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Sample records for sio2 film induced

  1. Nanoscale Laser-Induced Spallation in SiO2 Films Containing Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashov, S.I.; Allen, S.D.; Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2006-02-16

    A phenomenological theory of ultraviolet pulsed-laser-induced spallation is proposed to interpret crater formation in SiO2 thin films containing absorbing 18.5-nm gold particles. The theory considers a spherical thermoacoustic stress wave propagating from a thermal source produced by laser-energy absorption inside the particle and surrounding ionized volume. Calculations show that the tensile stress associated with such an acoustic wave may exceed the local strength of the material and cause fracture and spallation of the top film portion. The theory provides an explanation of the experimentally observed complex (two-cone) shape of craters formed in the film with particle-lodging depth exceeding 110 nm. Theoretical estimates for the threshold stress amplitude and peak temperature in the thermal source are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. PECVD grown SiO2 film process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Song; Jie, Lian; Gao, Shang; Li, Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Shiliang; Ma, Zheng

    2011-02-01

    SiO2 films have been widely applied in the production of electronic devices, integrated devices, optical thin film devices, sensors because of their desirable properties, such as good insulation, high light transmittance, strong corrosion resistance, good dielectric properties, etc. Amorphous silicon dioxide was fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical deposition on GaAs substrate. The thickness and refractive index are obtained by optical transmittance of the film, which are measured by ellipsometer. The deposition rate of the film and the refractive index are studied at different time, pressure, and the ratio of SiH4/N2O. The SiO2 thin film growth rate remained basically unchanged versus time. The reaction chamber pressure, which make the SiO2 thin film growth rate getting the peak, should be about 105Pa. But the SiO2 thin film growth rate and the refractive index are anti-related. The enormous changes of the gas flow rate do not have huge impact to the response rate. However, the refractive index of SiO2 thin film changed greatly when the SiH4flow increased the refractive index of the thin films is highest when the ratio of SiH4/N2O is 200:20

  3. Influence of outgassing organic contamination on the transmittance and laser-induced damage of SiO2 sol-gel antireflection film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Xiang, Xia; Miao, Xinxiang; Li, Zhijie; Zhou, Guorui.; Yan, Zhonghua; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zheng, Wanguo; Zu, Xiaotao

    2015-12-01

    The influence of organic contamination (rubber outgassing) on the transmittance of the SiO2 sol-gel antireflection (AR) film and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at 355 nm for 3ω AR film and at 1064 nm for 1ω AR film is studied. The correlation between the contamination time and the transmittance loss/LIDT of 1ω/3ω AR film is also investigated both in atmospheric and vacuum environments. The results show that the transmittance loss increases with increasing contamination time, and the LIDT decreases with increasing contamination time for both in atmospheric and vacuum environments. In addition, the resistance against contamination of the 1ω film is stronger than 3ω film, and the contamination is more serious in vacuum than in an atmosphere environment for the same contamination time. Meanwhile, the damage mechanism is also discussed. It indicated that both the porous structure and photo-thermal absorption contribute to the decreasing LIDT of the sol-gel AR film.

  4. Electron beam induced damage in PECVD Si3N4 and SiO2 films on InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantic, Dragan M.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Young, Paul G.; Williams, Wallace D.; Dickman, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphorus rich plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films on n-type indium phosphide (InP) substrates were exposed to electron beam irradiation in the 5 to 40 keV range for the purpose of characterizing the damage induced in the dielectic. The electron beam exposure was on the range of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -3) C/sq cm. The damage to the devices was characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. These results were compared to results obtained for radiation damage of thermal silicon dioxide on silicon (Si) MOS capacitors with similar exposures. The radiation induced damage in the PECVD silicon nitride films on InP was successfully annealed out in an hydrogen/nitrogen (H2/N2) ambient at 400 C for 15 min. The PECVD silicon dioxide films on InP had the least radiation damage, while the thermal silicon dioxide films on Si had the most radiation damage.

  5. Large Electric Field–Enhanced–Hardness Effect in a SiO2 Film

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, Reynier I.; Li, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Yan-Lian; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films are extensively used in nano and micro–electromechanical systems. Here we studied the influence of an external electric field on the mechanical properties of a SiO2 film by using nanoindentation technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force microscopy (FFM). A giant augmentation of the relative elastic modulus was observed by increasing the localized electric field. A slight decrease in friction coefficients was also clearly observed by using FFM with the increase of applied tip voltage. The reduction of the friction coefficients is consistent with the great enhancement of sample hardness by considering the indentation–induced deformation during the friction measurements. PMID:24681517

  6. Effects of thermal annealing on photoluminescence of Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-Yu; Chao, Der-Sheng; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of photoluminescence (PL) originating from Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 are still unclear and need to be clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study is to thoroughly investigate the effects of ion implantation and post-annealing temperature on microstructures and PL characteristics of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. A comparative analysis was also conducted to clarify the different optical properties between the Si+ and Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. In this study, thermally-grown SiO2 films on Si substrates were used as the matrix materials. The Si+ ions and C+ ions were separately implanted into the SiO2 films at room temperature. After ion implantation, the post-annealing treatments were carried out using the furnace annealing (FA) method at various temperatures (600-1100 °C) for 1 h in a N2 ambient. The PL characteristics of the implanted SiO2 films were analyzed using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the distinct PL peaks were observed at approximately 310, 450 and 650 nm in the Si+-implanted SiO2 films, which can be attributed to the defects, the so-called oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs), in the materials. In contrast to the Si+ ion implantation, the SiO2 films which were sequentially implanted with Si+ and C+ ions and annealed at 1100 °C can emit white light corresponding to the PL peaks located at around 420, 520 and 720 nm, those can be assigned to the Si-C bonding, C-C graphite-like structure (sp2), and Si nanocrystals, respectively. Moreover, a correlation between the optical properties, microstructures, and bonding configurations of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films was also established in this study.

  7. Highly Luminescent Hybrid SiO2-Coated CdTe Quantum Dots Retained Initial Photoluminescence Efficiency in Sol-Gel SiO2 Film.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongsheng; Xing, Yugui; Wu, Qinan; Yang, Ping

    2015-02-01

    A highly luminescent silica film was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) through a controlled sol-gel reaction. The pre-hydrolysis of TEOS and APS which resulted in the mixture of TEOS and APS in a molecular level is a key for the formation of homogenous films. The aminopropyl groups in APS play an important role for obtaining homogeneous film with high photoluminescence (PL). Red-emitting hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nano-crystals (NCs) were fabricated by a two-step synthesis including a thin SiO2 coating via a sol-gel process and a subsequent refluxing using green-emitting CdTe NCs. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs were embedded in a functional SiO2 film via a two-step process including adding the NCs in SiO2 sol with a high viscosity and almost without ethanol and a subsequent spinning coating. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs retained their initial PL efficiency (54%) in the film. Being encapsulated with the hybrid NCs in the film, no change on the absorption and PL spectra of red-emitting CdTe NCs (632 nm) was observed. This indicates the hybrid NCs is stable enough during preparation. This phenomenon is ascribed to the controlled sol-gel process and a hybrid SiO2 shell on CdTe NCs. Because these films exhibited high PL efficiency and stability, they will be utilizable for potential applications in many fields.

  8. Charge trapping studies in SiO2 using high current injection from Si-rich SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaria, D. J.; Ghez, R.; Dong, D. W.

    1980-09-01

    The high electron injection phenomenon of Si-rich SiO2 films deposited on top of SiO2 can be used for novel charge trapping studies of sites normally present or purposely introduced in the SiO2. From the position and extent of current ledges observed in dark current as a function of ramped gate voltage, the capture cross section and total number of traps can be determined. Using these measurements with capacitance as a function of gate voltage, the trap distribution centroid and number of trapped charges can also be found. Several experimental examples are given including trapping in thermal SiO2, in chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiO2, and on W, less than a monolayer thick, sandwiched between thermal and CVD SiO2. These stepped insulator metal-insulator-silicon (SI-MIS) ramp I-V results for the trapping parameters are shown to be in good agreement with those determined using the conventional photo I-V and avalanche injection with flat-band voltage tracking techniques. A numerical simulation of the ramp I-V measurements, assuming electric field-enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at the Si-rich-SiO2-SiO2 interface, is described and is shown to give good agreement with the experimental data. These techniques for SI-MIS structures are faster and easier, although less accurate than the conventional techniques.

  9. Comparative study of Laser induce damage of HfO2/SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 mirrors at 1064 nm.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hongfei; Ding, Tao; Zhang, Qian

    2011-02-28

    A comparative study of laser induced damage of HfO2/SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 mirrors at 1064 nm has been carried out. One TiO2/SiO2 mirror with absorption of 300 ppm and two HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with absorption of 40 and 4.5 ppm were fabricated using electron beam evaporation method. For r-on-1 test, all HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with low average absorption are above 150 J/cm2 at 10 ns. However, the TiO2/SiO2 mirrors with high average absorption are just 9.5 J/cm2, which are probably due to the rather high absorption and rather low band gap energy. Meanwhile, all the samples were irradiated from front and back side respectively using the raster scan test mode. In case of front side irradiation, it is found that: for TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors, the representative damage morphologies are shallow pits that were probably caused by absorbing centers. However, for HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors, the dominant damage morphologies are micrometer-sized nodules ejected pits and the delamination initiating from the pits. The absorption of HfO2/SiO2 coatings is low enough to have minor influence on the laser damage resistance. In case of backside irradiation, the morphology of TiO2/SiO2 mirrors is mainly center melted pits that are thermal melting induced damage. Meanwhile, HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with isometrical fracture rings damage morphology are thermal induced stress damage.

  10. Ion assisted deposition of SiO2 film from silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan. H.; Dang, Cu. X.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon dioxide, SiO2, is one of the preferred low index materials for optical thin film technology. It is often deposited by electron beam evaporation source with less porosity and scattering, relatively durable and can have a good laser damage threshold. Beside these advantages the deposition of critical optical thin film stacks with silicon dioxide from an E-gun was severely limited by the stability of the evaporation pattern or angular distribution of the material. The even surface of SiO2 granules in crucible will tend to develop into groove and become deeper with the evaporation process. As the results, angular distribution of the evaporation vapor changes in non-predicted manner. This report presents our experiments to apply Ion Assisted Deposition process to evaporate silicon in a molten liquid form. By choosing appropriate process parameters we can get SiO2 film with good and stable property.

  11. Electron radiation effects on time-dependent dielectric breakdown in SiO2 films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. P.; Maserjian, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment testing the effect of ionizing radiation on breakdown characteristics of SiO2 films is presented. Silicon wafers were oxidized and metallized, and a capacitor array was etched into a control sample while the rest were first irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and then etched. Time-dependent dielectric tests were made on all the capacitors, and the average characteristics of 96 capacitors are illustrated graphically. The curves are consistent with the model of holes trapped in the SiO2 film during irradiation leading to a retarding field for positive ion emission and drift toward the interface. It is shown how an externally applied field is reduced by the trapped charge, and that changes in the dielectric breakdown properties of the SiO2 film after irradiation depend on the positive trapped charge near the metal interface.

  12. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E.-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  13. The electro-optical behavior of liquid crystal molecules on the surface of SiO2 inorganic thin films.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shi-Joon; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Do, Yun Seon; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Byeong-Dae

    2009-12-01

    Inorganic thin films are well known for the liquid crystal alignment layers for LCoS application due to the higher thermal and photochemical stability of inorganic materials. The switching time of liquid crystals is the important factor for the projection application and the faster switching time is required for the high quality display. The switching behavior of liquid crystal molecules on inorganic thin films might be closely related with the surface properties of the inorganic thin films. Therefore the understanding of surface properties of the inorganic thin films is required for the enhancement of the switching time of liquid crystals of LCoS devices. In this work, we prepared the SiO2 inorganic thin films and the electro-optical behavior of liquid crystal molecules on SiO2 thin film was investigated. The sputtering condition of SiO2 thin film was closely related with the thickness and the surface morphology of SiO2 thin film. The switching time of liquid crystals with negative dielectric constant on SiO2 inorganic thin films was dominantly affected by the size of protrusion on the surface of SiO2 thin film and the surface roughness of SiO2 thin film was also related with the switching time of liquid crystals. From these results, it is possible to prepare the SiO2 inorganic thin film suitable for the liquid crystal alignment layer for VAN LC mode.

  14. Photoluminescence of SiO2 nanocomposite films implanted with Si+ and C+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntov, E. A.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Bokizoda, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article is devoted to the photoluminescence (PL) of quantum dots in ion-beam synthesized SiO2:Si, SiO2:C and SiO2:Si:C thin film systems and its sensitization problem. Within the shape of the broad PL spectra for ion-modified films the bands corresponding to silicon and carbon-containing nanoclusters are detected, both with elementary (Si, C) and binary (SiC) composition. Various luminescence decay times of such components point to differences in the nature of the disorder and the local environment of the corresponding luminescence centers. The results indicate the possibility of controlling the spectral composition of the PL by varying the heat treatment conditions, and the dose of ion implantation. Possible ways are proposed for sensitization of the luminescence by means of molecular ions.

  15. FePt films on self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D.; Brombacher, C.; Liscio, F.; Maret, M.; Parlinska, M.; Meier, S.; Kappenberger, P.; Albrecht, M.

    2008-03-01

    Chemically L10 ordered (001) textured FePt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can be grown on amorphous planar SiO2 substrate with an underlayer stack of [Pt (3nm )/Cr (50nm)] adopting a [002] orientation when deposited at 350°C. This knowledge of optimum layer stack was transferred to self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays. While 330nm SiO2 particle arrays reveal perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a remanence of almost one and a coercivity of 370mT, on 160nm particles, the FePt caps show a (111) texturing, leading to the random orientation of the easy axis of the magnetization.

  16. Electrical switching in sol-gel derived Ag -SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, D. K.; Cloutier, F.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2005-04-01

    The sol-gel technique has been used to produce Ag -SiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of silver nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 matrix. The size of the silver nanoparticles is of about (4±0.2)nm when the firing temperature is in the (500-700°C ) range, as determined from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. The increase of the firing temperature beyond 300°C, was found to lead to an outer diffusion of Ag toward the surface. As a consequence the surface atomic concentration of Ag is found to increase from 1.3% to 12% for the as-dried (at 120°C) and for those further fired at 600°C, respectively. On the other hand, it is shown that the electrical behavior of these Ag -SiO2 nanocomposite films can drastically change from highly insulating to conducting depending on the firing temperature used. In the intermediate firing temperature (300-400°C) range, the films were found to exhibit a reversible switching behavior with a resistivity transition of about 7 orders of magnitude between the insulating (OFF) and the conducting (ON) state. Such an electrical switching could be explained by a change in the predominant conduction mechanism of the films.

  17. Direct fabrication of graphene on SiO2 enabled by thin film stress engineering

    PubMed Central

    McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Copic, Davor; Laye, Fabrice R.; Prohoda, Christophor; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna C.; Polsen, Erik S.; Dee, Nicholas T.; Veerasamy, Vijayen S.; Hart, A. John

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate direct production of graphene on SiO2 by CVD growth of graphene at the interface between a Ni film and the SiO2 substrate, followed by dry mechanical delamination of the Ni using adhesive tape. This result is enabled by understanding of the competition between stress evolution and microstructure development upon annealing of the Ni prior to the graphene growth step. When the Ni film remains adherent after graphene growth, the balance between residual stress and adhesion governs the ability to mechanically remove the Ni after the CVD process. In this study the graphene on SiO2 comprises micron-scale domains, ranging from monolayer to multilayer. The graphene has >90% coverage across centimeter-scale dimensions, limited by the size of our CVD chamber. Further engineering of the Ni film microstructure and stress state could enable manufacturing of highly uniform interfacial graphene followed by clean mechanical delamination over practically indefinite dimensions. Moreover, our findings suggest that preferential adhesion can enable production of 2-D materials directly on application-relevant substrates. This is attractive compared to transfer methods, which can cause mechanical damage and leave residues behind. PMID:24854632

  18. Effects of Mev Si Ions and Thermal Annealing on Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Ge Multi-nanolayer thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, S.; Alim, M. A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Muntele, C.

    Thermoelectric generator devices have been prepared from 200 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Ge superlattice films using DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The 5 MeV Si ionsbombardmenthasbeen performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to formquantum dots and / or quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross-plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and increase the cross-plane electrical conductivity to increase the figure of merit, ZT. The fabricated devices have been annealed at the different temperatures to tailor the thermoelectric and optical properties of the superlattice thin film systems. While the temperature increased, the Seebeck coefficient continued to increase and reached the maximum value of -25 μV/K at the fluenceof 5x1013 ions/cm2. The decrease in resistivity has been seen between the fluence of 1x1013 ions/cm2 and 5x1013 ions/cm2. Transport properties like Hall coefficient, density and mobility did not change at all fluences. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the multi-junction thermoelectric devices. The loci obtained in the C*-plane for these data indicate non-Debye type relaxation displaying the presence of the depression parameter.

  19. Active Antifogging Property of Monolayer SiO2 Film with Bioinspired Multiscale Hierarchical Pagoda Structures.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Li, Bo; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2016-09-27

    Antifogging surfaces with hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic wetting behavior have received significant attention due to their ability to reduce light scattering by film-like condensation. However, a major challenge remains in achieving high-speed antifogging performance and revealing the hydrophilic-based antifogging mechanism of glass or other transparent materials under aggressive fogging conditions. Herein, with inspiration from the fog-free property of the typical Morpho menelaus terrestris butterfly (Butler, 1866) wing scales, a monolayer SiO2 film with multiscale hierarchical pagoda structures (MHPSs) based on glass substrate was designed and fabricated using an optimized biotemplate-assisted wet chemical method without any post-treatments. The biomimetic monolayer film (BMF) composed of nanoscale SiO2 3D networks displayed excellent antifogging properties, which is superior to that of the glass substrate itself. The MHPS-based BMF even kept high transmittance (∼95%) under aggressive fog conditions, and it almost instantaneously recovered to a fog-free state (<5 s). Moreover, the underlying active antifogging strategy gathering initial fog capture and final antifog together was revealed. The fogdrops spontaneously adhered on the BMF surface and rapidly spread along the MHPSs in an anisotropic way, which made the fogdrops evaporate instantaneously to attain an initial fog-free state, leading to an efficient active antifogging performance. These properties mainly benefit from the synergistic effect of both hydrophilic chemical compositions (nanoscale SiO2) and physical structures (biomimetic MHPSs) of the BMF. High-speed active antifogging performance of the glass materials enabled the retention of a high transmittance property even in humid conditions, heralding reliable optical performance in outdoor practical applications, especially in aggressive foggy environments. More importantly, the investigations in this work offer a promising way to handily

  20. TiO2 nanoparticles doped SiO2 films with ordered mesopore channels: a catalytic nanoreactor.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jony; Mitra, Anuradha; Dandapat, Anirban; De, Goutam

    2014-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) incorporated ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous silica (SiO2) films on a glass substrate were fabricated for use as a catalytic nanoreactor. Films were prepared using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) derived SiO2 sol and a commercially available dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence of pluronic P123 as the structure directing agent. The effect of TiO2 doping (4-10 mol% with respect to the equivalent SiO2) into the ordered mesoporous SiO2 matrix was thoroughly investigated. The undoped SiO2 film showed a mesostructural transformation after heat-treatment at 350 °C whereas incorporation of TiO2 restricted such a transformation. Among all the TiO2 incorporated films, TEM showed that the 7 equivalent mol% TiO2 doped SiO2 film (ST-7) had an optimal composition which could retain the more organized 2D hexagonal (space group p6mm)-like mesostructures after heat-treatment. The catalytic activities of the TiO2 doped (4-10 mol%) films were investigated for the reduction of toxic KMnO4 in an aqueous medium. ST-7 film showed the maximum catalytic activity, as well as reusability. A TEM study on the resultant solution after KMnO4 reduction revealed the formation of MnO2 nanowires. It was understood that the embedded TiO2 NPs bonded SiO2 matrix increased the surface hydroxyl groups of the composite films resulting in the generation of acidic sites. The catalytic process can be explained by this enhanced surface acidity. The mesoporous channel of the ST-7 films with TiO2 doping can be used as a nanoreactor to form extremely thin MnO2 nanowires.

  1. Controlling the defects and transition layer in SiO2 films grown on 4H-SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Cho, Sang W.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Suh, Dongchan; Kim, Sunjung; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The structural stability and electrical performance of SiO2 grown on SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation were investigated. To investigate the changes in the electronic structure and electrical characteristics caused by the interfacial reaction between the SiO2 film (thickness ~5 nm) and SiC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electrical measurements were performed. The SiO2 films grown via direct plasma-assisted oxidation at room temperature for 300s exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of silicon oxycarbides (SiOxCy) in the transition layer compared to that of conventionally grown (i.e., thermally grown) SiO2 films. Moreover, the plasma-assisted SiO2 films exhibited enhanced electrical characteristics, such as reduced frequency dispersion, hysteresis, and interface trap density (Dit ≈ 1011 cm‑2 · eV‑1). In particular, stress induced leakage current (SILC) characteristics showed that the generation of defect states can be dramatically suppressed in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures with plasma-assisted oxide layer due to the formation of stable Si-O bonds and the reduced concentrations of SiOxCy species defect states in the transition layer. That is, energetically stable interfacial states of high quality SiO2 on SiC can be obtained by the controlling the formation of SiOxCy through the highly reactive direct plasma-assisted oxidation process.

  2. Controlling the defects and transition layer in SiO2 films grown on 4H-SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Cho, Sang W.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Suh, Dongchan; Kim, Sunjung; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The structural stability and electrical performance of SiO2 grown on SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation were investigated. To investigate the changes in the electronic structure and electrical characteristics caused by the interfacial reaction between the SiO2 film (thickness ~5 nm) and SiC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electrical measurements were performed. The SiO2 films grown via direct plasma-assisted oxidation at room temperature for 300s exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of silicon oxycarbides (SiOxCy) in the transition layer compared to that of conventionally grown (i.e., thermally grown) SiO2 films. Moreover, the plasma-assisted SiO2 films exhibited enhanced electrical characteristics, such as reduced frequency dispersion, hysteresis, and interface trap density (Dit ≈ 1011 cm−2 · eV−1). In particular, stress induced leakage current (SILC) characteristics showed that the generation of defect states can be dramatically suppressed in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures with plasma-assisted oxide layer due to the formation of stable Si-O bonds and the reduced concentrations of SiOxCy species defect states in the transition layer. That is, energetically stable interfacial states of high quality SiO2 on SiC can be obtained by the controlling the formation of SiOxCy through the highly reactive direct plasma-assisted oxidation process. PMID:27721493

  3. Preparation and characterization of transparent hydrophilic photocatalytic TiO2/SiO2 thin films on polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Fateh, Razan; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef

    2013-03-19

    Transparent hydrophilic photocatalytic TiO2 coatings have been widely applied to endow the surfaces self-cleaning properties. A mixed metal oxide (TiO2/SiO2) can enhance the photocatalytic performance improving the ability of surface adsorption and increasing the amount of hydroxyl surface groups. The present work introduces a systematic study concerning the effect of the SiO2 addition to TiO2 films on the wettability, the photocatalytic activity, the adhesion strength, and the mechanical stability of the films. Transparent hydrophilic photocatalytic TiO2/SiO2 thin films were used to coat the polycarbonate (PC) substrate which was precoated by an intermediate SiO2 layer. The TiO2/SiO2 thin film was prepared employing a bulk TiO2 powder (Sachtleben Hombikat UV 100) and different molar ratios of tetraethoxysilane in acidic ethanol. A dip-coating process was used to deposit the films onto the polycarbonate substrate. The films were characterized by UV/vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, ellipsometry, BET, AFM, XRD, and water contact angle measurements. The mechanical stability and the UV resistance were examined. The photocatalytic activity of the coated surface was calculated from the kinetic analysis of methylene blue photodegradation measurements and compared with the photocatalytic activity of Pilkington Activ sheet glass. The coated surfaces displayed considerable photocatalytic activity and superhydrophilicity after exposure to UV light. The addition of SiO2 results in an improvement of the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 film reaching the highest value at molar ratio TiO2/SiO2 equal to 1:0.9. The prepared films exhibit a good stability against UV(A) irradiation.

  4. Strong-field-induced attosecond dynamics in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, M.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sommer, A.; Holzner, S.; Fiess, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Kienberger, R.; Apalkov, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Stockman, M. I.; Krausz, F.

    2013-03-01

    Striking field-induced changes in the absorption near the Si L-edge of SiO2 exposed to a near-infrared laser field of several V/Å delivered by a few-cycle pulse are observed with sub-100 attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by means of attosecond transient absorption.

  5. Amorphous SnO2-SiO2 thin films with reticular porous morphology for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Chen, L. B.; Li, C. C.; Wang, T. H.

    2008-12-01

    Amorphous SnO2-SiO2 thin films with reticular porous morphology were fabricated by electrostatic spray deposition method for lithium-ion batteries. An initial discharge capacity of the SnO2-SiO2 electrodes with 15% of SiO2 was about 1271 mA h/g, and the reversible capacity stayed in the range of 869-501 mA h/g during the successive 100 cycles, but only 1141 and 694-174 mA h/g for the pure SnO2 electrodes. The high capacity was attributed to the addition of SiO2, which facilitated the formation of the Li-Sn alloy. The improved cycle performance was due to reticular porous structure, which accommodated the volume change during cycling.

  6. An Interfacial Europium Complex on SiO2 Nanoparticles: Reduction-Induced Blue Emission System

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Ayumi; Hasegawa, Miki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Eu-coated SiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared, consisting of an interfacial complex of Eu and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at the solid surfaces of the SiO2/Eu nanostructures. The as-prepared SiO2/Eu/phen nanoparticles exhibits sharp red emission via energy transfer from the phen to the EuIII. After sintering at 200 °C in air, the emission is tuned from red to blue. The blue emission is originated from EuII. This reduction-induced emissive phenomenon resulted from the electron-donating environment created by the surrounding phen and SiO2, which is the first reported fabrication of a stable EuII-based emissive material using mild conditions (reaction in air and at low temperature) and an organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure. The existence of two different stable oxidation states with characteristic emissions, blue emissive EuII and red emissive EuIII, suggests significant potential applications as novel luminescent materials with inorganic-organic hybrid structures. PMID:26122318

  7. Electron-beam-induced formation mechanisms for Ti2O3-SiO2 composite nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Yang, Dae Jin; Lee, Seok-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jo; Yun, Dong Yeol; Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-09-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with high crystallinity were embedded in the SiO2 matrix by electrospining and calcining. As-calcined TiO2-SiO2 nanofibers were transformed into Ti2O3-SiO2 nanofibers owing to in situ electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope. The microstructural properties and the mechanisms of electron-beam-induced formation of Ti2O3-SiO2 composite nanofibers were described on the basis of the obtained high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, fast-Fourier-transformed patterns, and energy dispersive spectroscopy profiles.

  8. Optical characterization of SiO2 thin films using universal dispersion model over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Giglia, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Vacuum evaporated SiO2 thin films are very important in a design and manufacturing of optical devices produced in optics industry. In this contribution a reliable and precise optical characterization of such SiO2 thin films is performed using the combined method of spectrophotometry at normal incidence and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry applied over spectral range from far IR to extreme UV (0.01-45 eV). This method uses the Universal Dispersion Model based on parametrization of the joint density of states and structural model comprising film defects such as nanometric boundary roughness, inhomogeneity and area non-uniformity. The optical characterization over the wide spectral range provides not only the spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the films within the wide range but, more significantly, it enables their correct and precise determination within the spectral range of interest, i.e. the range of their transparency. Furthermore, measurements in the ranges of film absorption, i. e. phonon excitations in IR and electron excitations in UV, reveal information about the material structure. The results of the optical characterization of the SiO2 thin films prepared on silicon single crystal substrates under various technological conditions are presented in detail for two selected samples. Beside film thicknesses and values of dispersion parameters and spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the SiO2 films, the characterization also enables quantification of film defects and their parameters are presented as well. The results concerning the optical constants of SiO2 films are compared with silica optical constants determined in our earlier studies.

  9. Absorption enhancement in thin film a-Si solar cells with double-sided SiO2 particle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Le; Wang, Qing-Kang; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Wen; Huang, Kun; Liu, Dai-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Light absorption enhancement is very important for improving the power conversion efficiency of a thin film a-Si solar cell. In this paper, a thin-film a-Si solar cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers is designed, and then the underlying mechanism of absorption enhancement is investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation; finally the feasible experimental scheme for preparing the SiO2 particle layer is discussed. It is found that the top and bottom SiO2 particle layers play an important role in anti-reflection and light trapping, respectively. The light absorption of the cell with double-sided SiO2 layers greatly increases in a wavelength range of 300 nm-800 nm, and the ultimate efficiency increases more than 22% compared with that of the flat device. The cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers reported here can be used in varieties of thin film solar cells to further improve their performances. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050518), the University Research Program of Guangxi Education Department, China (Grant No. LX2014288), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2013GXNSBA019014).

  10. Infrared Optical Response from nb on SiO2 Ultrathin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, R.

    Oscillations in the infrared reflectance from metallic ultrathin films are described as consequence of quantum size effects. In this contribution, we present experimental evidence of such oscillations for Nb ultrathin films deposited on α-type SiO2 substrates. Also, it is shown how substrates influence the size effects and the amplitude but not the period of oscillations. Because of the strong influence from the chosen substrate due to absorption, IR reflectivity was fitted to the optical response of our metal-substrate and bare-substrate system by using the three-oscillator model and numerical calculations on the basis of the local field calculation for a single metallic quantum well. Although quantum size effects are well studied in semiconductor compounds, there are few studies of this effect in metallic films where the present investigation has its most important contribution. Measurements for p-polarized reflectance (Rp) are made using a tunable p-polarized CO2 waveguide laser using wavelengths from the p-branch (9.4 to 9.7 μm) and R-branch (10.0 to 10.4 μm). Nb/SiO2 ultrathin films were assembled by a conventional RF sputtering technique and tailored thicknesses were deposited from 5.5 to 55 Å.

  11. Characterization and tribological investigation of SiO 2 and La 2O 3 sol-gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenguang; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Chengtao

    2001-12-01

    Thin films of SiO 2 and La 2O 3 were prepared on a glass substrate by a dip-coating process from specially formulated sols. The tribological properties of the resulting thin films sliding against a Si 3N 4 ball were evaluated on a one-way reciprocating friction and wear tester. The morphologies of the unworn and worn surfaces of the films were examined by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). La 2O 3 shows the best tribological performance. The coefficient of friction is about 0.1 and the wear life is over 5000 sliding passes both under higher (3 N) and lower load (1 N). The SiO 2 film derived from a specially formulated aqueous solution shows much better performance in resisting wear and reducing friction than the one derived from an ethanol solution. The wear mechanisms of the films are discussed based on SEM observation of the worn surface morphologies. SEM observation of the morphologies of worn surfaces indicates that the worn surface of La 2O 3 is too slight to be observed by SEM. The wear of SiO 2 derived from TEOS solution is the characteristic of delaminating, which is responsible for the abrupt failure of the film. The wear of SiO 2 derived from aqueous solution is the characteristic of fracture. Brittle fracture and severe abrasion dominate the wear of glass substrate.

  12. DIET in the bulk: evidence for hot electron cleavage of SiH bonds in SiO 2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennison, D. R.; Sullivan, J. P.; Schultz, P. A.; Sears, M. P.; Stechel, E. B.

    1997-11-01

    The observed increase in leakage current through SiO 2 films after hot electron exposure is ascribed to dissociation induced by electronic transitions ("DIET") of bulk SiH bonds, producing mobile hydrogen. We use ab initio supercell bandstructure calculations at the local density functional level to locate features produced by hydrogen-containing defects in α-SiO 2. The edge of the SiH σ∗ resonance is found to be about 2.7 eV above the conduction band rise, in good agreement with the observed threshold for hot electron induced damage in amorphous SiO 2 films grown on Si substrates. The OH σ∗ resonance is almost 4 eV higher. Removing H from OH in the supercell does not affect the gap region (O - forms); however, removing H from SiH produces a mid-gap state, suggesting leakage current by hopping conductivity between Si dangling bonds. A Morse potential model is used to explore the dynamics of bond scission by short-lived (<1 fs) hot electron σ∗ capture. Supercell calculations on interstitial atomic hydrogen indicate the energy cost to break an embedded SiH bond is about 0.6 eV less than in the gas phase. The DIET yield is substantially increased by reducing both ground and electron-attached state binding by this amount. While uncertainty over the displaced equilibrium in the electron-attached excited state remains, the computed DIET cross-section for reasonable parameters is ≈10 -18 cm 2, and is in agreement with the semi-empirically derived value for trap creation. Comparisons are made to surface DIET processes involving SiH bonds.

  13. Role of HfO2/SiO2 thin-film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed laser damage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papernov, Semyon; Kozlov, Alexei A.; Oliver, James B.; Smith, Chris; Jensen, Lars; Guenster, Stefan; Maedebach, Heinrich; Ristau, Detlev

    2016-07-15

    Here, the role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet (near-UV) absorption and pulsed laser-induced damage was studied for ion-beam-sputtered and electron-beam-evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similarmore » to a single-layer HfO2 film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-UV, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. The results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the codeposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.« less

  14. Synthis and Phisical And Chemical; Properties of SiO2 - B2O3 and SiO2 - P2O5 Thin Film Systems and Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'chik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Seregin, V. I.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kryuchkova, S. O.

    2016-08-01

    The SiO2 - B2O3 and SiO2 - P2O5 films were synthesized by using film forming solutions having a P2O5 content of up to 30% and B2O3 up to 40%. Properties of the filmforming solutions and binary oxides were examined. The physical and chemical processes occurring in the solution during the heat treatment of films were examined. The conditions for producing films of different thicknesses were determined. The kinetic parameters were calculated.

  15. Double-layered TiO2-SiO2 nanostructured films with self-cleaning and antireflective properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xintong; Fujishima, Akira; Jin, Ming; Emeline, Alexei V; Murakami, Taketoshi

    2006-12-21

    Dual function of self-cleaning and antireflection can be created in double-layered TiO2-SiO2 nanostructured films. The film were prepared by (1) layer-by-layer deposition of multilayered SiO2 nanoparticles with polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA) cations, (2) layer-by-layer deposition of multilayered titanate nanosheets with polications on PDDA/SiO2 multilayer films, and (3) burning out the polymer and converting titanate nanosheets into TiO2 by hearing at 500 degrees C. The as-prepared films, consisting of a porous SiO2 bottom layer and a dense TiO2 top layer, improved the transmittance of glass or quartz substrates, as demonstrated by transmission spectra collected at normal incidence. The photocatalytic properties of the films were studied by the change of the water contact angle together with the decay of the IR absorption of the hydrocarbon chain of octadecylphosphonic-acid-modified films under 2.6 mW cm-2 UV illumination. Both the antireflective and the photocatalytic properties of the films were dependent on the number of PDDA/nanosheet bilayers deposited. however, excellent surface wettability of the films for water was obtained, independent of the preparation conditions. The experimental findings are discussed in terms of the special structure of the double-layered nanostructured film.

  16. Solution-processed crack-free oxide films formed using SiO2 nanoparticles and organoalkoxysiloxane precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Moonkyong; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-07-01

    Crack-free uniform oxide films were deposited by spin-on-glass method using a mixture solution of organoalkoxysiloxane network former and SiO2 nanoparticles. In the range of molar ratio of SiO2 nanoparticles to oragnoalkoxysiloxanes between 0.6:1 and 1:1, stable sols were formed and smooth and uniform oxide films could be obtained. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical properties of the films, and we found that Sisbnd Osbnd Si structures were effectively formed via condensation reactions during curing at 150 °C. The effect of three different organic side groups in the organoalkoxsiloxane on the film properties was investigated. Precursors containing methyl groups effectively formed Sisbnd Osbnd Si network with SiO2 nanoparticles, which was confirmed by the increased intensity of the Sisbnd O asymmetric stretching mode at 1080 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectra. Smooth and continuous films were obtained using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups, with root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.05 nm (methyl precursor) and 1.16 nm (phenyl precursor). The shrinkage of the oxide film formed with phenyl groups was less than 1%. The dielectric properties of the oxide films were characterized, and we observed leakage currents in the range of 10-9 to 10-8 A/cm2 just prior to the dielectric breakdown with the films formed using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups

  17. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO2 nanogranular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ˜8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  18. Desorption induced by electronic transitions of Na from SiO2: relevance to tenuous planetary atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors have studied the desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) of Na adsorbed on model mineral surfaces, i.e. amorphous, stoichiometric SiO2 films. They find that electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of atomic Na occurs for electron energy thresholds as low as ≡4 eV, that desorption cross-sections are high (≡1×10-19cm2 at 11 eV), and that desorbing atoms are 'hot', with suprathermal velocities. The estimated Na desorption rate from the lunar surface via ESD by solar wind electrons is a small fraction of the rate needed to sustain the Na atmosphere. However, the solar photon flux at energies ≥5 eV exceeds the solar wind electron flux by orders of magnitude; there are sufficient ultraviolet photons incident on the lunar surface to contribute substantially to the lunar Na atmosphere via PSD of Na from the surface.

  19. Self-assembled dual in-plane gate thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conductors for logic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Sun, Jia; Wu, Guo Dong; Zhang, Hong Liang; Wan, Qing

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-doped nanogranular SiO(2) films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature, and a high proton conductivity of ~5.6 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) is measured at room temperature with a relative humidity of 70%. The accumulation of protons at the SiO(2)/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) interface induces a large electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with two in-plane gates are self-assembled on transparent conducting glass substrates. The large EDL capacitance can effectively modulate the IZO channel with a current ON/OFF ratio of >10(7). Such TFTs calculate dual input signals at the gate level coupled with a floating gate, analogous to that of neuron MOS (vMOS). AND logic is demonstrated on the neuron TFTs. Such neuron TFTs gated by P-doped nanogranular SiO(2) shows an effective electrostatic modulation on conductivities of oxide semiconductors, which is meaningful for portable chemical-biological sensing applications. PMID:23364424

  20. Self-assembled dual in-plane gate thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conductors for logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Sun, Jia; Wu, Guo Dong; Zhang, Hong Liang; Wan, Qing

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorus (P)-doped nanogranular SiO2 films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature, and a high proton conductivity of ~5.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 is measured at room temperature with a relative humidity of 70%. The accumulation of protons at the SiO2/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) interface induces a large electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with two in-plane gates are self-assembled on transparent conducting glass substrates. The large EDL capacitance can effectively modulate the IZO channel with a current ON/OFF ratio of >107. Such TFTs calculate dual input signals at the gate level coupled with a floating gate, analogous to that of neuron MOS (vMOS). AND logic is demonstrated on the neuron TFTs. Such neuron TFTs gated by P-doped nanogranular SiO2 shows an effective electrostatic modulation on conductivities of oxide semiconductors, which is meaningful for portable chemical-biological sensing applications.

  1. Density relative change and interface zone mutual diffusion of BiFeO3 films prepared on Si (1 0 0), SiO2 and SiO2/Si (1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, RenZheng; Wang, ZeSong; Yuan, XianBao; Zhou, JianJun; Mao, ZhangLiang; Su, HuaShan; Li, Bo; Fu, DeJun

    2016-10-01

    The mutual diffusion taken place in the interface zone between BiFeO3 (BFO) films and substrates (Si (1 0 0), SiO2 and SiO2/Si (1 0 0)) has been revealed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). RBS spectra provide the relative atomic concentrations of Bi, Fe, Si, and O elements changed with the samples' depth as analyzed by RBS spectra fitting SIMNRA software. A certain width of the intermixing layer is probably formed between BFO films and individual substrate which is attributed to mutual diffusion in the interface zone during annealing process. The mechanism of concerted exchange component can explain the interface zone mutual diffusion phenomenon between BFO films and substrates. The width of the interface zone between BFO film and Si (1 0 0), SiO2, and SiO2/Si (1 0 0) substrate is about 1.94 × 1017, 2.01 × 1017 and 3.05 × 1017 atoms/cm2, respectively, which are equivalent to 30.9, 36.7, and 52.9 nm, respectively. It has been declared that the effect on density relative to BFO film is loosen or attenuation is presented in the interface zone, which can be interpreted as a migration or diffusion of various atoms during the annealing. This can also provide an evidence of atomic dynamics and defect engineering on interface diffusion.

  2. Solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin Au films on SiO2 and HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguini, G.; Llamoja Curi, J.; Spiga, S.; Tallarida, G.; Wiemer, C.; Perego, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-thin Au films with thickness (h) ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 nm were deposited at room temperature (RT) by means of e-beam evaporation on SiO2 and HfO2. Due to the natural solid-state dewetting (SSD) of the as-deposited films, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed on the substrates. By properly adjusting the h value, the size and the density of the Au NPs can be finely tuned. For h = 0.5 nm, spherical-like Au NPs with diameter below 5 nm and density in the order of 1012 Au NPs cm-2 were obtained without any additional thermal treatment independently from the substrate. The dependence of the Au NPs characteristics on the substrate starts to be effective for h ≥ 1.0 nm where the Au NPs diameter is in the 5-10 nm range and the density is around 1011 Au NPs cm-2. The effect of a subsequent high temperature (400-800 °C) annealing in N2 atmosphere on the Au NPs was investigated as well. For h ≤ 1.0 nm, the Au NPs characteristics evidenced an excellent thermal stability. Whereas the thermal treatment affects the cristallinity of the Au NPs. For the thicker films (2.0 ≤ h ≤ 6.0 nm), the thermal treatment becomes effective to induce the SSD. The proposed methodology can be exploited for the synthesis of Au NPs with diameter below 10 nm on different substrates at RT.

  3. Comparison of the Sputter Rates of Oxide Films Relative to the Sputter Rate of SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kim, J.; Lee, B.; Mathews, C.; Opila, R. L.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Stickle, William F.; Wallace, Robert; Wright, B. S.

    2010-09-02

    Because of the increasing technological importance of oxide films for a variety of applications, there is a growing interest in knowing the sputter rates for a wide variety of oxides. To support needs of users of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) User facility as well as our research programs, we have made a series of measurements of the sputter rates for oxide films that have been grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), electrochemical oxidation, or sputter deposition. The sputter rates for these oxide films were determined in comparison to the sputter rates for thermally grown SiO2, a common sputter rate reference material. The film thicknesses and densities of these films were usually measured using x-ray reflectivity (XRR). These samples were mounted in an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) system or an Auger electron spectrometer for sputtering measurements using argon ion sputtering. Although the primary objective was to determine relative sputter rates at a fixed angle, the measurements were also used to determine: i) the angle dependence of the relative sputter rates; ii) the energy dependence of the relative sputter rates; and iii) the extent of ion beam reduction for the various oxides. Materials examined include: SiO2 (reference films), Al2O3, CeO2, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, HfO2, ITO (In-Sn-oxide) Ta2O5, TiO2 (anatase and rutile) and ZnO. We find that the sputter rates for the oxides can vary up to a factor of two (usually slower) from that observed for SiO2. The ratios of sputter rates to SiO2 appear to be relatively independent of ion beam energy for the range of 1kV to 4 kV and for incident angles of less than 50º. As expected, the ion beam reduction of the oxides varies with the sputter angle. These studies demonstrate that we can usually obtain sputter rate reproducibility better than 5% for similar oxide films.

  4. Well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 film derived from amphiphilic rubbery comb copolymer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Harim; Lee, Chang Soo; Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-04-15

    We report the facile synthesis of a well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 thin film with high porosity and good interconnectivity from a binary mixture (i.e., titania precursor and polymer template). Our process is based on self-assembly of the amphiphilic rubbery comb copolymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PDMS-g-POEM) with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). SiO2 is self-provided by thermal oxidation of PDMS chains during calcination under air. The selective, preferential interaction between TTIP and the hydrophilic POEM chains was responsible for the formation of well-organized TiO2/SiO2 films, as supported by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photospectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. We investigated in detail the effect of precursor content, solvent type, and polymer concentration on thin film morphology. Photodegradation of methyl orange by the well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 film was greater than that of a dense TiO2 film prepared without PDMS-g-POEM as well as a SiO2-etched TiO2 film. These results indicate that the well-organized structure and SiO2 doping of the TiO2 film play a pivotal role in enhancing its photocatalytic properties. PMID:25805232

  5. Ordered growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on dielectric amorphous SiO2 by MBE.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Joo, Kisu; Kim, Youngwook; Yoon, Sang-Moon; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Jun Sung; Yoon, Euijoon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yong Seung

    2013-11-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous surface, the formation of other phases at the interface is suppressed by Se passivation. Structural characterizations reveal that Bi2Se3 films are grown along the [001] direction with a good periodicity by the van der Waals epitaxy mechanism. A weak anti-localization effect of Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 shows a modulated electrical property by the gating response. Our approach for ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous dielectric surface presents considerable advantages for TI-junctions with amorphous insulator or dielectric thin films.

  6. Study on Interface Adhesion between Phase Change Material Film and SiO2 Layer by Nanoscratch Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xilin; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang; Rao, Feng; Ren, Kun; Peng, Cheng; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin

    2011-09-01

    Temperature dependent interfacial adhesion strength between phase change material film and a SiO2 layer was investigated employing Nano Indenter®. Phase change materials of Ge2Sb2Te5 and Si2Sb2Te6 were adopted for a comparative study. The decrease of adhesive strength with an increased annealing temperature can be deduced from the optical micrographs of the two cases. Critical load obtained from the nanoscratch tests was introduced to quantitative characterize the interfacial adhesion strength of the samples. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer were utilized to further analysis the adhesive properties of the interfaces. Results show that Si2Sb2Te6 has better adhesive performance than Ge2Sb2Te5 with SiO2 due to its higher activation energy and weaker thickness variation upon crystallization as well as its smaller crystal grain size in the crystalline state. Considering the adhesive strength with SiO2, Si2Sb2Te6 is a preferable candidate over Ge2Sb2Te5 for future high density phase change random access memory application.

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films as an efficient photocatalyst by polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Hwang, Soo Min; Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-05-12

    Thermally stable mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with pore size of 50 nm have been synthesized by adopting the polymeric micelle-assembly method. A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide), which serves as a template for the mesopores, was utilized to form polymeric micelles. The effective interaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the polymeric micelles enabled us to fabricate stable mesoporous films. By changing the molar ratio of TEOS and TTIP, several mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with different compositions can be synthesized. The presence of amorphous SiO2 phase effectively retards the growth of anatase TiO2 crystal in the pore walls and retains the original mesoporous structure, even at higher temperature (650 °C). These TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films are of very high quality, without any cracks or voids. The addition of SiO2 phase to mesoporous TiO2 films not only adsorbs more organic dyes, but also significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity compared to mesoporous pure TiO2 film without SiO2 phase.

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films as an efficient photocatalyst by polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Hwang, Soo Min; Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-05-12

    Thermally stable mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with pore size of 50 nm have been synthesized by adopting the polymeric micelle-assembly method. A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide), which serves as a template for the mesopores, was utilized to form polymeric micelles. The effective interaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the polymeric micelles enabled us to fabricate stable mesoporous films. By changing the molar ratio of TEOS and TTIP, several mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with different compositions can be synthesized. The presence of amorphous SiO2 phase effectively retards the growth of anatase TiO2 crystal in the pore walls and retains the original mesoporous structure, even at higher temperature (650 °C). These TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films are of very high quality, without any cracks or voids. The addition of SiO2 phase to mesoporous TiO2 films not only adsorbs more organic dyes, but also significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity compared to mesoporous pure TiO2 film without SiO2 phase. PMID:24710980

  9. Nanosecond pulsed laser damage characteristics of HfO2/SiO2 high reflection coatings irradiated from crystal-film interface.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinbin; Jiao, Hongfei; Lu, Jiangtao; Ma, Bin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2013-06-17

    The nano-precursors in the subsurface of Nd:YLF crystal were limiting factor that decreased the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of HfO(2)/SiO(2) high reflection (HR) coatings irradiated from crystal-film interface. To investigate the contribution of electric-field (E-field) to laser damage originating from nano-precursors and then to probe the distribution of vulnerable nano-precursors in the direction of subsurface depth, two 1064 nm HfO(2)/SiO(2) HR coatings having different standing-wave (SW) E-field distributions in subsurface of Nd:YLF c5424181043036123rystal were designed and prepared. Artificial gold nano-particles were implanted into the crystal-film interface prior to deposition of HR coatings to study the damage behaviors in a more reliable way. The damage test results revealed that the SW E-field rather than the travelling-wave (TW) E-field contributed to laser damage. By comparing the SW E-field distributions and LIDTs of two HR coating designs, the most vulnerable nano-precursors were determined to be concentrated in a thin redeposition layer that is within 100 nm from the crystal-film interface.

  10. The role of film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser damage in ion-beam-sputtered coatings based on HfO2/SiO2 thin-film pairs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ristau, Detlev; Papernov, S.; Kozlov, A. A.; Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Jensen, L.; Gunster, S.; Madebach, H.

    2015-11-23

    The role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser–induced damage was studied for ion-beam–sputtered and electron-beam–evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage-threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similar to a single-layer HfO2more » film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces, as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. Here, the results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the co-deposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.« less

  11. Robust topological surface states of Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2/Si substrate and a large ambipolar gating effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Namrata; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhu, Yimei; Cao, Yue; Waugh, Justin; Dessau, Daniel S.; Oh, Seongshik

    2014-06-01

    The recent emergence of topological insulators (TI) has spurred intensive efforts to grow TI thin films on various substrates. However, little is known about how robust the topological surface states (TSS) are against disorders and other detrimental effects originating from the substrates. Here, we report the observation of a well-defined TSS on Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) substrates and a large gating effect on these films using the underneath doped-Si substrate as the back gate. The films on a-SiO2 were composed of c-axis ordered but random in-plane domains. However, despite the in-plane randomness induced by the amorphous substrate, the transport properties of these films were superior to those of similar films grown on single-crystalline Si(111) substrates, which are structurally better matched but chemically reactive with the films. This work sheds light on the importance of chemical compatibility, compared to lattice matching, for the growth of TI thin films, and also demonstrates that the technologically important and gatable a-SiO2/Si substrate is a promising platform for TI films.

  12. Reactively Sputtered Nanocrystalline ZrN Film as Extremely Thin Diffusion Barrier between Cu and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayumi B. Takeyama,; Masaru Sato,; Eiji Aoyagi,; Atsushi Noya,

    2010-05-01

    The results of analyses by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurement indicate that a 5-nm-thick ZrN film interposed between Cu and SiO2 shows excellent barrier properties, tolerating annealing up to at least 500 °C for 30 min. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals a decrease in the intensity of the Cu(111) reflection upon annealing at 800 °C, suggesting a failure of the thin barrier due to Cu diffusion through the barrier. We are confident that the formation of a continuous nanocrystalline ZrN film in a uniform fashion in a stable phase with a slightly nitrogen-rich composition is a cause of the excellent features obtained. The formation process of the ZrN film is discussed in terms of the nucleation process of reactive sputtering at a low deposition temperature.

  13. An influence of technological parameters of plasma-chemical deposition of SiO2 films on their electro-physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, A. A.; Serkov, A. V.; Hruleva, E. S.

    2016-07-01

    In this article a formation process of dielectric films on silicon (100) and silicon carbide using plasma-chemical deposition is described. Experimental relationships of SiO2 films thickness and main technological parameters are presented. Values of electro-physical parameters of films are measured.

  14. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Tunable Anisotropic Absorption of Ag-Embedded SiO2 Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiu-Di; Dong, Guo-Ping; Shao, Jian-Da; Fan, Zheng-Xiu; He, Hong-Bo; Qi, Hong-Ji

    2009-08-01

    Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films are prepared by oblique angle deposition. Through field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an orientated slanted columnar structure is observed. Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis shows the Ag concentration is about 3% in the anisotropic SiO2 matrix. Anisotropic surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption is observed in the Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films, which is dependent on polarization state and incidence angle of two orthogonal polarized lights and the deposition angle. This means that optical properties and anisotropic SPR absorption can be tunable in Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films. Broadband polarization splitting is also observed and the transmission ratio Tp/Ts between p- and s-polarized lights is up to 2.7 for thin films deposited at α = 70°, which means that Ag-embedded SiO2 thin films are a promising candidate for thin film polarizers.

  15. Kinetic mechanisms of the in situ electron beam-induced self-organization of gold nanoclusters in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Giannazzo, F.; Roccaforte, F.; Raineri, V.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gold nanoclusters (NCs) were produced in thin SiO2 film by a sequential sputtering deposition procedure. In situ time-lapse studies of the NCs size distribution and morphology under 200 keV electron-beam irradiation have been performed using a transmission electron microscopy. Such a study has revealed the microscopic kinetic mechanisms of the NCs growth. In the 0-1620 s irradiation time range, the NCs growth process was found to be formed by two stages: in the 0-720 s time range, the main growth mechanism is demonstrated to be an electron beam-induced ripening of three-dimensional particles controlled by the Au diffusion in the SiO2 matrix. The application of the classical ripening theoretical model allowed us to derive the room-temperature Au diffusion coefficient in SiO2 under the electron-beam irradiation. In the 900-1620 s time range, the main growth mechanism is found to be a particle sintering in which neighbouring NCs form necks, by a partial deformation of their surfaces, through which the Au atomic diffusion occurs from the smaller NCs to the larger one. About the NCs morphology, three main classes of NCs were identified on the basis of their internal atomic structure, as a function of the irradiation time: FCC crystal structure, icosahedral-defect free structure and decahedral multi-twinned structure.

  16. The effect of SiO2 on TiO2 up-conversion photoluminescence film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaoqi; Li, Lianqiang; Zou, Kaishun; Liu, Juncheng

    2014-11-01

    In order to increase the photoelectric conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell, the up-conversion film has been tried to enhance the response of the solar cells to the infrared band. Yb3+, Er3+ co-doped SiO2/TiO2 composite films with different Ti/Si molar ratio were deposited on the glass substrate with sol-gel method and spin-coating technique. The effect of different molar ratio of Ti/Si on the film's morphology and optical properties was investigated. The morphology, the absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the film were tested and analyzed. After the film was annealed at 900 °C, the XRD diffraction pattern indicated that rare earths ions have evenly dispersed into the matrix lattice. The FT-IR showed that Si ions entered into the lattice of titanium dioxide, and the Ti-O-Si bonds came into being. When the film pumped with a laser of 980 nm, there were a dominant red emission and several weak green peaks. In addition, with the increase of the mole ratio of Si/Ti, the intensity of the film's up-conversion luminescence increases at first and then decreases. When the molar ratio of Si/Ti is 1/8, the sample had the highest intensity of up-conversion luminescence.

  17. Effect of SiO2 grafted MWCNTs on the mechanical and dielectric properties of PEN composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fei; Feng, Mengna; Huang, Xu; Long, Cheng; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the functional poly (arylene ether nitrile) (PEN)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/SiO2 nanocomposite with high mechanical and good electrical properties were fabricated through a simple and effective method. Specifically, the surface modification using highly ordered and porous SiO2 not only improves the dispersion of the MWCNTs in polymer matrix, but also combines the excellent properties of SiO2 and MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to confirm the surface functionalization of MWCNTs. As a result, all the composite films exhibited good dielectric properties with high dielectric constant of 7 as well as low dielectric loss of 0.04. Besides, the results of mechanical tests showed that the tensile strength and modulus reached their highest values at the 2 wt% MWCNTs-SiO2 loading content (125 MPa and 2950 MPa, respectively). The rheological results showed that MWCNTs-SiO2/PEN composites have a typical solid-like viscoelastic response as frequencies changes. Therefore, all the results revealed that surface functionalization has strong influence on the dispersion state of MWCNTs in PEN matrix.

  18. Cathodoluminescence observation of SiO2 layers in a semiconductor device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, H.

    1980-04-01

    Dispersive cathodoluminescence images from thin films of SiO2 in a Test-Element-Group pattern of a conventional Large Scale Integrated circuit device were observed. Band A (290 nm) and band C (560 nm) of the cathodoluminescence were characteristic of a thermally grown SiO2 covered with chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) SiO2 and may be useful for the study of irradiation induced damages in SiO2. Band B (415 nm) and band D (650 nm) were intense in the surface CVD SiO2 and may provide information on process induced impurities in SiO2 layers. The spatial resolution of a cathodoluminescence image is 2 μm, and it is possible to survey SiO2 layers on a conventional LSI device with this technique.

  19. Luminescence of Eu(3+) doped SiO2 Thin Films and Glass Prepared by Sol-gel Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Lymari; Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Yanyun; Santiago, Miguel; Liu, Huimin

    1998-01-01

    Trivalent europium ions are an important luminophore for lighting and display. The emission of (5)D0 to (7)F2 transition exhibits a red color at about 610 nm, which is very attractive and fulfills the requirement for most red-emitting phosphors including lamp and cathode ray phosphorescence materials. Various EU(3+) doped phosphors have been developed, and luminescence properties have been extensively studied. On the other hand, sol-gel technology has been well developed by chemists. In recent years, applications of this technology to optical materials have drawn a great attention. Sol-gel technology provides a unique way to obtain homogeneous composition distribution and uniform doping, and the processing temperature can be very low. In this work, EU(3+) doped SiO2 thin films and glasses were prepared by sol-gel technology and their spectroscopic properties were investigated.

