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Sample records for sir james crichton-browne

  1. 'This excellent observer ...': the correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1869-75.

    PubMed

    Pearn, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Between May 1869 and December 1875, Charles Darwin exchanged more than 40 letters with James Crichton-Browne, superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire. This paper charts their relationship within the context of Darwin's wider research networks and methods; it analyses the contribution that Crichton-Browne made to the writing of Expression, arguing that the information he provided materially affected Darwin's thesis, and that it was partly the need to assimilate this that led Darwin to publish Expression separately from Descent. The letters help to reconstruct Crichton-Browne's early research interests, and document Darwin's little-explored role as a patron. Both men are revealed within a collaborative scientific network, with each of them at various times a beneficiary or a promoter.

  2. Sir James Lighthill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, D. G.

    1999-05-01

    James Lighthill died on 17 July 1998, at the end of a ten-hour swim round the Channel Island of Sark. He had earlier, at age 49, been the first person ever to do this, and he was carrying out the swim for the seventh time when the exertion revealed a mitral valve weakness which had never been diagnosed, and which led to his sudden death in the water. The swim was one of many long ‘adventure swims’ which Lighthill liked to take, all characterized by strong tidal currents and often heavy seas. And Lighthill took much pleasure through exercising his comprehensive understanding of fluid mechanics first in preparing for them through study of local conditions and then in adapting his performance when, as often, he found that in practice the currents were not as charted and, in fact, often more treacherous.

  3. Sir James Elliott, medical journalist supreme.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, R

    1995-01-25

    James Sands Elliott was editor of the New Zealand Medical Journal from 1911 to 1933. He was a powerful writer in a flamboyant style, erudite and filled with classical and literary allusions and quotations. We are told that doctors of the time, on receiving their journals, would turn first to the editorial to see "what JSE has got to say." He served the profession in numerous ways, as chairman of council and president of the New Zealand Branch of the British Medical Association (BMA), as president from 1929 to 1955 of the New Zealand Branch of the British Empire Cancer Campaign (now the Cancer Society), and as a member of the Medical Council, the Board of Health and the Medical Research Council. It was his outstanding ability as a medical journalist, however, which made him one of the most powerful figures in New Zealand medicine in his time. He ardently upheld worthy causes in the interests of the medical profession as he saw them and wrote trenchant editorials on those subjects.

  4. Sir James Paget and his contributions to pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Sir James Paget's Lectures on Surgical Pathology, published in 1853, was based on Lectures given at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in the previous six years. It makes use of the pathological material collected by John Hunter in the late eighteenth century which was housed in the College. It expands the principles of pathophysiology enunciated by Hunter using microscopic observations. The first half of the book covers mainly inflammation and repair; the second is involved in a description of tumours with particular emphasis on the difference between benign and malignant growths. This book indicates a concept of pathology before the realization of the role of infectious organisms. However, there is some inkling of the contagious nature of syphilis and variola following on Hunter's work. The concept, current at that time, that tuberculosis was related to cancer is expressed. This work acts as a bridge between the pathology of John Hunter and that of the present time. Images Figure 1 PMID:8652365

  5. Experimental tectonics: from Sir James Hall to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, Giorgio

    2001-09-01

    The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth (Hutton, J., 1795. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. I & II. Cadell & Davies, Edinburgh). Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems (crystallization and melting) not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments. From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics. One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: the initiation and time-history of subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere, and the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges.

  6. Sir James Young Simpson and religion: myths and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ewen A; MacGillivray, Neil

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses two key aspects of the life and work of Sir James Young Simpson: his evangelical Christianity and his reaction to criticism following his use of anaesthesia in obstetrics. Simpson's personal religious struggle is placed in the context of the devastating events surrounding the Disruption of the established Church of Scotland in 1843. Whatever his involvement in the events of that year, the development of his faith demonstrates his simple evangelical conviction in the atonement of Christ, very much in keeping with that of many believers in Victorian Britain. There has arisen the notion (still current as is clear from publications in medical journals within recent years) that there was a savage religious response, especially in Presbyterian Scotland, to his use of chloroform - in reality the attack on Simpson's enthusiastic promotion of chloroform was brief, sporadic and of little moment. Simpson's carefully constructed counter to criticism of anaesthesia, drawing on considerable theological and linguistic expertise, reveals a complexity at odds with the simplicity of his faith. The contrast is so great and the reaction so elaborate that it is proposed that Simpson deliberately exaggerated the affair, believing the publicity could only be valuable.

