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Sample records for sir james crichton-browne

  1. A Victorian physician ahead of his time. The story of fluorine advocate Sir James Crichton-Browne.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2003-11-01

    Sir James Crichton-Browne, one of England's most renowned psychiatrists, whose career spanned two centuries, had very strong feelings about the need to secure proper dental care for all the children of his country. He translated these feelings into action when he advocated that fluorine be added to the diets of pregnant women and children. And this was almost a half-century before definitive research showed the value of fluorine as a preventive of caries.

  2. 'This excellent observer ...': the correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1869-75.

    PubMed

    Pearn, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Between May 1869 and December 1875, Charles Darwin exchanged more than 40 letters with James Crichton-Browne, superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire. This paper charts their relationship within the context of Darwin's wider research networks and methods; it analyses the contribution that Crichton-Browne made to the writing of Expression, arguing that the information he provided materially affected Darwin's thesis, and that it was partly the need to assimilate this that led Darwin to publish Expression separately from Descent. The letters help to reconstruct Crichton-Browne's early research interests, and document Darwin's little-explored role as a patron. Both men are revealed within a collaborative scientific network, with each of them at various times a beneficiary or a promoter.

  3. Sir James Paget and his contributions to pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Sir James Paget's Lectures on Surgical Pathology, published in 1853, was based on Lectures given at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in the previous six years. It makes use of the pathological material collected by John Hunter in the late eighteenth century which was housed in the College. It expands the principles of pathophysiology enunciated by Hunter using microscopic observations. The first half of the book covers mainly inflammation and repair; the second is involved in a description of tumours with particular emphasis on the difference between benign and malignant growths. This book indicates a concept of pathology before the realization of the role of infectious organisms. However, there is some inkling of the contagious nature of syphilis and variola following on Hunter's work. The concept, current at that time, that tuberculosis was related to cancer is expressed. This work acts as a bridge between the pathology of John Hunter and that of the present time. Images Figure 1 PMID:8652365

  4. Experimental tectonics: from Sir James Hall to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, Giorgio

    2001-09-01

    The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth (Hutton, J., 1795. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. I & II. Cadell & Davies, Edinburgh). Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems (crystallization and melting) not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments. From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics. One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: the initiation and time-history of subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere, and the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges.

  5. Sir James Black and propranolol. The role of the basic sciences in the history of cardiovascular pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M P

    1997-01-01

    The history of cardiology encompasses some of the most revered names in medical history, many belonging to physicians who have advanced knowledge beyond their time. However, there have been countless others whose work in the basic sciences has paid large dividends to clinical cardiology. The original example of such an individual is William Harvey, whose reasoned experimentation led to the understanding of the circulation of blood. Another such man, Sir James Black, has contributed to basic scientific and clinical knowledge in cardiology, both as a physician and as a basic scientist. His invention of propranolol, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris, is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century. His method of research, his discoveries about adrenergic pharmacology, and his clarification of the mechanisms of cardiac action are all strengths of his work. In 1988, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Sir James's conclusions and method of research have continued to influence work in clinical pharmacology and cardiovascular medicine. Thus, the development of propranolol runs parallel to most other great achievements in medicine: the genius of a few builds on the accomplishments of many, and the discovery influences thinking long after the breakthrough has occurred. Images PMID:9456487

  6. Sir James Jeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, E. A.

    2013-09-01

    Memoir by S. C. Roberts; 1. Merchant Taylor's and Cambridge; 2. Princeton, 1905-9; 3. Return to England. The Adams Prize essay, 1909-19; 4. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1919-29; 5. Popular exposition, 1929-30; 6. Later years, 1931-46; 7. Science in Jeans's boyhood; 8. The partition of energy; 9. Rotating fluid masses; 10. Star clusters; 11. The equilibrium of the stars; 12. Jeans and philosophy; Bibliography; Index.

  7. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ...     View Larger Image In late February 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the ...

  8. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  9. Sir Alec Clegg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred".

  10. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  11. Sir Harold Jeffreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Sir Harold Jeffreys is a world authority in theoretical geophyiscs. hew as born in Northumbria (northeast of England) and educated at Armstrong College (now the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) and Cambridge University. He is now a Senior Fellow of St.John's College, Cambridge. He has published over 300 scientific papers and is the author of 7 books, including Theory of Probability and Mathematical Physics (with his wife, Lady Bertha Swirles Jeffreys). Sir Harold has made innumerable theoretical contributions to seismology. Many of these are documented in his book The Earth, which has been published in six editions. His papers have recently been collated by Gordon and Breach (Publishers) into six volumes, Collected Papers on Sir Harold Jeffreys on Geophyiscs and other Sciences. Some idea of the breadth of this research can be seen from the individual volume titles: "Theoretical and Observational Seismology," "Observational Seismology," "Gravity," "Dissipation of Energy and Thermal History," "Astronomy and Geophysics," and "Matematics, Probability and Miscellaneious Other Sciences." 

  12. Sir William Hingston

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Sir William Hingston was one of Canada’s most illustrious surgeons in the second half of the 19th century. Not only was he a very innovative surgeon but he was an excellent teacher and wrote many medical articles during a career that spanned over 50 years. Active as he was medically, he found time to serve a term as mayor of Montreal and was on the board of directors of various banks and companies. As recognition of his many talents, he was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. He died in 1907 at the age of 78 years. PMID:8857994

  13. James Dunlop's historical catalogue of southern nebulae and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozens, Glen; Walsh, Andrew; Orchiston, Wayne

    2010-03-01

    In 1826 James Dunlop compiled the second ever catalogue of southern star clusters, nebulae and galaxies from Parramatta (NSW, Australia) using a 23-cm reflecting telescope. Initially acclaimed, the catalogue and author were later criticised and condemned by others - including Sir John Herschel and both the catalogue and author are now largely unknown. The criticism of the catalogue centred on the large number of fictitious or ‘missing’ objects, yet detailed analysis reveals the remarkable completeness of the catalogue, despite its inherent errors. We believe that James Dunlop was an important early Australian astronomer, and his catalogue should be esteemed as the southern equivalent of Messier's famous northern catalogue.

  14. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  15. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    PubMed

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  16. James Joule and meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1989 was the hundredth anniversary of the death of James Prescott Joule, the Prescott being his mother's family name and the Joule, rhyming with cool, originating from the Derbyshire village of Youlgreave. Joule is rightly famous for his experimental efforts to establish the law of conservation of energy, and for the fact that J, the symbol known as the mechanical equivalent of heat, is named after him. Astronomically his "light has been hidden under a bushel". James Joule had a major influence on the physics of meteors.

  17. Teaching James Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  18. The James Report Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    2008-01-01

    The 1972 Report of the Government's Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Education and Training (James Report) suggested radical changes, many of which conflicted both with the interests of existing providers and with emerging policies on the organisation of higher education. Its proposals concerning in-service education, whilst generally welcomed,…

  19. James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers).

  20. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  1. Winter Naming: James Welch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  2. James R. Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    James R. Thompon served as director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from September 29, 1986 until July 6, 1989, when he was appointed as NASA Deputy Administrator. Prior to his tenure as Marshall's Director, Thompson served from March to June 1986 as the vice-chairman of the NASA task force investigating the cause of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. He was credited with playing a significant role in returning the Space Shuttle to flight following the Challenger disaster.

  3. A fractional-order infectivity SIR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, C. N.; Henry, B. I.; McGann, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Fractional-order SIR models have become increasingly popular in the literature in recent years, however unlike the standard SIR model, they often lack a derivation from an underlying stochastic process. Here we derive a fractional-order infectivity SIR model from a stochastic process that incorporates a time-since-infection dependence on the infectivity of individuals. The fractional derivative appears in the generalised master equations of a continuous time random walk through SIR compartments, with a power-law function in the infectivity. We show that this model can also be formulated as an infection-age structured Kermack-McKendrick integro-differential SIR model. Under the appropriate limit the fractional infectivity model reduces to the standard ordinary differential equation SIR model.

  4. The SIR-B science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) will be the third in a series of spaceborne SAR experiments conducted by NASA which began with the 1978 launch of SEASAT and continued with the 1981 launch of SIR-A. Like SEASAT and SIR-A, SIR-B will operate at L-band and will be horizontally polarized. However, SIR-B will allow digitally processed imagery to be acquired at selectable incidence angles between 15 and 60 deg, thereby permitting, for the first time, parametric studies of the effect of illumination geometry on SAR image information extraction. This document presents a science plan for SIR-B and serves as a reference for the types of geoscientific, sensor, and processing experiments which are possible.

  5. Properties of the SIRS suppressor pathway.

    PubMed

    Aune, T M; Pierce, C W

    1983-01-01

    The SIRS suppressor pathway is initiated by activation of Ly 2+ T lymphocytes by either con A or IFN beta. SIRS is a protein which has been purified and exists as two species with mol. wts. of 14,000 and 21,500. The target of SIRS is the macrophage and macrophages appear to oxidize or activate SIRS in a peroxide dependent process. Catalase blocks SIRS or IFN beta action by consuming H2O2 and levamisole blocks SIRS or IFN beta by preventing activation or oxidation of SIRS by H2O2. Other agents which block SIRS or IFN beta action include electron donors which can inactivate SIRSox. SIRSox is a potent inhibitor of immune responses and proliferation of normal and neoplastic cells. The mechanism of SIRSox-mediated inhibition of proliferation appears to involve oxidation or modification of protein sulfhydryls. Although the applicability of this pathway to the regulation of immune responses and cellular proliferation remains to be determined, both IFN beta and levamisole have been found to affect a wide variety of cellular processes. The involvement of both IFN beta and levamisole in the SIRS pathway suggests that this pathway may be an important host mechanism for regulating both immune responses and cellular proliferation in general.

  6. Joint Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott Joule, James

    2011-06-01

    Experiments and observations on the mechanical powers of electro-magnetism, steam, and horses with Dr. Scoresby; On atomic volume and specific gravity with Sir Lyon Playfair; On the thermal effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of elastic fluids with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson.

  7. James E. Webb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    James E. Webb served as the second Administrator for NASA from February 14, 1961, to October 7, 1968. Webb was born on October 7, 1906, in Tally Ho, North Carolina. After receiving a B.A. in Education from the University of North Carolina, he went on to serve as a pilot in the Marine Corps and later graduated from George Washington University with a law degree. Webb worked in various positions on Capitol Hill until World War II when he re-entered the Marine Corps. After the war Webb served as the executive assistant to the Under Secretary of the Treasury before he was appointed Director of the Bureau of the Budget in the Executive Office of the President. During the Truman Administration Webb served as the Under Secretary of State until he joined the private sector in 1953. James Webb guided the agency through the Apollo years, taking responsibility for the failure of Apollo 1 and the death of three astronauts. He retired in 1968 and served on many advisory boards. He died in 1992.

  8. Variants of the Sir4 Coiled-Coil Domain Improve Binding to Sir3 for Heterochromatin Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Samel, Anke; Rudner, Adam; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E

    2017-04-03

    Heterochromatin formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by the assembly of the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) complex, which consists of the histone deacetylase Sir2 and the structural components Sir3 and Sir4, and binds to unmodified nucleosomes to provide gene silencing. Sir3 contains an AAA(+) ATPase-like domain, and mutations in an exposed loop on the surface of this domain abrogate Sir3 silencing function in vivo, as well in vitro binding to the Sir2/Sir4 subcomplex. Here, we found that the removal of a single methyl group in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain (mutation T1314S) of Sir4 was sufficient to restore silencing at the silent mating-type loci HMR and HML to a Sir3 version with a mutation in this loop. Restoration of telomeric silencing required further mutations of Sir4 (E1310V and K1325R). Significantly, these mutations in Sir4 restored in vitro complex formation between Sir3 and the Sir4 coiled-coil, indicating that the improved affinity between Sir3 and Sir4 is responsible for the restoration of silencing. Altogether, these observations highlight remarkable properties of selected amino-acid changes at the Sir3-Sir4 interface that modulate the affinity of the two proteins.

  9. Variants of the Sir4 Coiled-Coil Domain Improve Binding to Sir3 for Heterochromatin Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Samel, Anke; Rudner, Adam; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by the assembly of the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) complex, which consists of the histone deacetylase Sir2 and the structural components Sir3 and Sir4, and binds to unmodified nucleosomes to provide gene silencing. Sir3 contains an AAA+ ATPase-like domain, and mutations in an exposed loop on the surface of this domain abrogate Sir3 silencing function in vivo, as well in vitro binding to the Sir2/Sir4 subcomplex. Here, we found that the removal of a single methyl group in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain (mutation T1314S) of Sir4 was sufficient to restore silencing at the silent mating-type loci HMR and HML to a Sir3 version with a mutation in this loop. Restoration of telomeric silencing required further mutations of Sir4 (E1310V and K1325R). Significantly, these mutations in Sir4 restored in vitro complex formation between Sir3 and the Sir4 coiled-coil, indicating that the improved affinity between Sir3 and Sir4 is responsible for the restoration of silencing. Altogether, these observations highlight remarkable properties of selected amino-acid changes at the Sir3-Sir4 interface that modulate the affinity of the two proteins. PMID:28188183

  10. Sir William Turner (1832-1916) - Lancastrian, anatomist and champion of the Victorian era.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Quenton; Correia, Janine Carla; Taylor, Adam M

    2016-11-01

    Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister.

  11. Analysis of novel Sir3 binding regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Risa; Ohashi, Tomoe; Kugou, Kazuto; Ichino, Ayako; Taniguchi, Kei; Ohta, Kunihiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oki, Masaya

    2016-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HMR, HML, telomere and rDNA regions are silenced. Silencing at the rDNA region requires Sir2, and silencing at the HMR, HML and telomere regions requires binding of a protein complex, consisting of Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4, that mediates repression of gene expression. Here, several novel Sir3 binding domains, termed CN domains (Chromosomal Novel Sir3 binding region), were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip analysis of S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Furthermore, analysis of G1-arrested cells demonstrated that Sir3 binding was elevated in G1-arrested cells compared with logarithmically growing asynchronous cells, and that Sir3 binding varied with the cell cycle. In addition to 14 CN regions identified from analysis of logarithmically growing asynchronous cells (CN1-14), 11 CN regions were identified from G1-arrested cells (CN15-25). Gene expression at some CN regions did not differ between WT and sir3Δ strains. Sir3 at conventional heterochromatic regions is thought to be recruited to chromosomes by Sir2 and Sir4; however, in this study, Sir3 binding occurred at some CN regions even in sir2Δ and sir4Δ backgrounds. Taken together, our results suggest that Sir3 exhibits novel binding parameters and gene regulatory functions at the CN binding domains.

  12. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  13. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

  14. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, David

    2015-06-01

    Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.

  15. Amplitude calibration experiment for SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and expected results of the amplitude calibration experiment for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) are outlined. Specific objectives include: (1) the determination of the repeatability (stability) of the SIR-B; (2) the absolute and relative calibration of the system; and (3) the ground truth verification of the calibration accuracy using measurements made by a ground spectrometer and an airborne synthetic aperture radar.

  16. The SIR-B science investigations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) is the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to be flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Transportation System (Shuttle). It is the first spaceborne SAR to feature an antenna that allows acquisition of multiincidence angle imagery. An international team of scientists will use SIR-B to conduct investigations in a wide range of disciplines. The radar, the mission, and the investigations are described.

  17. Evolution and Functional Trajectory of Sir1 in Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ellahi, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    We used the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii to examine the evolution of Sir-based silencing, focusing on Sir1, silencers, the molecular topography of silenced chromatin, and the roles of SIR and RNA interference (RNAi) genes in T. delbrueckii. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis of Sir proteins in T. delbrueckii revealed a different topography of chromatin at the HML and HMR loci than was observed in S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae Sir1, enriched at the silencers of HMLα and HMRa, was absent from telomeres and did not repress subtelomeric genes. In contrast to S. cerevisiae SIR1's partially dispensable role in silencing, the T. delbrueckii SIR1 paralog KOS3 was essential for silencing. KOS3 was also found at telomeres with T. delbrueckii Sir2 (Td-Sir2) and Td-Sir4 and repressed subtelomeric genes. Silencer mapping in T. delbrueckii revealed single silencers at HML and HMR, bound by Td-Kos3, Td-Sir2, and Td-Sir4. The KOS3 gene mapped near HMR, and its expression was regulated by Sir-based silencing, providing feedback regulation of a silencing protein by silencing. In contrast to the prominent role of Sir proteins in silencing, T. delbrueckii RNAi genes AGO1 and DCR1 did not function in heterochromatin formation. These results highlighted the shifting role of silencing genes and the diverse chromatin architectures underlying heterochromatin. PMID:26811328

  18. Sir Laurence Kirwan, KCMG, TD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. M. W.

    Sir Laurence Kirwan, Director and Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society from 1945 to 1975, and one of the founders of the Institute, of which he was an Honorary Member, died in London on 16 April 1999 aged 91. The events that took place early in 1946, and led to the foundation of the Institute of Navigation the following year, have been well documented by Pat Hansford in his article in the special issue of the Journal (September 1997) published to commemorate the Institute's fiftieth anniversary. Kirwan was a member of the original Steering Committee and then of the Provisional Council which undertook the preliminary work that culminated in the inaugural meeting in March 1947. He served on the first elected Council as Chairman of the Executive Committee, which in those days assumed responsibility for administering the Institute between meetings of the Council.In his article, Hansford recalls how the Royal Society, when approached about the formation of the Institute, had suggested that (in the somewhat uncertain situation immediately after the war) the new body might thrive best, at any rate to start with, under the aegis of an existing scientific society with similar objectives. Kirwan, then the recently appointed Director of the Royal Geographical Society, took the suggestion up by proposing various ways in which the RGS might assist the new body, and notably by offering it accommodation; and the Institute has, of course, been at the Society's house ever since. The original accommodation was not lavish but, quite apart from the prestigious address and pleasant and appropriate surroundings, the facilities available included the use of the Society's lecture theatre and the Council and committee rooms. It is difficult to see how the new body, with a handful of members and no money, could have survived without some such assistance. But it was perhaps at a deeper level that the arrangement was to prove so influential, for it brought the young Institute into

  19. Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1735): his life and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stanley A

    2010-01-01

    Sir Hans Sloane was born in Killyleagh, Co Down, the seventh and last son of Alexander Sloane. His father, who was of Scottish ancestry, had a long association with James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil who had acquired the castle in Killyleagh and extensive estates in east Down. The Hamilton family took an interest in the education of the Sloane children, and much of the early tuition of Hans was conducted within the library of Killyleagh Castle. In 1679 he moved to London to study medicine and botany. In 1683, he continued his studies in Paris and Montpellier, and graduated from the University of Orange. On his return to London, he became a protégé of Thomas Sydenham. In 1687 he was appointed physician to the Duke of Albemarle and surgeon to the West Indies fleet. While in Jamaica he added countless specimens to his collections, continuing a lifetime passion. He also invented milk chocolate there. Following the untimely death of the duke, he returned to London and built up a fashionable medical practice. He married Elizabeth Langley, heiress of a wealthy city alderman, and widow of a sugar planter in Jamaica. They set up house in Great Russell Street. The family home accommodated his burgeoning collections of books, specimens and curiosities. In 1685 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, later becoming the honorary secretary and president. Following his death, his collections were bought for the nation and formed the foundation of the British Museum. PMID:20844729

  20. Sir Harold Ridley: innovator of cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, H; Modi, N

    2014-09-01

    Cataract surgery has evolved greatly over the years, from the ancient practice of 'couching' where the lens is dislodged, to the modern surgical techniques of today. Sir Harold Ridley's invention of the intraocular lens (IOL) has altered the approach towards cataract surgery, benefitting individuals worldwide. This has been his most notable contribution, it is therefore interesting to explore the build up to this event and gain an understanding of the issues faced by Sir Ridley. This paper explores the significant events and key developments that influenced one of the most valuable innovations in the context of cataract surgery--the intraocular lens.

  1. Tectonic geomorphology of the Andes with SIR-A and SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    1986-01-01

    Data takes from SIR-A and SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) crossed all of the principal geomorphic provinces of the central Andes between 17 and 34 S latitude. In conjunction with Thematic Mapping images and photographs from hand-held cameras as well as from the Large Format Camera that was flown with SIR-B, the radar images give an excellent sampling of Andean geomorphology. In particular, the radar images show new details of volcanic rocks and landforms of late Cenozoic age in the Puna, and the exhumed surfaces of tilted blocks of Precambrian crystalline basement in the Sierras Pampeanas.

  2. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  3. Author! Author!: James E. Ransome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of James E. Ransome, a children's book illustrator. Highlights include his background, the influence of filmmaking in his storyboards, illustration as storytelling, manuscript selection, the use of models and realistic themes, awards, future work, and advice for librarians and teachers about how to use his books. (AEF)

  4. The Writings of James Comer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the educational philosophy and the writings of James Comer, who argues that education clings to a model of teaching and learning that promises only failure for countless children and that teacher training fails to equip teachers for the realities and demands of contemporary classrooms. (SR)

  5. Portrait of James P. Comer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1990-01-01

    James P. Comer, a distinguished Black child psychiatrist born of sharecropper parents, credits his family's values and continued support for his success in college. In 1968, Comer and his colleagues developed a school-based management team to help poor families and schools develop trust and mutual respect. The program is widely used in New Haven…

  6. James Frey: Feelings as Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Trysh

    2006-01-01

    James Frey, author of the book "A Million Little Pieces" is accused of embellishing and/or fabricating elements of his story, a graphic but supposedly honest, depiction of his struggle with drugs and alcohol. More and more college students who are caught plagiarizing believe, as Frey seems to, that as long as one agrees with the authors one…

  7. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    27. On the viscosity or internal friction of air and other gases; 28. On the dynamical theory of gases; 29. On the theory of the maintenance of electric currents by mechanical work without the use of permanent magnets; 30. On the equilibrium of a spherical envelope; 31. On the best arrangement for producing a pure spectrum on a screen; 32. The construction of stereograms of surfaces; 33. On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress; 34. On governors; 35. Experiment in magneto-electric induction; 36. On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with electromagnetic force; 37. On the cyclide; 38. On a bow seen on the surface of ice; 39. On reciprocal figures, frames, and diagrams of forces; 40. On the displacement in a case of fluid motion; 41. Address to the mathematical and physical sections of the British Association, 1870; 42. On colour-vision at different points of the retina; 43. On hills and dales; 44. Introductory lecture on experimental physics; 45. On the solution of electrical problems by the transformation of conjugate functions; 46. On the mathematical classification of physical quantities; 47. On colour vision; 48. On the geometrical mean distance of two figures on a plane; 49. On the induction of electric currents in an infinite plane sheet of uniform conductivity; 50. On the condition that, in the transformation of any figure by curvilinear co-ordinates in three dimensions, every angle in the new figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original figure; 51. Reprint of Papers on electrostatics and magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review); 52. On the proof of the equations of motion of a connected system; 53. On a problem in the calculus of variations in which the solution is discontinuous; 54. On action at a distance; 55. Elements of natural philosophy. By Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. (Review); 56. On the theory of a system of electrified conductors, and other physical theories involving

  8. Generalized James' effective Hamiltonian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, Xun-Li

    2017-03-01

    James' effective Hamiltonian method has been extensively adopted to investigate largely detuned interacting quantum systems. This method only corresponds to the second-order perturbation theory and cannot be exploited to treat problems which should be solved by using the third- or higher-order perturbation theory. In this paper, we generalize James' effective Hamiltonian method to the higher-order case. Using the method developed here, we reexamine two recently published examples [L. Garziano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601; Ken K. W. Ma and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023842 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023842]; our results turn out to be the same as the original ones derived from the third-order perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination method, respectively. For some specific problems, this method can simplify the calculating procedure and the resultant effective Hamiltonian is more general.

  9. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

  10. James Clerk Maxwell and religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1986-04-01

    The evolution of James Clerk Maxwell's religious beliefs is described. His college-age conversion experience and his membership in the ``Apostles'' were crucial in his religious development. In his mature statements, Maxwell denied that scientific truth was dependent on religious truth, or the reverse. Nonetheless, scientific conclusions could enrich religious contemplation of God's actions in nature. Maxwell provided a religious interpretation of the apparent uniformity and eternity of atoms.

  11. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    scattering is much weaker, and this allowed him to develop a method of successive approximation. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission (UPS) from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. Sam Edwards (now Sir Sam) was head of SRC (forerunner of EPSRC) at the time and recognised the problem of interpreting all the data that the machine would provide. And after UPS would come EXAFS, and after that XANES and all the rest of the alphabet soup. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did

  12. Sir Bernard Lovell (1913-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sir Bernard Lovell, founder and first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory (UK), died on August 6th, 2012, at the age of 98. Lovell was one of the pioneers of radio astronomy. Much of his observational work in the early days of the Observatory focused on radio meteors. Using ex-army radar equipment, Lovell and his colleagues recorded the spectacular Draconid storm of October 1946 and went on to publish many papers in the field, settling some of the big arguments of the time. Sir Bernard's legacy is immense, extending from his wartime work on military radar systems to his pioneering contributions to radio astronomy, and including his dedication to education and public engagement with scientific research.

  13. Burns as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Punam

    2009-06-01

    Thermal injury following burns is a common clinical condition. Excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following burns leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Development of in vivo experimental models of burns over the past 50 years have facilitated the study of the effects of thermal injury on physiological and immunological parameters in the pathogenesis of burns and associated systemic organ damage. Using these models, researchers have established the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-2 and substance P in burns and associated systemic organ damage. The rationale of this chapter is to present an overview of different experimental animal models, both rodents as well as large animals, of burns and associated SIRS and the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this condition as well as in pathogenesis of the resultant MODS.