  20. XRR Analysis of the Transition Layer in SiO2 Thin Film Formed on Si Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Akira; Odaka, Kenji; Fujimoto, Tosiyuki; Azuma, Yasushi

    To develop nanometric film thickness standard (FTSs), uniformity of silicon dioxide thin film were investigated by X-ray Reflectometry (XRR). The samples we investigated were thermally grown oxides (O2-Oxides) and ozone-formed oxide(Ozone-Oxide). The O2-oxide were grown on Si(100) substrate at 1000°C and at 700°C. The Ozone-Oxide was grown at 750°C with the highly concentrated ozone gas. With XRR method the bulk-layer density of oxide films were analyzed for; the O2-Oxide formed at 700°C (D700), the O2-Oxide formed at 1000°C(D1000), and the Ozone-Oxide formed at 750°C (Dozone750). We also analyzed the transition-layer density of the O2-Oxide formed at 700°C (DTL700). The results showed the relation was D1000film, and also indicated that the density of Ozone-Oxide corresponded to that of O2-Oxide with much higher substrate temperature.

  1. Nonlinear optical absorption and switching properties of gold nanoparticle doped SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films.

    PubMed

    Venkatram, N; Kumar, R Sai Santosh; Rao, D Narayana; Medda, S K; De, Sucheta; De, Goutam

    2006-07-01

    The nonlinear optical absorption and switching properties of sol-gel derived of Au nanoparticle doped SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films having different Au-surface plasmon absorption positions are reported in this paper. The Au nanoparticles are embedded in SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 mixed glassy film matrices with different refractive index values. To study the nonlinear absorption properties, lasers with three different wavelengths are used. The optical switching behavior is studied by using the pump-probe technique with 532 nm as the excitation wavelength. Ground state conduction band, surface plasmon band, and the free carrier band are taken as three level model to explain theoretically the obtained RSA and SA behaviors.

  2. Fabrication and super-hydrophilic property of transparent TiO2/SiO2 film from sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yihe; Xu, Caiyun; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu

    2011-11-01

    A series of transparent and super-hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 composite films with high adhesion to the glass were fabricated by dipping methods. The sol was prepared using peroxotitanium complex (PTC) as precursor by sol-gel process at low temperature. The properties of transmittance, hydrophility and adhesion were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, water contact angle and the tape test, and the structure was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The relationship of structure, surfactant and the compound action of TiO2/SiO2 was investigated. The results indicated that the fabricated films achieved excellent transmittance to slide glass of over 90%. Because of the poor adhesion of pure TiO2 film, the TiO2/SiO2 composite film with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the surfactant was prepared. The tape test indicated that the composite film had a steady adhesion on the surface of glass. At the same time, the water contact angle of the films was blow 5° after exposed to the UV light. Furthermore, the glass insulators with TiO2/SiO2 composite film were placed in the outdoor environment, and it showed self-cleaning ability after water drenching. It was proved from the experiments that the transparent TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with self-cleaning property possessed potential application in the fields of outdoor glass constructions, suspended glass disk insulators and auto windshields.

  3. Fabrication and super-hydrophilic property of transparent TiO2/SiO2 film from sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yihe; Xu, Caiyun; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu

    2012-04-01

    A series of transparent and super-hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 composite films with high adhesion to the glass were fabricated by dipping methods. The sol was prepared using peroxotitanium complex (PTC) as precursor by sol-gel process at low temperature. The properties of transmittance, hydrophility and adhesion were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, water contact angle and the tape test, and the structure was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The relationship of structure, surfactant and the compound action of TiO2/SiO2 was investigated. The results indicated that the fabricated films achieved excellent transmittance to slide glass of over 90%. Because of the poor adhesion of pure TiO2 film, the TiO2/SiO2 composite film with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the surfactant was prepared. The tape test indicated that the composite film had a steady adhesion on the surface of glass. At the same time, the water contact angle of the films was blow 5° after exposed to the UV light. Furthermore, the glass insulators with TiO2/SiO2 composite film were placed in the outdoor environment, and it showed self-cleaning ability after water drenching. It was proved from the experiments that the transparent TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with self-cleaning property possessed potential application in the fields of outdoor glass constructions, suspended glass disk insulators and auto windshields.

  4. Optical, electrical and dielectric properties of TiO 2-SiO 2 films prepared by a cost effective sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, M.; Rao, K. Narasimha; Gowda, K. V. Arjuna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) and silicon dioxide (SiO 2) thin films and their mixed films were synthesized by the sol-gel spin coating method using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as the precursor materials for TiO 2 and SiO 2 respectively. The pure and composite films of TiO 2 and SiO 2 were deposited on glass and silicon substrates. The optical properties were studied for different compositions of TiO 2 and SiO 2 sols and the refractive index and optical band gap energies were estimated. MOS capacitors were fabricated using TiO 2 films on p-silicon (1 0 0) substrates. The current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics were studied and the electrical resistivity and dielectric constant were estimated for the films annealed at 200 °C for their possible use in optoelectronic applications.

  5. Optical, electrical and dielectric properties of TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by a cost effective sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Rao, K Narasimha; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2011-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) thin films and their mixed films were synthesized by the sol-gel spin coating method using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as the precursor materials for TiO(2) and SiO(2) respectively. The pure and composite films of TiO(2) and SiO(2) were deposited on glass and silicon substrates. The optical properties were studied for different compositions of TiO(2) and SiO(2) sols and the refractive index and optical band gap energies were estimated. MOS capacitors were fabricated using TiO(2) films on p-silicon (100) substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were studied and the electrical resistivity and dielectric constant were estimated for the films annealed at 200°C for their possible use in optoelectronic applications. PMID:21924670

  6. Refractive index sensitivity of fibre-optic long period gratings coated with SiO2 nanoparticle mesoporous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korposh, Sergiy; Lee, Seung-Woo; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2011-07-01

    A fibre-optic refractive index sensor based on a long period grating (LPG) with a nanoassembled mesoporous coating of alternate layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and SiO2 nanospheres was demonstrated. PAH/SiO2 coatings of different thicknesses were deposited onto an LPG operating near its phase matching turning point in order to study the effect of the film thickness and porosity on sensor performance. Three aqueous solutions of ethanol, glucose and sucrose of different concentrations were used to allow characterization of the refractive index (RI) over a wide RI range (1.3330-1.4906). The device showed a high sensitivity (1927 nm/refractive index unit) to RI changes with a response time less than 2 s. In particular, the current study suggested that the low RI of the mesoporous film, 1.20 at 633 nm, facilitates the measurement of external indices higher than that of the cladding, extending the range of operation of LPG-based RI sensors. The ability of this device to monitor, in real time, RI changes during a dilution process is demonstrated and discussed.

  7. Polymeric fibre optic sensor based on a SiO2 nanoparticle film for humidity sensing on wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, David; Morgan, Stephen P.; Hayes Gill, Barrie R.; Korposh, Serhiy

    2016-05-01

    Optical fibre sensors have the potential to be incorporated into wound dressings to monitor moisture and predict healing without the need to remove the dressing. A low cost polymeric optical fibre humidity sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is demonstrated for skin humidity measurement. The sensor is fabricated by coating the fibre with a hydrophilic film based on bilayers of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and SiO2 mesoporous nanoparticles. The Layer-by-Layer method was used for the deposition of the layers. Multimode polymeric optical fibre with a cladding diameter of 250μm was covered by 7 layers of PAH/SiO2 film on the central region of an unclad fibre with a diameter of 190μm. The length of the sensitive region is 30mm. Experiment results show a decrease in light intensity when relative humidity increases due to refractive index changes of the fibre coating. The sensitivity obtained was 200mV/%RH and the sensor was demonstrated to provide a faster response to changes in the humidity of the skin microenvironment than a commercial sensor.

  8. Emissive properties of SiO2 thin films through photonic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, D.; Garín, M.; Trifonov, T.; Rodríguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we study the selective emission properties of silicon-based three-dimensional photonic crystals coated with thin films of silicon dioxide presenting temperature emission measurements at 600 K of oxidized macroporous silicon structures. The photonic band gap of the structure is centered at 9 μm with 2.5 μm bandwidth. Through this photonic window defined by the gap, a narrow emission peak arises from the oxide layer. We propose the given structure as a selective thermal source for infrared spectroscopy applications in the fingerprint spectral region (6-12 μm wavelength).

  9. Purely electronic switching with high uniformity, resistance tunability, and good retention in Pt-dispersed SiO2 thin films for ReRAM.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Joon; Chen, Albert B K; Yang, Xiang; Chen, I-Wei

    2011-09-01

    Resistance switching memory operating by a purely electronic switching mechanism, which was first realized in Pt-dispersed SiO2 thin films, satisfies criteria including high uniformity, fast switching speed, and long retention for non-volatile memory application. This resistive element obeys Ohm's law for the area dependence, but its resistance exponentially increases with the film thickness, which provides new freedom to tailor the device characteristics.

  10. Film growth, adsorption and desorption kinetics of indigo on SiO2

    PubMed Central

    Scherwitzl, Boris; Resel, Roland; Winkler, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    Organic dyes have recently been discovered as promising semiconducting materials, attributable to the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, the adsorption and desorption behavior, as well as thin film growth was studied in detail for indigo molecules on silicon dioxide with different substrate treatments. The material was evaporated onto the substrate by means of physical vapor deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions and was subsequently studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Atomic Force Microscopy. TDS revealed initially adsorbed molecules to be strongly bonded on a sputter cleaned surface. After further deposition a formation of dimers is suggested, which de-stabilizes the bonding mechanism to the substrate and leads to a weakly bonded adsorbate. The dimers are highly mobile on the surface until they get incorporated into energetically favourable three-dimensional islands in a dewetting process. The stronger bonding of molecules within those islands could be shown by a higher desorption temperature. On a carbon contaminated surface no strongly bonded molecules appeared initially, weakly bonded monomers rather rearrange into islands at a surface coverage that is equivalent to one third of a monolayer of flat-lying molecules. The sticking coefficient was found to be unity on both substrates. The desorption energies from carbon covered silicon dioxide calculated to 1.67 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer desorption from the islands and 0.84 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer des orption. Corresponding values for desorption from a sputter cleaned surface are 1.53 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer and 0.83 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer desorption. PMID:24832297

  11. Sensitive elements of vacuum sensors based on porous nanostructured SiO2-SnO2 sol-gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averin, I. A.; Igoshina, S. E.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Karmanov, A. A.; Pronin, I. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-06-01

    The objects of investigation are porous nanostructured SiO2-SnO2 sol-gel films used as sensitive elements on vacuum sensors. The properties of the films with spherical, labyrinth, and percolation mesh structures are analyzed. It is shown that the resistance of sensitive elements based on these films sharply drops at a pressure below the atmospheric value. Processes taking place in the films at subatmospheric pressures are studied. It is found that the desorption of water vapor increases the resistance of the sensitive elements of vacuum sensors, whereas the desorption of carbon dioxide and oxygen decreases the resistance. This agrees with experimental data.

  12. Structure and properties of deposited films in composite samples SiO2/YSZ/CeO2/YBa2Cu3O y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, Yu. V.; Snigirev, O. V.; Porokhov, N. V.; Sudareva, S. V.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Degtyarev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    A composite superconductor SiO2/YSZ/CeO2/YBa2Cu3O y with a critical current density of 7 × 104 A/cm2 has been prepared by laser ablation. Small hills enriched in copper and oxygen on the surface of the deposited films have been detected using scanning electron microscopy. A grain structure (sizes of 0.2-0.3 μm) and a system of twins ~400 Å in width have been detected in the superconducting film using transmission electron microscopy. Such a structure and high (001) texture of the film provide the noted critical current density.

  13. Effects of Defects in SiO2 Thin Films Prepared on Polyethylene Terephthalate by High-Temperature E-beam Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin‑Woo; Kang, Hee‑Jin; Kim, Jong‑Hwan; Seo, Dae‑Shik

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we characterized silicon oxide (SiO2) thin film prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by electron-beam (e-beam) deposition for transparent barrier application. As the chamber temperature is increased from 30 to 110 °C, the roughness increases while water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreases. Under these conditions, WVTR of PET can be reduced from a level of 0.57 g/m2/day (bare subtrate) to 0.05 g/m2/day after application of a 200-nm-thick SiO2 coating at 110 °C. A more efficient way to improve permeation of PET was carried out by using a double sided coating of a 5-μm-thick parylene film. It was found that WVTR for PET substrates can be reduced to a level of -0.2 g/m2/day. The double-sided parylene coating on PET could contribute in lowering the stress of oxide film, which greatly improves the WVTR data. These results indicate that the SiO2/parylene/PET barrier coatings have a high potential for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications.

  14. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of mesoporous SiO2 coated Cu-Bi2O3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wenjie; Hu, Yun; Zheng, Mengmeng; Wei, Chaohai

    2015-04-28

    Mesoporous SiO2 coated Cu-Bi2O3 thin films (meso-SiO2/Cu-Bi2O3) were prepared on glass substrates using a simple sol-gel/spin-coating method. The structure and optical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a UV-vis spectrophotometer and a water contact angle meter. The photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of the films were investigated through the degradation of methyl orange and stearic acid, respectively. It was found that the meso-SiO2/Cu-Bi2O3 thin films were highly transparent and showed excellent superhydrophilicity even in the dark. The thin films exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties compared to pure Bi2O3 films, which was attributed to the cooperation of the interfacial charge transfer between Bi2O3 and surface Cu species as well as the unique mesoporous SiO2 structure. The results showed that the films can be used as promising self-cleaning and antifogging materials.

  15. Switchable and tunable film bulk acoustic resonator fabricated using barium strontium titanate active layer and Ta2O5/SiO2 acoustic reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbrockey, N. M.; Kalkur, T. S.; Mansour, A.; Khassaf, H.; Yu, H.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S. P.; Tompa, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A solidly mounted acoustic resonator was fabricated using a Ba0.60Sr0.40TiO3 (BST) film deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device was acoustically isolated from the substrate using a Bragg reflector consisting of three pairs of Ta2O5/SiO2 layers deposited by chemical solution deposition. Transmission electron microscopy verified that the Bragg reflector was not affected by the high temperatures and oxidizing conditions necessary to process high quality BST films. Electrical characterization of the resonator demonstrated a quality factor (Q) of 320 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (Kt2) of 7.0% at 11 V.

  16. XPS study of the Al/SiO2 interface viewed from the SiO2 side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first nondestructive measurement of the chemical and physical characteristics of the interface between bulk SiO2 and thick aluminum films is presented. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical measurements of unannealed resistively evaporated Al films on thermal SiO2 indicate an atomically abrupt interface. Postmetallization annealing (PMA) at 450 C induces reduction of the SiO2 by the aluminum, resulting in the layer ordering SiO2/Al2O3/Si/Al. The XPS measurement is performed from the SiO2 side after removal of the Si substrate after etching with XeF2 gas and thinning of the SiO2 layer with HF:ETOH. This represents a powerful new approach to the study of metal-insulator and other interfaces.

  17. The structural studies of Ag containing TiO2-SiO2 gels and thin films deposited on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Anna; Rokita, Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    FTIR spectroscopic structural studies of titania-silica monolith samples as well as thin films deposited on steel were described in this work. Thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel method applying the dip coating as separate one-component TiO2 and/or SiO2 layers or as two-component TiO2-SiO2 thin films. Silver nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure from pure SiO2 sol, deposited then as an additional layer in those hybrid multilayers systems. Except the spectroscopic studies, XRD diffraction, SEM microscopy with EDX analysis and AFM microscopy were applied. The structural studies allow to describe and compare the structure and the morphology of thin films, as well those Ag free as Ag containing ones, also by the comparison with the structure of bulk samples. In FTIR spectra, the band observed at about 613 cm-1 can be connected with the presence of the non-tetrahedral cation in the structure and is observed only in the spectra of Ag containing bulk samples and thin films. The bands at 435-467 cm-1 are due to the stretching vibrations of Ti-O bonds or as well to the bending vibrations of O-Si-O one. In the ranges of 779-799 cm-1 and 1027-1098 cm-1, the bands ascribed to the symmetric stretching vibrations and asymmetric vibrations of Si-O-Si connections, respectively, are observed. SEM and AFM images gave the information on the microstructure and the topography of samples surface. XRD measurements confirmed the presence of only amorphous phase in samples up to 500 °C and allowed to observe the tendency of their crystallization.

  18. Implantation of plasmonic nanoparticles in SiO2 by pulsed laser irradiation of gold films on SiOx-coated fused silica and subsequent thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, H.; Peretzki, P.; Wang, N.; Seibt, M.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-06-01

    The pulsed UV-laser irradiation of thin noble metal films deposited on glass substrates leads to the incorporation of metal particles in the glass, if a sufficiently high laser fluence is applied. This process is called laser implantation. For the implantation of gold into pure fused silica, high laser fluences (∼1 J/cm2 at 193 nm laser wavelength) are required. Using a SiOx (x ≈ 1) coated SiO2-substrate, the implantation of gold into this coating can be accomplished at significantly lower fluences starting from 0.2 J/cm2 (comparable to those used for standard glass). Particles with diameters in the range of 10-60 nm are implanted to a depth of about 40 nm as identified by transmission electron microscopy. An additional high temperature annealing step in air leads to the oxidation of SiOx to SiO2, without influencing the depth distribution of particles significantly. Only superficial, weakly bound particles are released and can be wiped away. Absorption spectra show a characteristic plasmon resonance peak at 540 nm. Thus, pure silica glass (SiO2) with near surface incorporated plasmonic particles can be fabricated with this method. Such material systems may be useful for example as robust substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

  19. Chemical reactions during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of SiO2 films employing aminosilane and O2/Ar plasma at 50 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Kobayashi, Akiko; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We report the temporal evolution of surface species observed in situ using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) of SiO2 films employing aminosilane and an O2/Ar plasma at a temperature of 50 °C. Reversals in the appearance of IR absorbance features associated with SiO-H, C-Hx, and Si-H proved to coincide with the self-limiting reaction property in ALD. Our IR results indicate that an O2/Ar plasma can both removed CHx groups and transform SiH surface species to SiOH. In addition, SiO2 deposition was confirmed by a continuous increase in Si-O absorbance with each PE-ALD step, which becomes stable after several cycles. On the basis of our results, the mechanism of low temperature SiO2 PE-ALD was discussed.

  20. Comparison of Ag and SiO2 Nanoparticles for Light Trapping Applications in Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Martin; Wang, Peng Hui; Vehse, Martin; Steenhoff, Volker; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2014-10-01

    Plasmonic and photonic light trapping structures can significantly improve the efficiency of solar cells. This work presents an experimental and computational comparison of identically shaped metallic (Ag) and nonmetallic (SiO2) nanoparticles integrated to the back contact of amorphous silicon solar cells. Our results show comparable performance for both samples, suggesting that minor influence arises from the nanoparticle material. Particularly, no additional beneficial effect of the plasmonic features due to metallic nanoparticles could be observed. PMID:26278435

  1. Ag-TiO2 nanoparticle codoped SiO2 films on ZrO2 barrier-coated glass substrates with antibacterial activity in ambient condition.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Anindita; Basak, Sujit; Das, Jugal Kishore; Medda, Samar Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda; De, Goutam

    2010-09-01

    Anatase TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) codoped SiO2 films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Proportionate amounts of 3-(glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GLYMO), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MEMO) derived inorganic-organic silica sol, commercially available dispersed anatase TiO2 NPs, and AgNO3 were used to prepare the sols. The films were prepared on ZrO2 (cubic) precoated soda-lime glass substrates by a single-dipping technique and heat-treated at 450 °C in air and H2/Ar atmosphere to obtain hard, relatively porous, and transparent coatings of thickness>600 nm. The ZrO2 barrier layer was previously applied on soda-lime glass to restrict the diffusion of Ag into the substrate. The Ag-TiO2 NPs incorporated SiO2 films were intense yellow in color and found to be fairly stable at ambient condition for several days under fluorescent light. These films show a considerable growth inhibition on contact with the gram negative bacteria E. coli.

  2. Fabrication of uniform Ge-nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 films using Ge-ion implantation and neutron irradiation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Lu, T.; Xu, M.; Meng, C.; Hu, Y.; Sun, K.; Shlimak, I.

    2011-02-01

    Uniform Ge-nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) embedded in amorphous SiO2 film were formed by using G74e+ ion implantation and neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate that the existence of As dopants transmuted from G74e by NTD tunes the already stabilized (crystallized) system back to a metastable state and then activates the mass transfer processes during the transition form this metastable state back to the stable (crystallized) state, and hence the nanocrystal size uniformity and higher volume density of Ge-ncs. This method has the potential to open a route in the three-dimensional nanofabrication.

  3. Femtosecond laser-induced pre-damage dynamics in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Li, Zehan; Xue, Bing; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Han, Dongjia; Zhao, Yuanan; Leng, Yuxin

    2015-07-01

    UV femtosecond laser pulse was used to excite the ultrafast carrier dynamics inside the Al2O3/SiO2 high reflective mirror. Spectral shift between two different laser induced free electron absorption bands was observed. The former one centered at 406 nm undergo a fast decay of ~2.6 ps and a longer one of ~15 ps. Accompanied by the fast decay of the first absorption band, a new absorption band centered at 396 nm grew around ~2.8 ps after the laser excitation. The probable explanation the observed spectral shift of the free electron absorption band is that, the free carrier in the Al3O2 conductive band was trapped into some kind of defect state, which has an absorption peak at 396 nm, at a time scale of ~2.8 ps. Since the defect state has much longer lifetime than the initial generated free carriers in thee conductive band, probably under the condition of ultrafast high-frequency pulsed UV laser exposure, the incubation effect will decrease the laser damage threshold of the subsequent laser pulses.

  4. Detection of short range order in SiO2 thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO2 thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  5. Room-temperature NH3 gas sensors based on Ag-doped γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite films with sub-ppm detection ability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongliang; Li, Zhijie; Zu, Xiaotao; Ma, Jinyi; Wang, Lu; Yang, Jing; Du, Bo; Yu, Qingkai

    2015-11-15

    In this report, NH3 gas sensors based on Ag-doped γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite films are investigated. The composite films were prepared with a sol-gel process, and the films' electrical resistance responded to the change of NH3 concentration in the environment. The SEM and AFM investigations showed that the films had a porous structure, and the XRD investigation indicated that the size of Ag particles changed with the modification of Ag loading content. Through a comparative gas sensing study among the Ag-doped composite films, undoped composite film, γ-Fe2O3 film, and SiO2 film, the Ag-doped composite films were found to be much more sensitive than the sensors based on the undoped composite film and γ-Fe2O3 film at room temperature, indicating the significant influences of the SiO2 and Ag on the sensing property. Moreover, the sensor based on Ag-doped (4%) γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite film was able to detect the NH3 gas at ppb level. Conversely, the responses of the sensor to other test gases (C2H5OH, CO, H2, CH4 and H2S) were all markedly low, suggesting excellent selectivity.

  6. Room-temperature NH3 gas sensors based on Ag-doped γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite films with sub-ppm detection ability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongliang; Li, Zhijie; Zu, Xiaotao; Ma, Jinyi; Wang, Lu; Yang, Jing; Du, Bo; Yu, Qingkai

    2015-11-15

    In this report, NH3 gas sensors based on Ag-doped γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite films are investigated. The composite films were prepared with a sol-gel process, and the films' electrical resistance responded to the change of NH3 concentration in the environment. The SEM and AFM investigations showed that the films had a porous structure, and the XRD investigation indicated that the size of Ag particles changed with the modification of Ag loading content. Through a comparative gas sensing study among the Ag-doped composite films, undoped composite film, γ-Fe2O3 film, and SiO2 film, the Ag-doped composite films were found to be much more sensitive than the sensors based on the undoped composite film and γ-Fe2O3 film at room temperature, indicating the significant influences of the SiO2 and Ag on the sensing property. Moreover, the sensor based on Ag-doped (4%) γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite film was able to detect the NH3 gas at ppb level. Conversely, the responses of the sensor to other test gases (C2H5OH, CO, H2, CH4 and H2S) were all markedly low, suggesting excellent selectivity. PMID:26057440

  7. Comparative analysis of breakdown mechanism in thin SiO2 oxide films in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures under the action of heavy charged particles and a pulsed voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, V. F.; Lavrent'ev, K. V.; Emel'yanov, V. V.; Vatuev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Regularities in the breakdown of thin SiO2 oxide films in metal-oxide-semiconductors structures of power field-effect transistors under the action of single heavy charged particles and a pulsed voltage are studied experimentally. Using a phenomenological approach, we carry out comparative analysis of physical mechanisms and energy criteria of the SiO2 breakdown in extreme conditions of excitation of the electron subsystem in the subpicosecond time range.

  8. Water adsorption, solvation and deliquescence of alkali halide thin films on SiO2 studied by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Xingyi; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-03-31

    The adsorption of water on KBr thin films evaporated onto SiO2 was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 30percent RH adsorbed water reaches a coverage of approximately one monolayer. As the humidity continues to increase, the coverage of water remains constant or increases very slowly until 60percent RH, followed by a rapid increase up to 100percent RH. At low RH a significant number of the Br atoms are lost due to irradiation damage. With increasing humidity solvation increases ion mobility and gives rise to a partial recovery of the Br/K ratio. Above 60percent RH the increase of the Br/K ratio accelerates. Above the deliquescence point (85percent RH), the thickness of the water layer continues to increase and reaches more than three layers near saturation. The enhancement of the Br/K ratio at this stage is roughly a factor 2.3 on a 0.5 nm KBr film, indicating a strong preferential segregation of Br ions to the surface of the thin saline solution on SiO2.

  9. High-conductivity SiO2-matrix B-doped Si-NC thin films by following ion-beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junjun; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Jie; Tan, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Ge, Tianyu; Zhang, Yajun; Gao, Min; Chen, Zhenming

    2016-09-01

    In this work, further ion-beam was performed on SiO2-matrix B-doped Si-NC (SBC) thin films in order to enhance conductivity. The effect of ionbeam type on the electrical properties of SBC thin films was investigated systematically. The results indicated that the conductivities of SBC thin films were significantly improved by both argon and hydrogen ion-beam treatments, and the higher the hydrogen ion ratio, the higher the conductivity of SBC thin films. The conductivity of SBC thin films was increased from 1.82 × 10-6 S/cm to 3.2 × 10-3 S/cm with following hydrogen-ion-beam treatment. The change in conductivity of SBC thin films was most possibly resultant from the ion-beam treatment facilitating the formation of higher superficial order and lower defects. An alternative method was proposed to prepare high-conductivity SBC thin films, which may be applied to other heterogeneous thin films.

  10. Detection of λ-cyhalothrin by a core-shell spherical SiO2-based surface thin fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer film.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Han, Wenjuan; Li, Xiuying; Wang, Jixiang; Yan, Yongsheng; Li, Chunxiang; Dai, Jiangdong

    2015-12-01

    A fluorescent core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer based on the surface of SiO2 beads was synthesized and its application in the fluorescence detection of ultra-trace λ-cyhalothrin (LC) was investigated. The shell was prepared by copolymerization of acrylamide with allyl fluorescein in the presence of LC to form recognition sites. The experimental results showed that the thin fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer (FMIP) film exhibited better selective recognition ability than fluorescent molecularly non-imprinted polymer (FNIP). A new nonlinear relationship between quenching rate and concentration was found in this work. In addition, the nonlinear relationship allowed a lower concentration range of 0-5.0 nM to be described by the Stern-Volmer equation with a correlation coefficient of 0.9929. The experiment results revealed that the SiO2@FMIP was satisfactory as a recognition element for determination of LC in soda water samples. Therefore this study demonstrated the potential of MIP for the recognition and detection of LC in food. PMID:26462923

  11. Solution-processed VO2-SiO2 composite films with simultaneously enhanced luminous transmittance, solar modulation ability and anti-oxidation property.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Li, Chao; Asaka, Toru; Kang, Yipu; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae; Gu, Hui; Su, Huirong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers spare no efforts to fabricate desirable vanadium dioxide (VO2) film which provides simultaneously high luminous transmittance and outstanding solar modulation ability, yet progress towards the optimization of one aspect always comes at the expense of the other. Our research devotes to finding a reproducible economic solution-processed strategy for fabricating VO2-SiO2 composite films, with the aim of boosting the performance of both aspects. Compare to VO2 film, an improvement of 18.9% (from 29.6% to 48.5%) in the luminous transmittance as well as an increase of 6.0% (from 9.7% to 15.7%) in solar modulation efficiency is achieved when the molar ratio of Si/V attains 0.8. Based on the effective medium theory, we simulate the optical spectra of the composite films and the best thermochromic property is obtained when the filling factor attains 0.5, which is consistent with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the improvement of chemical stability for the composite film against oxidation has been confirmed. Tungsten is introduced to reduce the phase transition temperature to the ambient temperature, while maintain the thermochromism required for application as smart window. Our research set forth a new avenue in promoting practical applications of VO2-based thermochromic fenestration. PMID:25384345

  12. Solution-Processed VO2-SiO2 Composite Films with Simultaneously Enhanced Luminous Transmittance, Solar Modulation Ability and Anti-Oxidation property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lili; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Li, Chao; Asaka, Toru; Kang, Yipu; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae; Gu, Hui; Su, Huirong

    2014-11-01

    Recently, researchers spare no efforts to fabricate desirable vanadium dioxide (VO2) film which provides simultaneously high luminous transmittance and outstanding solar modulation ability, yet progress towards the optimization of one aspect always comes at the expense of the other. Our research devotes to finding a reproducible economic solution-processed strategy for fabricating VO2-SiO2 composite films, with the aim of boosting the performance of both aspects. Compare to VO2 film, an improvement of 18.9% (from 29.6% to 48.5%) in the luminous transmittance as well as an increase of 6.0% (from 9.7% to 15.7%) in solar modulation efficiency is achieved when the molar ratio of Si/V attains 0.8. Based on the effective medium theory, we simulate the optical spectra of the composite films and the best thermochromic property is obtained when the filling factor attains 0.5, which is consistent with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the improvement of chemical stability for the composite film against oxidation has been confirmed. Tungsten is introduced to reduce the phase transition temperature to the ambient temperature, while maintain the thermochromism required for application as smart window. Our research set forth a new avenue in promoting practical applications of VO2-based thermochromic fenestration.

  13. Magnetic properties and microstructure of TbxDy1-xFe2 thin films sputtered on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Cibert, Christophe; Domenges, Bernadette; Bouregba, Rachid; Poullain, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    TbxDy1-xFe2 thin films are grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. In order to achieve the best magnetic properties, samples grown while heating the sample holder (in situ films) are compared to those prepared at room temperature followed by thermal annealing. The effect of Tb, Dy and Fe content is also examined. It is found that the magnetic properties are very sensitive to the deposition parameters. Magnetization value as high as 680 emu/cm3 with very low coercivity is achieved in a 140 nm thick film whose composition (Tb0.3Dy0.7)Fe2 corresponds to the TERFENOL-D formulation. Observation of soft ferromagnetism and high magnetization are related to crystallization of nano-grains (size 7-10 nm) as deduced from microstructure investigation by X ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It is shown the possibility of growing TERFENOL-D thin films with properties suitable for observation of extrinsic magneto-electric coupling in future thin film devices combining piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials on metallized silicon substrate.

  14. Solution-Processed VO2-SiO2 Composite Films with Simultaneously Enhanced Luminous Transmittance, Solar Modulation Ability and Anti-Oxidation property

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lili; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Li, Chao; Asaka, Toru; Kang, Yipu; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae; Gu, Hui; Su, Huirong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers spare no efforts to fabricate desirable vanadium dioxide (VO2) film which provides simultaneously high luminous transmittance and outstanding solar modulation ability, yet progress towards the optimization of one aspect always comes at the expense of the other. Our research devotes to finding a reproducible economic solution-processed strategy for fabricating VO2-SiO2 composite films, with the aim of boosting the performance of both aspects. Compare to VO2 film, an improvement of 18.9% (from 29.6% to 48.5%) in the luminous transmittance as well as an increase of 6.0% (from 9.7% to 15.7%) in solar modulation efficiency is achieved when the molar ratio of Si/V attains 0.8. Based on the effective medium theory, we simulate the optical spectra of the composite films and the best thermochromic property is obtained when the filling factor attains 0.5, which is consistent with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the improvement of chemical stability for the composite film against oxidation has been confirmed. Tungsten is introduced to reduce the phase transition temperature to the ambient temperature, while maintain the thermochromism required for application as smart window. Our research set forth a new avenue in promoting practical applications of VO2-based thermochromic fenestration. PMID:25384345

  15. Temperature-dependent DIET of alkalis from SiO2 films: Comparison with a lunar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakshinskiy, Boris V.; Madey, Theodore E.

    2005-11-01

    We present recent results in an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms (Na, K) in tenuous planetary atmospheres. A reversible temperature dependence has recently been observed in the electron and photon stimulated desorption (ESD and PSD) of Na from a lunar basalt sample. The observations were attributed to a temperature-related variations in binding sites with different desorption rates. We have now measured the reversible temperature-dependence of the ESD yields for neutral Na and K, and ionic Na+ and K+ from an SiO2 surface. The neutral desorption yields demonstrate opposite behavior from the lunar sample, which is presumably associated with different desorption mechanisms. The sticking probability S for atomic K is nearly constant over the substrate temperature range 100 500 K, whereas S for Na decreases with increasing T in this range. To clarify the charge-transfer desorption mechanism, we compare the DIET of monovalent atoms (Na, K) and divalent atoms (Ba). The threshold for ESD of Ba is ˜25 eV, much higher than that for Na, K (3 and 4 eV).

  16. Novel chemical route for atomic layer deposition of MoS2 thin film on SiO2/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JinThese Authors Equally Contributed To This Work., Zhenyu; Shin, Seokhee; Kwon, Do Hyun; Han, Seung-Joo; Min, Yo-Sep

    2014-11-01

    Recently MoS2 with a two-dimensional layered structure has attracted great attention as an emerging material for electronics and catalysis applications. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is well-known as a special modification of chemical vapor deposition in order to grow a thin film in a manner of layer-by-layer, there is little literature on ALD of MoS2 due to a lack of suitable chemistry. Here we report MoS2 growth by ALD using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dimethyldisulfide as Mo and S precursors, respectively. MoS2 can be directly grown on a SiO2/Si substrate at 100 °C via the novel chemical route. Although the as-grown films are shown to be amorphous in X-ray diffraction analysis, they clearly show characteristic Raman modes (E12g and A1g) of 2H-MoS2 with a trigonal prismatic arrangement of S-Mo-S units. After annealing at 900 °C for 5 min under Ar atmosphere, the film is crystallized for MoS2 layers to be aligned with its basal plane parallel to the substrate.Recently MoS2 with a two-dimensional layered structure has attracted great attention as an emerging material for electronics and catalysis applications. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is well-known as a special modification of chemical vapor deposition in order to grow a thin film in a manner of layer-by-layer, there is little literature on ALD of MoS2 due to a lack of suitable chemistry. Here we report MoS2 growth by ALD using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dimethyldisulfide as Mo and S precursors, respectively. MoS2 can be directly grown on a SiO2/Si substrate at 100 °C via the novel chemical route. Although the as-grown films are shown to be amorphous in X-ray diffraction analysis, they clearly show characteristic Raman modes (E12g and A1g) of 2H-MoS2 with a trigonal prismatic arrangement of S-Mo-S units. After annealing at 900 °C for 5 min under Ar atmosphere, the film is crystallized for MoS2 layers to be aligned with its basal plane parallel to the substrate. Electronic supplementary

  17. Influence of the initial Si surface structures on SiO 2/Si(111) interfaces and thermal decomposition of the oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Heiji; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    1998-06-01

    We used scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to investigate the influence of the surface structures of initial Si(111) substrates on oxidation and the thermal decomposition processes. The Si(111) surfaces, on which a reconstructed 7×7 domain and a disordered 1×1 phase coexisted, were oxidized to less than 1 nm thick by molecular oxygen exposure. Our SREM observation showed that traces of these domains were preserved at the SiO 2/Si(111) interfaces after the surface reconstruction disappeared. We also confirmed that thermal decomposition of the oxide layers grown at the 1×1 region was promoted compared to that grown at the 7×7 reconstructed area. These results mean that the atomic structure at the interface and stability against thermal decomposition of the oxide film are affected by the initial surface structures.

  18. Thickness of the {SiO2}/{Si} interface and composition of silicon oxide thin films: effect of wafer cleaning procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedile, F. C.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Oppenheim, I. F.; Trimaille, I.; Ganem, J.-J.; Rigo, S.

    1996-09-01

    We determined the areal density of Si atoms constituting the oxide-silicon interface and the stoichiometry of ultra-thin silicon oxide films, thermally grown on Si(001) in dry 18O 2 atmospheres, using the channeling of α-particles along the <001> axis of the Si substrates associated with grazing angle detection of the scattered particles. The amount of 18O atoms in the films was determined independently using the 18O(p,α) 15N nuclear reaction at 730 keV. The Si wafers were submitted to different cleaning procedures before oxidation in 18O 2, namely: standard RCA cleaning, HF etching followed by a rinse in ethanol and rapid thermal cleaning (RTC) under high vacuum. The stoichiometry of all oxide films having thicknesses between 2 and 13 nm could be fitted assuming a ratio {O}/{Si} = 2 , that is, the films were constituted by silicon dioxide. By comparing the results for samples cleaned in different ways, however, we noticed a pronounced change in the number of atoms in the non-registered Si layers at the {SiO2}/{Si} interface and so in the thickness of these interfaces.

  19. Pump-probe optical switching in prism-coupled Au :SiO2 nanocomposite waveguide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Won-Mok; Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Soonil

    2007-10-01

    The resonance properties due to the surface plasmon excitation of metal nanoparticles make the nanocomposite films promising for various applications such as optical switching devices. In spite of the well-known ultrasensitive operation of optical switches based on a guided wave, the application of nanocomposite film has inherent limitation originating from the excessive optical loss related to the surface plasmon resonance. In this study, we address this problem and present the experimental and theoretical analyses on the pump-probe optical switching in prism-coupled Au(1vol%):SiO2 nanocomposite waveguide film.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of SiO2 thin films using tetrakis(ethylamino)silane and ozone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kyung; Jin, Kwangsun; Jung, Jongwan; Rha, Sa-Kyun; Lee, Won-Jun

    2012-04-01

    We examined the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon dioxide thin films on a silicon wafer by alternating exposures to tetrakis(ethylamino)silane [Si(NHC2H5)4] and O3. The growth kinetics of silicon oxide films was examined at substrate temperatures ranging from 325 to 514 degrees C. The deposition was governed by a self-limiting surface reaction, and the growth rate at 478 degrees C was saturated at 0.17 nm/cycle for Si(NHC2H5)4 exposures of 2 x 10(6) L (1 L = 10(-6) Torr x s). The films deposited at 365-404 degrees C exhibited a higher deposition rate of 0.20-0.21 nm/cycle. However, they contained impurities, such as carbon and nitrogen, and showed poor film qualities. The concentration of impurities decreased with increasing substrate temperature. It was found that the films deposited in the high-temperature regime (478-514 degrees C) showed excellent physical and electrical properties equivalent to those of LPCVD films.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles induced dielectric enhancement in (La, Gd)2O3: SiO2 composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, T. H.; Mukherjee, S.; Yang, H. D.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic Gd2O3 and non-magnetic La2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized together with different doping concentrations in SiO2 matrix via sol-gel route calcination at 700 °C and above. Properly annealed NP-glass composite systems show enhancement of dielectric constant and magnetodielectric effect (MDE) near room temperature, depending on superparamagnetic NPs concentrations. From application point of view, the enhancement of dielectric constant along with MDE can be achieved by tuning the NPs size through varying calcination temperature and/or increasing the doping concentration of magnetic rare earth oxide.

  2. Fabrication of mechanically robust, self-cleaning and optically high-performance hybrid thin films by SiO2&TiO2 double-shelled hollow nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Geng, Zhi; Ren, Tingting

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings.Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02467f

  3. Optical properties of ion-beam-synthesized Au nanoparticles in SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Lin; Oyoshi, Keiji; Chao, Der-Sheng; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Hong, Wei-Lun; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, gold (Au) nanoparticles have been synthesized via various methods and used in optical and biomedical detection. Au nanoparticles contain some remarkable dimension-dependent optical properties due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in Au nanoparticles which causes high absorption in visible light regions. Since SPR in well-crystallized Au nanoparticles can enhance the local electromagnetic field, it is thus expected that greater efficiency in the photoluminescence (PL) originating from oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) can be achieved in Au-implanted SiO2 matrix. In order to demonstrate the enhancement of PL, Au nanoparticles were formed in SiO2 film using ion beam synthesis and their optical and microstructural properties were also investigated in this study. The results revealed that a clear absorption peak at approximately 530 nm was identified in the UV-Vis spectra and was attributed to SPR induced by Au nanoparticles in SiO2. The SPR of Au nanoparticles is also dependent on thermal treatment conditions, such as post-annealing temperature and ambient. The Au nanoparticle-containing SiO2 film also displayed several distinctive peaks at approximately 320, 360, 460, and 600 nm in the PL spectra and were found to be associated with ODC-related defects and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) in SiO2. In addition, the PL peak intensities increased as post-annealing temperature increased, a finding contradictory to the defect recovery but highly consistent with the SPR tendency. A maximum PL emission was achieved when the Au-implanted SiO2 film was annealed at 1100 °C for 1 h under N2. Therefore, the existence of Au nanoparticles in SiO2 film can induce SPR effects as well as enhance PL emission resulting from defect-related luminescence centers.

  4. Using instability of nanometric liquid Cu films on SiO2 substrates to determine the underlying van der Waals potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D.; Kondic, Lou

    2013-11-01

    We study the instability of nanometric Cu thin films on a SiO2 substrate. The metal is melted by means of laser pulses for some tens of nanoseconds. The free surface destabilizes during the liquid lifetime, leading to the formation of holes at first and to metal drops on the substrate in later stages. By analyzing the Fourier transforms of the SEM images obtained during the metal film evolution, we determine the emerging length scales for both early and late stages of the instability development. The results are analyzed within the framework of a long-wave hydrodynamic model, which introduces van der Waals forces by means of disjoining and conjoining pressures. These forces are characterized by a pair of exponents for the ratio h / h * , where h is the liquid thickness and h* is a residual one. We find that the pair (3 , 2) provides a good agreement for the relationship of the wavelength with maximum growth rate, λm, while other typical pairs, such as (4 , 3) and (9 , 3) do not provide accurate description of the experimental data. Supported by CONICET-Argentina grant PIP 844/2011 (AGG, JAD), and by NSF grants CBET-1235651 (PDR) and CBET-1235710 (LK).

  5. Continuous ultrathin silver films deposited on SiO2 and SiNx using a self-assembled monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezian, Soroush; Maloney, Kate; Lefebvre, Josianne; Martinu, Ludvik; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we study the deposition of ultrathin silver films on silicon oxide and nitride surfaces functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. First, we compare both solution and vapour-phase functionalization techniques and find the greatest improvement in electrical and optical properties using deposition from solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the formation of silver-sulfur covalent bonds is at the root of the improved wetting confirmed by ellipsometry, sheet resistance measurement, and atomic force microscopy. Second, we show that this technique can be extended to functionalize silicon nitride. Finally, we demonstrate a simple, but efficient, low-emissivity optical filter.

  6. Surface-mediated structural transformation in CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, P. Babu; Mehta, B. R.; Aparna, Y.; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium telluride nanoparticles dispersed in silicon dioxide thin films have been grown by magnetron sputtering technique followed by thermal annealing. The effect of thermal annealing conditions on the structure of the surface layer and the nanoparticle core has been studied. A structural transformation in the nanoparticle core mediated solely by surface effects has been observed for the first time in any nanoparticle system. The presence of a crystalline cadmium tellurium oxide layer modifies the crystal structure of the cadmium telluride nanoparticle core by introducing a large concentration of stacking faults.

  7. Ultrathin-layer chromatography on SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2) nanostructured thin films.

    PubMed

    Wannenmacher, Julia; Jim, Steven R; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-11-29

    We explored four different inorganic oxides and determined their merits in miniaturized planar chromatography. Despite progression of chromatographic techniques over several decades, such alternatives to traditional planar silica gel stationary phases have not been fully evaluated. Glancing angle deposition(GLAD) provided an excellent platform for engineering nanostructured thin films in these materials for ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC). Separations of carotenoids and synthetic food dyes were used to investigate the attributes of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2)GLAD UTLC media. These anisotropic high surface area thin films possessed similar channel-like features but different chromatographic properties.TiO(2)and ZrO(2)media were especially interesting since analyte retention could be modified through sim-ple oxidation heat treatments and UV irradiation. Generally, oxidation reduced analyte retention while UV exposure increased retention. Changes in retention factor as large as ΔhRF∼ 40 (for Acid Red 14 on titanium oxide) were achieved. Food dye mixtures were applied using consumer inkjet printers as per the Office Chromatography concept and separation performance was quantified using advanced video instrumentation designed for miniaturized plates. Enhanced time-resolved UTLC methods were used to calculate figures of merit from recorded dye separation videos. Small theoretical plate heights (<4 μm)and low limits of detection (<2 ng per zone for the food dye tartrazine) were measured. The combination of engineered GLAD UTLC plates, inkjet application of analyte spots, time-resolved UTLC, and custom analysis algorithms enabled some of the best performance achieved on GLAD UTLC layers. Separations on the inorganic oxide thin films were also successfully hyphenated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time. This investigation demonstrates the utility of alternative inorganic oxide GLADUTLC media and probes avenues of expanding

  8. Intensified magneto-resistance by rapid thermal annealing in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film on SiO2 glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobori, H.; Morii, K.; Yamasaki, A.; Sugimura, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Horie, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Shimizu, T.

    2012-12-01

    We have observed large magneto-resistance (MR) intensified by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film (MTF) on SiO2 glass (a-SiO2) substrate. The MTF was produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method by using a magnetite target. The electrical resistivity (ER) of as-grown MTF (AG-MTF) showed the Mott's variable range hopping behavior, which implies that the AG-MTF is amorphous-like. Although the magneto-resistance (MR) ratio of bulk single crystal is very small except around the Verwey transition temperature (VTT), that of the AG-MTF showed moderately large below room temperature. Due to RTA of the AG-MTF by use of an IR image furnace, the MR ratio of MTFs was intensified, and especially by the annealing around the Curie temperature (585°C) of magnetite. Furthermore the ER of the rapid thermally annealed MTF (RTA-MTF) showed a slight kink at around the VTT, which indicates that the crystallinity of the RTA-MTF is higher than that of the AG-MTF The MTF produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method are composed of magnetite fine particles (MFPs). We consider that the directions of magnetic moments of MFPs in the MTF were spatially randomized by the RTA and the strong spin scattering of itinerant electrons transferring between adjacent MFPs caused the intensification of the MR ratio.

  9. The Study of Femtosecond Laser Irradiation on GaAs Solar Cells With TiO2/SiO2 Anti-Reflection Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yinqun; Shi, Zhiguo; Wu, Wenhui; Chen, Ruifang; Rong, Zhen; Ye, Yunxia; Liu, Haixia

    Femtosecond laser ablation on GaAs solar cells for space power has been investigated. In particular, we studied the effects of laser energy and laser number on the ablation of solar cells. Furthermore, the morphologies and microstructure of ablation were characterized by the non-contact optical profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photovoltaic properties were tested by the volt ampere characteristic test system. The abaltion threshold of the TiO2/SiO2 anti-reflection film of GaAs solar cells was obtained from the linear fit of the dependence of the square diameter of the ablated area with the natural logarithm of the femtosecond laser pulse energy, the resulting threshold of the laser fluence is about 0.31J/cm2, and the corresponding energy is 5.4uJ. The ablation depth showed nonlinear dependence of energy. With the fixed energy 6uJ and the increasing laser number, the damage degree increases obviously. Furthermore, the electric properties also suffer a certain degradation. Among all the evaluated electric properties, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) degraded remarkably.

  10. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of solid phase crystallized silicon thin films on SiO2: Crystal growth and defects formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Nam, K. S.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films deposited on SiO2 at 520 C by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 550 C in a dry N2 ambient was carried out so that the grain growth mechanism, various types of defects, and the origins of defect formation could be understood on an atomic level. Silicon crystallites formed at the initial stage of the crystallization had a circular shape and grains had a branched elliptical or a dendritic shape. Many twins, of which (111) coherent boundaries were parallel to the long axis of a grain, were observed in the interior of all the elongated grains. In addition to twins, the following defects are observed in the grain: intrinsic stacking faults, extrinsic stacking faults, perfect dislocations, extended screw dislocations, and Shockley partial dislocations. These defects were formed by the following reasons: errors in the stacking sequence at the amorphous/crystalline interface; jumps of a twin plane; the intersecting of two crystal growth fronts slightly misoriented; and the intersecting of two twin planes at the amorphous/crystalline interface. Among those defects, twins and stacking faults provided a preferable nucleation site for an atomic step of a (111) plane. As a result, it was concluded that grain growth in the (112) direction along the (111) plane parallel to the long axis of a grain was accelerated by twins and stacking faults.

  11. Formation and characterization of high-density FeSi nanodots on SiO2 induced by remote H2 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai; Makihara, Katsunori; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the formation of high-density iron silicide nanodots (NDs) on thermally grown SiO2 by exposing an electron-beam-evaporated Fe/amorphous-Si/Fe (Fe/a-Si/Fe) trilayer stack to remote H2 plasma without any external heating and characterized their silicidation state and crystalline phase. After the remote H2 plasma exposure, the formation of NDs with an areal density of ˜4.3 × 1011 cm-2 and an average height of ˜7.1 nm was confirmed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicate silicidation reaction induced by the remote H2 plasma exposure, which was accompanied by the agglomeration of Fe and Si atoms on the SiO2 surface. The formation of a crystalline β-FeSi2 phase was confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy and XRD pattern measurements. The electrical separation among the β-FeSi2 NDs was confirmed from changes in surface potential due to charging of the dots. The surface potential of the NDs changed in a stepwise manner with respect to the tip voltage because of multistep electron injection into and extraction from the semiconductor β-FeSi2 NDs.

  12. Comparative study of GeO2/Ge and SiO2/Si structures on anomalous charging of oxide films upon water adsorption revealed by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Daichi; Oka, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Takuji; Kawai, Kentaro; Morita, Mizuho; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Liu, Zhi; Watanabe, Heiji; Arima, Kenta

    2016-09-01

    The energy difference between the oxide and bulk peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra was investigated for both GeO2/Ge and SiO2/Si structures with thickness-controlled water films. This was achieved by obtaining XPS spectra at various values of relative humidity (RH) of up to ˜15%. The increase in the energy shift is more significant for thermal GeO2 on Ge than for thermal SiO2 on Si above ˜10-4% RH, which is due to the larger amount of water molecules that infiltrate into the GeO2 film to form hydroxyls. Analyzing the origins of this energy shift, we propose that the positive charging of a partially hydroxylated GeO2 film, which is unrelated to X-ray irradiation, causes the larger energy shift for GeO2/Ge than for SiO2/Si. A possible microscopic mechanism of this intrinsic positive charging is the emission of electrons from adsorbed water species in the suboxide layer of the GeO2 film to the Ge bulk, leaving immobile cations or positively charged states in the oxide. This may be related to the reported negative shift of flat band voltages in metal-oxide-semiconductor diodes with an air-exposed GeO2 layer.

  13. Effect of ion doping with donor and acceptor impurities on intensity and lifetime of photoluminescence from SiO2 films with silicon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylov, A N; Tetelbaum, D I; Burdov, V A; Gorshkov, O N; Belov, A I; Kambarov, D A; Belyakov, V A; Vasiliev, V K; Kovalev, A I; Gaponova, D M

    2008-02-01

    Doping with donor and acceptor impurities is an effective way to control light emission originated from quantum-size effect in Si nanocrystals. Combined measurements of photoluminescence intensity and kinetics give valuable information on mechanisms of the doping influence. Phosphorus, boron, and nitrogen were introduced by ion implantation into Si+ -implanted thermal SiO2 films either before or after synthesis of Si nanocrystals performed at Si excess of about 10 at.% and annealing temperatures of 1000 and 1100 degrees C. After the implantation of the impurity ions the samples were finally annealed at 1000 degrees C. It is found that, independently of ion kind, the ion irradiation (the first stage of the doping process) completely quenches the photoluminescence related to Si nanocrystals (peak at around 750 nm) and modifies visible luminescence of oxygen-deficient centers in the oxide matrix. The doping with phosphorus increases significantly intensity of the 750 nm photoluminescence excited by a pulse 337 nm laser for the annealing temperature of 1000 degrees C, while introduction of boron and nitrogen atoms reduces this emission for all the regimes used. In general, the effective lifetimes (ranging from 4 to 40 micros) of the 750 nm photoluminescence correlate with the photoluminescence intensity. Several factors such as radiation damage, influence of impurities on the nanocrystals formation, carrier-impurity interaction are discussed. The photoluminescence decay is dominated by the non-radiative processes due to formation or passivation of dangling bonds, whereas the intensity of photoluminescence (for excitation pulses much shorter than the photoluminescence decay) is mainly determined by the radiative lifetime. The influence of phosphorus doping on radiative recombination in Si quantum dots is analyzed theoretically.

  14. A structural and electrical comparison of thin SiO2 films grown on silicon by plasma anodization and rapid thermal processing to furnace oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. A.; Hallen, H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.

    1988-05-01

    We have used capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study for the first time the electrical and structural properties of thin SiO2 films grown on silicon by plasma anodization and rapid thermal processes (RTO) and then compared them to furnace oxides. We have compared the SiO4 tetrahedral ring structure and the suboxide content of the ˜3-nm-thick interfacial region of these oxides and have found significant structural differences. By correlating these differences with measured electrical differences, we have identified the structural causes of some of the electrical characteristics of the plasma and RTO oxides. In plasma oxides we see larger amounts of silicon dangling bonds, Pb centers, at the Si-SiO2 interface and have identified these dangling bonds as the source of a localized peak of interface states found at 0.3 eV above the silicon valence band. Low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of the plasma oxides relieves localized compressive interfacial strain, apparently by allowing the completion of oxidation at the interface, and reduces the amount of dangling bonds. However, this strain relief simultaneously increases the average SiO4 ring structure at the interface. A larger interfacial SiO4 ring structure is also seen in rapid thermal oxides and has been attributed to the very rapid cooling which takes place at the end of the rapid thermal process. Post-growth thermal processing has been shown to reduce the average ring structure by relieving localized tensile interfacial stress, but this stress relief is accompanied by the appearance of a peak of interface states at about 0.8 eV above the valence band which is attributed to Si-O bonds broken during the anneal. Long furnace anneals of rapid thermal oxides remove these states and give interface state densities comparable to those of furnace oxides.

  15. Dry etched SiO2 Mask for HgCdTe Etching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Deng, L. G.; Zhang, S.; Xing, W.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2016-09-01

    A highly anisotropic etching process with low etch-induced damage is indispensable for advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) enhanced reactive ion etching technique has been widely adopted in manufacturing HgCdTe IRFPA devices. An accurately patterned mask with sharp edges is decisive to accomplish pattern duplication. It has been reported by our group that the SiO2 mask functions well in etching HgCdTe with high selectivity. However, the wet process in defining the SiO2 mask is limited by ambiguous edges and nonuniform patterns. In this report, we patterned SiO2 with a mature ICP etching technique, prior to which a thin ZnS film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The SiO2 film etching can be terminated at the auto-stopping point of the ZnS layer thanks to the high selectivity of SiO2/ZnS in SF6 based etchant. Consequently, MCT etching was directly performed without any other treatment. This mask showed acceptable profile due to the maturity of the SiO2 etching process. The well-defined SiO2 pattern and the etched smooth surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. This new mask process could transfer the patterns exactly with very small etch-bias. A cavity with aspect-ratio (AR) of 1.2 and root mean square roughness of 1.77 nm was achieved first, slightly higher AR of 1.67 was also get with better mask profile. This masking process ensures good uniformity and surely benefits the delineation of shrinking pixels with its high resolution.

  16. XeF2-induced removal of SiO2 near Si surfaces at 300 K: An unexpected proximity effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyan, J.-F.; Halls, M. D.; Rangan, S.; Aureau, D.; Yan, X.-M.; Chabal, Y. J.

    2010-12-01

    XeF2 interaction with SiO2/Si stacks has been investigated to understand the role of Si in proximity of SiO2 during XeF2 exposures of Si/SiO2 stacks. In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, using a custom-made reaction cell compatible with high XeF2 pressures, reveals that, while pure SiO2 is not etched by XeF2, the oxide in SiO2/Si stacks is effectively removed when XeF2 has access to the silicon, i.e., when the Si in close proximity to the oxide is etched. Thick oxides (˜1-2 μm) are removed if sample edges are accessible, while thinner oxides (50-100 nm) are removed without requiring edge access. This unexpected SiO2 removal is found to be due to the formation of reactive fluorine species (XeF and F) evolved by the reaction of XeF2 with Si, which can, subsequently, etch SiO2. Calculations based on density functional theory provide critical insight into the underlying energetics and reaction pathways controlling XeF2 etching of both Si and SiO2.

  17. Domain formation and polarization reversal under atomic force microscopy-tip voltages in ion-sliced LiNbO3 films on SiO2/LiNbO3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. V.; Volk, T. R.; Zhang, H. H.

    2015-10-01

    We report on studies on writing of micro- and nanodomains and specified domain patterns by AFM-tip voltages UDC in thin (0.5 μm thick) ion-sliced LiNbO3 films embedded to SiO2/LiNbO3 substrates. A peculiar feature is an overlapping of domains as the distance between them decreases. Piezoelectric hysteresis loops were measured in a wide range of UDC pulse durations. Domain dynamics and characteristics of hysteresis loops reveal marked distinctions from those observed so far in LiNbO3 films and bulk crystals.

