entirely related to detector limitations and background signal. Emission from both neutral and charged exciton complexes was observed with their relative intensites depending on the injection current and temperature. PMID:18711516
Room-temperature single-photon generation from solitary dopants of carbon nanotubes.
Ma, Xuedan; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Baldwin, Jon K S; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han
2015-08-01
On-demand single-photon sources capable of operating at room temperature and the telecom wavelength range of 1,300-1,500 nm hold the key to the realization of novel technologies that span from sub-diffraction imaging to quantum key distribution and photonic quantum information processing. Here, we show that incorporation of undoped (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes into a SiO2 matrix can lead to the creation of solitary oxygen dopant states capable of fluctuation-free, room-temperature single-photon emission in the 1,100-1,300 nm wavelength range. We investigated the effects of temperature on photoluminescence emission efficiencies, fluctuations and decay dynamics of the dopant states and determined the conditions most suitable for the observation of single-photon emission. This emission can in principle be extended to 1,500 nm by doping of smaller-bandgap single-walled carbon nanotubes. This easy tunability presents a distinct advantage over existing defect centre single-photon emitters (for example, diamond defect centres). Our SiO2-encapsulated sample also presents exciting opportunities to apply Si/SiO2-based micro/nano-device fabrication techniques in the development of electrically driven single-photon sources and integration of these sources into quantum photonic devices and networks. PMID:26167766
Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures.
Koperski, M; Nogajewski, K; Arora, A; Cherkez, V; Mallet, P; Veuillen, J-Y; Marcus, J; Kossacki, P; Potemski, M
2015-06-01
Crystal structure imperfections in solids often act as efficient carrier trapping centres, which, when suitably isolated, act as sources of single photon emission. The best known examples of such attractive imperfections are well-width or composition fluctuations in semiconductor heterostructures (resulting in the formation of quantum dots) and coloured centres in wide-bandgap materials such as diamond. In the recently investigated thin films of layered compounds, the crystal imperfections may logically be expected to appear at the edges of commonly investigated few-layer flakes of these materials exfoliated on alien substrates. Here, we report comprehensive optical micro-spectroscopy studies of thin layers of tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a representative semiconducting dichalcogenide with a bandgap in the visible spectral range. At the edges of WSe2 flakes (transferred onto Si/SiO2 substrates) we discover centres that, at low temperatures, give rise to sharp emission lines (100 μeV linewidth). These narrow emission lines reveal the effect of photon antibunching, the unambiguous attribute of single photon emitters. The optical response of these emitters is inherently linked to the two-dimensional properties of the WSe2 monolayer, as they both give rise to luminescence in the same energy range, have nearly identical excitation spectra and have very similar, characteristically large Zeeman effects. With advances in the structural control of edge imperfections, thin films of WSe2 may provide added functionalities that are relevant for the domain of quantum optoelectronics. PMID:25938573
Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng
2015-10-01
The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.
Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koperski, M.; Nogajewski, K.; Arora, A.; Cherkez, V.; Mallet, P.; Veuillen, J.-Y.; Marcus, J.; Kossacki, P.; Potemski, M.
2015-06-01
Crystal structure imperfections in solids often act as efficient carrier trapping centres, which, when suitably isolated, act as sources of single photon emission. The best known examples of such attractive imperfections are well-width or composition fluctuations in semiconductor heterostructures (resulting in the formation of quantum dots) and coloured centres in wide-bandgap materials such as diamond. In the recently investigated thin films of layered compounds, the crystal imperfections may logically be expected to appear at the edges of commonly investigated few-layer flakes of these materials exfoliated on alien substrates. Here, we report comprehensive optical micro-spectroscopy studies of thin layers of tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a representative semiconducting dichalcogenide with a bandgap in the visible spectral range. At the edges of WSe2 flakes (transferred onto Si/SiO2 substrates) we discover centres that, at low temperatures, give rise to sharp emission lines (100 μeV linewidth). These narrow emission lines reveal the effect of photon antibunching, the unambiguous attribute of single photon emitters. The optical response of these emitters is inherently linked to the two-dimensional properties of the WSe2 monolayer, as they both give rise to luminescence in the same energy range, have nearly identical excitation spectra and have very similar, characteristically large Zeeman effects. With advances in the structural control of edge imperfections, thin films of WSe2 may provide added functionalities that are relevant for the domain of quantum optoelectronics.
Secure satellite communication using multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Punekar, Nikhil; Verma, Pramode K.
2015-09-01
This paper proposes and analyzes the potential of a multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol to secure satellite communication. For securing satellite communication, quantum cryptography is the only known unconditionally secure method. A number of recent experiments have shown feasibility of satellite-aided global quantum key distribution (QKD) using different methods such as: Use of entangled photon pairs, decoy state methods, and entanglement swapping. The use of single photon in these methods restricts the distance and speed over which quantum cryptography can be applied. Contemporary quantum cryptography protocols like the BB84 and its variants suffer from the limitation of reaching the distances of only Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at the data rates of few kilobits per second. This makes it impossible to develop a general satellite-based secure global communication network using the existing protocols. The method proposed in this paper allows secure communication at the heights of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The benefits of the proposed method are two-fold: First it enables the realization of a secure global communication network based on satellites and second it provides unconditional security for satellite networks at GEO heights. The multi-photon approach discussed in this paper ameliorates the distance and speed issues associated with quantum cryptography through the use of contemporary laser communication (lasercom) devices. This approach can be seen as a step ahead towards global quantum communication.