  14. Occurrence of nervous system involvement in SIRS.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Paulo E; Lino, Angelina M M; Hirata, Maria T A; Carvalho, Nise B; Brotto, Mario W I; Scaff, Milberto

    2006-12-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a medical condition in which the all-organ microcirculation is affected including nervous system. We describe neurological findings in 64 patients with SIRS at Hospital das Clínicas of Sao Paulo University School of Medicine; 45.3% were male and 54.7% female; their age ranged from 16 to 95 years old. SIRS was caused by infection in 68.8% of patients, trauma in 10.9%, burns in 7.8%, and elective surgery in 4.7%. The central nervous system involvement occurred in 56.3% of patients and was characterized as encephalopathy in 75%, seizures in 13.9%, non-epileptic myoclonus in 2.8%, and ischemic stroke in 8.3%. The magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalographic changes were unremarkable in encephalopathic patients. Neuromuscular disorders were diagnosed in 43.7%. Critical ill polyneuropathy was characterized in 57.1%, critical ill myopathy in 32.1%, demyelinating neuropathy in 7.2%, and pure motor neuropathy in 3.6%. Nerve and muscle pathological studies dismissed inflammatory abnormalities. The identification of these conditions has important economic implications and may change the critically ill patients' prognosis.

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  16. Conference James F.Buckli

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  17. The near-infrared spectrometer SIR and SIR-2 on SMART-1 and Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, U.; Nathues, A.; Keller, H. U.; Vilenius, E.; Kaydash, V.; SIR Collaboration

    The near-infrared spectrometer SIR was developed as a technology experiment for the European SMART-1 mission, to provide a compact, low mass instrument which features high spectral and spatial resolution and can be flexibly redeployed on other spacecraft platforms, to perform detailed remote spectral investigation of planetary surfaces in the wavelength range of 0.9 - 2.4 microns. Now, at the end of the mission we use the opportunity to review the concept of the instrument and discuss the original observation strategy of the visible imager and the spectrometer in light of the actual operations. Remote geochemical studies [1,2] have used near-infrared reflectance data to characterize the overall spectral slopes of selected lunar sites. The measurement of these slopes can be done using data from SIR and is important for the development and testing of models which can separate the effects of the mineralogical composition from the effects caused by the maturation processes on near-infrared spectra. Data taken with SIR are particularly valuable because they are collected under very different photometric conditions compared to earlier flown missions. We show comparisons of SIR measurements with measurements taken from earlier spectrophotometric lunar data sets. In addition, we summarize some of the lessons learned from the technology experiment SIR on board SMART-1 and discuss the implications for the development and operation of SIR-2 for the upcoming Indian lunar science mission Chandrayaan-1. References. [1] A.T. Basilevsky et al. Planetary and Space Science, 52, 1261-1285 (2004). [2]. C. Pieters, Proc. Lunar Planet. Conf. 9th , 2825-2848 (1978).

  18. A comparison of the writings of Sir William Osler and his exemplar, Sir Thomas Browne.

    PubMed Central

    Hookman, P.

    1995-01-01

    Sir William Osler was known throughout his life as a great humanitarian. His writings touched all of us, and to persons of every race, creed, and color, he showed universal feelings of justice and mercy. Osler's writing supports great tolerance for all, yet Osler's contemporaries were far less broad-minded and not free of bigotry. Osler's role model, Sir Thomas Browne, wrote openly about his marked prejudices against Catholics, Jews, Moslems, and even women. This paradox between Osler's tolerance and humanitarianism and the prejudice and bigotry of his time, as well as his role model Browne, are explored. PMID:7581308

  19. Sir2 blocks extreme life-span extension.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Paola; Gattazzo, Cristina; Battistella, Luisa; Wei, Min; Cheng, Chao; McGrew, Kristen; Longo, Valter D

    2005-11-18

    Sir2 is a conserved deacetylase that modulates life span in yeast, worms, and flies and stress response in mammals. In yeast, Sir2 is required for maintaining replicative life span, and increasing Sir2 dosage can delay replicative aging. We address the role of Sir2 in regulating chronological life span in yeast. Lack of Sir2 along with calorie restriction and/or mutations in the yeast AKT homolog, Sch9, or Ras pathways causes a dramatic chronological life-span extension. Inactivation of Sir2 causes uptake and catabolism of ethanol and upregulation of many stress-resistance and sporulation genes. These changes while sufficient to extend chronological life span in wild-type yeast require severe calorie restriction or additional mutations to extend life span of sir2Delta mutants. Our results demonstrate that effects of SIR2 on chronological life span are opposite to replicatve life span and suggest that the relevant activities of Sir2-like deacetylases may also be complex in higher eukaryotes.

  20. President of Council-Sir Alec

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  1. Sir John Gurdon: Father of nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Sir John Gurdon founded the field of nuclear reprogramming. His work set the stage for the ever burgeoning area of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Here I provide personal reflections on times I shared with John Gurdon and professional reflections of the impact of his ground-breaking research on my own development as a scientist and on the field in general. His paradigm-shifting experiments will continue to provoke scientists to think outside the box for many years to come. PMID:24954777

  2. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  3. Sir Thomas Brisbane - Patron of Colonial Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Peter J.

    British Army office Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was sworn in as Governor of New South Wales on 1 December 1821. His appointment allowed him to pursue his plans for astronomical observations of the southern sky by setting up an observatory near his residence at Government House Parramatta. He also joined the Philosophical Society of Australasia and became Patron of the newly formed Agricultural Society of New South Wales. These societies were the precursors of many important later professional bodies, so that Brisbane's connection with them represents his most important contribution to Australian science.

  4. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  5. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  6. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often…

  7. James Moffett's Legacy to "English Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Koshnick, Damian C.; Myers, Miles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at James Moffett's influence on "English Journal". With the 1968 publication of his companion volumes--"Teaching the Universe of Discourse," which provided the theoretical underpinnings of his practice-oriented, and "A Student-Centered Language Arts Curriculum"--James Moffett (1929-96) became a major influence on…

  8. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  12. The Yellowstone Fires as Observed by SIR-C SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Despain, Don; Holecz, Francesco

    1996-01-01

    Covers SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar C) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging of the 1988 Yellowstone National Forest fires. Discusses some of the images and data collected, and some conclusions drawn from them about both the fires, and SIR-C SAR imaging capabilities.

  13. Differences between Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 sensitivity estimates among forensic inpatients: A criterion groups comparison.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M

    2016-10-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) underwent a major revision in 2010 yielding the SIRS-2. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS-2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of 263 criminal defendants (215 males, 48 females) who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning (primarily the M-FAST) at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS (.87) and SIRS-2 (.54). The marked differences in sensitivity were partially explained by a global interpretation discordance rate of 47%, with discordance primarily resulting from SIRS-based feigning cases being classified as indeterminate on the SIRS-2. Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS-2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates (which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS-2 in this sample). Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS-2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Sir2 and calorie restriction in yeast: a skeptical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Powers, R Wilson

    2007-08-01

    Activation of Sir2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction (CR) has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast. We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries. Several specific cases where the Sir2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted. These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model.

  15. Sir Charles Locock and potassium bromide.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 1857, Edward Sieveking read a paper on epilepsy to the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in London. During the discussion that followed Sir Charles Locock, obstetrician to Queen Victoria, was reported to have commented that during the past 14 months he had used potassium bromide to successfully stop epileptic seizures in all but one of 14 or 15 women with 'hysterical' or catamenial epilepsy. This report of Locock's comment has generally given him credit for introducing the first reasonably effective antiepileptic drug into medical practice. However examination of the original reports raises questions as to how soundly based the accounts of Locock's comments were. Subsequently, others using the drug to treat epilepsy failed to obtain the degree of benefit that the reports of Locock's comments would have led them to expect. The drug might not have come into more widespread use as a result, had not Samuel Wilks provided good, independent evidence for the drug's antiepileptic efficacy in 1861.

  16. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  17. Understanding sepsis: from SIRS to septic shock.

    PubMed

    Hynes-Gay, Patricia; Lalla, Patti; Leo, Maria; Merrill-Bell, Audrey; Nicholson, Marjorie; Villaruel, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients, despite improvements in supportive treatment modalities such as antimicrobial drugs and ventilation therapy. Further, the incidence of sepsis is projected to increase in years to come, related to factors including a rise in immunosuppressed patient populations and more widespread use of invasive lines and procedures. In this article, the authors seek to advance nurses' understanding of sepsis by reviewing the SIRS to septic shock paradigm and using a case study to illustrate how a patient progressed along the continuum. The role of the critical care nurse is an important aspect of the care of these patients. Early identification of patients at risk for, or who are developing, sepsis is crucial in order to improve patient outcomes.

  18. Acute pancreatitis as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. Excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in acute pancreatitis leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Development of in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis and associated systemic organ damage has enabled us to study the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and associated systemic organ damage. Using these models, recent studies by us and other investigators have established the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, PAF, IL-10, CD40L, C5a, ICAM-1, chemokines, substance P and hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. This chapter intends to present an overview of different experimental animal models of acute pancreatitis and associated MODS and the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  19. Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases.

    PubMed

    Davies, Alwyn G

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between 1894 and 1898, he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize.

  20. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  3. James Johnson on Asteroid Mission Simulation Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to James Johnson, the test director for a simulated mission to an asteroid taking place at the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at the Johnson Space Cente...

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  5. [Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and endothelial cell injury].

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    During recent years, evidences have been accumulated demonstrating bidirectional crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation. This review outlines the influences that coagulation and inflammation exert on each other to the endothelium and how these systems induce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Then we discussed the implications of leucocyte-endothelial activation to endothelial cell injury followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in patients with sustained SIRS. Last we demonstrated an important role of inflammatory circulation disturbance induced by endothelial cell injury for the pathogenesis of MODS in SIRS and sepsis.

  6. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    James R. Houck, the leading figure in developing infrared spectroscopy for astrophysics, died in Ithaca, NY, on September 18, 2015, at age 74 from complications of Alzheimer's Disease. He was born on October 5, 1940, in Mobile, Alabama, but lived much of his early life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received his undergraduate degree from Carnegie Institute of Technology. Jim spent his scientific career at Cornell University. He came to Cornell as a physics graduate student in 1962 and remained until his retirement as the Kenneth A. Wallace Professor of Astronomy in 2012. His only year away from Ithaca was as a Guggenheim Fellow at Caltech, and he declined job offers from other universities because of his opinion that Ithaca provided the best environment for raising his family. His passion for learning, doing, and teaching science by building instruments and understanding physics led to great benefits for his students and astronomy colleagues. After receiving his PhD in condensed matter physics, he changed fields to work in astronomy at Cornell. He first collaborated with colleague Martin Harwit to develop a rocket program at Cornell for infrared observations and made numerous treks to the White Sands Missile Range flying payloads on Aerobee sounding rockets. Jim emphasized building spectrographs and making pioneering observations with ground based, airborne, and rocket-borne infrared instrumentation. Jim flew on every airplane NASA provided for astronomy. Those were pioneering times. One of his survival stories was of the Learjet in which both engines flamed out over the Pacific when the pilot did a celebratory barrel role after successful completion of their observations. His observations with rockets and airplanes were primarily of a variety of Galactic objects, including planetary nebulae, HII regions, and stars. But the most notable was an observation on the Convair 990 that produced a prescient discovery paper in 1973 led by Jim which discovered bound

  7. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  8. A Curriculum for Peace: A Conversation with Sir John Daniel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah; Lindfors, Sally; Ernst, Don

    2002-01-01

    Interview with Sir John Daniel, Assistant Director-General for Education of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Discusses UNESCO's role in promoting a peace curriculum in schools throughout the world. (PKP)

  9. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  10. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  11. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous?

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues (like open-mindedness and tolerance) may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take.

  12. Sepsis as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; He, Min; Zhang, Huili; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Sepsis describes a complex clinical syndrome that results from the host inability to regulate the inflammatory response against infection. Despite more than 20 years of extensive study, sepsis and excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are still the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The clinical study of sepsis and new therapeutics remains challenging due to the complexity of this disease. Therefore, many animal models have been employed to investigate the pathogenesis of sepsis and to preliminarily test potential therapeutics. However, so far, most therapeutics that have shown promising results in animal models failed in human clinical trials. In this chapter we will present an overview of different experimental animal models of sepsis and compare their advantages and disadvantage. The studies in animal models have greatly improved our understanding about the inflammatory mediators in sepsis. In this chapter we will also highlight the roles of several critical mediators including TNF-a , IL-1b , IL-6, chemokines, substance P, hydrogen sulfide and activated protein C in animal models of sepsis as well as in clinical studies.

  13. 'Mind in general' by Sir Alexander Crichton.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2006-12-01

    The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i.e., from the fact that psychiatry unsteadily straddles the natural and human sciences. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can (or should) do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

  14. (abstract) The SIR-C/X-SAR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Evans, Diane; Elachi, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is a cooperative experiment between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the German Space Agency (DARA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The experiment is the next evolutionary step in NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR) program that began with the Seasat SAR in 1978, and continued with SAR -A in 1981 and SAR-B in 1984. The program will eventually lead to the Earth Observing System (EOS) SAR later in this decade. SIR-C will provide increased capability over Seasat, SIR-A, and SIR-B by acquiring polarimetric images simultaneously at two microwave frequencies: L-band (wavelength 24 cm) and C-band (wavelength 6 cm). X-SAR will operate at X-band (wavelength 3 cm) with VV polarization, resulting in a three-frequency capability. Because radar backscatter is most strongly influenced by objects comparable in size to the radar wavelength, this multifrequency capability will provide information about the Earth's surface over a wide range of scales not discernable with single-frequency experiments. The polarimetric data will yield quantitative information about the surface geometric structure, vegetation dielectric properties, and surface discontinuities. The first SIR-C/X-SAR flight is planned for early in 1994, with two subsequent flights in different seasons to enable data aquisition under different environmental conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR will collect data for a period of 6 to 9 days during each flight. The instrument will be flown in a 57(deg) inclination orbit with a nomimal orbit altitude of 215 km. This altitude will result in a slightly drifting orbit. The latest status of the SIR-C/X-SAR mission and instrument design, science activities, and expected results will be presented.

  15. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Editor); Cimino, J. B. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The SIR-A experiment was conducted in order to acquire radar data over a variety of regions to further understanding of the radar signatures of various geologic features. The capability of the Shuttle as a scientific platform for observation of the Earth's resources was assessed. The SIR-A sensor operated nominally and the full data acquisition capacity of the optical recorder was used.

  16. Heterochromatin assembly by interrupted Sir3 bridges across neighboring nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Reza; Lu, Chenning; Currie, Mark A; Jih, Gloria; Iglesias, Nahid; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomes with central roles in regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. Heterochromatin formation involves spreading of chromatin-modifying factors away from initiation points over large DNA domains by poorly understood mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterochromatin formation requires the SIR complex, which contains subunits with histone-modifying, histone-binding, and self-association activities. Here, we analyze binding of the Sir proteins to reconstituted mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleosomal chromatin templates and show that key Sir-Sir interactions bridge only sites on different nucleosomes but not sites on the same nucleosome, and are therefore 'interrupted' with respect to sites on the same nucleosome. We observe maximal binding affinity and cooperativity to unmodified di-nucleosomes and propose that nucleosome pairs bearing unmodified histone H4-lysine16 and H3-lysine79 form the fundamental units of Sir chromatin binding and that cooperative binding requiring two appropriately modified nucleosomes mediates selective Sir recruitment and spreading. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17556.001 PMID:27835568

  17. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  18. Hydrodynamics of internal solitons and a comparison of SIR-A and SIR-B data with ocean measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, J. R.; Gasparovic, R. F.; Thompson, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Large internal solitary waves have been observed by Shuttle SIR-A and SIR-B at locations in the Andaman Sea and the New York Bight. Satellite imagery and oceanographic measurements are used in conjunction with hydrodynamic interaction and electromagnetic scattering models to estimate the expected SAR image intensity modulations associated with the internal waves. There is reasonable agreement between the predicted and observed internal wave signatures.

  19. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  20. Sir Charles Edward Saunders, Dominion cerealist.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Malcolm J

    2008-06-01

    Charles Edward Saunders was born in London, Ontario, in 1867. His father, Sir William Saunders, was the first director of the Dominion Experimental Farms (1886-1911). Charles received his B.A. with honours in science from the University of Toronto in 1888 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891. He attempted a career in music, his first love, from 1893 to 1902. With his father, Charles attended the 1902 International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization in New York, where he learned of Mendel's theories of inheritance and their applicability to plant breeding. When he began work in 1903 in the Division of Cereal Breeding and Experimentation at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, he used the knowledge he had gained at that conference. It was Charles's goal to achieve "fixity" in the varieties that had been bred and released using phenotypic mass selection, prior to his tenure as Cerealist. He selected four heads from the wheat variety Markham and in the winter of 1904 he performed a "chewing test" to select for gluten elasticity and colour. Seeds from two heads were chosen, and seeds from one went on to produce the variety Marquis after extensive yield trials on the Prairies. Marquis was 7 to 10 days earlier than Red Fife, the standard bread wheat of the Prairies. The earliness and tremendous yield of Marquis wheat resulted in the rapid and successful settlement of the Great Plains and countless billions of dollars in revenue to Canada. By 1923, 90% of the spring wheat in Canada and 70% in the USA was Marquis. Charles continued as Dominion Cerealist until his retirement in 1922. He was knighted in 1934, and died in 1937.

  1. William James Sidis, The Broken Twig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montour, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    By presenting cases of prodigies who entered college as early as William James Bidis but who succeeded, this paper attempts to dissuade the public from its opposition to educational acceleration for precocious children, to which the "Sidis fallacy" has helped give rise. (Author)

  2. James Bernard Russell: Scholar, collaborator, mentor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the time of his untimely death in 2009, ARS scientist Dr. James B. Russell had established himself as the premier rumen microbiologist of his generation. Dr. Russell’s many contributions to the field, including much of the early work on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate System model, were the product ...

  3. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  4. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  5. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs without…

  6. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.

  7. 75 FR 76279 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; James River, Hopewell, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... the SR 156 Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge, across the James River, mile 65.0, at Hopewell, VA. The... the closed to navigation position the SR 156 Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge across the James...

  8. Plasma biomarkers of SIRS and MODS associated with canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V

    2016-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance P<0.05 were detected between groups. SIRS in babesiosis was characterised by increases in paraoxonase 1 and apoA-I, whereas MODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

  9. The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) experiment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.

  10. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): molecular pathophysiology and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoyuki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, extensive basic science research has led to a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of sepsis. Sepsis is now defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in which there is an identifiable focus of infection. SIRS can be also precipitated by non-infective events such as trauma, pancreatitis, and surgery. As a consequence of an overactive SIRS response, the function of various organ systems may be compromised, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Production and activation of multiple proinflammatory genes are likely to play a key role in the pathogenesis of MODS development. This review article focuses on the molecular mechanisms and components involved in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis. This includes cellular targets of sepsis-inducing bacterial products and their signaling pathways with a major emphasis on transcription factors and new therapeutic approaches to severe sepsis.

  11. The Darwinian Center to the Vision of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    The essence of William James's vision can sometimes be hard to discover due to emotional volatility and exploratory impulsiveness. On the other hand, beneath James's apparent inconsistency was a constancy of purpose that can be easily underestimated. This paper argues that the center of James's vision lay in an interpretation of Darwinism. By…

  12. The SIR-C/X-SAR synthetic aperture radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Rolando L.; Huneycutt, Bryan L.; Werner, Marian

    1991-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR, a three-frequency radar to be flown on the Space Shuttle in September 1993, is described. The SIR-C system is a two-frequency radar operating at 1250 MHz (L-band) and 5300 MHz (C-band), and is designed to get four-polarization radar imagery at multiple surface angles. The X-SAR system is an X-band imaging radar operating at 9600 MHz. The discussion covers the mission concept; system design; hardware; RF electronics; digital electronics; command, timing, and telemetry; and testing.

  13. Performance of the SIR-B digital image processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A ground-based system to generate digital SAR image products has been developed and implemented in support of the SIR-B mission. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Its capabilities include: automated radiometric and geometric correction of the output imagery; high-precision absolute location without tiepoint registration; filtering of the raw data to remove spurious signals from alien radars; and automated catologing to maintain a full set of radar and image production facility in support of the SIR-B science investigators routinely produces over 80 image frames per week.

  14. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  15. God, James Watt, and the public's land

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1981-05-01

    The political career of James Watt, Secretary of the Interior, is chronicled. His current reputation as archenemy of the environmental movement is largely the outgrowth of three and a half years of activity on behalf of the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Since taking office in January 1981, Watt has moved swiftly to impose his individual standards on USDI. Various programs and agencies are being terminated, and public lands may soon be open for mineral and energy exploitation. (7 drawings, 1 photo)

  16. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    PubMed

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  17. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McCleary, David F; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2016-09-15

    Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir(-) mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

  18. A Study of the SIRS with severely traumatized patients.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Correa, Amor A; Gillard, Nathan D; Ross, Colin A

    2009-09-01

    Clinical research has revealed that traumatized patients often elevate feigning indicators on psychological measures, which raises the possibility that traumatization and concomitant dissociation may lead to misclassifications of malingering. Within the domain of feigned mental disorders, the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is a well established measure with excellent reliability and validity across clinical and forensic settings. Although recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness with outpatient posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) samples, the SIRS usefulness with severely traumatized patients remains to be investigated. In this study, we recruited traumatized patients for a within-subjects simulation design in which we asked feigners to convincingly portray themselves as examinees claiming total disabilities. When compared to standard instructions, feigned presentations produced substantial effect sizes. Although the standard SIRS classifications produced moderately high sensitivities (M = .82), the false-positive rates were problematic. To minimize false-positives, we constructed a Trauma Index (TI) from 3 primary SIRS scales that appeared unaffected by severe trauma. Implementation of the TI substantially reduced false-positive rates (M = .09).

  19. Why Creativity Now? A Conversation with Sir Ken Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this interview, creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for creativity as the crucial 21st-century skill. Genuine creative processes involve critical thinking as well as imaginative insights and fresh ideas. Also, creativity is a process, not a single event, one that requires continual evaluation. It's about everyone, it's a function…

  20. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  1. Sir John Robert Vane: 29 March 1927 - 19 November 2004.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Sir John Robert Vane, who died on 19 November 2004, will be remembered as one of the most influential British pharmacologists. During his distinguish career he published more than 700 scientific papers and wrote or editing 20 books. His many awards include the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1982) and a knighthood in 1984.

  2. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  3. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  4. Sir William Johnson and the Indians of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Milton W.

    In order to make the vast literature about the history of Indian and white relations in New York readily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers, this booklet brings together the main points of the relationship between the Indians and Sir William Johnson. Johnson is a key figure in the Indian story of New York state during the 1770s.…

  5. A yeast sir2 mutant temperature sensitive for silencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Lin; Landry, Joseph; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2008-12-01

    A screen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive silencing mutants identified a strain with a point mutation in the SIR2 gene. The mutation changed Ser276 to Cys. This amino acid is in the highly conserved NAD(+) binding pocket of the Sir2 family of proteins. Haploid strains of either mating type carrying the mutation were severely defective at mating at 37 degrees but normal at 25 degrees . Measurements of RNA from the HMR locus demonstrated that silencing was lost rapidly upon shifting the mutant from the low to the high temperature, but it took >8 hours to reestablish silencing after a shift back to 25 degrees . Silencing at the rDNA locus was also temperature sensitive. On the other hand, telomeric silencing was totally defective at both temperatures. Enzymatic activity of the recombinant wild-type and mutant Sir2 protein was compared by three different assays. The mutant exhibited less deacetylase activity than the wild-type protein at both 37 degrees and 25 degrees . Interestingly, the mutant had much more NAD(+)-nicotinamide exchange activity than wild type, as did a mutation in the same region of the protein in the Sir2 homolog, Hst2. Thus, mutations in this region of the NAD(+) binding pocket of the protein are able to carry out cleavage of NAD(+) to nicotinamide but are defective at the subsequent deacetylation step of the reaction.

  6. The Student Instructional Report for Distance Education: e-SIR II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Recently the Educational Testing Service (ETS) has modified its Student Instructional Report II (SIR II) for use in online distance education courses. The SIR II is a second-generation survey based on more than thirty years of experience with student evaluations (Centra, 1998; Centra and Gaubatz, n.d.). The e-SIR II is based on the highly…

  7. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des…

  8. Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D

    2016-12-01

    The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  10. SirT1 Regulates Energy Metabolism and Response to Caloric Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Gino; Seifert, Erin L.; Bevilacqua, Lisa; He, Xiao Hong; Sabourin, Guillaume; Estey, Carmen; Moffat, Cynthia; Crawford, Sean; Saliba, Sarah; Jardine, Karen; Xuan, Jian; Evans, Meredith; Harper, Mary-Ellen; McBurney, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction. PMID:18335035

  11. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  12. Direct evidence for SIR2 modulation of chromatin structure in yeast rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, C E; Verschueren, K; Strich, R; Easton Esposito, R

    1997-01-01

    The yeast SIR2 gene maintains inactive chromatin domains required for transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. We previously demonstrated that SIR2 also acts to repress mitotic and meiotic recombination between the tandem ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA). Here we address whether rDNA chromatin structure is altered by loss of SIR2 function by in vitro and in vivo assays of sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease and dam methyltransferase, respectively, and present the first chromatin study that maps sites of SIR2 action within the rDNA locus. Control studies at the MAT alpha locus also revealed a previously undetected MNase-sensitive site at the a1-alpha 2 divergent promoter which is protected in sir2 mutant cells by the derepressed a1-alpha 2 regulator. In rDNA, SIR2 is required for a more closed chromatin structure in two regions: SRR1, the major SIR-Responsive Region in the non-transcribed spacer, and SRR2, in the 18S rRNA coding region. None of the changes in rDNA detected in sir2 mutants are due to the presence of the a1-alpha 2 repressor. Reduced recombination in the rDNA correlates with a small, reproducible transcriptional silencing position effect. Deletion and overexpression studies demonstrate that SIR2, but not SIR1, SIR3 or SIR4, is required for this rDNA position effect. Significantly, rDNA transcriptional silencing and rDNA chromatin accessibility respond to SIR2 dosage, indicating that SIR2 is a limiting component required for chromatin modeling in rDNA. PMID:9351831

  13. SIR-B cartography and stereo topographic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, M.; Leberi, F.; Raggam, J.; Domik, G.; Welch, R.; Carr, H.; Hammak, J.; Kaupp, V.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The SIR-B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR-B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.