  18. Direct measurements of irradiation-induced creep in micropillars of amorphous Cu56Ti38Ag6, Zr52Ni48, Si, and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özerinç, Sezer; Kim, Hoe Joon; Averback, Robert S.; King, William P.

    2015-01-01

    We report in situ measurements of irradiation-induced creep on amorphous (a-) Cu56Ti38Ag6, Zr52Ni48, Si, and SiO2. Micropillars 1 μm in diameter and 2 μm in height were irradiated with ˜2 MeV heavy ions during uniaxial compression at room temperature. The creep measurements were performed using a custom mechanical testing apparatus utilizing a nanopositioner, a silicon beam transducer, and an interferometric laser displacement sensor. We observed Newtonian flow in all tested materials. For a-Cu56Ti38Ag6, a-Zr52Ni48, a-Si, and Kr+ irradiated a-SiO2 irradiation-induced fluidities were found to be nearly the same, ≈3 GPa-1 dpa-1, whereas for Ne+ irradiated a-SiO2 the fluidity was much higher, 83 GPa-1 dpa-1. A fluidity of 3 GPa-1 dpa-1 can be explained by point-defect mediated plastic flow induced by nuclear collisions. The fluidity of a-SiO2 can also be explained by this model when nuclear stopping dominates the energy loss, but when the electronic stopping exceeds 1 keV/nm, stress relaxation in thermal spikes also contributes to the fluidity.

  19. Fracture-induced amorphization of polycrystalline SiO2 stishovite: a potential platform for toughening in ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wakai, Fumihiro; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Tamenori, Yusuke; Murata, Hidenobu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Manabu; Kulik, Eleonora; Yoshida, Kimiko; Wada, Kouhei; Bednarcik, Jozef; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide has eight stable crystalline phases at conditions of the Earth's rocky parts. Many metastable phases including amorphous phases have been known, which indicates the presence of large kinetic barriers. As a consequence, some crystalline silica phases transform to amorphous phases by bypassing the liquid via two different pathways. Here we show a new pathway, a fracture-induced amorphization of stishovite that is a high-pressure polymorph. The amorphization accompanies a huge volume expansion of ~100% and occurs in a thin layer whose thickness from the fracture surface is several tens of nanometers. Amorphous silica materials that look like strings or worms were observed on the fracture surfaces. The amount of amorphous silica near the fracture surfaces is positively correlated with indentation fracture toughness. This result indicates that the fracture-induced amorphization causes toughening of stishovite polycrystals. The fracture-induced solid-state amorphization may provide a potential platform for toughening in ceramics. PMID:25297473

  20. Optical properties and durability performance of substance SiO2/Nb2O5 for multilayer thin films prepared by high-density plasma-assisted vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, Yasushi; Honma, Hideo; Takai, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Optical lenses normally require an antireflection (AR) film to improve their characteristics of visibility and transmittance. The AR film is constructed with materials of various refractive indices and designed to obtain good optical properties by combining various materials to utilize light interference with controlled film thickness and number of layers. Therefore, in this study, we have fabricated an AR film consisting of multilayer thin films of SiO2 and Nb2O5 by high-density plasma-assisted vapor deposition to improve its environmental resistance, especially its mechanical properties, while maintaining its optical properties. We conducted the sand falling test to evaluate the damage to the multilayer we fabricated and found that the Nb2O5 layer located at a depth of about 200 nm from the outermost layer was plastically deformed and the layer absorbed the shock from the sand to reduce damage.

  1. Molecular orientation of copper phthalocyanine thin films on different monolayers of fullerene on SiO2 or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Liu, Xiaoliang; Wang, Congcong; Xu, Xumei; Li, Youzhen; Xie, Fangyan; Gao, Yongli

    2015-03-01

    The interface electronic structures of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) have been studied using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy as different monolayers of C60 were inserted between CuPc and a SiO2 or highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. The results show that CuPc has standing up configuration with one monolayer of C60 insertion on SiO2 while lying down on HOPG, indicating that the insertion layer propagates the CuPc-substrate interaction. Meanwhile, CuPc on more than one monolayers of C60 on different substrates show that the substrate orientation effect quickly vanished. Our study elucidates intriguing molecular interactions that manipulate molecular orientation and donor-acceptor energy level alignment.

  2. In vacuo growth studies of Ru thin films on Si, SiN, and SiO2 by high-sensitivity low energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Sturm, J. M.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2016-08-01

    In vacuo high-sensitivity low energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS) has been used to investigate the initial growth stages of DC sputtered Ru on top of Si, SiN, and SiO2. The high surface sensitivity of this technique allowed an accurate determination of surface coverages and thicknesses required for closing the Ru layer on all three substrates. The Ru layer closes (100% Ru surface signal) at about 2.0, 3.2, and 4.7 nm on top of SiO2, SiN, and Si, respectively. In-depth Ru concentration profiles can be reconstructed from the Ru surface coverages when considering an error function like model. The large intermixing (4.7 nm) for the Ru-on-Si system is compared to the reverse system (Si-on-Ru), where only 0.9 nm intermixing occurs. The difference is predominantly explained by the strong Si surface segregation that is observed for Ru-on-Si. This surface segregation effect is also observed for Ru-on-SiN but is absent for Ru-on-SiO2. For this last system, in vacuo HS-LEIS analysis revealed surface oxygen directly after deposition, which suggests an oxygen surface segregation effect for Ru-on-SiO2. In vacuo XPS measurements confirmed this hypothesis based on the reaction of Ru with oxygen from the SiO2, followed by oxygen surface segregation.

  3. Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W; Cross, D; Feit, M D; Bude, J D

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced damage initiation in silica has been shown to follow a power-law behavior with respect to pulse-length. Models based on thermal diffusion physics can successfully predict this scaling and the effect of pulse shape for pulses between about 3ns and 10ns. In this work we use sophisticated new measurement techniques and novel pulse shape experiments to test the limits of this scaling. We show that simple pulse length scaling fails for pulses below about 3ns. Furthermore, double pulse initiation experiments suggest that energy absorbed by the first pulse is lost on time scales much shorter than would be predicted for thermal diffusion. This time scale for energy loss can be strongly modulated by maintaining a small but non-zero intensity between the pulses. By producing damage with various pulse shapes and pulse trains it is demonstrated that the properties of any hypothetical thermal absorber become highly constrained.

  4. Time-resolved imaging of material response during laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Negres, R A

    2008-10-24

    We report on time resolved imaging of the dynamic events taking place during laser-induced damage in the bulk of fused silica samples with nanosecond temporal resolution and one micron spatial resolution. These events include: shock/pressure wave formation and propagation, transient absorption, crack propagation and formation of residual stress fields. The work has been performed using a time-resolved microscope system that utilizes a probe pulse to acquire images at delay times covering the entire timeline of a damage event. Image information is enhanced using polarized illumination and simultaneously recording the two orthogonal polarization image components. For the case of fused silica, an electronic excitation is first observed accompanied by the onset of a pressure wave generation and propagation. Cracks are seen to form early in the process and reach their final size at about 25 ns into the damage event. In addition, changes that in part are attributed to transient absorption in the modified material are observed for delays up to about 200 microseconds.

  5. Testing Asymmetry in Plasma-Ball Growth Seeded by a Nanoscale Absorbing Defect Embedded in a SiO2 Thin-Film Matrix Subjected to UV Pulsed-Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2008-09-16

    Previous studies of ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulsed-laser damage in thin films revealed nanoscale absorbing defects as a major source of damage initiation. It was also demonstrated that damage (crater formation) is facilitated by plasma-ball formation around absorbing defects. In this work an attempt is made to verify the symmetry of the plasma ball by irradiating SiO2 thin film with embedded gold nanoparticles from the side of either the air/film or substrate/film interfaces. Crater-formation thresholds derived in each case support preferential plasma-ball growth in the direction of the laser-beam source. The strong impact of internal E-field distribution is identified.

  6. Orientation-induced enhancement in electromagnetic properties of ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI core/shell/shell nanostructured disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    ZnFe2O4/SiO2/PANI (ZSP) core/shell/shell nanostructured disks are prepared and fabricated into paraffin-bonded ZSP composite rings with random, vertical, and horizontal orientations of the easy magnetization planes of the ZSP disks in the paraffin binder in order to study the effect of directional orientation of the easy magnetization planes on their electromagnetic properties. The easy magnetization planes induced by shape anisotropy and oriented by a magnetic field in the vertically oriented ring result in a general enhancement in permeability of 7-60% in the broad UHF-Ku (0.1-18 GHz) bands, while those in the horizontally oriented ring lead to a significant enhancement of 58-1100% in the low-frequency L and S (1-4 GHz) bands, in comparison with the randomly oriented ring. The observed permeability agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the Bruggeman's effective medium theory. The horizontal and vertical arrangements of dipolar polarizations in the vertically and horizontally oriented rings give rise to 3-11% enhancement and weakening in permittivity, respectively, compared to the randomly oriented ring. The enhancement in permeability also improves and broadens the electromagnetic wave absorption in both vertically and horizontally oriented rings, especially in the L and S bands for the horizontally oriented ring.

  7. Enhanced and Retarded SiO2 Growth on Thermally Oxidized Fe-Contaminated n-Type Si(001) Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the oxidation of Fe-contaminated n-type Si(001) surfaces, Fe reacted with oxygen (O2) on the silicon (Si) substrate to form Fe2O3 and oxygen-induced point defects (emitted Si + vacancies). SiO2 growth was mainly enhanced by catalytic action of Fe. At 650 °C, SiO2 growth of the contaminated samples was faster than in reference samples rinsed in RCA solution during the first 60 min. However, it substantially slowed and became less than that of the reference samples. As the oxidation advanced, approximately half of the contaminated Fe atoms became concentrated close to the surface area of the SiO2 film layer. This Fe2O3-rich SiO2 layer acted as a diffusion barrier against oxygen species. The diffusion of oxygen atoms toward the SiO2/Si interface may have been reduced, and in turn, the emission of Si self-interstitials owing to oxidation-induced strain may have been decreased at the SiO2/Si interface, resulting in the retarded oxide growth. These results are evidence that emitted Si self-interstitials are oxidized not in the Fe2O3-rich SiO2 layer, but at the SiO2/Si interface in accordance with a previously proposed model. A possible mechanism based on the interfacial Si emission model is discussed. The activation energies for the oxide growth are found to be in accord with the enhanced and reduced growths of the Fe-contaminated samples.

  8. Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; Matthews, M J; Soules, T F; Stolken, J S

    2010-10-21

    Knowing the ultimate surface morphology resulting from CO{sub 2} laser mitigation of induced laser damage is important both for determining adequate treatment protocols, and for preventing deleterious intensification upon subsequent illumination of downstream optics. Physical effects such as evaporation, viscous flow and densification can strongly affect the final morphology of the treated site. Evaporation is a strong function of temperature and will play a leading role in determining pit shapes when the evaporation rate is large, both because of material loss and redeposition. Viscous motion of the hot molten material during heating and cooling can redistribute material due to surface tension gradients (Marangoni effect) and vapor recoil pressure effects. Less well known, perhaps, is that silica can densify as a result of structural relaxation, to a degree depending on the local thermal history. The specific volume shrinkage due to structural relaxation can be mistaken for material loss due to evaporation. Unlike evaporation, however, local density change can be reversed by post annealing. All of these effects must be taken into account to adequately describe the final morphology and optical properties of single and multiple-pass mitigation protocols. We have investigated, experimentally and theoretically, the significance of such densification on residual stress and under what circumstances it can compete with evaporation in determining the ultimate post treatment surface shape. In general, understanding final surface configurations requires taking all these factors including local structural relaxation densification, and therefore the thermal history, into account. We find that surface depressions due to densification can dominate surface morphology in the non-evaporative regime when peak temperatures are below 2100K.

  9. Effect of substrate temperature on microstructure and electrical properties of LaNiO3 films grown on SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition under a high oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Wang, Zhanjie

    2016-10-01

    Lanthanum nickel oxide (LaNiO3: LNO) thin films were deposited on SiO2/Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition under a high oxygen pressure of 50 Pa, and the effect of substrate temperature on the microstructure and electrical properties of the LNO films were studied by depositing the films at different temperatures. The results showed that the substrate temperature has a significant influence on the crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness and electrical resistivity of the LNO films, and the LNO films deposited at 650 °C show a low room-temperature resistivity of 420 μΩ cm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis results revealed that the use of the high oxygen pressure in deposition process can avoid the oxygen loss in the films. The use of the LNO films as an electrode layer for the BaTiO3 and PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 ferroelectric films was also confirmed, and the results indicate that the high-quality LNO films on Si substrates not only can be used as an electrode layer, but also as a seed layer to control the preferred orientation of ferroelectric films.

  10. High temperature annealing effects on low energy iron implanted SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Leveneur, J.; Markwitz, A.

    2012-02-01

    15 keV Fe ions were implanted into a thermally grown silica film with a fluence of 1 × 10 16 at./cm 2 resulting in a near Gaussian concentration profile peaking at 8 at.% about 15 nm under the surface. High vacuum (˜10 -7 mbar) furnace annealing and electron beam annealing at high temperature resulted in diffusion of Fe inside the oxide film. Segregation of Fe atoms at the SiO 2 surface and SiO 2/Si interface was observed in both cases. EBA resulted in faster precipitation and lower out-diffusion of Fe. In-situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry was performed during high vacuum annealing and is shown to be an appropriate method to investigate the diffusion rate. The differences observed between the methods are explained by the effect of excess electrons and ionization induced by the electron beam on the oxygen-vacancy mediated displacement mechanism and on the reduction of Fe oxides.

  11. Improved dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 films with a CaTiO3 interlayer on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Yun; Kim, Hui Eun; Jo, William; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Sang-Im

    2015-11-01

    We report the greatly improved dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) films with a 60 nm-thick CaTiO3 (CTO) interlayer on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates. Both CCTO films and CTO interlayers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). With increasing the thickness of CCTO from 200 nm to 1.3 μm, the dielectric constants ( ɛ r ) at 10 kHz in both CCTO single-layered and CCTO/CTO double-layered films increased from ˜260 to ˜6000 and from ˜630 to ˜3700, respectively. Compared with CCTO single-layered films, CCTO/CTO double-layered films irrespective of CCTO film thickness exhibited a remarkable decrease in their dielectric losses ( tanδ) (<0.1 at the frequency region of 1 - 100 kHz) and highly reduced leakage current density at room temperature. The reduced leakage currents in CCTO/CTO double-layered films are attributable to relatively higher trap ionization energies in the Poole-Frenkel conduction model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Study on the laser-induced damage performance of HfO2, Sc2O3, Y2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 monolayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meiping; Yi, Kui; Li, Dawei; Qi, Hongji; Zhao, Yuanan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Guohang; Shao, Jianda

    2013-11-01

    The laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) and damage morphology of the monolayer coating are easily influenced by the finish condition of the substrate, which makes it difficult to compare the LIDT of different coating materials. In order to eliminate the influence of defect and sub-defect on the substrate, HfO2, Sc2O3, Y2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 monolayer coatings were prepared on 1064 nm HfO2/SiO2 high reflection coatings, using conventional e-beam deposition. The LIDT, as well as the damage morphology after laser irradiation at wavelength of 1064 nm, was measured and compared with that of the monolayer coating deposited on BK7 glass substrate.

  13. Width determination of SiO2-films in Si-based devices using low-loss EFTEM: image contrast as a function of sample thickness.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bernhard; Grogger, Werner; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2003-01-01

    Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) has become one of the most efficient tools for specimen characterization at nanometer length scales. EFTEM imaging is most often carried out in the core-loss region but image intensity becomes more and more a limiting factor with decreasing feature size. Alternatively, it is possible to record EFTEM images in the low-loss region, where intensities are essentially higher and where in many cases the images contain material specific contrasts. In this paper we investigate the influence of the important parameters on the material contrast between silicon and silicon dioxide, e.g. specimen thickness, specimen orientation, energy-loss and energy selecting slit width. We show that sample thickness plays an important role and present two methods to calculate material contrast as a function of energy-loss and sample thicknesses. The first method uses spectra taken from both materials at different sample thickness by electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the second calculates contrast directly from a series of energy filtered images. From the results we determine the ideal acquisition parameters for the Si/SiO(2) system and demonstrate imaging at sufficient resolution below 2nm with a test sample of thin SiO(2) layers on Si. PMID:12694852

  14. Damage Thresholds and Morphology of the Front- and Back-Irradiated SiO2 Thin Films Containing Gold Nanoparticles as Artificial Absorbing Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.; Oliver, J.B.; Rigatti, A.L.

    2008-01-30

    Previous ultraviolet-pulsed, laser-damage studies using model thin films with gold nanoparticles as artificial absorbing defects revealed damage morphology in a form of submicrometer-scaled craters. It was also demonstrated that for defects smaller than 20 nm, crater formation is preceded by plasma-ball formation around absorbing defects. In this work an attempt is made to verify symmetry of the plasma ball by conducting film irradiation from the side of the air/film or substrate/film interfaces. In each case, crater-formation thresholds are derived and crater morphology is analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy.

  15. Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situ O3 oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2004-08-01

    The growth, thermal annealing behaviors, and electrical properties of Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on bare (100)Si and various oxidized Si wafers, by in situ O3 oxidation at 400°C and ex situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under O2 atmosphere at 900°C, were investigated. The ALD process was performed using Al(CH3)3 and high concentration of O3(400gm3). The high oxidation potential of O3 oxidized the Si surface at a very early stage of film growth and eliminated the incubation period even on a bare Si surface. The as-grown Al2O3 films had excess oxygen in the films, which diffused to the film Si interface and increased the interfacial layer by oxidizing the Si substrates during postannealing. The Al2O3 films grown on a bare Si substrate had the highest concentration of excess oxygen which resulted in the largest increase in the interfacial layer thickness during postannealing. As a result, the initial oxidation of the Si wafer did not significantly decrease the capacitance density compared to the films grown on a nonoxidized Si wafer at the as-deposited and postannealed states. Therefore, the Al2O3 layers grown using a high concentration of O3 oxidant on the in situ O3 oxidized Si wafers showed real high-k gate dielectric performance although the dielectric constants of the Al2O3 films were rather small (˜9) compared to other high-k gate dielectric films.

  16. Growth and structure of water on SiO2 films on Si investigated byKelvin probe microscopy and in situ X-ray Spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Verdaguer, A.; Weis, C.; Oncins, G.; Ketteler, G.; Bluhm, H.; Salmeron, M.

    2007-06-14

    The growth of water on thin SiO{sub 2} films on Si wafers at vapor pressures between 1.5 and 4 torr and temperatures between -10 and 21 C has been studied in situ using Kelvin Probe Microscopy and X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies. From 0 to 75% relative humidity (RH) water adsorbs forming a uniform film 4-5 layers thick. The surface potential increases in that RH range by about 400 mV and remains constant upon further increase of the RH. Above 75% RH the water film grows rapidly, reaching 6-7 monolayers at around 90% RH and forming a macroscopic drop near 100%. The O K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption spectrum around 75% RH is similar to that of liquid water (imperfect H-bonding coordination) at temperatures above 0 C and ice-like below 0 C.

  17. Excimer and Nd:YAG laser-induced SF6 decomposition at the vicinity of amorphous SiO2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghanpour, H. R.; Parvin, P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the evidence of SF6 gas decomposition at the vicinity of SiO2 glass has been investigated using various laser wavelengths: at 193, 248, 532 and 1064 nm. It was shown that SiF4 gas and S2F10 clusters were simultaneously created during ArF excimer laser irradiation, while no by-products were seen in the irradiation cell using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The gas content analysis was carried out using laser breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the fluorine penetration into the glass surface was studied by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) mapping to support the suggested mechanisms.

  18. Localized corrosion of 316L stainless steel with SiO2-CaO films obtained by means of sol-gel treatment.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Regí, M; Izquierdo-Barba, I; Gil, F J

    2003-11-01

    Sol-gel films on austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) polished wafer were prepared from sono-sols obtained from tetraethylorthosilane and hydrated calcium nitrate. However, pitting was observed in different places on the stainless steel surfaces. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by the polarization resistance in simulated body fluid environment at 37 degrees C. The critical current density, the passive current density, the corrosion potential, and the critical pitting potential were studied. The austenitic stainless steel 316L treated presents important electrochemical corrosion and consequently its application as endosseous implants is not possible. PMID:14566812

  19. Shear strength of metal - SiO2 contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The strength of the bond between metals and SiO2 is studied by measuring the static coefficient of friction of metals contacting alpha-quartz in ultrahigh vacuum. It was found that copper with either chemisorbed oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur exhibited higher contact strength on stoichiometric SiO2 than did clean copper. Since the surface density of states induced by these species on copper is similar, it appears that the strength of the interfacial bond can be related to the density of states on the metal surface.

  20. Shear strength of metal - SiO2 contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The strength of the bond between metals and SiO2 was studied by measuring the static coefficient of friction of metals contacting alpha-quartz in ultrahigh vacuum. It was found that copper with either chemisorbed oxygen, nitrogen, or sulphur exhibited higher contact strength on stoichiometric SiO2 than did clean copper. Since the surface density of states induced by these species on copper is similar, it appears that the strength of the interfacial bond can be related to the density of states on the metal surface.

  1. 3D micro- and nano-machining of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films on SiO2/Si and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani-Amiri, S.; Zanganeh, S.; Ramzani, R.; Talei, R.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Azimi, S.; Sanaee, Z.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the hydrogen-assisted deep reactive ion etching of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). High aspect-ratio vertical and 3D amorphous silicon features, with the desired control over the shaping of the sidewalls, in micro and nano scales, were fabricated in ordered arrays. The suitable adhesion of amorphous Si film to the underlayer allows one to apply deep micro- and nano-machining to these layers. By means of a second deposition of amorphous silicon on highly curved 3D structures and subsequent etching, the fabrication of amorphous silicon rings is feasible. In addition to photolithography, nanosphere colloidal lithography and electron beam lithography were exploited to realize ultra-small features of amorphous silicon. We have also investigated the optical properties of fabricated hexagonally patterned a-Si nanowire arrays on glass substrates and demonstrated their high potential as active layers for solar cells. This etching process presents an inexpensive method for the formation of highly featured arrays of vertical and 3D amorphous silicon rods on both glass and silicon substrates, suitable for large-area applications.

  2. Investigation of the structure and composition of film sol-gel-derived CoO x -SiO2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitskii, V. S.; Maksimov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    Samples of Si-Co-O ranging in composition from 15 to 90% of cobalt content have been synthesized by the sol-gel technology. The results of atomic force microscopy have demonstrated that the preliminary centrifugation of the solutions makes it possible to control the size of the nanospheres obtained in the stage of sol formation. For diagnostics of the phase composition of the film and bulk materials, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis have been used. The results of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the nanospheres belong to the Co3O4 spinel phase. It has been found that there is a correlation between the positions of the Raman band maxima and the nanosphere size.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. I - Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films. II - Vacuum ultraviolet all-dielectric narrowband filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1990-01-01

    An iteration process matching calculated and measured reflectance and transmittance values in the 120-230 nm VUV region is presently used to ascertain the optical constants of bulk MgF2, as well as films of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 deposited on MgF2 substrates. In the second part of this work, a design concept is demonstrated for two filters, employing rapidly changing extinction coefficients, centered at 135 nm for BaF2 and 141 nm for SiO2. These filters are shown to yield excellent narrowband spectral performance in combination with narrowband reflection filters.

  4. Simultaneous electroanalytical determination of hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of resorcinol at an SiO2/C electrode spin-coated with a thin film of Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Canevari, Thiago C; Arenas, Leliz T; Landers, Richard; Custodio, Rogério; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development, characterization and application of an Nb(2)O(5) film formed on the surface of a carbon ceramic material, SiO(2)/C, obtained by a sol-gel method, using the spin-coating technique. The working electrode using this material will be designated as SiCNb. Hydroquinone and catechol can be oxidized at this electrode in the presence of resorcinol, allowing their simultaneous detection. The electrochemical properties of the resulting electrode were investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. Well-defined and separated oxidation peaks were observed by differential pulse voltammetry in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7 containing 1 mol L(-1) KCl in the supporting electrolyte solution. The SiCNb electrode exhibited high sensitivity in the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of resorcinol, with the limits of detection for hydroquinone and catechol being 1.6 μmol L(-1) and 0.8 μmol L(-1), respectively. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine the ionization energies of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol; the results were used to explain the simultaneous determination of species by differential pulse voltammetry. The presence of resorcinol did not produce any interference in the simultaneous detection of hydroquinone and catechol on the surface of the modified electrode.

  5. Physical and electrical properties of band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacks for nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jinho; Na, Heedo; Mok, In-Su; Kim, Jonggi; Lee, Kyumin; Sohn, Hyunchul

    2012-09-01

    In our study, the physical properties of (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x , including band-gap, band-offset, and thermal stability and the electrical properties of band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x tunnel barrier stacks, including the tunneling current and charge-trapping characteristics for applications to nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. It was observed that the band-gap and band-offset of (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x can be controlled by adjustment in the composition of the (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x films. Ti-silicate film with TiO2:SiO2 cycle ratio of 1:5 was maintained in an amorphous phase, even after annealing at 950 °C. The tunneling current of the band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacked tunnel barrier was larger than that of a single SiO2 barrier under a higher external bias, while the tunneling current of a SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacked tunnel barrier under a lower external bias was smaller. Charge-trapping tests showed that the voltage shift for SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x is slightly larger than that for single SiO2.

  6. Antireflection Coatings Using SiO2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Edward; Lal, Anitesh; Velasco Castedo, Raisa; Mazilu, Dan

    2010-03-01

    Our study examines several factors that affect the quality of antireflective coatings created by the self-assembly of alternating layers of SiO2 nanoparticles and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) polycation on glass substrates. We use a factorial design to investigate the effects of the molarity of the nanoparticle solution, the size of nanoparticles, the pH of both the SiO2 and polycation solutions, and the number of silica--polycation bilayers on the optical properties of the films. The first order effects of these factors, as well as their interactions, on the reflectance, transmittance, and uniformity of the coatings will be reported.

  7. New approach for fabrication of folded-structure SiO2 using oyster shell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kang, Gun; Lee, Kyu Bock; Park, Seung Bin

    2009-10-01

    Inspired by the phenomenological differences of layers in oyster shell and the morphological mimicry of SiO(2) thin film, a folded-structure SiO(2) was created by simple spray deposition system. The folded-structure SiO(2) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and microindentation. At the molecular level, the chalky and the folia were assembled and determined through biomineralization based on the differences of soluble protein in layers. At the macro-scale, the granular SiO(2) particles deposited at the surface of shell layers or Ca(OH)(2) and grew into thin film, thus leading to mimic the morphology of substrate.

  8. In-situ luminescence monitoring of ion-induced damage evolution in SiO2 and Al2O3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-17

    Real-time, in-situ ionoluminescence measurements provide information of evolution of emission bands with ion fluence, and thereby establish a correlation between point defect kinetics and phase stability. Using fast light ions (2 MeV H and 3.5 He MeV) and medium mass-high energy ions (8 MeV O, E=0.5 MeV/amu), scintillation materials of a-SiO2, crystalline quartz, and Al2O3 are comparatively investigated at room temperature with the aim of obtaining a further insight on the structural defects induced by ion irradiation and understand the role of electronic energy loss on the damage processes. For more energetic heavy ions, the electronic energy deposition pattern offersmore » higher rates of excitation deeper into the material and allows to evaluate the competing mechanisms between the radiative and non-radiative de-excitation processes. Irradiations with 8 MeV O ions have been selected corresponding to the electronic stopping regime, where the electronic stopping power is dominant, and above the critical amorphization threshold for quartz. Lastly, the usefulness of IBIL and its specific capabilities as a sensitive tool to investigate the material characterization and evaluation of radiation effects are demonstrated.« less

  9. Light Induced Water Oxidation on Cobalt-Phosphate (Co-Pi) Catalyst Modified Semi-Transparent, Porous SiO2-BiVO4 Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Pilli, S. K.; Deutsch, T. G.; Furtak, T. E.; Turner, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Herring, A. M.

    2012-04-21

    A facile and simple procedure for the synthesis of semi-transparent and porous SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrodes is reported. The method involves a surfactant assisted metal-organic decomposition at 500 C. An earth abundant oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC), cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi), has been used to modify the SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrode by electrodeposition (ED) and photoassisted electrodeposition (PED) methods. Modified electrodes by these two methods have been examined for light induced water oxidation and compared to the unmodified SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4} electrodes by various photoelectrochemical techniques. The PED method was a more effective method of OEC preparation than the ED method as evidenced by an increased photocurrent magnitude during photocurrent-potential (I-V) characterizations. Electrode surfaces catalyzed by PED exhibited a very large cathodic shift (420 mV) in the onset potential for water oxidation. The chopped-light I-V measurements performed at different intervals over 24-hour extended testing under illumination and applied bias conditions show a fair photostability for PED Co-Pi modified SiO{sub 2}-BiVO{sub 4}.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Cathodoluminescence of Disordered SiO2 Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Amberly; Dennison, J. R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin

    2013-03-01

    Optical coatings of disordered thin film SiO2/SiOx dielectric samples on reflective metal substrates exhibited electron-induced luminescence (cathodoluminescence) under electron beam irradiation. These experiments provided measurements of the absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux and power over a range of sample temperatures (<40 K to >300 K). The overall luminescent intensity increased linearly with increasing power, plateaued, then fell off approximately exponentially. Spectrometer data revealed four spectral bands. The structural defects associated with three of the four bands have been identified. Temperature dependence of the peak intensity and central position differs for the lower and higher energy bands. These results are interpreted with a model of the band structure of highly disordered trapped states within the band gap of SiO2, used to describe the excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band and subsequent relaxation into trapped states. The cathodoluminescence model describes these experimental observations, providing a fundamental basis for understanding the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time and accumulated charge, incident flux and energy, and sample thickness and temperature. This work was supported by funds from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, a NASA Space Technology Graduate Research Fellowship, and NRC Senior Research Fellowship at AFRL.

  11. Electronic sputtering of vitreous SiO2: Experimental and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemonde, M.; Assmann, W.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The irradiation of solids with swift heavy ions leads to pronounced surface and bulk effects controlled by the electronic energy loss of the projectiles. In contrast to the formation of ion tracks in bulk materials, the concomitant emission of atoms from the surface is much less investigated. Sputtering experiments with different ions (58Ni, 127I and 197Au) at energies around 1.2 MeV/u were performed on vitreous SiO2 (a-SiO2) in order to quantify the emission rates and compare them with data for crystalline SiO2 quartz. Stoichiometry of the sputtering process was verified by monitoring the thickness decreases of a thin SiO2 film deposited on a Si substrate. Angular distributions of the emitted atoms were measured by collecting sputtered atoms on arc-shaped Cu catcher foils. Subsequent analysis of the number of Si atoms deposited on the catcher foils was quantified by elastic recoil detection analysis providing differential as well as total sputtering yields. Compared to existing data for crystalline SiO2, the total sputtering yields for vitreous SiO2 are by a factor of about five larger. Differences in the sputtering rate and track formation characteristics between amorphous and crystalline SiO2 are discussed within the frame of the inelastic thermal spike model.

  12. Long-pulse laser-induced damage in an optical anti-reflective film: II. Experimental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changli; Ma, Yao; Wang, Di; Wang, Zhiyang; Zhang, Xihe; Liu, Haiming

    2014-12-01

    In order to verify the result of theoretical analysis about long-pulse flat-topped multi-Gaussian laser-induced damage in an optical anti-reflection film with HfO2/SiO2 composite film coating on a BK7 substrate (BK7:HfO2/SiO2), an experimental system was built, which carried out the experiment and analysis, focusing on the pulse-length 1.0 ms, flat-topped laser-induced damage. The result shows that the thermal effect is the main reason for damage under the long-pulse flat-topped laser. Moreover, the stripping and shedding occur because of the heating stress of the film happening at an early stage of the laser irradiation. However, the crack happens at laser irradiation termination. The correctness of the theoretical analysis results is verified.

  13. Synthesis of Radioisotope Mn-56@SiO2, Sm-153@SiO2, and Dy-165@SiO2 Hybrid Nanoparticles for Use as Radiotracer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang-Ei; Kang, Yun Ok; Jung, Sung-Hee; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Radioisotope hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) of Mn-56@SiO2, Sm-153@SiO2, and Dy-165@SiO2 were synthesized by neutron irradiation of Mn-55@SiO2, Sm-150@SiO2, and Dy-163@SiO2 NPs respectively using the HANARO research reactor. The Mn-55@SiO2, Sm-150@SiO2, and Dy-163@SiO2 NPs were synthesized by calcination in air flow at 500 degrees C for 8 h of the hybrid NPs that has been prepared by the sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl silicate in the presence of the complex precursors. Mn-55, Sm-150, and Dy-163 were selected for use as radiotracers were selected because these elements can be easily gamma-activated by neutrons (activation limits: 1 picogram (Dy), 1-10 picogram (Mn), 10-100 picogram (Sm)). The successful synthesis of the radioisotope hybrid NPs was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Gamma Spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized the radioisotope hybrid NPs could be used as radiotracers in the scientific, environmental, engineering, and industrial fields.

  14. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  15. Bonding Transition in SiO2 Glass at High Pressures: Applications to SiO2 Liquid in Earth's Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C.; Lin, J.; Fukui, H.; Prendergast, D.; Okuchi, T.; Cai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Trave, A.; Eng, P.; Hu, M. Y.; Chow, P.

    2006-12-01

    SiO2 and MgSiO3 liquids are two major components in the magma deep inside the Earth. Knowledge of their electronic bonding characters at high pressures is essential to understanding the complex properties of the materials in the melts. The nature of pressure-induced bonding change in amorphous SiO2 has been an intriguing and long-standing problem that remains to be further understood. For example, previous infrared and X-ray diffraction studies suggested that a continuous transformation from the four- to six-fold coordinated silicon occurred in amorphous SiO2 at high pressures, whereas separate optical Raman studies attributed to a pressure-induced shift in the local ring statistics and a breakdown in the intermediate-range order. Here we have studied the oxygen near K-edge spectra of SiO2 glass to 51 GPa obtained using X-ray Raman scattering in a diamond-anvil cell, which directly probes the electronic bonding character of the sample. Our results provide conclusive evidence for a pressure-induced electronic bonding transition in SiO2 glass at high pressures. Although a progressive decrease in the mean Si-O-Si angle in the SiO4 tetrahedra is believed to be responsible for the irreversible densification in SiO2 glass at high pressures, our observed transition is reversible upon decompression. A similar transformation is also expected to occur in silicate glasses and melts, which will most definitely alter their physical, mechanical and transport properties in the magma chamber deep in the Earth's interior. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by UC/LLNL under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  16. Magnetoelectric coupling in Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2/Pt/PbZr0.56Ti0.44O3 thin films deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibert, C.; Zhu, J.; Poullain, G.; Bouregba, R.; More-Chevalier, J.; Pautrat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2/Pt/PbZr0.56Ti0.44O3 (Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT) thin films were sputtered on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate. PZT and Terfenol-D layers were chosen for their large piezoelectric and magnetostrictive coefficients, respectively. 4%-5% magnetocapacitance has been measured on a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT stack at room temperature. A magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient of 150 mV/cm Oe was obtained at low dc magnetic field out of mechanical resonance. This work demonstrates the possibility to achieve ME effect in integrated devices involving Terfenol-D and PZT thin films providing that the diffusion, which may occur between both active layers is reduced using an intermediate layer.

  17. Nucleation of C60 on ultrathin SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Brad; Groce, Michelle; Cullen, William; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Williams, Ellen; Einstein, Ted

    2012-02-01

    We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy to characterize the nucleation, growth, and morphology of C60 on ultrathin SiO2 grown at room temperature. C60 thin films are deposited in situ by physical vapor deposition with thicknesses varying from <0.05 to ˜1 ML. Island size and capture zone distributions are examined for a varied flux rate and substrate deposition temperature. The C60 critical nucleus size is observed to change between monomers and dimers non-monotonically from 300 K to 500 K. Results will be discussed in terms of recent capture zone studies and analysis methods. Relation to device fabrication will be discussed. doi:10.1016/j.susc.2011.08.020

  18. Mass spectrometric studies of SiO2 deposition in an indirect plasma enhanced LPCVD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.; Mcconica, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the low temperature deposition of SiO2 from silane and indirect plasma-excited oxygen-nitrogen mixtures are proposed based on experimental evidence gained from mass spectrometry in an indirect plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber. It was observed that about 80-85 percent of the silane was oxidized to byproduct hydrogen and only about 15-20 percent to water. Such conversion levels have led us to interpret that silanol (SiH3OH) could be the precursor for SiO2 film deposition, rather than siloxane /(SiH3)2O/ which has generally been cited in the literature. From mass spectrometry, we have also shown the effects of the plasma, and of mixing small amounts of N2 with the oxygen flow, in increasing the deposition rate of SiO2. Free radical reaction of nitric oxide, synthesized from the reaction of oxygen and nitrogen in the plasma chamber, and an *ncrease in atomic oxygen concentration, are believed to be the reasons for these SiO2 deposition rate increases. Through mass spectrometry we have, in addition, been able to identify products, presumably originating from terminating reactions, among a sequence of chemical reactions proposed for the deposition of SiO2.

  19. Investigation of laser induced damage threshold measurement with single-shot on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yi; Pan, Feng; Lin, Qi; Ma, Ping; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    A method for rapid determination of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings is proposed and investigated in this paper. By use of this method, the LIDT of thin film can be rapidly obtained by only one shot. The modulation of laser beam profile, which is considered as a negative factor in conventional LIDT test, is utilized in this method. Basing on image processing technique, the damage information could be extracted from the comparison between the damage pattern and beam intensity distribution in the test region. The applicability and repeatability of this testing method has been verified on three type reflectors, HfO2/SiO2, HfO2/Al2O3 and Ta2O5/SiO2. In addition, the experimental results showed that appropriate beam size, laser energy and image compression ratio are the key factors to ensure a high accuracy of LIDT.

  20. Interface modification of MoS2/SiO2 leading to conversion of conduction type of MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Su, Ting-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Few-layer MoS2 prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method is deposited on SiO2 samples with/without sulfide treatment in order to experimentally study the mechanism of conduction-type conversion in MoS2. The MoS2 thin film deposited on a SiO2 substrate with sulfide treatment shows n-type behavior, whereas the MoS2 thin film deposited on a SiO2 substrate without sulfide treatment exhibits p-type behavior. Experimental identification confirms that n-type conversion is due to a combined effect of the broken Sisbnd O bonds and the formation of Sisbnd S bonds at the SiO2 surface that results in the removal of oxygen dangling bonds and a change in the MoS2sbnd SiO2 interaction.

  1. Thermal response of Ru electrodes in contact with SiO2 and Hf-based high-k gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.-C.; Lysaght, P.; Alshareef, H. N.; Huffman, C.; Harris, H. R.; Choi, K.; Senzaki, Y.; Luan, H.; Majhi, P.; Lee, B. H.; Campin, M. J.; Foran, B.; Lian, G. D.; Kwong, D.-L.

    2005-08-01

    A systematic experimental evaluation of the thermal stability of Ru metal gate electrodes in direct contact with SiO2 and Hf-based dielectric layers was performed and correlated with electrical device measurements. The distinctly different interfacial reactions in the Ru /SiO2, Ru /HfO2, and Ru /HfSiOx film systems were observed through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron-energy-loss spectra, and energy dispersive x-ray spectra analysis. Ru interacted with SiO2, but remained stable on HfO2 at 1000°C. The onset of Ru /SiO2 interfacial interactions is identified via silicon substrate pitting possibly from Ru diffusion into the dielectric in samples exposed to a 900°C/10-s anneal. The dependence of capacitor device degradation with decreasing SiO2 thickness suggests Ru diffuses through SiO2, followed by an abrupt, rapid, nonuniform interaction of ruthenium silicide as Ru contacts the Si substrate. Local interdiffusion detected on Ru /HfSiOx samples may be due to phase separation of HfSiOx into HfO2 grains within a SiO2 matrix, suggesting that SiO2 provides a diffusion pathway for Ru. Detailed evidence consistent with a dual reaction mechanism for the Ru /SiO2 system at 1000°C is presented.

  2. Cathodoluminescence study of SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, H.

    1980-04-01

    Cathodoluminescence spectra from thin films of silicon dioxide on silicon dioxide were investigated. Four luminescence bands are observed in silicon dioxide in a conventional semiconductor device. Band A at 290 nm (4.27 eV) and band C at 560 nm (2.21 eV) increase substantially with increasing electron irradiation and originate from the electron beam induced defects. Band B at 415 nm (2.99 eV) is not intrinsic in pure silicon dioxide, but is observed in carbon implanted silicon dioxide. The depth-dependent concentration of the luminescence centers for band B from carbon implanted oxide was close to the distribution of the implanted carbon and the luminescence center of band B was attributed to carbon in the silicon dioxide. Band D at 650 nm (1.91 eV) may originate from residual and/or adsorbed H2O. The technique of cathodoluminescence presented in this paper will be able to provide useful information on the defects and impurities in silicon dioxide.

  3. The effect of substrate roughness on the surface structure of TiO(2), SiO(2), and doped thin films prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Krzak-Roś, Justyna; Filipiak, Jarosław; Pezowicz, Celina; Baszczuk, Agnieszka; Miller, Mirosław; Kowalski, Maciej; Bedziński, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Pure and calcium-doped silica and titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Two different metallic substrates, i.e. stainless steel (316L) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), were used for thin film deposition. Physicochemical properties and roughness of the thin films derived were investigated using the Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Taylor-Hobson's surface analyser. It is suggested that the synthesized coatings display physicochemical and surface properties suitable for materials used for implant. PMID:19839563

  4. Undetactable levels of genotoxicity of SiO2 nanoparticles in in vitro and in vivo tests

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Young; Kim, Hye Lim; Lee, Jong Yun; Ju, Yo Han; Kim, Ji Soo; Kang, Seung Hun; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Seo, Young Rok

    2014-01-01

    Background Silica dioxide (SiO2) has been used in various industrial products, including paints and coatings, plastics, synthetic rubbers, and adhesives. Several studies have investigated the genotoxic effects of SiO2; however, the results remain controversial due to variations in the evaluation methods applied in determining its physicochemical properties. Thus, well characterized chemicals and standardized methods are needed for better assessment of the genotoxicity of nanoparticles. Methods The genotoxicity of SiO2 was evaluated using two types of well characterized SiO2, ie, 20 nm (−) charge (SiO EN20(−)2) and 100 nm (−) charge (SiO EN100(−)2). Four end point genotoxicity tests, ie, the bacterial mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, in vivo comet assay, and in vivo micronucleus test, were conducted following the test guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with application of Good Laboratory Practice. Results No statistically significant differences were found in the bacterial mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, in vivo comet assay, and in vivo micronucleus test when tested for induction of genotoxicity in both two types of SiO2 nanoparticles. Conclusion These results suggest that SiO2 nanoparticles, in particular SiO2EN20(−) and SiO2EN100(−), are not genotoxic in both in vitro and in vivo systems under OECD guidelines. Further, the results were generated in accordance with OECD test guidelines, and Good Laboratory Practice application; it can be accepted as reliable information regarding SiO2-induced genotoxicity. PMID:25565835

  5. Y1Ba2Cu3O(6+delta) growth on thin Y-enhanced SiO2 buffer layers on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robin, T.; Mesarwi, A.; Wu, N. J.; Fan, W. C.; Espoir, L.; Ignatiev, A.; Sega, R.

    1991-01-01

    SiO2 buffer layers as thin as 2 nm have been developed for use in the growth of Y1Ba2Cu3O(6+delta) thin films on silicon substrates. The SiO2 layers are formed through Y enhancement of silicon oxidation, and are highly stoichiometric. Y1Ba2Cu3O(6+delta) film growth on silicon with thin buffer layers has shown c orientation and Tc0 = 78 K.

  6. TiO2/SiO2 porous composite thin films: Role of TiO2 areal loading and modification with gold nanospheres on the photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Irina; Sillanpää, Mika; Guillard, Chantal; Gregori, Damia; Chateau, Denis; Parola, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the work was to study photocatalytic activity of composite TiO2/Au/SiO2 thin films. Coatings were prepared using sol-gel technique. Physicochemical parameters of coatings were characterized using UV-vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ellipsometry, tactile measurements, goniometry and diffuse reflectance measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the films was tested in batch mode using aqueous solution of formic acid. Changes of formic acid concentration were determined by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increase of initial degradation rate of formic acid was detected for TiO2/Au/SiO2 films with gold nanoparticle's load 0.5 wt.% and 1.25 wt.%. However, deeper insights using more detailed characterization of these coatings demonstrated that the improvement of the photocatalytic activity is more probably attributed to an increase in the areal loading of TiO2.

  7. Comparative studies of laser-induced damage of several single-layer optical films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, X. T.; Chen, X. Q.; Zheng, W. G.; Jiang, X. D.; Yuan, X. D.; Li, X. P.; Xiang, X.

    2008-06-01

    Single-layer optical films, ZrO2, SiO2 and HfO2, were deposited on K9 glass substrates by ion beam sputtering deposit technique in order to study laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and damage mechanism. Impurities and defects will result in strong weak absorption coefficient and photothermal signal. Further LIDT is inverse proportional to the absorption coefficient of the films. AFM images of as-deposited films showed a similar roughness of 2-4 nm. Among the films, ZrO2 film has a pore structure, which results in the largest weak absorption, photothermal effect and smallest LIDT. HfO2 film has the largest LIDT (22.13 J/cm2) due to the smallest number and size of both defects and impurities on the surface. Different films have different damage morphology, which is related to the morphology of defects or impurities in the film before laser irradiation and the interface between films and substrates. In order to enhance LIDT, it is important to prepare high-quality film and passivate the defects in the films.

  8. Studies on TiO2/SiO2 and Pd/TiO2/SiO2 Catalysts in Photoreduction of CO2 with H2O to Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbudniewek, K.; Góralski, J.; Rynkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    The development of industry induced a massive increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A large amount of CO2 and its general availability causes that it could be a cheap reactant in a reaction that runs in a way similar to photosynthesis in plants. Pure TiO2 and metal doped TiO2 are the most studied semiconductor catalysts for photoreduction of CO2. The TiO2/SiO2 and Pd/TiO2/SiO2 catalysts were prepared and studied by temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM-EDS, temperature-programmed reduction and then used for the methanol synthesis. The photoactivity of Pd/TiO2/SiO2 catalysts in the reduction of CO2 with H2O was tested at room temperature using photoreactor equipped with 16 lamps. The wavelength was characteristic of near ultraviolet. Post-reaction products were identified with gas chromatograph equipped with the flame ionization detector. Pd doping made the catalysts photoactive and the photoactivity of catalysts was changing as follows: 1%Pd/5%TiO2/SiO2 > 1% Pd/10% TiO2/SiO2 > 1% Pd/15% TiO2/SiO2. Optimum ultraviolet radiation time in the photoreduction of CO2 to methanol was 7 h. An addition of Pd does not change the surface of the carrier.

  9. Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors via pressure-induced nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Koo; Kim, Si Joon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-01

    We report a method to improve the performance of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) via pressure-induced nucleation (PIN). During the PIN process, spatial variation in the local solidification temperature occurs because of a non-uniform pressure distribution during laser irradiation of the amorphous Si layer, which is capped with an SiO2 layer. This leads to a four-fold increase in the grain size of the poly-Si thin-films formed using the PIN process, compared with those formed using conventional excimer laser annealing. We find that thin films with optimal electrical properties can be achieved with a reduction in the number of laser irradiations from 20 to 6, as well as the preservation of the interface between the poly-Si and the SiO2 gate insulator. This interface preservation becomes possible to remove the cleaning process prior to gate insulator deposition, and we report devices with a field-effect mobility greater than 160 cm2/Vs. PMID:25358809

  10. Space electric field concentrated effect for Zr:SiO2 RRAM devices using porous SiO2 buffer layer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To improve the operation current lowing of the Zr:SiO2 RRAM devices, a space electric field concentrated effect established by the porous SiO2 buffer layer was investigated and found in this study. The resistive switching properties of the low-resistance state (LRS) and high-resistance state (HRS) in resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices for the single-layer Zr:SiO2 and bilayer Zr:SiO2/porous SiO2 thin films were analyzed and discussed. In addition, the original space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanism in LRS and HRS of the RRAM devices using bilayer Zr:SiO2/porous SiO2 thin films was found. Finally, a space electric field concentrated effect in the bilayer Zr:SiO2/porous SiO2 RRAM devices was also explained and verified by the COMSOL Multiphysics simulation model. PMID:24330524

  11. Thickness identification of atomically thin InSe nanoflakes on SiO2/Si substrates by optical contrast analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M.; Sánchez-Royo, J. F.; Martínez-Pastor, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Single layers of chalcogenide semiconductors have demonstrated to exhibit tunable properties that can be exploited for new field-effect transistors and photonic devices. Among these semiconductors, indium selenide (InSe) is attractive for applications due to its direct bandgap in the near infrared, controllable p- and n-type doping and high chemical stability. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin nanosheets are essential. Here, we employ a transfer matrix approach to numerically calculate the optical contrast between thin InSe flakes and commonly used SiO2/Si substrates, which nicely reproduces experimental values extracted from optical images on 285 nm SiO2/Si substrates. Standard 90 and ∼300 nm SiO2/Si substrates result to provide an optimized optical contrast to detect few-layer InSe flakes using monochromatic illumination at ∼450 and ∼520 nm, respectively. On the other hand, calculated optical contrast reveals an optimum value of 110 nm for the thickness of the SiO2 film on Si substrates in order to detect InSe nanoflakes as thin as one single layer, under white light illumination. These results demonstrate that the proposed optical contrast method is a very fast and reliable technique to identify atomically thin InSe nanoflakes deposited onto SiO2/Si substrates.

  12. Application of mesoporous SiO2 layer as an insulating layer in high performance hole transport material free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Nian; Liu, Pei; Bai, Sihang; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    A mesoporous SiO2 layer is successfully introduced into the hole transport material free perovskite solar cells by spin-coating a SiO2 paste onto the TiO2 scaffold layer. This SiO2 layer can act as an insulating layer and effectively inhibit the charge recombination between the TiO2 layer and carbon electrode. The variation of power conversion efficiencies with the thickness of SiO2 layer is studied here. Under optimized SiO2 thickness, perovskite solar cell fabricated on the TiO2/SiO2 film shows a superior power conversion efficiency of ∼12% and exhibits excellent long time stability for 30 days.

  13. One-step process to fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic SiO2 paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Wan, Hongqi; Ye, Yinping; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-11-01

    A simple technique for fabrication of superhydrophobic SiO2 paper was developed by spraying hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles suspension on paper substrate. The hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by imparting octadecyltrichloro group on SiO2 nanoparticles. The as-prepared superhydrophobic SiO2 paper exhibted high water contact angle and low water sliding angle. Futhermore, the obtained superhydrophobic SiO2 paper was found to be highly transparent and the visibility of the character on the paper was not changed after spray-coating the hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles.

  14. Formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates impairs nuclear function in response to SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; von Mikecz, Anna

    2005-04-15

    Despite of their exponentially growing use, little is known about cell biological effects of nanoparticles. Here, we report uptake of silica (SiO(2)) nanoparticles to the cell nucleus where they induce aberrant clusters of topoisomerase I (topo I) in the nucleoplasm that additionally contain signature proteins of nuclear domains, and protein aggregation such as ubiquitin, proteasomes, cellular glutamine repeat (polyQ) proteins, and huntingtin. Formation of intranuclear protein aggregates (1) inhibits replication, transcription, and cell proliferation; (2) does not significantly alter proteasomal activity or cell viability; and (3) is reversible by Congo red and trehalose. Since SiO(2) nanoparticles trigger a subnuclear pathology resembling the one occurring in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, we suggest that integrity of the functional architecture of the cell nucleus should be used as a read out for cytotoxicity and considered in the development of safe nanotechnology. PMID:15777787

  15. Enhancement of electroactive β phase crystallization and dielectric constant of PVDF by incorporating GeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kar, Epsita; Bose, Navonil; Das, Sukhen; Mukherjee, Nillohit; Mukherjee, Sampad

    2015-09-21

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanocomposites are recently gaining importance due to their unique dielectric and electroactive responses. In this study, GeO2 nanoparticles/PVDF and SiO2 nanoparticles/PVDF nanocomposite films were prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The surface morphology and structural properties of the as-prepared films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The studies reveal that the incorporation of GeO2 or SiO2 nanoparticles leads to an enhancement in the electroactive β phase fraction of PVDF due to the strong interactions between the negatively charged nanoparticle surface and polymer. Analysis of the thermal properties of the as-prepared samples also supports the increment of the β phase fraction in PVDF. Variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and ac conductivity with frequency and loading fraction of the nanoparticles were also studied for all the as-prepared films. Dielectric constant of the nanocomposite films increases with increasing nanofiller concentration in PVDF. 15 mass% SiO2-loaded PVDF film shows the highest dielectric constant, which can be attributed to the smaller size of SiO2 nanoparticles and the homogeneous and discrete dispersion of SiO2 nanoparticles in PVDF matrix. PMID:26260070

  16. Analysis of electronic structure and optical properties of N-doped SiO2 based on DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sui-Shuan; Zhao, Zong-Yan; Yang, Pei-Zhi

    2015-07-01

    The crystal structure, electronic structure and optical properties of N-doped SiO2 with different N impurity concentrations were calculated by density function theory within GGA+U method. The crystal distortion, impurity formation energy, band gap, band width and optical parameter of N-doped SiO2 are closely related with N impurity concentration. Based on the calculated results, there are three new impurity energy levels emerging in the band gap of N-doped SiO2, which determine the electronic structure and optical properties. The variations of optical properties induced by N doping are predominately determined by the unsaturated impurity states, which are more obvious at higher N impurity concentration. In addition, all the doping effects of N in both α-quartz SiO2 and β-quartz SiO2 are very similar. According to these findings, one could understand the relationship between nitrogen concentration and optical parameter of SiOxNy materials, and design new optoelectrionic Si-O-N compounds.

  17. Effects of antimony (Sb) on electron trapping near SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, P. M.; Jiang, Zenan; Basile, A. F.; Zheng, Yongju; Dhar, Sarit

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which Sb at the SiO2/SiC interface improves the channel mobility of 4H-SiC MOSFETs, 1 MHz capacitance measurements and constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CCDLTS) measurements were performed on Sb-implanted 4H-SiC MOS capacitors. The measurements reveal a significant concentration of Sb donors near the SiO2/SiC interface. Two Sb donor related CCDLTS peaks corresponding to shallow energy levels in SiC were observed close to the SiO2/SiC interface. Furthermore, CCDLTS measurements show that the same type of near-interface traps found in conventional dry oxide or NO-annealed capacitors are present in the Sb implanted samples. These are O1 traps, suggested to be carbon dimers substituted for O dimers in SiO2, and O2 traps, suggested to be interstitial Si in SiO2. However, electron trapping is reduced by a factor of ˜2 in Sb-implanted samples compared with samples with no Sb, primarily at energy levels within 0.2 eV of the SiC conduction band edge. This trap passivation effect is relatively small compared with the Sb-induced counter-doping effect on the MOSFET channel surface, which results in improved channel transport.

  18. Scalable flame synthesis of SiO2 nanowires: dynamics of growth.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, Antonio; Righettoni, Marco; Krumeich, Frank; Stark, Wendelin J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2010-11-19

    Silica nanowire arrays were grown directly onto plain glass substrates by scalable flame spray pyrolysis of organometallic solutions (hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethyl orthosilicate). The silicon dioxide films consisted of a network of interwoven nanowires from a few to several hundred nanometres long (depending on the process conditions) and about 20 nm in diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. These films were formed rapidly (within 10-20 s) at high growth rates (ca 11-30 nm s(-1)) by chemical vapour deposition (surface growth) at ambient conditions on the glass substrate as determined by thermophoretic sampling of the flame aerosol and microscopy. In contrast, on high purity quartz nearly no nanowires were grown while on steel substrates porous SiO(2) films were formed. Functionalization with perfluorooctyl triethoxysilane converted the nanowire surface from super-hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Additionally, their hermetic coating by thin carbon layers was demonstrated also revealing their potential as substrates for synthesis of other functional 1D composite structures. This approach is a significant step towards large scale synthesis of SiO(2) nanowires facilitating their utilization in several applications. PMID:20972311

  19. Local atomic and electronic structure of oxide/GaAs and SiO2/Si interfaces using high-resolution XPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Grunthaner, P. J.; Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Maserjian, J.; Madhukar, A.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical structures of thin SiO2 films, thin native oxides of GaAs (20-30 A), and the respective oxide-semiconductor interfaces, have been investigated using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Depth profiles of these structures have been obtained using argon ion bombardment and wet chemical etching techniques. The chemical destruction induced by the ion profiling method is shown by direct comparison of these methods for identical samples. Fourier transform data-reduction methods based on linear prediction with maximum entropy constraints are used to analyze the discrete structure in oxides and substrates. This discrete structure is interpreted by means of a structure-induced charge-transfer model.