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector.
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja
2014-01-01
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors. PMID:24517746
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja
2014-01-01
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector
Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja
2014-01-15
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector.
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja
2014-01-01
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.
Impossibility of faithfully storing single photons with the three-pulse photon echo
Sangouard, Nicolas; Minar, Jiri; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas; Riedmatten, Hugues de; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang; Chaneliere, Thierry; Le Goueet, Jean-Louis
2010-06-15
The three-pulse photon echo is a well-known technique to store intense light pulses in an inhomogeneously broadened atomic ensemble. This protocol is attractive because it is relatively simple and it is well suited for the storage of multiple temporal modes. Furthermore, it offers very long storage times, greater than the phase relaxation time. Here, we consider the three-pulse photon echo in both two- and three-level systems as a potential technique for the storage of light at the single-photon level. By explicit calculations, we show that the ratio between the echo signal corresponding to a single-photon input and the noise is smaller than one. This severely limits the achievable fidelity of the quantum state storage, making the three-pulse photon echo unsuitable for single-photon quantum memory.
Reading boundless error-free bits using a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2013-06-01
We address the problem of how efficiently information can be encoded into and read out reliably from a passive reflective surface that encodes classical data by modulating the amplitude and phase of incident light. We show that nature imposes no fundamental upper limit to the number of bits that can be read per expended probe photon and demonstrate the quantum-information-theoretic trade-offs between the photon efficiency (bits per photon) and the encoding efficiency (bits per pixel) of optical reading. We show that with a coherent-state (ideal laser) source, an on-off (amplitude-modulation) pixel encoding, and shot-noise-limited direct detection (an overly optimistic model for commercial CD and DVD drives), the highest photon efficiency achievable in principle is about 0.5 bits read per transmitted photon. We then show that a coherent-state probe can read unlimited bits per photon when the receiver is allowed to make joint (inseparable) measurements on the reflected light from a large block of phase-modulated memory pixels. Finally, we show an example of a spatially entangled nonclassical light probe and a receiver design—constructible using a single-photon source, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors—that can in principle read any number of error-free bits of information. The probe is a single photon prepared in a uniform coherent superposition of multiple orthogonal spatial modes, i.e., a W state. The code and joint-detection receiver complexity required by a coherent-state transmitter to achieve comparable photon efficiency performance is shown to be much higher in comparison to that required by the W-state transceiver, although this advantage rapidly disappears with increasing loss in the system.
Advantages of gated silicon single photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legré, Matthieu; Lunghi, Tommaso; Stucki, Damien; Zbinden, Hugo
2013-05-01
We present gated silicon single photon detectors based on two commercially available avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one customised APD from ID Quantique SA. This customised APD is used in a commercially available device called id110. A brief comparison of the two commercial APDs is presented. Then, the charge persistence effect of all of those detectors that occurs just after a strong illumination is shown and discussed.
Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode
Lee, Changhyuk Johnson, Ben Molnar, Alyosha
2015-06-08
An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.
Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Changhyuk; Johnson, Ben; Molnar, Alyosha
2015-06-01
An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.
Evanescent wave of a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongrui
2013-07-01
A photon model is proposed, and the parameter equations of the photon are obtained. This model can explain the polarization, total reflection, evanescent wave, and Goos-Hanchen shift of a single photon. The evanescent waves of photons with different frequencies are refractively dispersed. The Goos-Hanchen shift is dependent on the difference between the two refractive indices of media, the incident angle, and the frequency of the photon. According to this model, an evanescent wave of light does not decay exponentially along the z direction and does not propagate along the x direction infinitely. The laws of refraction and reflection for a single photon can be derived. The refractive dispersion of light can be explained. According to this model, every photon is polarized. Polarization is the intrinsic nature of the photon. The motion of a single photon is either clockwise or counterclockwise. The so-called unpolarized light refers to light that consists of an equal number of photons with clockwise motion and counterclockwise motion. The trajectories of two photons with the same frequency but opposite spiral directions are mirror-image isomers. They cannot be superimposed upon each other.
Electroluminescence from a single InGaN quantum dot in the green spectral region up to 150 K.
Kalden, J; Tessarek, C; Sebald, K; Figge, S; Kruse, C; Hommel, D; Gutowski, J
2010-01-01
We present electrically driven luminescence from single InGaN quantum dots embedded into a light emitting diode structure grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Single sharp emission lines in the green spectral region can be identified. Temperature dependent measurements demonstrate thermal stability of the emission of a single quantum dot up to 150 K. These results are an important step towards applications like electrically driven single-photon emitters, which are a basis for applications incorporating plastic optical fibers as well as for modern concepts of free space quantum cryptography. PMID:19946174