  14. The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marious; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S

    2010-08-20

    Sir William Turner (1832-1916) was Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. His classic paper of 1863 on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in 1863 and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion. A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented.

  15. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-06-19

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

  16. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  17. Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? No SIRS, Not Just Yet

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. PMID:25631808

  18. Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? No SIRS, Not Just Yet.

    PubMed

    Dunne, W Michael

    2015-08-01

    In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed.

  19. Digital simulation of the SIR-C sensor electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Jeffrey D.; Curlander, John C.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper software for simulation of the response of the SIR-C sensor to a point target is described. Synthetic SAR data is generated by passing successive chirps through a simulation of the transmitter electronics, propagation path and receiver electronics. This result is then processed with a digital correlator to yield the point target response of the system. This allows an accurate assessment of the effect of the radar design on the final image product.

  20. James R. Wait (1924-1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David A.

    James (Jim) R.Wait, a pioneer in electromagnetic theory and applications to geophysical exploration, died of cancer in Tucson, Arizona, on October 1, 1998. At 74, he was still very active and innovative in electromagnetics as Regents Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, and as a consultant in electrical geophysics. He is survived by his wife, Gertrude; his son, George; his daughter, Laura; and three grandchildren, James, Carolyn, and Connor.Jim was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, on January 23, 1924. He obtained B.A.Sc.and M.A.Sc. degrees in 1948 and 1949, respectively and his Ph.D. degree in 1951, in electrical engineering, all from the University of Toronto. He obtained his “T” in skiing and remained an avid skier all his life. Jim stayed in great shape and always found time to work out despite his busy schedule. I still remember the business trip where Jim and I ran laps around the parking lot of a Holiday Inn for his daily workout.

  1. A Fractional Order Recovery SIR Model from a Stochastic Process.

    PubMed

    Angstmann, C N; Henry, B I; McGann, A V

    2016-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The fractional order recovery model is shown to be consistent with the Kermack-McKendrick age-structured SIR model, and it reduces to the Hethcote-Tudor integral equation SIR model. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations. We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero.

  2. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  3. Reprogramming of circulatory cells in sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Cavaillon, J-M; Adrie, C; Fitting, C; Adib-Conquy, M

    2005-01-01

    Immune status is altered in patients with sepsis or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Reduced ex-vivo TNF production by endotoxin-activated monocytes has been regularly reported. This observation is reminiscent of the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance, and the term 'leukocyte reprogramming' well defines this phenomenon. This review will outline that the hyporesponsiveness of circulating leukocytes is not a generalized phenomenon in sepsis and SIRS. Indeed, the nature of the insult (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious SIRS; under anesthesia [surgery] or not [trauma, burn]), the nature of the activator used to trigger leukocytes (i.e. different Toll-like receptor ligands or whole bacteria), the nature of the cell culture (i.e. isolated monocytes versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells versus whole blood assays), and the nature of the analyzed cytokines (e.g. IL-1beta versus IL-1ra; TNF versus IL-10) have a profound influence on the outcome of the response.

  4. Six cases with severe insulin resistance (SIR) associated with mutations of insulin receptor: Is a Bartter-like syndrome a feature of congenital SIR?

    PubMed

    Grasso, Valeria; Colombo, Carlo; Favalli, Valeria; Galderisi, Alfonso; Rabbone, Ivana; Gombos, Sara; Bonora, Enzo; Massa, Ornella; Meschi, Franco; Cerutti, Franco; Iafusco, Dario; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Monciotti, Carla; Barbetti, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Biallelic insulin receptor (INSR) gene mutations cause congenital syndromes of severe insulin resistance (SIR) known as Donohue syndrome (DS) and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS). At presentation, DS and RMS are difficult to differentiate since they share many clinical features; however, while patients with DS usually die within 1 year of birth, individuals classified as RMS can reach adult age. INSR mutations can be also found in pubertal females with hyperinsulinism, hyperandrogenism, and acanthosis nigricans (type A SIR). We studied the INSR gene in five subjects with congenital SIR and in a patient with type A SIR. Nine biallelic INSR gene mutations (eight novels, including an in-frame deletion of INSR signal peptide) were identified in patients with congenital SIR; a heterozygous, spontaneous INSR mutation was detected in the patient with type A SIR. Two probands, presenting severe hirsutism at birth, died at the age of 3 months and were classified as DS, while other 2, currently 2 and 3 years old, were diagnosed with RMS (patients 3 and 4). The fifth patient with congenital SIR died when 14 months old. Nephrocalcinosis, hyperaldosteronism, hyperreninemia, and hypokalemia, in the absence of hypertension, were discovered in patients 3 and 5 when 24 and 4 months old, respectively. Patient 3, now 3 years/3 months old, still shows hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism requiring potassium supplementation. We conclude that renal abnormalities resembling antenatal Bartter's syndrome type II, recently reported also by others, is a common observation in patients with congenital SIR.

  5. SIR-nucleosome interactions: structure-function relationships in yeast silent chromatin.

    PubMed

    Oppikofer, Mariano; Kueng, Stephanie; Gasser, Susan M

    2013-09-15

    Discrete regions of the eukaryotic genome assume a heritable chromatin structure that is refractory to gene expression, referred to as heterochromatin or "silent" chromatin. Constitutively silent chromatin is found in subtelomeric domains in a number of species, ranging from yeast to man. In addition, chromatin-dependent repression of mating type loci occurs in both budding and fission yeasts, to enable sexual reproduction. The silencing of chromatin in budding yeast is characterized by an assembly of Silent Information Regulatory (SIR) proteins-Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4-with unmodified nucleosomes. Silencing requires the lysine deacetylase activity of Sir2, extensive contacts between Sir3 and the nucleosome, as well as interactions among the SIR proteins, to generate the Sir2-3-4 or SIR complex. Results from recent structural and reconstitution studies suggest an updated model for the ordered assembly and organization of SIR-dependent silent chromatin in yeast. Moreover, studies of subtelomeric gene expression reveal the importance of subtelomeric silent chromatin in the regulation of genes other than the silent mating type loci. This review covers recent advances in this field.

  6. Clustering heterochromatin: Sir3 promotes telomere clustering independently of silencing in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ruault, Myriam; De Meyer, Arnaud; Loïodice, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    A general feature of the nucleus is the organization of repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in clusters concentrating silencing factors. In budding yeast, we investigated how telomeres cluster in perinuclear foci associated with the silencing complex Sir2–Sir3–Sir4 and found that Sir3 is limiting for telomere clustering. Sir3 overexpression triggers the grouping of telomeric foci into larger foci that relocalize to the nuclear interior and correlate with more stable silencing in subtelomeric regions. Furthermore, we show that Sir3′s ability to mediate telomere clustering can be separated from its role in silencing. Indeed, nonacetylable Sir3, which is unable to spread into subtelomeric regions, can mediate telomere clustering independently of Sir2–Sir4 as long as it is targeted to telomeres by the Rap1 protein. Thus, arrays of Sir3 binding sites at telomeres appeared as the sole requirement to promote trans-interactions between telomeres. We propose that similar mechanisms involving proteins able to oligomerize account for long-range interactions that impact genomic functions in many organisms. PMID:21300849

  7. Involvement of SirABC in Iron-Siderophore Import in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Suzanne E.; Sebulsky, M. Tom; Heinrichs, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus SirA was previously identified as a lipoprotein, and SirB and SirC are thought to encode the transmembrane domains of an ABC transporter. Sir proteins show similarity to iron-siderophore transporters in several bacteria. Here, we show that the iron-regulated sirABC operon is divergently transcribed from the sbn operon that encodes enzymes involved in the synthesis of staphylobactin, a recently described siderophore produced by S. aureus. Mutation of either sirA or sirB increased the resistance of iron-starved S. aureus to streptonigrin and resulted in compromised growth in iron-restricted, but not iron-rich, media. We also demonstrated that sirA and sirB mutants are compromised in the ability to transport iron complexed to staphylobactin but are not compromised for uptake of other iron complexes, such as ferric hydroxamates, ferric enterobactin, or ferric citrate. SirA- and SirB-deficient S. aureus, however, retain the ability to produce staphylobactin. Moreover, we found that transcription from the sbn operon was increased, relative to the wild type, in both sirA and sirB knockout strains, likely in response to an increased level of iron starvation in these cells. These results provide evidence of a role for these proteins in iron import in S. aureus and for full fitness of the bacterium in iron-restricted environments and demonstrate a function for S. aureus genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of an endogenously produced siderophore. PMID:15576785

  8. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  9. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  10. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 76 FR 12295 - James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC or the Commission) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by James Luehman (the... was decided by the Commission in the Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit...

  13. Sharing Good Stories: The Work of James Stevenson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the career and work of James Stevenson, author and illustrator of children's books. Presents suggestions for extension activities. Includes a selected annotated bibliography of his picture books, titles from some of his series, autobiographical picture books, illustrations, poetry, and fiction, as well as books about James Stevenson.…

  14. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  16. Remembering James Alan Bassham (1922-2012).

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Bassham, Helen; Bassham, Susan

    2016-04-01

    James Alan Bassham, known to many as Al, was born on November 26, 1922, in Sacramento, California (CA), USA. He died on November 19, 2012, in El Cerrito, CA. To celebrate his life at his 3rd death anniversary, we present here a brief biography, comments on his discoveries, but most importantly, remembrances from family and friends; we remember this wonderful and modest person who had played a major pivotal role in the discoveries that led to what he would like to call the P(hotosynthetic) C(arbon) R(eduction) cycle, known to many as the Calvin Cycle, the Calvin-Benson Cycle, or the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle. Based on a personal request by Bassham himself to one of us (Govindjee), we refrain from including his name in the cycle-in recognition of his many students and associates he would have liked to honor.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  18. A tribute to James Gordon Kelly.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Erin P; Espino, Susan Ryerson; Ritzler, Tina Taylor; Trickett, Edison J; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2005-03-01

    During the June 2001, eighth biennial meeting of the Society for Community Research and Action in Atlanta, a wide variety of community psychologists across generations attended a tribute in honor of James Gordon Kelly. What follows is an attempt to capture the spirit of the afternoon tribute as expressed through remarks made by colleagues and readings of letters sent by those unable to attend. The wide range of individuals represented here attests to the many additive ways in which Jim has cared about the field of community psychology and has contributed to its essence. Three additional invited contributions are included wherein Dick Reppucci, Rhona Weinstein, and Julian Rappaport reflect on the influence of Jim on their own career and on the development of the field.

  19. James Astor in conversation with Warren Colman.

    PubMed

    Astor, James

    2013-11-01

    In this interview with Warren Colman, James Astor speaks about his development as a Jungian analyst from his own experience of personal analysis in the 1960s to his recent retirement from clinical practice. The discussion covers his long association with Michael Fordham, the child analytic training at the SAP, the infant observation seminars with Fordham and Gianna Henry through which Fordham was able to make new discoveries about infant development, his experience of supervision with Donald Meltzer and the development of his own thinking through a series of papers on the analytic process, supervision and the relation between language and truth. The interview concludes with reflections about the legacy of Michael Fordham and the future of analytic work.

  20. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James’s unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the “hard problems” of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James’s reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his “radically empiricist” ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James’s long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more “wayward and fitful” aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James’s thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his “transmission theory” of consciousness, his ideas on the “knowing of things together,” and, finally, the related concept of “the compounding of consciousness,” which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to “know” the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a “distributive model,” based on his understanding of consciousness as an “awareness” that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to

  1. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fugono, N.; Furuhama, Y.; Takasugi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Yoshikado, S.; Masuko, H.; Shinozuka, T.; Inomata, H.; Shiro, I.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B). It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR-B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR-B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR-B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR-B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR.

  2. Elaboration, Diversification and Regulation of the Sir1 Family of Silencing Proteins in Saccharomyces

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Babiarz, Joshua E.; Teytelman, Leonid; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Rine, Jasper

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin renders domains of chromosomes transcriptionally silent and, due to clonal variation in its formation, can generate heritably distinct populations of genetically identical cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae's Sir1 functions primarily in the establishment, but not the maintenance, of heterochromatic silencing at the HMR and HML loci. In several Saccharomyces species, we discovered multiple paralogs of Sir1, called Kos1–Kos4 (Kin of Sir1). The Kos and Sir1 proteins contributed partially overlapping functions to silencing of both cryptic mating loci in S. bayanus. Mutants of these paralogs reduced silencing at HML more than at HMR. Most genes of the SIR1 family were located near telomeres, and at least one paralog was regulated by telomere position effect. In S. cerevisiae, Sir1 is recruited to the silencers at HML and HMR via its ORC interacting region (OIR), which binds the bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain of Orc1. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which diverged from Saccharomyces after the appearance of the silent mating cassettes, but before the whole-genome duplication, contained an ortholog of Kos3 that was apparently the archetypal member of the family, with only one OIR. In contrast, a duplication of this domain was present in all orthologs of Sir1, Kos1, Kos2, and Kos4. We propose that the functional specialization of Sir3, itself a paralog of Orc1, as a silencing protein was facilitated by the tandem duplication of the OIR domain in the Sir1 family, allowing distinct Sir1–Sir3 and Sir1–Orc1 interactions through OIR–BAH domain interactions. PMID:19171939

  3. Sir protein–independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McCleary, David F.; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir− mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. PMID:27466318

  4. Sir2 phosphorylation through cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling inhibits the lifespan extension activity of Sir2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Kyu; Kim, Yeong Hyeock; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2015-09-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, has been proposed to be a longevity factor that plays important roles in dietary restriction (DR)-mediated lifespan extension. In this study, we show that the Sir2's role for DR-mediated lifespan extension depends on cAMP-PKA and casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling in yeast. Sir2 partially represses the transcription of lifespan-associated genes, such as PMA1 (encoding an H(+)-ATPase) and many ribosomal protein genes, through deacetylation of Lys 16 of histone H4 in the promoter regions of these genes. This repression is relieved by Sir2 S473 phosphorylation, which is mediated by active cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling. Moderate DR increases the replicative lifespan of wild-type yeast but has no effect on that of yeast expressing the Sir2-S473E or S473A allele, suggesting that the effect of Sir2 on DR-mediated lifespan extension is negatively regulated by S473 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which Sir2 contributes to lifespan extension.

  5. SIR-C Measurements of Soil Moisture, Vegetation and Surface Roughness and their Hydrological Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) Analysis of SIR-C/X-SAR response to soil moisture, vegetation and surface roughness and development of an algorithm to retrieve these parameters; (2) Combination of the visible and near-infrared data and the SIR-C/X-SAR data to improve the range and accuracy of vegetation classification; (3) Testing of theoretical models for microwave propagation with SIR-C/X-SAR and microwave radiometric measurements over rough surfaces; and (4) Evaluation of a water balance model using SIR-C/X-SAR derived soil moisture values and other ancillary data. Progress, significant results and future plans are presented.

  6. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles A; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2016-02-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR inDaphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2.

  7. Skeletal muscle function, oxygenation and biochemistry in an endotoxemic model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Iannoli, E D; Gayeski, T E

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a reproducible low-dose endotoxin model which is useful for the investigation of early SIRS. The data confirm that organ function cannot be inferred from whole animal data (e.g. SVR vs. MVR). Thus, the study of SIRS at the organ and cellular level is essential. Decreased skeletal muscle oxygen consumption with 4 Hz exercise in early SIRS may be related to depletion of physiologic reserves, especially microcirculatory reserves, as suggested by decreased myoglobin saturation and decreased energy charge. Using this model, we will investigate whether organ dysfunction in SIRS is due to oxygen-limited cellular ATP production or impaired cellular metabolism.

  8. [Understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of SIRS and sepsis and development of innovative therapies of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Naoki; Fujishima, Seitaro

    2004-12-01

    The concept of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was introduced in 1992 to define and objectively diagnose sepsis. Over the last decade, the definition of sepsis has been used for inclusion criteria of multicenter trials to develop innovative therapies of sepsis. With the recent understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of sepsis, many drugs have been tested, but only two drugs (activated protein C and neutrophil-elastase inhibitor) have been approved for clinical use in sepsis or SIRS. Further understanding of basic pathophysiology of SIRS and sepsis holds promise to develop a new therapeutic strategy to improve survival of patients with SIRS and sepsis.

  9. [Changes in the cytokine network through escalating SIRS after heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Sablotzki, A; Mann, V; Simm, A; Czeslick, E

    2001-09-01

    Changes in the Cytokine Network Through Escalating SIRS After Heart Surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. Plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, GM-CSF and TGF-beta) were measured at the first four postoperative days in 12 adult male patients with severe SIRS (SIRS-group), and 15 patients with uncomplicated course (control-group) following myocardial revascularization. All cytokines (except IL-1beta) were significantly elevated in SIRS-patients, the analysis of differences between the survivors and non-survivors within the SIRS-group showed dramatically elevated levels of IL-8 and IL-18 in non-survivors. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.g. IL-8 and/or IL-18 may be helpful for the early detection and prognosis of high-risk patients with severe SIRS and MODS following cardiac surgery.

  10. [SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome): clinical entity, definitions, and the significance].

    PubMed

    Kushimoto, S; Yamamoto, Y

    1999-01-01

    The clinical entity, definitions, and the significance of SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) were reviewed. The term, SIRS was proposed to define sepsis and its sequelae clearly in 1991, in order to make early detection of the disease possible, and to improve the ability to compare innovative potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities by standardizing terms. Although the criteria of SIRS is not strict and too sensitive, SIRS has been shown to be useful as a warning sign of severe condition in clinical setting. We also discussed about a new concept, CARS (compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome), which was characterized as anti-inflammatory mediators-dominant condition, in this issue.

  11. Selective management of cardiovascular dysfunction in posttraumatic SIRS and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martin, R Shayn; Kincaid, Edward H; Russell, Hyde M; Meredith, J Wayne; Chang, Michael C

    2005-03-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction associated with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is caused by a combination of decreased myocardial contractility and low vascular resistance. The contribution of each of these components can be determined at the bedside, and directed therapy can be appropriately initiated. Over an 8-month period of time, 23 consecutive patients who experienced posttraumatic SIRS while still being monitored with a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) were prospectively evaluated. Ventricular pressure-volume diagrams were constructed to quantify myocardial contractility and afterload. In a resuscitation protocol, dobutamine was administered to patients with an isolated decrease in contractility, and dopamine or epinephrine was instituted for the combination of reduced contractility and afterload. Variables describing cardiovascular function were measured at the time of resolution of initial shock resuscitation (BASE), at the onset of SIRS (ONSET), and after administration of inotropic or vasoactive agents (TREAT). ONSET was associated with a significant decrease in left ventricular power (LVP) (362 +/- 96 to 235 +/- 55 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P < 0.00001) and stroke work index (SWI) (4670 +/- 1213 to 3060 +/- 848 mmHg.mL/m, P < 0.00001) from BASE. Sixteen patients (70%) demonstrated predominantly decreased contractility, which returned to near BASE values after the administration of dobutamine. The remaining seven patients (30%) had both decreased contractility and afterload, which was treated with dopamine or epinephrine. LVP and SWI significantly increased (235 +/- 55 to 328 +/- 77 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P < 0.00001, and 3060 +/- 848 to 4554 +/- 1423 mmHg.mL/m(2), P < 0.00001, respectively) on the initiation of directed therapy. Specific cardiovascular abnormalities can be identified at the bedside, and this information can guide pharmacologic management. Directed therapy improves cardiovascular function.

  12. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn (1751-1804): precision in thermometry.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-02-01

    The universal clinical procedure of recording a patient's temperature depends upon the accuracy of thermometers. This in turn depends upon the accuracy of two fixed datum points (the freezing and boiling points of water) and subsequently on the fine calibration of the etched scale between them. Anders Celsius (1701-44) defined the boiling point of water as the upper fixed point of the thermometric scale, originally designated as 0°C but inverted by Carl Linnaeus (1707-78) to read 100°C. In 1724 Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) had observed that the upper fixed point, that of boiling water, varied with changes in atmospheric pressure. An English scientist, Sir George Shuckburgh (after 1794 known as Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn), addressed this problem and over the period 1774-79 he defined the relationship of the temperature of boiling water to barometric pressure. This latter variable changed both with the ambient meteorological conditions of the moment and the height above sea level at which the calibrations were made. Clinical thermometry depends on an accuracy of 0.1°C in both the baseline and the tracking of a patient's temperature but Shuckburgh's experiments showed that the upper fixed point of reference, that of boiling water, could change by up to 10°C. He demonstrated that these variables must be measured and controlled in the manufacture and calibration of thermometers. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn published his results in the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society (1777-79) and made possible the accuracy of thermometry on which patient care depends.

  13. Australian Multiexperimental Assessment of SIR-B (AMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, J. A.; Forster, B. C.; Milne, A. K.; Taylor, G. R.; Trinder, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of SIR-B data for analysis of surface properties and subsurface morphology in three arid regions of Australia is investigated. This study area is located in western New South Wales. It contains extensive aeolian and alluvially derived depositional plains and is the site of the University's Arid Zone Research Station; it is well-mapped and surveyed. Radar backscatter is mapped and evaluated against known terrain conditions. Relative components of surface and subsurface return are determined with a view to identifying structural properties of surface and subsurface morphology. The capability of microwave remote sensing in locating likely groundwater sources in the Bancannia Basin, near Fowler's Gap is assessed.

  14. Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Jiang, Guirong; Liu, Suyu; Ling, Lin

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. The Poincaré map and center manifold theorem are used to discuss flip bifurcation of the endemic periodic solution. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Radar Interferometric and Penetration Investigations using SIR-C Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Elachi, Charles; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: (1) To model, experimentally characterize, and verify penetration phenomena in hyperarid and vegetated regions using the SIR-C/X-SAR multiparameter radar system and groundbased receivers; (2) To invert measured radar backscatter as a function of frequency and polarization in terms of geophysical parameters of the surface, subsurface and vegetation canopy such as surface roughness, subsurface geomorphology, or tree height and density; and (3) To display subsurface and within-canopy features in an image format, thus easing the interpretability of the results.

  16. STS-59 payload SIR-C/X-SAR antenna view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) antenna, developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), is seen in this photo taken at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) before loading into the Shuttle Endeavour. The MTPE spaceborne data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity.

  17. Sir Ronald A. Fisher and the International Biometric Society.

    PubMed

    Billard, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Sir Ronald A. Fisher, one of the two Fathers of Statistics and a Founder of the International Biometric Society (the "Society"). To celebrate the extraordinary genius of Fisher and the far-sighted vision of Fisher and Chester Bliss in organizing and promoting the formation of the Society, this article looks at the origins and growth of the Society, some of the key players and events, and especially the roles played by Fisher himself as the First President. A fresh look at Fisher, the man rather than the scientific genius is also presented.

  18. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  19. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.

    SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground

  20. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown (1870-1946).

    PubMed

    Keynes, Milo

    2008-02-01

    Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology. He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.

  1. Traffic-driven SIR epidemic spreading in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cunlai; Li, Siyuan; Yang, XianXia; Xu, Zhongqi; Ji, Zexuan; Yang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We study SIR epidemic spreading in networks driven by traffic dynamics, which are further governed by static routing protocols. We obtain the maximum instantaneous population of infected nodes and the maximum population of ever infected nodes through simulation. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. When packet generation rate ρ is small, increasing ρ favors epidemic spreading. However, when ρ is large enough, traffic congestion appears which inhibits epidemic spreading.

  2. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  3. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  4. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  5. James Frame's The Philosophy of Insanity (1860).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan; Philo, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations. It is also valuable as a subjective, but heavily mediated, kaleidoscopic view of old and new theories concerning mental afflictions, offering many insights about the medico-moral ethos and milieu of the mid-Victorian Scottish asylum. Alternating as consolatory and admonitory illness biography, insanity treatise, mental health self-help guide, and asylum reform and promotion manual, it demands scrutiny for both its more progressive views and its more compromised and prejudicial attitudes.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  7. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts.

  8. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  9. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  10. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  12. STS-109 Crew Interviews: James H. Newman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Mission Specialist James H. Newman is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his most memorable experiences. He gives details on the mission's goals and objectives, which focus on the refurbishing of the Hubble Space Telescope, and his role in the mission. He provides a brief background on the Hubble Space Telescope, and explains the plans for the rendezvous of the Columbia Orbiter with the Hubble Space Telescope. He provides details and timelines for each of the planned Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), which include replacing the solar arrays, changing the Power Control Unit, installing the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and installing a new Cryocooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). He gives further explanation of each of these pieces of equipment. He also describes the break-out plan in place for these spacewalks. The interview ends with Newman explaining the details of a late addition to the mission's tasks, which is to replace a reaction wheel on the Hubble Space Telescope.