  20. Dissolution Kinetics of SiO2 into CaO-Fe2O3-SiO2 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bin; Lv, Xuewei; Xiang, Shenglin; Xu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    High-basicity sinter is the predominant Fe-bearing material used in blast furnace process in East Asia. The dissolution of SiO2 into molten calcium ferrite influences the assimilation process. In this study, a rotating cylinder method was used to explore the dissolution kinetics of SiO2 into CaO-Fe2O3-SiO2 slag. The influencing factors, including temperature, rotating time and speed, and initial composition of the slag, were considered. Results showed that the dissolution rate increased with increasing rotation speed and temperature, whereas the increase in ω(SiO2) or ω(Fe2O3)/ ω(CaO) ratio in the initial slag composition decreased the dissolution rate. The diffusion coefficient and activation energy of SiO2 during the dissolution process ranged from 2.09 × 10-6 to 6.40 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 and 106.62 to 248.20 kJ mol-1, respectively. Concentration difference between the boundary layer and bulk phase was the primary driving force of the dissolution process; however, this process was also influenced by the slag viscosity and ion diffusivity.

  1. Structural phase transitions in Si and SiO2 crystals via the random phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sun, Jianwei; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Feng, Jing; Perdew, John P.

    2012-09-01

    We have assessed the performance of the non-self-consistent random phase approximation (RPA) on two pressure-induced structural phase transitions, diamond to β-Sn Si in Si and α-quartz to stishovite in SiO2. The calculated equilibrium lattice properties of the four structures are in better agreement with experimental results than are those from several semilocal functionals. The energy differences between the high- and low-pressure phases are found to be 0.37 eV/Si and 0.39 eV/SiO2, respectively. The transition pressure obtained from our RPA calculations for diamond to β-Sn in Si is 12.2 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 11.3-12.6 GPa. However, the α-quartz to stishovite phase-transition pressure in SiO2 is found to be 5.6 GPa, lower than the experimental 7.46 GPa; the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) semilocal functional gives the transition pressure closest to experiment in this case. We conclude that the non-self-consistent, nonlocal RPA accurately describes the insulator-to-metal transition in Si, where semilocal density functionals tend to fail. But the RPA error cancellation that is nearly perfect in many solids, including Si, may be less perfect in solid SiO2, as it is in many molecules.

  2. Luminescent properties and characterization of Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 core shell phosphors prepared by a sol gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuo-Min; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2006-03-01

    Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+ films 10 nm in thickness were individually coated onto silica spheres (particle size of 150-170 nm) using the sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were addressed as Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors. An x-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL) were employed to characterize the core-shell phosphors. Uniform core-shell phosphor particles were observed using FE-SEM. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicated that the coated-shell layer was well crystallized after sintering at 1000 °C. The Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 PL measurement showed a red emission at the main 615 nm wavelength. The Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphor showed an orange-red emission at the 588 and 615 nm wavelengths. In comparison with the Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+ bulk material results, the core-shell phosphors maintained the same emission ability as the bulk materials and the novel core-shell phosphors possessed great potential in quantum phosphor applications.

  3. Luminescent properties and characterization of Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 core-shell phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Min; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2006-03-28

    Gd2O3:Eu(3+) and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+) films 10 nm in thickness were individually coated onto silica spheres (particle size of 150-170 nm) using the sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were addressed as Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 phosphors. An x-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL) were employed to characterize the core-shell phosphors. Uniform core-shell phosphor particles were observed using FE-SEM. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicated that the coated-shell layer was well crystallized after sintering at 1000 °C. The Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 PL measurement showed a red emission at the main 615 nm wavelength. The Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 phosphor showed an orange-red emission at the 588 and 615 nm wavelengths. In comparison with the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+) bulk material results, the core-shell phosphors maintained the same emission ability as the bulk materials and the novel core-shell phosphors possessed great potential in quantum phosphor applications.

  4. Magnetic properties of the SiO2(Co)/GaAs interface: Polarized neutron reflectometry and SQUID magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukleev, V. A.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Dyadkina, E. A.; Vorobiev, A. A.; Lott, D.; Lutsev, L. V.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskiy, N. N.; Mistonov, A. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of giant injection magnetoresistance (GIMR) was recently observed in a granular SiO2/(54-75 at. % Co) film on a semiconductor GaAs substrate in a temperature range near T=300 K. The magnetoresistance coefficient reaches a value of 105% in a magnetic field of 1.9 T and at a voltage of 90 V. A structural model of the film was proposed based on the results of the grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) and x-ray reflectivity, which showed a specific interface layer 70-75 Å thick separating bulk SiO2(Co) granular film from the semiconductor substrate. This layer is formed by a monolayer of flattened Co particles which are laterally spaced apart much further than the particles in the bulk film. In the present work, using polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR), we study both the structural and magnetic properties of SiO2(Co) film separately in the bulk and in the interface layer, which is possible due to the depth resolution of the method. Temperature-dependent PNR and magnetization measurements performed by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) revealed the occurrence of two types of magnetic nanoparticles with different blocking temperatures and magnetization. The magnetization hysteresis curve demonstrated specific two-loop structure in fields 0.5-2 T. Thus our self-consistent results of PNR, GISAXS, and SQUID measurements emphasize the role of the interface features in the SiO2(Co)/GaAs heterostructures and show a direction for further development of the GIMR theory.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence from CdS with SiO2 nanopillar arrays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Shaolei; He, Sufeng; Wang, Jing; Guo, Yanyan; Guo, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enhanced photoluminescence from CdS thin film with SiO2 nanopillar array (NPA) was demonstrated. The CdS was prepared using chemical bath deposition in a solution bath containing CdSO4, SC(NH2)2, and NH4OH. The SiO2 NPA was fabricated by the nanosphere lithography (NSL) techniques. The nanopillar is about 50 nm in diameter, and the height is 150 nm. As a result, the sample with NPA shows an obvious improvement of photoluminescence (PL), compared with the one without NPA. In addition, we also observed that the PL intensity is increased ~5 times if the active layer is deposited on the nanopillar arrays and covered by a thin metal film of Al. It is noteworthy that the enhancement of photoluminescence could be attributed to the roughness of the surface, the 2D photonic band gap (PBG) effect and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects. PMID:26077552

  6. Enhanced photoluminescence from CdS with SiO2 nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Shaolei; He, Sufeng; Wang, Jing; Guo, Yanyan; Guo, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the enhanced photoluminescence from CdS thin film with SiO2 nanopillar array (NPA) was demonstrated. The CdS was prepared using chemical bath deposition in a solution bath containing CdSO4, SC(NH2)2, and NH4OH. The SiO2 NPA was fabricated by the nanosphere lithography (NSL) techniques. The nanopillar is about 50 nm in diameter, and the height is 150 nm. As a result, the sample with NPA shows an obvious improvement of photoluminescence (PL), compared with the one without NPA. In addition, we also observed that the PL intensity is increased ~5 times if the active layer is deposited on the nanopillar arrays and covered by a thin metal film of Al. It is noteworthy that the enhancement of photoluminescence could be attributed to the roughness of the surface, the 2D photonic band gap (PBG) effect and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects.

  7. Comparison of preferred orientation and stress in silver thin films on different substrates using x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoo, Yeongseok; Alford, T. L.

    2007-02-01

    Silver thin films were deposited on SiO2 and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) using e-beam evaporation. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to investigate the influence of substrate morphology on the Ag film's texture. Different modes of texture were observed in Ag thin films on SiO2 and PEN. Detailed information regarding spatial distribution of specific {hkl } planes was obtained by conducting pole figure analyses. A typical stress measurement technique for thin films, sin2ψ analysis, was performed to study how the surface morphology of the various substrates affected the stress induced during the texture evolution of the thin films. Based on the data from this study, the preferred orientation and stress of Ag thin films on SiO2 and PEN were discussed.

  8. Sn Spheres Embedded in a SiO2 Matrix: Synthesis and Potential Application As Self-Destructing Materials.

    PubMed

    Hien, Vu Xuan; Heo, Young-Woo

    2016-08-24

    We introduce a simple process for the fabrication of SiO2 films embedded with β-Sn-rich nano/microspheres. Sn spheres with maximum and minimum sizes of 10 μm (near the SiO2 surface) and 5 nm (at the Si/SiO2 interface) were grown within a 0.7-5.7 μm-thick SiO2 layer by evaporating SnO powders onto an Si (100) substrate for 1-600 min at 600-900 °C and 0.001-5.0 Torr. A possible growth mechanism of these materials is discussed. The current-voltage characteristics of the as-fabricated samples were investigated to identify potential applications. During these tests, small flashes of light and the presence of damaged areas were observed at the oxide surfaces of the samples using an optical camera and a field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. The electrical breakdown and shutdown of the devices observed in the current-voltage curves were attributed to the destruction of the SiO2 surface. In addition, the current-time responses show that the size of the damaged regions can be controlled by the voltage and duration of the applied stress, and are independent of the size and shape of the electrodes. The present materials thus possess great potential for applications in self-destructing devices. PMID:27463945

  9. Light-induced pH change and its application to solid phase extraction of trace heavy metals by high-magnetization Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanoparticles followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Peng, Hanyong; Hu, Bin

    2012-05-30

    We report here the preparation of high-magnetization Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@TiO(2) nanoparticles for solid phase extraction of trace amounts of Cd(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II) from environmental waters. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The high-magnetization nanoparticles carrying the target metals could be easily and fast separated from the aqueous solution simply by applying an external magnetic field while no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. A light-induced hydroxide ion emitter, molecular malachite green carbinol base (MGCB) was applied to adjust pH value of solution for quantitative adsorption instead of the conventional used buffer. In the presence of UV light, MGCB gives out OH(-) ions, and this leads to an increase in the pH value without the aid of buffer solution. Using high-magnetization Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@TiO(2) nanoparticles as the extraction material and the light-induced MGCB for pH adjustment, we developed an efficient and convenient two-step method for separation/preconcentration trace amounts of Cd(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II) in environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The parameters affecting the extraction such as MGCB concentration, exposal time, sample volume, eluent condition, and interfering ions have been investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection for Cd(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II) were 4.0, 2.6, 1.6 and 2.3 ng L(-1), respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=1 μg L(-1), n=7) were 3.6%, 4.5%, 4.0 and 4.1%, respectively. The proposed method has been validated using certified reference materials, and it has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Cd(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II) in environmental water samples.

  10. Extracting the Density of States of Copper Phthalocyanine at the SiO2 Interface with Electronic Sum Frequency Generation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravindra; Moon, Aaron P; Bender, Jon A; Roberts, Sean T

    2016-03-17

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) constitute an attractive platform for optoelectronics design due to the ease of their processability and chemically tunable properties. Incorporating OSCs into electrical circuits requires forming junctions between them and other materials, yet the change in dielectric properties about these junctions can strongly perturb the electronic structure of the OSC. Here we adapt an interface-selective optical technique, electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG), to the study of a model OSC thin-film system, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) deposited on SiO2. We find that by modeling the thickness dependence of our measured spectra, we can identify changes in CuPc's electronic density of states at both its buried interface with SiO2 and air-exposed surface. Our work demonstrates that ESFG can be used to noninvasively probe the interfacial electronic structure of optically thick OSC films, indicating that it can be used for the study of OSC-based optoelectronics in situ.

  11. A flexible insulator of a hollow SiO2 sphere and polyimide hybrid for flexible OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Shin, Dong Wook; Seo, Sang Joon; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2015-01-28

    The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) not only requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant, but also ones that possess the electrical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties required for optimal device performance. Porous polymer-silica hybrid materials were prepared to satisfy these requirements. Hollow SiO2 spheres were synthesized using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a thermal calcination process. The hybrid film, which consists of hollow SiO2 spheres and polyimide, shows a low dielectric constant of 1.98 and excellent thermal stability up to 500 °C. After the bending test for 50 000 cycles, the porous hybrid film exhibits no degradation in its dielectric constant or leakage current. These results indicate that the hybrid film made up of hollow SiO2 spheres and polyimide (PI) is useful as a flexible insulator with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLEDs.

  12. Molecular dynamics of liquid SiO2 under high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustad, James R.; Yuen, David A.; Spera, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of pure SiO2 liquids was investigated up to pressures of 20 GPa at 4000 K using 252, 498, 864, and 1371 particles. The results obtained suggest that the pressure-induced maxima in the self-diffusion coefficients of both oxygen and silicon are dependent on the system size. In the case of larger systems, the maximum decreases and shifts to lower pressures. Changes in the velocity autocorrelation function with increasing pressure are described. The populations of anomalously coordinated silicon and oxygen are then discussed as a function of pressure and system size.

  13. Molecular-Orientation-Induced Rapid Roughening and Morphology Transition in Organic Semiconductor Thin-Film Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junliang; Yim, Sanggyu; Jones, Tim S.

    2015-03-01

    We study the roughening process and morphology transition of organic semiconductor thin film induced by molecular orientation in the model of molecular semiconductor copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) using both experiment and simulation. The growth behaviour of F16CuPc thin film with the thickness, D, on SiO2 substrate takes on two processes divided by a critical thickness: (1) D <= 40 nm, F16CuPc thin films are composed of uniform caterpillar-like crystals. The kinetic roughening is confirmed during this growth, which is successfully analyzed by Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) model with scaling exponents α = 0.71 +/- 0.12, β = 0.36 +/- 0.03, and 1/z = 0.39 +/- 0.12; (2) D > 40 nm, nanobelt crystals are formed gradually on the caterpillar-like crystal surface and the film growth shows anomalous growth behaviour. These new growth behaviours with two processes result from the gradual change of molecular orientation and the formation of grain boundaries, which conversely induce new molecular orientation, rapid roughening process, and the formation of nanobelt crystals.

  14. Molecular-Orientation-Induced Rapid Roughening and Morphology Transition in Organic Semiconductor Thin-Film Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junliang; Yim, Sanggyu; Jones, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    We study the roughening process and morphology transition of organic semiconductor thin film induced by molecular orientation in the model of molecular semiconductor copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) using both experiment and simulation. The growth behaviour of F16CuPc thin film with the thickness, D, on SiO2 substrate takes on two processes divided by a critical thickness: (1) D ≤ 40 nm, F16CuPc thin films are composed of uniform caterpillar-like crystals. The kinetic roughening is confirmed during this growth, which is successfully analyzed by Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) model with scaling exponents α = 0.71 ± 0.12, β = 0.36 ± 0.03, and 1/z = 0.39 ± 0.12; (2) D > 40 nm, nanobelt crystals are formed gradually on the caterpillar-like crystal surface and the film growth shows anomalous growth behaviour. These new growth behaviours with two processes result from the gradual change of molecular orientation and the formation of grain boundaries, which conversely induce new molecular orientation, rapid roughening process, and the formation of nanobelt crystals. PMID:25801646

  15. Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in GeO2-SiO2 matrix by atom beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2016-02-01

    Nanocomposite thin films containing Ag nanoparticles embedded in the GeO2-SiO2 matrix were synthesized by the atom beam co-sputtering technique. The structural, optical and plasmonic properties and the chemical composition of the nanocomposite thin films were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV-visible absorption studies on Ag-SiO2 nanocomposites revealed the presence of a strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles at 413 nm, which showed a blue shift of 26 nm (413 to 387 nm) along with a significant broadening and drastic decrease in intensity with the incorporation of 16 at% of Ge into the SiO2 matrix. TEM studies on Ag-GeO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films confirmed the presence of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 3.8 nm in addition to their aggregates with an average size of 16.2 nm. Thermal annealing in air resulted in strong enhancement in the intensity of the LSPR peak, which showed a regular red shift of 51 nm (from 387 to 438 nm) with the increase in annealing temperature up to 500 °C. XPS studies showed that annealing in air resulted in oxidation of excess Ge atoms in the nanocomposite into GeO2. Our work demonstrates the possibility of controllably tuning the LSPR of Ag nanoparticles embedded in the GeO2-SiO2 matrix by single-step thermal annealing, which is interesting for optical applications.

  16. A visual and organic vapor sensitive photonic crystal sensor consisting of polymer-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Qiu, Jianhua; Hu, Rongrong; Li, Pei; Gao, Loujun; Heng, Liping; Tang, Ben Zhong; Jiang, Lei

    2015-04-21

    A photonic crystal (PC) sensor that can selectively detect organic vapors through visual color changes has been proposed. The sensor was fabricated by infiltrating a tetraphenylethene polymer (TPEP) into the voids of SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystal. When the sensor was exposed to tetrahydrofuran or acetone vapor, a red shift of the stopband of more than 50 nm could be clearly observed; meanwhile, the film's color changed from violet to cyan. Subsequently, when exposed to air, the stopband underwent a blue shift and the color returned to violet. The reason for the observed change is that a reversible adsorption-desorption process occurs on alternate exposure of the sensor to organic vapor and air, due to the high specific surface area of the inverse opal macroporous structure and the high affinity of TPEP to tetrahydrofuran and acetone. The adsorption of vapor analyte can increase the PC's effective refractive index, which will induce the stopband red shift and the resulting color change according to Bragg's Law. The reversible adsorption-desorption of organic vapors varied the effective refractive index of the sensor repeatedly, causing the reversible stopband shift and color change, and providing a general method for the design of visual vapor sensors. PMID:25777537

  17. A visual and organic vapor sensitive photonic crystal sensor consisting of polymer-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Qiu, Jianhua; Hu, Rongrong; Li, Pei; Gao, Loujun; Heng, Liping; Tang, Ben Zhong; Jiang, Lei

    2015-04-21

    A photonic crystal (PC) sensor that can selectively detect organic vapors through visual color changes has been proposed. The sensor was fabricated by infiltrating a tetraphenylethene polymer (TPEP) into the voids of SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystal. When the sensor was exposed to tetrahydrofuran or acetone vapor, a red shift of the stopband of more than 50 nm could be clearly observed; meanwhile, the film's color changed from violet to cyan. Subsequently, when exposed to air, the stopband underwent a blue shift and the color returned to violet. The reason for the observed change is that a reversible adsorption-desorption process occurs on alternate exposure of the sensor to organic vapor and air, due to the high specific surface area of the inverse opal macroporous structure and the high affinity of TPEP to tetrahydrofuran and acetone. The adsorption of vapor analyte can increase the PC's effective refractive index, which will induce the stopband red shift and the resulting color change according to Bragg's Law. The reversible adsorption-desorption of organic vapors varied the effective refractive index of the sensor repeatedly, causing the reversible stopband shift and color change, and providing a general method for the design of visual vapor sensors.

  18. EPR of CH3 Radicals in SIO2 Clathrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Yurij; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Benetis, Nikolas Ploutarch

    2016-06-01

    EPR lineshape simulations of CH3/SiO2 clathrates reveal the motional conditions of the CH3 radical up to the unusual regime of its stability, the high temperature diffusional regime. This was obvious by the isotropic magnetic interaction at the highest experimental temperatures over 140 K. Special motional and thermodynamics conditions for methyl radical may however prevail for the CH3/SiO2 clathrates system due to the limited space of the host voids, compared to solid gas isolation. The lowest temperature in the experiment was 4.1 K, while the highest one was 300 K. The EPR parameters of the radical revealed non-monotonic temperature dependence. The extremely wide temperature range of the radical stability may be attributed to the solidity of the clathrate voids and the small diameter of their channels that do not allow molecular collisions between the radical species. At the lowest sample temperatures, a portion of the radicals stopped to rotate thus indicating their attachment to specific matrix sites with large radical-host interaction. The unusual increase of the width of the CH3/SiO2 clathrate spectra with the temperature at high sample temperatures indicates resemblance to the spin-rotation interaction relaxation mechanism known only in the case of small species in non-viscous fluids, and is contrasted to the normal difussional decrease of the width in the CH3 hosted in a series of solid. The effect was explained by adopting extremely frequent radical collisions with the clathrate void walls leading to repeated angular momentum alterations, a kind of "reorientation". Yu. A. D. acknowledges support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), research project 16-02-00127a.

  19. Heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Ueba, H

    2010-11-24

    We study the heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO(2). We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and between the surfaces in the non-contact region. We consider the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies, and the heat transfer by the gas in the non-contact region. We find that the dominant contribution to the heat transfer results from the area of real contact, and the calculated value of the heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the value deduced from experimental data.

  20. Heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Ueba, H

    2010-11-24

    We study the heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO(2). We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and between the surfaces in the non-contact region. We consider the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies, and the heat transfer by the gas in the non-contact region. We find that the dominant contribution to the heat transfer results from the area of real contact, and the calculated value of the heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the value deduced from experimental data. PMID:21403360

  1. Lysine adsorption on the silanized SiO 2-surface for immobilization of the estrogen receptor hER α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkouk, C.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the adsorption of the L-lysine (200 mmol) molecule to a silanized SiO 2 surface as a function of the pH value. The SSC (Spraying Spin Coating) method [Cherkouk et al., J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 337 (2009) 375-380] was applied to functionalize the SiO 2 surface by using the (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APMS) as coupling agent with a NH 2 functional group. We adsorbed lysine molecules to the silane film for pH-values of 2.5, 7.5, 8.7, 9.5 and 13, which correspond to the di-cationic, cationic, zwitterinonic (pH 8.7 and 9.5) and the anionic charge state of lysine, respectively. The infrared spectroscopy is not suitable to investigate the system because the NH 3+ signal at 1600 cm -1 originating from the silane film overlaps with the infrared signal of the deprotonated carboxyl group of the lysine molecule. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure the binding energies C 1s and N 1s as function of the pH value. This pH change affects the charge state which was fitted in the XPS spectra to obtain the optimal adsorption conditions at pH 7.5 of the lysine to the functionalized SiO 2 surface.

  2. Formation of Transparent SiO2 Protective Layer on Polycarbonate by 157 nm F2 Laser for Lightweight Automobile Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Yoshihiko; Okoshi, Masayuki; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Narumi

    2010-07-01

    A transparent, hard silica glass (SiO2) layer was formed on a conventional protective coat made of silicone ([SiO(CH3)2]n) on a polycarbonate plate by the 157 nm F2 laser-induced photochemical modification of silicone into SiO2. An optimum laser irradiation time of the F2 laser was found to form a crack-free SiO2 layer. The high optical transparency of the samples in the visible light region remained unchanged after the F2 laser irradiation. In the Taber abrasion test, the SiO2 layer markedly reduced the number of scratches, resulting in a low haze value. The haze values of the samples also depend on the thickness of the silicone protective coat underneath the SiO2 protective layer. As a result, the difference of haze value (δHz) was successfully reduced to 3.6%, compared with these of the nonirradiated sample and a bare polycarbonate plate of approximately 11.3 and 41.3%, respectively, which is comparable to the case of a bare silica glass of approximately 1.6%. In addition, the thickness of the SiO2 protective layer was estimated to be approximately 0.44 µm for the 30-s laser irradiation by immersing the samples in 1 wt % hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution and measuring the depth using a surface profilometer.

  3. Formation of Transparent SiO2 Protective Layer on Polycarbonate by 157 nm F2 Laser for Lightweight Automobile Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihiko Nojima,; Masayuki Okoshi,; Hidetoshi Nojiri,; Narumi Inoue,

    2010-07-01

    A transparent, hard silica glass (SiO2) layer was formed on a conventional protective coat made of silicone ([SiO(CH3)2]n) on a polycarbonate plate by the 157 nm F2 laser-induced photochemical modification of silicone into SiO2. An optimum laser irradiation time of the F2 laser was found to form a crack-free SiO2 layer. The high optical transparency of the samples in the visible light region remained unchanged after the F2 laser irradiation. In the Taber abrasion test, the SiO2 layer markedly reduced the number of scratches, resulting in a low haze value. The haze values of the samples also depend on the thickness of the silicone protective coat underneath the SiO2 protective layer. As a result, the difference of haze value (δHz) was successfully reduced to 3.6%, compared with these of the nonirradiated sample and a bare polycarbonate plate of approximately 11.3 and 41.3%, respectively, which is comparable to the case of a bare silica glass of approximately 1.6%. In addition, the thickness of the SiO2 protective layer was estimated to be approximately 0.44 μm for the 30-s laser irradiation by immersing the samples in 1 wt % hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution and measuring the depth using a surface profilometer.

  4. Avalanches in compressed porous SiO(2)-based materials.

    PubMed

    Nataf, Guillaume F; Castillo-Villa, Pedro O; Baró, Jordi; Illa, Xavier; Vives, Eduard; Planes, Antoni; Salje, Ekhard K H

    2014-08-01

    The failure dynamics in SiO(2)-based porous materials under compression, namely the synthetic glass Gelsil and three natural sandstones, has been studied for slowly increasing compressive uniaxial stress with rates between 0.2 and 2.8 kPa/s. The measured collapsed dynamics is similar to Vycor, which is another synthetic porous SiO(2) glass similar to Gelsil but with a different porous mesostructure. Compression occurs by jerks of strain release and a major collapse at the failure point. The acoustic emission and shrinking of the samples during jerks are measured and analyzed. The energy of acoustic emission events, its duration, and waiting times between events show that the failure process follows avalanche criticality with power law statistics over ca. 4 decades with a power law exponent ɛ≃ 1.4 for the energy distribution. This exponent is consistent with the mean-field value for the collapse of granular media. Besides the absence of length, energy, and time scales, we demonstrate the existence of aftershock correlations during the failure process.

  5. The application of Cu/SiO2 catalytic system in chemical mechanical planarization based on the stability of SiO2 sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Aochen, Wang; Zhixin, Yang; Mingbin, Sun; Chuan, Cheng; Yufeng, Zhang; Nannan, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    There is a lot of hydroxyl on the surface of nano SiO2 sol used as an abrasive in the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, and the chemical reaction activity of the hydroxyl is very strong due to the nano effect. In addition to providing a mechanical polishing effect, SiO2 sol is also directly involved in the chemical reaction. The stability of SiO2 sol was characterized through particle size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity, surface charge and other parameters in order to ensure that the chemical reaction rate in the CMP process, and the surface state of the copper film after CMP was not affected by the SiO2 sol. Polarization curves and corrosion potential of different concentrations of SiO2 sol showed that trace SiO2 sol can effectively weaken the passivation film thickness. In other words, SiO2 sol accelerated the decomposition rate of passive film. It was confirmed that the SiO2 sol as reactant had been involved in the CMP process of copper film as reactant by the effect of trace SiO2 sol on the removal rate of copper film in the CMP process under different conditions. In the CMP process, a small amount of SiO2 sol can drastically alter the chemical reaction rate of the copper film, therefore, the possibility that Cu/SiO2 as a catalytic system catalytically accelerated the chemical reaction in the CMP process was proposed. According to the van't Hoff isotherm formula and the characteristics of a catalyst which only changes the chemical reaction rate with out changing the total reaction standard Gibbs free energy, factors affecting the Cu/SiO2 catalytic reaction were derived from the decomposition rate of Cu (OH)2 and the pH value of the system, and then it was concluded that the CuSiO3 as intermediates of Cu/SiO2 catalytic reaction accelerated the chemical reaction rate in the CMP process. It was confirmed that the Cu/SiO2 catalytic system generated the intermediate of the catalytic reaction (CuSiO3) in the CMP process through the removal

  6. SHI induced effects on the electrical and optical properties of HfO2 thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikanthababu, N.; Dhanunjaya, M.; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Pathak, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The continuous downscaling of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices has reached a limit with SiO2 as a gate dielectric material. Introducing high-k dielectric materials as a replacement for the conservative SiO2 is the only alternative to reduce the leakage current. HfO2 is a reliable and an impending material for the wide usage as a gate dielectric in semiconductor industry. HfO2 thin films were synthesized by RF sputtering technique. Here, we present a study of Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation with100 MeV Ag ions for studying the optical properties as well as 80 MeV Ni ions for studying the electrical properties of HfO2/Si thin films. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), profilometer and I-V (leakage current) measurements have been employed to study the SHI induced effects on both the structural, electrical and optical properties.

  7. Engineered magnetic core-shell SiO2/Fe microspheres and "medusa-like" microspheres of SiO2/iron oxide/carbon nanofibers or nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mero, On; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Margel, Shlomo

    2014-08-19

    Iron oxide (IO) thin coatings of controlled thickness on SiO2 microspheres of narrow size distribution were prepared by decomposition at 160 °C of triiron dodecacarbonyl onto silica microspheres dispersed in diethylene glycol diethyl ether free of surfactant or stabilizer. The dried washed SiO2/IO core-shell microspheres were annealed at different temperatures and time periods under inert (Ar) or reducing (H2) atmosphere. The effect of temperature on the chemical composition, morphology, crystallinity, and magnetic properties of the IO and the elemental Fe nanoparticles type coatings onto the SiO2 core microspheres has been elucidated. "Medusa-like" SiO2/IO/carbon nanofibers and tubes particles were prepared by CVD of ethylene on the surface of the SiO2/IO microspheres at different temperatures. The morphology change of the grafted carbon nanofibers and tubes as a function of the CVD temperature was also elucidated. PMID:25089849

  8. Mesoscopically structured nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Drisko, Glenna L.; Grosso, David; Boissiere, Cédric; Sanchez, Clement

    2014-11-01

    This review describes the main successful strategies that are used to grow mesostructured nanocrystalline metal oxide and SiO2 films via deposition of sol-gel derived solutions. In addition to the typical physicochemical forces to be considered during crystallization, mesoporous thin films are also affected by the substrate-film relationship and the mesostructure. The substrate can influence the crystallization temperature and the obtained crystallographic orientation due to the interfacial energies and the lattice mismatch. The mesostructure can influence the crystallite orientation, and affects nucleation and growth behavior due to the wall thickness and pore curvature. Three main methods are presented and discussed: templated mesoporosity followed by thermally induced crystallization, mesostructuration of already crystallized metal oxide nanobuilding units and substrate-directed crystallization with an emphasis on very recent results concerning epitaxially grown piezoelectric structured α-quartz films via crystallization of amorphous structured SiO2 thin films.

  9. Niobium oxide dispersed on a carbon-ceramic matrix, SiO2/C/Nb2O5, used as an electrochemical ascorbic acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Leliz T; Villis, Paulo C M; Arguello, Jacqueline; Landers, Richard; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    A film of niobium oxide was immobilized on a SiO(2)/C carbon-ceramic matrix (specific surface area 270 m(2)g(-1)) and characterized by N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. This new carbon-ceramic material, SiO(2)/C/Nb(2)O(5), was used for construction of electrodes, and it shows ability to improve the electron-transfer between the electrode surface and ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid was made by differential pulse and cyclic voltammetry techniques, making it potentially useful for developing a new ascorbic acid sensor.

  10. Strong and broadband terahertz absorber using SiO2-based metamaterial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Man-Man; Wen, Qi-Ye; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Qing-Hui; Qiu, Dong-Hong; Li, Sheng; Jing, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2014-04-01

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a broadband metamaterial absorber in the terahertz (THz) band based on a periodic array of aluminum (Al) squares with two different sizes. A thin silicon dioxide (SiO2) film rather than a conventional polyimide (PI) layer is used as a dielectric spacer to separate Al squares from the platinum (Pt) ground plane in our design, which significantly improves the design precision and the feasibility of the device fabrication. The combination of different sizes of Al squares gives rise to an absorption bandwidth of over 210 GHz with an absorption of over 90%. Our results also show that our device is almost polarization-insensitive. It works very well for all azimuthal angles with an absorption of beyond 80%.

  11. Suppression of photo-bias induced instability for amorphous indium tungsten oxide thin film transistors with bi-layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Po-Tsun; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chih-Jui

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the instability induced by bias temperature illumination stress (NBTIS) for an amorphous indium-tungsten-oxide thin film transistor (a-IWO TFT) with SiO2 backchannel passivation layer (BPL). It is found that this electrical degradation phenomenon can be attributed to the generation of defect states during the BPL process, which deteriorates the photo-bias stability of a-IWO TFTs. A method proposed by adding an oxygen-rich a-IWO thin film upon the a-IWO active channel layer could effectively suppress the plasma damage to channel layer during BPL deposition process. The bi-layer a-IWO TFT structure with an oxygen-rich back channel exhibits superior electrical reliability of device under NBTIS.

  12. Effect of Different TiO2-SiO2 Multilayer Coatings Applied by Sol-Gel Method on Antireflective Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lari, Najme; Ahangarani, Shahrokh; Shanaghi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel process have been used in many antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanoscale multilayer TiO2-SiO2 coatings were formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining sol-gel method and dip coating techniques. The coatings were carried out using tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor for SiO2 and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as precursor for TiO2. The coatings prepared in this work were characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glasses increased due to applied multilayer coating properties. Six-layer sol-gel TiO2-SiO2 coatings showed the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

  13. Direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Guang; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    The direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted SiO2 (SiO2-PMMA) nanospheres via electrospinning was investigated in detail. SiO2-PMMA nanospheres were successfully prepared, with the SiO2 nanospheres synthesized via the Stober method, followed by in situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Electrospinning was carried out with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent to disperse SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. The size of the SiO2 core, the molecular weight of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution all had substantial effects on the morphology and structure of electrospun nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. When these determining factors were well-tailored, it was found that one-dimensional necklace-like nanofibres were obtained, with SiO2-PMMA nanospheres aligned one by one along the fibre. The successful fabrication of nanofibres by directly electrospinning the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution verified that polymer-grafted particles possess polymer-like characteristics, which endowed them with the ability to be processed into desirable shapes and structures.

  14. Silicon (100)/SiO2 by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    Silicon (100) wafers are ubiquitous in microfabrication and, accordingly, their surface characteristics are important. Herein, we report the analysis of Si (100) via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using monochromatic Al K radiation. Survey scans show that the material is primarily silicon and oxygen, and the Si 2p region shows two peaks that correspond to elemental silicon and silicon dioxide. Using these peaks the thickness of the native oxide (SiO2) was estimated using the equation of Strohmeier.1 The oxygen peak is symmetric. The material shows small amounts of carbon, fluorine, and nitrogen contamination. These silicon wafers are used as the base material for subsequent growth of templated carbon nanotubes.

  15. Single Particle Jumps in Sheared SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Cookmeyer, Jonathan; Horbach, Juergen

    We study the dynamics of a sheared glass via molecular dynamics simulations. Using the BKS potential we simulate the strong glass former SiO2. The system is initially well equilibrated at a high temperature, then quenched to a temperature below the glass transition, and, after a waiting time at the desired low temperature, sheared with constant strain rate. We present preliminary results of an analysis of single particle trajectories of the sheared glass. We acknowledge the support via NSF REU Grant #PHY-1156964, DoD ASSURE program, and NSF-MRI CHE-1229354 as part of the MERCURY high-performance computer consortium. We thank G.P. Shrivastav, Ch. Scherer and B. Temelso.

  16. Dielectric SiO2/ZrO2 distributed Bragg reflectors for ZnO microcavities prepared by the reactive helicon-wave-excited-plasma sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Ohmori, T.; Shibata, N.; Koyama, T.

    2006-04-01

    Reactive helicon-wave-excited-plasma sputtering method is shown to be a suitable technique for the fabrication of high reflectivity (R) distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), in particular, operating at the resonance wavelength of B excitons in ZnO (366.5nm), utilizing quarter-wavelength multilayers of SiO2 and ZrO2 dielectric films. According to the surface-damage-free nature and proper stoichiometry controllability of the method, dense dielectric films exhibiting ideal refractive indices (1.46 for SiO2 and 2.10 for ZrO2 at 633nm) and small root-mean-square values for the surface roughness (0.20nm for SiO2 and 0.53nm for ZrO2) were deposited using Si and Zr targets and O2 gas at room temperature. Optical reflectance spectra of the SiO2/ZrO2 DBRs agreed with those calculated using the optical multilayer film theory, and eight-pair DBR exhibited R higher than 99.5% at 366.5nm and 82nm stop bandwidth (R ⩾95%). The results indicate that the DBR can be used for the realization of polariton lasers using ZnO microcavities.

  17. HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective and transmissive optics from the IR to the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Hart, Gary A.; Oudard, Jean Francois; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2016-05-01

    HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective optics enable threat detection in the short-wave/middle-wave infrared and high power laser targeting capability in the near infrared. On the other hand, HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based transmissive optics empower early missile warning by taking advantage of the extremely low noise light detection in the deep-ultraviolet region where solar irradiation is strongly absorbed by the ozone layer of the earth's atmosphere. The former requires high laser damage resistance, whereas the latter needs a solar-blind property, i.e., high transmission of the radiation below 290 nm and strong suppression of the solar background from 300 nm above. The technical challenges in both cases are revealed. The spectral limits associated with the HfO2 and SiO2 films are discussed and design concepts are schematically illustrated. Spectral performances are realized for potential A and D and commercial applications.

  18. Structure and dynamics of pentacene on SiO2: From monolayer to bulk structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, Aldo; Bilotti, Ivano; Della Valle, Raffaele Guido; Venuti, Elisabetta; Girlando, Alberto; Masino, Matteo; Liscio, Fabiola; Milita, Silvia; Albonetti, Cristiano; D'angelo, Pasquale; Shehu, Arian; Biscarini, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    We have used confocal micro Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate pentacene films obtained by vacuum deposition on SiO2 substrates. These methods allow us to follow the evolution of lattice structure, vibrational dynamics, and crystal morphology during the growth from monolayer, to TF, and, finally, to bulk crystal. The Raman measurements, supported by the AFM and XRD data, indicate that the film morphology depends on the deposition rate. High deposition rates yield two-dimensional nucleation and quasi-layer-by-layer growth of the T-F form only. Low rates yield three-dimensional nucleation and growth, with phase mixing occurring in sufficiently thick films, where the T-F form is accompanied by the “high-temperature” bulk phase. Our general findings are consistent with those of previous work. However, the Raman measurements, supported by lattice dynamics calculations, provide additional insight into the nature of the TFs, showing that their characteristic spectra originate from a loss of dynamical correlation between adjacent layers.

  19. Highly efficient photoluminescence of SiO2 and Ce-SiO2 microfibres and microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ruso, Juan M; Gravina, A Noel; D'Elía, Noelia L; Messina, Paula V

    2013-06-14

    Semiconductor nanocrystals and nanostructures have been extensively studied in the last few years due to their interesting optical and optoelectronic properties. Nevertheless, combining precise photoluminescence properties with controlled morphologies of SiO2 is a major hurdle for a broad range of basic research and technological applications. Here, we demonstrate that microemulsion droplet interfacial elasticity can be manipulated to induce definite morphologies associated with specific intrinsic and extrinsic photoluminescent defects in the silica matrix. Thus, under precise experimental conditions hollow crystalline and compact amorphous SiO2 spheres showing ultraviolet-photoluminescence and helicoidal fibrils of Ce-doped amorphous silica with violet-blue emissions are obtained. Overall, it is demonstrated that the combination of microemulsions and doping represents an easy strategy for the design of specific nanoscale structures with high efficiency photoluminescence. The detailed structural analysis provided in the present work is expected to be useful as accurate information on assessment of technological nanostructures.

  20. TiO2/SiO2 multilayer as an antireflective and protective coating deposited by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, M.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Kaczmarek, D.; Song, S.; Placido, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper designing, preparation and characterization of multifunctional coatings based on TiO2/SiO2 has been described. TiO2 was used as a high index material, whereas SiO2 was used as a low index material. Multilayers were deposited on microscope slide substrates by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process. Multilayer design was optimized for residual reflection of about 3% in visible spectrum (450-800 nm). As a top layer, TiO2 with a fixed thickness of 10 nm as a protective film was deposited. Based on transmittance and reflectance spectra, refractive indexes of TiO2 and SiO2 single layers were calculated. Ultra high vacuum atomic force microscope was used to characterize the surface properties of TiO2/SiO2 multilayer. Surface morphology revealed densely packed structure with grains of about 30 nm in size. Prepared samples were also investigated by nanoindentation to evaluate their protective performance against external hazards. Therefore, the hardness of the thin films was measured and it was equal to 9.34 GPa. Additionally, contact angle of prepared coatings has been measured to assess the wetting properties of the multilayer surface.

  1. Atomic force microscopy investigation of growth process of organic TCNQ aggregates on SiO2 and mica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Qing; Hu, Hao; Pan, Li-Da; Xiao, Jiang; Du, Shi-Xuan; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule-molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch" model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern.

  2. Prediction of 10-fold coordinated TiO2 and SiO2 structures at multimegabar pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Matthew J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We predict by first-principles methods a phase transition in TiO2 at 6.5 Mbar from the Fe2P-type polymorph to a ten-coordinated structure with space group I4/mmm. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the pressure-induced phase transition to the I4/mmm structure among all dioxide compounds. The I4/mmm structure was found to be up to 3.3% denser across all pressures investigated. Significant differences were found in the electronic properties of the two structures, and the metallization of TiO2 was calculated to occur concomitantly with the phase transition to I4/mmm. The implications of our findings were extended to SiO2, and an analogous Fe2P-type to I4/mmm transition was found to occur at 10 TPa. This is consistent with the lower-pressure phase transitions of TiO2, which are well-established models for the phase transitions in other AX2 compounds, including SiO2. As in TiO2, the transition to I4/mmm corresponds to the metallization of SiO2. This transformation is in the pressure range reached in the interiors of recently discovered extrasolar planets and calls for a reformulation of the equations of state used to model them. PMID:25991859

  3. Prediction of 10-fold coordinated TiO2 and SiO2 structures at multimegabar pressures.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Matthew J; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    We predict by first-principles methods a phase transition in TiO2 at 6.5 Mbar from the Fe2P-type polymorph to a ten-coordinated structure with space group I4/mmm. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the pressure-induced phase transition to the I4/mmm structure among all dioxide compounds. The I4/mmm structure was found to be up to 3.3% denser across all pressures investigated. Significant differences were found in the electronic properties of the two structures, and the metallization of TiO2 was calculated to occur concomitantly with the phase transition to I4/mmm. The implications of our findings were extended to SiO2, and an analogous Fe2P-type to I4/mmm transition was found to occur at 10 TPa. This is consistent with the lower-pressure phase transitions of TiO2, which are well-established models for the phase transitions in other AX2 compounds, including SiO2. As in TiO2, the transition to I4/mmm corresponds to the metallization of SiO2. This transformation is in the pressure range reached in the interiors of recently discovered extrasolar planets and calls for a reformulation of the equations of state used to model them. PMID:25991859

  4. Optical properties and London dispersion interaction of amorphous and crystalline SiO2 determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, G. L.; Lemon, M. F.; Jones, D. J.; French, R. H.

    2005-11-01

    two layers of c-SiO2 or a-SiO2 separated by an interlayer film have been determined, using full spectral methods, from the interband transition strength. The London dispersion interaction is appreciably larger in c-SiO2 than a-SiO2 due to the increased physical density, index of refraction, transition strengths, and oscillator strengths in quartz.

  5. Atomic-scale structure of SiO2/Si interface formed by furnace oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Heiji; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    1998-11-01

    SiO2/Si interfaces formed by furnace oxidation are investigated by scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM). SREM observations reveal that the initial atomic steps on the Si(111)-7×7 and Si(001)-2×1 surfaces are preserved at the SiO2/Si interfaces and the interfacial atomic steps do not move laterally during furnace oxidation. A profile analysis of reflection high-energy electron diffraction indicates that the atomic-scale roughness at the SiO2/Si interfaces is formed by furnace oxidation. The respective SiO2/Si(111) and SiO2/Si(001) interfaces are made up of about 5- and 3-nm-diam islands. Our results indicate that the layer-by-layer oxidation caused by two-dimensional island nucleation progresses during furnace oxidation.

  6. Proton induced multilevel storage capability in self-assembled indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li Qiang; Jin Wan, Chang; Qiang Zhu, Li; Wan, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Multilevel memory capability of self-assembled indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conducting electrolytes is investigated. More than four distinct memory states are obtained by programming gate voltage. The observed multilevel storage behavior is mainly due to the controlled interfacial electrochemical doping of IZO channel by penetrated protons under programmed gate voltages. In addition, such IZO-based EDL transistor multilevel memory exhibits good characteristics of programming/erasing endurance and data retention. Such oxide-based EDL transistors with proton-induced multilevel memory behavior are interesting for low-cost memory and neuromorphic system applications after further properties and size optimization.

  7. Synthesis of Copper-Based Nanostructured Catalysts on SiO2-Al2O3, SiO2-TiO2, and SiO2-ZrO2 Supports for NO Reduction.

    PubMed

    Namkhang, Pornpan; Kongkachuichay, Paisan

    2015-07-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of NO over a series of Cu-based catalysts supported on modified silica including SiO2-Al2O3, SiO2-TiO2, and SiO2-ZrO2 prepared via a sol-gel process and a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was studied. The prepared catalysts were characterized by means of TEM, XRD, XRF, TPR, and nitrogen physisorption measurement techniques, to determine particle diameter, morphology, crystallinity, phase composition, copper reducibility, surface area, and pore size of catalysts. The particles obtained from sol-gel method were almost spherical while the particles obtained from the FSP were clearly spherical and non-porous nanosized particles. The effects of Si:Al, Si:Ti, and Si:Zr molar ratio of precursor were identified as the domain for different crystalline phase of materials. It was clearly seen that a high SiO2 content inhibited the crystallization of materials. The BET surface area of catalysts obtained from sol-gel method was higher than that from the FSP and it shows that surface area increased with increasing SiO2 molar ratio due to high surface area from SiO2. The catalyst performances were tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with H2. It was found that the catalyst prepared over 7 wt% Cu on Si02-Al2O3 support was the most active compared with the others which converted NO as more than 70%. Moreover, the excess copper decreased the performance of NO reduction, due to the formation of CuO agglomeration covered on the porous silica as well as the alumina surface, preventing the direct contact of CO2 and AL2O3. PMID:26373151

  8. Stability and lattice dynamics of SiO2 cristobalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coh, Sinisa; Vanderbilt, David

    2008-03-01

    Among the phases of SiO2 are alpha and beta cristobalite. Despite early indications that the higher-temperature beta phase might be cubic (Fd3m), it is now accepted that it is in fact tetragonal (I42d), and that the experiments suggesting a cubic structure were averaging spatially or dynamically over tetragonal domains. Recently, Zhang and Scott (J. Phys. Cond.Matt. 19, 275201) suggested that the lower-temperature alpha phase, widely accepted to be tetragonal (P41212), might be an artifact in a similar way. With this motivation we investigate the energy landscape in the vicinity of cristobalite phases using first-principles calculations. We use the ABINIT implementation of density-functional theory in a plane-wave pseudopotential framework. We find that both the P41212 alpha and I42d beta phases are local minima, thus reinforcing that the identification of the alpha phase as belonging to the P41212 structure. We compute the frequencies of phonon modes at high-symmetry k-points in both structures and compare with experiment. We also identify a minimum-energy path connecting the alpha and beta phases through an intermediate orthorhombic phase (P212121), and find a surprisingly low barrier of ˜5,eV per formula unit. We note that a simple rigid-unit mode picture gives a good rough description of these energetics, and we map out the minimum-energy path in the space of rigid unit rotations in a physically insightful way.

  9. Extracting the Density of States of Copper Phthalocyanine at the SiO2 Interface with Electronic Sum Frequency Generation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravindra; Moon, Aaron P; Bender, Jon A; Roberts, Sean T

    2016-03-17

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) constitute an attractive platform for optoelectronics design due to the ease of their processability and chemically tunable properties. Incorporating OSCs into electrical circuits requires forming junctions between them and other materials, yet the change in dielectric properties about these junctions can strongly perturb the electronic structure of the OSC. Here we adapt an interface-selective optical technique, electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG), to the study of a model OSC thin-film system, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) deposited on SiO2. We find that by modeling the thickness dependence of our measured spectra, we can identify changes in CuPc's electronic density of states at both its buried interface with SiO2 and air-exposed surface. Our work demonstrates that ESFG can be used to noninvasively probe the interfacial electronic structure of optically thick OSC films, indicating that it can be used for the study of OSC-based optoelectronics in situ. PMID:26938148

  10. Stepwise mechanism and H2O-assisted hydrolysis in atomic layer deposition of SiO2 without a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guo-Yong; Xu, Li-Na; Wang, Lai-Guo; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful deposition technique for constructing uniform, conformal, and ultrathin films in microelectronics, photovoltaics, catalysis, energy storage, and conversion. The possible pathways for silicon dioxide (SiO2) ALD using silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and water (H2O) without a catalyst have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The results show that the SiCl4 half-reaction is a rate-determining step of SiO2 ALD. It may proceed through a stepwise pathway, first forming a Si-O bond and then breaking Si-Cl/O-H bonds and forming a H-Cl bond. The H2O half-reaction may undergo hydrolysis and condensation processes, which are similar to conventional SiO2 chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the H2O half-reaction, there are massive H2O molecules adsorbed on the surface, which can result in H2O-assisted hydrolysis of the Cl-terminated surface and accelerate the H2O half-reaction. These findings may be used to improve methods for the preparation of SiO2 ALD and H2O-based ALD of other oxides, such as Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, and HfO2.

  11. Conformal SiO2 coating of sub-100 nm diameter channels of polycarbonate etched ion-track channels by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian; Lukas, Manuela; Spende, Anne; Stühn, Bernd; Toimil-Molares, M E; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Polycarbonate etched ion-track membranes with about 30 µm long and 50 nm wide cylindrical channels were conformally coated with SiO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The process was performed at 50 °C to avoid thermal damage to the polymer membrane. Analysis of the coated membranes by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveals a homogeneous, conformal layer of SiO2 in the channels at a deposition rate of 1.7-1.8 Å per ALD cycle. Characterization by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the stoichiometric composition of the SiO2 films. Detailed XPS analysis reveals that the mechanism of SiO2 formation is based on subsurface crystal growth. By dissolving the polymer, the silica nanotubes are released from the ion-track membrane. The thickness of the tube wall is well controlled by the ALD process. Because the track-etched channels exhibited diameters in the range of nanometres and lengths in the range of micrometres, cylindrical tubes with an aspect ratio as large as 3000 have been produced.

  12. Conformal SiO2 coating of sub-100 nm diameter channels of polycarbonate etched ion-track channels by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Nicolas; Lukas, Manuela; Spende, Anne; Stühn, Bernd; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Polycarbonate etched ion-track membranes with about 30 µm long and 50 nm wide cylindrical channels were conformally coated with SiO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The process was performed at 50 °C to avoid thermal damage to the polymer membrane. Analysis of the coated membranes by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveals a homogeneous, conformal layer of SiO2 in the channels at a deposition rate of 1.7–1.8 Å per ALD cycle. Characterization by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the stoichiometric composition of the SiO2 films. Detailed XPS analysis reveals that the mechanism of SiO2 formation is based on subsurface crystal growth. By dissolving the polymer, the silica nanotubes are released from the ion-track membrane. The thickness of the tube wall is well controlled by the ALD process. Because the track-etched channels exhibited diameters in the range of nanometres and lengths in the range of micrometres, cylindrical tubes with an aspect ratio as large as 3000 have been produced. PMID:25821688

  13. Optically Stable Biocompatible Flame-Made SiO2-Coated Y2O3:Tb3+ Nanophosphors for Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Franco, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Nanophosphors are light-emitting materials with stable optical properties that represent promising tools for bioimaging. The synthesis of nanophosphors, and thus the control of their surface properties is, however, challenging. Here, flame aerosol technology is exploited to generate Tb-activated Y2O3 nanophosphors (~25 nm) encapsulated in situ by a nano-thin amorphous inert SiO2 film. The nanocrystalline core exhibits a bright green luminescence following the Tb3+ ion transitions, while the hermetic SiO2-coating prevents any unspecific interference with cellular activities. The SiO2-coated nanophosphors display minimal photobleaching upon imaging and can be easily functionalized through surface absorption of biological molecules. Therefore, they can be used as bio-nanoprobes for cell detection and for long-term monitoring of cellular activities. As an example, we report on the interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF) functionalized nanophosphors and mouse melanoma cells. The cellular uptake of the nanophosphors is visualized with confocal microscopy and the specific activation of EGF receptors (EGFR) is revealed with biochemical techniques. Altogether, our results establish SiO2-coated Tb-activated Y2O3 nanophosphors as superior imaging tools for biological applications. PMID:22509739

  14. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-17

    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen.

  15. Prediction of a hexagonal SiO2 phase affecting stabilities of MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 at multimegabar pressures.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Taku; Tsuchiya, Jun

    2011-01-25

    Ultrahigh-pressure phase relationship of SiO(2) silica in multimegabar pressure condition is still quite unclear. Here, we report a theoretical prediction on a previously uncharacterized stable structure of silica with an unexpected hexagonal Fe(2)P-type form. This phase, more stable than the cotunnite-type structure, a previously postulated postpyrite phase, was discovered to stabilize at 640 GPa through a careful structure search by means of ab initio density functional computations over various structure models. This is the first evidential result of the pressure-induced phase transition to the Fe(2)P-type structure among all dioxide compounds. The crystal structure consists of closely packed, fairly regular SiO(9) tricapped trigonal prisms with a significantly compact lattice. Additional investigation further elucidates large effects of this phase change in SiO(2) on the stability of MgSiO(3) and CaSiO(3) at multimegabar pressures. A postperovskite phase of MgSiO(3) breaks down at 1.04 TPa along an assumed adiabat of super-Earths and yields Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) and CsCl (B2)-type MgO. CaSiO(3) perovskite, on the other hand, directly dissociates into SiO(2) and metallic CaO, skipping a postperovskite polymorph. Predicted ultrahigh-pressure and temperature phase diagrams of SiO(2), MgSiO(3), and CaSiO(3) indicate that the Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) could be one of the dominant components in the deep mantles of terrestrial exoplanets and the cores of gas giants. PMID:21209327

  16. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-17

    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen. PMID:27463101

  17. Voltage-dependent capacitance behavior and underlying mechanisms in metal-insulator-metal capacitors with Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 nano-laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Wei, Lei; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Nano-laminates consisting of high-permittivity dielectrics and SiO2 have been extensively studied for radio frequency metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors because of their superior voltage linearity and low leakage current. However, there are no reports on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics at a high sweep voltage range. In this work, an interesting variation in the voltage-dependent capacitance that forms a ‘ω’-like shape is demonstrated for the MIM capacitors with Al2O3/ZrO2/SiO2 nano-laminates. As the thickness ratio of the SiO2 film to the total insulator increases to around 0.15, the C-V curve changes from an upward parabolic shape to a ‘ω’ shape. This can be explained based on the competition between the orientation polarization from SiO2 and the electrode polarization from Al2O3 and ZrO2. When the SiO2 film is very thin, the electrode polarization dominates in the MIM capacitor, generating a positive curvature C-V curve. When the thickness of SiO2 is increased, the orientation polarization is enhanced and thus both polarizations are operating in the MIM capacitors. This leads to the appearance of a multiple domain C-V curve containing positive and negative curvatures. Therefore, good consistency between the experimental results and the theoretical simulations is demonstrated. Such voltage-dependent capacitance behavior is not determined by the stack structure of the insulator, measurement frequency and oscillator voltage, but by the thickness ratio of the SiO2 film to the whole insulator. These findings are helpful to engineer MIM capacitors with good voltage linearity.

  18. The effects of a SiO2 coating on the corrosion parameters cpTi and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    PubMed Central

    Basiaga, Marcin; Walke, Witold; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Karasiński, Paweł; Szewczenko, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usefulness of the sol-gel method application, to modificate the surface of the Ti6Al7Nb alloy and the cpTi titanium (Grade 4) with SiO2 oxide, applied on the vascular implants to improve their hemocompatibility. Mechanical treatment was followed by film deposition on surface of the titanium samples. An appropriate selection of the process parameters was verified in the studies of corrosion, using potentiodynamic and impedance method. A test was conducted in the solution simulating blood vessels environment, in simulated body fluid at t = 37.0 ± 1 °C and pH = 7.0 ± 0.2. Results showed varied electrochemical properties of the SiO2 film, depending on its deposition parameters. Correlations between corrosion resistance and layer adhesion to the substrate were observed, depending on annealing temperature. PMID:25482412

  19. [Quantitative inversion of rock SiO2 content based on thermal infrared emissivity spectrum].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Li-Fu; Huang, Zhao-Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Tong, Qing-Xi

    2012-06-01

    The present paper used the emissivity of non-processed rocks measured by M304, a hyperspectral Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer, and SiO2 content by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After continuum removal and normalization, stepwise regress method was employed to select the feature bands of rocks emissivity. And then quantitative relationship between SiO2 content and continuum removal emissivity of feature bands was analysed. Based on that, by comparing twelve SiO2 indices models, the optimal model for predicting SiO2 content was built. The result showed that the SiO2 indices can predict SiO2 content efficiently, and especially the normalization silicon dioxide index (NSDI) about 11.18 and 12.36 microm is the best; compared with regression models, NSDI is simpler and has higher practicality; the result has an important application value in rock classification and SiO2 content extraction with high precision.

  20. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  1. Using Atom-Probe Tomography to Understand Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Youssef, Amanda; Akey, Austin; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-09-01

    We use electronic transport and atom-probe tomography to study Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky diodes on lightly doped n - and p -type Si. We vary the carrier concentration in the ZnO ∶Al films by 2 orders of magnitude, but the Schottky barrier height remains nearly constant. Atom-probe tomography shows that Al segregates to the interface, so that the ZnO ∶Al at the junction is likely to be metallic even when the bulk of the ZnO ∶Al film is semiconducting. We hypothesize that the observed Fermi-level pinning is connected to the insulator-metal transition in doped ZnO. This implies that tuning the band alignment at oxide/Si interfaces may be achieved by controlling the transition between localized and extended states in the oxide, thereby changing the orbital hybridization across the interface.

  2. Large-scale synthesis of WSe2 atomic layers on SiO2/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui-Wen; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Xin, Xin; Shao, Peng-Zhi; Qi, Han-Yu; Jian, Mu-Qiang; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-06-01

    We report a systematic study of large-scale growth of high-quality WSe2 atomic layers directly on SiO2/Si substrates using a convenient method. Various parameters, especially growth temperatures, flow rate of carrier gas and tube pressure, are investigated in affecting the properties of as-grown WSe2 flakes in terms of their sizes, shapes and thickness. The pre-annealing step is demonstrated to be a key role in achieving the large-scale growth. Under an optimized condition, the lateral size of triangular single-crystal monolayer WSe2 is up to 30 μm and the area of the monolayer thin film can be up to 0.25 mm2. And some other interesting features, such as nanoflowers, are observed, which are a promising for catalyzing research. Raman spectrum and microphotoluminescence indicate distinct layer dependent efficiency. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) studies demonstrate the atomic concentration of the as-grown WSe2. Electrical transport further shows that the p-type WSe2 field-effect transistors exhibit excellent electrical properties with carrier mobility of ˜64 cm2ṡV‑1ṡs‑1 and current on/off ratio over 105. These results are comparable to the exfoliated materials.

  3. Effect of SiO2 nanoparticle doping on electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal lens for smart electronic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunju; Liu, Yang; Hong, Sung-Jei; Han, Jeong In

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, SiO2 nanoparticle doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) lenses were made from a mixture of prepolymer, E7 liquid crystal and SiO2 nanoparticles by the polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) process for smart electronic glasses with auto-shading and auto-focusing functions. Electro-optical properties of doped and undoped samples including transmittance, driving voltage, contrast ratio and slope of the linear region of the transmittance-voltage were measured, compared and analyzed. Driving voltage of SiO2 nanoparticle doped PDLC lenses moderately improved. But the slope of linear region, response time and contrast ratio deteriorated, especially the latter two. It can be assumed that these doping effects were due to the mechanistic change from liquid-gel separation to liquid-liquid separation by the fast heterogeneous nucleation rate caused by the increased nucleation at the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles. The marked deteriorations of falling response time and contrast ratio were due to well defined liquid crystal molecules in LC droplets, which induced slow and imperfect random rearrangement of LC molecules at the off state.

  4. F2 laser formation of SiO2 protective layer onto polycarbonate for lightweight vehicle window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonobe, Shingo; Nojima, Yoshihiko; Okoshi, Masayuki; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Narumi

    2011-03-01

    Silicone-coated polycarbonate (PC) through an acrylic primer was photochemically modified into silica (SiO2) by 157 nm F2 laser. The photomodified surface showed high scratch resistance comparable to the case in a bulk silica. Corresponding to the conversion of silicone into silica on PC, the photomodified surface was found to be shrunk, measured by a surface profilometer. For instance, the coated silicone on PC reduced the thickness of approximately 15 % when the F2 laser modified silicone into silica 0.59 μin thickness. An excess irradiation of F2 laser for the photochemical modification induced the degradation of acrylic primer underneath silicone.

  5. Passivation of Flexible YBCO Superconducting Current Lead With Amorphous SiO2 Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, Daniel; Webber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    across a thermal gradient with as little flow of heat as possible to make an efficient current lead. By protecting YBCO on a flexible substrate of low thermal conductivity with SiO2, a thermally efficient and flexible current lead can be fabricated. The technology is also applicable to current leads for 4 K superconducting electronics current biasing. A commercially available thin-film YBCO composite tape conductor is first stripped of its protective silver coating. It is then mounted on a jig that holds the sample flat and acts as a heat sink. Silicon dioxide is then deposited onto the YBCO to a thickness of about 1 micron using PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition), without heating the YBCO to the point where degradation occurs. Since SiO2 can have good high-frequency electrical properties, it can be used to coat YBCO cable structures used to feed RF signals across temperature gradients. The prime embodiment concerns the conduction of DC current across the cryogenic temperature gradient. The coating is hard and electrically insulating, but flexible.

  6. Strain-effect for controlled growth mode and well-ordered structure of quaterrylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Ryoma; Turak, Ayse; Zhang, XueNa; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Dosch, Helmut; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the evolution of quaterrylene thin films on SiO2 and on an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM) to examine the impact of film strains on the growth processes and evolving structure. Surface modification by SAMs allowed tailoring of the growth process from a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) mode (layer-plus-island) on the SiO2 surface to a Frank-van der Merwe mode (layer-by-layer) on the OTS surface. Detailed structural analysis by x-ray diffraction techniques confirmed that the SK mode was driven by lattice strain in the initial wetting layers on the SiO2 surface. On the other hand, strain-free wetting layers were already formed at the beginning of growth on the OTS surface, thereby suppressing three-dimensional island formation. Moreover, the films on the SiO2 surface were found to incorporate high microstrain induced by crystal defects such as dislocations and a mosaic structure. In contrast, few crystal defects were present in the films on OTS surface, demonstrating that OTS treatment enables marked improvement of the molecular alignment. These results clearly indicate that the lattice strain induced by the molecular-substrate interaction is essential for controlling the overall growth process.

  7. Arrays of SiO(2) Substrate-Free Micromechanical Uncooled THz and Infrared Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of arrays of uncooled infrared and terahertz micromechanical detectors that utilize SiO2 as a main structural material. Materials with highly dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion, namely, Al and SiO2, were used to form folded bimaterial regions. This approach improved the detector sensitivity by 12 times compared to SiNx-based detectors of similar shape and size. Two types of structural SiO2 layers were investigated: thermally grown and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited SiO2. Fabrication of the detector arrays relied on a straightforward process flow that involved three photolithography steps and no wet etching. The noise equivalent temperature difference intrinsic to the detectors fabricated during this work can reach 3.8 mK when excluding any contribution from the optical readout used to interrogate the arrays.

  8. Diffusion of 18 elements implanted into thermally grown SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois-Saint-Cyr, H. G.; Stevie, F. A.; McKinley, J. M.; Elshot, K.; Chow, L.; Richardson, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    Diffusion data are presented for 18 elements implanted in SiO2 layers thermally grown on silicon and annealed at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 °C. Most species studied, (e.g., Be, B, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Ga, and Mo), showed negligible diffusion over the examined temperature range. In general, this study has shown that the diffusivity of dopants or impurities in SiO2 is significantly smaller than that in silicon. However we also observed that several elements (e.g., Rb and In) have a higher diffusivity in SiO2 than in Si. Because Ga and In are both used as sources for focused ion beam analyses, the lack of Ga diffusion and the movement of In in SiO2 is of interest.

  9. Conformable coating of SiO2 on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, B. H.; Leu, L. C.; Chang, C. Y.; Lugo, F.; Norton, D.; Lele, T.; Keselowsky, B.; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.

    2008-12-01

    Coating silicon dioxide on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods is demonstrated using a low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Wurtzite structured ZnO nanorods were prepared by spin coating ZnO nanocrystals onto plastics or glass substrates. Then, the nanorods were subsequently grown in a zinc nitrate solution. SiO2 was deposited by PECVD at 50 °C. No current could be measured through the patterned metal dots on the SiO2 coated sample, which indicates that SiO2 was covered seamlessly across the entire substrate. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the SiO2 layer covering the nanorods did not alter the optical properties of the ZnO.

  10. EPR study of phenolic radical stabilization by grafting on SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiota, Stathi; Louloudi, Maria; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2009-04-01

    A hybrid [SiO 2-GA] material has been synthesized by grafting Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) on SiO 2 via formation of amide bonds between amine groups on aminopropyl-silica and the carboxyl group of GA. The spatial fixation of GA prevents polymerization effects. EPR spectroscopy shows that GA radicals on [SiO 2-GA] show remarkable stability, comparable to that previously observed only for radicals in biological matrices on in soil organic matter. EPR reveals a bundle-like organization of the GA molecules on [SiO 2-GA] material. The relation of these factors to the enhanced radical stability is discussed.

  11. Rapid growth of SiO2 nanowires on carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junfeng; Cai, Shan; Lan, Xuena

    2016-03-01

    We report a novel preparing route to SiO2 nanowires, which can be regarded as a modified electrochemical process, where a single C fiber is used as a substrate on which SiO2 nanowires grow, and a heating source, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as an electrolyte and cooling medium. The preparing process can proceed well at ambient temperature and pressure. A good quality of SiO2 nanowires can be easily obtained at 160V for only 10s, and exhibit excellent photoluminescence (PL) property. Our study also shows that reaction time, current intensity, and TEOS concentration mainly govern the formation and growth of SiO2 nanowires. The morphology, structure and composition of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by SEM, XPS, Raman, FTIR, and PL, respectively.

  12. Analysis of SiO2 nanoparticles binding proteins in rat blood and brain homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Kyu Hwan; Hulme, John; Maeng, Eun Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; An, Seong Soo A

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of nanoparticles, such as titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, gold oxide, silver oxide, iron oxide, and silica oxide, are found in many chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Recently, SiO2 nanoparticles were shown to have an inert toxicity profile and no association with an irreversible toxicological change in animal models. Hence, exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles is on the increase. SiO2 nanoparticles are routinely used in numerous materials, from strengthening filler for concrete and other construction composites, to nontoxic platforms for biomedical application, such as drug delivery and theragnostics. On the other hand, recent in vitro experiments indicated that SiO2 nanoparticles were cytotoxic. Therefore, we investigated these nanoparticles to identify potentially toxic pathways by analyzing the adsorbed protein corona on the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles in the blood and brain of the rat. Four types of SiO2 nanoparticles were chosen for investigation, and the protein corona of each type was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology. In total, 115 and 48 plasma proteins from the rat were identified as being bound to negatively charged 20 nm and 100 nm SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively, and 50 and 36 proteins were found for 20 nm and 100 nm arginine-coated SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Higher numbers of proteins were adsorbed onto the 20 nm sized SiO2 nanoparticles than onto the 100 nm sized nanoparticles regardless of charge. When proteins were compared between the two charges, higher numbers of proteins were found for arginine-coated positively charged SiO2 nanoparticles than for the negatively charged nanoparticles. The proteins identified as bound in the corona from SiO2 nanoparticles were further analyzed with ClueGO, a Cytoscape plugin used in protein ontology and for identifying biological interaction pathways. Proteins bound on the surface of nanoparticles may affect functional and conformational properties and distributions in complicated biological processes. PMID:25565838

  13. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic SiO2/polymer nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hengzhen; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Pingyu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a facile spin-coating method to prepare water-repellent SiO2/polymer composite coating without any surface chemical modification. The wettability can be adjusted by controlling the content of SiO2 nanoparticles. The coating demonstrates sustainable superhydrophobicity in the condition of continuous contact with corrosive liquids. Importantly, the coating can be fabricated on various metal substrates to prevent metal from corrosion.

  14. Enhancing the performance of quantum dots sensitized solar cell by SiO2 surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifu; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Uemura, Yu; Cui, Yan; Hara, Kohjiro; Zhao, Zhigang; Sunahara, Kenji; Furube, Akihiro

    2010-06-01

    This letter reports enhanced performance of quantum dots sensitized solar cells by selectively deposition an insulating SiO2 layer over the quantum dots (QDs) sensitized mesoporous TiO2 photoanode. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency of the CdS/CdSe QDs cosensitized solar cell with SiO2 coating can reach 83%. A power conversion efficiency of 2.05% was obtained.

  15. Internal dielectric interface: SiO2- HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharia, Onise; Demkov, Alex; Bersuker, Genadi; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2006-03-01

    Hafnia is the leading candidate to replace silica as the gate dielectric in CMOS technology. Typically, hafnia films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the oxidized surface of a silicon wafer. The oxide could be native or thermally grown. Therefore, the high-k dielectric film is not in direct contact with Si, but rather with silicon dioxide. We investigate theoretically the atomic structure of the SiO2-HfO2 interface, its energretics, and thermodynamic stability with respect to oxygen exchange across the interface. We have examined the electronic properties of the interface including the band discontinuity using density functional theory. To model the interface we build a supercell structure by connecting β-crystobalite (crystalline silica polymorph) and cubic hafnia. This model, while being obviously rather simplistic allows for systematic study of the dielectric thickness effects, and consistent placement of defects with respect to the interface. The striking atomic feature of the calculated interface structure is three-fold coordinated interfacial oxygen atoms connected to one Si and two Hf neighbors. The Si-O and Hf-O bond lengths are 1.62 and 2.1 å, respectively. The energy of the interface is estimated to be in the range of 900-4000 erg/cm^2 depending on the oxygen chemical potential. The structure has no states in the gap, and the estimated valence band offset agrees well with the MIGS theory. We discuss the effect of vacancies on the band alignment, and possible implications of our results to Si-SiO2-HfO2-Metal stacks.

  16. Properties of Cathodoluminescence for Cryogenic Applications of SiO2-based Space Observatory Optics and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Amberly; Dennison, J.R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers Charles W.; Meloy, Robert; Heaney, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Disordered thin film SiO2SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high-energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet performance objectives of these advanced space-based observatories. Measurements of absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux, and power typical of space environments are presented for thin (60-200 nm) SiO2SiOx optical coatings on reflective metal substrates over a range of sample temperatures (40-400 K) and emission wavelengths (260-5000 nm). Luminescent intensity and peak wavelengths of four distinct bands were observed in UVVISNIR emission spectra, ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm. A simple model is proposed that describes the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time, incident flux and energy, sample thickness, and temperature.

  17. Properties of cathodoluminescence for cryogenic applications of SiO2-based space observatory optics and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans Jensen, Amberly; Dennison, J. R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert; Heaney, James B.

    2013-09-01

    Disordered thin film SiO2/SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet performance objectives of these advanced space-based observatories. Measurements of absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux, and power typical of space environments are presented for thin (~60-200 nm) SiO2/SiOx optical coatings on reflective metal substrates over a range of sample temperatures (~40-400 K) and emission wavelengths (~260-5000 nm). Luminescent intensity and peak wavelengths of four distinct bands were observed in UV/VIS/NIR emission spectra, ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm. A simple model is proposed that describes the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time, incident flux and energy, sample thickness, and temperature.

  18. Self-cleaning and superhydrophilic wool by TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdel, Esfandiar; Daoud, Walid A.; Wang, Xungai

    2013-06-01

    Wool fabrics were functionalised using TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites through a low-temperature sol-gel method. Titanium terta isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethylorthosilicate (TEOS) were employed as precursors of TiO2 and SiO2, respectively. Nanocomposite sols were devised based on three molar ratio percentages of TiO2/SiO2 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70 to investigate the role of each component. The self-cleaning and hydrophilicity of wool fabrics were analysed based on the removal of coffee stain under UV and water droplet contact angle measurements, respectively. It was observed that applying TiO2/SiO2 50:50 and 30:70 sols to wool rendered the fabric superhydrophilic. Fabrics functionalised with TiO2/SiO2 30:70 showed the highest efficiency in stain removal, followed by samples functionalised with TiO2/SiO2 50:50.

  19. Space Weathering of Silicates Simulated by Successive Laser Irradiation: in Situ Reflectance Measurements of Fo90, Fo99+, and SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Christoffersen, R.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed-laser irradiation causes the visible-near-infrared spectral slope of olivine (Fo90 and Fo99+) and SiO2 to increase (redden), while the olivine samples darken and the SiO2 samples brighten slightly. XPS analysis shows that irradiation of Fo90 produces metallic Fe. Analytical SEM and TEM measurements confirm that reddening in the Fo90 olivine samples correlates with the production of "nanophase" metallic Fe (npFe0) grains, 20-50 nm in size. The reddening observed in the SiO2 sample is consistent with the formation of SiO or other SiOx species that absorb in the visible. The weak spectral brightening induced by laser irradiation of SiO2 is consistent with a change in surface topography of the sample. The darkening observed in the olivine samples is likely caused by the formation of larger npFe0 particles, such as the 100-400 nm diameter npFe0 identified during our TEM analysis of Fo90 samples. The Fo90 reflectance spectra are qualitatively similar to those in previous experiments suggesting that in all cases formation of npFe0 is causing the spectral alteration. Finally, we find that the accumulation of successive laser pulses cause continued sample darkening in the Vis-NIR, which suggests that repeated surface impacts are an efficient way to darken airless body surfaces.

  20. Space weathering of silicates simulated by successive laser irradiation: In situ reflectance measurements of Fo90, Fo99+, and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Christoffersen, R.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Pulsed-laser irradiation causes the visible-near-infrared spectral slope of olivine (Fo90 and Fo99+) and SiO2 to increase (redden), while the olivine samples darken and the SiO2 samples brighten slightly. XPS analysis shows that irradiation of Fo90 produces metallic Fe. Analytical SEM and TEM measurements confirm that reddening in the Fo90 olivine samples correlates with the production of "nanophase" metallic Fe (npFe0) grains, 20-50 nm in size. The reddening observed in the SiO2 sample is consistent with the formation of SiO or other SiOx species that absorb in the visible. The weak spectral brightening induced by laser irradiation of SiO2 is consistent with a change in surface topography of the sample. The darkening observed in the olivine samples is likely caused by the formation of larger npFe0 particles, such as the 100-400 nm diameter npFe0 identified during our TEM analysis of Fo90 samples. The Fo90 reflectance spectra are qualitatively similar to those in previous experiments suggesting that in all cases formation of npFe0 is causing the spectral alteration. Finally, we find that the accumulation of successive laser pulses cause continued sample darkening in the Vis-NIR, which suggests that repeated surface impacts are an efficient way to darken airless body surfaces.

  1. Fe effect on the optical properties of TiO2:Fe2O3 nanostructured composites supported on SiO2 microsphere assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the μ-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe+3 ion concentration increases. PMID:25276103

  2. Fe effect on the optical properties of TiO2:Fe2O3 nanostructured composites supported on SiO2 microsphere assemblies.

    PubMed

    Peña-Flores, Jesús I; Palomec-Garfias, Abraham F; Márquez-Beltrán, César; Sánchez-Mora, Enrique; Gómez-Barojas, Estela; Pérez-Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the μ-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe(+3) ion concentration increases. PMID:25276103

  3. Highly active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on gold nanoparticles infiltrated into SiO2 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankudze, Bright; Philip, Anish; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Matikainen, Antti; Vahimaa, Pasi

    2016-11-01

    SiO2 inverse opal (IO) films with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application are reported. SiO2 IO films were loaded with AuNPs by a simple infiltration in a single cycle to form Au-SiO2 IOs. The optical property and the morphology of the Au-SiO2 IO substrates were characterized; it was observed that they retained the Bragg diffraction of SiO2 IO and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of AuNPs. The SERS property of the Au-SiO2 IO substrates were studied with methylene blue (MB) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). The SERS enhancement factors were 107 and 106 for 4-ATP and MB, respectively. A low detection limit of 10-10 M for 4-ATP was also obtained with the Au-SiO2 IO substrate. A relative standard deviation of 18.5% for the Raman signals intensity at 1077 cm-1 for 4-ATP shows that the Au-SiO2 IO substrates have good signal reproducibility. The results of this study indicate that the Au-SiO2 IO substrates can be used in sensing and SERS applications.

  4. A 1550 nm PbS semiconductor quantum dots fiber amplifier based on SiO2 sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolan; Li, Chao; Xie, Libin; Liu, Xiaohong; Dong, Yanhua

    2011-12-01

    A novel PbS quantum dots (QDs) fiber amplifier based on SiO2 Sol-Gel method was proposed. The QDs doped SiO2 films was deposited onto a fused tapered fiber coupler based on standard single mode fiber (SMF). With a 980 nm wavelength laser diode (LD) as the pump, 1550 nm signal and 980 nm pump light waves were injected into the tapered region simultaneously, through the evanescent wave, we obtained the gain at 1576 nm wavelength as high as 5 dB. The proposed fiber amplififier can implement the property of a small, integrated, high output, low noise, high gain, low cost, which meet the need of the future of optical fiber communication system.

  5. Formation of Au and AuSix-Pyramids in Separation by Implanted Oxygen Wafers with Si Pillars in SiO2 Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yukari; Saito, Tomohiro; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Shibata, Noriyoshi; Zaima, Shigeaki

    1995-11-01

    Very small pyramid structures of single-crystal Au and AuSi x 100 nm in size were produced in Si(100) wafers by annealing at 310° C after 100 nm-thick Au film was evaporated onto a thin SOI structure with Si pillars in the SiO2 layer. Surface Au atoms diffuse through Si pillars just under the SiO2 layer and form pyramid structures which are surrounded by one Si(100) and four Si{111} planes. There is no amorphous layer between Si and pyramid crystals. Pyramids are Au or AuSi x single crytals, but crystal directions and structures are different for each pyramid.

  6. Power and Charge Deposition and Electron Transport in Disordered SiO2 Layers Under Electron Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gregory; Dennison, J. R.; Jensen, Amberly; Dekany, Justin

    2013-03-01

    Power and charge deposition in multilayer dielectrics from electron bombardment is dependent on the flux and energy-dependent electron penetration depth of the electron beam. Using the Continuous Slow Down Approximation (CSDA), a composite analytical formula has been developed to approximate the electron range which can be related to the dose rate, deposited power and Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC). Based on the constituent layer geometry and material, the deposited charge can also be inferred. Three separate pulsed electron beam experiments were conducted to measure charge deposition, power dependent cathodoluminescence and RIC. The power and charge deposition experiments measured the net surface potential, electrode currents and electron induced luminescence of disordered SiO2 multilayer dielectrics with a grounded or floating conductive middle layer, using beam energies from 200 eV to 25 keV at <40 K to room temperature. These results showed that the power and charge deposition's dependence on electron beam flux and incident energy compare favorably with the model predictions. The RIC experiments measured electrode currents using disordered SiO2 layers from <40 K to >320 K with dose rates from 10-5 Gy/s to 10-1 Gy/s. The onset of RIC in the energy-dependant depth of the RIC region provides an explanation for observed retrograde charging. This work supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and an NRC Senior Research Fellowship at AFRL.

  7. Design and fabrication of a large area freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Sangu, Suguru; Ono, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window without buckling. An application of the SiO2 optical window with and without liquid penetration has been demonstrated for an optical modulator and its optical characteristic is evaluated by using an image sensor. Two methods for SiO2 optical window fabrication have been presented. The first method is a combination of silicon etching and a thermal oxidation process. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (deep RIE) are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. The large compressive stress of the oxide causes buckling of the optical window, which is reduced by optimizing the design of the device structure. A magnetron-type RIE, which is investigated for deep SiO2 etching, is the second method. This method achieves deep SiO2 etching together with smooth surfaces, vertical shapes and a high aspect ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid a wrinkling optical window, the idea of a Peano curve structure has been proposed to achieve a freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window. A 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm optical window area without buckling integrated with an image sensor for an optical modulator has been successfully fabricated. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been performed in cases with and without liquid penetration.

  8. Memory and learning behaviors mimicked in nanogranular SiO2-based proton conductor gated oxide-based synaptic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2013-10-01

    In neuroscience, signal processing, memory and learning function are established in the brain by modifying ionic fluxes in neurons and synapses. Emulation of memory and learning behaviors of biological systems by nanoscale ionic/electronic devices is highly desirable for building neuromorphic systems or even artificial neural networks. Here, novel artificial synapses based on junctionless oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid transistors gated by nanogranular phosphorus-doped SiO2-based proton-conducting films are fabricated on glass substrates by a room-temperature process. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) are mimicked by tuning the pulse gate voltage amplitude. The LTM process in such an artificial synapse is due to the proton-related interfacial electrochemical reaction. Our results are highly desirable for building future neuromorphic systems or even artificial networks via electronic elements.In neuroscience, signal processing, memory and learning function are established in the brain by modifying ionic fluxes in neurons and synapses. Emulation of memory and learning behaviors of biological systems by nanoscale ionic/electronic devices is highly desirable for building neuromorphic systems or even artificial neural networks. Here, novel artificial synapses based on junctionless oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid transistors gated by nanogranular phosphorus-doped SiO2-based proton-conducting films are fabricated on glass substrates by a room-temperature process. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) are mimicked by tuning the pulse gate voltage amplitude. The LTM process in such an artificial synapse is due to the proton-related interfacial electrochemical reaction. Our results are highly desirable for building future neuromorphic systems or even artificial networks via electronic elements. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02987e

  9. Fabrication of biomimetic high performance antireflective and antifogging film by spin-coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Lü, Changli; Li, Yunfeng; Lin, Zhe; Wang, Zhanhua; Dong, Heping; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we report a facile way to fabricate biomimetic high performance optical hybrid films with excellent antireflective and antifogging properties by one-step spin-coating the mixture of mesoporous SiO(2) particles and SiO(2) sol. The production process of the films is easy, low-cost, and time-efficient. Mesoporous SiO(2) particles containing surfactants disperse in SiO(2) sol stably without any chemical modification, which decrease the effective refractive index and increase the transmittance of the films. In addition, such films possess superhydrophilic properties and exhibit high performance antifogging properties. Due to the good film forming performance of SiO(2) sol, mesoporous SiO(2) particles are embedded in the films and impart the films high mechanical stability and durability. The surface morphology of the films can maintain well after repeated friction, and the performances of antireflective and antifogging also do not change as well.

  10. Exploring Pd adsorption, diffusion, permeation, and nucleation on bilayer SiO2/Ru as a function of hydroxylation and precursor environment: From UHV to catalyst preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomp, Sascha; Kaden, William E.; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-01

    The hydroxylation-dependent permeability of bilayer SiO2 supported on Ru(0001) was investigated by XPS and TDS studies in a temperature range of 100 K to 600 K. For this, the thermal behavior of Pd evaporated at 100 K, which results in surface and sub-surface (Ru-supported) binding arrangements, was examined relative to the extent of pre-hydroxylation. Samples containing only defect-mediated hydroxyls showed no effect on Pd diffusion through the film at low temperature. If, instead, the concentration of strongly bound hydroxyl groups and associated weakly bound water molecules was enriched by an electron-assisted hydroxylation procedure, the probability for Pd diffusion through the film is decreased via a pore-blocking mechanism. Above room temperature, all samples showed similar behavior, reflective of particle nucleation above the film and eventual agglomeration with any metal atoms initially binding beneath the film. When depositing Pd onto the same SiO2/Ru model support via adsorption of [Pd(NH3)4]Cl2 from alkaline (pH 12) precursor solution, we observe notably different adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The resultant Pd adsorption complexes follow established decomposition pathways to produce model catalyst systems compatible with those created exclusively within UHV despite lacking the ability to penetrate the film due to the increased size of the initial Pd precursor groups.

  11. Broadband antireflection for a high-index substrate using SiN x /SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the development of broadband antireflection coating for a high-index substrate such as Si using SiN x /SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD). The thin-film design employs a simulated annealing method for a minimal average reflectance over the wavelength range and incidence angles involved, which gives the optimized refractive index and thickness of each layer of the thin-film stack under different layer numbers. Using ICP-CVD, the SiN x material system is optimized by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The corresponding thin-film characterization shows the precise refractive index/film thickness control in deposition, and the deposited film also has a low absorption coefficient and smooth surface. The double-layer SiN x /SiO2 coating with the optimized refractive index and thickness for broadband antireflection is demonstrated experimentally. The average reflectance of the Si surface is reduced from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for a wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm.

  12. Comparisons between TiO2- and SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding processes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding.

  13. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH)3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser. PMID:21859482

  14. Preservation of atomic flatness at SiO_2/Si(111) interface during furnace oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Heiji; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    We used a scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM) to study SiO_2/Si(111) interfaces formed by a furnace oxidation. Clean Si(111)-7x7 surfaces were slightly oxidized at 630^circC in ultrahigh-vacuum chamber (0.3 nm thick). Then SiO2 layers (2.5 - 48 nm) were grown by furnace oxidation under 1-atm O2 at 900^circC. In order to observe atomic-step images at thick-SiO_2/Si interfaces, as-grown SiO2 layers were chemically thinned by using dilute HF to less than 1 nm without exposure of the Si areas. SREM observation indicates that atomic steps on an initial Si surface are preserved at the SiO_2/Si interface and the interfacial steps do not move laterally even after 48-nm-thick oxidation. A profile analysis of reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that the SiO_2/Si interface consists of islands which have a diameter of about 5 nm and monolayer depth. Our results indicate that the layer-by-layer oxidation caused by two-dimensional island nucleation proceeds under furnace oxidation.

  15. Comparisons between TiO2- and SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding processes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding. PMID:22962749

  16. Effects of charge and size on condensation of supersaturated water vapor on nanoparticles of SiO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Cheng, Hsiu-Chin

    2007-01-21

    The effects of size and charge on the condensation of a supersaturated water vapor on monodisperse nanoparticles of SiO(2) were investigated in a flow cloud chamber. The dependences of the critical supersaturation S(cr) on particle size at diameters of 10, 12, and 15 nm as well as on charge and charge polarity are determined experimentally. A novel electrospray aerosol generator was developed to generate a high concentration of SiO(2) nanoparticles of less than 10 nm by electrospraying silicon tetraethoxide (STE) ethanol solution followed by the thermal decomposition of STE. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid concentration, flow rate of carrier gas, and liquid conductivity on the particle size distribution and concentration were examined. For charged particles, the nucleation occurs at a critical supersaturation S(cr) lower than that on neutral particles, and the charge effect fades away as particle size increases. The charge effect is stronger than the theoretical predictions. In addition, a sign preference is detected, i.e., water vapor condenses more readily on negatively charged particle, a trend consistent with those observed on ions. However, both effects of charge and charge polarity on S(cr) are stronger than that predicted by Volmer's theory for ion-induced nucleation. PMID:17249890

  17. Preliminary results on the photo-transferred thermoluminescence from Ge-doped SiO2 optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkepely, Nurul Najua; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Md Nor, Roslan; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Mat Nawi, Siti Nurasiah; Wahib, Nur Fadira

    2015-12-01

    A study is made of photo-transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL), the TL being induced by transferring charge carriers from deeper to more superficial traps through energetic light exposure. Potential applications include dose reassessment in radiation dosimetry and also as a useful tool for dating. With incomplete emptying of deep traps following first readout, subsequent UV exposure is shown to lead to charge transfer to more shallow traps. Using Ge-doped SiO2 optical fibers exposed to 60Co gamma rays, the PTTL from the medium has been characterized in terms of the stimulation provided by exposure to a UV lamp and duration of exposure, maximum read-out temperature and pre-gamma irradiation dose. Ge-doped SiO2 optical fibers of flat cross-sectional shape have been used in this study. The efficiency of dose reassessment was compared to that of the highly popular phosphor-based TL detector TLD-100. Results show the maximum temperature of readout to have no measurable effect on the PTTL signal. For doses from 20 to 500 cGy, the method is shown to be effective using a UV lamp of wavelength 254 nm, also being indicative of potential application for doses on either side of the range currently investigated. A study was also made of the effect of UV exposure time on PTTL, seeking to determine the greatest accessible sensitivity and lowest measurable dose.

  18. Revisitation of the frictional properties of SiO2 as the LFM (lateral force microscopy) reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Suenne

    2015-03-01

    Recently, experimental studies concerning frictional properties at the nanoscale using AFM(atomic force microscopy), specifically with LFM, are made on various kinds of materials including noble 2D graphene sheets and 1D nanotubes. The LFM technique requires calibration assuredly and therefore choosing a stable substrate as a reference is of importance. SiO2 is often used as the standard to calibrate LFM data obtained from a material of interest. However, according to our observation, the friction of cleansed SiO2 substrate can change gradually by long-time continuous LFM scanning. The friction increases up to about 1.5 times (50%) in comparison to the initial state while minute topographical difference, at the Å level, is detected. The friction depends on the number of scanning events, and the change follows an inverse exponential function, F(t) = A(1-exp[-Bt]) +F(0), where F is friction, t means time when continuous measurements are made, and A, B, F(0) are constants. Here, friction shift accompanied by z-scanner movement has been observed concurrently and corrected for the long time AFM measurements. In this regard, proper correction for the LFM shift induced by the z-scanner drift will also be introduced. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through NRF of Korea funded by the ministry of Education (2014R1A1A2056555).

  19. A facile and cheap coating method to prepare SiO2/melamine-formaldehyde and SiO2/urea-formaldehyde composite microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Shaoyan; Lu, Yao; Jiang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    A facile and cheap coating route has been explored to prepare SiO2/melamine formaldehyde hybrid particles. In this process, SiO2 microspheres act as seeds, and a polycondensation reaction occurs on the surface of melamine-formaldehyde pre-polymers. Formaldehyde is essential in this coating process because it acts as a novel and cheap surface modification agent instead of a traditional silane coupling agent. Ultrasonic method is used in the synthesis to avoid aggregation of nano- and micro-particles. Most of the traditional methods preparing composite microspheres were implemented under difficult conditions and at high costs. The improved coating method is much more able to provide a convenient path for researchers and engineers to more easily and economically perform experiments and engage in manufacturing. To verify this convenient method, SiO2/urea-formaldehyde composite microspheres were also prepared. SEM images show that the surfaces of all the products are smooth and well-shaped.

  20. Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching in Polycrystalline Co2FeAl Full-Heusler-Alloy Magnetic Tunnel Junctions on Amorphous Si /SiO2 Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhenchao; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Kasai, Shinya; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2014-08-01

    We study polycrystalline B2-type Co2FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler-alloy-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) fabricated on a Si /SiO2 amorphous substrate. Polycrystalline CFA films with a (001) orientation, a high B2 ordering, and a flat surface are achieved by using a MgO buffer layer. A tunnel magnetoresistance ratio up to 175% is obtained for a MTJ with a CFA /MgO/CoFe structure on a 7.5-nm-thick MgO buffer. Spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetization switching is achieved in the MTJs with a 2-nm-thick polycrystalline CFA film as a switching layer. By using a thermal activation model, the intrinsic critical current density (Jc0) is determined to be 8.2×106 A /cm2, which is lower than 2.9×107 A /cm2, the value for epitaxial CFA MTJs [Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 182403 (2012), 10.1063/1.4710521]. We find that the Gilbert damping constant (α) evaluated by using ferromagnetic resonance measurements for the polycrystalline CFA film is approximately 0.015 and is almost independent of the CFA thickness (2-18 nm). The low Jc0 for the polycrystalline MTJ is mainly attributed to the low α of the CFA layer compared with the value in the epitaxial one (approximately 0.04).

  1. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of SiO2/Si heterogeneous nanopillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wengang; Mao, Haiyang; Han, Xiang; Xu, Jun; Wang, Weibing

    2016-07-29

    This work presents arrays of heterogeneous nanopillars stacked with Si bodies and SiO2 heads for biomedical applications. Novel crossed and overlapped spacer techniques are proposed to fabricate the nanopillar arrays in controllable dimensions. For the nanopillars in the arrays, the minimum spacing, body diameter and head tip-radius reach 100 nm, 23 nm and 11 nm, respectively. The maximum height is 1.2 μm. In addition, because of hydrophilic/hydrophobic selectivity between the SiO2 heads and Si bodies, localized nanoliter water-droplet condensing, fluorescein solution extraction and protein capturing are observed on the SiO2 pillar heads. These experiments demonstrate the great potential of heterogeneous nanopillars in biomedical applications. PMID:27319739

  3. Fabrication and characterization of SiO2/Si heterogeneous nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wengang; Mao, Haiyang; Han, Xiang; Xu, Jun; Wang, Weibing

    2016-07-01

    This work presents arrays of heterogeneous nanopillars stacked with Si bodies and SiO2 heads for biomedical applications. Novel crossed and overlapped spacer techniques are proposed to fabricate the nanopillar arrays in controllable dimensions. For the nanopillars in the arrays, the minimum spacing, body diameter and head tip-radius reach 100 nm, 23 nm and 11 nm, respectively. The maximum height is 1.2 μm. In addition, because of hydrophilic/hydrophobic selectivity between the SiO2 heads and Si bodies, localized nanoliter water-droplet condensing, fluorescein solution extraction and protein capturing are observed on the SiO2 pillar heads. These experiments demonstrate the great potential of heterogeneous nanopillars in biomedical applications.

  4. Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material.

    PubMed

    Xi, J Q; Ojha, Manas; Cho, Woojin; Plawsky, J L; Gill, W N; Gessmann, Th; Schubert, E F

    2005-06-15

    Triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODRs) consisting of a semiconductor, a quarter-wavelength transparent dielectric layer, and a metal have high reflectivities for all angles of incidence. Internal ODRs (ambient material's refractive index n > 1.0) are demonstrated that incorporate nanoporous SiO2, a low-refractive-index material (n = 1.23), as well as dense SiO2 (n = 1.46). GaP and Ag serve as the semiconductor and the metal layer, respectively. Reflectivity measurements, including angular dependence, are presented. Calculated angle-integrated TE and TM reflectivities for ODRs employing nanoporous SiO2 are R(int)/TE = 99.9% and R(int)/TM = 98.9%, respectively, indicating the high potential of the ODRs for low-loss waveguide structures.

  5. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  6. Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids: flame synthesis, in situ selective modification and highly interfacial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-05-01

    Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids (NHs) and their in situ selective modification on silica faces with the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane molecules have been successfully prepared by a simple, rapid and scalable flame aerosol route. The double-faced NHs perfectly integrate magnetic hematite hemispheres and non-magnetic silica parts into an almost intact nanoparticle as a result of phase segregation during the preparation process. The unique feature allows us to easily manipulate these particles into one-dimensional chain-like nanostructures. On the other hand, in situ selectively modified double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 NHs possess excellent interfacial activities, which can assemble into many interesting architectures, such as interfacial film, magnetic responsive capsules, novel magnetic liquid marbles and so forth. The modified NHs prefer to assemble at the interface of water-oil or oil-water systems. It is believed that the highly interfacial active NHs are not only beneficial for the development of interface reaction in a miniature reactor, but also very promising functional materials for other smart applications.Double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 nanohybrids (NHs) and their in situ selective modification on silica faces with the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane molecules have been successfully prepared by a simple, rapid and scalable flame aerosol route. The double-faced NHs perfectly integrate magnetic hematite hemispheres and non-magnetic silica parts into an almost intact nanoparticle as a result of phase segregation during the preparation process. The unique feature allows us to easily manipulate these particles into one-dimensional chain-like nanostructures. On the other hand, in situ selectively modified double-faced γ-Fe2O3||SiO2 NHs possess excellent interfacial activities, which can assemble into many interesting architectures, such as interfacial film, magnetic responsive capsules, novel magnetic liquid marbles and so forth. The modified NHs

  7. Annealing temperature and environment effects on ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: a photoluminescence and TEM study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on efficient ZnO nanocrystal (ZnO-NC) emission in the near-UV region. We show that luminescence from ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix can vary significantly as a function of the annealing temperature from 450°C to 700°C. We manage to correlate the emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films with transmission electron microscopy images in order to optimize the fabrication process. Emission can be explained using two main contributions, near-band-edge emission (UV range) and defect-related emissions (visible). Both contributions over 500°C are found to be size dependent in intensity due to a decrease of the absorption cross section. For the smallest-size nanocrystals, UV emission can only be accounted for using a blueshifted UV contribution as compared to the ZnO band gap. In order to further optimize the emission properties, we have studied different annealing atmospheres under oxygen and under argon gas. We conclude that a softer annealing temperature at 450°C but with longer annealing time under oxygen is the most preferable scenario in order to improve near-UV emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in an SiO2 matrix. PMID:24314071

  8. High-performance ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor with forming gas treated SiO2 gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Haolei; Wang, Yewu; Fang, Yanjun; Gu, Lin; Lu, Ren; Sha, Jian

    2015-04-01

    The SiO2 films thermally grown on Si wafer have been annealed in forming atmosphere (N2:H2 = 9:1) prior to use as gate insulators in ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (ZnO NW-FETs). Without the annealing process, ZnO NW-FETs exhibit very poor performance, and most of them even cannot be depleted under a high gate voltage of -100 V; however, with the annealing process in forming atmosphere, the device characteristics can be significantly improved, exhibiting a large turn on-off ratio of ˜104 and a low sub-threshold swing ˜1 V/decade. The pre-annealing treatment of SiO2 (300 nm)/p-Si in N2/H2 ambient may significantly reduce the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms, which blocks the interaction between ZnO nanowires and SiO2 surface, and finally enhances the electrical characteristics of the back-gated ZnO NW-FETs. In addition, the FET electrode fabrication process introduced in this paper is much simpler than the traditional photo-lithography and lift-off method, which has potential applications in future device fabrication.

  9. Application of Si and SiO2 Etching Mechanisms in CF4/C4F8/Ar Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Nanoscale Patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junmyung; Efremov, Alexander; Yeom, Geun Young; Lim, Nomin; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the etching characteristics and mechanism for both Si and SiO2 in CF4/C4F8/Ar inductively coupled plasmas under a constant gas pressure (4 mTorr), total gas flow rate (40 sccm), input power (800 W), and bias power (150 W) was performed. It was found that the variations in the CF4/C4F8 mixing ratio in the range of 0-50% at a constant Ar fraction of 50% resulted in slightly non-monotonic Si and SiO2 etching rates in CF4-rich plasmas and greatly decreasing etching rates in C4F8-rich plasmas. The zero-dimensional plasma model, Langmuir probe diagnostics, and optical emission spectroscopy provided information regarding the formation-decay kinetics for the plasma active species, along with their densities and fluxes. The model-based analysis of the etching kinetics indicated that the non-monotonic etching rates were caused not by the similar behavior of the fluorine atom density but rather by the opposite changes of the fluorine atom flux and ion energy flux. It was also determined that the great decrease in both the Si and SiO2 etching rates during the transition from the CF4/Ar to C4F8/Ar gas system was due to the deposition of the fluorocarbon polymer film. PMID:26726514

  10. Preparations and properties of a tunable void with shell thickness SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structures via activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yi-xian; Zhou, Guo-wei; Cao, Pei

    2016-02-01

    Core-shell structure nanoparticles are attracting considerable attention because of their applications in drug delivery, catalysis carrier, and nanomedicine. In this study, SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structure with tunable void and shell thickness was successfully prepared for the first time using SiO2-poly(buty acrylate) (PBA)-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) (SiO2-PBA-b-PDMAEMA) as the template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silica source. An amphiphilic copolymer PBA-b-PDMAEMA was first grafted onto the SiO2 nanosphere surface through activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. TEOS was hydrolyzed along with the PDMAEMA chain through hydrogen bonding, and the core-shell structure of SiO2@SiO2 was obtained through calcination to remove the copolymer. The gradient hydrophilicity of the PBA-b-PDMAEMA copolymer template facilitated the hydrolysis of TEOS molecules along the PDMAEMA to PBA segments, thereby tuning the voids between the SiO2 core and SiO2 shell, as well as the SiO2 shell thickness. The voids were about 10-15 nm and the shell thicknesses were about 4-11 nm when adding different amounts of DMAEMA monomer. SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structures with tunable void and shell thickness were employed as supports for the loading and release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) in PBS (pH 4.0). The samples demonstrated good loading capacity and controlled release rate of DOX.

  11. Origin of SiO 2-rich components in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Palme, Herbert; Nasdala, Lutz; Brenker, Frank E.

    2006-03-01

    Silica-rich objects are common minor components in ordinary chondrites (OC), occurring as fragments and as chondrules. Their typical paragenesis is orthopyroxene + SiO 2 (with bulk SiO 2 >65 wt%) and occasionally with additional olivine and/or spinel. Individual silica-rich components (SRC) have previously been studied in various types of OCs, although there is only one comprehensive study of these objects by Brigham et al. [Brigham, C.A., Murrell, M.T., Yabuki, H., Ouyang, Z., El Goresy, A., 1986. Silica-bearing chondrules and clasts in ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 1655-1666]. Several different explanations of how SRCs formed have been published. The main question is how silica-enrichment was achieved, because CI-chondritic atomic Mg/Si-ratio is 1.07 and as a consequence only olivine and pyroxene, but no free silica should be stable. There are two basic possibilities for the SiO 2-enrichment: (1) a RedOx-mechanism or magmatic fractionation on the parent body and (2) fractional condensation or recycling of chondrule mesostasis in the solar nebula. To better constrain the origin of these objects, we measured major and rare earth elements in SRCs of various types of ordinary chondrites, and in addition, we studied silica polymorphism in these objects using an in situ micro-Raman technique. Bulk chondrule compositions define mixing lines between the compositions of olivine and pyroxene. The SRCs extend these lines to an SiO 2 end member. In contrast, magmatic trends grossly deviate from these mixing lines. Concentrations of CaO, Al 2O 3, and REE in the pyroxenes of the SRCs are low (0.01 to 1× CI) and the CI-normalized REE-patterns are virtually flat, typical of bulk chondrules, but untypical of magmatic trends. We therefore conclude that SiO 2-rich objects are not of magmatic origin. They are the result of fractional condensation in the solar nebula. The silica in SRCs occurs mainly as tridymite and sometimes as cristobalite or—in very rare cases—as quartz. Some SiO 2-phases yielded a yet unknown micro-Raman spectrum, which we were unable to identify. The often chondrule-like shape of SRCs as well as the presence of high-temperature SiO 2-polymorphs lead to the following model for the origin of SRCs: formation of SiO 2-rich precursors in the solar nebula by fractional condensation, reheating to temperatures between 1140 and >1968 K, thereby forming the SRCs,—probably during the chondrule-forming process—followed by rapid cooling.

  12. Growth of silver nanoparticles in SiO2 matrix by co-sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanal, K. C.; Sreeja, R.; Lazar, K. Anlin; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, we report the growth of silver nanoparticles in SiO2 matrix by co- sputtering technique. The effect of deposition conditions on the formation of Ag nanoparticles were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption studies. The optical absorptive nonlinearity of the nanoparticles was studied by using open aperture Z- scan techniques. The surface plasmon peak in the absorption spectra indicates the presence of Ag nanoparticles in the matrix. The open aperture Z-scan studies shows the Ag- SiO2 nanocomposites can be used as a good optical limiter.

  13. Optimizing conditions of preparation of thermoresponsive SiO2-POEGMA particles via AGET-ATRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhiping; Sun, Xiaofeng; Tai, Xiumei; Wang, Guoyong; Liu, Xiaoying

    2015-02-01

    Thermosensitive poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEGMA) was grafted on SiO2 nanoparticles using activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET-ATRP) technique. The effects of the amount of ligand, catalyst, ascorbic acid and monomer, as well as the reaction temperature and time were systematically investigated and optimized to get a high grafting density. The structure of the hybrid materials was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Thermosensitive properties of SiO2-POEGMA particles were investigated at different grafting densities by turbidity measurements.

  14. Silver Nanoparticles in SiO2 Microspheres - Preparation by Spray Drying and Use as Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Mahltig, Boris; Haufe, Helfried; Muschter, Kerstin; Fischer, Anja; Kim, Young Hwan; Gutmann, Emanuel; Reibold, Marianne; Meyer, Dirk Carl; Textor, Torsten; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 particles of micrometer size are prepared using spray drying. The spray drying is performed with a SiO2 sol (solvent water:ethanol 4: 1) containing SiO2 and silver particles of nanometer size. During spray drying the SiO2 nanoparticles aggregate to SiO2 microspheres whereas the silver particles exhibit only a small tendency of aggregation and keep their nanometer size. However under special conditions also the formation of crystalline silver rods is observed. The antibacterial activity of the resulting Ag/SiO2 powders is determined against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Because of this antibacterial acitivity and the fact that the powder of SiO2 microspheres exhibits a good dispersibility, such materials have an immense potential to be used as antimicrobial additive in processes like master batch or fiber production. PMID:24061743

  15. Preparation of SiO2 nanowires from rice husks by hydrothermal method and the RNA purification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Meiyan; Cao, Jianping; Meng, Xing; Liu, Yangsi; Ke, Wei; Wang, Jialiang; Sun, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In this study, SiO2 nanowires were prepared by using rice husks as silicon source via a hydrothermal method. The microstructure, thermal stability and morphology of SiO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. SiO2 nanowires with a diameter of 30-100 nm were obtained and the formation mechanism of SiO2 nanowires during the hydrothermal reaction was proposed. The SiO2 nanowires were introduced into membrane spin columns to isolate RNA and the values of A260/280 and A260/230 were 2.0-2.1 and 1.8-2.0, respectively, which shows the SiO2 nanowires were effective for RNA purification.

  16. Stability of Trapped Electrons in SiO(2)

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.

    1999-01-29

    Thermally stimulated current and capacitance voltage methods are used to investigate the thermal stability of trapped electrons associated with radiation-induced trapped positive charge in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The density of deeply trapped electrons in radiation-hardened 45 nm oxides exceeds that of shallow electrons by a factor of {approximately}3 after radiation exposure, and by up to a factor of 10 or more during biased annealing. Shallow electron traps anneal faster than deep traps, and seem to be at least qualitatively consistent with the model of Lelis et al. Deeper traps maybe part of a fundamentally distinct dipole complex, and/or have shifted energy levels that inhibit charge exchange with the Si.

  17. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film. PMID:23858925

  18. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film.

  19. Permanently densified SiO2 glasses: a structural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, C.; Kassir-Bodon, A.; Deschamps, T.; Cornet, A.; Le Floch, S.; Martinez, V.; Champagnon, B.

    2015-08-01

    Densified silica can be obtained by different pressure and temperature paths and for different stress conditions, hydrostatic or including shear. The density is usually the macroscopic parameter used to characterize the different compressed silica samples. The aim of our present study is to compare structural modifications for silica glass, densified from several routes. For this, densified silica glasses are prepared from cold and high temperature (up to 1020 °C) compressions. The different densified glasses obtained in our study are characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Intertetrahedral angles from the main band relative to the bending mode decrease and their values are larger for densified samples from high temperature compression than those samples from cold compression. The relative amount of 3-membered rings deduced from the D2 line area increases as a function of density for cold compression. The temperature increase during the compression process induces a decrease of the 3 fold ring population. Moreover, 3 fold rings are more deformed and stressed for densified samples at room temperature at the expense of those densified at high temperature. Temperature plays a main role in the reorganization structure during the densification and leads to obtaining a more relaxed structure with lower stresses than glasses densified from cold compression. The role of hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic applied stresses on the glass structure is discussed. From the Sen and Thorpe central force model, intertetrahedral angle average value and their distribution are estimated.

  20. [Comparing Cell Toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Exposure to Airborne PM2.5 from Beijing and Inert Particle SiO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-jiao; Huang, Yi; Wen, Hang; Qiu, Guo-yu

    2015-11-01

    To figure out the main factor of PM2.5 toxicity to cell, this study compared the cell toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe), a model organism, exposed to inert ultrafine SiO2 particles, a model particle, and airborne PM2.5 collected from campus of Peking University Beijing China. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry to measure cell proliferation ratio, and environmental scanning microscope to observe the particle adhesion on the cell surface, and detecting cellular ROS generation with DHE fluorescent dye chromogenic method, and using single cell gel electrophoresis to test cell DNA damage, the experiment results indicated that the ultrafine SiO2 particles (< 60 nm) could inhibit the cell proliferation of S. pombe, mainly through adsorbing onto the cell surface to change the permeability of the cell wall; but it could not induce cells to generate ROS to cause the oxidative damage. PM2.5, the average particle size of which was larger than that of SiO2 particles, could cause oxidative damages to cells mainly by inducing cells to generate ROS, and damage DNA simultaneously. It might illustrate that there was no direct relationship between the toxicity of PM2.5 and its physical properties such as the particle size.

  1. [Comparing Cell Toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Exposure to Airborne PM2.5 from Beijing and Inert Particle SiO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-jiao; Huang, Yi; Wen, Hang; Qiu, Guo-yu

    2015-11-01

    To figure out the main factor of PM2.5 toxicity to cell, this study compared the cell toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe), a model organism, exposed to inert ultrafine SiO2 particles, a model particle, and airborne PM2.5 collected from campus of Peking University Beijing China. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry to measure cell proliferation ratio, and environmental scanning microscope to observe the particle adhesion on the cell surface, and detecting cellular ROS generation with DHE fluorescent dye chromogenic method, and using single cell gel electrophoresis to test cell DNA damage, the experiment results indicated that the ultrafine SiO2 particles (< 60 nm) could inhibit the cell proliferation of S. pombe, mainly through adsorbing onto the cell surface to change the permeability of the cell wall; but it could not induce cells to generate ROS to cause the oxidative damage. PM2.5, the average particle size of which was larger than that of SiO2 particles, could cause oxidative damages to cells mainly by inducing cells to generate ROS, and damage DNA simultaneously. It might illustrate that there was no direct relationship between the toxicity of PM2.5 and its physical properties such as the particle size. PMID:26910977

  2. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  3. Photoactivation of Luminescent Centers in Single SiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tarpani, Luigi; Ruhlandt, Daja; Latterini, Loredana; Haehnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Chizhik, Alexey I

    2016-07-13

    Photobleaching of fluorophores is one of the key problems in fluorescence microscopy. Overcoming the limitation of the maximum number of photons, which can be detected from a single emitter, would allow one to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and thus the temporal and spatial resolution in fluorescence imaging. It would be a breakthrough for many applications of fluorescence spectroscopy, which are unachievable up to now. So far, the only approach for diminishing the effect of photobleaching has been to enhance the photostability of an emitter. Here, we present a fundamentally new solution for increasing the number of photons emitted by a fluorophore. We show that, by exposing a single SiO2 nanoparticle to UV illumination, one can create new luminescent centers within this particle. By analogy with nanodiamonds, SiO2 nanoparticles can possess luminescent defects in their regular SiO2 structure. However, due to the much weaker chemical bonds, it is possible to generate new defects in SiO2 nanostructures using UV light. This allows for the reactivation of the nanoparticle's fluorescence after its photobleaching. PMID:27243936

  4. Redox behavior of a ferrocene monolayer on SiO2 obtained after click-coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, V.; Joo, N.; Buckley, J.; Nonglaton, G.; Duclairoir, F.; Dubois, L.; Marchon, J. C.; Gély, M.; Chevalier, N.; De Salvo, B.

    2013-06-01

    Redox active ferrocene derivatives were grafted upon SiO2 surface via a carbon-based linker. The indirect grafting procedure consisted in a silanization followed by a click-chemistry reaction. This immobilization method of ethynyl-ferrocene yields a mixed organic/inorganic charge transfer modulation medium made of a C3 linker ended by a 1,2,3-triazole, bound to a thin SiO2 layer. Such a linker has never been tested before. Its use combines the advantages of a thin dielectric layer (SiO2+ > C3 linker) to the versatility of a two-step process that could easily be transferred to other sensitive or hard to synthesize compounds. Such organic/inorganic linker has been tested to tune the redox properties and charge transfer kinetics of the overall hybrid system and the results could be of importance for hybrid memory devices applications. Cyclic voltammetry studies conducted on this hybrid system were indeed used to confirm ferrocene immobilization, determine the molecular surface coverage and study the redox charge/discharge kinetics. The obtained results show the good surface coverage and charge retention properties, achieved by grafting upon SiO2 via a > C3 linker. For comparison, the ferrocene compound was also immobilized on Si (C2 linker).

  5. Location and Electronic Nature of Phosphorus in the Si Nanocrystal - SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Dirk; Gutsch, Sebastian; Gnaser, Hubert; Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Zacharias, Margit; Hiller, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Up to now, no consensus exists about the electronic nature of phosphorus (P) as donor for SiO2-embedded silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). Here, we report on hybrid density functional theory (h-DFT) calculations of P in the SiNC/SiO2 system matching our experimental findings. Relevant P configurations within SiNCs, at SiNC surfaces, within the sub-oxide interface shell and in the SiO2 matrix were evaluated. Atom probe tomography (APT) and its statistical evaluation provide detailed spatial P distributions. For the first time, we obtain ionisation states of P atoms in the SiNC/SiO2 system at room temperature using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, eliminating structural artefacts due to sputtering as occurring in XPS. K energies of P in SiO2 and SiNC/SiO2 superlattices (SLs) were calibrated with non-degenerate P-doped Si wafers. results confirm measured core level energies, connecting and explaining XANES spectra with h-DFT electronic structures. While P can diffuse into SiNCs and predominantly resides on interstitial sites, its ionization probability is extremely low, rendering P unsuitable for introducing electrons into SiNCs embedded in SiO2. Increased sample conductivity and photoluminescence (PL) quenching previously assigned to ionized P donors originate from deep defect levels due to P.

  6. Different behavior of lithium interaction with SiO2 and Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ban, Chunmei; Kappes, Branden B.; Xu, Qiang; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Ciobanu, Cristian V.; Dillon, Anne C.

    2014-03-01

    Lithiation of SiO2 and lithium intercalation in Al2O3 is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Lithium interacts with these two types of oxides in distinctly different behaviors. Reversible insertion/extraction of lithium in SiO2 up to a Li density of 2/3 Li per Si are demonstrated experimentally. Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculation shows that neither free interstitial Li atoms (no reduction) nor formation of a local Li2O cluster plus a Si-Si bond (full reduction) is energetically favorable. However, two Li atoms can effectively break a Si-O bond and be stabilized between the Si and O atoms. Such a defect, representing a state of partial reduction of SiO2, is energetically favorable. DFT simulation shows that intercalation of SiO2 at high Li density through partial reduction results in crystalline compounds LixSiO2 (x <2/3) with tunable band-gaps in the range of 2-3.4 eV. In sharp contrast, Al2O3 is very stable against lithiation through any form of reduction. However, good conductivity of Li ions is shown in porous Al2O3. Work funded by the U.S. DOE under Subcontract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 through the Office of EERE, the Office of the Vehicle Technologies Program, and by NSF through Award Nos. OCI-1048586 and CMMI-0846858.