  13. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  14. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  15. Heat Stress-Induced Cup9-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of SIR2

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Shyamasree; K, Sheeba; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K.; Nair, Achuthsankar S.; Dhar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    The epigenetic writer Sir2 maintains the heterochromatin state of chromosome in three chromosomal regions, namely, the silent mating type loci, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism by which Sir2 is regulated under heat stress. Our study reveals that a transient heat shock causes a drastic reduction in the SIR2 transcript which results in sustained failure to initiate silencing for as long as 90 generations. Hsp82 overexpression, which is the usual outcome of heat shock treatment, leads to a similar downregulation of SIR2 transcription. Using a series of genetic experiments, we have established that heat shock or Hsp82 overexpression causes upregulation of CUP9 that, in turn, represses SIR2 transcription by binding to its upstream activator sequence. We have mapped the cis regulatory element of SIR2. Our study shows that the deletion of cup9 causes reversal of the Hsp82 overexpression phenotype and upregulation of SIR2 expression in heat-induced Hsp82-overexpressing cells. On the other hand, we found that Cup9 overexpression represses SIR2 transcription and leads to a failure in the establishment of heterochromatin. The results of our study highlight the mechanism by which environmental factors amend the epigenetic configuration of chromatin. PMID:25384977

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 10, 1936 GRINDING PLATFORM, VIEW OF INTERIOR LOOKING WEST - Old Town Mill, Mill Brook, near Mill Street, New London, New London County, CT

  17. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 GENERAL VIEW (FACING EAST) ROOM UNDER BALL ROOM, 1ST FLOOR - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 END OF SOUTHEAST ROOM - FIRST FLOOR - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 MANTEL IN NORTHWEST ROOM OF FIRST FLOOR - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 CHINA CUPBOARD * NORTHWEST ROOM OF FIRST FLOOR - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 77 FR 25592 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; James River, Hopewell, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison... schedule, the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge, at mile 65.0, across the James River, at...

  3. STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman chats with white room closeout crew members Rene Arriens (far left), Travis Thompson and Bob Saulnier (right) prior to entering the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  4. 51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 EAST END OF BLOCK NO. 3 HOUSES NOS. 17 AND 18. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 7 FROM ROOF HOUSE NO. 12. (SHU-TRA-MEETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (BLOCK NO. 5) HOUSE NO, 6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  7. 44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 11 AND 12 IN BLOCK NO. 3 FROM ROOF - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. 56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH SIDE BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  10. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL HOUSE NO. 4, BLOCK NO. 1 (LOOKING WEST) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  11. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 2 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  12. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  13. 62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (Showing Ceiling) BLOCK No 5 HOUSE No.6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  14. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING KOS-KA-TSIETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  15. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 WEST END OF BLOCK NO. 1 FROM SOUTH EAST (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  16. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 12, 13 AND 14, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  17. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 1 FROM BLOCK NO. 5 (SHOWING KIVA RIGHT CENTER) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  18. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 18, 1934 HOUSE No. 7, BLOCK No. 2 (DETAIL STAIR BULKHEAD) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  19. 34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 11, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 1, 2, AND 3, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  20. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  1. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2, BLOCK NO. 3 (SHOWING FIREPLACE) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  2. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  3. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 FROM SOUTHEAST (STARTING WITH HOUSE NO. 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON, BLOCK NO. 5. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 17, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 9, 10, 11, 12 AND 13. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 15 AND 16 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  7. 74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 1, 2 AND 3, BLOCK NO. 7 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. 58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM SOUTHEAST (SHOWING HOUSE NO. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  9. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  10. 82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES RENWICK, JR. MANTELPIECE AND MIRROR ARE NOT ORIGINAL TO THE ROOM. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  12. 3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING EAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  14. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE DETAIL (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, 1936 LIVING? (MUSIC) ROOM FIREPLACE (LOOKING NORTH? SOUTH) - Thaddeus Burr Homestead, 491 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants of John and Elizabeth Bull, 1919 WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS - Mount Pleasant, Bulltown Road (East Nantmeal Township), East Nantmeal, Chester County, PA

  1. Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Saving our future: James Comer and the School Development Program.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Naaila

    2011-06-01

    Since the founding of the School Development Program (SDP) by Dr. James Comer in 1968, the manner in which child development is addressed in many schools has changed drastically. By working together using the SDP model, schools, parents, and child development experts are able to foster healthy social, emotional, and academic development in children, resulting in improvement in all areas. This review briefly describes the creation and implementation of the SDP model by Dr. James Comer.

  3. Rubber elasticity: Solution of the James-Guth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, B. E.

    2015-05-01

    The solution of the many-body statistical mechanical theory of elasticity formulated by James and Guth in the 1940s [H. M. James, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 651 (1947)], 10.1063/1.1746624 is presented. The remarkable aspect of the solution is that it gives an elastic free energy that is essentially equivalent to that developed by Flory over a period of several decades.

  4. [Basic concept and definition of SIRS and sepsis--present consideration and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Matsuda, Kenichi; Watanabe, Eizo

    2004-12-01

    SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) is thought to be caused by hypercytokinemia. On the other hand, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported to be one of most easily measurable cytokines and we found that IL-6 blood levels on SIRS patients are above 1,500 pg/ml which is compatible to the previously reported values. Since only 6% of SIRS patients developed MOF according to our own data, we need not overestimate SIRS as a grave clinical signs. On the other hand, it is reported that cytokine-related genetic polymorphism may affect the cytokine production following insult, or may affect the development of SIRS following insult. Therefore, we must also consider genetic aspect of cytokine biology in future study.

  5. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  6. Mechanism of sirtuin inhibition by nicotinamide: altering the NAD(+) cosubstrate specificity of a Sir2 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Avalos, José L; Bever, Katherine M; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2005-03-18

    Sir2 enzymes form a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases required for diverse biological processes, including transcriptional silencing, regulation of apoptosis, fat mobilization, and lifespan regulation. Sir2 activity is regulated by nicotinamide, a noncompetitive inhibitor that promotes a base-exchange reaction at the expense of deacetylation. To elucidate the mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition, we determined ternary complex structures of Sir2 enzymes containing nicotinamide. The structures show that free nicotinamide binds in a conserved pocket that participates in NAD(+) binding and catalysis. Based on our structures, we engineered a mutant that deacetylates peptides by using nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD) as a cosubstrate and is inhibited by nicotinic acid. The characteristics of the altered specificity enzyme establish that Sir2 enzymes contain a single site that participates in catalysis and nicotinamide regulation and provides additional insights into the Sir2 catalytic mechanism.

  7. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  8. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  9. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  10. Agoraphobia is a disease: a tribute to Sir Martin Roth.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Rafanelli, Chiara; Tossani, Eliana; Grandi, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks. In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. indicates that agoraphobia, as a diagnostic category, is frequently independent of panic disorder and panic attacks, is unlikely to remit spontaneously and entails compromised quality of life. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity. These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth (1917-2006) and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis.

  11. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts.

  12. [Cytokine imbalance in critically ill patients: SIRS and CARS].

    PubMed

    Murata, A; Kikuchi, M; Mishima, S; Sakaki, S; Goto, H; Matsuoka, T; Tanaka, H; Yukioka, T; Shimazaki, S

    1999-07-01

    It remains difficult to treat severely ill patients, especially those who have sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We propose the hypothesis that the pathophysiology in the sequential sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome may be strongly related to the imbalance between inflammatory cytokines and antiinflammatory cytokines induced for the host defense to active neutrophils and endothelial cells. Thus we attempted to develop cytokine modulation therapy to normalize the cytokine balance in the host defense system. In this review, we elucidate the relationship between cytokine imbalance and SIRS/CARS in patients with severe burn injury. Furthermore, we examine the possible usage of G-CSF to amplify neutrophil function, and clarify the reasons why various innovative therapies against sepsis have failed.

  13. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  14. Precipitation measurement using SIR-C: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamad, Atiq; Moore, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    A precipitation detection and measurement experiment is planned for the SIR-C/X-SAR mission. This study was conducted to determine under what conditions an off-nadir experiment is feasible. The signal-to-clutter ratio, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the minimum detectable rain rate were investigated. Available models, used in previous studies, were used for the surface clutter and the rain echo. The study also considers the attenuation of the returns at X band. It was concluded that an off-nadir rain-measurement experiment is feasible only for rain rates greater than 10 mm/hr for look angles greater than 60 deg. For the range of look angles 5 less than theta(sub 1) less than 50, the rain rate required is very high for adequate signal-to-clutter ratio, and hence the feasibility of the experiment.

  15. The SIRS Model of Epidemic Spreading in Virtual Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R.

    2008-09-01

    Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically. On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network.

  16. Sir William Mackenzie: sympathetic ophthalmia and glaucoma before ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Geoffrey

    2009-12-01

    One of the practitioners of probably the oldest surgical specialty, ophthalmic, was the eminent Scottish ophthalmologist, Sir William Mackenzie. Educated in Edinburgh, he moved to Glasgow, and described and named sympathetic ophthalmia before the time of the ophthalmoscope, well defining his powers of observation and deduction. Founding the Glasgow Eye Infirmary, his 'Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Eye' appeared in English in four editions (1850-1884) and in French and German. In this also appears the first full and clear account of glaucoma. Both he and the illustrator of his book, Wharton Jones, moved to Glasgow because of rather indefinite connections with Robert Knox, the anatomist, who was allegedly helped by the bodysnatchers, Burke and Hare. Mackenzie and his book were highly regarded before the revolutionary ophthalmoscope. He was knighted and appointed Surgeon Oculist to the Queen in Scotland.

  17. Repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres is moderated by Sir2 and Sir3, and inhibited by yKu-Sir4 interaction.

    PubMed

    Guintini, Laetitia; Tremblay, Maxime; Toussaint, Martin; D'Amours, Annie; Wellinger, Ralf E; Wellinger, Raymund J; Conconi, Antonio

    2017-02-21

    Ultraviolet light (UV) causes DNA damage that is removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). UV-induced DNA lesions must be recognized and repaired in nucleosomal DNA, higher order structures of chromatin and within different nuclear sub-compartments. Telomeric DNA is made of short tandem repeats located at the ends of chromosomes and their maintenance is critical to prevent genome instability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the chromatin structure of natural telomeres is distinctive and contingent to telomeric DNA sequences. Namely, nucleosomes and Sir proteins form the heterochromatin like structure of X-type telomeres, whereas a more open conformation is present at Y'-type telomeres. It is proposed that there are no nucleosomes on the most distal telomeric repeat DNA, which is bound by a complex of proteins and folded into higher order structure. How these structures affect NER is poorly understood. Our data indicate that the X-type, but not the Y'-type, sub-telomeric chromatin modulates NER, a consequence of Sir protein-dependent nucleosome stability. The telomere terminal complex also prevents NER, however, this effect is largely dependent on the yKu-Sir4 interaction, but Sir2 and Sir3 independent.

  18. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  19. Structural Basis for Nicotinamide Inhibition and Base Exchange in Sir2 Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, B.; Zhao, K; Slama, J; Marmorstein, R

    2007-01-01

    The Sir2 family of proteins consists of broadly conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases that are implicated in diverse biological processes, including DNA regulation, metabolism, and longevity. Sir2 proteins are regulated in part by the cellular concentrations of a noncompetitive inhibitor, nicotinamide, that reacts with a Sir2 reaction intermediate via a base-exchange reaction to reform NAD+ at the expense of deacetylation. To gain a mechanistic understanding of nicotinamide inhibition in Sir2 enzymes, we captured the structure of nicotinamide bound to a Sir2 homolog, yeast Hst2, in complex with its acetyl-lysine 16 histone H4 substrate and a reaction intermediate analog, ADP-HPD. Together with related biochemical studies and structures, we identify a nicotinamide inhibition and base-exchange site that is distinct from the so-called 'C pocket' binding site for the nicotinamide group of NAD+. These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the development of Sir2-specific effectors.

  20. Structural basis for nicotinamide inhibition and base exchange in Sir2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brandi D; Zhao, Kehao; Slama, James T; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2007-02-09

    The Sir2 family of proteins consists of broadly conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that are implicated in diverse biological processes, including DNA regulation, metabolism, and longevity. Sir2 proteins are regulated in part by the cellular concentrations of a noncompetitive inhibitor, nicotinamide, that reacts with a Sir2 reaction intermediate via a base-exchange reaction to reform NAD(+) at the expense of deacetylation. To gain a mechanistic understanding of nicotinamide inhibition in Sir2 enzymes, we captured the structure of nicotinamide bound to a Sir2 homolog, yeast Hst2, in complex with its acetyl-lysine 16 histone H4 substrate and a reaction intermediate analog, ADP-HPD. Together with related biochemical studies and structures, we identify a nicotinamide inhibition and base-exchange site that is distinct from the so-called "C pocket" binding site for the nicotinamide group of NAD(+). These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the development of Sir2-specific effectors.

  1. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  2. Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) Weddell Sea ice observations - A comparison of SIR-B and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer ice concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Seelye; Holt, Benjamin; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Squire, Vernon

    1987-01-01

    Ice concentrations over the Weddell Sea were studied using SIR-B data obtained during the October 1984 mission, with special attention given to the effect of ocean waves on the radar return at the ice edge. Sea ice concentrations were derived from the SIR-B data using two image processing methods: the classification scheme at JPL and the manual classification method at Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI), England. The SIR ice concentrations were compared with coincident concentrations from the Nimbus-7 SMMR. For concentrations greater than 40 percent, which was the smallest concentration observed jointly by SIR-B and the SMMR, the mean difference between the two data sets for 12 points was 2 percent. A comparison between the JPL and the SPRI SIR-B algorithms showed that the algorithms agree to within 1 percent in the interior ice pack, but the JPL algorithm gives slightly greater concentrations at the ice edge (due to the fact that the algorithm is affected by the wind waves in these areas).

  3. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  4. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  5. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  6. Ectogenesis, justice and utility: a reply to James.

    PubMed

    Wells, Deane

    1987-10-01

    In one chapter of their 1984 book The Reproductive Revolution (published in North America as Making Babies), Wells and Peter Singer make a case for the development of ectogenesis, the complete gestation of a human fetus outside the womb. David N. James responded with "Ectogenesis: a reply to Singer and Wells" (Bioethics, 1987 Jan; 1(1): 80-99), in which he refuted one of their arguments at length, opposed two briefly, and set two aside. Here Wells answers James, devoting most of his essay to reiterating an argument for ectogenesis based on the justice of remedying a correctable disability (infertility) by allocating resources to develop a biotechnology (ectogenesis). Wells then touches upon James's response to the Wells/Singer argument for ectogenesis as a possible solution to the abortion dilemma. He concludes by commenting briefly on the arguments about ectogenesis and parenting, and on ectogenesis as a source of transplantable tissue and organs.

  7. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance. PMID:25400502

  8. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry.

    PubMed

    Funke, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance.

  9. William James Morton [1845-1920]: like father, like son (?).

    PubMed

    Aponte-Feliciano, Antonio; Desai, Sukumar P; Desai, Manisha S

    2013-04-01

    William Thomas Green Morton, the man most commonly associated with the introduction of anesthesia in 1846, fathered William James Morton. William James Morton's contributions to society were substantial. He conducted pioneering work in radiology, radiation oncology, and therapeutic electricity. He authored numerous textbooks and articles, and he was an editor of a journal on human behavior. His expertise on diamond mining led to an error in judgment that resulted in a felony conviction. We examine his career and contributions to society, and consider his career in light of his father, William Thomas Green Morton.

  10. Readings that Made a Difference: Cushing's "The Life of Sir William Osler."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrell, Donald D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on the author of reading Harvey Cushing's "The Life of Sir William Osler," a biography of the leading American medical educator in the late nineteenth century, which stressed his reading interests. (DD)

  11. An overview of the National Space Science data Center Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.; Blecher, S.; Verson, E. E.; King, M. L. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general overview is given of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Standard Information Retrieval System. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Emphasis is placed on providing users with an overview of the capabilities and uses of the NSSDC Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS). Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Detailed information about NSSDC data files is documented in a set of File Users Guides, with one user's guide prepared for each file processed by SIRS. Detailed information about SIRS is presented in the SIRS Users Guide.

  12. Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla Aircraft Industry, England (center right) at the NAS Facility Cray 2 computer with Ron Deiss, NAS Deputy Manager (L) and Vic Peterson, Ames Deputy Director (R).

  13. Sir Paul McCartney Wake-up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    Paul McCartney and Beatles favorite "Good Day Sunshine" greet the Atlantis crew of Chris Ferguson, Doug Hurley, Sandy Magnus and Rex Walheim first thing on Flight Day 8. Sir Paul and the Beatles’...

  14. The Permanent Secretary as Policy-Maker, Shaper, Taker, Sharer, and Resister in Education--Reflections on Sir James Hamilton as a Centralising Outsider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Given that elevation to permanent secretary is widely recognised as the apotheosis of a career in the Whitehall bureaucracy, it is remarkable that so few have been the subject of sustained biographical research and that this key role remains largely un-theorised. As such, this paper reports on aspects of a longitudinal study which set out to…

  15. Impaired regulation of cardiac function in sepsis, SIRS, and MODS.

    PubMed

    Werdan, Karl; Schmidt, Hendrik; Ebelt, Henning; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Koidl, Bernd; Hoke, Robert Sebastian; Heinroth, Konstantin; Müller-Werdan, Ursula

    2009-04-01

    In sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a severe prognostically relevant cardiac autonomic dysfunction exists, as manifested by a strong attenuation of sympathetically and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV). The mechanisms underlying this attenuation are not limited to the nervous system. They also include alterations of the cardiac pacemaker cells on a cellular level. As shown in human atrial cardiomyocytes, endotoxin interacts with cardiac hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels, which mediate the pacemaker current If and play an important role in transmitting sympathetic and vagal signals on heart rate and HRV. Moreover, endotoxin sensitizes cardiac HCN channels to sympathetic signals. These findings identify endotoxin as a pertinent modulator of the autonomic nervous regulation of heart function. In MODS, the vagal pathway of the autonomic nervous system is particularly compromised, leading to an attenuation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory reflex. An amelioration of the blunted vagal activity appears to be a promising novel therapeutic target to achieve a suppression of the inflammatory state and thereby an improvement of prognosis in MODS patients. Preliminary data revealed therapeutic benefits (increased survival rates and improvements of the depressed vagal activity) of the administration of statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with MODS.

  16. [Acute phase reaction and immunocompetence in sepsis and SIRS].

    PubMed

    Burdon, Dan; Zabel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis and SIRS, respectively is still rising. Mortality is 40 to 70% and, thus, remains very high in spite of major advances in intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental data have helped to explain isolated aspects of the pathophysiology of these disease states but the complex patho-mechanism remains to be elucidated. The discovery of the toll-like receptors and of the endotoxin-binding proteins LBP and BPI have substantially contributed to the understanding of the bacterial toxin-host interactions and may stimulate the development of new therapeutic strategies in the future. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a central role in disease evolution, however the concept of organ-derived and organ-specific damage is gaining importance. Both inflammation and counter-regulation can occur at the same time in the circulation thus, making the evaluation of the patients' immunological status difficult. Additionally, several gene polymorphisms have been detected for example within the toll-like receptor genes and TNF genes. These polymorphisms document the existence of pre-disposing factors, which influence acute phase reaction as well as immuno-competence in sepsis. Both genes and gender will play an important role in the future to identify patients at risk and potentially, to design a specific and individualized immuno-therapies.

  17. Inflammatory markers in SIRS, sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Herzum, I; Renz, H

    2008-01-01

    Despite great advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, mortality of sepsis still remains unacceptably high. Adequate laboratory diagnostics represents a major requirement for the improvement of this situation. For a better understanding of the immunological dysregulation in this disease, several markers are now available for routine diagnostics in the clinical laboratory. They include the cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8, procalcitonin and the LPS-binding protein (LBP). These novel markers will be compared to the conventional procedure of diagnosing inflammatory and infectious disease, such as measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a major acute phase protein and differential blood counting. Important questions addressed in this review are the usefulness of these markers for early diagnosis, their role as prognostic markers and in the risk assessment of patients. Furthermore, we will discuss whether these parameters are to differentiate between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at its different degrees. In the case of an infectious nature of the disease, it is important to differentiate between viral or bacterial origin and to monitor the responsiveness of antibiotic therapies. The literature was analysed with focus on the evidence for diagnostic and analytical performance. For this purpose international definition and staging criteria were used in context of criteria for assay performance including sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, ROC analysis and other analytical criteria.

  18. Genetic diversity in the SIR model of pathogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Gordo, Isabel; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Reis, Daniel G; Campos, Paulo R A

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIR). We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations (infected hosts), where pathogens replicate and mutate. Hosts transmit pathogens to uninfected hosts. We show that the level of pathogen variation is well predicted by analytical expressions, such that pathogen neutral molecular variation is bounded by the level of infection and increases with the duration of infection. We then introduce selection in the model and study the invasion probability of a new pathogenic strain whose fitness (R(0)(1+s)) is higher than the fitness of the resident strain (R(0)). We show that this invasion probability is given by the relative increment in R(0) of the new pathogen (s). By analyzing the patterns of genetic diversity in this framework, we identify the molecular signatures during the replacement and compare these with those observed in sequences of influenza A.

  19. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  20. A free boundary problem of a diffusive SIRS model with nonlinear incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jia-Feng; Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Fei-Ying

    2017-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the spreading (persistence) and vanishing (extinction) of a disease which is characterized by a diffusive SIRS model with a bilinear incidence rate and free boundary. Through discussing the dynamics of a free boundary problem of an SIRS model, the spreading of a disease is described. We get the sufficient conditions which ensure the disease spreading or vanishing. In addition, the estimate of the expanding speed is also given when the free boundaries extend to the whole R.

  1. Use of the SIRS in compensation cases: an examination of its validity and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Berry, David T R; Granacher, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers et al., Structured interview of reported symptoms (SIRS) and professional manual, 1992) is a well-validated psychological measure for the assessment of feigned mental disorders (FMD) in clinical, forensic, and correctional settings. Comparatively little work has evaluated its usefulness in compensation and disability contexts. The present study examined SIRS data from 569 individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychiatric examinations for the purposes of workers' compensation, personal injury, or disability proceedings. Using bootstrapping comparisons, three primary groups were identified: FMD, feigned cognitive impairment (FCI), genuine-both (GEN-Both) that encompasses both genuine disorders (GEN-D) and genuine-cognitive presentation (GEN-C). Consistent with the SIRS main objective, very large effect sizes (M Cohen's d = 1.94) were observed between FMD and GEN-Both groups. Although not intended for this purpose, moderate to large effect sizes (M d = 1.13) were found between FCI and GEN-Both groups. An important consideration is whether SIRS results are unduly affected by common diagnoses or clinical conditions. Systematic comparisons were performed based on common disorders (major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders), presence of a cognitive disorder (dementia, amnestic disorder, or cognitive disorder NOS), or intellectual deficits (FSIQ < 80). Generally, the magnitude of differences on the SIRS primary scales was small and nonsignificant, providing evidence of the SIRS generalizability across these diagnostic categories. Finally, the usefulness of the SIRS improbable failure-revised (IF-R) scale was tested as a FCI screen. Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen.

  2. Sir2 paralogues cooperate to regulate virulence genes and antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Christopher J; Carret, Céline K; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Voss, Till S; Ralph, Stuart A; Hommel, Mirja; Duffy, Michael F; Silva, Liliana Mancio da; Scherf, Artur; Ivens, Alasdair; Speed, Terence P; Beeson, James G; Cowman, Alan F

    2009-04-14

    Cytoadherance of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the brain, organs and peripheral microvasculature is linked to morbidity and mortality associated with severe malaria. Parasite-derived P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) molecules displayed on the erythrocyte surface are responsible for cytoadherance and undergo antigenic variation in the course of an infection. Antigenic variation of PfEMP1 is achieved by in situ switching and mutually exclusive transcription of the var gene family, a process that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we report characterisation of the P. falciparum silent information regulator's A and B (PfSir2A and PfSir2B) and their involvement in mutual exclusion and silencing of the var gene repertoire. Analysis of P. falciparum parasites lacking either PfSir2A or PfSir2B shows that these NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases are required for silencing of different var gene subsets classified by their conserved promoter type. We also demonstrate that in the absence of either of these molecules mutually exclusive expression of var genes breaks down. We show that var gene silencing originates within the promoter and PfSir2 paralogues are involved in cis spreading of silenced chromatin into adjacent regions. Furthermore, parasites lacking PfSir2A but not PfSir2B have considerably longer telomeric repeats, demonstrating a role for this molecule in telomeric end protection. This work highlights the pivotal but distinct role for both PfSir2 paralogues in epigenetic silencing of P. falciparum virulence genes and the control of pathogenicity of malaria infection.

  3. Elementary proof of convergence to the mean-field model for the SIR process.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Benjamin; Beck, Ekkehard

    2016-12-21

    The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model has been used extensively to model disease spread and other processes. Despite the widespread usage of this ordinary differential equation (ODE) based model which represents the mean-field approximation of the underlying stochastic SIR process on contact networks, only few rigorous approaches exist and these use complex semigroup and martingale techniques to prove that the expected fraction of the susceptible and infected nodes of the stochastic SIR process on a complete graph converges as the number of nodes increases to the solution of the mean-field ODE model. Extending the elementary proof of convergence for the SIS process introduced by Armbruster and Beck (IMA J Appl Math, doi: 10.1093/imamat/hxw010 , 2016) to the SIR process, we show convergence using only a system of three ODEs, simple probabilistic inequalities, and basic ODE theory. Our approach can also be generalized to many other types of compartmental models (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS)) which are linear ODEs with the addition of quadratic terms for the number of new infections similar to the SI term in the SIR model.