  7. Microscopical and mechanical evaluation of the durability of SiO2 aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahraoui, Hassan; Khouchaf, Lahcen; Ben Fraj, Amor

    2016-05-01

    The durability of SiO2 compounds is closely related to its structural properties. In this work three natural siliceous aggregates (called G1, G2 and G3) are studied. Improvement of the durability of the starting material leads to a significant energy savings by extending the lifetime of structures. The chemical composition of the three natural aggregates shows that G1 and G2 have almost the same chemical composition (SiO2) and G3 is different and contains SiO2 quartz type and calcite as major components (SiO2, calcite and dolomite). X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that natural aggregates G1 is more crystallized than G2 and G3. After alkali silica reaction (ASR) process, the reactivity of G3 aggregate seems to be higher than the G1 and G2 aggregates. The mechanical results show the slight difference between mortar containing G1 (M_G1) and that containing G2 (M_G2). Their compressive strength is 10% less than that of reference (M_SS). As it is more reactive, G3 seems improving the compressive strength of M_G3, compared to M_G1 and M_G2. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  8. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of SiO2-coated stainless steel after sterilization.

    PubMed

    Walke, Witold; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Pustelny, Tadeusz; Opilski, Zbigniew; Drewniak, Sabina; Kościelniak-Ziemniak, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The study of most of the literature devoted to the use of coronary stents indicates that their efficiency is determined by the physicochemical properties of the implant surface. Therefore, the authors of this study suggested conditions for the formation of SiO2 layers obtained with the use of sol-gel methodology showing physicochemical properties adequate to the specific conditions of the cardio-vascular system. Previous experience of authors helped them much to optimize the coating of 316LVM steel surface with SiO2. The values of parameters that determine the usefulness of the coating in medical applications have been determined. In order to identify the phenomena taking place at the boundary of phases and to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed surface modification, taking into consideration the medical sterilization (steam or ethylene oxide (EO)), the potentiodynamic, impedance, adhesion, surface morphology and biological assessment characterizations were performed. Regardless of the usage of the sterilizing agent (steam, EO) the study showed the reduction of critical force causing layer's delamination. The research results of corrosion resistance study also confirmed a slight decrease of SiO2 barrier properties of the samples after sterilization in contact with the artificial plasma. SiO2 layers after the sterilization process did not show significant features of cytotoxicity and had no negative influence on blood cell counts, which confirmed the results of quantitative and qualitative studies. PMID:27040207

  9. Core-shell SiO2@LDHs with tuneable size, composition and morphology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Felton, Ryan; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-02-25

    We present here a simple method for the synthesis of core-shell SiO2@LDH (LDH: layered double hydroxide) particles using an in situ co-precipitation method without any pretreatment. The LDH composition, the overall particle size and morphology can be tuned giving new opportunities for the development of novel sorbents and catalyst systems.

  10. First-principles study of structural properties of SiO2 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashevich, Andrei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Altman, Eric I.

    Two dimensional (2D) materials draw a tremendous amount of interest because they exhibit unique physical properties due to reduced dimensionality. Recently, SiO2 2D bilayer systems were discovered. The structure of these bilayers is formed by two mirror-image planes of corner-sharing SiO4 tetrahedra and does not have a direct relation to bulk SiO2 systems. SiO2 bilayers may be obtained in crystalline or amorphous forms. In the crystalline form, the bilayers are constructed from six-membered rings of corner-sharing SiO4 tetrahedra. The amorphous form has rings of various sizes typically in the range from four to nine Si atoms in the ring. These structures may be of practical interest as atomically thin membranes and molecular sieves. In our work, we study the effect of strain and doping on the crystalline structure of SiO2 bilayers using density functional theory. We analyze the stability of structures depending on the ring size and establish strain and doping conditions that may render the structures with large ring sizes stable. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grants MRSEC NSF DMR-1119826 and NSF DMR-1506800.

  11. Dispersion states and acid properties of SiO2-supported Nb2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Li, Qing-Jie; Fan, Yi-Ning

    2013-06-01

    Nb2O5/SiO2 samples were prepared by the incipient-wetness impregnation method using niobium oxalate aqueous solution. The microstructure and dispersion process of the niobia species supported on SiO2 were characterized by means of power X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The acid properties were investigated by the method of Hammett indicator and Pyridine adsorption infrared (Py-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the dispersion process of Nb2O5 was performed by consuming surface hydroxyl groups of the amorphous SiO2 support. The aggregation of niobia species led to the formation of microcrystalline particles, so that there was no a clear monolayer dispersion capacity for Nb2O5 supported on amorphous SiO2. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by the condensation reaction of iso-butene (IB) and iso-butyraldehyde (IBA) to form 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene (DMHD). The catalytic activities of the as-prepared samples for the condensation and their acid properties were strongly affected by the dispersion states.

  12. Photoactivation of Luminescent Centers in Single SiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tarpani, Luigi; Ruhlandt, Daja; Latterini, Loredana; Haehnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Chizhik, Alexey I

    2016-07-13

    Photobleaching of fluorophores is one of the key problems in fluorescence microscopy. Overcoming the limitation of the maximum number of photons, which can be detected from a single emitter, would allow one to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and thus the temporal and spatial resolution in fluorescence imaging. It would be a breakthrough for many applications of fluorescence spectroscopy, which are unachievable up to now. So far, the only approach for diminishing the effect of photobleaching has been to enhance the photostability of an emitter. Here, we present a fundamentally new solution for increasing the number of photons emitted by a fluorophore. We show that, by exposing a single SiO2 nanoparticle to UV illumination, one can create new luminescent centers within this particle. By analogy with nanodiamonds, SiO2 nanoparticles can possess luminescent defects in their regular SiO2 structure. However, due to the much weaker chemical bonds, it is possible to generate new defects in SiO2 nanostructures using UV light. This allows for the reactivation of the nanoparticle's fluorescence after its photobleaching.

  13. Nanoimprint lithography using TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography has great potential for commercial device applications that are closest to production such as optical gratings, planar waveguides, photonic crystals, semiconductor, displays, solar cell panel, sensors, highbrightness LEDs, OLEDs, and optical data storage. I report and demonstrate the newly TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials with 20-25 wt% ratio of high titanium for CF4/O2 etch selectivity using nanoimprint lithography process. The multiple structured three-dimensional micro- and nanolines patterns were observed to be successfully patterned over the large areas. The effect of titanium concentration on CF4/O2 etch selectivity with pattern transferring carbon layer imprinting time was investigated. CF4/O2 etching rate of the TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material was approximately 3.8 times lower than that of the referenced SiO2 sol-gel ultraviolet curable material. The TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material with high titanium concentration has been proved to be versatile in advanced nanofabrication.

  14. Exotic SiO2H2 Isomers: Theory and Experiment Working in Harmony.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael C; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-19

    Replacing carbon with silicon can result in dramatic and unanticipated changes in isomeric stability, as the well-studied CO2H2 and the essentially unknown SiO2H2 systems illustrate. Guided by coupled-cluster calculations, three SiO2H2 isomers have been detected and spectroscopically characterized in a molecular beam discharge source using rotational spectroscopy. The cis,trans conformer of dihydroxysilylene HOSiOH, the ground-state isomer, and the high-energy, metastable dioxasilirane c-H2SiO2 are abundantly produced in a dilute SiH4/O2 electrical discharge, enabling precise structural determinations of both by a combination of isotopic measurements and calculated vibrational corrections. The isotopic studies also provide insight into their formation route, suggesting that c-H2SiO2 is formed promptly in the expansion but that cis,trans-HOSiOH is likely formed by secondary reactions following formation of the most stable dissociation pair, SiO + H2O. Although less abundant, the rotational spectrum of trans-silanoic acid, the silicon analogue of formic acid, HSi(O)OH, has also been observed. PMID:27139016

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with mesoporous SiO2 scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Chen, Si; Yan, Kai; Cai, Xin; Hu, Hsienwei; Peng, Ming; Chen, Buxin; Dong, Bin; Gao, Xue; Zou, Dechun

    2016-09-01

    We applied SiO2 nanoparticles as an alternative to mesoporous TiO2 or Al2O3 scaffolds and achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 16.2%. Careful characterization of the effects of different scaffolds on device performance reveals that SiO2-based perovskite solar cells show much higher PCE due to the higher Voc and fill factor (FF), and the hysteresis for SiO2-based perovskite solar cell is less severe than for Al2O3-based perovskite solar cell. Time-correlated-single-photoncounting (TCSPC) luminescence decay and external quantum efficiency (EQE) tests provide further insights into the charge transfer behavior and light-harvesting characteristics of the proposed devices. Potential mechanisms of the observed phenomena are also suggested. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SiO2 nanoparticles may potentially replace mesoporous TiO2 or Al2O3 scaffolds in perovskite solar cells to achieve remarkably high PCE.

  16. SiO2/bi-layer GZO/Ag structures for near-infrared broadband wide-angle perfect absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chaoting; Li, Jia; Yang, Ye; Huang, Jinhua; Lu, Yuehui; Zhao, Xunna; Tan, Ruiqin; Dai, Ning; Song, Weijie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, near-infrared (NIR) perfect absorbers with a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO)/silver (Ag) multi-layer structure were designed and experimentally demonstrated. The results show that a broadband perfect absorption (PA) from 1.24 µm to 1.49 µm was achieved by adopting bi-layer GZO thin films with different carrier concentrations. This absorption remained higher than 97% for incident angles up to 60°. The perfect NIR absorber reported here has a simple structure as well as broadband and wide-angle absorption features, which is promising for practical applications.

  17. A sensor for the spatial registration and measurement of particles parameters in near and deep space—Experimental investigation of SiO2-aerogel characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. N.; Ivanov, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    The paper describes a new sensor for the spatial registration and measurement of particle parameters in near and deep space. The following modern materials are applied in the sensor structure: a PVDF piezoactive film and lightweight heat-shielding high-temperature aerogel. The results from studying the aerogel morphology as well as its thermal conductivity depending on the air temperature are presented. The thermal conductivity of a SiO2-aerogel is compared with one of foreign aerogels and air. Its elemental quantitative chemical composition is determined.

  18. Structural transformation, intermediate-range order, and dynamical behavior of SiO2 glass at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya; Rino, José P.

    1993-11-01

    Pressure-induced structural transformation in SiO2 glass is investigated with molecular dynamics. At high densities, the height of the first sharp diffraction peak is considerably diminished, its position changes from 1.6 to 2.2 Å-1, and a new peak appears at 2.85 Å-1. At twice the normal density, the Si-O bond length increases, the Si-O coordination changes from 4 to 6, and the O-Si-O band angle changes from 109° to 90°. This is a tetrahedral to octahedral transformation, which was reported recently by Meade, Hemley, and Mao [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387 (1992)]. Results for phonon density of states also reveal significant changes at high pressures.

  19. Searching for high-k RE2O3 nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Lin, Y. H.; Kao, T. H.; Chou, C. C.; Yang, H. D.

    2012-03-01

    Significant experimental effort has been explored to search and characterize high-k materials with magnetodielectric effect (MDE) of series of rare earth (RE) oxide (RE2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in SiO2 glass matrix by a sol-gel route. Properly annealed sol-gel glass (in which RE = Sm, Gd, and Er) shows colossal response of dielectric constant along with diffuse phase transition and MDE around room temperature. The radial distribution functions, reconstructed from extended x-ray absorption fine structure, show the shortening of RE3 + -O depending on the RE2O3 NP size, which is consistent with oxygen vacancy induced dielectric anomaly. The magnetoresistive MDE is very much conditioned by magnetic property of RE2O3 NP grain, the degree of deformation of the lattice and constituent host.

  20. Plasma etching of SiO2 using remote-type pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Kyung, Se Jin; Yeom, Geun Young

    2008-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma etching of SiO2 was examined using a modified remote-type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), called "pin-to-plate DBD." The effect of adding four gases CF4, C4F8, O2, and Ar to the base gas mixture containing N2 (60 slm) (slm denotes standard liters per minute)/NF3 (600 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) on the SiO2 etch characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the SiO2 etch rate decreased continuously with increasing C4F8 (200-800 SCCM) addition, whereas the SiO2 etch rate increased with increasing CF4 (1-10 slm) addition up to 7 slm CF4. This increase in the SiO2 etch rate up to 7 slm CF4 was attributed to the effective removal of Si in SiO2 by F atoms through the removal of oxygen in SiO2 by carbon in the CFX in the plasma. However, the decrease in SiO2 etch rate with further increases in CF4 flow rate above 7 slm was attributed to the formation of a thick C-F polymer layer on the SiO2 surface. A SiO2 etch rate of approximately 243 nm/min was obtained with a gas mixture of N2 (60 slm)/NF3 (600 SCCM)/CF4 (7 slm), and an input voltage and operating frequency to the source of 10 kV and 30 kHz, respectively. The addition of 200 SCCM Ar to the above gas mixture increased the SiO2 etch rate to approximately 263 nm/min. This is possibly due to the increased ionization and dissociation of reactive species through penning ionization of Ar.

  1. Efficient photocatalytic activity with carbon-doped SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongen; Wu, Jinbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hong, Yaying; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia

    2013-07-01

    Photocatalysis provides a 'green' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production. PMID:23727825

  2. Wrinkling of Thin Films Induced by Viscous Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; McDonald, Christina; Niu, Jiani; Huang, Rui; Velankar, Sachin

    2013-11-01

    Compression of thin films attached to compliant solid substrates can induce a variety of highly ordered and complex wrinkling patterns. We study an analogous problem of the wrinkling instability of a thin film floating on a viscous fluid. Uniaxial compression of the fluid induces a viscous stress which leads to the wrinkling of the film. We experimentally determine the effect of geometry and material properties on the wrinkle wavelength. A shear lag approach is used to determine the stress distribution prior to buckling. A linear stability analysis of the film under this stress distribution is used to determine the maximally growing wavelength in the system. Both experiments as well as stability analysis show that the wavelength depends significantly on film length and the ratio of the film and fluid layer thickness. Most importantly, unlike previous research on fluid-supported films, the wrinkle wavelength is rate-dependent, and reduces with increasing compression rate.

  3. Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Lorch, Mark; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Kornherr, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    To inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, four kinds of TiO2 nanoparticles, that is, commercial P25-TiO2 , commercial rutile phase TiO2 , rutile TiO2 nanorods and rutile TiO2 spheres, prepared from TiCl4 , were coated with a thin, but dense, coating of silica (SiO2 ) using a conventional sol-gel technique to form TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. These core/shell particles were deposited and fixed as a very thin coating onto the surface of cellulose paper samples by a wet-chemistry polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer approach. The TiO2 /SiO2 nanocoated paper samples exhibit higher whiteness and brightness and greater stability to UV-bleaching than comparable samples of blank paper. There are many potential applications for this green chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to improve their whiteness and brightness.

  4. Economic Hydrophobicity Triggering of CO2 Photoreduction for Selective CH4 Generation on Noble-Metal-Free TiO2-SiO2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunyang; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of the fact that the competitive adsorption between CO2 and H2O on the catalyst plays an important role in the CO2 photoreduction process, here we develop an economic NH4F-induced hydrophobic modification strategy to enhance the CO2 competitive adsorption on the mesoporous TiO2-SiO2 composite surface via a simple solvothermal method. After the hydrophobic modification, the CO2 photoreduction for the selective generation of CH4 over the noble-metal-free TiO2-SiO2 composite can be greatly enhanced (2.42 vs 0.10 μmol/g in 4h). The enhanced CO2 photoreduction efficiency is assigned to the rational hydrophobic modification on TiO2-SiO2 surface by replacing Si-OH to hydrophobic Si-F bonds, which will improve the CO2 competitive adsorption and trigger the eight-electron CO2 photoreduction on the reaction kinetics. PMID:27415144

  5. Characterization of ion-assisted induced absorption in A-Si thin-films used for multivariate optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Aditya B.; Price, James M.; Dai, Bin; Perkins, David; Chen, Ding Ding; Jones, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate optical computing (MOC), an optical sensing technique for analog calculation, allows direct and robust measurement of chemical and physical properties of complex fluid samples in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) downhole environments. The core of this MOC technology is the integrated computational element (ICE), an optical element with a wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum designed to allow the detector to respond sensitively and specifically to the analytes of interest. A key differentiator of this technology is it uses all of the information present in the broadband optical spectrum to determine the proportion of the analyte present in a complex fluid mixture. The detection methodology is photometric in nature; therefore, this technology does not require a spectrometer to measure and record a spectrum or a computer to perform calculations on the recorded optical spectrum. The integrated computational element is a thin-film optical element with a specific optical response function designed for each analyte. The optical response function is achieved by fabricating alternating layers of high-index (a-Si) and low-index (SiO2) thin films onto a transparent substrate (BK7 glass) using traditional thin-film manufacturing processes (e.g., ion-assisted e-beam vacuum deposition). A proprietary software and process are used to control the thickness and material properties, including the optical constants of the materials during deposition to achieve the desired optical response function. The ion-assisted deposition is useful for controlling the densification of the film, stoichiometry, and material optical constants as well as to achieve high deposition growth rates and moisture-stable films. However, the ion-source can induce undesirable absorption in the film; and subsequently, modify the optical constants of the material during the ramp-up and stabilization period of the e-gun and ion-source, respectively. This paper characterizes the unwanted

  6. Improvement of light scattering capacity in dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Jun; Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-09-01

    N-doped TiO2 was further doped with SiO2 to prepare SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with high activity in the visible region. A sol-gel process was employed to produce nanoparticles of SiO2/N-doped TiO2. The addition of SiO2 to the metal oxide enhanced charge transfer and reduced charge recombination. With the addition of sufficient amounts of SiO2 and N, the photoelectrodes exhibited a high surface area and strong absorption of light because of their altered absorptivity in the visible wavelength region. These characteristics enabled the production of photoelectrodes with increased charge transfer and reduced charge recombination, resulting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced Jsc values. The SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were characterized using a range of analysis techniques. After the J-V curve measurements, the DSSCs fabricated with the 0.1 mM SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 8.68%, which was approximately 3% higher than that of the N-doped TiO2 control groups. This high energy efficiency with the addition of SiO2 might be due to the enhanced surface area of the photoelectrodes, allowing more dye absorption, and a decrease in electron recombination.

  7. Functional photocatalytically active and scratch resistant antireflective coating based on TiO2 and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, M.; Wojcieszak, D.; Kaczmarek, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Song, S.; Gibson, D.; Placido, F.; Mazur, P.; Kalisz, M.; Poniedzialek, A.

    2016-09-01

    Antireflection (AR) multilayer coating, based on combination of five TiO2 and SiO2 thin films, was deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process on microscope glass substrates. In this work X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability measurements were used to characterize the structural and surface properties of the deposited coating. These studies revealed that prepared coating was amorphous with low surface roughness. Photocatalytic properties were determined based on phenol decomposition reaction. Measurements of optical properties showed that transmittance in the visible wavelength range was increased after the deposition of AR coating as-compared to bare glass substrate. The mechanical properties were determined on the basis of nano-indentation and scratch resistance tests. Performed research has shown that deposition of an additional thin 10 nm thick TiO2 thin film top layer, the prepared AR coating was photocatalytically active, hydrophobic, scratch resistant and had increased hardness as-compared to bare glass substrate. These results indicate that prepared AR multilayer could be used also as a self-cleaning and protective coating.

  8. Contact Angle Measurements by AFM on Droplets of Intermediate-Length Alkanes Adsorbed on SiO2 Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Taub, H.; Knorr, K.; Volkmann, U. G.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2007-03-01

    We have recently discovered that films of intermediate-length alkanes (n-CnH2n+2; 24 < n < 40) do not completely wet a SiO2 surface on a nanometer length scale [2]. In a narrow temperature range near the bulk melting point Tb, we observe a single layer of molecules oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the surface. On heating just above Tb, these molecules undergo a delayering transition to three-dimensional droplets that remain present up to their evaporation point. Here we report measurements by noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy of the contact angle of these droplets for a film of hexatriacontane (n-C36H74 or C36). Our preliminary measurements indicate that there is a weak maximum in the contact angle at ˜Tb + 3 C. Further measurements are planned to investigate whether the weak maximum in the contact angle is consistent with the droplets supporting a surface freezing effect as at the bulk fluid/air interface. ^2M. Bai, K. Knorr, M. J. Simpson, S. Trogisch, H. Taub, S. N. Ehrlich, H. Mo, U. G. Volkmann, F. Y. Hansen, cond-mat/0611497.

  9. Crystallization Experiments of SiO2-rich Amorphous Silicate: Application to SiO2-rich Circumstellar Dust and GEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Junya; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Koike, Chiyoe; Chihara, Hiroki; Ohi, Shugo; Imai, Yuta; Noguchi, Ryo

    2012-07-01

    Crystallization experiments of relatively SiO2-rich amorphous silicates using the mean chemical composition of the silicate portions in GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), which is a major component in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles and a primitive material of the early solar system, were performed to understand the presence of crystalline silica around young stars and crystallization in GEMS. Olivine crystallized at ~900-1400 K, probably prior to pyroxene. Three different polymorphs of pyroxene, protopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, were identified at >=1000 K. Cristobalite, which is one of the silica polymorphs, crystallized only at high temperatures (>=1500 K). We obtained time-temperature-transformation (TTT) crystallization diagrams. These results suggest that crystallization of a silica polymorph is kinetically difficult in a day or so at ~900-1400 K even for the SiO2-saturated composition, while the crystallization might be possible after metastable olivine crystallization if duration is long enough. The TTT diagram also indicates that the GEMS cooling timescale was ~105 s if they condensed at 1000 K as amorphous silicates and annealed during cooling after the condensation.

  10. Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic/dielectric/metal systems: influence of SiO2 on exciton-surface plasmon polariton interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiutowski, J.; Kawalec, T.; Kostiučenko, O.; Bordo, V.; Rubahn, H.-G.; Jozefowski, L.

    2014-05-01

    Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules has been performed in the spectral range 420-675 nm which overlaps with the p-6P photoluminescence band. The p-6P was deposited on 40 nm silver (Ag) films on BK7 glass, covered with SiO2 layers. The SiO2 layer thickness was varied in the range 5-30 nm. Domains of mutually parallelly oriented organic nanofibers were initially grown under high-vacuum conditions by molecular beam epitaxy onto a cleaved muscovite mica substrate and afterwards transferred onto the sample by a soft transfer technique. The sample placed on a flat side of a hemisphere fused silica prism with an index matching liquid was illuminated under normal incidence by a He-Cd 325 nm laser. Two orthogonal linear polarizations were used both parallel and perpendicular to the detection plane. Spectrally resolved leakage radiation was observed on the opposite side of the Ag film (i.e. at the hemisphere prism) as a function of the scattering angle. Each spectrum contains a distinct peak at a wavelength dependent angle above the critical angle. This way the dispersion curve was measured, originating from a hybrid mode, i.e. the interaction between the p-6P excitons and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the metal/dielectric boundary. The presence of the SiO2 layer considerably changes the dispersion curve in comparison to the one of the Ag/p-6P/air system. However, the Ag/SiO2/p-6P/air stack forms a stable structure allowing construction of organic plasmonic devices such as nano-lasers.

  11. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of core-shell structured YVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lina; Xiao, Hongyu; An, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yongsheng; Qin, Ruifei; Liu, Lishuang; Zhang, Dongmei; Sun, Ruirui; Chen, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Well-dispersed YVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles (NPs) of about 8 nm were synthesized by a precipitation reaction and they were coated with SiO2 by a reverse microemulsion method. The thickness of SiO2 shells was altered by changing the molar ratio of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)/YVO4:Eu3+. The influence of SiO2 coating on the photoluminescence properties of the YVO4:Eu3+ NPs was studied in detail. With the increase of the SiO2 shell thickness, the intensity ratio of 5D0-7F2/5D0-7F1 becomes lower. It was interesting to observe that the quantum yield of naked YVO4:Eu3+ is higher than that of YVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 nanocomposites, and the result is opposite to a previous reference.

  12. SiO2/polyacrylonitrile membranes via centrifugal spinning as a separator for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal spinning is a fast, cost-effective and safe alternative to the electrospinning technique, which is commonly used for making fiber-based separator membranes. In this work, SiO2/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes were produced by using centrifugal spinning and they were characterized by using different electrochemical techniques for use as separators in Li-ion batteries. SiO2/PAN membranes exhibited good wettability and high ionic conductivity due to their highly porous fibrous structure. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN membrane separators were assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells and these cells delivered high capacities and exhibited good cycling performance at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN membranes showed superior C-rate performance compared to those using microporous PP membrane.

  13. Fibrinogen enhances the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages to TiO2, SiO2 and carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Marucco, Arianna; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Enrico, Emanuele; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the composition of the protein corona dramatically affects the response of cells to nanomaterials (NMs). However, the role of each single protein is still largely unknown. Fibrinogen (FG), one of the most abundant plasma proteins, is believed to mediate foreign-body reactions. Since this protein is absent in cell media used in in vitro toxicological tests the possible FG-mediated effects have not yet been assessed. Here, the effect of FG on the toxicity of three different kinds of inorganic NMs (carbon, SiO2 and TiO2) on alveolar macrophages has been investigated. A set of integrated techniques (UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) have been used to study the strength and the kinetics of interaction of FG with the NMs. The inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages (MH-S) exposed to the three NMs associated with FG has also been investigated. We found that FG significantly enhances the cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase leakage) and the inflammatory response (increase in nitric oxide (NO) concentration and NO synthase activation) induced by SiO2, carbon and TiO2 NMs on alveolar macrophages. This effect appears related to the amount of FG interacting with the NMs. In the case of carbon NMs, the activation of fibrinolysis, likely related to the exposure of cryptic sites of FG, was also observed after 24 h. These findings underline the critical role played by FG in the toxic response to NMs.

  14. High reflectance dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors for near ultra-violet planar microcavities: SiO2/HfO2 versus SiO2/SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réveret, F.; Bignet, L.; Zhigang, W.; Lafosse, X.; Patriarche, G.; Disseix, P.; Médard, F.; Mihailovic, M.; Leymarie, J.; Zúñiga-Pérez, J.; Bouchoule, S.

    2016-09-01

    SiO2/SiNx and SiO2/HfO2 distributed Bragg reflectors for the ultra-violet (λ = 360 nm-380 nm) are compared through their structural and optical properties. The SiO2/HfO2 system exhibits a lower interface roughness, higher reflectance, larger stop band, and lower penetration depth than SiO2/SiNx. A cavity quality factor of 3700 at about 360 nm is measured on a passive SiO2/HfO2-based planar microcavity. Compared with values obtained in the literature for the near UV range, the latter is rather large. Micro-reflectance measurements have been performed on a series of passive microcavities with increasing cavity thickness to determine the residual absorption in the SiO2 and HfO2 layers. Absorption coefficients of 30 (k = 0.86 × 10-4) and 160 cm-1 (k = 4.59 × 10-4) near λ ˜ 360 nm have been extracted for SiO2 and HfO2, respectively. Transfer-matrix simulations taking into account the residual absorption show that microcavity quality factors up to 8000 can be expected at 360-380 nm with this material system. Such values are well-suited for the fabrication of UV-vertical cavity surface emitting lasers or microcavity polariton lasers operating at room temperature.

  15. The effect of packing density on luminescence of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaymardanov, Z. Sh.; Kurbanov, S. S.; Rakhimov, R. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Photoluminescence of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles compressed in the form of tablets is studied under exposure to UV radiation. The observed luminescence spectrum is a broad band extending from the excitation wavelength to 700 nm and with a maximum at ~470 nm. The spectrum can be decomposed into two Gaussian components with maxima at ~460 and ~530 nm. As the pressure applied for sample preparation increases, the integrated intensities of these bands change in opposite directions—the intensity of the short-wavelength band increases, while that of the long-wavelength band decreases. It is concluded that these bands are due to different luminescence centers of silicon dioxide located on the surface and in the bulk of SiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. The growth and in situ characterization of chemical vapor deposited SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Chang, R. R.; Lile, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of studies of the kinetics of remote (indirect) plasma enhanced low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on Si and InP and of the in situ characterization of the electrical surface properties of InP during CVD processing. In the latter case photoluminescence was employed as a convenient and sensitive noninvasive method for characterizing surface trap densities. It was determined that, provided certain precautions are taken, the growth of SiO2 occurs in a reproducible and systematic fashion that can be expressed in an analytic form useful for growth rate prediction. Moreover, the in situ photoluminescence studies have yielded information on sample degradation resulting from heating and chemical exposure during the CVD growth.

  17. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO 2 optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  18. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO2 passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  19. Optical activity of chitosan films with induced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegel, Natalia O.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2016-04-01

    The optical anisotropy and optical activity of salt and basic chitosan films, both initial and modified in formic acid vapor were studied. The modification of such films was found to be accompanied by induced time-stable optical anisotropy, by varying the values of specific optical rotation [α] and an inversion of the sign of [α]. The angular dependences (indicatrices) of the specific optical rotation of films on the orientation angle of the sample relative to the direction of the polarization vector of the incident light beam in a plane perpendicular to the beam were obtained. The indicatrices of the initial chitosan films have an almost symmetrical character while those of the films modified in formic acid vapor are irregular. It is concluded of the formation of a vitrified cholesteric mesophase in the chitosan films with induced optical anisotropy.

  20. Highly conformal SiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate gas-diffusion barriers for large-area flexible electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Young-Wook; Park, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Jin-Wook; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Song, Eun-Ho; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2010-11-01

    The present study demonstrates a flexible gas-diffusion barrier film, containing an SiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate on a plastic substrate. Highly uniform and conformal coatings can be made by alternating the exposure of a flexible polyethersulfone surface to vapors of SiO2 and Al2O3, at nanoscale thickness cycles via RF-magnetron sputtering deposition. The calcium degradation test indicates that 24 cycles of a 10/10 nm inorganic bilayer, top-coated by UV-cured resin, greatly enhance the barrier performance, with a permeation rate of 3.79 × 10 - 5 g m - 2 day - 1 based on the change in the ohmic behavior of the calcium sensor at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity. Also, the permeation rate for 30 cycles of an 8/8 nm inorganic bilayer coated with UV resin was beyond the limited measurable range of the Ca test at 60 °C and 95% relative humidity. It has been found that such laminate films can effectively suppress the void defects of a single inorganic layer, and are significantly less sensitive against moisture permeation. This nanostructure, fabricated by an RF-sputtering process at room temperature, is verified as being useful for highly water-sensitive organic electronics fabricated on plastic substrates.

  1. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO2 and Si using cyclic Ar/C4F8 and Ar/CHF3 plasma

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian; Bruce, Robert L.; Joseph, Eric A.; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2015-11-11

    The need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing as smaller critical dimensions and pitches are required in device patterning. A flux-control based cyclic Ar/C4F8 ALE based on steady-state Ar plasma in conjunction with periodic, precise C4F8 injection and synchronized plasma-based low energy Ar+ ion bombardment has been established for SiO2.1 In this work, the cyclic process is further characterized and extended to ALE of silicon under similar process conditions. The use of CHF3 as a precursor is examined and compared to C4F8. CHF3 is shown to enable selective SiO2/Si etching using a fluorocarbon (FC) film build up. Othermore » critical process parameters investigated are the FC film thickness deposited per cycle, the ion energy, and the etch step length. Etching behavior and mechanisms are studied using in situ real time ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon ALE shows less self-limitation than silicon oxide due to higher physical sputtering rates for the maximum ion energies used in this work, ranged from 20 to 30 eV. The surface chemistry is found to contain fluorinated silicon oxide during the etching of silicon. As a result, plasma parameters during ALE are studied using a Langmuir probe and establish the impact of precursor addition on plasma properties.« less

  2. Measurements of SiO2 glass surface parameters by methods of microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavars, Eduards; Svagere, Anda; Skudra, Atis; Zorina, Natalia; Poplausks, Raimonds

    2012-08-01

    In this research we compare chemical and plasma treatment methods for surface of SiO2 glass. For chemical treatment of surface tequila and alcohol were used but for plasma treatment - Ar+As and Ar+Se plasmas. Surface topography was analyzed using atomic force microscope. Comparison of chemical and plasma treatment methods shows that surface treated with plasma is smoother. Because of their various chemical compositions tequila and alcohol show different results.

  3. SEGR in SiO$${}_2$$ –Si$_3$ N$_4$ Stacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Javanainen, Arto; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Bosser, Alexandre; Jaatinen, Jukka; Kettunen, Heikki; Muschitiello, Michele; Pintacuda, Francesco; Rossi, Mikko; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; et al

    2014-04-17

    This work presents experimental SEGR data for MOS-devices, where the gate dielectrics are are made of stacked SiO2–Si3N4 structures. Also a semi-empirical model for predicting the critical gate voltage in these structures under heavy-ion exposure is proposed. Then statistical interrelationship between SEGR cross-section data and simulated energy deposition probabilities in thin dielectric layers is discussed.

  4. Silicon ions below 100 km - A case for SiO2/+/. [during meteoroid shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation regarding the occurrence of Si ions is conducted, taking into account an unusual metal ion structure observed during a meteor shower event. Loss processes involving silicon oxides are considered in connection with a study of the reasons for the unique Si(+) distribution found. It is suggested that below 100 km Si(+) is rapidly depleted by two- and three-body reactions with molecular oxygen, forming SiO2(+) which then recombines.

  5. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems. PMID:25017934

  6. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  7. Synthesis of superamphiphobic breathable membranes utilizing SiO2 nanoparticles decorated fluorinated polyurethane nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialin; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Cui, Lingxiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-12-01

    Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust water/oil proof and breathable performances were prepared by the combination of a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) containing a terminal perfluoroalkane segment and incorporated SiO(2) nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs). By employing the FPU/SiO(2) NPs incorporation, the hybrid membranes possess superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using N(2) adsorption method has confirmed a major contribution of SiO(2) NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between the fractal dimension and amphiphobicity is proposed. Furthermore, a designed concept test shows that the as-prepared membranes could load 1.5 kg water or oil at the same time maintained an extremely high air permeability of 2 L min(-1), suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in protective clothing, bioseparation, water purification, tissue engineering, microfluidic systems, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional hybrid membranes based on FPU. PMID:23108344

  8. Sulfide capacity of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, Katsujiro; Maeda, Masafumi; Sano, Nobuo

    1990-02-01

    The sulfide capacity C S 2- = (pct S2-) · ( P O 2/ P S 2)1/2) of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags saturated with CaO, 3CaO · SiO2 or 2CaOSiO2 was determined at 1200 °C, 1250 °C, 1300 °C, and 1350 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2 gas mixtures. Higher sulfide capacities were obtained for CaO-saturated slags. A drastic decrease was observed in those values when the ratio pct CaO/pct SiO2 is less than 2. The sulfur partition between carbon-saturated iron melts and presently investigated slags was calculated by using the sulfide capacities obtained and the activity coefficient of sulfur in carbon-saturated iron, which was also experimentally determined. For slags saturated with CaO, partitions of sulfur as high as 10,000 were obtained at 1300 °C and 1350 °C. Correlations between the sulfide capacity and other basicity indexes such as carbonate capacity and theoretical optical basicity were also discussed.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-SiO2-AgCl photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husni, H. N.; Mahmed, N.; Ngee, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite-silica-silver chloride (Fe3O4-SiO2-AgCl) coreshell particles with AgCl crystallite size of 117 nm was prepared by a wet chemistry method at ambient temperature. The magnetite-core was synthesized by using iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4•7H2O) and iron (III) sulfate hydrate (Fe2(SO4)3) with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) as the precipitating agent. The silica-shell was synthesized by using a modified Stöber process. The silver ions (Ag+) was adsorbed onto the silica surface after Söber process, followed by the addition of Cl- and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for the formation of Fe3O4-SiO2-AgCl coreshell particles. The effectiveness of the synthesized photocatalyst was investigated by monitoring the degradation of the methylene blue (MB) under sunlight for five cycles. About 90 % of the MB solution can be degraded after 2 hours. The degradation of MB solution by the Fe3O4-SiO2-AgCl particles is highly efficient for first three cycles according to the MB concentration recorded by the UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Nevertheless, the synthesized particles could be a promising material for photocatalytic applications.

  10. Properties of SiO2 Aerogels Suitable for Astrophysical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublett, S. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Skupsky, S.; Frank, A.; Poludnenko, A. Y.

    2001-10-01

    We are studying inhomogenieties in SiO2 aerogel. The aerogel has been treated in our hydrodynamic simulations as a material with uniform density but is modeled to grow by diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) during the sol-gel process. We have modified DLCA FORTRAN code to grow a SiO2 aerogel model to be used as input in established hydrodynamic code in order to calculate the propagation of a converging conical shock wave through the foam. The foam has an average density of 100 mg/cm^3 and consists of roughly spherical globules of SiO2 molecules with an average radius of 100 nm±5 nm. This foam is being tested for plasma jet experiments relevant to astrophysics in which a conical shock wave propagating through the foam is driven by one to six OMEGA laser beams. Fluid downstream of the shock wave is forced through an aperture to create a plasma jet imaged by self-emission and silicon x-ray absorption. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  11. Synthesis of superamphiphobic breathable membranes utilizing SiO2 nanoparticles decorated fluorinated polyurethane nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialin; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Cui, Lingxiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-12-01

    Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust water/oil proof and breathable performances were prepared by the combination of a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) containing a terminal perfluoroalkane segment and incorporated SiO(2) nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs). By employing the FPU/SiO(2) NPs incorporation, the hybrid membranes possess superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using N(2) adsorption method has confirmed a major contribution of SiO(2) NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between the fractal dimension and amphiphobicity is proposed. Furthermore, a designed concept test shows that the as-prepared membranes could load 1.5 kg water or oil at the same time maintained an extremely high air permeability of 2 L min(-1), suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in protective clothing, bioseparation, water purification, tissue engineering, microfluidic systems, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional hybrid membranes based on FPU.

  12. Researching the silicon direct wafer bonding with interfacial SiO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoqing, Wang; Yude, Yu; Jin, Ning

    2016-05-01

    A silicon wafer direct bonding with a thin SiO2 layer at the interface was investigated. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was employed to characterize the surface roughness and a shearing test was carried out to evaluate the bonding strength. Experiments were performed to analyze the relations of surface roughness and bonding strength with the thickness of SiO2 which was grown by thermal oxidation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) respectively. The bonding strength can reach up to 18 MPa for thermal oxidation and 8 MPa for PECVD after a 2-h 400 °C annealing. Results indicate that the bonding strength is negatively correlated to the thickness of SiO2 at the interface, which is important in designing the MEMS-based devices and other devices built with wafer direct bonding. Project supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334008) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376072).

  13. Chemistry of tantalum clusters in solution and on SiO2 supports: analogies and contrasts.

    PubMed

    Nemana, Sailendra; Okamoto, Norihiko L; Browning, Nigel D; Gates, Bruce C

    2007-08-14

    Tantalum clusters have been synthesized from Ta(CH2Ph)5 on the surface of porous fumed SiO2. When these clusters are small, incorporating, on average, several Ta atoms, their chemistry is similar to that of molecular tantalum clusters (and other early transition-metal) clusters. For example, The Ta-Ta bonds in these small supported clusters have been characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy, being similar to those in molecular analogues. The redox reactions of the supported clusters, characterized by X-ray absorption near-edge structure, are analogous to those of early transition-metal clusters in solution. In contrast to the largest of these clusters in solution and in the solid state, those supported on SiO2 are raftlike, facilitating the substantial metal-support-oxygen bonding that is evident in the EXAFS spectra. Samples consisting of tantalum clusters on SiO2 catalyze alkane disproportionation and the conversion of methane with n-butane to give other alkanes, but catalytic properties of analogous clusters in solution have barely been explored. PMID:17636989

  14. Strong piezoelectricity in single-layer graphene deposited on SiO2 grating substrates.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey; Kopelevich, Yakov; Kholkin, Andrei

    2015-06-25

    Electromechanical response of materials is a key property for various applications ranging from actuators to sophisticated nanoelectromechanical systems. Here electromechanical properties of the single-layer graphene transferred onto SiO2 calibration grating substrates is studied via piezoresponse force microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The correlation of mechanical strains in graphene layer with the substrate morphology is established via Raman mapping. Apparent vertical piezoresponse from the single-layer graphene supported by underlying SiO2 structure is observed by piezoresponse force microscopy. The calculated vertical piezocoefficient is about 1.4 nm V(-1), that is, much higher than that of the conventional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate and comparable to that of relaxor single crystals. The observed piezoresponse and achieved strain in graphene are associated with the chemical interaction of graphene's carbon atoms with the oxygen from underlying SiO2. The results provide a basis for future applications of graphene layers for sensing, actuating and energy harvesting.

  15. Electrodialysis heterogeneous ion exchange membranes modified by SiO2 nanoparticles: fabrication and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Ahmadi, Z; Nemati, M; Parvizian, F; Madaeni, S S

    2016-01-01

    In the current study mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. The effect of SiO(2) nanoparticles in the polymeric solution on the physicochemical properties of prepared membranes was studied. Scanning optical microscope images showed uniform particle distribution and relatively uniform surfaces for the prepared membranes. The membrane water content was reduced by silica nanoparticles in the membranes' matrix. The membrane ion exchange capacity, membrane potential, transport number and selectivity were improved initially by an increase of SiO(2) nanoparticles concentration up to 1%wt in prepared membranes and then showed a decreasing trend with a further increase in additive ratio from 1 to 4%wt. The ionic permeability and flux were also decreased initially by an increase of silica nanoparticles concentration up to 0.5%wt in the membrane matrix and then increased again with a further increase in nanoparticles concentration from 0.5 to 4%wt. Moreover, the results exhibited that using silica nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused an obvious decrease in areal electrical resistance. The opposite trend was found for membrane mechanical strength using SiO(2) nanoparticles. PMID:27148708

  16. Electrodialysis heterogeneous ion exchange membranes modified by SiO2 nanoparticles: fabrication and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Ahmadi, Z; Nemati, M; Parvizian, F; Madaeni, S S

    2016-01-01

    In the current study mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. The effect of SiO(2) nanoparticles in the polymeric solution on the physicochemical properties of prepared membranes was studied. Scanning optical microscope images showed uniform particle distribution and relatively uniform surfaces for the prepared membranes. The membrane water content was reduced by silica nanoparticles in the membranes' matrix. The membrane ion exchange capacity, membrane potential, transport number and selectivity were improved initially by an increase of SiO(2) nanoparticles concentration up to 1%wt in prepared membranes and then showed a decreasing trend with a further increase in additive ratio from 1 to 4%wt. The ionic permeability and flux were also decreased initially by an increase of silica nanoparticles concentration up to 0.5%wt in the membrane matrix and then increased again with a further increase in nanoparticles concentration from 0.5 to 4%wt. Moreover, the results exhibited that using silica nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused an obvious decrease in areal electrical resistance. The opposite trend was found for membrane mechanical strength using SiO(2) nanoparticles.

  17. SiO2 nanoparticles change colour preference and cause Parkinson's-like behaviour in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Bo; Li, Xin-Le; Li, Yi-Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Dong-Yan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2014-01-22

    With advances in the development of various disciplines, there is a need to decipher bio-behavioural mechanisms via interdisciplinary means. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the role of silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) in disturbing the neural behaviours of zebrafish and a possible physiological mechanism for this phenomenon. We used adult zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the roles of size (15-nm and 50-nm) and concentration (300 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL) in SiO2-NP neurotoxicity via behavioural and physiological analyses. With the aid of video tracking and data mining, we detected changes in behavioural phenotypes. We found that compared with 50-nm nanosilica, 15-nm SiO2-NPs produced greater significant changes in advanced cognitive neurobehavioural patterns (colour preference) and caused potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour. Analyses at the tissue, cell and molecular levels corroborated the behavioural results, demonstrating that nanosilica acted on the retina and dopaminergic (DA) neurons to change colour preference and to cause potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour.

  18. Spreading of the combustion wave in SiO2-Al systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, Vladimir M.; Gafiyatulina, Galina P.; Tavrov, Alexander V.

    1997-11-01

    The process of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been applied as the new technology for production of construction materials and especial refractories with enhanced strength- and fire-resisting properties. These materials are aimed to be used as synthetic mullits lining refractories in heat units. In the visible light range, the following characteristics of SHS process have been investigated: the localization and the temperature of initiating of SHS process,the propagation of SHS wave on surface- or in volume, velocities of spreading of combustion wave, the number of SHS reaction stages. The visualization with a video-recording of the combustion wave of the SHS process has been performed inside the muffle furnace. The video has been processed with computer card of frame grabber and has been analyzed in multivideo mode, where each frame had been captured in fixed time interval. Thus, several mixtures of SiO2-Al have been studied by variation of: the SiO2 particle size,the stoichiometric coefficient, by the substitution of the SiO2 to ashes and kaolin, and by the adding of supplementary components like Fe2O3. The SHS reactions are processed by the preliminary heating to the temperature of 650-860 degrees C. The local thermal self initiating of the SHS process and its propagation in the volume of a sample have been visualized. The multistage SHS reaction has been identified.

  19. Synthesis of SiO2 coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and the effect of SiO2 shell thickness on the magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, M.; Korkmaz, M.; Fırat, T.; Jaffari, G. H.; Shah, S. I.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the results of synthesis of core-shell NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and influence of silica coating on the magnetic properties of nanoparticles are presented. Spherical NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared via a normal micelles process. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles homogeneously coated with SiO2 of various shell thickness were synthesized by reverse microemulsion. The interparticle spacing was varied by changing the amount of added tetraethylorthosilicate. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetizations, blocking temperatures, and magnetic anisotropies have been calculated from dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements.

  20. Antibacterial activity of large-area monolayer graphene film manipulated by charge transfer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Gang; Zhu, Hongqin; Zhang, Miao; Zheng, Xiaohu; Di, Zengfeng; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted increasing attention for potential applications in biotechnology due to its excellent electronic property and biocompatibility. Here we use both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) to investigate the antibacterial actions of large-area monolayer graphene film on conductor Cu, semiconductor Ge and insulator SiO2. The results show that the graphene films on Cu and Ge can surprisingly inhibit the growth of both bacteria, especially the former. However, the proliferation of both bacteria cannot be significantly restricted by the graphene film on SiO2. The morphology of S. aureus and E. coli on graphene films further confirms that the direct contact of both bacteria with graphene on Cu and Ge can cause membrane damage and destroy membrane integrity, while no evident membrane destruction is induced by graphene on SiO2. From the viewpoint of charge transfer, a plausible mechanism is proposed here to explain this phenomenon. This study may provide new insights for the better understanding of antibacterial actions of graphene film and for the better designing of graphene-based antibiotics or other biomedical applications. PMID:24619247

  1. Antibacterial activity of large-area monolayer graphene film manipulated by charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Gang; Zhu, Hongqin; Zhang, Miao; Zheng, Xiaohu; di, Zengfeng; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Xi

    2014-03-01

    Graphene has attracted increasing attention for potential applications in biotechnology due to its excellent electronic property and biocompatibility. Here we use both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) to investigate the antibacterial actions of large-area monolayer graphene film on conductor Cu, semiconductor Ge and insulator SiO2. The results show that the graphene films on Cu and Ge can surprisingly inhibit the growth of both bacteria, especially the former. However, the proliferation of both bacteria cannot be significantly restricted by the graphene film on SiO2. The morphology of S. aureus and E. coli on graphene films further confirms that the direct contact of both bacteria with graphene on Cu and Ge can cause membrane damage and destroy membrane integrity, while no evident membrane destruction is induced by graphene on SiO2. From the viewpoint of charge transfer, a plausible mechanism is proposed here to explain this phenomenon. This study may provide new insights for the better understanding of antibacterial actions of graphene film and for the better designing of graphene-based antibiotics or other biomedical applications.

  2. Self-cleaning cotton functionalized with TiO2/SiO2: focus on the role of silica.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Esfandiar; Daoud, Walid A

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript aims to investigate the functionalization of cotton fabrics with TiO2/SiO2. In this study, the sol-gel method was employed to prepare titania and silica sols and the functionalization was carried out using the dip-pad-dry-cure process. Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were utilized as precursors of TiO2 and SiO2, respectively. TiO2/SiO2 composite sols were prepared in three different Ti:Si molar ratios of 1:0.43, 1:1, and 1:2.33. The self-cleaning property of cotton samples functionalized with TiO2/SiO2 was assessed based on the coffee stain removal capability and the decomposition rate of methylene blue under UV irradiation. FTIR study of the TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst confirmed the existence of Si-O-Si and Ti-O-Si bonds. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphology of the functionalized cotton samples. The samples coated with TiO2/SiO2 showed greater ability of coffee stain removal and methylene blue degradation compared with samples functionalized with TiO2 demonstrating improved self-cleaning properties. The role of SiO2 in improving these properties is also discussed.

  3. Quench-ring assisted flame synthesis of SiO2-TiO2 nanostructured composite.

    PubMed

    Worathanakul, Patcharin; Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim; Kongkachuichay, Paisan

    2008-12-01

    A flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) was used to synthesize SiO2-based nanocomposite materials of SiO2-TiO2 in different precursor molar ratios and quench ring positions. Processing conditions were determined that resulted in formation of different crystal phases at different precursor concentration molar ratios. The results showed that the addition of SiO2 inhibited TiO2 phase transformation from anatase to rutile. The different morphology of SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was primarily the result of changing the quench ring position. Quenching can stop the growth kinetics, and this was obtained by locating the quench ring at different positions in the particle formation process. At a lower position, a binary mixture of SiO2-TiO2 was obtained in a core-shell structure. The difference in residence time for sintering and coalescence yielded different morphologies of SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites. The results from FTIR confirmed Si-O-Ti bonding for all samples. The samples of SiO2-TiO2 exhibited better suspension in liquid than pure TiO2 as confirmed by zeta potential measurements.

  4. Self-cleaning cotton functionalized with TiO2/SiO2: focus on the role of silica.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Esfandiar; Daoud, Walid A

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript aims to investigate the functionalization of cotton fabrics with TiO2/SiO2. In this study, the sol-gel method was employed to prepare titania and silica sols and the functionalization was carried out using the dip-pad-dry-cure process. Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and tetra ethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were utilized as precursors of TiO2 and SiO2, respectively. TiO2/SiO2 composite sols were prepared in three different Ti:Si molar ratios of 1:0.43, 1:1, and 1:2.33. The self-cleaning property of cotton samples functionalized with TiO2/SiO2 was assessed based on the coffee stain removal capability and the decomposition rate of methylene blue under UV irradiation. FTIR study of the TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst confirmed the existence of Si-O-Si and Ti-O-Si bonds. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphology of the functionalized cotton samples. The samples coated with TiO2/SiO2 showed greater ability of coffee stain removal and methylene blue degradation compared with samples functionalized with TiO2 demonstrating improved self-cleaning properties. The role of SiO2 in improving these properties is also discussed. PMID:23602671

  5. Stable Cycling of SiO2 Nanotubes as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Favors, Zachary; Wang, Wei; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; George, Aaron; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, SiO2 nanotubes have been fabricated via a facile two step hard-template growth method and evaluated as an anode for Li-ion batteries. SiO2 nanotubes exhibit a highly stable reversible capacity of 1266 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles with negligible capacity fading. SiO2 NT anodes experience a capacity increase throughout the first 80 cycles through Si phase growth via SiO2 reduction. The hollow morphology of the SiO2 nanotubes accommodates the large volume expansion experienced by Si-based anodes during lithiation and promotes preservation of the solid electrolyte interphase layer. The thin walls of the SiO2 nanotubes allow for effective reduction in Li-ion diffusion path distance and, thus, afford a favorable rate cyclability. The high aspect ratio character of these nanotubes allow for a relatively scalable fabrication method of nanoscale SiO2-based anodes. PMID:24732245

  6. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  7. Tribological evaluation of an Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic fiber candidate for high temperature sliding seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A test program to determine the relative sliding durability of an alumina-silica candidate ceramic fiber for high temperature sliding seal applications is described. Pin-on-disk tests were used to evaluate the potential seal material by sliding a tow or bundle of the candidate ceramic fiber against a superalloy test disk. Friction was measured during the tests and fiber wear, indicated by the extent of fibers broken in the tow or bundle, was measured at the end of each test. Test variables studied included ambient temperatures from 25 to 900 C, loads from 1.3 to 21.2 N, and sliding velocities from 0.025 to 0.25 m/sec. In addition, the effects of fiber diameter and elastic modulus on friction and wear were measured. Thin gold films deposited on the superalloy disk surface were evaluated in an effort to reduce friction and wear of the fibers. In most cases, wear increased with test temperature. Friction ranged from 0.36 at 500 C and low velocity (0.025 m/sec) to over 1.1 at 900 C and high velocity (0.25 m/sec). The gold films resulted in satisfactory lubrication of the fibers at 25 C. At elevated temperatures diffusion of substrate elements degraded the films. These results indicate that the alumina-silica (Al2O3-SiO2) fiber is a good candidate material system for high temperature sliding seal applications. More work is needed to reduce friction.

  8. Photocatalytic activity of the binary composite CeO2/SiO2 for degradation of dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanichphant, Sukon; Nakaruk, Auppatham; Channei, Duangdao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, CeO2 photocatalyst was modified by composite with SiO2 to increase efficiency and improve photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared SiO2 particles have been incorporated into the precursor mixture of CeO2 by homogeneous precipitation and subsequent calcination process. The phase compositions of CeO2 before and after compositing with SiO2 were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology and particle size of CeO2/SiO2 composite was analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed SiO2 spheres with the particle size approximately 100-120 nm, and a uniform layer of CeO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 5-7 nm that were fully composite to the surfaces of SiO2. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was carried out in order to characterize the change in valence state and composite characteristic by shifted peaks of binding energies. The photocatalytic activity was studied through the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light exposure. The highest photocatalytic efficiency of CeO2/SiO2 composite was also obtained. To explain the high photocatalytic efficiency of CeO2/SiO2 composite, the proposed mechanism involves the high surface properties of the CeO2/SiO2 composite, as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method.

  9. Peculiarities of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with Ar, Kr and Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'zhanova, A.; Dauletbekova, A.; Komarov, F.; Vlasukova, L.; Yuvchenko, V.; Akilbekov, A.; Zdorovets, M.

    2016-05-01

    The process of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with 40Ar (38 MeV), 84Kr (59 MeV) and 132Xe (133 and 200 MeV) ions has been investigated. The experimental results of SiO2 etching in a hydrofluoric acid solution have been compared with the results of computer simulation based on the thermal spike model. It has been confirmed that the formation of a molten region along the swift ion trajectory with minimum radius of 3 nm can serve as a theoretical criterion for the reproducible latent track etching tracks in SiO2.

  10. Preservation of atomic flatness at SiO2/Si(111) interfaces during thermal oxidation in a furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Heiji; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    1998-04-01

    SiO2/Si(111) interfaces formed by a furnace oxidation are studied by a scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM). SREM observation indicates that the initial atomic steps on a Si(111) surface are preserved at the SiO2/Si interface and the interfacial steps do not move laterally even after 48-nm-thick oxidation. A profile analysis of reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that the SiO2/Si interface consists of islands which have a diameter of about 5 nm and monolayer depth. Our results indicate that the layer-by-layer oxidation caused by two-dimensional island nucleation proceeds under furnace oxidation.

  11. Fabrication of charged membranes by the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method on SiO2 and Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Vafaei, Setareh; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we employed the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method to fabricate charged membranes on solid supports. The SALB formation method exploits a ternary mixture of lipid-alcohol-aqueous buffer to deposit lamellar phase structures on solid supports upon gradual increase of the buffer fraction. Using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique, we investigated the formation of negatively and positively charged membranes via the SALB formation method and directly compared with the vesicle fusion method on two different oxide films. Bilayers containing an increasing fraction of negatively charged DOPS lipid molecules were successfully formed on both SiO2 and Al2O3 substrates using the SALB formation method at physiological pH (7.5). In contrast, the vesicle fusion method did not support bilayer formation on Al2O3 and those containing more than 10% DOPS ruptured on SiO2 only under acidic conditions (pH 5). Characterization of the fraction of negatively charge DOPS by in situ annexin 5A binding assay revealed that the fraction of DOPS lipid molecules in the bilayers formed on Al2O3 is significantly higher than that formed on SiO2. This suggests that the SALB self-assembly of charged membranes is predominantly governed by the electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, our findings indicate that when multicomponent lipid mixtures are used, the relative fraction of lipids in the bilayer may differ from the fraction of lipids in the precursor mixture. PMID:25858554

  12. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  13. In situ and air index measurements: influence of the deposition parameters on the shift of TiO2/SiO2 Fabry-Perot filters.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, B; Borgogno, J P; Albrand, G; Pelletier, E

    1986-11-01

    We measure the refractive index of thin films of TiO2 and SiO2 for given deposition parameters. Two complementary methods are used. The first is a postdeposition technique which uses the measurements of reflectance and transmittance in air. The second, in contrast, makes use of in situ measurements (under vacuum and during the actual deposition of the layer). The differences between the values deduced from the two methods can be explained by the amount of atmospheric moisture adsorbed by films. One tries to minimize these shifts for the two materials by choosing deposition parameters. The difficulties come from the absorption losses which must be as small as possible. We use the measured refractive indices of individual layers to give good numerical prediction of the wavelength shift (observed during the admittance of air after deposition in the vacuum chamber) of the transmittance peak of multidielectric Fabry-Perot filters.

  14. Electron escape depth variation in thin SiO2 films measured with variable photon energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Pianetta, P.; Johansson, L. I.; Lindau, I.

    1984-01-01

    A double crystal monochromator at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is used to study the Si/SiO2 interface, using photon energies of hv = 1950-3700 eV. This photon energy range allows interfaces to be observed through oxide layers 50 A thick or more. Variations in electron escape depth and/or oxide density as a function of distance from the interface are observed over the entire kinetic energy range (100-3600 eV). These differences are attributed to a strained oxide layer near the interface.

  15. A Nonvolatile MOSFET Memory Device Based on Mobile Protons in SiO(2) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Vanheusden, K.; Warren, W.L.; Devine, R.A.B.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Draper, B.L.; Schwank, J.R.