  4. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks.

    PubMed

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  5. Approach to derivation of SIR-C science requirements for calibration. [Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Evans, Diane; Van Zyl, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    Many of the experiments proposed for the forthcoming SIR-C mission require calibrated data, for example those which emphasize (1) deriving quantitative geophysical information (e.g., surface roughness and dielectric constant), (2) monitoring daily and seasonal changes in the Earth's surface (e.g., soil moisture), (3) extending local case studies to regional and worldwide scales, and (4) using SIR-C data with other spaceborne sensors (e.g., ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat). There are three different aspects to the SIR-C calibration problem: radiometric and geometric calibration, which have been previously reported, and polarimetric calibration. The study described in this paper is an attempt at determining the science requirements for polarimetric calibration for SIR-C. A model describing the effect of miscalibration is presented first, followed by an example describing how to assess the calibration requirements specific to an experiment. The effects of miscalibration on some commonly used polarimetric parameters are also discussed. It is shown that polarimetric calibration requirements are strongly application dependent. In consequence, the SIR-C investigators are advised to assess the calibration requirements of their own experiment. A set of numbers summarizing SIR-C polarimetric calibration goals concludes this paper.

  6. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide 1-21 suppresses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model of the human autoimmune disease T1D. Soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS) is a nonspecific protein suppressor of immune response produced by immunomodulatory T cells stimulated by type I interferon (IFN). SIRS inhibits antibody responses in vivo, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. Previous investigators have isolated the N-terminal sequence of SIRS protein consisting of 21 amino acids. Mice ingesting 1 microg SIRS peptide 1-21 showed significant delayed onset of T1D and a decreased frequency of T1D compared with mock-fed and 10-microg-fed mice and a significant decrease in islet inflammation. There were significant decreases in islet lymphocyte chemokine production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma (MIP-1 gamma), regulated upon activation, normal T cell-expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTES), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the SIRS-fed mice, factors important in migration of inflammatory cell into the islets. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide inhibits clinical T1D by decreasing target organ cellular migration of islet destructive populations by suppression of islet lymphocyte chemokine secretion.

  7. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  8. Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.

    2004-12-01

    The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future.

  9. Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Keller, H.U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.

    2004-01-01

    The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A burning issue: do sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) directly contribute to cardiac dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Wu, Shan

    2006-01-01

    Heart disease is among the leading causes of death in all populations. Cardiac dysfunctions are major complications in patients with advanced viral or bacterial infection, severe trauma and burns accompanied with multiple organ failure - collectively known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS, which is often subsequent to sepsis, is clinically featured by hypotension, tachypnea, hypo- or hyperthermia, leukocytosis and myocardial dysfunction. The striking association between inflammation and cardiac dysfunction not only prognoses likelihood of survival in patients with SIRS but also prompts the necessity of understanding the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in SIRS, so that effective therapeutic regimen may be identified. Compelling evidence has shown significant and independent link among inflammation, sepsis, insulin resistance and cardiac dysfunction. Several cytokine signaling molecules have been speculated to play important roles in the onset of cardiac dysfunction under SIRS including endothelin-1 and toll-like receptor. Involvement of these pathways in cardiac dysfunction has been convincingly validated with transgenic studies. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of action underscoring inflammation-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction is far from being clear. Given the substantial impact of inflammation and SIRS on health care, ecosystems and national economy, it is imperative to understand the cellular mechanisms responsible for cardiac contractile dysfunction under inflammation and sepsis so that new and effective therapeutic strategy against such devastating heart problems may be developed.

  11. Revisiting node-based SIR models in complex networks with degree correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jinde; Alofi, Abdulaziz; AL-Mazrooei, Abdullah; Elaiw, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider two growing networks which will lead to the degree-degree correlations between two nearest neighbors in the network. When the network grows to some certain size, we introduce an SIR-like disease such as pandemic influenza H1N1/09 to the population. Due to its rapid spread, the population size changes slowly, and thus the disease spreads on correlated networks with approximately fixed size. To predict the disease evolution on correlated networks, we first review two node-based SIR models incorporating degree correlations and an edge-based SIR model without considering degree correlation, and then compare the predictions of these models with stochastic SIR simulations, respectively. We find that the edge-based model, even without considering degree correlations, agrees much better than the node-based models incorporating degree correlations with stochastic SIR simulations in many respects. Moreover, simulation results show that for networks with positive correlation, the edge-based model provides a better upper bound of the cumulative incidence than the node-based SIR models, whereas for networks with negative correlation, it provides a lower bound of the cumulative incidence.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Boyce, Leslye A.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Johnson, Eric L.; McCloskey, John C.; Voyton, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is described from a systems perspective with emphasis on unique and advanced technology aspects. The major subsystems of this flight element are described including: structure, thermal, command and data handling, and software.

  13. Keening Woman and Today: James Welch's Early Unpublished Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    It was most likely in the spring of 1966 that the late American Indian novelist James Welch wrote his first novel, predating his first published fiction by eight years. The titleless, hand-corrected typescript, stored in his Missoula home for many years, is 114 pages long and unfinished. The book is playful and experimental the way warm-ups…

  14. 11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLDING CONVEYOR, AIR CLEANING A PATTERN AS IT SITS WITHIN A FLASK ON A MOLDING MACHINE PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND FROM THE OVERHEAD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Astronauts James Lovell and Frank Borman during preflight physical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Charles A. Berry, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Medical Programs, and Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, and Frank Borman, Gemini 7 command pilot, examine a series of chest x-rays taken during the preflight physical.

  16. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  17. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  18. James J. Gallagher: Man in the White Hat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In classic Western movies, the good guy could be frequently identified by his trademark white Stetson hat, whereas the bad guy always wore black. James J. Gallagher wore many hats during his career that spanned over six decades; he too would be known as the "man in the white hat,"--trusted to do the right thing. From 1967 to 1970,…

  19. James Newton Howard: JAMs with TRI-M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reninger, Rosemary D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with James Newton Howard, a film composer. Provides background information on Howard. Addresses topics such as his most challenging and rewarding scores, his musical background, and the benefits of being associated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). (CMK)

  20. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CARRIAGE SHED carriage made by George + David Cook + Co., New Haven- #104 'Hamilton Coach' - $1,200 on left - #60 'Boston Chaise' in Cook 1860 catalogue - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. James Mark Baldwin and the Aesthetic Development of the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper recounts the ideas of the American cognitive-developmental psychologist James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) on aesthetic experience: his conceptualization of aesthetic experience as immediate, semblant, personalized, and idealized; and his three-stage theory of aesthetic development. (SJL)

  2. James Baldwin (1841-1925): A Man Who Loved Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; Shapiro, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that James Baldwin was one of the most prolific authors of schoolbooks for children during his lifetime (1841-1925). Notes that in addition to the Baldwin Readers (1897), he coauthored the Harper Readers (1888) and Expressive Readers (1911). Estimates that his publications numbered 54 volumes and that 26 million copies of his works sold…

  3. Astronaut James Lovell hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot, waits in the raft to be hoisted aboard the helicopter.

  4. The 16th James L. Waters Annual Symposium: Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Adrian C.

    2007-04-01

    The 16th Annual James L. Waters Symposium focused on electrochemistry, with emphasis on methods involving the flow of current. The speakers in this year's symposium are uniquely qualified to review the history of electroanalytical chemistry starting with Heyrovsky's initial studies and culminating with the present state of the art. Each has contributed significantly to the scientific, technical, and commercial development of the field.

  5. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. A Final Glory: The Novels of James Salter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowie, William

    1988-01-01

    Critiques five novels by James Salter--THE HUNTERS, THE ARM OF FLESH, A SPORT AND A PASTIME, LIGHT YEARS, and SOLO FACES. Notes that Salter's works have been ignored by literary critics and the public though praised by other authors. (MM)

  7. Pestalozzi and James Pierrepont Greaves: A Shared Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Jackie E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Johann H. Pestalozzi, James Pierrepont Greaves, and Reverend Charles Mayo. States that Greaves and Mayo disseminated Pestalozzi's ideas and techniques in England. Explains that Pestalozzi and Greaves trained elementary teachers to view students' talents and personal growth as a whole person concept. Argues less effort would limit…

  8. The Early Years of Watomika (James Bouchard): Delaware and Jesuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1989-01-01

    Publishes and critiques the 1855 autobiography of Jesuit Father James Bouchard, born and raised a Delaware named Watomika. Contains information about Watomika's family, genealogy, and early years; his conversion to Christianity; and Delaware religious beliefs and practices. Examines the literary and ethnographic merits of the autobiography. (SV)

  9. 12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF SAND TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Working To Make a Difference: Interview with Dr. James Alatis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    This interview with Dr. James Alatis, dean emeritus in the School of Languages and Linguistics of Georgetown University, covers among other things his influence in the founding of the Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) organization, how the organization has changed since its founding, his current goals for TESOL, his…

  11. 66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 6 FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8. THREE KIVAS (LEFT - SUS - KATZ - HOUSE NO. 3, CENTER MAU-HA-ROTZ - HOUSE NO. 5, RIGHT - HY-ME-TA-TIES - HOUSE NO. 8) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  12. 67. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934. BLOCK No. 6 FROM SOUTH SHOWING HOUSES Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. HY-ME-TA-TIES KIVA IN FRONT OF HOUSE No. 8. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  13. View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and family plot among other demarcated family plots in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 78 FR 48609 - Safety Zone; James River; Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Warfare Development Group will conduct a training exercise on the USNS Del Monte in the James River in the... and explosive training exercise and will be ] enforced from 8 a.m. on August 19, 2013, to 4 p.m. on... assessment of potential costs and benefits under section 6(a)(3) of Executive Order 12866 or under section...

  16. Groundbreaking Investigator of Creativity: An Interview with James C. Kaufman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James C. Kaufman, an associate professor of psychology at the California State University at San Bernardino, where he directs the Learning Research Institute. Kaufman received his PhD in cognitive psychology from Yale University in 2001. Dr. Kaufman's research broadly focuses on nurturing and encouraging…

  17. Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. prepares enter Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Troy Stewart, Rick Welty, and Bob Saulnier.

  18. STS-86 Commander James Wetherbee in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Commander James D. Wetherbee prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of white room closeout crew member Jim Davis, a NASA quality assurance specialist. Rick Welty, United Space Alliance orbiter vehicle closeout chief, is in foreground with back to camera.

  19. Astronauts James Lovell uses scoop from ALHT during simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander of the upcoming Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, uses a scoop from the Apollo Lunar Hand Tools (ALHT) during a simulated lunar surface traverse at the kapoho, Hawaii, training site. Notice the camera hanging from around Lovell's neck.

  20. Astronaut James Irwin uses scoop during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, uses a scoop in making a trench in the lunar soil during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). Mount Hadley rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain in the background.

  1. James Carter: Champion of the Normal School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Thomas F.; Flaherty, John J.

    This paper presents a historical review of the gradual growth of interest in an establishment of legislation in Massachusetts for institutions concerned exclusively with the training of teachers. Highlighted is the activity of James G. Carter in this endeavor. The state of education at the beginning of the nineteenth century is described: private…

  2. The Word for Teaching Is Learning: Essays for James Britton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Martin, Ed.; Martin, Nancy, Ed.

    Reflecting the influence of James Britton in the field of language and learning, this book--a collection of essays by researchers and practitioners in the area of language and learning--focuses on recent issues of language development in learning. The book contains the following 27 essays: (1) "Social Interaction as Scaffold: The Power and…

  3. Lobell, Rickaby, and Vrugt Receive 2010 James B. Macelwane Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Lobell, David B.; Elderfield, Harry; Rickaby, Rosalind; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2011-03-01

    David B. Lobell, Rosalind E. Rickaby, and Jasper A. Vrugt were awarded the 2010 James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by an outstanding young scientist.”

  4. Shake, Rattle and Roll: James Webb Telescope Components Pass Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a model of one of three detectors for the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The detector, which looks green in this picture, and is similar to the charge-coupled devices, or 'CCDs,' in digital cameras, is housed in the brick-like unit shown here, called a focal plane module.

  5. Shake, Rattle and Roll: James Webb Telescope Components Pass Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Mike Ressler (right) and Kalyani Sukhatme of JPL pose in the clean room with a model component, called a focal plane module, of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. Ressler is the project scientist for the instrument, and Sukhatme is the project element manager for the instrument's focal plane module.

  6. Reflections on Policy in Gifted Education: James J. Gallagher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa F.; Garland, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brown and Garland, reflect on issues raised by James J. Gallagher, such as educational policies helping to create and support an infrastructure within which the needs of students can be addressed. Gallagher felt that a strong federal policy, such as IDEA, was critical to building and maintaining a solid infrastructure. Gallagher…

  7. APOLLO 13 CREW JOHN SWIGERT, JAMES LOVELL, AND FRED HAISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    John L. Swigert, Jr., left, the Apollo 13 backup crewman being considered as command module pilot in place of Thomas K. Mattingly II because of the latter's exposure to measles, has been training with the prime crew -- James A. Lovell, Jr., center and Fred W. Haise, Jr.

  8. 34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  9. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Parker spans, aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  10. 37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Pennsylvania spans, aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  11. 36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  12. 33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  13. 35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  14. Plan of the principal (second) floor of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the principal (second) floor of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867. The exterior wall outline of the architects’ Early Norman alternative design is shown overlaid across the left third of the drawing. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. MSFC Director James R. Thompson in Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Marshall's fifth Center Director, James R. Thompson (1986-1989), in the control room of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)automated thermal protection system (TPS) removal facility. Under Dr. Thompson's leadership, the shuttle program was rekindled after the Challenger explosion. Return to Flight kept NASA 's future programs alive.

  16. James Bradley and reflections on a special year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K. A. P.

    2012-12-01

    James Bradley, the third Astronomer Royal, made arguably some of the most important measurements in the history of science, yet he remains a relatively obscure figure. In the 250th year since his death, Kevin Walsh focuses on some of the events of 2012 that present particularly timely reminders of the greatness of Bradley's work and the extraordinary legacy he left.

  17. James Moffett's Mistake: Ignoring the Rational Capacities of the Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donehower, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Using Alasdair MacIntyre's theory of tradition-bound rationalities, this essay analyses James Moffett's depiction of the censors who opposed his "Interactions" textbook series in the Kanawha County, West Virginia, schools. Many reviewers have found Moffett's analysis of the censors in "Storm in the Mountains" even-handed and…

  18. STS-69 James S. Voss photographs fellow crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Payload Commander James S. Voss (left) captures the moment as fellow crew members Michael L. Gernhardt, mission specialist, and Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot,, prepare to enter the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Assisting the astronauts into the orbiter for flight are the white room closeout crew, led by Travis Thompson (right).

  19. Beyond Walls: A Strategic Plan for James White Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews Univ., Berrien Springs, MI. James White Library.

    The strategic plan for the James White Library of Andrews University uses the phrase "beyond walls," rather than the catchphrase "library without walls," to acknowledge that printed matter is here to stay but that the paradigm in which it operates is open to innovation and exploration. The fundamental changes taking place in…

  20. DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, FLAGPOLE, CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, CANNONBALL PYRAMID AND ARC OF UNKNOWN U.S. SOLDIER HEADSTONES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Oak Woods Cemetery, Confederate Mound, 1035 East 67th Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. James Abbot McNeill Whistler: "At the Piano."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Heather

    1987-01-01

    "At the Piano," an oil-on-canvas painting completed in 1859 by James Abbot McNeill Whistler, is used as the basis of a lesson designed to help junior high school students analyze the painting's mood, subject matter, and composition. (JDH)

  2. Wise, Holistic Thinking: An Interview with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James H. Borland, Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he directs the graduate programs in the education of gifted students. Dr. Borland is the author of numerous books, book chapters, journal articles, and miscellanea. He has won…

  3. Williams and Doney receive 2000 James B. Macelwane medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thome; Williams, Quentin C.

    Quentin C. Williams and Scott C. Doney were awarded the James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 17, 2000 in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee D.; Russell, Kevin; Texter, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) conducted a phase down select process via the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) project to assess the Technology Readiness Level of various candidate mirror materials. This process culminated in the selection of Beryllium as the JWST primary mirror material. This paper outlines the mirror evaluation process, defines the selection criteria and summarizes the candidate mirror's performances.

  5. Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point in jameed production.

    PubMed

    Al-Saed, A K; Al-Groum, R M; Al-Dabbas, M M

    2012-06-01

    The average of standard plate count and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella counts for three home-made jameed samples, a traditional fermented dairy product, before applying hazard analysis critical control point system were 2.1 × 10(3), 8.9 × 10(1), 4 × 10(1) and less than 10 cfu/g, respectively. The developed hazard analysis critical control point plan resulted in identifying ten critical control points in the flow chart of jameed production. The critical control points included fresh milk receiving, pasteurization, addition of starter, water and salt, straining, personnel hygiene, drying and packaging. After applying hazard analysis critical control point system, there was significant improvement in the microbiological quality of the home-made jameed. The standard plate count was reduced to 3.1 × 10(2) cfu/g whereas coliform and Staphylococcus aureus counts were less than 10 cfu/g and Salmonella was not detected. Sensory evaluation results of color and flavor of sauce prepared from jameed showed a significant increase in the average scores given after hazard analysis critical control point application.

  6. Circulating Plasma microRNAs can differentiate Human Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    PubMed

    Caserta, Stefano; Kern, Florian; Cohen, Jonathan; Drage, Stephen; Newbury, Sarah F; Llewelyn, Martin J

    2016-06-20

    Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. Critically ill patients with severe (n = 21) or non-severe (n = 8) intra-abdominal sepsis; severe (n = 23) or non-severe (n = 21) non-infective SIRS; or no SIRS (n = 16) were studied. Next-generation sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to measure plasma microRNAs. Detectable blood miRNAs (n = 116) were generally up-regulated in SIRS compared to no-SIRS patients. Levels of these 'circulating inflammation-related microRNAs' (CIR-miRNAs) were 2.64 (IQR: 2.10-3.29) and 1.52 (IQR: 1.15-1.92) fold higher for non-infective SIRS and sepsis respectively (p < 0.0001), hence CIR-miRNAs appeared less abundant in sepsis than in SIRS. Six CIR-miRNAs (miR-30d-5p, miR-30a-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-191-5p) provided good-to-excellent discrimination of severe sepsis from severe SIRS (0.742-0.917 AUC of ROC curves). CIR-miRNA levels inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and others). Thus, among critically ill patients, sepsis and non-infective SIRS are associated with substantial, differential changes in CIR-miRNAs. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  7. SIS and SIR epidemic models under virtual dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bichara, Derdei; Kang, Yun; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Horan, Richard; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We develop a multi-group epidemic framework via virtual dispersal where the risk of infection is a function of the residence time and local environmental risk. This novel approach eliminates the need to define and measure contact rates that are used in the traditional multi-group epidemic models with heterogeneous mixing. We apply this approach to a general n-patch SIS model whose basic reproduction number R0 is computed as a function of a patch residence-times matrix ℙ. Our analysis implies that the resulting n-patch SIS model has robust dynamics when patches are strongly connected: there is a unique globally stable endemic equilibrium when R0 > 1 while the disease free equilibrium is globally stable when R0 ≤ 1. Our further analysis indicates that the dispersal behavior described by the residence-times matrix ℙ has profound effects on the disease dynamics at the single patch level with consequences that proper dispersal behavior along with the local environmental risk can either promote or eliminate the endemic in particular patches. Our work highlights the impact of residence times matrix if the patches are not strongly connected. Our framework can be generalized in other endemic and disease outbreak models. As an illustration, we apply our framework to a two-patch SIR single outbreak epidemic model where the process of disease invasion is connected to the final epidemic size relationship. We also explore the impact of disease prevalence driven decision using a phenomenological modeling approach in order to contrast the role of constant versus state dependent ℙ on disease dynamics. PMID:26489419

  8. Environmental Assessment on the leasing of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, St. James Terminal, St. James Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease the Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s (SPR) St. James Terminal to private industry. The St. James Terminal consists of six storage tanks, a pumping station, two maine docks and ancillary facilities. DOE believes that the St. James Terminal presents an opportunity to establish a government- industry arrangement that could more effectively use this asset to serve the nations`s oil distribution needs, reduce the operational cost of the SPR, and provide a source of revenue for the Government. DOE solicited interest in leasing its distribution facilities in a notice published March 16, 1994. In response, industry has expressed interest in leasing the St. James Terminal, as well as several DOE pipelines, to enhance the operation of its own facilities or to avoid having to construct new ones. Under such a lease, industry use would be subordinate to DOE use in the event of a national energy emergency. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed leasing operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) OF 1969 and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Growth phase-dependent roles of Sir2 in oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Kyu; Kim, Yeong Hyeock; Kim, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2014-08-01

    Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2), a conserved NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, has been implicated as one of the key factors in regulating stress response and longevity. Here, we report that the role of Sir2 in oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan is dependent on growth phase in yeast. In exponential phase, sir2Δ cells were more resistant to H2O2 stress and had a longer chronological lifespan than wild type. By contrast, in post-diauxic phase, sir2Δ cells were less resistant to H2O2 stress and had a shorter chronological lifespan than wild type cells. Similarly, the expression of antioxidant genes, which are essential to cope with oxidative stress, was regulated by Sir2 in a growth phase-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of the metabolic state of the cell in determining whether Sir2 can protect against or accelerate cellular aging of yeast.

  10. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP... Environmental Statement for the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Docket No. 50-333, dated March...

  11. 63 FR 69292 - Max F. James; Analysis to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Max F. James; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent... final approval, to a proposed consent order from Max F. James (hereinafter ``James'' or...

  12. "The Bravest of the Brave": A Conversation with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Higher Education Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi. Mary Bitterman, former President and CEO of The James Irvine Foundation, is President of The Bernard Osher Foundation and Immediate Past Chairman of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). James Narduzzi is Dean of the University of Richmond's School of Continuing Studies.…

  13. Absence of effects of Sir2 over-expression on lifespan in C. elegans and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Camilla; Valentini, Sara; Cabreiro, Filipe; Goss, Martin; Somogyvári, Milán; Piper, Matthew D.; Hoddinott, Matthew; Sutphin, George L.; Leko, Vid; McElwee, Joshua J.; Vazquez, Rafael; Orfila, Anne-Marie; Ackerman, Daniel; Au, Catherine; Vinti, Giovanna; Riesen, Michèle; Howard, Ken; Neri, Christian; Bedalov, Antonio; Kaeberlein, Matt; Söti, Csaba; Partridge, Linda; Gems, David

    2011-01-01

    Over-expression of sirtuins (NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases) has been reported to increase lifespan in budding yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster1-3. Studies of gene effects on ageing are vulnerable to confounding effects of genetic background4. We re-examined the reported effects of sirtuin over-expression on ageing and found that standardisation of genetic background and use of appropriate controls abolished the apparent effects in both C. elegans and Drosophila. In C. elegans, outcrossing of a line with high level sir-2.1 over-expression1 abrogated the longevity increase, but not sir-2.1 over-expression. Instead, longevity co-segregated with a second-site mutation affecting sensory neurons. Outcrossing of a line with low copy number sir-2.1 over-expression2 also abrogated longevity. A Drosophila strain with ubiquitous over-expression of dSir2 using the UAS-GAL4 system was long-lived relative to wild-type controls, as previously reported3, but not relative to the appropriate transgenic controls, and nor was a new line with stronger over-expression of dSir2. These findings underscore the importance of controlling for genetic background and the mutagenic effects of transgene insertions in studies of genetic effects on lifespan. The life extending effect of dietary restriction (DR) on ageing in Drosophila has also been reported to be dSir2 dependent3. We found that DR increased fly lifespan independently of dSir2. Our findings do not rule out a role for sirtuins in determination of metazoan lifespan, but they do cast doubt on the robustness of the previously reported effects on lifespan in C. elegans and Drosophila. PMID:21938067

  14. Identification of Predictive Early Biomarkers for Sterile-SIRS after Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veseli, Kujtim; Stang, Katharina; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ), other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1) and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (p<0.001) at the end of surgery in all patients but could not distinguish between groups. Normalization of samples revealed significant increases in IL1β changes (p<0.05) and decreased responses to endotoxin (p<0.01) in the SIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (p<0.01). This small scale patient study could show that common sepsis markers PCT, CRP, IL6 and TNFα had low predictive value for early diagnosis of SIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions.

  15. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Serum inflammatory markers in the elderly: are they useful in differentiating sepsis from SIRS?

    PubMed

    Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Babazadeh, Shahin; Barati, Mitra; Latifnia, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC) count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98%) and negative predictive value (98.6%) and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI). On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.

  17. Soluble Immune Response Suppressor (SIRS): Reassessing the immunosuppressant potential of an elusive peptide.

    PubMed

    Webb, David R

    2016-10-01

    A previously studied immunosuppressive cytokine, Soluble Immune Response Suppressor (SIRS), may have relevance to current studies of immune suppression in a variety of human disease states. Despite extensive efforts using experimental models, mainly in mice, much remains to be discovered as to how autoimmune cells in mice and humans escape normal regulation and, conversely, how tumor cells evade evoking an immune response. It is the contention of this commentary that the literature pre-2000 contain results that might inform current studies. The broadly immunosuppressive protein, SIRS, was studied extensively from the 1970s to 1990s and culminated in the determination of the n-terminal 21mer sequence of this 15kDa protein which had high homology to the short neurotoxins from sea snakes, that are canonical members of the three finger neurotoxin superfamily (3FTx). It was not until 2007 that the prophylactic administration of the synthetic N-terminal peptide of the SIRS 21mer, identical to the published sequence, was reported to inhibit or delay the development of two autoimmune diseases in mice: experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and type I diabetes (T1D). These findings were consistent with other studies of the 3FTx superfamily as important probes in the study of mammalian pharmacology. It is the perspective of this commentary that SIRS, SIRS peptide and the anti-peptide mAb, represent useful, pharmacologically-active probes for the study of the immune response as well as in the potential treatment of autoimmune, inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  18. Functional analysis of eicosanoids from white blood cells in sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Baenkler, M; Leykauf, M; John, S

    2006-12-01

    Sepsis and SIRS are affections with major alterations in inflammatory activity. The impact of prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) produced from white blood cells (WBC) in this context is not completely understood. Thirty nine patients with sepsis or SIRS were investigated in comparison to 10 healthy controls. WBC were collected and separately exposed to arachidonic acid (AA) or to nothing else. After centrifugation, the generated PGE(2) and LTCDE(4) with or without stimulation were measured in the supernatant. LT-levels were significantly higher during sepsis/SIRS than in controls whereas PG-levels of patients were decreased to those of controls in basic condition. The relation between the level with and without stimulation showed a significant higher ratio in PG in contrast to LTs. The survivor's ratio in LT levels was significantly higher than that of non-survivors, which did not differ from controls. Generation of LT from WBC is enhanced during sepsis/SIRS, but LT generation after stimulation only in survivors but not in non-survivors. This inability of WBC to generate LT during sepsis in non-survivors could be predictive regarding the outcome of sepsis/SIRS and may be part of the "immunoparalysis" seen during sepsis in association with bad outcome.

  19. Sir2 regulates stability of repetitive domains differentially in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Freire-Benéitez, Verónica; Gourlay, Sarah; Berman, Judith; Buscaino, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    DNA repeats, found at the ribosomal DNA locus, telomeres and subtelomeric regions, are unstable sites of eukaryotic genomes. A fine balance between genetic variability and genomic stability tunes plasticity of these chromosomal regions. This tuning mechanism is particularly important for organisms such as microbial pathogens that utilise genome plasticity as a strategy for adaptation. For the first time, we analyse mechanisms promoting genome stability at the rDNA locus and subtelomeric regions in the most common human fungal pathogen: Candida albicans. In this organism, the histone deacetylase Sir2, the master regulator of heterochromatin, has acquired novel functions in regulating genome stability. Contrary to any other systems analysed, C. albicans Sir2 is largely dispensable for repressing recombination at the rDNA locus. We demonstrate that recombination at subtelomeric regions is controlled by a novel DNA element, the TLO Recombination Element, TRE, and by Sir2. While the TRE element promotes high levels of recombination, Sir2 represses this recombination rate. Finally, we demonstrate that, in C. albicans, mechanisms regulating genome stability are plastic as different environmental stress conditions lead to general genome instability and mask the Sir2-mediated recombination control at subtelomeres. Our data highlight how mechanisms regulating genome stability are rewired in C. albicans. PMID:27369382

  20. Molecular Links between Caloric Restriction and Sir2/SIRT1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is the most significant risk factor for a range of prevalent diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, interventions are needed for delaying or preventing disorders associated with the ageing process, i.e., promotion of healthy ageing. Calorie restriction is the only nongenetic and the most robust approach to slow the process of ageing in evolutionarily divergent species, ranging from yeasts, worms, and flies to mammals. Although it has been known for more than 80 years that calorie restriction increases lifespan, a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon remains elusive. Yeast silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases, and its mammalian homologue Sir2-like protein 1 (SIRT1), have been suggested to promote survival and longevity of organisms. SIRT1 exerts protective effects against a number of age-associated disorders. Caloric restriction increases both Sir2 and SIRT1 activity. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights between caloric restriction and Sir2/SIRT1 activation. A number of molecular links, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, biotin, and related metabolites, are suggested to be the most important conduits mediating caloric restriction-induced Sir2/SIRT1 activation and lifespan extension. PMID:25349818

  1. Royce's community; a dimension missing in Freud and James?

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, F M

    1977-04-01

    Josiah Royce (1855-1916), philosopher of community, taught that social consciousness arises from ego-alter contrasts and is guided by taboos and, before George H. Mead, by reciprocal gestures. A major Roycean contribution was his five conditions for coexperiencing consciousness of genuine community. Related to Freud (via Putnam), Royce did early work on "identification theory" and helped midwife psychotherapy's birth in America. Contrasting with William James's basic differentiation of consciousness according to the quality of its contents (feeling, thought, and conduct), Royce preferred a norm of increasing self-agency (shown in sensitivity, docility, and initiative). The temperaments of James as artist and of Royce as rational interpreter differentiated their approaches to psychology.

  2. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  3. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  4. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. Seasonal Variations of the James Webb Space Telescope Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Petersen, Jeremy; Villac, Benjamin; Yu, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While spacecraft orbital variations due to the Earth's tilt and orbital eccentricity are well-known phenomena, the implications for the James Webb Space Telescope present unique features. We investigate the variability of the observatory trajectory characteristics, and present an explanation of some of these effects using invariant manifold theory and local approximation of the dynamics in terms of the restricted three-body problem.

  6. STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell Jr. gets ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Assisting him are the white room closeout crew: (from left) KSC NASA quality assurance technician Eartha Shoemaker; KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead Mike Mangione; and Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  7. Astronauts James Lovell and Frank Borman during preflight physical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Charles A. Berry, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Medical Programs, checks Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, follwoing workout on exercise machine. Results will be compared with those obtained during space flight for evaluation (60602); Astronaut Frank Borman, Gemini 7 command pilot, sits as two scalp electrodes are attached to his head. The electrodes will allow doctors to record electrical activity of the astronaut's cerebral cortex during periods of weightlessness (60603).

  8. Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One year ago, in late February 2000, MISR began acquiring Earth imagery. Its 'first light' images showed a frozen James Bay in the Ontario-Quebec region of Canada. These more recent nadir-camera views of the same area illuminate stark contrasts between summer and winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra orbit 5757).

    James Bay lies at the southern end of Hudson Bay. It is named for the English explorer Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the many rivers that flow into the bay; starting at the southern tip and moving clockwise on the western side are the Harricana, Moose, Albany, and Attawapiskat. The latter enters the bay just to the west of the large, crescent-shaped Akimiski Island.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. A New SIR-Based Sigmoid Power Control Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2014-01-01

    Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

  10. Space Shuttle Columbia views the world with imaging radar: The SIR-A experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    Images acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) in November 1981, demonstrate the capability of this microwave remote sensor system to perceive and map a wide range of different surface features around the Earth. A selection of 60 scenes displays this capability with respect to Earth resources - geology, hydrology, agriculture, forest cover, ocean surface features, and prominent man-made structures. The combined area covered by the scenes presented amounts to about 3% of the total acquired. Most of the SIR-A images are accompanied by a LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) or SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image of the same scene for comparison. Differences between the SIR-A image and its companion LANDSAT or SEASAT image at each scene are related to the characteristics of the respective imaging systems, and to seasonal or other changes that occurred in the time interval between acquisition of the images.

  11. Structural Insights into Intermediate Steps in the Sir2 Deacetylation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Hoff, Kevin G.; Fatkins, David G.; Daines, Alison; Zubkova, Olga V.; Schramm, Vern L.; Zheng, Weiping; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2010-07-22

    Sirtuin enzymes comprise a unique class of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylases. Although structures of many sirtuin complexes have been determined, structural resolution of intermediate chemical steps are needed to understand the deacetylation mechanism. We report crystal structures of the bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, in complex with an S-alkylamidate intermediate, analogous to the naturally occurring O-alkylamidate intermediate, and a Sir2Tm ternary complex containing a dissociated NAD{sup +} analog and acetylated peptide. The structures and biochemical studies reveal critical roles for the invariant active site histidine in positioning the reaction intermediate, and for a conserved phenylalanine residue in shielding reaction intermediates from base exchange with nicotinamide. The new structural and biochemical studies provide key mechanistic insight into intermediate steps of the Sir2 deacetylation reaction.

  12. Cartographic feature extraction with integrated SIR-B and Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Ehlers, Manfred

    1988-01-01

    A digital cartographic multisensor image database of excellent geometry and improved resolution was created by registering SIR-B images to a rectified Landsat TM reference image and applying intensity-hue-saturation enhancement techniques. When evaluated against geodetic control, RMSE(XY) values of approximately + or - 20 m were noted for the composite SIR-B/TM images. The completeness of cartographic features extracted from the composite images exceeded those obtained from separate SIR-B and TM image data sets by approximately 10 and 25 percent, respectively, indicating that the composite images may prove suitable for planimetric mapping at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller. At present, the most effective method for extracting cartographic information involves digitizing features directly from the image processing display screen.

  13. Multifrequency, Multipolarization External Calibration of the SIR-C/X-SAR Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Sarabandi, K.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and the future plans for the following objectives are discussed: (1) Assess the accuracy at which the SIR-C/X-SAR standard data products can be calibrated through the use of ground calibrators to estimate the end-to-end system polarization calibration constants (or distortion parameters) and incorporate the constants into the data processing; (2) Study the cross-calibration between three multipolarization systems: SIR-C, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA/JPL) DC-8 SAR, and the University of Michigan ground-based polarimetric scatterometer; (3) Evaluate the calibration "stability" of SIR-C/X-SAR (measured by variations in the calibration constants) over the range swath width and over a specified distance in azimuth. Variations over a 12-hour period (between ascending and descending passes) will also be studied; and (4) Develop a cost-effective calibration plan including development of inexpensive polarimetric active calibrators.

  14. Fast differentiation of SIRS and sepsis from blood plasma of ICU patients using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Ute; Trenkmann, Sabine; Bocklitz, Thomas; Schmerler, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    Currently, there is no biomarker that can reliable distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, such a biomarker would be of utmost importance for early identification and stratification of patients at risk to initiate timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Within this proof of principle study, the high potential of Raman spectroscopy for the fast differentiation of non-infectious SIRS and sepsis is demonstrated. Blood plasma collected from 70 patients from the intensive care unit (31 patients with sepsis and 39 patients classified with SIRS without infection) was analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. A PCA-LDA based classification model was trained with Raman spectra from test samples and yielded for sepsis a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.82. These results have been confirmed with an independent dataset (prediction accuracy 80%).

  15. Study on the threshold of a stochastic SIR epidemic model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dianli

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides a simple but effective method for estimating the threshold of a class of the stochastic epidemic models by use of the nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem. Firstly, the threshold R0SIR is obtained for the stochastic SIR model with a saturated incidence rate, whose value is below 1 or above 1 will completely determine the disease to go extinct or prevail for any size of the white noise. Besides, when R0SIR > 1 , the system is proved to be convergent in time mean. Then, the threshold of the stochastic SIVS models with or without saturated incidence rate are also established by the same method. Comparing with the previously-known literatures, the related results are improved, and the method is simpler than before.

  16. Shuttle imaging radar views the Earth from Challenger: The SIR-B experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Holt, B.; Ruzek, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, SIR-B obtained digital image data of about 6.5 million km2 of the Earth's surface. The coverage is mostly of selected experimental test sites located between latitudes 60 deg north and 60 deg south. Programmed adjustments made to the look angle of the steerable radar antenna and to the flight attitude of the shuttle during the mission permitted collection of multiple-incidence-angle coverage or extended mapping coverage as required for the experiments. The SIR-B images included here are representative of the coverage obtained for scientific studies in geology, cartography, hydrology, vegetation cover, and oceanography. The relations between radar backscatter and incidence angle for discriminating various types of surfaces, and the use of multiple-incidence-angle SIR-B images for stereo measurement and viewing, are illustrated with examples. Interpretation of the images is facilitated by corresponding images or photographs obtained by different sensors or by sketch maps or diagrams.

  17. A new SIR-based sigmoid power control game in cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2014-01-01

    Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant.

  18. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. An exploitation of coregistered SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, P.; Nguyen, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral registration and classification of SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat MSS data is presented over two playas located in the northeastern Algerian Sahara. A supervised classification was made over six classes: salt, palm trees, dunes, limestones, gypsum and sand. The best classification is obtained by using all of the data. The images using radar only misclassify trees and salt, limestone and dunes, gypsum and dunes. Landsat only gives a good map but lacks the roughness information contained in the radar data. The Landsat/SIR-A combination gives a better classification than the Landsat/Seasat combination. Density number histograms computed within several classes on the Seasat and SIR-A data show the misclassification is mainly due to the Seasat data.

  20. Specificity of Staphyloferrin B recognition by the SirA receptor from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Jason C; Cheung, Johnson; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2010-11-05

    Many organisms use sophisticated systems to acquire growth-limiting iron. Iron limitation is especially apparent in bacterial pathogens of mammalian hosts where free iron concentrations are physiologically negligible. A common strategy is to secrete low molecular weight iron chelators, termed siderophores, and express high affinity receptors for the siderophore-iron complex. Staphylococcus aureus, a widespread pathogen, produces two siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB). We have determined the crystal structure of the staphyloferrin B receptor, SirA, at high resolution in both the apo and Fe(III)-SB (FeSB)-bound forms. SirA, a member of the class III binding protein family of metal receptors, has N- and C-terminal domains, each composed of mainly a β-stranded core and α-helical periphery. The domains are bridged by a single α-helix and together form the FeSB binding site. SB coordinates Fe(III) through five oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom in distorted octahedral geometry. SirA undergoes conformational change upon siderophore binding, largely securing two loops from the C-terminal domain to enclose FeSB with a low nanomolar dissociation constant. The staphyloferrin A receptor, HtsA, homologous to SirA, also encloses its cognate siderophore (FeSA); however, the largest conformational rearrangements involve a different region of the C-terminal domain. FeSB is uniquely situated in the binding pocket of SirA with few of the contacting residues being conserved with those of HtsA interacting with FeSA. Although both SirA and HtsA bind siderophores from the same α-hydroxycarboxylate class, the unique structural features of each receptor provides an explanation for their distinct specificity.

  1. Modelling the effect of telegraph noise in the SIRS epidemic model using Markovian switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.

  2. Periodic solution for a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with logistic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model, in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. For the periodic system, we present sufficient conditions for persistence of the epidemic and in the case of persistence, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we show that there is at least one nontrivial positive periodic solution. One of the most important findings is that random perturbations may be beneficial to formate the periodic solution to the stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model.

  3. The Spaceborne Imaging Radar program: SIR-C - The next step toward EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane; Elachi, Charles; Cimino, Jobea

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-C experiments will investigate earth surface and environment phenomena to deepen understanding of terra firma, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere components of the earth system, capitalizing on the observational capabilities of orbiting multiparameter radar sensors alone or in combination with other sensors. The SIR-C sensor encompasses an antenna array, an exciter, receivers, a data-handling network, and the ground SAR processor. It will be possible to steer the antenna beam electronically, so that the radar look angle can be varied.

  4. Global stability and optimal control of an SIRS epidemic model on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Sun, Jitao

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider an SIRS epidemic model with vaccination on heterogeneous networks. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model is investigated. Also we firstly study an optimally controlled SIRS epidemic model on complex networks. We show that an optimal control exists for the control problem. Finally some examples are presented to show the global stability and the efficiency of this optimal control. These results can help in adopting pragmatic treatment upon diseases in structured populations.

  5. Proatherogenic Abnormalities Of Lipid Metabolism In SirT1 Transgenic Mice Are Mediated Through Creb Deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Li; Lin, Hua V.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Welch, Carrie L.; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but the mechanism is unclear. Gain-of-function of the gene encoding deacetylase SirT1 improves insulin sensitivity, and could be expected to protect against lipid abnormalities. Surprisingly, when transgenic mice overexpressing SirT1 (SirBACO) are placed on atherogenic diet, they maintain better glucose homeostasis, but develop worse lipid profiles and larger atherosclerotic lesions than controls. We show that transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (Creb) is deacetylated in SirBACO mice. We identify Lys136 is a substrate for SirT1-dependent deacetylation that affects Creb activity by preventing its cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, leading to reduced expression of glucogenic genes, and promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and secretion. Expression of constitutively acetylated Creb (K136Q) in SirBACO mice mimics Creb activation and abolishes the dyslipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of SirT1 gain-of-function. We propose that SirT1-dependent Creb deacetylation regulates the balance between glucose and lipid metabolism, integrating fasting signals. PMID:22078933

  6. 77 FR 21150 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIR MARTIN II; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIR MARTIN II... the vessel SIR MARTIN II is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day charter up to 6 passengers...

  7. Inhibition of silencing and accelerated aging by nicotinamide, a putative negative regulator of yeast sir2 and human SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Kevin J; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Cohen, Haim Y; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Sinclair, David A

    2002-11-22

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that plays a critical role in transcriptional silencing, genome stability, and longevity. A human homologue of Sir2, SIRT1, regulates the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor and inhibits apoptosis. The Sir2 deacetylation reaction generates two products: O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and nicotinamide, a precursor of nicotinic acid and a form of niacin/vitamin B(3). We show here that nicotinamide strongly inhibits yeast silencing, increases rDNA recombination, and shortens replicative life span to that of a sir2 mutant. Nicotinamide abolishes silencing and leads to an eventual delocalization of Sir2 even in G(1)-arrested cells, demonstrating that silent heterochromatin requires continual Sir2 activity. We show that physiological concentrations of nicotinamide noncompetitively inhibit both Sir2 and SIRT1 in vitro. The degree of inhibition by nicotinamide (IC(50) < 50 microm) is equal to or better than the most effective known synthetic inhibitors of this class of proteins. We propose a model whereby nicotinamide inhibits deacetylation by binding to a conserved pocket adjacent to NAD(+), thereby blocking NAD(+) hydrolysis. We discuss the possibility that nicotinamide is a physiologically relevant regulator of Sir2 enzymes.

  8. Extracellular phospholipases A2 in relation to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and systemic complications in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hietaranta, A; Kemppainen, E; Puolakkainen, P; Sainio, V; Haapiainen, R; Peuravuori, H; Kivilaakso, E; Nevalainen, T

    1999-05-01

    The pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) resembles other conditions with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) such as sepsis predisposing to remote organ failure. Because extracellular phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been implicated in AP, their serum concentrations were analyzed with respect to SIRS and systemic complications in patients with severe AP. The serum samples were collected daily for 12 days in 57 patients with severe AP. SIRS, early organ complications, local complications, and outcome of AP were recorded. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays were used for group I and group II PLA2 measurements. Thirty-nine (68.4%) patients fulfilled the criteria of SIRS within 12 days from admission. Pancreatic necrosis was detected in 43 (75.4%) patients. Infected necrosis was found preoperatively or at operation in five (8.8%) patients. Twenty-six (45.6%) and eight (14.0%) patients had respiratory or renal failure, respectively. Seven (12.3%) patients died of their disease. All patients with systemic complications fulfilled the criteria of SIRS. The increasing number of positive SIRS criteria was associated with increased frequency of systemic complications. Pancreatic necrosis was not significantly associated with SIRS. The serum concentration of group II PLA2 was significantly higher in patients with SIRS (p < 0.05) compared with patients without from day 7 onward. The concentration of group II PLA2 increased (p < 0.01) in patients with SIRS but decreased in patients without. The serum concentration of group II PLA2 did not differ significantly with respect to systemic complications. The concentration of group I PLA2 decreased (p < 0.05) similarly in patients with and without SIRS or systemic complications during follow-up, respectively. Early systemic complications of severe AP are associated with SIRS with increasing frequency as the number of positive SIRS criteria increases. Group II PLA2 but not group I PLA2 may have pathophysiologic

  9. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Treatment of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Zinovkin, Roman A; Popova, Ekaterina N; Chernyak, Boris V

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) development is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunctions also occur in many SIRS-related diseases and may be critical for their pathogenesis; therefore, a use of mitochondria-targeted drugs is a promising trend in SIRS research and therapy. Here, we review recent studies concerning the application of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in animal models of SIRS and related diseases. We propose that a new class of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, lipophilic cations could be a base for a new generation of drugs for SIRS treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 904-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. C. elegans SIRT6/7 homolog SIR-2.4 promotes DAF-16 relocalization and function during stress.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Chung; Tishkoff, Daniel X; Yang, Bo; Wilson-Grady, Joshua; Yu, Xiaokun; Mazer, Travis; Eckersdorff, Mark; Gygi, Steven P; Lombard, David B; Hsu, Ao-Lin

    2012-09-01

    FoxO transcription factors and sirtuin family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including stress responses and longevity. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans sirtuin SIR-2.4--homolog of mammalian SIRT6 and SIRT7 proteins--promotes DAF-16-dependent transcription and stress-induced DAF-16 nuclear localization. SIR-2.4 is required for resistance to multiple stressors: heat shock, oxidative insult, and proteotoxicity. By contrast, SIR-2.4 is largely dispensable for DAF-16 nuclear localization and function in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Although acetylation is known to regulate localization and activity of mammalian FoxO proteins, this modification has not been previously described on DAF-16. We find that DAF-16 is hyperacetylated in sir-2.4 mutants. Conversely, DAF-16 is acetylated by the acetyltransferase CBP-1, and DAF-16 is hypoacetylated and constitutively nuclear in response to cbp-1 inhibition. Surprisingly, a SIR-2.4 catalytic mutant efficiently rescues the DAF-16 localization defect in sir-2.4 null animals. Acetylation of DAF-16 by CBP-1 in vitro is inhibited by either wild-type or mutant SIR-2.4, suggesting that SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 acetylation indirectly, by preventing CBP-1-mediated acetylation under stress conditions. Taken together, our results identify SIR-2.4 as a critical regulator of DAF-16 specifically in the context of stress responses. Furthermore, they reveal a novel role for acetylation, modulated by the antagonistic activities of CBP-1 and SIR-2.4, in modulating DAF-16 localization and function.

  11. Investigation of the catalytic mechanism of Sir2 enzyme with QM/MM approach: SN1 vs SN2?

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongjie; Shi, Ting; Ouyang, Sisheng; Li, Honglin; Yu, Kunqian; Zhu, Weiliang; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Hualiang

    2010-09-16

    Sir2, the histone deacetylase III family, has been subjected to a wide range of studies because of their crucial roles in DNA repair, longevity, transcriptional silencing, genome stability, apoptosis, and fat mobilization. The enzyme binds NAD(+) and acetyllysine as substrates and generates lysine, 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and nicotinamide as products. However, the mechanism of the first step in Sir2 deacetylation reaction from various studies is controversial. To characterize this catalytic mechanism of acetyllysine deacetylation by Sir2, we employed a combined computational approach to carry out molecular modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations on catalysis by both yeast Hst2 (homologue of SIR two 2) and bacterial Sir2TM (Sir2 homologue from Thermatoga maritima). Our three-dimensional (3D) model of the complex is composed of Sir2 protein, NAD(+), and acetyllysine (ALY) substrate. A 15-ns MD simulation of the complex revealed that Gln115 and His135 play a determining role in deacetylation. These two residues can act as bases to facilitate the deprotonation of 2'-OH from N-ribose. The result is in great agreement with previous mutagenesis analysis data. QM/MM calculations were further performed to study the mechanism of the first step in deacetylation in the two systems. The predicted potential energy barriers for yHst2 and Sir2TM are 12.0 and 15.7 kcal/mol, respectively. The characteristics of the potential energy surface indicated this reaction belongs to a SN2-like mechanism. These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the discovery of effectors against Sir2 enzymes.

  12. The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the evaluation of SIRS criteria as a predictor of severity in patients hospitalized through emergency services.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Aikawa, N

    1999-03-01

    Based on the concept of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a one-year retrospective study was carried out among a total of 2389 patients transported to the emergency room by ambulance. With respect to 351 patients who had all data necessary for evaluating SIRS criteria in 369 hospitalized patients, 200 met SIRS criteria within 24 hours of admission (24h-SIRS). The mortality rate for 24h-SIRS patients was significantly higher than that of non-SIRS patients. The mortality rate for 24h-SIRS patients increased sequentially as more SIRS criteria were met. In 235 patients who met SIRS criteria during hospitalization (overall-SIRS), 108 had sepsis. Of these, 60 developed severe sepsis, and 50 developed septic shock. The mortality rate for patients who had 3 or more consecutive days of SIRS was significantly higher than that for those with less than 3 consecutive SIRS days. Among 153 patients who had all data necessary for APACHEIII scoring within 24 hours of admission, the mortality rate for SIRS patients whose APACHEIII score was 50 or higher was 40.7%, significantly higher than that of other patients. In conclusion, SIRS criteria were demonstrated to be useful as indicators of severity and for predicting outcome in patients hospitalized through emergency services. Patients who met the following criteria were found to be a high-risk population among hospitalized emergency patients with SIRS: (1) Those who had three or more consecutive days of SIRS. (2) Those whose APACHEIII score was 50 or higher.

  13. Sir Hermann Bondi: A journey through his life and the early endeavours of Europe into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.