    1999-03-02

    It is shown how mobile H{sup +} ions can be generated thermally inside the oxide layer of Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures. The technique involves only standard silicon processing steps: the nonvolatile field effect transistor (NVFET) is based on a standard MOSFET with thermally grown SiO{sub 2} capped with a poly-silicon layer. The capped thermal oxide receives an anneal at {approximately}1100 C that enables the incorporation of the mobile protons into the gate oxide. The introduction of the protons is achieved by a subsequent 500-800 C anneal in a hydrogen-containing ambient, such as forming gas (N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} 95:5). The mobile protons are stable and entrapped inside the oxide layer, and unlike alkali ions, their space-charge distribution can be controlled and rapidly rearranged at room temperature by an applied electric field. Using this principle, a standard MOS transistor can be converted into a nonvolatile memory transistor that can be switched between normally on and normally off. Switching speed, retention, endurance, and radiation tolerance data are presented showing that this non-volatile memory technology can be competitive with existing Si-based non-volatile memory technologies such as the floating gate technologies (e.g. Flash memory).

  16. Hydration-Induced Phase Transitions in Surfactant and Lipid Films.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2016-05-31

    For several surfactant and lipid systems, it is crucial to understand how hydration influences the physical and chemical properties. When humidity changes, it affects the degree of hydration by adding or removing water molecules. In many cases, this process induces transitions between liquid crystalline phases. This phenomenon is of general interest for numerous applications simply because of the fact that humidity variations are ubiquitous. Of particular interest are hydration-induced phase transitions in amphiphilic films, which in many cases appear as the frontier toward a vapor phase with changing humidity. Considering this, it is important to characterize the film thickness needed for the formation of 3D liquid crystalline phases and the lyotropic phase behavior of this kind of film. In this work, we study this issue by employing a recently developed method based on the humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (HS QCM-D), which enables continuous scanning of the film hydration. We investigate five surfactants films (DDAO, DTAC, CTAC, SDS, and n-octylβ-d-glucoside) and one lipid film (monoolein) and show that HS QCM-D enables the fast characterization of hydration-induced phase transitions with small samples. Film thicknesses range from tens to hundreds of nanometers, and clear phase transitions are observed in all cases. It is shown that phase transitions in films occur at the same water activities as for corresponding bulk samples. This allows us to conclude that surfactant and lipid films, with a thickness of as low as 50 nm, are in fact assembled as 3D-structured liquid crystalline phases. Furthermore, liquid crystalline phases of surfactant films show liquidlike behavior, which decreases the accuracy of the absorbed water mass measurement. On the other hand, the monoolein lipid forms more rigid liquid crystalline films, allowing for an accurate determination of the water sorption isotherm, which is also true for the

  17. Synthesis of SiO2/3D porous carbon composite as anode material with enhanced lithium storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhinan; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang

    2016-05-01

    A SiO2/porous carbon nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile combined heat and acid treatments method. The nanocomposite featured a 3D porous carbon structure with amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the wall of the pores. The microstructure improved the electrical conductivity, shortened the diffusion distance of lithium ions, and alleviated the volume expansion of SiO2 during Li intercalation. Accordingly, the SiO2/porous carbon nanocomposite displayed excellent cyclic performance with a high reversible capacity of 434 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 A g-1 and rate capability delivering a capacity of 187.4 mAh g-1 even at 5 A g-1.

  18. TEM Characterization of Stishovite and Post-Stishovite SiO2 Phases in the Meteorite Shergotty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.

    2001-12-01

    Stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO2, is an important index mineral for demonstrating shock metamorphism of rocks that contain SiO2 minerals. The structures and stabilities of post-stishovite SiO2 phases, polymorphs that are more dense than stishovite, have been debated in the literature because of their potential occurence in Earth's deep lower mantle. Recently, several high-pressure SiO2 polymorphs have been identified in the SNC meteorite Shergotty, including an orthorhombic phase similar to α -PbO2 (1) and a monoclinic baddeleyite-structured phase (2). Recent DAC experiments have shown that compression of cristobalite can produce α -PbO2-structured SiO2 that can be quenched (3, 4). The recovered material, space group Pnc2, is said to be the same as the α -PbO2-like mineral described by Sharp et al. (1). TEM imaging and electron diffraction of the SiO2 polymorphs in Shergotty shows complex intergrowths of four SiO2 polymorphs. The most abundant is the α -PbO2-like phase (a = 4.16Å, b = 5.11 Å, c = 4.55 Å) which has electron-diffraction symmetry consistent with the Pbcn space group. Orthogonal intergrowths of stishovite and cubic cristobalite are also observed. The cristobalite is likely a quench product from the phase XI of Tsuchida and Yagi (5) which was intergrown with stishovite or CaCl2-structured SiO2 at high pressure. The fourth polymorph, which is too irradiation sensitive to be characterized by electron diffraction, may be the baddeleyite-structured SiO2 described by El Goresey et al. (2). The SiO2 polymorphs in Shergotty represent the quench products from a mixture of post-stishovite structures, stishovite and phase XI that formed from the transformation of tridymite. This mixture of SiO2 structures suggests a modest shock pressure of around 45 GPa, the pressure at which silica Phase XI transforms into the α -PbO2 structure. (1) T. G. Sharp, A. El Goresy, B. Wopenka, M. Chen, Sciecne 284 (1999). (2) A. El Goresy, L. Dubrovinsky, T. G. Sharp, S. K. Saxena, M. Chen, Science 288, 1632-1634 (2000). (3) L. Dubrovinsky et al., Chemical Physics Letters 333, 264-270 (2001). (4) N. A. Dubrovinskaia et al., Eur. J. Mineral. 13, 479-483 (2001). (5) Y. Tsuchida, T. Yagi, Nature 347, 267-269 (1990).

  19. Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of <10-nm SiO2 on top of the black Si surface in a relatively mild chemical bath at room temperature. We demonstrate black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

  20. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  1. Synthesis of superamphiphobic breathable membranes utilizing SiO2 nanoparticles decorated fluorinated polyurethane nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jialin; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Cui, Lingxiao; Ge, Jianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust water/oil proof and breathable performances were prepared by the combination of a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) containing a terminal perfluoroalkane segment and incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By employing the FPU/SiO2 NPs incorporation, the hybrid membranes possess superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using N2 adsorption method has confirmed a major contribution of SiO2 NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between the fractal dimension and amphiphobicity is proposed. Furthermore, a designed concept test shows that the as-prepared membranes could load 1.5 kg water or oil at the same time maintained an extremely high air permeability of 2 L min-1, suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in protective clothing, bioseparation, water purification, tissue engineering, microfluidic systems, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional hybrid membranes based on FPU.Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust water/oil proof and breathable performances were prepared by the combination of a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) containing a terminal perfluoroalkane segment and incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By employing the FPU/SiO2 NPs incorporation, the hybrid membranes possess superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using N2 adsorption method has confirmed a major contribution of SiO2 NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between the fractal dimension and amphiphobicity is proposed. Furthermore, a designed concept test shows that the as-prepared membranes could load 1.5 kg water or oil at the same time maintained an extremely high air permeability of 2 L min-1, suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in protective clothing, bioseparation, water purification, tissue engineering, microfluidic systems, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional hybrid membranes based on FPU. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed chemical synthesis routes and structural confirmation of FPU; movies S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32883f

  2. Trace-Element Constraints on Origin of SiO2-bearing Clasts in Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, K.; Kanazawa, M.; Bridges, J. C.; Nakamura, N.; Hutchison, R.

    1995-09-01

    Silica-rich igneous-textured clasts are found in OC [1-6]. The SiO2-bearing clasts found in the Parnallee (LL3.6) and Farmington (L5) chondrites are isotopically unique [4-6]. They plot on a mixing line defined between UOC chondrules and an 16(sub)O-depleted end member in the oxygen three isotope diagram. We analyzed trace elements including REE by MSID technique for SiO2-bearing clasts (CB1, CB4, CB7, and CB8) from Parnallee. Some major and minor elements of CB8 were determined by AA or ICP-AES. The CI-chondrite normalized REE patterns of the clasts are shown in Fig. 1. CB8 has a high Si/Mg ratio (2.5), although its bulk Mg/(Mg + Fe) and Fe/Mn ratios (0.79 and 51, respectively) are within the range of chondritic values. Refractory elements Ca and Al are highly fractionated in CB8; the clast is enriched in Ca (3 x CI) but depleted in Al (0.7 x CI). CB1, CB4, and CB7 also show Ca enrichment (3-7 x CI). CB8 is depleted in moderately volatile lithophiles Mn, Na, K, and Rb (0.18-0.71 x CI), siderophile elements Fe, Co, and Ni (0.0041-0.39 x CI), and chalcophile element Zn (0.076 x CI). The SiO2-bearing clasts analyzed exhibit a gradual depletion from LREE to HREE (CI-normalized La/Lu ratios vary from 1.6 to 18) and a large positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=2.4-14) along with a depletion of La. This LREE/HREE fractionation is inversely correlated with SiO2 contents of the clasts. Abundance of Sr is parallel to that of Eu in CB8. However, Sr is depleted compared with Eu in the other clasts. These abundance patterns are quite different from those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules in UOCs, SiO2-bearing pyroxene-rich clast in Hedjaz (L3.7) [3], and silica-rich orthopyroxenite Bo-1 in Bovedy (L3) [7]. Absence of metal and sulfide, low abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements in the clasts imply that metal and sulfide were removed from precursor material before or during clast formation. General REE patterns of SiO2-bearing clasts from Parnallee suggest that they were produced by igneous fractionation controlled by the plagioclase component. Extensive olivine extraction followed plagioclase crystallization from the residua may be able to explain the REE pattern of CB8 [5, 6]. However, simple fractional crystallization or extraction of partial melting liquid from a chondritic source could explain neither large fractionation of La/Lu nor enrichment of Eu relative to Sr observed in CB1, CB4, and CB7. Detailed fractionation processes occurred on a parent body still remain unsolved. References: [1] Olsen E. J. et al. (1981) EPSL, 56, 82-88. [2] Brigham C. A. et al. (1986) GCA, 50, 1655-1666. [3] Nakamura N. et al. (1990) EPSL, 99, 290-302. [4] Bridges J. C. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 329-330. [5] Bridges J. C. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 448-449. [6] Bridges J. C. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, submitted. [7] Ruzicka A. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, 30, 57-70.

  3. Characterization of SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Corrosion Protective Coatings on Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtay, Sebahattin

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel coatings were prepared and applied on a mild steel substrate using dip coating technique and subsequently heat treated at 200 and 300 °C to improve the corrosion resistance. The coating sols were synthesized using Glycidoxytrimethoxysilane and titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor materials. The corrosion resistances of the both coated and uncoated samples were evaluated by the Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in NaCl solution. The microstructure of coated specimens was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transformed infrared and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the presence of various functional groups in the coating solutions. A comparison of the corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated mild steel was presented. i corr values of coated specimens heat treated at 200 °C were between 6.9 and 9.2 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. In the case of coated specimens heat treated at 300 °C, i corr values were 4.4 and 5 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. The coating film was noted to be smooth and between 7.2- and 7.5-µm thick. The measured electrochemical parameters indicated that the corrosion resistance was improved by the coating film. The elasticity of the coating can be improved by the presence of organic groups in the coating which reduces stress and crack formations during sintering. Ultimately, crack-free and elastic coating was obtained by heat treating of organic-inorganic coating at as low as 200 °C.

  4. Microstructural characterization of bimetallic Ni-Pt catalysts supported on SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Díaz, G.

    2002-04-01

    A set of Pt, Ni and a bimetallic Ni50Pt50 catalysts supported on SiO2 of low and high surface area (S=50 and 200 m2/g) with a total metal loading of 2 wt.% was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and computational techniques such as digital processing and image simulation. Special attention was placed to the identification of intermetallic phases in the Ni50Pt50/SiO2 sample. Catalysts were prepared by impregnation and submitted to calcination-reduction activation treatments. For all the set, the increase in support's surface area led to an improvement of the metal dispersion. TEM and HREM images showed significant differences in the shape and crystalline lattice of the Pt and Ni particles in the monometallic samples taken as reference. While in Pt/SiO2 catalyst we identified only reduced Pt particles, in Ni/SiO2 some NiO particles were detected. HREM characterization of the Ni50Pt50 catalysts showed that many particles have defects such as twinning and dislocations. Cubo-octahedral shapes were predominant in the bimetallic catalyst. Crystal lattice and angles measurements were consistent with the identification of NiPt and/or Ni3Pt intermetallic phases. Superlattice structures were also identified and confirmed by image simulation. EDS analysis on a particle by particle basis confirmed that in bimetallic catalysts supported in SiO2 of low and high surface area, particles were present consisting of Ni-rich, nominal and Pt-rich metal compositions. Pt-only particles were found but no Ni-only particles were detected. Among the possibilities, NiPt and Ni3Pt compositions were identified.

  5. Photoluminescence and energy transfer investigation from SiO2: Tb, Au inverse opals to rhodamine-B dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianzhi; Yang, Zhengwen; Wang, Yida; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    Energy transfer has attracted extensive attention due to its widespread applications in medical diagnostics, DNA analysis and lighting devices. There are few reports on the energy transfer from rare earth ions to dyes. In the present work, the SiO2:Tb inverse opals with and without Au nanoparticles were prepared, and the organic rhodamine-B (RhB) dyes were filled into the voids of SiO2:Tb inverse opals. Non-radiative and radiative energy transfer processes from the SiO2:Tb inverse opals to the RhB were observed. The influence of Au nanoparticles and photonic band gap on the energy transfer from SiO2:Tb inverse opals to the RhB was investigated. The Au nanoparticles enhanced energy transfer was observed due to the surface plasmon resonance effects of the Au nanoparticles. When the emission peaks from the SiO2:Tb inverse opal is overlapped with the photonic band gap, the emission suppression of the SiO2:Tb inverse opal as well the emission enhancement of the RhB dyes were obtained, which is attributed to improved energy transfer caused by the photonic band gap. The steady state rate equations were used to explain enhancement of energy transfer caused by the photonic band gap.

  6. Synthesis of Hollow Nanorods of SiO2 Anode Material by AAO Template Synthesis Method for Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gi-Won; Kim, Cheong; Jang, Byeong-Chan; Yang, Su-Bin; Son, Jong-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Silicon oxide hollow nanorods (SiO2-HNs) were prepared via a two-step anodization of aluminum template. SiO2 was synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source that has not been applied to the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template method. The SiO2-HNs obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical test. The results show that SiO2 nanorods with hollow morphology were successfully formed by the AAO template. The SiO2-HNs were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries and delivered an initial reversible capacity of 1344.26 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 17 mAg(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the synthesis of SiO2-HN using TEOS as the Si source by a two-step anodization of AAO template.

  7. Radiation stability of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders under electron and proton exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chundong; Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of proton and electron (E = 100 keV, F = 5 × 1015 сm-2) exposure on the reflective spectra of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders in wavelength range from 250 to 2500 nm have been investigated. It has been established that the reflectance and radiation stability of nanopowders is less than that of micropowders. This effect is caused by the high concentration of radiation defects, which act as surface absorption centers (Es‧ centers) near the energies 5.47 and 4.45 eV, and peroxide silicon defects (tbnd Sisbnd Osbnd Osbnd Sitbnd) near the energy 3.84 eV.

  8. Realization of hollow SiO2 micronozzles for electrical measurements on living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, T.; Gijs, M. A. M.; Netzer, R.; Bischoff, U.

    2002-12-01

    We present a microfluidic device for the immobilization and electrical measurements, such as patch-clamp or impedance measurements, on individual living cells. Micron-sized hollow SiO2 nozzles are realized in Si wafers using a deep plasma etching process. The micronozzles are integrated with glass wafers containing microfluidic channels and Ag/AgCl electrodes. Reliable cell positioning on the nozzles via hydrodynamic forces is obtained. Relevant electrical parameters of the system, especially seal resistances between attached cells and the nozzle, are determined.

  9. The Obtaining of Nano Oxide Systems SiO2-REE with Alkoxide Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelina, Anna; Grinberg, Evgenii

    A lot of oxides systems with REE as dopants are used in catalytic processes in organic synthesis. They are very perspectives as thermostable coating in aerospace technics. These systems are usually based on silicon or aluminium oxides and doped with rare-earth elements. This systems can be produced by different methods. One of the most perspective of them is “sol-gel”-method with silicium, aluminium and rare-earth alkoxides as a precursor of doped silica and alumina, or their derivatives. Thus the obtaining of composite SiO _{2} - REE oxide materials by the hydrolysis doped with rare-earth elements was suggested. Some of alcoholate derivatives such as El(OR)n were used in this processes. The SiO _{2}- REE oxides were precipitated during the sol-gel process, where tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as used as SiO _{2} sources. Also it is known that alkoxides of alkali metals, including lithium alkoxides, are widely used in industry and synthetic chemistry, as well as a source of lithium in various mixed oxide compositions, such as lithium niobate, lithium tantalate or lithium silicate. Therefore, we attempted to obtain the lithium silicate, which is also doped with rare-earth elements. Lithium silicate was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane with lithium alkoxide. Lithium alkoxide were synthesized by dissolving at metal in the corresponding alcohol are examined. The dependence of the rate of dissolving of the metal on the method of mixing of the reaction mixture and the degree of metal dispersion was investigated. The mathematical model of the process was composed and also optimization of process was carried out. Some oxide SiO _{2}, Al _{2}O _{3} and rare-earth nanostructured systems were obtained by sol-gel-method. The size of particle was determined by electron and X-ray spectroscopy and was in the range of 5 - 15 nm. Purity of this oxide examples for contaminating of heavy metals consists n.(1E-4...1E-5) wt%. Sols obtained by this method may be used for producing of thin coats on ceramics and metallic surfaces.

  10. Electrospun SiO2 "necklaces" on unglazed ceramic tiles: a planarizing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Alessandro; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-05-01

    Silica based nanofibres have been deposited on unglazed ceramic tiles by combining electrospinning and sol-gel processes. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) alcoholic solutions and commercial spin on glass (Accuglass) mixtures have been used to obtain composite fibrous non-woven mats totally converted, after thermal annealing at 600 °C, to SiO2 microsphere "necklaces". The possibility to get an uniform fibres coverage onto the tile surface confirms the validity of electrospinning (easily scalable to large surface samples) as coating strategy to cover the macroscopic defects typical of the polished unglazed tile surface and improve surface planarization.

  11. Radiation-induced reactions in polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscoglio, Michael Benedict

    Since the 1950's, there has been a considerable interest in the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of polymer systems. Radiation induced chemical changes that were found to be helpful in producing specialty polymers, but also potentially harmful by degrading the physical performance of the material. Therefore, solute molecules, which act as excited state quenchers, and free radical scavengers, have been incorporated into the polymers in order to regulate the crosslinking, scission and desaturation reactions. This work is focused on using spectroscopic techniques to characterize the physical properties of polymeric media and the reactions occurring within them following pulsed radiolysis. This is done primarily by using arene doped polymer films which have highly absorbing excited states and radical ions that are easily monitored by transient studies. The probes are used to characterize the polymeric microenvironment, to monitor reaction rates, and to interfere in the radical reactions. Photophysical and photochemical characterization of partially crystalline polyethylene complements data previously obtained by conventional physical techniques for polymer characterization. Probe molecules are excluded from crystalline zones and distributed in a networked structure of amorphous zones. Upon high energy radiolysis, it is found that polyolefin systems efficiently donate all radical ions and excited states to the solute molecules, even when the energy is absorbed within the polymer crystalline zones. Studies of the subsequent reactions of the solute excited states and radical ions reveal information about their long term effectiveness as protectants. It is found that highly excited states formed by the recombination of solute radical ions are energetic enough to cause dissociation of halo-arenes. Also, arenes are found to become attached to the polymer chain through a polymer-aryl radical intermediate. These intermediates have been isolated and

  12. High quality PECVD SiO2 process for recessed MOS-gate of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Gil; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Cha, Ho-Young

    2016-08-01

    A high quality SiO2 deposition process using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system has been developed for the gate insulator process of normally-off recessed-gate AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor-heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs). SiO2 films were deposited by using SiH4 and N2O mixtures as reactant gases. The breakdown field increased with increasing the N2O flow rate. The optimum SiH4/N2O ratio was 0.05, which resulted in a maximum breakdown field of 11 MV/cm for the SiO2 film deposited on recessed GaN surface. The deposition conditions were optimized as follows; a gas flow rate of SiH4/N2O (=27/540 sccm), a source RF power of 100 W, a pressure of 2 Torr, and a deposition temperature of 350 °C. A fabricated normally-off MOS-HFET exhibited a threshold voltage of 3.2 V, a specific on-resistance of 4.46 mΩ cm2, and a breakdown voltage of 810 V.

  13. High quality PECVD SiO2 process for recessed MOS-gate of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Gil; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Cha, Ho-Young

    2016-08-01

    A high quality SiO2 deposition process using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system has been developed for the gate insulator process of normally-off recessed-gate AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor-heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs). SiO2 films were deposited by using SiH4 and N2O mixtures as reactant gases. The breakdown field increased with increasing the N2O flow rate. The optimum SiH4/N2O ratio was 0.05, which resulted in a maximum breakdown field of 11 MV/cm for the SiO2 film deposited on recessed GaN surface. The deposition conditions were optimized as follows; a gas flow rate of SiH4/N2O (=27/540 sccm), a source RF power of 100 W, a pressure of 2 Torr, and a deposition temperature of 350 °C. A fabricated normally-off MOS-HFET exhibited a threshold voltage of 3.2 V, a specific on-resistance of 4.46 mΩ cm2, and a breakdown voltage of 810 V.

  14. Analysis of Rayleigh-Mode Spurious Response Using Finite Element Method/Spectrum Domain Analysis for Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator on Nonflat SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Goto, Rei; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune

    2010-07-01

    Because of their low insertion loss, high out-of-band rejection, and high power durability, miniature surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexers are widely used in mobile phones. Substrate materials substantially limit and determine the performance of SAW duplexers; for their applications to Band I and Band IV systems with large pass-band widths and wide frequency separations between the transmitting and receiving frequency bands, a larger coupling coefficient (K2) is of primary importance. We have developed a shape-controlled SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 substrate structure for their applications. It could lead to a large K2 and suppression of Rayleigh-mode spurious response. In this paper, we report the analysis using finite element method/spectrum domain analysis (FEM/SDA) for the SAW resonator on a nonflat SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 structure. It was clarified that the shape-controlled SiO2 was effective in terms of achieving a large K2 for the SAW resonator with suppressed Rayleigh-mode spurious responses and bulk wave radiation. Furthermore, the experiment results showed a good agreement with the analysis results.

  15. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  16. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  17. Improved linearity and reliability in GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using nanolaminate La2O3/SiO2 gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Wang-Cheng; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Hsu, Hisang-Hua; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Tai-Wei; Wu, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Wen-Hao; Maa, Jer-Shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-04-01

    Improved device performance to enable high-linearity power applications has been discussed in this study. We have compared the La2O3/SiO2 AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with other La2O3-based (La2O3/HfO2, La2O3/CeO2 and single La2O3) MOS-HEMTs. It was found that forming lanthanum silicate films can not only improve the dielectric quality but also can improve the device characteristics. The improved gate insulation, reliability, and linearity of the 8 nm La2O3/SiO2 MOS-HEMT were demonstrated.

  18. Experimental study on the coalescence process of SiO2 supported colloidal Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2015-11-01

    We report on an experimental study of the coalescence-driven grow process of colloidal Au nanoparticles on SiO2 surface. Nanoparticles with 30, 50, 80, 100 nm nominal diameters on a SiO2 substrate were deposited, from solutions, by the drop-casting method. Then, annealing processes, in the 573-1173 K temperature range and 900-3600 s time range, were performed. Using scanning electron microscopy analyses, the temporal evolution of the nanoparticles sizes has been studied. In particular, for all classes of nanoparticles, the experimental-obtained diameters distributions evidenced double-peak shapes (i. e. bimodal distributions): a first peak centered (and unchanged changing the annealing temperature and/or time) at the nominal diameter of the as-deposited nanoparticles, , and a second peak shifting at higher mean diameters, , increasing the annealing temperature and/or time. This observation suggested us a coalescence-driven growth process of a nanoparticles sub-population. As a consequence, the temporal evolution of (for each class of nanoparticles and each annealing temperature), within the well-established particles coalescence theoretical framework, has been analyzed. In particular, by the analyses of the experimental data using relations as prescribed by the theoretical model, a characteristic size-dependent activation energy for the Au nanoparticles coalescence process has been evaluated.

  19. Dynamics of structural transitions in SiO2 and implications for mineralogy of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Arianna; Bolme, Cindy; Hawreliak, James; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Mao, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Phase transitions in SiO2 at high pressure/temperature are of paramount importance to geophysics. We present experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end-station at the LCLS, SLAC showing time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of shock compressed quartz and fused silica transforming to stishovite on compression. These data are contrary to some studies concluding that a dense amorphous phase, rather than crystalline stishovite, forms along the SiO2 Hugoniot. XRD snap-shots of this reconstructive phase transition show single-crystal quartz undergoes an intermediate amorphization stage prior to crystallizing into stishovite - revealing the transformation pathway. On shock release, we observe the transformation of stishovite to an amorphous phase as evidenced by in situ XRD at long delay times and ex situ in recovered material. Interestingly, shock recovery experiments, or impact-metamorphosed natural samples, find only trace amounts of stishovite with a relative majority of densified (diaplectic) glass. Therefore our new data showing stishovite forming on compression up to applied pressures of 40 GPa and constraining the formation of glass to the release path are important clues to unraveling the impact history of Earth and the solar system.

  20. Ultrahydrous stishovite from high-pressure hydrothermal treatment of SiO2

    PubMed Central

    Spektor, Kristina; Nylen, Johanna; Stoyanov, Emil; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Hervig, Richard L.; Leinenweber, Kurt; Holland, Gregory P.; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Stishovite (SiO2 with the rutile structure and octahedrally coordinated silicon) is an important high-pressure mineral. It has previously been considered to be essentially anhydrous. In this study, hydrothermal treatment of silica glass and coesite at 350–550 °C near 10 GPa produces stishovite with significant amounts of H2O in its structure. A combination of methodologies (X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, oxide melt solution calorimetry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) indicate the presence of 1.3 ± 0.2 wt % H2O and NMR suggests that the primary mechanism for the H2O uptake is a direct hydrogarnet-like substitution of 4H+ for Si4+, with the protons clustered as hydroxyls around a silicon vacancy. This substitution is accompanied by a substantial volume decrease for the system (SiO2 + H2O), although the stishovite expands slightly, and it is only slightly unfavorable in energy. Stishovite could thus be a host for H2O at convergent plate boundaries, and in other relatively cool high-pressure environments. PMID:22160677

  1. Trap generation and occupation dynamics in SiO2 under charge injection stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissan-Cohen, Y.; Shappir, J.; Frohman-Bentchkowsky, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of enduring charge injection on the physical properties of the SiO2 layer of a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure is studied by means of a novel characterization method. It is based on the observation reported previously, that under charge injection conditions the density of occupied oxide traps reaches a value which is only a fraction of the total trap density. This trap occupation level is strongly dependent on the oxide electric field. The oxide trap density can be evaluated by measuring this field dependence, using a relatively small amount of charge injection. This method is used to distinguish between the process of trap generation and electron trapping in the generated traps, under conditions of continuous charge injection up to levels of more than 50 C/cm2. The trap generation rate is found to be proportional to the flux of the injected charge, and to increase exponentially with the oxide electric field. At high oxide field only a small fraction of the newly generated traps are occupied; consequently, the measured oxide charge buildup does not reflect the actual increase in the density of generated traps. The density of the generated traps reaches high values of the order of 1020 cm-3. It is suggested that these high values of oxide traps may be the cause of the SiO2 ``wear out'' type breakdown, by forming a new path of conductance by electron tunneling between closely spaced generated traps.

  2. Effect of surface tension on SiO2 -methanol nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. H. U.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M. A.; Mostafizur, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    Surface tension, the cohesive energy of an interface dominated the transportation behaviour of the liquids play an important role in the heat transfer performance. A new class of heat transfer fluid denoting “Nanofluids” with impressive thermo-physical properties, proved its promising potentiality in the heat transfer performance. However, very few numbers of studies observed for the effect of nanoparticles on the surface tension of liquids, also noted controversial results. In the present study, SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in methanol solution to investigate the effect of surface tension with the change of concentration and their sizes. The most common Du-Nouy ring method was used to measure the surface tension of methanol based nanofluids by an automatic surface tensiometer.The results denote that the surface tension of the nanofluids increases with increase in concentration. On the other hand, the results indicate that the surface tension decreases with the increase in temperatures. Besides, the surface tension of SiO2-methanol nanofluids enhances compared to pure methanol. All in all, the enhancement observed 1.7% to 8.9% of the variation of volume fractions (0.05 Vol % to 0.25 Vol %) and the temperature change of 25 °C to 50 °C.

  3. Embedded Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 synthesized by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, V.; Gerlach, J. W.; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-10-01

    200 nm thick SiO2 layers grown on Si substrates were implanted with 150 keV Ge ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain depth profiles and concentration of Ge ions. As-implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C for 30 min. Crystalline quality of pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using Raman scattering measurements and the results were compared. Crystalline structure of as-implanted and annealed samples of embedded Ge into SiO2 matrix was studied using x-ray diffraction. No secondary phase or alloy formation of Ge was detected with x-ray diffraction or Raman measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscope measurements were done to get the nanocrystal size and localized information. The results confirmed that fluence dependent Ge nanocrystals of different sizes are formed in the annealed samples. It is also observed that Ge is slowly diffusing deeper into the substrate with annealing.

  4. Crack-resistant Al2O3-SiO2 glasses.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining "hard" and "crack-resistant" glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3-(100-x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3-SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3 • 40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  5. Role of hydrogen in volatile behaviour of defects in SiO2-based electronic devices

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Al-Moatasem; Gös, Wolfgang; Grasser, Tibor; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Charge capture and emission by point defects in gate oxides of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) strongly affect reliability and performance of electronic devices. Recent advances in experimental techniques used for probing defect properties have led to new insights into their characteristics. In particular, these experimental data show a repeated dis- and reappearance (the so-called volatility) of the defect-related signals. We use multiscale modelling to explain the charge capture and emission as well as defect volatility in amorphous SiO2 gate dielectrics. We first briefly discuss the recent experimental results and use a multiphonon charge capture model to describe the charge-trapping behaviour of defects in silicon-based MOSFETs. We then link this model to ab initio calculations that investigate the three most promising defect candidates. Statistical distributions of defect characteristics obtained from ab initio calculations in amorphous SiO2 are compared with the experimentally measured statistical properties of charge traps. This allows us to suggest an atomistic mechanism to explain the experimentally observed volatile behaviour of defects. We conclude that the hydroxyl-E′ centre is a promising candidate to explain all the observed features, including defect volatility. PMID:27436969

  6. Photon Irradiation Response on Ge and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Hassan; Asni, Hazila

    2010-07-01

    Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO2 optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO2 optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.

  7. Wrinkling instability in graphene supported on nanoparticle-patterned SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, William; Yamamoto, Mahito; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Einstein, Theodore; Fuhrer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Atomically-thin graphene is arguably the thinnest possible mechanical membrane: graphene's effective thickness (the thickness of an isotropic continuum slab which would have the same elastic and bending stiffness) is significantly less than 1 å, indicating that graphene can distort out-of-plane to conform to sub-nanometer features. Here we study the elastic response of graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate covered with SiO2 nanoparticles. At a low density of nanoparticles, graphene is largely pinned to the substrate due to adhesive interaction. However, with increasing nanoparticle density, graphene's elasticity dominates adhesion and strain is relieved by the formation of wrinkles which connect peaks introduced by the supporting nanoparticles. At a critical density, the wrinkles percolate, resulting in a wrinkle network. We develop a simple elastic model allowing for adhesion which accurately predicts the critical spacing between nanoparticles for wrinkle formation. This work has been supported by the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471 with supplemental funding from NRI, and NSF-DMR 08-04976.

  8. Study of the thermal treatment of SiO2 aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahiri, N.; Khouchaf, L.; Elaatmani, M.; Louarn, G.; Zegzouti, A.; Daoud, M.

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline quality and the silanoles defects (Si-OH) present within the structure of natural SiO2 play an important role in its reactivity. In this work, the relationship between the loss of silanoles and the crystallinity improvement upon heating between 450 °C and 650 °C was shown using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform mid Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR). A shift of the principal band Si-O-Si from 1078 cm-1 to 1082 cm-1 and the decrease of the intensity of the Si-OH bands at 555cm-1and at 950cm-1 upon heating between 450 °C and 650 °C were shown. The reduction of the band is correlated to the loss of silanoles. In agreement with FT-IR results, the decrease of the FWHM of the XRD peaks shows that the crystalline quality is improved upon heating. This result leads to a decrease of the reactivity of SiO2 aggregate under chemical attacks.

  9. Ultrahydrous stishovite from high-pressure hydrothermal treatment of SiO2.

    PubMed

    Spektor, Kristina; Nylen, Johanna; Stoyanov, Emil; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Hervig, Richard L; Leinenweber, Kurt; Holland, Gregory P; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2011-12-27

    Stishovite (SiO(2) with the rutile structure and octahedrally coordinated silicon) is an important high-pressure mineral. It has previously been considered to be essentially anhydrous. In this study, hydrothermal treatment of silica glass and coesite at 350-550 °C near 10 GPa produces stishovite with significant amounts of H(2)O in its structure. A combination of methodologies (X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, oxide melt solution calorimetry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) indicate the presence of 1.3 ± 0.2 wt % H(2)O and NMR suggests that the primary mechanism for the H(2)O uptake is a direct hydrogarnet-like substitution of 4H(+) for Si(4+), with the protons clustered as hydroxyls around a silicon vacancy. This substitution is accompanied by a substantial volume decrease for the system (SiO(2) + H(2)O), although the stishovite expands slightly, and it is only slightly unfavorable in energy. Stishovite could thus be a host for H(2)O at convergent plate boundaries, and in other relatively cool high-pressure environments. PMID:22160677

  10. Cell Patterning on Photolithographically Defined Parylene-C: SiO2 Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Mark A.; Brennan, Paul M.; Bunting, Andrew S.; Shipston, Mike J.; Murray, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    Cell patterning platforms support broad research goals, such as construction of predefined in vitro neuronal networks and the exploration of certain central aspects of cellular physiology. To easily combine cell patterning with Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) and silicon-based ‘lab on a chip’ technologies, a microfabrication-compatible protocol is required. We describe a method that utilizes deposition of the polymer parylene-C on SiO2 wafers. Photolithography enables accurate and reliable patterning of parylene-C at micron-level resolution. Subsequent activation by immersion in fetal bovine serum (or another specific activation solution) results in a substrate in which cultured cells adhere to, or are repulsed by, parylene or SiO2 regions respectively. This technique has allowed patterning of a broad range of cell types (including primary murine hippocampal cells, HEK 293 cell line, human neuron-like teratocarcinoma cell line, primary murine cerebellar granule cells, and primary human glioma-derived stem-like cells). Interestingly, however, the platform is not universal; reflecting the importance of cell-specific adhesion molecules. This cell patterning process is cost effective, reliable, and importantly can be incorporated into standard microfabrication (chip manufacturing) protocols, paving the way for integration of microelectronic technology. PMID:24637580

  11. Thermal Oxidation of WSe2 Nanosheets Adhered on SiO2/Si Substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingnan; Tan, Cheng; Chou, Harry; Nayak, Avinash; Wu, Di; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chang, Hsiao-Yu; Hao, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaohan; Kim, Joon-Seok; Piner, Richard; Ruoff, Rodney S; Akinwande, Deji; Lai, Keji

    2015-08-12

    Because of the drastically different intralayer versus interlayer bonding strengths, the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials are highly anisotropic between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The structural anisotropy may also play a role in chemical reactions, such as oxidation, reduction, and etching. Here, the composition, structure, and electrical properties of mechanically exfoliated WSe2 nanosheets on SiO2/Si substrates were studied as a function of the extent of thermal oxidation. A major component of the oxidation, as indicated from optical and Raman data, starts from the nanosheet edges and propagates laterally toward the center. Partial oxidation also occurs in certain areas at the surface of the flakes, which are shown to be highly conductive by microwave impedance microscopy. Using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, we also observed extensive oxidation at the WSe2-SiO2 interface. The combination of multiple microcopy methods can thus provide vital information on the spatial evolution of chemical reactions on 2D materials and the nanoscale electrical properties of the reaction products.

  12. Role of hydrogen in volatile behaviour of defects in SiO2-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Yannick; El-Sayed, Al-Moatasem; Gös, Wolfgang; Grasser, Tibor; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    Charge capture and emission by point defects in gate oxides of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) strongly affect reliability and performance of electronic devices. Recent advances in experimental techniques used for probing defect properties have led to new insights into their characteristics. In particular, these experimental data show a repeated dis- and reappearance (the so-called volatility) of the defect-related signals. We use multiscale modelling to explain the charge capture and emission as well as defect volatility in amorphous SiO2 gate dielectrics. We first briefly discuss the recent experimental results and use a multiphonon charge capture model to describe the charge-trapping behaviour of defects in silicon-based MOSFETs. We then link this model to ab initio calculations that investigate the three most promising defect candidates. Statistical distributions of defect characteristics obtained from ab initio calculations in amorphous SiO2 are compared with the experimentally measured statistical properties of charge traps. This allows us to suggest an atomistic mechanism to explain the experimentally observed volatile behaviour of defects. We conclude that the hydroxyl-E' centre is a promising candidate to explain all the observed features, including defect volatility.

  13. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I.; Vranic, S.; Boland, S.; Borot, M. C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.

    2013-04-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO2-NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm2) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO2-NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  14. The effects of surface polarity and dangling bonds on the electronic properties of MoS2 on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ha-Jun; Choe, Duk-Hyun; Chang, Kee Joo

    2015-03-01

    MoS2 has recently attracted much attention due to its intriguing physical phenomena and possible applications for the next generation electronic devices. In pristine monolayer MoS2, strong spin-orbit coupling and inversion symmetry breaking allow for an effective coupling between the spin and valley degrees of freedom, inducing valley polarization at the K valleys. However, the spin-valley coupling disappears in bilayer MoS2 because the inversion symmetry is restored. In this work, we investigate the effects of surface polarity and dangling bonds on the electronic properties of MoS2 on α-quartz SiO2 through first-principles calculations. In monolayer MoS2, a transition can take place from the direct-gap to indirect-gap semiconductor in the presence of O dangling bonds. In bilayer MoS2, O dangling bonds induce dipole fields across the interface and thus break the inversion symmetry, resulting in the valley polarization, similar to that of pristine monolayer MoS2. Based on the results, we discuss the origin of the valley polarization observed in MoS2 deposited on SiO2 This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.

  15. Sign reversal of junction magnetoresistance in p-La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SiO2/n-Si heterostructure: a possibility in spintronics application.

    PubMed

    Giri, S K; Nath, T K

    2012-10-01

    We have fabricated a p-La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SiO2/n-Si heterostructure, consisting of a p-type manganite (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and n-type Si with a interfacial layer of SiO2 with typical thickness of about 9 nm using pulsed laser deposition technique. The junction exhibits rectifying behavior over the temperature range of 10-300 K with rectification factor 52 at room temperature. Investigation on the electrical properties of p-La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SiO2/n-Si heterostructure exhibits nonlinear J-V characteristics in a wide temperature range. A crossover from negative to positive junction magnetoresistance (JMR) is observed in p-La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SiO2/n-Si heterostructure in current perpendicular to film plane (CPP) geometry. The temperature dependent sign of junction magnetoresistance of the heterojunction has been investigated carefully in details. It is found that the junction exhibits the positive junction magnetoresistance when the temperature is greater than the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition temperature (Tc) of the top highly spin-polarized half-metallic ferromagnetic La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 manganite film layer. The relation between junction magnetoresistance and external magnetic field is found to be of (delta rho/rho approximately equal alphaHbeta) type having both alpha and beta temperature dependent. We attribute the emergence of negative JMR at lower temperature (< Tc) and positive JMR at higher temperature (> Tc) to the quantum mechanical tunneling transport mechanism across the heterojunction. Our results might be very useful to fabricate artificial devices using the manganite-based heterojunction grown on single crystalline n-Si (100) in spintronics device applications.

  16. Heterogeneous Nucleation of n-Butanol Vapor on Submicrometer Particles of SiO2 and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Chen; Huang; Tao

    1999-03-15

    Condensation of a supersaturated vapor of n-butanol on monodisperse submicrometer particles is investigated in a flow cloud chamber (FCC). The size dependence of critical supersaturation in the range of 20 to 90 nm is experimentally determined. Two types of aerosol, SiO2 and TiO2, are tested. The results show that both aerosols induce heterogeneous nucleation better than perfectly wetted particles. The experimental critical supersaturation is smaller than that predicted by the Fletcher version of Volmer theory of heterogeneous nucleation even with the line tension and surface diffusion taken into account and has a size dependence in qualitative agreement with that theoretically predicted but to a lesser degree. The discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the effects of line tension and surface diffusion and the existing theory concerning the curvature-dependent physical properties. The law of corresponding states was extended to the heterogeneous nucleation, and a simple correlation was observed. We conclude that the macroscopic theory of heterogeneous nucleation leads to a prediction of critical supersaturation higher than that experimentally measured. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10049535

  17. SWNT nucleation from carbon-coated SiO2 nanoparticles via a vapor-solid-solid mechanism.

    PubMed

    Page, Alister J; Chandrakumar, K R S; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-01-26

    Since the discovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the early 1990s, the most commonly accepted model of SWNT growth on traditional catalysts (i.e., transition metals including Fe, Co, Ni, etc.) is the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. In more recent years, the synthesis of SWNTs on nontraditional catalysts, such as SiO(2), has also been reported. The precise atomistic mechanism explaining SWNT growth on nontraditional catalysts, however, remains unknown. In this work, CH(4) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) nucleation on SiO(2) nanoparticles have been investigated using quantum-chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) methods. Upon supply of CH(x) species to the surface of a model SiO(2) nanoparticle, CO was produced as the main chemical product of the CH(4) CVD process, in agreement with a recent experimental investigation [Bachmatiuk et al., ACS Nano 2009, 3, 4098]. The production of CO occurred simultaneously with the carbothermal reduction of the SiO(2) nanoparticle. However, this reduction, and the formation of amorphous SiC, was restricted to the nanoparticle surface, with the core of the SiO(2) nanoparticle remaining oxygen-rich. In cases of high carbon concentration, SWNT nucleation then followed, and was driven by the formation of isolated sp(2)-carbon networks via the gradual coalescence of adjacent polyyne chains. These simulations indicate that the carbon saturation of the SiO(2) surface was a necessary prerequisite for SWNT nucleation. These simulations also indicate that a vapor-solid-solid mechanism, rather than a VLS mechanism, is responsible for SWNT nucleation on SiO(2). Fundamental differences between SWNT nucleation on nontraditional and traditional catalysts are therefore observed.

  18. Unusual size-dependent magnetization in near hemispherical Co nanomagnets on SiO2 from fast pulsed laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, H.; Miller, C.; Longstreth-Spoor, L.; Nussinov, Z.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2008-04-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser melting of ultrathin metal films can lead to self-organized arrays of spherical nanoparticles. We have applied this technique to assemble arrays of nanoparticles of the soft elemental ferromagnet Co on SiO2. Surface morphology studies by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy established that the nanoparticles were nearly hemispherical with an average contact angle of ˜104±22°. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles in the size range of 30-250nm diameter were investigated by magnetic force microscopy under zero applied field in conjunction with simulations of the magnetic tip-particle interaction. Particles up to 180nm diameter were found to be single domain with the magnetization direction oriented predominantly in-plane for the smaller particles (⩽75nm ) and out-of-plane for the larger particles (⩽180nm). Multidomain behavior was observed for particles larger than 180nm. Magnetic hysteresis measurements at room temperature confirmed that the arrays consisted of a mixture of in-plane and out-of-plane orientations. Microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanoparticles had a granular microstructure with the average grain size increasing with particle size. This size-dependent magnetic orientation is inconsistent with the expected in-plane orientation due to shape anisotropy. We suggest that a size-dependent residual strain and the microstructure formed by rapid laser processing determine the orientation of nanomagnets. This idea was supported by the significant increase in in-plane orientation of larger particles following thermal annealing. These studies suggest that anisotropic nanomagnets of near hemispherical polycrystalline particles with desired magnetic orientation can be prepared by fast laser thermal processing.

  19. Process for Smoothing an Si Substrate after Etching of SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Tasha; Wu, Chi

    2003-01-01

    A reactive-ion etching (RIE) process for smoothing a silicon substrate has been devised. The process is especially useful for smoothing those silicon areas that have been exposed by etching a pattern of holes in a layer of silicon dioxide that covers the substrate. Applications in which one could utilize smooth silicon surfaces like those produced by this process include fabrication of optical waveguides, epitaxial deposition of silicon on selected areas of silicon substrates, and preparation of silicon substrates for deposition of adherent metal layers. During etching away of a layer of SiO2 that covers an Si substrate, a polymer becomes deposited on the substrate, and the substrate surface becomes rough (roughness height approximately equal to 50 nm) as a result of over-etching or of deposition of the polymer. While it is possible to smooth a silicon substrate by wet chemical etching, the undesired consequences of wet chemical etching can include compromising the integrity of the SiO2 sidewalls and undercutting of the adjacent areas of the silicon dioxide that are meant to be left intact. The present RIE process results in anisotropic etching that removes the polymer and reduces height of roughness of the silicon substrate to less than 10 nm while leaving the SiO2 sidewalls intact and vertical. Control over substrate versus sidewall etching (in particular, preferential etching of the substrate) is achieved through selection of process parameters, including gas flow, power, and pressure. Such control is not uniformly and repeatably achievable in wet chemical etching. The recipe for the present RIE process is the following: Etch 1 - A mixture of CF4 and O2 gases flowing at rates of 25 to 75 and 75 to 125 standard cubic centimeters per minute (stdcm3/min), respectively; power between 44 and 55 W; and pressure between 45 and 55 mtorr (between 6.0 and 7.3 Pa). The etch rate lies between approximately equal to 3 and approximately equal to 6 nm/minute. Etch 2 - O2 gas flowing at 75 to 125 stdcm3/min, power between 44 and 55 W, and pressure between 50 and 100 mtorr (between 6.7 and 13.3 Pa).

  20. Density Effect on the Structure of Liquid SiO2 Compressed up to 10 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Denoeud, A.; Dorchies, F.; Gaudin, J.; Francois, G.; Ravasio, A.; Brambrink, E.; Mazevet, S.

    2014-12-01

    With the recent discovery of many exoplanets, modeling the interior of these celestial bodies is becoming a fascinating scientific challenge. In this context, it is crucial to accurately know the equations of state and the physical properties of the constituent materials. Among these constituents, complex silicates (i.e. (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and (Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and the products of their dissociation (SiO2, MgO) are of major interest. Their metallization, dissociation and structural properties as density and temperature increase are a central issue for the modeling of the mantle of terrestrial planets or the cores of giant and icy giant planets [1]. We present here an experimental and theoretical study of the electronic and ionic structural properties of fused silica compressed up to 10 Mbar using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The results were obtained in two experimental campaigns on the LULI2000 laser at the Ecole Polytechnique. With an approach previously tested on aluminium [2], we obtained high quality XANES data at different well-controlled temperature and density conditions in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. These conditions were obtained by using two different target's geometries in order to probe either released matter either re-shocked matter. This last technique allows us to obtain higher pressures than on the Hugoniot for lower temperatures, more representatives of planetary conditions. With this process, we can compare XANES spectra on different isotherms between 1 eV and 4 eV on a large scale of densities (from r0/2 to 4r0). Coupled to ab initio calculations, these results provide us structural information on liquid SiO2 such as the pair correlation functions or the associated Si-O bounding ordering of the system. The structural information obtained here allows us to improve the SiO2 phase diagram particularly in the so-called bonded liquid region [3] and to confirm the loss of conductivity with the increase of density already observed in previous ab initio calculations [4]. REFERENCES[1] K. Umemoto et al., Science 311, 983 (2006) [2] A. Benuzzi-Mounaix et al., Phys. Rev. Lett, 107, 165006 (2011) [3] D. G. Hicks et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025502 (2006) [4] S. Mazevet et al, submitted to PRL.

  1. Interaction of cesium adatoms with free-standing graphene and graphene-veiled SiO2 surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2015-04-21

    In this study, the interaction of Cs adatoms with mono- or bi-layered graphene (MLG and BLG), either free-standing or on a SiO2 substrate, was investigated using density functional theory. The most stable adsorption sites for Cs are found to be hollow sites on both graphene sheets and graphene-veiled SiO2(0001). In addition, larger dipole moments are created when a MLG-veiled SiO2(0001) substrate is used for adsorption of Cs atoms compared to the adsorption on free-standing MLG, due to charge transfer occurring between the MLG and the SiO2 substrate. For the adsorption of Cs on BLG-veiled SiO2(0001) substrate, these differences are smoothedmore » out and the binding energies corresponding to different sites are nearly degenerate; smaller dipole moments created by the Cs adatoms on BLG compared to MLG are also predicted.« less

  2. Effect of Oxidation and SiO2 Coating on the Bonding Strength of Ti-Porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Litong; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhu, Yabo; Xu, Cheng; Gao, Jiqiang; Guo, Tianwen

    2010-11-01

    Investigations on the effect of oxidation on titanium-ceramic adhesion were performed. Cast pure titanium was subjected to surface modification by preoxidation and introduction of an intermediate layer of SiO2 by sol-gel process. Specimens were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, and SEM/EDS. The adhesion between the titanium and porcelain was evaluated by three-point flexure bond test. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with preoxidation treatment predominantly occurred at the titanium-oxide interface. Preoxidation treatment did not affect the fracture mode of the titanium-ceramic system and did not increase the bonding strength of Ti-porcelain. The SEM results revealed the existence of microcracks on the SiO2 coating surface oxidized at 800 °C in an air furnace. During the porcelain fusion, minute amounts of oxygen were able to penetrate the cracks and caused localized oxidation of the Ti-substrate. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with SiO2 coating predominantly occurred at the SiO2 layer. The SiO2 coating served as an effective oxygen diffusion barrier and improved the mechanical and chemical bonding between porcelain and titanium.

  3. Growth and surface analysis of SiO2 on 4H-SiC for MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah; Chattopadhyay, Somnath; Overton, Charles; Ardoin, Ira; Gordon, B. J.; Johnstone, D.; Roy, D.; Barone, D.

    2015-03-01

    The SiO2 layers have been grown onto C-face and Si-face 4H-SiC substrates by two different techniques such as wet thermal oxidize process and sputtering. The deposition recipes of these techniques are carefully optimized by trails and error method. The growth effects of SiO2 on the C-face and Si-face 4H-SiC substrates are thoroughly investigated by AFM analysis. The growth mechanism of different species involved in the growth process of SiO2 by wet thermal oxide is now proposed by adopting two body classical projectile scattering. This mechanism drives to determine growth of secondary phases such as α-CH nano-islands in the grown SiO2 layer. The effect of HF etchings on the SiO2 layers grown by both techniques and on both the C-face and Si-face substrates are legitimately studied. The thicknesses of the layers determined by AFM and ellipsometry techniques are widely promulgated. The MOS capacitors are made on the Si-face 4H-SiC wafers by wet oxidation and sputtering processes, which are studied by capacitance versus voltage (CV) technique. From CV measurements, the density of trap states with variation of trap level for MOS devices is estimated.

  4. Nanoporous SiO2/TiO2 coating with enhanced interfacial compatibility for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Cao, Hengchun; You, Jing; Cheng, Xingbao; Xie, Youtao; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-11-01

    Topographic modification in nanoscale is one of the most often used strategies to enhance the interfacial biocompatibility of implant materials. The aim of this work is to produce SiO2/TiO2 coatings with nanoporous structures and favorable biological properties by atmospheric plasma spraying technology and subsequently hydrothermal etching method in hydrogen fluoride solution. The effects of hydrothermal time and temperature on the microstructures and osteoblast behavior of the SiO2/TiO2 coatings were investigated. Results demonstrated that the as-sprayed SiO2/TiO2 coating was mainly composed of rutile and quartz phases. After etching, nanoporous topographies were formed on the surface of the coatings and the hydrothermal parameters had important influences on the size and shape of the pores. The interconnected network pores on the coating surface could only produce at the appropriate hydrothermal conditions (the hydrothermal time and temperature were 60 min and 100 °C, respectively). Compared to TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 coatings, nanoporous SiO2/TiO2 coatings could enhance osteoblast adhesion and promote cell proliferation. The results suggested the potential application of the porous coatings for enhancing the biological performance of the currently used dental and orthopedic implant materials.

  5. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Baudoux, A-C.; Hendrix, R.W.; Lander, G.C.; Bailly, X.; Podell, S.; Paillard, C.; Johnson, J.E.; Potter, C.S.; Carragher, B.; Azam, F.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V. harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V. campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80,598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:22225728

  6. Magnetic properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites with SiO2 coating obtained by reverse microemulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Lu, Zhenwen; Cheng, Chuan; Gao, Xuexu

    2015-05-01

    In this work, iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with the amorphous SiO2 layer have been fabricated by utilizing tetraethoxysilane in the reverse microemulsion method, and then the effects of addition amount of SiO2 and annealing temperature on the magnetic properties were investigated. The results show that the surface of iron powders contains a thin amorphous SiO2 insulation layer, which effectively decreases the magnetic loss of synthesized magnets. The magnetic loss of coated samples decreased by 87.8% as compared with that of uncoated samples at 150 kHz. Magnetic measurements show that the sample with 1.25 wt% SiO2 has an acceptable real part and minimum imaginary part of permeability in comparison with other samples. Also, the annealing treatment increased the initial permeability, the maximum permeability and the magnetic induction and decreased the coercivity with increasing temperature in the range 300-600 °C. The results of the loss separation imply that the annealed SMCs have a higher hysteresis loss coefficient (k2) and lower eddy current loss coefficient (k3) as compared with the pure iron compacts after the same heat treatment due to the preservation of the SiO2 layer.

  7. Interface-enhanced Li ion conduction in a LiBH4-SiO2 solid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Young-Su; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Young Whan

    2016-08-10

    We have developed a fast solid state Li ion conductor composed of LiBH4 and SiO2 by means of interface engineering. A composite of LiBH4-SiO2 was simply synthesized by high energy ball-milling, and two types of SiO2 (MCM-41 and fumed silica) having different specific surface areas were used to evaluate the effect of the LiBH4/SiO2 interface on the ionic conductivity enhancement. The ionic conductivity of the ball-milled LiBH4-MCM-41 and LiBH4-fumed silica mixture is as high as 10(-5) S cm(-1) and 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, respectively. In particular, the conductivity of the latter is comparable to the LiBH4 melt-infiltrated into MCM-41. The conductivities of the LiBH4-fumed silica mixtures at different mixing ratios were analyzed employing a continuum percolation model, and the conductivity of the LiBH4/SiO2 interface layer is estimated to be 10(5) times higher than that of pure bulk LiBH4. The result highlights the importance of the interface and indicates that significant enhancement in ionic conductivity can be achieved via interface engineering. PMID:27468702

  8. Structural and electrical characterization of NbO2 vertical devices grown on TiN coated SiO2/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Toyanath; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David

    Due to its relatively high MIT temperature (1081 K) and current-controlled negative differential resistance, NbO2 is a robust candidate for memory devices and electrical switching applications. In this work, we present in-depth analysis of NbO2 thin film vertical devices grown on TiN coated SiO2/Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Two of the films grown in 1 mTorr and 10 mTorr O2/Ar (~7% O2) mixed growth pressures were studied. The formation of NbO2 phase was confirmed by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffractometry (GIXRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and current vs. voltage measurements. A probe station tip (tip size ~2 μm) or conductive AFM tip was used as a top and TiN bottom layer was used as a bottom contact. Device conductivity showed film thickness and contact size dependence. Current pulse measurements, performed in response to applied triangular voltage pulses, showed a non-linear threshold switching behavior for voltage pulse durations of ~100 ns and above. Self-sustained current oscillations were analyzed in terms of defect density presented in the film. Supported by FAME (sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, Contract 2013-MA-2382), WV Higher Education Policy Commission Grant (HEPC.dsr.12.29), and WVU SRF. We also thank S. Kramer from Micron for providing the TiN-coated Si substrates.

  9. Copper-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition for high-quality and metal-free single-layer graphene on amorphous SiO2 substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungki; Song, Intek; Park, Chibeom; Son, Minhyeok; Hong, Misun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2013-08-27

    We report that high-quality single-layer graphene (SLG) has been successfully synthesized directly on various dielectric substrates including amorphous SiO2/Si by a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The Cu vapors produced by the sublimation of Cu foil that is suspended above target substrates without physical contact catalyze the pyrolysis of methane gas and assist nucleation of graphene on the substrates. Raman spectra and mapping images reveal that the graphene formed on a SiO2/Si substrate is almost defect-free and homogeneous single layer. The overall quality of graphene grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is comparable to that of the graphene grown by regular metal-catalyzed CVD on a Cu foil. While Cu vapor induces the nucleation and growth of SLG on an amorphous substrate, the resulting SLG is confirmed to be Cu-free by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SLG grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is fabricated into field effect transistor devices without transfer steps that are generally required when SLG is grown by regular CVD process on metal catalyst substrates. This method has overcome two important hurdles previously present when the catalyst-free CVD process is used for the growth of SLG on fused quartz and hexagonal boron nitride substrates, that is, high degree of structural defects and limited size of resulting graphene, respectively. PMID:23869700

  10. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z

    2016-11-15

    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources. PMID:27592192

  11. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z

    2016-11-15

    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources.