    2007-06-01

    This paper highlights the life, work and personality of Sir Hermann Bondi, with an emphasis on his years as Director General (DG) of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), the predecessor of ESA. Born in Austria, but being at his ease in Cambridge, Sir Hermann Bondi has had a varying and impressive career as a lecturer, researcher, manager and advisor in many fields like cosmology, radar technology, space research, energy and defence. He became well known for the Steady State theory of the Universe, a theory that was disproved by the Big Bang theory but that caused a lot of fruitful discussions in the scientific world. As a DG of ESRO, Sir Hermann Bondi has proven his intellectual, organisational and communication capabilities while being one of the main players in helping the rise of a European space effort to a success. Apart from his work, Sir Hermann Bondi loved to travel, to ski and to climb in the mountains. He was also an active member and later president of the British Humanist Association, he was influenced by Popper's science philosophy and he stimulated science to be brought to the public. He was known as a very strong personality, which impressed many people who have met him.

  14. SirT1 gain-of-function increases energy efficiency and prevents diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Alexander S.; Kon, Ning; Knight, Colette; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Rossetti, Luciano; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Summary In yeast, worms and flies, an extra copy of the gene encoding the Sirtuin Sir2 increases metabolic efficiency, as does administration of polyphenols like resveratrol, thought to act through Sirtuins. But evidence that Sirtuin gain-of-function results in increased metabolic efficiency in mammals is limited. We generated transgenic mice with moderate overexpression of SirT1, designed to mimic the Sirtuin gain-of-function that improves metabolism in C.elegans. These mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity, but decreased food intake and locomotor activity, resulting in decreased energy expenditure. However, in various models of insulin resistance and diabetes, SirT1 transgenics display improved glucose tolerance due to decreased hepatic glucose production and increased adiponectin levels, without changes in body weight or composition. We conclude that SirT1 gain-of-function primes the organism for metabolic adaptation to insulin resistance, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and decreasing whole-body energy requirements. These findings have important implications for Sirtuin-based therapies in humans. PMID:18840364

  15. SIR-C/X-SAR: Imaging Radar Analyses for Forest Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Shugart, Herman; Smith, James A.; Sun, Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Progress, significant results and future plans are discussed relating to the following objectives: (1) Ecosystem characterization using SIR-C/X-SAR and AirSAR data; (2) Improving radar backscatter models for forest canopies; and (3) Using SAR measurements and models with forest ecosystem models to improve inferences of ecosystem attributes and processes.

  16. Sir Fred Clarke: A Reappraisal of His Early Years 1880-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Frank Mitchell's biography of Sir Fred Clarke, one of the most influential British educationists of the first half of the twentieth century, was published in 1967. This article by Claudia Clarke draws upon previously unknown material and her own recollections to provide new insights into her father's personal and professional lives and to modify…

  17. Asymptotic behaviors of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence. We firstly show that the system has a unique global positive solution with any positive initial value, then by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functionals, we investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium, respectively.

  18. Fathers' Role as Attachment Figures: An Interview with Sir Richard Bowlby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2010-01-01

    Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father's work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about…

  19. Language as Sensuous Action: Sir Richard Paget, Kenneth Burke, and Gesture-Speech Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawhee, Debra

    2006-01-01

    This somatic genealogy of Dramatism's core terms--symbolic action, attitude, identification--argues for the importance of keeping rhetoric, rhetorical theory, and rhetorical pedagogy more closely tied to bodies that generate, induce, and respond to rhetoric. It does so by examining Burke's use of Sir Richard Paget's theory that spoken language…

  20. Nursing care of a patient with fever due to sepsis/SIRS.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S

    1999-01-01

    The pathophysiology of fever in sepsis/Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is outlined. The three phases of fever are explored using a patient case study. The conclusion recommends further research is needed on the nursing management of critically ill patients with a fever.

  1. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Andrey V; Korobeinikov, Andrei

    2013-04-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  2. The man behind the DNA fingerprints: an interview with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this interview we talk with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys about DNA fingerprinting, his wider scientific career, and the past, present and future of forensic DNA applications. The podcast with excerpts from this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/alec-jeffreys. PMID:24245655

  3. Motion Compensated Abdominal Diffusion Weighted MRI by Simultaneous Image Registration and Model Estimation (SIR-ME).

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.

  4. Extended longevity and survivorship during amino-acid starvation in a Drosophila Sir2 mutant heterozygote.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jennifer D; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of energy homeostasis is pivotal to survive periods of inadequate nutrition. A combination of intricate pathways and proteins are responsible for maximizing longevity during such conditions. The sirtuin deacetylase Sir2 is well conserved from single-celled yeast to mammals, and it controls a number of downstream targets that are active during periods of extreme stress. Overexpression of Sir2 has been established to enhance survival of a number of model organisms undergoing calorie restriction, during which insulin receptor signalling (IRS) is reduced, a condition that itself can enhance survivorship during starvation. Increased Sir2 expression and reduced IRS result in an increase in the activity of the transcription factor foxo, an advantageous activation during stress but lethal when overly active. We have found that a lowered gene dosage of Sir2, in mutant heterozygotes, can extend normal longevity and greatly augment survivorship during amino-acid starvation in Drosophila. Additionally, these mutants, in either heterozygous or homozygous form, do not appear to have any disadvantageous effects upon development or cell growth of the organism unlike IRS mutants. These results may advance the understanding of the biological response to starvation and allow for the development of a model organism to mimic the ability of individuals to tolerate nutrient deprivation.

  5. Stationary distribution and extinction of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with standard incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with standard incidence. By constructing suitable stochastic Lyapunov function, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of ergodic stationary distribution of the model. Moreover, we also establish sufficient conditions for extinction of the disease.

  6. SIR-based call admission control for DS-CDMA cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Elzarki, Magda

    1994-05-01

    Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)-based call admission control (CAC) algorithms are proposed and studied in a DS-CDMA cellular system. Residual capacity is introduced as the additional number of initial calls a base station can accept such that system-wide outage probability will be guaranteed to remain below a certain level. The residual capacity at each cell is updated dynamically according to the reverse-link SIR measurements at the base station. A 2(sup k) factorial experimental design and analysis via computer simulations is used to study the impact of the parameters used in the algorithms. The influence of these parameters on system performance, namely blocking probability and outage probability, is then examined via simulation. The performance of the algorithms is compared together with that of a fixed call admission control scheme (fixed CAC) under both homogeneous and hot spot traffic loadings. The results show that SIR-based CAC always outperforms fixed CAC even under overload situations, which is not the case in FDMA/TDMA cellular systems. The primary benefit of SIR-based CAC in DS-CDMA cellular systems, however, lies in improving the system performance under hot spot traffics.

  7. Structural basis for the mechanism and regulation of Sir2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Avalos, José L; Boeke, Jef D; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2004-03-12

    Sir2 proteins form a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases required for diverse biological processes, including transcriptional silencing, suppression of rDNA recombination, control of p53 activity, regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, and aging. Although structures of Sir2 enzymes in the presence and absence of peptide substrate or NAD(+) have been determined, the role of the enzyme in the mechanism of deacetylation and NAD(+) cleavage is still unclear. Here, we present additional structures of Sir2Af2 in several differently complexed states: in a productive complex with NAD(+), in a nonproductive NAD(+) complex with bound ADP-ribose, and in the unliganded state. We observe a new mode of NAD(+) binding that seems to depend on acetyl-lysine binding, in which the nicotinamide ring of NAD(+) is buried in the highly conserved "C" pocket of the enzyme. We propose a detailed structure-based mechanism for deacetylation and nicotinamide inhibition of Sir2 consistent with mutagenesis and enzymatic studies.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  9. Bollasina Receives 2013 James R. Holton Junior Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, Massimo A.

    2014-08-01

    I am deeply honored to have been selected as this year's recipient of the James R. Holton Junior Scientist Award, and I receive it with heartfelt gratitude and humility. I clearly remember Peter Webster's call announcing the amazing news and how I literally remained speechless and overwhelmed. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU and the members of the award committee. I am even more appreciative to have been presented this award handed by two outstanding scientists—Peter Webster and Bill Lau—who have remarkably contributed to our understanding of the Asian monsoon and tropical climate, my area of expertise.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission no sooner than 2013, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation review the mission objective, the organization of the mission planning, the design, and testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There is also information about the orbit, in comparison to the Hubble Space Telescope, the mirror design, and the science instruments. Pictures of the full scale mockup of the JWST are given. A brief history of the universe is also presented from the big bang through the formation of galaxies, and the planets, to life itself. One of the goals of the JWST is to search for extra solar planets and then to search for signs of life.

  12. James E. Watson, Jr.: Named to the Health Physics Society

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2010-11-18

    At its 2010 Annual Meeting, the Health Physics Society named James E. Watson, Jr. to its Honor Roll of distinguished members. This citation summarizes Professor Jim Watson's life and professional career at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he led the Radiological Hygiene program in the School of Public Health for nearly 3 decades. He was President of the Health Physics Society during the 1985-1986 term. He did pioneering work in radiation dose reconstruction for epidemiology as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Health and Mortality Studies.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2011, will study the origin and evolution of luminous objects, galaxies, stars, planetary systems and the origins of life. It is optimized for near infrared wavelength operation of 0.6-28 micrometers and will have a 5 year mission life (with a 10 year goal). This presentation reviews JWST's science objectives, the JWST telescope and mirror requirements and how they support the JWST architecture. Additionally, an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development effort is highlighted.

  14. James F. Crow: His Life in Public Service

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Seymour

    2012-01-01

    The readers of this journal may well be aware of Professor Crow’s scientific achievements and his role as the editor of Perspectives. In addition, for many thousands of students at the University of Wisconsin over many generations, James F. Crow was one of the most memorable teachers at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. What is less known is his major role in public service where he served as chair of many important committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Justice as well as various international programs. In all of these efforts, Professor Crow has left a lasting impact. PMID:22219505

  15. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  16. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  17. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  18. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  19. James Willocks and the innovation of fetal cephalometry.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, M; Fleming, J E E

    2009-11-01

    James Willocks (1928-2004), a Glasgow obstetrician, was an important pioneer of obstetric ultrasound and the originator of the first clinically useful technique of fetal cephalometry. He collaborated with Tom Duggan, an engineer, who designed and built an electronic cephalometer to be used in conjunction with a Kelvin Hughes industrial flaw detector. Working in the Royal Maternity Hospital, Willocks was able to measure the biparietal diameter to an accuracy of better than 2mm. This major innovation enabled fetal growth in the third trimester to be accurately charted and thus greatly improved the detection of placental insufficiency, as well as the management of antepartum haemorrhage, hypertension and other complications of late pregnancy.

  20. EMC Test Challenges for NASAs James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  1. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Campbell, Doug; Clampin, Mark; Decker, John; Greenhouse, Matt; Johns, Alan; Menzel, Mike; Smith, Robert; Sullivan, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  2. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the recent selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Kimble, Randy A.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) segmented aperture telescope equipped with near- and mid-infrared instruments (0.6-28 microns), all of which are passively cooled to ~40 K by a 5-layer sunshield while the mid-infrared instrument is actively cooled to 7 K. JWST is currently in the integration and test phase, with parallel activities on-going across the project. The current estimated JWST performance metrics will be presented, such as the image quality, pointing stability, sensitivity, and stray light backgrounds. The JWST development status and future schedule will be described for the full integration, launch, and commissioning.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  5. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic, space telescope ever built, and will address a broad range of scientific goals from first light in the universe and re-ionization, to characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Recently, significant progress has been made in the construction of the observatory with the completion of all 21 flight mirrors that comprise the telescope's optical chain, and the start of flight instrument deliveries to the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this paper we discuss the design of the observatory, and focus on the recent milestone achievements in each of the major observatory sub-systems.

  6. Kim Receives 2012 James R. Holton Junior Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehyun

    2013-08-01

    It is my great honor to be selected as a recipient of the James R. Holton Junior Scientist Award by AGU. I appreciate AGU and the award committee for the award. I first saw Professor Holton's name on his famous textbook when I was an undergraduate student. I remember his book made me think that atmospheric science was fun. I personally regard the prestigious award given to me as an encouraging message from the society, and I also feel that I have to pay back to the society in any way I can.

  7. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of James E. Zelinski, Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. Aerial view (southwest to northeast) of remote sprint launch site #2, nearing completion. The RLOB has been earth-mounded. The limited access sentry station can be seen in the PAR right foreground, behind it are the waste stabilization ponds. Barely discernible is the exclusion area sentry station at the entrance to the sprint field - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Remote Sprint Launch Site No. 2, West of Mile Marker 220 on State Route 1, 6.0 miles North of Langdon, ND, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. Astronaut James Irwin keeps Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, holds the Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill during the second Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apparently, both of the Rover's rear wheels are off the ground. The Rover was parked facing downhill on a 15 to 20 degree slope. Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, took this photograph. Scott was performing other tasks while Irwin held the Rover. They were parked at a 'fresh' crater on the Apennine Front (Hadley Delta Mountain) slope. In the foreground a lunar rake lies atop a mound.

  9. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  10. Treatment of post-cardiopulmonary bypass SIRS by hemoadsorption: a case series.

    PubMed

    Träger, Karl; Fritzler, Daniel; Fischer, Guenther; Schröder, Janpeter; Skrabal, Christian; Liebold, Andreas; Reinelt, Helmut

    2016-05-16

    The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cardiothoracic surgery results in a well-known activation of the immunologic response. In some cases, however, this triggered immunologic response may be excessive, leading to a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and induced organ dysfunction. For example, patients frequently develop hemodynamic instability with hypotension and low systemic vascular resistance. To date, different therapeutic approaches, such as steroids, have been tried to control this maladaptive postoperative SIRS response, yet definitive proof of clinical efficacy is missing. A new cytokine adsorber device (CytoSorb; CytoSorbents) may be a useful approach to control hyperinflammatory systemic reactions by reducing a broad range of proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. This may, in turn, help to reestablish a physiologic immune response and help to restore deranged clinical parameters in these patients. In this retrospective case series study, we describe 16 cardiac surgery patients following prolonged CPB with post-CPB SIRS and subsequent acute kidney injury, who were then treated with hemoadsorption using CytoSorb in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Treatment of patients with CytoSorb who presented with severe post-CPB SIRS resulted in a reduction of elevated cytokine levels, which was associated with a clear stabilization of deranged hemodynamic, metabolic, and organ function parameters. Treatment was well tolerated and safe, with no device-related adverse events occurring. CytoSorb therapy combined with CRRT is a potentially promising new treatment approach to achieve hemodynamic stability, cytokine reduction, and improved organ function in cardiac surgery patients who develop post-CPB SIRS.

  11. Comparison of Tacrolimus and Sirolimus (Tac/Sir) versus Tacrolimus, Sirolimus, and mini-methotrexate (Tac/Sir/MTX) as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vincent T; Aldridge, Julie; Kim, Haesook T; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Alyea, Edwin P

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that adding sirolimus to a tacrolimus/mini-methotrexate regimen (Tac/Sir/MTX) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis produces low rates of acute GVHD (aGVHD) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). To assess whether posttransplantation methotrexate MTX can be safely eliminated altogether, we conducted a prospective clinical trial testing the combination of T and Sir alone (tac/sir) as GVHD prophylaxis after RIC SCT from matched related donors. We compared the results with patients who received (Tac/Sir/MTX) as GVHD prophylaxis after RIC SCT from matched related donors in a previous prospective study. Patients in both groups received i.v. fludarabine (Flu) 30 mg/m(2)/day and i.v. busulfan (Bu) 0.8 mg/kg/day on days -5 to -2 as conditioning, followed by transplantation of unmanipulated filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCS). After transplantation, patients in both groups received Tac and Sir orally starting on day -3, with doses adjusted to achieve trough serum levels of 5 to 10 ng/mL and 3 to 12 ng/mL, respectively. The patients in the Tac/Sir/MTX group also received mini-MTX therapy (5 mg/m(2) i.v.) on days +1, +3, and +6. Filgrastim 5 microg/kg/day s.c. was started on day +1 and continued until neutrophil engraftment. Twenty-nine patients received the Tac/Sir regimen, and 46 patients received the Tac/Sir/MTX regimen. The 2 groups were balanced in terms of age, sex, and disease characteristics. Engraftment was brisk and donor chimerism after transplantation robust in both groups. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD was similar in the 2 groups (17% for Tac/Sir versus 11% for Tac/Sir/MTX; P = .46). There also were no differences between the 2 groups in cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD), treatment-related mortality (TRM), disease relapse, or survival. The Tac/Sir combination for GVHD prophylaxis is well tolerated and associated with a

  12. mIGF-1/JNK1/SirT1 signaling confers protection against oxidative stress in the heart.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Martinez, Conception; Pazienza, Valerio; Claycomb, William C; Giuliani, Alessandro; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of aging-associated heart failure. Among various signaling pathways mediating oxidative stress, the NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylase SirT1 has been implicated in the protection of heart muscle. Expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) propeptide (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from infarct and enhances SirT1 expression in cardiomyocytes (CM) in vitro, exerting protection from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses. To study the role of mIGF-1/SirT1 signaling in vivo, we generated cardiac-specific mIGF-1 transgenic mice in which SirT1 was depleted from adult CM in a tamoxifen-inducible and conditional fashion. Analysis of these mice confirmed that mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity is necessary to protect the heart from paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress and lethality. In cultured CM, mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression through a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1)-dependent signaling mechanism. Thus, mIGF-1 protects the heart from oxidative stress via SirT1/JNK1 activity, suggesting new avenues for cardiac therapy during aging and heart failure.

  13. DNA discoverer James Watson now dreams of curing genetic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Breo, D.L.

    1989-12-15

    The best-selling The Double Helix, published 20 years ago, describes the events that had led to the discovery by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the building block of genes and heredity. At the time, the 25-year-old Watson was widely perceived as arrogant, brash, gawky, and intense. Subsequent events did little to change that impression. Today, at age 61, James Dewey Watson is still an angry young man. As director since 1968 of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, NY, and as director since 1988 of the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), he is coordinating the attempt to decipher biology's deepest secrets: the mapping, sequencing, and defining of the estimated 50,000 to 100,000 human genes arranged over the 23 pairs of chromosomes. The results, expected by early next century, may reveal the chemical script of life and help solve the riddles of inherited genetic diseases and certain cancers.

  14. Drosophila Sir2 is required for heterochromatic silencing and by euchromatic Hairy/E(Spl) bHLH repressors in segmentation and sex determination.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Miriam I; Parkhurst, Susan M

    2002-05-17

    Yeast SIR2 is a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase required for heterochromatic silencing at telomeres, rDNA, and mating-type loci. We find that the Drosophila homolog of Sir2 (dSir2) also encodes deacetylase activity and is required for heterochromatic silencing, but unlike ySir2, is not required for silencing at telomeres. We show that dSir2 interacts genetically and physically with members of the Hairy/Deadpan/E(Spl) family of bHLH euchromatic repressors, key regulators of Drosophila development. dSir2 is an essential gene whose loss of function results in both segmentation defects and skewed sex ratios, associated with reduced activities of the Hairy and Deadpan bHLH repressors. These results indicate that Sir2 in higher organisms plays an essential role in both euchromatic repression and heterochromatic silencing.

  15. The Varieties of Emotional Experience: A Meditation on James-Lange Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    This article traces the origin of the James-Lange theory of emotion, considers differences in their thinking, and assesses early criticisms and debate. Research on physiological patterns in emotion is reviewed. New paths for emotion research are outlined and homage is paid to the inspiration of William James. (SLD)

  16. Introspecting in the Spirit of William James: Comment on Fox, Ericsson, and Best (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Fox, Ericsson, and Best's (2011) thoughtful justification of the use of think-aloud protocols for revealing the stream of consciousness comes on the centennial of the death of William James, history's greatest practitioner and advocate of introspection. This confluence naturally invites speculation about how James might have responded to the…

  17. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  18. James Burrill Angell's China Mission, 1880-1881: The Forging of an Internationalist University Presidency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Malcolm B.

    The monograph reviews the life and development of James Burrill Angell, president of the University of Michigan (1871-1909), with special emphasis on his internationalist perspective and its implications for higher education. An examination is made of James Burrill Angell's sojourns into the world of international diplomacy and politics during the…

  19. 76 FR 65112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Part 104 RIN 1105-AB39 James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 AGENCY: Department of... regulations implementing the amendments made by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010... awarded to eligible claimants will have an annual beneficial impact on the economy of $100,000,000 or...

  20. Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyndgaard, Kyhl

    2010-01-01

    The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

  1. 78 FR 11094 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; James River, Between Isle of Wight and Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... and Newport News, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation... News, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate generator replacement on the James River Draw... operating schedule, the James River Bridge, mile 5.0, between Isle of Isle and Newport News, VA opens...

  2. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  3. Moral Development as the Personal Education of Feeling and Reason: From James to Piaget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel; Okamoto, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the connection between William James's writings in "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and Jean Piaget's work on moral development through Piaget's early work on religious experience. James characterises religious experience as unlocking deep personal power that can sustain a "strenuous mood". These ideas impacted the early…

  4. SIRS: An Experiment to Measure the Free Air Temperature from a Satellite.

    PubMed

    Wark, D Q

    1970-08-01

    The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) on the Nimbus III satellite was designed to measure the earth's spectral radiances in the 15-microm band of carbon dioxide. From simultaneous measurements of spectral radiances it is possible to obtain the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. The measurements are approximated by the integral equation of radiative transfer, modified by one or two layers of clouds. A solution requires that the surface radiative temperature and the surface air temperature be known. By iteration, a solution based upon the statistical behavior of the atmosphere is obtained for the free air temperature and the cloud heights and amounts. Examples are presented, comparing the SIRS soundings with coincident radiosonde soundings. The results from this experiment indicate that the technique can be applied as a routine observing tool for meteorological use.

  5. Segmenting and extracting terrain surface signatures from fully polarimetric multilook SIR-C data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2016-05-01

    We report results from the segmenting and study of terrain surface signatures of fully polarimetric multilook L-band and C-band SIR-C data. Entropy/alpha/anisotropy decomposition features are available from single multilook pixel data. This eliminates the need to average data from several pixels. Entropy and alpha are utilized in the segmentation along with features we have developed primarily from the eigenanalysis of the Kennaugh matrices of multilook data. We have previously reported on our algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 data featuring the iterative application of a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer. A comparison of signatures from simultaneously recorded data at L and C bands is presented. The terrain surfaces surveyed include the ocean, lakes, lake ice, bare ground, desert salt flats, lava beds, vegetation, sand dunes, rough desert surfaces, agricultural and urban areas.

  6. The SIR-C ground data system: Digital processor, data products, information flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, John C.

    1986-01-01

    The SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar) instrument will collect both C-Band and L-Band data with each frequency band consisting of direct (HH or VV) and cross-polarized (HV or VH) data. Considering all possible combinations as many as eight different data channels will be available for any given target area. This data will be digitized and formatted on-board for direct downlink via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), or it will be buffered through on-board high density digital recorders for storage or transmission when TDRSS is available. The data is received by the TDRSS ground station at White Sands and is nominally relayed via DOMSAT to the high data rate recording facility at GSFC. The tapes are then shipped to JPL for processing into imagery and eventual distribution to the SIR-C investigators.

  7. Reinventing Heterochromatin in Budding Yeasts: Sir2 and the Origin Recognition Complex Take Center Stage ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Meleah A.; Froyd, Cara A.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best-studied models of repressive heterochromatin. However, this type of heterochromatin, which is mediated by the Sir proteins, has a distinct molecular composition compared to the more ubiquitous type of heterochromatin found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, other fungi, animals, and plants and characterized by the presence of HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1). This review discusses how the loss of important heterochromatin proteins, including HP1, in the budding yeast lineage presented an evolutionary opportunity for the development and diversification of alternative varieties of heterochromatin, in which the conserved deacetylase Sir2 and the replication protein Orc1 play key roles. In addition, we highlight how this diversification has been facilitated by gene duplications and has contributed to adaptations in lifestyle. PMID:21764908

  8. The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

  9. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    PubMed Central

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  10. Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell On Phone With President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Lovell, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  11. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  12. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  13. Transit Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the capabilities of each science instrument, and discuss the performance of each mode, with reference to current transiting systems.

  14. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral fie ld units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's k ey science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and miss ion status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limite d down to a wavelength of 2 micron. The MIRI instrument just complete d its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  15. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold <50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral field units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's key science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and mission status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limited down to a wavelength of 2 microns. The MIRI instrument just completed its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  17. The case of James A. Garfield: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bradley K

    2003-05-15

    In 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot in the back and died 79 days later. During this time, many controversies arose that had repercussions for years to come. Who was to manage the President's care? A prominent local physician took on the case, but after Garfield's death, he was highly criticized for inappropriate care and for excluding more highly qualified surgeons. Where was the bullet? Multiple opinions were given including that of Alexander Graham Bell. The correct suggestion turned out to be that of a young, unknown assistant demonstrator of anatomy. What was the proper treatment? Local wound care, removal of the bullet, and laparotomy all were considered. Many have felt that the choice of treatment may have proved to be worse than the injury itself. What did the autopsy show? Even this was controversial, with different observers claiming different results. This historical perspective reviews the case as well the controversies that surrounded it.

  18. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper, we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant-planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  19. Qualitative research in psychology: Could William James get a job?