  12. Nanogranular SiO2 proton gated silicon layer transistor mimicking biological synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. J.; Huang, G. S.; Feng, P.; Guo, Q. L.; Shao, F.; Tian, Z. A.; Li, G. J.; Wan, Q.; Mei, Y. F.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon on insulator (SOI)-based transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conducting electrolytes were fabricated to mimic synapse behaviors. This SOI-based device has both top proton gate and bottom buried oxide gate. Electrical transfer properties of top proton gate show hysteresis curves different from those of bottom gate, and therefore, excitatory post-synaptic current and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) behavior of biological synapses are mimicked. Moreover, we noticed that PPF index can be effectively tuned by the spike interval applied on the top proton gate. Synaptic behaviors and functions, like short-term memory, and its properties are also experimentally demonstrated in our device. Such SOI-based electronic synapses are promising for building neuromorphic systems.

  13. Magnetic field dependent ordering in ferrofluids at SiO2 interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vorobiev, A; Major, J; Dosch, H; Gordeev, G; Orlova, D

    2004-12-31

    We report pronounced smecticlike ordering in a ferrofluid adjacent to a SiO2 wall. In the presence of small magnetic fields perpendicular to the interface, ordered layers of magnetite nanoparticles form that can extend up to 30 layers. We also show that short ranged ordered structures emerge when the magnetic field direction is parallel to the interface; however, the layering is strongly perturbed. These results have been obtained by in situ neutron reflectometry which gives a detailed microscopic picture of these ordering phenomena. They also reveal the formation of a wetting double-layer which forms the magnetic template for the observed ordering sheets. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15698017

  14. Post-stishovite transition in AlOOH-incorporated SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Umemoto, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Hirose, K.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, Lakshtanov et al. [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, 13588 (2007)] demonstrated that the incorporation of AlOOH into SiO2 significantly reduces the transition pressure between stishovite and CaCl2-type phases. In the present paper, we investigate theoretically the effect of hydrogen (and aluminum) on this transition. First-principles calculations show that aluminum has no effect on the transition pressure. However, hydrogen bonds play a crucial role, suggesting that a cooperative redistribution of hydrogens aids the post-stishovite transition. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using model potentials confirm this effect and reveal the nature of the hydrogen motion. This effect produces a strong temperature dependence on the transition pressure and should make the latter sensitive to hydrogen content in the material. This work was supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (VLab), EAR-0757903, and EAR-1019853. The computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  15. Structural Evolution and Medium Range Order in Permanently Densified Vitreous SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, M.; Baldi, G.; Brusa, R. S.; Egger, W.; Fontana, A.; Gilioli, E.; Mariazzi, S.; Monaco, G.; Ravelli, L.; Sacchetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is employed to measure the size of the interstitial void spaces characterizing the structure of a set of permanently densified SiO2 glasses. The average volume of the voids is markedly affected by the densification process and linearly shrinks by almost an order of magnitude after a relative density variation of 22%. In addition, x-ray diffraction shows that this change of density does not modify appreciably the short range order, which remains organized in SiO4 tetrahedra. These results strongly suggest a porous medium description for v-SiO2 glasses where the compressibility and the medium range order are dominated by the density variation of the voids volume up to densities close to that of α-quartz.

  16. Non-leachable highly luminescent ordered mesoporous SiO2 spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, L. A.; Caiut, J. M. A.; Messaddeq, Y.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Martines, M. A. U.; Freiria, J. do C.; Dexpert-Ghys, J.; Verelst, M.

    2010-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous highly luminescent SiO2 particles have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis from solutions containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or the block copolymer Pluronic F-68 as structure-directing agents. Rhodamine B (RhB)-containing samples were prepared by using a simple wet impregnation method followed by the growing of a second silica shell in order to prevent leaching of the dye. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL). Powders with polydisperse spherical grains were obtained displaying an ordered hexagonal array of mesochannels. Luminescence results reveal that RhB molecules have been successfully encapsulated into the channels of mesoporous particles as monomeric species and that a well-defined silica coating hindered dye leaching.

  17. Synthesis and study on pore structure of SiO2/Al2O3 aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, O. V.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Lerner, M. I.; Petrova, T. M.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Solodov, A. A.; Solodov, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    In the current paper, the mixed SiO2/Al2O3 aerogel was synthesized by sol-gel method with subcritical drying and characterized. Tetraethoxysilane was used as a precursor of silicon sol. The flower-shaped alumina suspension was peptized to produce alumina sol. The aerogel texture, morphology, and structure were determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, and high-resolution spectroscopy. A special attention was paid to the pore structure of aerogel, and aerogel framework was formed by the spherical agglomerates containing spherical particles of silicon oxide and alumina nanopetals. The pore size distribution was bimodal with peaks of 5.5 nm and 77 nm.

  18. In vitro reactivity of Na2O MgO SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdas

    2007-12-01

    A variety of bioactive glasses have been investigated over the last two decades as substitute material for diseased or damaged tissues in a human body. In this investigation, three different melt derived bioactive glasses, each having 55% by mole SiO2 and ratio of MgO to Na2O varying from 1:8 to 8:1, were prepared by melting various oxides at temperature >1250 °C. After microstructure evolution, vitro reactivity of these glasses was examined by keeping them in simulated body fluid (trans buffered pH 7.25 at 25 cc). The surface reactivity of these glasses gradually increased with increasing Na2O/MgO ratio.

  19. Multiplexed DNA detection using spectrally encoded porous SiO2 photonic crystal particles

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Shawn O.; Chen, Michelle Y.

    2009-01-01

    A particle-based multiplexed DNA assay based on encoded porous SiO2 photonic crystal disks is demonstrated. A “spectral barcode” is generated by electrochemical etch of a single-crystal silicon wafer using a programmed current-time waveform. A lithographic procedure is used to isolate cylindrical microparticles 25 microns in diameter and 10 microns thick, which are then oxidized, modified with a silane linker, and conjugated to various amino functionalized oligonucleotide probes via cyanuric chloride. It is shown that the particles can be decoded based on their reflectivity spectra, and that a multiple analyte assay can be performed in a single sample with a modified fluorescence microscope. The homogeneity of the reflectivity and fluorescence spectra, both within and across the microparticles is also reported. PMID:19271746

  20. Microwave absorption of electroless Ni-Co-P-coated SiO 2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang; Yuan, Jing

    2009-04-01

    Ni-Co-P-coated SiO 2 particles were prepared using electroless plating method. The morphology, crystal structure, surface compositions, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the composite powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer, respectively. It was found that the silica powder was successfully coated with Ni-Co-P alloy. The ultrafine Ni-Co-P-SiO 2 powder-paraffin wax composite possesses excellent microwave absorption properties. The maximum microwave loss reaches -48.6 dB at 4.2 GHz with a thickness of 3.10 mm. The intrinsic reasons for microwave absorption were also investigated.

  1. Design of optical channel waveguides in SiO2 by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De los Reyes, H.; Lizarraga-Medina, E. G.; Salazar, D.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Vázquez, G. V.; Oliver, A.; Achenbach, S.; Börner, M.; Márquez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Design of straight and S-bend optical channel waveguides based on silver ion implantation in SiO2 substrates is presented. 3D Beam Propagation Method (BPM) calculations are used for the design of the waveguides based on step index profiles produced from a sequential multiple ion implantation process. An analysis of modal optical confinement was done by means of the Effective Index Method (EIM) for selecting the right dimensions of the channel waveguides. Core index values between 1.4623-1.4662 are obtained, depending on the fluence, are considered. Depth and width for the waveguides were chosen to provide single mode operation. Bending losses are determined as function of bending radius, refractive index change (Δn), and wavelength.

  2. IR Imaging Using Arrays of SiO2 Micromechanical Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we describe the fabrication of an array of bimaterial detectors for infrared (IR) imaging that utilize SiO2 as a structural material. All the substrate material underneath the active area of each detector element was removed. Each detector element incorporates an optical resonant cavity layer in the IR absorbing region of the sensing element. The simplified microfabrication process requires only four photolithographic steps with no wet etching or sacrificial layers. The thermomechanical deflection sensitivity was 7.9 10-3 rad/K which corresponds to a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2.9 mK. In the present work the array was used to capture IR images while operating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and no need for vacuum packaging. The average measured NETD of our IR detector system was approximately 200 mK but some sensing elements exhibited an NETD of 50 mK.

  3. All-fiber high-sensitivity pressure sensor with SiO2 diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Donlagic, Denis; Cibula, Edvard

    2005-08-15

    The design and fabrication of a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 microm are presented. The essential element in the process is a thin SiO2 diaphragm that is fusion spliced at the hollow end of an optical fiber. Good repeatability and high sensitivity of the sensor are achieved by on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the sensor fabrication process. Various sensor prototypes were fabricated, demonstrating pressure ranges of from 0 to 40 kPa to 0 to 1 MPa. The maximum achieved sensitivity was 1.1 rad/40 kPa at 1550 nm, and a pressure resolution of 300 Pa was demonstrated in practice. The presented design and fabrication technique offers a means of simple and low-cost disposable pressure sensor production. PMID:16127913

  4. Low temperature heat capacity of permanently densified SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Giovanni; Carini, Giuseppe; Cosio, Daniele; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Rossi, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    A study of low temperature specific heat capacity (1-30 K) has been performed on samples of vitreous SiO2, which have been compacted under pressures up to 8 GPa to explore different glassy phases having growing density. Increasing densification by more than 21% leads to a progressive reduction of the specific heat capacity Cp and to a shift from 10 K up to about 17 K of the broad hump, the calorimetric Boson peak (BP), observed above 1 K in a Cp(T)/T3 vs. T plot. The revealed changes are not accounted for by the modifications of the elastic continuum, implying a nature of additional vibrations at variance with the extended sound waves. Increasing atomic packing of the glassy network leads to a progressively decreasing excess heat capacity over that of α-quartz, a crystalline polymorph of SiO2. By using the low-frequency Raman intensity measured in these glasses to determine the temperature dependence of the low temperature heat capacity, it has been evaluated the density of low-frequency vibrational states. The observations are compared with some theoretical pictures explaining the nature of the BP, disclosing qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Soft Potential Model and the results of a simulation study concerning the vibrations of jammed particles. This finding leads to evaluate a nanometer length scale which suggests the existence of poorly packed domains formed from several n-membered rings involving SiO4 tetrahedra. These soft regions are believed to be the main source of low-frequency vibrations giving rise to the BP.

  5. Near-Interface Defects in SiO2/SiC MOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, A. F.; Mooney, P. M.

    2012-02-01

    The implementation of SiO2/SiC MOSFETS for high power applications has been hindered by the high density of near-interface states. We have developed a method to distinguish both the energy and spatial distribution of defect states near insulator-semiconductor interfaces through a comparison of the thermal emission energy extracted from constant capacitance transient spectroscopy (CCDLTS) measurements and the interface Fermi energy (FP). The dependence of FP on trap filling voltage at the CCDLTS peak temperature is determined from temperature-dependent 1MHz C-V curves. Capture by tunneling into oxide traps is detected in 4H- and 6H-SiC capacitors fabricated by oxidation followed by NO-annealing, with the difference in thermal emission energies consistent with the conduction band offsets of the two polytypes at the SiO2/SiC interface. Comparison with results from first principles calculations suggests that the observed oxide traps are CO=CO and interstitial Si [1]. SiC defects having energies close to the SiC conduction band are suggested to be carbon di-interstitial defects, (C2)i, introduced during standard oxidation [1]. Well-known traps introduced in SiC by ion-implantation are observed in 4H-SiC MOS capacitors fabricated by N-implantation followed by standard oxidation, thus validating this new method [2]. *A.F. Basile, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 064514 (2011) *A.F. Basile, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 114505 (2011).

  6. Fluorescence of Pentavalent Chromium in SiO2 Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Weiyi; Castro, Lymari; Wang, Yanyun; Liu, Huimin

    1998-01-01

    Chromium ions are very attractive to optical spectroscopy and laser physics. It is well known that the first laser in the history is a ruby laser activated with Cr(3+). It was found in early nineties that Cr(4+) was also an interesting lasing ion in the near infrared, and various Cr(4+) lasers have been developed. Very recently, it was reported that Cr(2+) doped in CdSe crystals showed lasing action in the infrared. The above achievement have stimulated an interest in searching for Cr(5+) and investigating its optical properties. Cr(5+) is isoelectronic with Ti(3+) and V(4+), having electron configuration 3d1. Ti(3+) is the active center of commercial cw and femtosecond sapphire lasers, tunable in the range 680-1100 nm. V(4+) doped in YAlO3 and Al2O3 showed broad band emission near 635 nm. Although EPR results of Cr(5+) were reported, the optical properties were less studied. Herren et al. reported an observation of luminescence from Cr doped in SiO2 sol-gel glass. The luminescence spectrum was assigned to pentavalent ions in their first paper, and later it was identified to be the emission from the charge transfer transition of Cr(6+). The first observation of photoluminescence from octahedrally coordinated Cr(5+) in BaCaMg aluminate glasses was reported very recently. In this work, we report luminescence results of Cr doped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. The fluorescence spectra are very different from Herrens' results, and we believe it originates from pentavalent Cr.

  7. Human astrocytic grid networks patterned in parylene-C inlayed SiO2 trenches.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M D; Raos, B J; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Graham, E S; Unsworth, C P

    2016-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that glia, and in particular astrocytes, should be studied as organised networks which communicate through gap junctions. Astrocytes, however, adhere to most surfaces and are highly mobile cells. In order to study, such organised networks effectively in vitro it is necessary to influence them to pattern to certain substrates whilst being repelled from others and to immobilise the astrocytes sufficiently such that they do not continue to migrate further whilst under study. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time how it is possible to facilitate the study of organised patterned human astrocytic networks using hNT astrocytes in a SiO2 trench grid network that is inlayed with the biocompatible material, parylene-C. We demonstrate how the immobilisation of astrocytes lies in the depth of the SiO2 trench, determining an optimum trench depth and that the optimum patterning of astrocytes is a consequence of the parylene-C inlay and the grid node spacing. We demonstrate high fidelity of the astrocytic networks and demonstrate that functionality of the hNT astrocytes through ATP evoked calcium signalling is also dependent on the grid node spacing. Finally, we demonstrate that the location of the nuclei on the grid nodes is also a function of the grid node spacing. The significance of this work, is to describe a suitable platform to facilitate the study of hNT astrocytes from the single cell level to the network level to improve knowledge and understanding of how communication links to spatial organisation at these higher order scales and trigger in vitro research further in this area with clinical applications in the area of epilepsy, stroke and focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27521614

  8. Exploring the Phase Diagram SiO2-CO2 at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References[1] S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015) [2] A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013) [3] R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014) [4] M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)

  9. SiC Recession Due to SiO2 Scale Volatility Under Combustor Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Raymond Craig

    1997-01-01

    One of today's most important and challenging technological problems is the development of advanced materials and processes required to design and build a fleet of supersonic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airliners, a follow-up to the Concorde SST. The innovative combustor designs required for HSCT engines will need high-temperature materials with long-term environmental stability. Higher combustor liner temperatures than today's engines and the need for lightweight materials will require the use of advanced ceramic-matrix composites (CMC's) in hot-section components. The HSCT is just one example being used to demonstrate the need for such materials. This thesis evaluates silicon carbide (SiC) as a potential base material for HSCT and other similar applications. Key issues are the environmental durability for the materials of interest. One of the leading combustor design schemes leads to an environment which will contain both oxidizing and reducing gas mixtures. The concern is that these environments may affect the stability of the silica (SiO2) scale on which SiC depends for environmental protection. A unique High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was developed to simulate the combustor conditions of future gas turbine engines, and a series of tests were conducted on commercially available SiC material. These tests are intended as a feasibility study for the use of these materials in applications such as the HSCT. Linear weight loss and surface recession of the SiC is observed as a result of SiO2 volatility for both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. These observations are compared and agree well with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. A strong Arrhenius-type temperature dependence exists. In addition, the secondary dependencies of pressure and gas velocity are defined. As a result, a model is developed to enable extrapolation to points outside the experimental space of the burner rig, and in particular, to potential gas turbine engine conditions.

  10. Laser-Induced Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Magnetic Films.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ka; Bauer, Gerrit E W

    2015-11-01

    We present a theory for the coherent magnetization dynamics induced by a focused ultrafast laser beam in magnetic films, taking into account nonthermal (inverse Faraday effect) and thermal (heating) actuation. The dynamic conversion between spin waves and phonons is induced by the magnetoelastic coupling that allows efficient propagation of angular momentum. The anisotropy of the magnetoelastic coupling renders characteristic angle dependences of the magnetization propagation that are strikingly different for thermal and nonthermal actuation.

  11. Laser-Induced Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Magnetic Films.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ka; Bauer, Gerrit E W

    2015-11-01

    We present a theory for the coherent magnetization dynamics induced by a focused ultrafast laser beam in magnetic films, taking into account nonthermal (inverse Faraday effect) and thermal (heating) actuation. The dynamic conversion between spin waves and phonons is induced by the magnetoelastic coupling that allows efficient propagation of angular momentum. The anisotropy of the magnetoelastic coupling renders characteristic angle dependences of the magnetization propagation that are strikingly different for thermal and nonthermal actuation. PMID:26588408

  12. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns. PMID:27291796

  13. Oxidation property of SiO2-supported small nickel particle prepared by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Afiza, N.; Katayama, M.; Inada, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation property of SiO2-supported small Ni particle has been studied by means of the in-situ XAFS method. The Ni particle with the average diameter of 4 nm supported on SiO2 was prepared by the sol-gel method. The XANES spectrum of the small metallic Ni particle was clearly different from that of bulk Ni. The exposure of diluted O2 gas at room temperature promoted the surface oxidation of Ni(0) particle. During the temperature programmed oxidation process, the supported Ni(0) particle was quantitatively oxidized to NiO, and the oxidation temperature was lower by ca. 200 °C than that of the SiO2-supported Ni particle with the larger particle radius of 17 nm prepared by the impregnation method.

  14. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  15. Photoluminescence of Sm doped porous silicon—evidence for light emission through luminescence centers in SiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zhang, L. Z.; Huang, Y. M.; Zhang, B. R.; Qin, G. G.

    1994-06-01

    After oxidation promoted by gamma-ray irradiation, in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Sm doped porous silicon (PS), there are three sharp peaks, superimposed on a broad band, with wavelengths near to those of the Sm doped SiO2 [R. Morimo, T. Mizushima, and H. Okumura, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2340 (1990)]. The experimental results indicate that Sm-related luminescence centers can be created within the oxide of porous silicon, and only in porous silicon with high porosity can the Sm-related luminescence be found in the SiO2 layer. This experimental result can be explained by the fact that the excitation of electron-hole pairs occurs in nanoscale silicon, and the recombination occurs at the Sm-related luminescence centers in SiO2 layers covering nanoscale silicon.

  16. A new approach of the synthesis of SiO2 nanowires by using bulk copper foils as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Martinez, A.; Márquez, F.; Morant, C.

    2016-11-01

    A novel procedure for the growth of SiO2 nanowires (SiO2NWs) directly from polycrystalline copper foils is reported. The single-step synthesis procedure consists of a thermal treatment at 900 °C without the need for additional catalysts. As a result, nanowires with an average diameter of 100 nm are synthesized. A systematic study undertaken at different stages of the SiO2NWs growth confirmed the generation of nucleation centers on the Cu surface, as well as revealed the existence of an intermediate gaseous SiO species at the synthesis temperature. On the basis of these evidences, the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) route has been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the growth.

  17. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns. PMID:27291796

  18. Improved moisture resistance of SrSO4:Sm3+ phosphors coated with SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Randi; Du, Haiyan

    2012-03-01

    SrSO4:Sm3+ phosphors obtained by precipitation method are coated with SiO2 and their photoluminescence (PL) degradation behavior is investigated. The SiO2 coating is obtained by the ultrasonic sonochemical process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon coating reagent and the coating content is varied from 0.5 to 2 wt%. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectrometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer are employed to characterize the coating. Moisture resistances of coated SrSO4:Sm3+ phosphors have been enhanced to a great degree without more loss of their optical properties based on the existence of the SiO2 thin layer. The PL intensity of the coated phosphors decreases to ˜83% of the original value after 38 h soaking the phosphors in deionized water, while the uncoated phosphor decreases to ˜40%.

  19. Growth and scintillation properties of Ce doped Gd2Si2O7/SiO2 eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Murakami, Rikito; Yokota, Yuui; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Ce:Gd2Si2O7/SiO2 eutectic was grown by the μ-PD method. The square-shape sample with a side of 5 mm and a length of 15 mm was obtained. Two phases of orthorhombic Gd2Si2O7 and SiO2 was observed. Rod-phase was SiO2 and matrix phase was Gd2Si2O7. Ce3+ 4f5d emission have been observed at 400nm. The sample showed light yield of around 16,000 photons/MeV. Scintillation decay time was 46.3ns(21%) 249ns(79%).

  20. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  1. ACr2O4 /SiO2 (A = Zn, Cu, Cd) nanocomposites, their preparation and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holec, Petr; Poltierova Vejpravova, Jana; Plocek, Jiri; Nemec, Ivan; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Niznansky, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    This article presents preparation and characterization of zinc, copper and cadmium chromites nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2 and CdCr2O4/SiO2 samples were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method using HNO3 as an acid catalyst, formamide as a modifier, methanol as a solvent and TEOS. Final heat treatment of the nanocomposites was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900 - 1100°C. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and magnetic measurements.

  2. Effect of nanowires SiO2 on superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-d bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, M. K. Ben; Hannachi, E.; Slimani, Y.; Hamrita, A.; Bessais, L.; Azzouz, F. Ben; Salem, M. Ben

    2013-12-01

    The effects of SiO2 nanowires on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) compound were studied. Samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding nanowires SiO2 up to 1wt.%. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), critical current density dependence on applied magnetic field Jc(H) and electrical resistivity as a function of temperature ρ(T) were carried out to evaluate the relative performance of samples. We find that Tco does not change much (90.8-90.2 K) with the low concentration of SiO2 (≤ 0.1 wt.%) and Jc(H) is enhanced.

  3. IR Spectroscopic Study of the Mechanical Activation of Flint and its Mixtures with SiO2 Nanoparticles and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorsina, I. A.; Grigoreva, T. F.; Udalova, T. A.; Vosmerikov, S. V.; Ovchinnikov, E. V.; Struk, V. A.; Lyakhov, N. Z.

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical activation of the inorganic polymer fl int and its mixtures with sevilen and polyamide polymers and SiO2 nanoparticles was studied using IR spectroscopy and x-ray phase analysis. It was found that active acidic centers appeared on the fl int surface during mechanical activation. Adsorbed water did not form H-bonds to them. Sevilen reacted with fl int during mechanical activation. SiO2 nanoparticles did not affect mechanical activation of flint. Polyamide did not react mechanochemically with flint, in contrast with sevilen.

  4. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) island growth under SiO(2) nanodisks patterned on GaAs substrates.

    PubMed

    Tjahjana, Liliana; Wang, Benzhong; Tanoto, Hendrix; Chua, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2010-05-14

    We report a growth phenomenon where uniform gallium arsenide (GaAs) islands were found to grow underneath an ordered array of SiO(2) nanodisks on a GaAs(100) substrate. Each island eventually grows into a pyramidal shape resulting in the toppling of the supported SiO(2) nanodisk. This phenomenon occurred consistently for each nanodisk across a large patterned area of approximately 50 x 50 microm(2) (with nanodisks of 210 nm diameter and 280 nm spacing). The growth mechanism is attributed to a combination of 'catalytic' growth and facet formation.

  5. Active Sites on the Surface of Nano-Sized SiO2-TiO2 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valova, M. S.; Koryakova, O. V.; Maksimovskikh, A. I.; Fedorova, O. V.; Murashkevich, A. N.; Alisienok, O. A.

    2014-07-01

    The nature and amount of active sites on the surface of nano-sized SiO2-TiO2 oxides were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and back-titration methods. Increasing the TiO2 content in the SiO2-TiO2 composites increased the amount of activated surface H2O and adsorbed CO2. This increased the amount of active basic centers on the oxide surface and caused the first of two observed mechanisms for benzaldehyde adsorption (with and without its activation) to begin to prevail.

  6. Fabrication of Graphene Directly on SiO2 without Transfer Processes by Annealing Sputtered Amorphous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motonobu; Inukai, Manabu; Ikenaga, Eiji; Muro, Takayuki; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji; Nakano, Haruhisa; Kawabata, Akio; Nihei, Mizuhisa; Yokoyama, Naoki

    2012-04-01

    We fabricated multilayer graphene directly on SiO2 by annealing sputtered amorphous carbon with a catalyst - a simple non-chemical vapor deposition method - without the use of complicated transfer processes. Structural analysis revealed that the graphene sheets formed an epitaxial structure aligned to the Co(111) surface between the Co catalyst and SiO2 dielectric. In the multilayer graphene, a resistivity of approximately 500 µΩ cm was obtained, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  7. Facile Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of SiO2 Nanotubes with ZnS Nanowires as Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Hui Xin; Wu, Li Li

    2016-04-01

    SiO2 nanotubes with good chemical purity and well defined morphology were synthesized successfully in a one-step gas phase condensation process using gold catalyst. The as-synthesized products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and nanoprobe X-ray energy dispersive. In the observations, a growth mechanism of the nanotubes is suggested. The new synthetic route to prepare SiO2 nanotubes is favorable to satisfy the special needs in commercial and industrial application and can be easily applied to other semiconductor materials. PMID:27451732

  8. Preparation of polystyrene/SiO2 microsphere via Pickering emulsion polymerization: Synergistic effect of SiO2 concentrations and initiator sorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiou; Shi, Tiejun; Zhou, Xun

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, polystyrene (PS)/SiO2 microspheres were successfully prepared via Pickering emulsion polymerization stabilized solely by ethacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) modified SiO2 nanoparticles. The formation mechanisms of PS/SiO2 microspheres with different morphology were investigated under various Pickering emulsion polymerization conditions. The results showed that SiO2 concentrations and initiator sorts would synergistically impact on the morphology of products corresponding to distinct formation mechanisms. When SiO2 concentrations was low and water-solute initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) was used, aqueous nucleation was dominant, which was deduced to the formation of dispersive microspheres sparsely anchored by SiO2 particles. When SiO2 concentrations was increased and oil-solute initiator azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was applied, nucleation in oil phase prevailed which lead to the formation of microspheres densely packed by SiO2 particles.

  9. Ion induced spinodal dewetting of thin solid films

    SciTech Connect

    Repetto, Luca; Setina Batic, Barbara; Firpo, Giuseppe; Piano, Emanuele; Valbusa, Ugo

    2012-05-28

    We present experimental data and numerical simulations in order to show that the mechanism of spinodal dewetting is active during ion beam irradiation of thin solid films. The expected scaling law for the characteristic wavelengths versus the initial film thickness is modified by the presence of sputtering. The conclusion is fully supported by model simulation which shows a square law dependence for null sputtering yield and a bimodal trend when sputtering is included. This result is in contrast to earlier studies and opens the possibility to control and use ion induced dewetting for the fabrication of functional nanostructures.

  10. Fabrication of CuO-based antireflection structures using self-arranged submicron SiO2 spheres for thermoelectric solar generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Tasuku; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Itou, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated antireflection structures (ARSs) on the hot side of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to absorb near-infrared (NIR) solar light with low reflective energy loss. First, the ARSs, composed of a CuO thin-film coated hemisphere array were designed using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Reflective loss was reduced to 6.7% at a grating period of 200 nm, as determined by simulation. Then, the ARSs were fabricated on a glass substrate using self-arranged submicron SiO2 spheres, following the coating of a CuO thin film. Finally, the effect of the ARSs on NIR solar light generation was investigated by evaluating the generation properties of the TEG with the ARSs on the hot side. In comparison with the TEG with the CuO flat thin film on the hot side, the ARSs increased the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides by approximately 1.4 times. The CuO-based ARSs absorbed NIR solar light effectively.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO on thermal SiO2 and Si surfaces using N2-diluted diethylzinc and H2O2 precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ke-Jia; Chen, Sun; Zhu, Bao; Chen, Lin; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei; Chen, Zhenyi

    2012-03-01

    ZnO nanodots are attracting more and more attention in various photoelectrical applications due to multiple excition generation. In this article, atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of ZnO nanodots has been realized for the first time on both thermal SiO2 and Si surfaces using N2-diluted gaseous DEZn and H2O2 precursors. The experimental results indicate that the ALD ZnO exhibits a nano-crystalline film with corrugated surfaces in the case of the deposition temperature of 200 °C, likely due to concrescence among ZnO nanodots. When the deposition temperature is increased up to 300 °C, ZnO is grown in the form of well-discrete nanodots. This is due to increased desorption of the reacting molecules and a reduction of nucleation sites on the growing surfaces at 300 °C, thus leading to the reaction between DEZn and sbnd OH groups only on some favorable sites from thermodynamic and energy points of view. In terms of the thermal SiO2 surface, ZnO nanodots with a density of around 5 × 1010 cm-2 are obtained for 100 cycles. As for the Si surface, ZnO nanodots with a density as high as ˜1 × 1011 cm-2 are achieved for 50 cycles. Finally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the ALD ZnO at 300 °C is dominated by Znsbnd O bonds together with a small quantity of Znsbnd OH bonds, and the deposition temperature of 300 °C can result in preferential growth of ZnO (0 0 2) orientation and a bigger crystallite size.

  12. Suppression of transverse-mode spurious responses for SAW resonators on SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 structure by selective removal of SiO2.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Goto, Rei; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2011-10-01

    A SiO(2)/Al/LiNbO(3) structure has a large electromechanical coupling factor (K(2)) and good temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) for applications as a SAW duplexer of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Band I. However, the SiO(2)/Al/LiNbO(3) structure also supports two unwanted spurious responses; one is caused by the Rayleigh mode and the other by the transverse mode. As the authors have previously discussed, the Rayleigh-mode spurious response can be suppressed by controlling the cross-sectional shape of a SiO(2) overlay deposited on resonator electrodes. In this paper, a new technique to suppress the transverse-mode spurious responses is proposed. In the technique, the SiO(2) overlay is selectively removed from the dummy electrode region. The spurious responses are analyzed by the laser probe system. The results indicate that the spurious responses in question were hybrid modes caused by the coupling between the main (SH) SAW and another (Rayleigh) SAW with different velocities. The hybrid-mode spurious behavior was dependent on the velocities in the IDT and the dummy regions (v(i) and v(d)). The hybrid-mode spurious responses could be suppressed by selectively removing SiO(2). Furthermore, the SAW energy confinement could be enhanced in the IDT electrode region when v(i) < v(d). The transverse-mode spurious responses were successfully suppressed without degrading the SAW resonator performances. PMID:21989882

  13. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm2. The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications. PMID:26965055

  14. Improvement in Ti-porcelain bonding by SiO(2) modification of titanium surface through cast method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhua; Zhang, Zutai; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Dongxiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to improve Ti-porcelain bonding strength through SiO2 modifications. Wax patterns were coated with SiO2 mixed with tetraethoxy silane (group C), patterns without coating were used as controls and subdivided into sandblasting group (group S) and polishing group (group P). Castingsurfaces were analyzed with XRD, while Ti-ceramic interfaces were characterized using SEM/EDS. Metal-ceramic specimens were tested in three point bending, and characterizations were also analyzed with SEM/EDS of porcelain debonding surfaces. In group C, SiO2 and Ti5Si3 phases were observed; SEM micrograph showed that Ti-porcelain had a compacted interface, and EDS maps of the interface illustrated the diffusion of Si, Al, and Sn to Ti, and cohesive fracture within the bonding agent. The bond strength of group C was 39.04±5.0 MPa, which was 15% higher than that of group S and 32% higher than that of group P. SiO2 coating could improve Ti-porcelain bond strength. PMID:23903637

  15. Study on Viscosity of the La2O3-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yong-chun; Wu, Sheng-li; Jiang, Yin-ju; Jia, Su-qi

    2016-08-01

    The viscosities and free-running temperatures of slag in a La2O3-SiO2-Al2O3 slag system were measured using an internal rotating cylinder method. For different La2O3 mass contents (45, 50, and 55 pct) in the La2O3-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary slag, the slag viscosity and free-running temperature decreased with a decrease in SiO2 content and an increase in Al2O3 content, and decreased with an increase in La2O3 content. Minor components B2O3, FeO, and MnO could decrease the viscosity and free-running temperature of La2O3-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary slag, especially FeO, and a small amount of FeO and B2O3 had an additive effect on slag viscosity and free-running temperature reduction.

  16. The Behavior of SiO2 Under Dynamic Compression and Decompression in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, E.-R.; Danilewsky, A.; Liermann, H.-P.; Mansfeld, U.; Langenhorst, F.; Ehm, L.; Trullenque, G.; Kenkmann, T.

    2015-09-01

    We use in situ x-ray diffraction to study phase transitions of SiO2 up to 66 GPa and room temperature at different loading rates. The experiments show that quartz transforms to stishovite. During loading, another high-pressure phase is also observed.

  17. Improving the damping ability by the addition of Nano SiO2 to the concrete materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Teng, Jun

    2009-07-01

    Damping in structures is commonly provided by viscoelastic nonstructural materials. Due to the large volume of structural materials in a structure, the contribution of a structural material to damping can be substantial. In this paper, the experimental investigation on damping ability of concrete materials and its members with Nana SiO2 was carried out by the method of 3-point bending beam damping measurement and cantilever beam free vibration respectively. The microstructure of concrete mix with Nano SiO2 was observed by XRD and SEM, then damping mechanism was discussed. The experimental results show that the damping reinforced effect achieved best with the 4% mixture ratio of Nana SiO2, but the optimal adulteration quantity of Nano SiO2 was 3% of cement weight by the comprehensive consideration of cost, workability, strength and dynamic properties. Nano materials as a mixture increase interfaces, and the non-uniform stress distribution under external force improves frictional damping energy consumption ability of concrete. The experimental results on the damping ratio and the loss tangent of the concrete materials with Nano materials are consistent.

  18. Enhanced surface plasmon resonance by Au nanoparticles immobilized on a dielectric SiO2 layer on a gold surface.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyeon; Na, Kyunga; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ki-Woo; Hyun, Jinho

    2009-09-28

    This paper introduces strategies for enhancement of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal by adopting colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a SiO(2) layer on a gold surface. AuNPs on SiO(2) on a gold surface were compared with an unmodified gold surface and a SiO(2) layer on a gold surface with no AuNPs attached. The modified surfaces showed significant changes in SPR signal when biomolecules were attached to the surface as compared with an unmodified gold surface. The detection limit of AuNPs immobilized on a SPR chip was 0.1 ng mL(-1) for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a cancer marker, as measured with a spectrophotometer. Considering that the conventional ELISA method can detect approximately 10 ng mL(-1) of PSA, the strategy described here is much more sensitive (approximately 100 fold). The enhanced shift of the absorption curve resulted from the coupling of the surface and particle plasmons by the SiO(2) layer and the AuNPs on the gold surface.

  19. Effect of size and position of gold nanocrystals embedded in gate oxide of SiO2/Si MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Chaitali; Bose, Chayanika

    2016-02-01

    The influence of single and double layered gold (Au) nanocrystals (NC), embedded in SiO2 matrix, on the electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures is reported in this communication. The size and position of the NCs are varied and study is made using Sentaurus TCAD simulation tools. In a single NC-layered MOS structure, the role of NCs is more prominent when they are placed closer to SiO2/Si-substrate interface than to SiO2/Al-gate interface. In MOS structures with larger NC dots and double layered NCs, the charge storage capacity is increased due to charging of the dielectric in the presence of NCs. Higher breakdown voltage and smaller leakage current are also obtained in the case of dual NC-layered MOS device. A new phenomenon of smearing out of the capacitance-voltage curve is observed in the presence of dual NC layer indicating generation of interface traps. An internal electric field developed between these two charged NC layers is expected to generate such interface traps at the SiO2/Si interface.

  20. Electromagnetic property of SiO2-coated carbonyl iron/polyimide composites as heat resistant microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-02-01

    Heat resistant microwave absorbing materials were prepared by compression molding method, using polyimide resin as matrix and SiO2 coated carbonyl iron (CI) as filler. The SiO2 coated CI particles were prepared by Stober process. The microwave absorbing properties and the effect of heat treatment on the electromagnetic properties of SiO2 coated CI/polyimide composites were investigated. When the content of SiO2 coated CI is 60 wt%, the value of minimum reflection loss decreases from -25 dB to -33 dB with the thickness increases from 1.5 mm to 2.1 mm. According to the thermal-gravimetric analyses (TGA) curves, the polyimide matrix can be used at 300 °C for long time. The complex permittivity of the composites slightly increases while the complex permeability almost keeps constant after heat treatment at 300 °C for 10 h, which indicating that the composites can be used at elevated temperature as microwave absorbing materials at the same time have good heat resistance and microwave absorption.

  1. New Gas Chemistry for High-Performance SiO2 Patterning in Sub-0.1 mu m ULSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samukawa, Seiji

    2002-10-01

    SiO2 etching is done by using fluorocarbon gases to deposit a fluoropolymer on the underlying silicon. This deposit enhances the etching selectivity of SiO2 over silicon or silicon nitride. CF2 radicals are used as the main gas precursor for polymer deposition. In a conventional gas plasma, however, the CF2 radicals and other radicals (high-molecular-weight-radicals: CxFy) lead to polymerization. This condition causes microloading and etching-stop in high-aspect contact-hole patterning due to the sidewall polymerization during SiO2 etching processes. Conversely, by using new fluorocarbon gas chemistries (C2F4/CF3I), we achieved selective radical generation of CF2 and eliminated high-molecular-weight radicals. Under this condition, microloading-free and etching-stop-free high-aspect-ratio contact-hole patterning of SiO2 was accomplished. Thus, the higher molecular weight radicals play an important role in the sidewall polymerization in contact holes because these radicals have a higher sticking coefficient than CF2 radicals. Selective generation of CF2 radicals and suppression of CxFy radicals are thus necessary to eliminate microloading and etching-stop in the formation of high-aspect-ratio contact holes.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 nano composites for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, D.; Merline Shyla, J.; Xavier, Francis P.

    2012-12-01

    The use of titania-silica in photocatalytic process has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional TiO2 catalysts. Mesoporous materials have been of great interest as catalysts because of their unique textural and structural properties. Mesoporous TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, tetra-ethylorthosilicate as starting materials. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauett-Emmett-Teller and field-dependent photoconductivity. The UV-Vis spectrum of as-synthesized samples shows similar absorption in the visible range. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples was calculated by Scherrer's formula. The BET surface area for TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite is found to be 303 m2/g and pore size distribution has average pore diameter about 10 nm. It also confirms the absence of macropores and the presence of micro and mesopores. The field-dependent photoconductivity of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite shows nearly 300 folds more than that of TiO2 nanoparticle for a field of 800 V/cm.

  3. Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation. PMID:25258615

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of dyestuff wastewater with Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Sui, Guozhe; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinlong; Jia, Lihua; Lv, Jun

    2013-06-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite has been prepared by a sol-gel method, which is used for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Congo red (CR) as the probe dyestuff that are notorious organic compounds present in dyes wastewater. The prepared samples are characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It is found that the nanocomposite of Zn(2+)-TiO2-SiO2 exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity under both UV light and visible light irradiation as compared with Degussa P25, Zn(2+)-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2. The photodegradation efficiencies of RhB (5 mg/L) and CR (10 mg/L) can reach above 90% and 83% for 1.5 h visible light irradiation, respectively. Synergetic effect between Zn(2+)-SiO2-doping not only inhibit the crystal growth and anatase-to-rutile transformation of TiO2 nanocatalyst, but also extend the light response to the visible region, which provides a good way and material in the degradation field of dyes wastewater.

  5. In situ synthesis of flexible magnetic γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 nanofibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Si, Yang; Tang, Xiaomin; Ge, Jianlong; Yang, Shan; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-02-21

    Novel flexible, mesoporous, and magnetic γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 nanofibrous membranes with high γ-Fe2O3 content and uniform distribution were prepared by a facile in situ growth method, which exhibit prominent mechanical strength and magnetic responsive performance, as well as efficient adsorption for organics in water. PMID:24424296

  6. Effect Terthiophenes Units on the Microstructure and Birefringence of SiO2 Gels Prepared via Sol-Gels Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kancono; Senin, H. B.

    2007-05-09

    Materials ceramics products based on SiO2 gels have been produced via sol-gels processing in present of 1% NH4F/H2O as catalyst. Alkoxysilane from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) are chose as a matrices or template sources, than the product's of syntheses precursor: 2,5-bis(trimethoxysilyl)terthiophene (BTS3T) used as a motif organic compound: That product formed matrices as silicate backbone of terthiophene-briged silsesquioxane net-work; [O1.5Si-(C4H2S)n-SiO1.5]n. The structure silsesquioxane terthiophene-briged formed have layer distance of 4.6and 8.6 angstroms. So, that terthiophenes units in their structure give an effect on the characteristic pattern as an ordered micro lamellar structure. Electron microscopy analyses in matrices -Si-O-Si- there spheres formed by diameter about 10 {mu}m which are rich in silicon. The effect of terthiophenes unites on SiO2 gels formed shown that birefringence phenomenas are strong in presence of higher quantity oligothiophenes units, and will decrease with increase quantity of alkoxysilane, with anisotropic values differences decrease every 1.125 x 10-3 per mole SiO2, whereas the optical transparency of SiO2 gels formed are increase.

  7. Imaging and spectroscopy of defect luminescence and electron-phonon coupling in single SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chizhik, Anna M; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gutbrod, Raphael; Meixner, Alfred Johann; Schmidt, Torsten; Sommerfeld, Jana; Huisken, Friedrich

    2009-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystals were synthesized by CO(2) laser pyrolysis of SiH(4). The fresh silicon nanopowder was oxidized in water to obtain SiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibiting strong red-orange photoluminescence. Samples of SiO(2) NPs embedded in low concentration in a thin polymer layer were prepared by spin-coating a dedicated solution on quartz cover slides. Using an argon ion laser at 488 nm with higher-order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarized doughnut modes) for excitation, the three-dimensional orientation of the nanoparticles' transition dipole moment was investigated in a confocal microscope. The linear transition dipole moment was found to be rather stable and randomly oriented. However, dynamical effects such as fluorescence intermittency and transition dipole moment flipping could also be observed. The spectral analysis of single SiO(2) NPs revealed double-peak spectra consisting of a narrow zero-phonon line and a broader phonon band being associated with the excitation of longitudinal optical phonons in the SiO(2) NP. PMID:19653645

  8. Preferential dissolution of SiO2 from enstatite to H2 fluid under high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Ayako; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Hisako; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Okada, Taku; Nakano, Satoshi; Yagi, Takehiko

    2016-04-01

    Stability and phase relations of coexisting enstatite and H2 fluid were investigated in the pressure and temperature regions of 3.1-13.9 GPa and 1500-2000 K using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells. XRD measurements showed decomposition of enstatite upon heating to form forsterite, periclase, and coesite/stishovite. In the recovered samples, SiO2 grains were found at the margin of the heating hot spot, suggesting that the SiO2 component dissolved in the H2 fluid during heating, then precipitated when its solubility decreased with decreasing temperature. Raman and infrared spectra of the coexisting fluid phase revealed that SiH4 and H2O molecules formed through the reaction between dissolved SiO2 and H2. In contrast, forsterite and periclase crystals were found within the hot spot, which were assumed to have replaced the initial orthoenstatite crystals without dissolution. Preferential dissolution of SiO2 components of enstatite in H2 fluid, as well as that observed in the forsterite H2 system and the quartz H2 system, implies that H2-rich fluid enhances Mg/Si fractionation between the fluid and solid phases of mantle minerals.

  9. Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of organophosphorus pesticide using SiO2-poly(N-vinylimidazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Solís, M. C.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D.; Medina-Peralta, S.; Carrera-Figueiras, C.; Ávila-Ortega, A.

    2013-06-01

    A sorbent material based on silica particles modified with poly(N-vinylimidazole) (SiO2-PVI) has been evaluated for the treatment of samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The extraction of four organophosphorus pesticides was done from a spiked tomato and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Six elution solvents were evaluated and acetone was selected due to better recovery of the four pesticides and low background signal in the chromatograms. A factorial design 24 was used for selection of extraction conditions. The factors were contact time, acetone volume, treatment (with or without freeze-drying) and adsorbent (SiO2 or SiO2-PVI). The best recoveries were obtained using 15 minutes of contact, 2 mL of solvent and sorbent without freeze-drying. The recoveries were between 60 and 83% for SiO2-PVI in spiked tomato with 0.2 and 0.8μg/g.

  10. UV-radiation-induced degradation of fluorinated polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Hsin; Saha, Naresh C.

    1994-12-01

    Fully cured fluorinated polyimide (FPI) films with low dielectric constants ( less than or equal to 3.0) have been found to be chemically altered when exposed to UV radiation during a process integration study. This chemical modification is manifested in the loss of film thickness after it is subjected to UV radiation followed by photoresist stripping. The UV-radiation-induced surface modifications of the FPI film have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data show the presence of C=O and COO(-) sites in the FPI molecule following UV exposure. Under prolonged UV exposure in a stepper, the FPI film acts as a positive working photoresist. However, a 2 kA plasma enhanced chemically vapor-deposited oxide mask and/or a typical 12 kA photoresist mask effectively shields the FPI from UV-radiation-induced degradation. The effects of FPI on UV radiation present during other normal wafer processing steps such as plasma deposition and reactive ion-etching were also studied and found to be negligible.

  11. Damage effects of {ion}/{atom} beam milling on MNOS (Al/Si 3N 4/SiO 2/Si) capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, U.; Belson, J.; Wilson, I. H.

    1984-02-01

    Low energy argon ion and atom beams produced by saddle field sources have been used to study changes in CVD Si 3N 4/SiO 2/Si structures after bombardment of the bare nitride at a particle energy of 2.9 keV. Interface state densities Nst and flatband voltages VFB were extracted from high frequency (1.3 MHz) and quasi-static C- V curves. Bombardment was found to induce an increase in Nst and positive and negative charge storage associated with the nitride (or the nitride/oxide interface). The effect was more pronounced under ion bombardment. On the supposition that displacement damage is similar for ion and atom bombardments the differences in charge storage are interpreted in terms of enhanced trapping under the field associated with ion bombardment.

  12. Improved performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental composites by net-like structures formed from SiO2 nanofiber fillers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Xuehui; Wei, Yan; Xu, Mingming; Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Yali; Deng, Xuliang

    2016-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to explore the effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanofibers on the performance of 2, 2-bis-[4-(methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA)/tri-(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites. At first, the mechanical properties of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50, w/w) resins containing different contents of SiO2 nanofibers were evaluated to identify the appropriate composition to achieve the significant reinforcing effect. Secondly, optimized contents (5 or 10wt.%) of SiO2 nanofibers were mixed into resins together with SiO2 microparticles, which was 60wt.% of the resin. Controls for comparison were Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins containing only SiO2 microparticles (60wt.%) or with additional SiO2 nanoparticles (5 or 10wt.%). Properties including abrasion, polymerization shrinkage and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the contribution of SiO2 nanofibers. In comparison with SiO2 nanoparticles, SiO2 nanofibers improved the overall performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA composite resins, especially in improving abrasion resistance and decreasing polymerization shrinkage. The explanations were that one-dimensional SiO2 nanofibers were able to shield particular fillers from being abraded off, and able to form a kind of overlapped fibrous network to resist polymerization shrinkage. With these approaches, SiO2 nanofiber-containing Bis-GMA composite resins were envisioned a promising choice to achieve long-term durable restorations in clinical therapies.

  13. Effect of source frequency and pulsing on the SiO2 etching characteristics of dual-frequency capacitive coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoe Jun; Jeon, Min Hwan; Mishra, Anurag Kumar; Kim, In Jun; Sin, Tae Ho; Yeom, Geun Young

    2015-01-01

    A SiO2 layer masked with an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) has been etched in an Ar/C4F8 gas mixture with dual frequency capacitively coupled plasmas under variable frequency (13.56-60 MHz)/pulsed rf source power and 2 MHz continuous wave (CW) rf bias power, the effects of the frequency and pulsing of the source rf power on the SiO2 etch characteristics were investigated. By pulsing the rf power, an increased SiO2 etch selectivity was observed with decreasing SiO2 etch rate. However, when the rf power frequency was increased, not only a higher SiO2 etch rate but also higher SiO2 etch selectivity was observed for both CW and pulse modes. A higher CF2/F ratio and lower electron temperature were observed for both a higher source frequency mode and a pulsed plasma mode. Therefore, when the C 1s binding states of the etched SiO2 surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the increase of C-Fx bonding on the SiO2 surface was observed for a higher source frequency operation similar to a pulsed plasma condition indicating the increase of SiO2 etch selectivity over the ACL. The increase of the SiO2 etch rate with increasing etch selectivity for the higher source frequency operation appears to be related to the increase of the total plasma density with increasing CF2/F ratio in the plasma. The SiO2 etch profile was also improved not only by using the pulsed plasma but also by increasing the source frequency.

  14. Improved performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental composites by net-like structures formed from SiO2 nanofiber fillers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Xuehui; Wei, Yan; Xu, Mingming; Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Yali; Deng, Xuliang

    2016-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to explore the effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanofibers on the performance of 2, 2-bis-[4-(methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA)/tri-(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites. At first, the mechanical properties of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50, w/w) resins containing different contents of SiO2 nanofibers were evaluated to identify the appropriate composition to achieve the significant reinforcing effect. Secondly, optimized contents (5 or 10wt.%) of SiO2 nanofibers were mixed into resins together with SiO2 microparticles, which was 60wt.% of the resin. Controls for comparison were Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins containing only SiO2 microparticles (60wt.%) or with additional SiO2 nanoparticles (5 or 10wt.%). Properties including abrasion, polymerization shrinkage and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the contribution of SiO2 nanofibers. In comparison with SiO2 nanoparticles, SiO2 nanofibers improved the overall performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA composite resins, especially in improving abrasion resistance and decreasing polymerization shrinkage. The explanations were that one-dimensional SiO2 nanofibers were able to shield particular fillers from being abraded off, and able to form a kind of overlapped fibrous network to resist polymerization shrinkage. With these approaches, SiO2 nanofiber-containing Bis-GMA composite resins were envisioned a promising choice to achieve long-term durable restorations in clinical therapies. PMID:26652397

  15. Investigation of SiO2:Na2O ratio as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, N.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A.

    2013-11-01

    The silicate is one of the potential compounds used as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys. The mixture between silica and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) succeeded to produce the silicate product. The formulation of a silicate product normally variable depended by the different ratio of SiO2:Na2O. This research utilized the agriculture waste product of paddy using its rice husk. In this study, the amorphous silica content in rice husk ash was used after rice husk burnt in a muffle furnace at a certain temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to determine the existence of amorphous phase of silica in the rice husk ash. There are several studies that recognized rice husk as an alternative source that obtained high silica content. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to clarify the percentage amount of Si and O elements, which referred the silica compound in rice husk ash. The preparation of sodium silicate formulation were differ based on the SiO2:Na2O ratio (SiO2:Na2O ratio = 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00). These silicate based corrosion inhibitors were tested on several testing samples, which were copper (99.9%), aluminum alloy (AA 6061) and carbon steel (SAE 1045). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate SiO2:Na2O ratio and understand how this SiO2:Na2O ratio can affect the corrosion rate of each metal alloys immersed in acidic medium. In order to investigate this study, weight loss test was conducted in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 24 hours at room temperature.

  16. Interfaces between 4H-SiC and SiO2: Microstructure, nanochemistry, and near-interface traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippel, Eckhard; Woltersdorf, Jörg; Ólafsson, Halldor Ö.; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar Ö.

    2005-02-01

    We report on electrical and microscopic investigations aimed to clarify the origin of near-interface traps (NITs) in metal-silicon dioxide-4H-silicon carbide structures. Using capacitance-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current (TDRC) analysis we investigated NITs close to the 4H-SiC conduction-band edge in differently prepared thermal and deposited oxides and found that the traps give rise to two characteristic TDRC signatures belonging to two groups of trap levels. The total trapped charge exceeds 1×1013cm-2. The observed density and energy distribution of these traps are nearly identical in all thermal and deposited oxides investigated, suggesting that the NITs belong to intrinsic defects at the SiO2/SiC interface which are readily formed during oxide deposition or thermal oxidation of 4H-SiC. Using high-resolution electron microscopy combined with nanochemical analysis (electron energy-loss near-edge spectroscopy and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy) we investigated the SiO2/SiC interface in samples receiving reoxidation and did not find any indication of graphitic regions at or near the SiO2/SiC interface or in the bulk silicon dioxide within a detection limit of 0.7nm. In addition, no amorphous carbon accumulation was observed near the SiO2/SiC interface. The overall results strongly suggest that the NITs near the 4H-SiC conduction band are not related to carbon structures in the SiO2/SiC interlayer.

  17. Radiative thermal rectification between SiC and SiO2.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Rousseau, Benoît; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos

    2015-11-30

    By means of fluctuational electrodynamics, we calculate radiative heat flux between two planar materials respectively made of SiC and SiO2. More specifically, we focus on a first (direct) situation where one of the two materials (for example SiC) is at ambient temperature whereas the second material is at a higher one, then we study a second (reverse) situation where the material temperatures are inverted. When the two fluxes corresponding to the two situations are different, the materials are said to exhibit thermal rectification, a property with potential applications in thermal regulation. Rectification variations with temperature and separation distance are reported here. Calculations are performed using material optical data experimentally determined by Fourier transform emission spectrometry of heated materials between ambient temperature (around 300 K) and 1480 K. It is shown that rectification is much more important in the near-field domain, i.e. at separation distances smaller than the thermal wavelength. In addition, we see that the larger is the temperature difference, the larger is rectification. Large rectification is finally interpreted due to a weakening of the SiC surface polariton when temperature increases, a weakening which affects much less SiO2 resonances.

  18. Enhanced microwave absorption of Fe nanoflakes after coating with SiO2 nanoshell.

    PubMed

    Yan, Longgang; Wang, Jianbo; Han, Xianghua; Ren, Yong; Liu, Qingfang; Li, Fashen

    2010-03-01

    Fe nanoflakes were prepared by the ball-milling technique, and then were coated with 20 nm-thick SiO(2) to prepare Fe/SiO(2) core-shell nanoflakes. Compared with the uncoated Fe nanoflakes, the permittivity of Fe/SiO(2) nanoflakes decreases dramatically, while the permeability decreases slightly. Consequently, reflection losses exceeding - 20 dB of Fe/SiO(2) nanoflakes are obtained in the frequency range of 3.8-7.3 GHz for absorber thicknesses of 2.2-3.6 mm, while the reflection loss of uncoated Fe nanoflakes almost cannot reach - 10 dB in the same thickness range. The enhanced microwave absorption of Fe/SiO(2) nanoflakes can be attributed to the combination of the proper electromagnetic impedance match due to the decrease of permittivity and large magnetic loss due to strong and broadband natural resonance. The key to the combination is the coexistence of the nanoshell microstructure and the nanoflake morphology.

  19. Preparation and effect of thermal treatment on Gd2O3:SiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, Rachna

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth oxides have been extensively investigated due to their fascinating properties such as enhanced luminescence efficiency, lower lasing threshold, high-performance luminescent devices, drug-carrying vehicle, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), up-conversion materials, catalysts and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) labels for biological detection etc. Nanocomposites of silica gadolinium oxide have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel process using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. Gd(NO3)3ṡ6H2O and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as precursors to obtain powdered form of gadolinum oxide:silica (Gd2O3:SiO2) composite. The powdered samples having 2.8 mol% Gd2O3 were annealed at 500°C and 900°C temperature for 6 h and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effect of annealing on the phase evolution of the composite system has been discussed in detail. It was found that the sintering of gadolinium precursor plays a pivotal role to obtain crystalline phase of Gd2O3. Cubic phase of gadolinium oxide was developed for annealed sample at 900°C (6 h) with an average grain size 12 nm.

  20. Crystallization of a Li2O2SiO2 Glass under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Day, D. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Ray, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass subjected to a uniform hydrostatic pressure of 4.5 or 6 GPa was investigated between 550 and 800 C using XRD, IR, Raman, TEM, NMR, and DTA. The density of the glass subjected to 6 GPa was between 2.52 plus or minus 0.01 and 2.57 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeters, depending upon the processing temperatures, and was higher than that of the stoichiometric LS2 crystals, 2.46 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeter. Thus, crystallization in 6 GPa glass occurred in a condition of negative volume dilatation, deltaV = V(sub glass) - V(sub crystal), while that for the 4.5 GPa glass occurred in the condition deltaV greater than 0. For deltaV greater than 0, which also includes the control glass at ambient (one atmosphere) pressure, the glasses always crystallize Li2Si2O5 (orthorhombic, Ccc2) crystals, but for deltaV less than 0 (6 GPa), the glasses crystallize Li2SiO3 crystals with a slightly deformed structure. The crystal growth rate vs. temperature curve moved to higher temperature with increasing pressure, and was independent of the sign of deltaV. These results for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the crystallization of LS2 glass were discussed from thermodynamic considerations.