    PubMed

    Marchel, Carol; Owens, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    Considering the case of William James, the author examines the likelihood of a successful career as a qualitative researcher in contemporary U.S. psychology. Fifty-seven journals affiliated with the American Psychological Association or its divisions were analyzed to show the place of qualitative research in U.S. psychology over the past 50 years. Journal abstracts, mission statements, and a short e-mail questionnaire from editors were used to understand patterns and trends in qualitative research in U.S. psychology. Editors are generally accepting of qualitative work, although mission statements do not always signal likely interest in qualitative work. The amount of qualitative work published is comparably low, but patterns of increased publication are found in some journals. Trends in methodologies, topics of research, and ways in which qualitative research enters journals over time are discussed. Suggestions for the publication of qualitative work are provided.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope stray light performance status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Wei, Zongying

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large space based astronomical telescope that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. The architecture has the telescope exposed to space, with a large sun shield providing thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the sun. The instruments will have the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6 µm to 28 µm wavelengths. The following paper will present updated stray light analysis results characterizing the stray light getting to the instrument focal planes from the full galactic sky, zodiacal background, bright objects near the line of sight, and scattered earth and moon shine. Included is a discussion of internal alignments of pupils at relevant interface planes to stray light. The amount of self-generated infrared background from the Observatory that reaches the instrument focal planes will be presented including the tolerance to the alignment of the edges of the sun shield membranes relative to each other and the telescope.

  2. James Cameron discusses record dive and science concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    James Cameron, the explorer and filmmaker, led a 4 December panel at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco to discuss his daring dive on 26 March to the bottom of the ocean in a one-person vertical "torpedo" submarine, the Deepsea Challenger, and to present some initial science findings from expedition samples and data. The dive touched the bottom of the Challenger Deep, a valley in the floor of the nearly 11-kilometer-deep Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean. The vessel landed close to the same depth and at a location similar to where Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard descended in the Trieste bathyscaphe on 23 January 1960 at a then record-setting depth of 10,911 meters.

  3. STS-114 Crew Interview: James M. Kelly, PLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly, Lieutenant Colonel USAF, is shown during a prelaunch interview. He expresses the major goals of the mission which are to replace the Expedition Six crew of the International Space Station (ISS), install the Raffello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, deliver the External Stowage Platform to the ISS, and replace the Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG). The major task that he has is to be the backup pilot for Commander Eileen Collins. He talks about the three new research racks brought up to the International Space Station inside the U.S. Destiny Laboratory along with the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), Human Research Facility 2 (HRF-2), and a Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer (MELF-1). Kelly also explains how he uses the ISS' Robotic arm to lift the MPLM out of Atlantis' payload bay and attach it to the Unity node to unload hardware, supplies and maintenance items. This will be his second trip to the International Space Station.

  4. Holocene glacier dynamics on James Ross Island, NE Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula is currently warming very rapidly, which has resulted in ice sheet thinning, ice-shelf collapse, and rapid and widespread glacier recession. These small mountain glaciers are predicted to make a large sea level contribution over the coming century. Reconstructing past rates, volumes and magnitudes of change, particularly with respect to the former configuration of former ice sheets and ice shelves, is vital to contextualise contemporary change and to improve predictions of future ice-sheet behaviour. The aim of this research is therefore to investigate the relationship of deglacial ice sheet thinning and Holocene glacier fluctuations around James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula, with temperature changes recorded in the Mount Haddington Ice Core. We use a combination of geomorphological mapping, from field campaigns and remotely sensed images, cosmogenic nuclide ages on glacially transported boulders, and numerical modelling with a simple 1D flowline model. Prior to 18 ka, James Ross Island was inundated by a thick and mainly cold-based ice sheet, which scattered granite erratics across the island. Ice sheet thickness and the rate of thinning is constrained by granite erratics on Terrapin Hill (610 m a.s.l.), and from flat-topped mesas at 370 m a.s.l. on Ulu Peninsula. During deglaciation and a period of rapid warming and eustatic sea level rise, the area was drained by Prince Gustav Ice Stream. The ice sheet reached its current configuration by around 6 ka, with glacier readvances around 4-5 ka. At Boulder Valley, near Terrapin Hill on James Ross Island, a large glacial readvance reached the current shoreline. It pre-dated the Mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, and has shorelines imprinted upon its seaward face. After 5.3 cal. ka BP and post-dating the mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, there was a readvance of at least 7 km by glacier 'IJR-45' on Ulu Peninsula. Rapid glacier recession occurred during a period of

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Milam, S. N.; Kalirai, J. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is poised to revolutionize many areas of astrophysical research including Solar System Science. Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST is ~100 times more powerful than the Hubble and Spitzer observatories. It has greater sensitivity, higher spatial resolution in the infrared, and significantly higher spectral resolution in the mid infrared. Imaging and spectroscopy (both long-slit and integral-field) will be available across the entire 0.6 - 28.5 micron wavelength range. Herein, we discuss the capabilities of the four science instruments with a focus on Solar System Science, including instrument modes that enable observations over the huge range of brightness presented by objects within the Solar System. The telescope is being built by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems for NASA, ESA, and CSA. JWST development is led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  7. Astronaut James S. Voss Performs Tasks in the Destiny Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  8. STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

  9. MEMS Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Beamesderfer, Michael; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschkar, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Oh, Lance; Rapchum, Dave; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Silverberg, Robert; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Valeriano

    2006-01-01

    MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instruments will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast, Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x200 microns. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are made on to each shutter for light leak prevention so to enhance optical contrast, Shutters are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. The shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies.

  10. The Ku subunit of telomerase binds Sir4 to recruit telomerase to lengthen telomeres in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hass, Evan P; Zappulla, David C

    2015-07-28

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans, the telomerase RNA subunit is bound by Ku, a ring-shaped protein heterodimer best known for its function in DNA repair. Ku binding to yeast telomerase RNA promotes telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Using telomere-length analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that Sir4 - a previously identified Ku-binding protein that is a component of telomeric silent chromatin - is required for Ku-mediated telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment. We also find that specifically tethering Sir4 directly to Ku-binding-defective telomerase RNA restores otherwise-shortened telomeres to wild-type length. These findings suggest that Sir4 is the telomere-bound target of Ku-mediated telomerase recruitment and provide one mechanism for how the Sir4-competing Rif1 and Rif2 proteins negatively regulate telomere length in yeast.

  11. The design and development of two-failure tolerant mechanisms for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-B) antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presas, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance requirements, design constraints, and design qualification status of the mechanisms necessary to restrain, deploy, and stow the Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR) B antenna experiment on the Shuttle Orbiters are described.

  12. Artist's Concept of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured is the chosen artist's rendering of NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, was named the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. To further our understanding of the way our present universe formed following the the big bang, NASA is developing the JWST to observe the first stars and galaxies in the universe. This grand effort will help to answer the following fundamental questions: How galaxies form and evolve, how stars and planetary systems form and interact, how the universe builds up its present elemental/chemical composition, and what dark matter is. To see into the depths of space, the JWST is currently plarning to carry instruments that are sensitive to the infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new telescope will carry a near-infrared camera, a multi-object spectrometer, and a mid-infrared camera/spectrometer. The JWST is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by creating an ultra-lightweight mirror for the telescope at MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center. GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the JWST, and TRW will design and fabricate the observatory's primary mirror and spacecraft. The program has a number of industry, academic, and government partners, as well as the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. (Image: Courtesy of TRW)

  13. Sir William Wilde and provision for the blind in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, S

    2016-05-01

    As Assistant Commissioner for the Census of Ireland Sir William Wilde worked as an early epidemiologist, providing information regarding the deaf-and-dumb and the blind in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland. As a social agitator he focussed the attention of the authorities to the plight of the blind and their inability to earn a living and support themselves. This paper highlights his contribution to the provision for the blind in Ireland.

  14. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  15. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Chen, Qingmei; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity. Sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic are established. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the epidemic is obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the deterministic system.

  16. Stability of traveling waves of a diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Wan-Tong; Yang, Yun-Rui

    2016-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the stability and uniqueness of traveling waves of a delayed diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model. We first prove the exponential stability of traveling waves by using the weighted energy method, where the traveling waves are allowed to be non-monotone. Then we establish the exact asymptotic behavior of traveling waves at -∞ by using Ikehara's theorem. Finally, the uniqueness of traveling waves is proved by the stability result of traveling waves.

  17. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  18. Automated matching of pairs of SIR-B images for elevation mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Strong, J. P.; Murray, C. W., Jr.; Hung, Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the SIR-B mission in October 1984, a significant number of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of various ground areas was collected. This has offered the first opportunity to perform stereo analyses on images from space that cover large ground areas to determine elevation information. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation to obtain elevation data from stereo pairs of SIR-B images. First, the accuracy with which elevation information can be derived from SIR-B image pairs is evaluated theoretically. It is shown that elevation accuracy is a function of the slant range resolution, the incidence angles with which the stereo pair is obtained, the accuracies in spacecraft state estimation, and determination of corresponding pixels in the stereo pair. Next, a hierarchical method is developed to match the corresponding pixels. This method involves iterative removal of local distortions and correlations of pairs of local neighborhoods in the two images. Since it is necessary to perform the matching at every pixel in the image, it is very computationally intensive. Therefore, it has been implemented on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The MPP's speed permits two iterations of this technique to operate on a pair of 512 x 512 images within 7 s. Results of applying this algorithm of SIR-B images of Mount Shasta, CA, are shown. The matching algorithm performs well in regions of the image with significant features. An approximate elevation image derived from the matching process corresponds to published topographic map data, except for certain obvious discontinuities.

  19. Spectral measurements in support of SIR-B using the Surface Contour Radar. [for South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hines, D. E.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the Surface Contour Radar (SCR) from an aircraft to obtain spectral information on the seas off the tip of South America, in support of the SIR-B experiment in October 1984, is reported. The SCR is a computer-controlled 36-GHz radar that measures sea surface directional wave spectra and produces a real-time topographical map of the surface below the aircraft. Ground tracks and polar plots of the data obtained are illustrated.

  20. Carbon-14 dating of an iron bloom associated with the voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W. Washburn, W.; Olin, J.S.; Fitzhugh, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recounts the history of the iron bloom associated with the English Elizabethan explorer Sir Martin Frobisher who made 3 voyages to the North American mainland in the 1570's. Specifically the paper deals with the use of proportional counters in carbon-14 dating of the Frobisher iron bloom which is located at the Smithsonian Institution. The procedures for preparing the samples for counting are described. (KRM)

  1. The publications of Sir Victor Horsley: a listing and an assessment.

    PubMed

    Vilensky, Joel A; Sinish, Pandy R; Stone, James L; Gilman, Sid

    2005-09-01

    Sir Victor Horsley is well recognized as the father of neurological surgery, publishing many articles within this discipline and on other neurologically related topics. Furthermore, he published many important articles in other areas of science and medicine, as well as on social issues (e.g., women's suffrage). Accordingly, we compiled, for the first time, a complete listing of his writings. We briefly describe here some of the characteristics of his bibliography, which is available on the Journal's web site.

  2. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    PubMed

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  3. Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via SirT1 activity.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Claycomb, William C; Ladurner, Andreas G; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2009-12-10

    Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Locally acting IGF-1 isoform (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from toxic injury and from infarct. In the murine heart, moderate overexpression of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 was reported to mitigate oxidative stress. SirT1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and SirT1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology. However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact SirT1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Here we show that locally acting mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression/activity, whereas circulating IGF-1 isoform does not affect it, in cultured HL-1 and neonatal cardiomyocytes. mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity exerts protection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy and against paraquat (PQ) and Ang II-induced oxidative stress. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Interestingly, potent cardio-protective genes (adiponectin, UCP-1 and MT-2) were increased specifically in mIGF-1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, in a SirT1-dependent fashion. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via SirT1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic.

  4. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  5. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  6. Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming

    2014-07-01

    Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.

  7. Drosophila Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Mediates Chromatin Structure and SIR2-Dependent Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Tulin, Alexei; Naumova, Natalia M.; Menon, Ammini K.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2006-01-01

    Protein ADP ribosylation catalyzed by cellular poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and tankyrases modulates chromatin structure, telomere elongation, DNA repair, and the transcription of genes involved in stress resistance, hormone responses, and immunity. Using Drosophila genetic tools, we characterize the expression and function of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), the primary enzyme responsible for degrading protein-bound ADP-ribose moieties. Strongly increasing or decreasing PARG levels mimics the effects of Parp mutation, supporting PARG's postulated roles in vivo both in removing ADP-ribose adducts and in facilitating multiple activity cycles by individual PARP molecules. PARP is largely absent from euchromatin in PARG mutants, but accumulates in large nuclear bodies that may be involved in protein recycling. Reducing the level of either PARG or the silencing protein SIR2 weakens copia transcriptional repression. In the absence of PARG, SIR2 is mislocalized and hypermodified. We propose that PARP and PARG promote chromatin silencing at least in part by regulating the localization and function of SIR2 and possibly other nuclear proteins. PMID:16219773

  8. Pinacate-gran Desierto Region, Mexico: SIR-A Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P.; Greeley, R.; Mchone, J.; Asmerom, Y.; Barnett, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radar images (SIR-A) from the Columbia space shuttle were used to assess the radar returns of terrain shaped by volcanic, aeolian, and fluvial processes in northwest Sonora. Field studies and photointerpretation show that sand dunes are poorly imaged by SIR-A, in contrast to SEASAT, evidently a consequence of the greater SIR-A incidence angle; star dunes are visible only as small bright spots representing merging arms at dune apices which may act as corner reflectors. Desert grasses and bushes (approx. 2 m high) have little effect on radar brightness. Only larger trees with woody trunks approx. 0.5 m across are effective radar reflectors; their presence contributes to radar bright zones along some arroyos. The radar brightness of lava flows decreases with surface roughness and presence of mantling windblown sediments and weathering products; however, old uplifted (faulted) flows are of equal brightness to fresh, unmantled aa flows. Maar craters display circular patterns of varying radar brightness which represent a combination of geometry, slope, and distribution of surface materials. Some radar bright rings in the Pinacates resemble craters on radar but are observed to be playas encircled by trees.

  9. Evaluation of approaches to estimating aboveground biomass in southern pine forests using SIR-C data

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, P.A.; Haney, E.M.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Kasischke, E.S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L.

    1997-02-01

    Estimation of forest biomass on a global basis is a key issue in studies of ecology and biogeochemical cycling. Forests are a terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide and play a central role in regulating the exchange of this important greenhouse gas between the atmosphere and the biosphere. A study was performed to evaluate various techniques for estimating aboveground, woody plant biomass in pine stands found in the southeastern United States, using C- and L- band multiple polarization radar imagery collected by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) system. The biomass levels present in the test stands ranged between 0.0 and 44.5 kg m{sup {minus}2}. Two SIR-C data sets were used one collected in April, 1994, when the soil conditions were very wet and the canopy was slightly wet from dew and a second collected in October, 1994, when the soils and canopy were dry. During the October mission, pine needles were completely flushed and the foliar biomass was twice as great in the forest stands as in April. Four methods were evaluated to estimate total biomass: one including a straight multiple linear correlation between total biomass and the various SIR-C channels, another including a ratio of the L-band HV/C-band HV channels; and two others requiring multiple steps, where linear regression equations for different stand components were used as the basis for estimating total biomass.

  10. The Drosophila melanogaster sir2+ gene is nonessential and has only minor effects on position-effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Aström, Stefan U; Cline, Thomas W; Rine, Jasper

    2003-01-01

    Five Drosophila melanogaster genes belong to the highly conserved sir2 family, which encodes NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Of these five, dsir2(+) (CG5216) is most similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2 gene, which has profound effects on chromatin structure and life span. Four independent Drosophila strains were found with P-element insertions near the dsir2 transcriptional start site as well as extraneous linked recessive lethal mutations. Imprecise excision of one of these P elements (PlacW07223) from a chromosome freed of extraneous lethal mutations produced dsir2(17), a null intragenic deletion allele that generates no DSIR2 protein. Contrary to expectations from the report by Rosenberg and Parkhurst on their P-mobilization allele dSir2(ex10), homozygosity for dsir2(17) had no apparent deleterious effects on viability, developmental rate, or sex ratio, and it fully complemented sir2(ex10). Moreover, through a genetic test, we ruled out the reported effect of dSir2(ex10) on Sex-lethal expression. We did observe a modest, strictly recessive suppression of white(m4) position-effect variegation and a shortening of life span in dsir2 homozygous mutants, suggesting that dsir2 has some functions in common with yeast SIR2. PMID:12663533

  11. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    PubMed

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  12. 75 FR 59237 - TRICARE Co-Pay Waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE Co-Pay Waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center... waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center demonstration project. SUMMARY: This notice... Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care (FHCC) Demonstration Project.'' Under this...

  13. On the James constant and B-convexity of Cesaro and Cesaro-Orlicz sequence spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maligranda, Lech; Petrot, Narin; Suantai, Suthep

    2007-02-01

    The classical James constant and the nth James constants, which are measure of B-convexity for the Cesaro sequence spaces cesp and the Cesaro-Orlicz sequence spaces cesM, are calculated. These investigations show that cesp,cesM are not uniformly non-square and even they are not B-convex. Therefore the classical Cesaro sequence spaces cesp are natural examples of reflexive spaces which are not B-convex. Moreover, the James constant for the two-dimensional Cesaro space is calculated.

  14. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS are independent prognostic factors in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hee; Park, In Sung; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kang, Changwoo; Lee, Soo Hoon; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Sang Bong

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication associated with worst prognosis in decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. Previous studies have identified prognostic factors for HE, and recent studies reported an association between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and liver disease. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for 30-day mortality in alcoholic LC patients with HE who visited the emergency department (ED).This was a retrospective study of alcoholic LC patients with HE from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2015. The baseline characteristics, complications of portal hypertension, laboratory values, Child-Pugh class, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score, and SIRS criteria were assessed. The presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria was considered SIRS. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and prognostic factors for patients with HE visiting the ED.In total, 105 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, the 30-day mortality rate was 6.7% (7 patients).Significant variables were hepatorenal syndrome, international normalized ratio, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, MELD score CLIF-SOFA score, and SIRS in univariate analysis. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS were the significant factors in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.56, 15.98; 95% confidence interval 1.18-26.18, 1.58-161.37; P = 0.03, P = 0.02). The mortality rates differed according to the CLIF-SOFA score (P < 0.01).The CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS in alcoholic LC patients with HE visiting the ED are independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

  15. A Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) Decoding the Forelimb Movement from Neuronal Spikes in the Rat Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Liao, Lun-De; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Wang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Phan, Thanh Dat; Chao, Hsiang-Ya; Lin, Hui-Ching; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Wei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons. We adopted sliced inverse regression (SIR) to predict forelimb movement from single-unit activities recorded in the rat primary motor (M1) cortex in a water-reward lever-pressing task. SIR performed weighted principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve effective dimension reduction for nonlinear regression. To demonstrate the decoding performance, SIR was compared to PVA, OLE, and NN. Furthermore, PCA and sequential feature selection (SFS) which are popular feature selection techniques were implemented for comparison of feature selection effectiveness. Among SIR, PVA, OLE, PCA, SFS, and NN decoding methods, the trajectories predicted by SIR (with a root mean square error, RMSE, of 8.47 ± 1.32 mm) was closer to the actual trajectories compared with those predicted by PVA (30.41 ± 11.73 mm), OLE (20.17 ± 6.43 mm), PCA (19.13 ± 0.75 mm), SFS (22.75 ± 2.01 mm), and NN (16.75 ± 2.02 mm). The superiority of SIR was most obvious when the sample size of neurons was small. We concluded that SIR sorted the input data to obtain the effective transform matrices for movement prediction, making it a robust decoding method for conditions with sparse neuronal information. PMID:28018160

  16. A Sliced Inverse Regression (SIR) Decoding the Forelimb Movement from Neuronal Spikes in the Rat Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Liao, Lun-De; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Wang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Phan, Thanh Dat; Chao, Hsiang-Ya; Lin, Hui-Ching; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Wei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons. We adopted sliced inverse regression (SIR) to predict forelimb movement from single-unit activities recorded in the rat primary motor (M1) cortex in a water-reward lever-pressing task. SIR performed weighted principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve effective dimension reduction for nonlinear regression. To demonstrate the decoding performance, SIR was compared to PVA, OLE, and NN. Furthermore, PCA and sequential feature selection (SFS) which are popular feature selection techniques were implemented for comparison of feature selection effectiveness. Among SIR, PVA, OLE, PCA, SFS, and NN decoding methods, the trajectories predicted by SIR (with a root mean square error, RMSE, of 8.47 ± 1.32 mm) was closer to the actual trajectories compared with those predicted by PVA (30.41 ± 11.73 mm), OLE (20.17 ± 6.43 mm), PCA (19.13 ± 0.75 mm), SFS (22.75 ± 2.01 mm), and NN (16.75 ± 2.02 mm). The superiority of SIR was most obvious when the sample size of neurons was small. We concluded that SIR sorted the input data to obtain the effective transform matrices for movement prediction, making it a robust decoding method for conditions with sparse neuronal information.

  17. Structural basis for nicotinamide cleavage and ADP-ribose transfer by NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 histone/protein deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kehao; Harshaw, Robyn; Chai, Xiaomei; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2004-06-08

    Sir2 enzymes are broadly conserved from bacteria to humans and have been implicated to play roles in gene silencing, DNA repair, genome stability, longevity, metabolism, and cell physiology. These enzymes bind NAD(+) and acetyllysine within protein targets and generate lysine, 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and nicotinamide products. To provide structural insights into the chemistry catalyzed by Sir2 proteins we report the high-resolution ternary structure of yeast Hst2 (homologue of Sir two 2) with an acetyllysine histone H4 peptide and a nonhydrolyzable NAD(+) analogue, carba-NAD(+), as well as an analogous ternary complex with a reaction intermediate analog formed immediately after nicotinamide hydrolysis, ADP-ribose. The ternary complex with carba-NAD(+) reveals that the nicotinamide group makes stabilizing interactions within a binding pocket harboring conserved Sir2 residues. Moreover, an asparagine residue, N116, strictly conserved within Sir2 proteins and shown to be essential for nicotinamide exchange, is in position to stabilize the oxocarbenium intermediate that has been proposed to proceed the hydrolysis of nicotinamide. A comparison of this structure with the ADP-ribose ternary complex and a previously reported ternary complex with the 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose reaction product reveals that the ribose ring of the cofactor and the highly conserved beta1-alpha2 loop of the protein undergo significant structural rearrangements to facilitate the ordered NAD(+) reactions of nicotinamide cleavage and ADP-ribose transfer to acetate. Together, these studies provide insights into the chemistry of NAD(+) cleavage and acetylation by Sir2 proteins and have implications for the design of Sir2-specific regulatory molecules.

  18. Growing Physics and Astronomy at James Madison University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, C. Steven

    2010-02-01

    James Madison University is a public, primarily undergraduate institution with a student enrollment of over 18,000. We have a 10.8% minority population and a 60:40 female/male ratio. Drawing 29% of its students from other states, JMU serves a diverse student body. Since the mid '90's, the Department of Physics and Astronomy has grown to 110 majors. There are 15 tenured/tenure-track and 6 non-tenure-track full-time faculty in the department. Graduation rates have grown from five or fewer/year to typically 15-20/year. Eleven faculty are currently engaged in externally funded research with undergraduates. In the 2007-2008 academic year, 45 students were engaged in research. We produced a total of 89 publications and presentations that included 27 students as authors or co-authors. The growth of our department over the last decade is due to a variety of reforms. Foremost among the changes under the control of the department are the initiation of our multi-track BS and BA degree programs and a renewed focus on undergraduate research. These and other significant factors contributing to our success such as student recruiting, outreach, teaching and research integration/balance, promotion of a department culture, visibility on-and off-campus, and university support will be discussed. )

  19. Hartmann test for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee; Howard, Joseph; Acton, D. Scott; Whitman, Tony L.; Smith, Koby

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) end-to-end optical system will be tested in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Apollo-era, historic Chamber A thermal vacuum facility. During recent pre-test runs with a prototype "Pathfinder" telescope, the vibration in this environment was found to be challenging for the baseline test approach, which uses phase retrieval of images created by three sub-apertures of the telescope. To address the vibration, an alternate strategy implemented using classic Hartmann test principles combined with precise mirror mechanisms to provide a testing approach that is insensitive to the dynamics environment of the chamber. The measurements and sensitivities of the Hartmann approach are similar to those using phase retrieval over the original sparse aperture test. The Hartmann test concepts have been implemented on the JWST Test Bed Telescope, which provided the rationale and empirical evidence indicating that this Hartmann style approach would be valuable in supplementing the baseline test approach. This paper presents a Hartmann approach implemented during the recent Pathfinder test along with the test approach that is currently being considered for the full optical system test of JWST. Comparisons are made between the baseline phase retrieval approach and the Hartmann approach in addition to demonstrating how the two test methodologies support each other to reduce risk during the JWST full optical system test.

  20. A New Observing Tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Martin; Bridger, Alan; Dent, Bill; Kelly, Dennis; Adamson, Andy; Economou, Frossie; Hirst, Paul; Jenness, Tim

    A new Observing Tool (OT) has been developed at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, UK and the Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, Hawaii, USA. It is based on the Gemini Observing Tool and provides the first graphical observation preparation tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) as well as being the first use of the OT for a non-optical/IR telescope. The OT allows the observer to assemble high level Science Programs using graphical representations of observation components such as instrument, target, and filter. This is later translated into low level control sequences for telescope and instruments. The new OT is designed to work on multiple telescopes: currently the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) and JCMT. Object-oriented design makes the inclusion of telescope and instrument specific packages easy. The OT is written in Java using GUI packages such as Swing and JSky. A new component for the JCMT OT is the graphical Frequency Editor for Heterodyne instruments. It can be used to specify parameters such as frequencies, bandwidths, and sidebands of multiple subsystems, while graphically displaying the front-end frequency, emission lines and atmospheric transmission. In addition, Flexible Scheduling support has been added to the OT. The observer can define scheduling constraints by arranging observations graphically. Science Programs can be saved as XML or sent directly from the OT to a database (via SOAP).