  7. Sir James Mackenzie: from auricular paralysis and nodal rhythm to auricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Mascia, Giuseppe; Padeletti, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to underline the role of Sir James Mackenzie in stating that atrial fibrillation is a distinct and clinically important arrhythmia and that it is a common condition in patients with cardiac disease. Around 1900, a few clinical researchers were dealing with cardiac arrhythmias with the use of arterial and venous pulse tracings. Sir James Mackenzie, who has been one of the fathers of modern cardiology, introduced registration of the venous pulse at the bedside using the clinical polygraph he had invented. He applied the results of his experimental and clinical discoveries to the explanation of many kinds of arrhythmias before ECG introduction. In our paper, we have especially considered the three steps of his approach to atrial fibrillation, the first two developed in the pre-ECG era. The invention of an instrument of precision, the electrocardiograph, revolutionized the diagnosis of heart disease and catalyzed the formation of cardiology as a specialty. PMID:21476085

  8. Illness and amputation in the eighteenth century: the case of Sir James Lowther (1673-1755).

    PubMed

    Beckett, J V

    1980-01-01

    Sir james Lowther of Whitehaven (1673-1755) suffered from gout, and eventually had his right leg amputated in 1750. He also experienced other serious illnesses. Surviving correspondence between Lowther, in London, and his Whitehaven steward, contain graphic accounts of his health, particularly the serious illness and amputation of 1750. From these letters, and a document surviving in the British Museum describing an attack of erysipelis in 1742, a short, documentary account of Lowther's medical history has been compiled. If for no other reason, he deserves to be remembered for surviving an amputation without anaesthetic, at the age of seventy-seven.

  9. Commentary: Sir James Mackenzie (1853-1925): an ambiguous pioneer for research in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tudor Hart, Julian

    2012-12-01

    Sir James Mackenzie is generally accepted as the founder of research by general practitioners in Great Britain, studying their own patients where and how they actually live. His pioneering work on arrhythmias was a foundation for modern cardiology, consolidated by his pupil Thomas Lewis, Britain's first full-time clinical researcher for the Medical Research Council. Mackenzie became a dominant figure in public imagination, more widely celebrated than any later generalist. At the clinical research institute he founded at St Andrews in 1919, he hoped to set in train a permanent and growing body of longitudinal clinical research outside hospitals, by community generalists studying their own patients. This article tries to explain the failure of this project: how it influenced later research by general practitioners and others in primary care after creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 and its relevance today to primary care research policy. Such research is now becoming an urgent necessity, for the British National Health Service to survive as a public service and as a foundation for democratic development of biosciences.

  10. Sir James Black and propranolol. The role of the basic sciences in the history of cardiovascular pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M P

    1997-01-01

    The history of cardiology encompasses some of the most revered names in medical history, many belonging to physicians who have advanced knowledge beyond their time. However, there have been countless others whose work in the basic sciences has paid large dividends to clinical cardiology. The original example of such an individual is William Harvey, whose reasoned experimentation led to the understanding of the circulation of blood. Another such man, Sir James Black, has contributed to basic scientific and clinical knowledge in cardiology, both as a physician and as a basic scientist. His invention of propranolol, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris, is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century. His method of research, his discoveries about adrenergic pharmacology, and his clarification of the mechanisms of cardiac action are all strengths of his work. In 1988, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Sir James's conclusions and method of research have continued to influence work in clinical pharmacology and cardiovascular medicine. Thus, the development of propranolol runs parallel to most other great achievements in medicine: the genius of a few builds on the accomplishments of many, and the discovery influences thinking long after the breakthrough has occurred. Images PMID:9456487

  11. Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828) MD FRS, botanist, co-founder of the Linnean Society of London.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    James Edward Smith's interest in botany led him to enter medicine at Edinburgh in 1781. Smith was continuing his medical studies in London when Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) suggested to him that he should purchase the collection of the famous Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus that had just been offered to Banks. Smith bought the Linnean Collection and Library in 1784. In 1786 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Leiden. In 1788 Smith, with two associates, founded the Linnean Society of London and became President for life. Smith turned from medicine to natural history as a lecturer and writer. During his lifetime he produced numerous botanical works of high value, including The English Flora (1824-28), and he did much to popularize botany.

  12. Sir James Jeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, E. A.

    2013-09-01

    Memoir by S. C. Roberts; 1. Merchant Taylor's and Cambridge; 2. Princeton, 1905-9; 3. Return to England. The Adams Prize essay, 1909-19; 4. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1919-29; 5. Popular exposition, 1929-30; 6. Later years, 1931-46; 7. Science in Jeans's boyhood; 8. The partition of energy; 9. Rotating fluid masses; 10. Star clusters; 11. The equilibrium of the stars; 12. Jeans and philosophy; Bibliography; Index.

  13. James Ferguson: A Commemoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2010-11-01

    James Ferguson (1710-1776) was a renowned author and lecturer on scientific subjects and maker of scientific instruments. His Astronomy Explained upon Sir Isaac Newton's Principles of 1756 was an extremely popular non-mathematical exposition of Newton's ideas in English. He wrote numerous other books, some of which remained in print until the mid-nineteenth century. Ferguson rose from humble beginnings as a shepherd in northeast Scotland to become a wealthy lecturer, author and Fellow of the Royal Society, enjoying an international reputation. April 2010 marked the three hundredth anniversary of Ferguson's birth, and the present short communication briefly commemorates this event.

  14. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, ...

  15. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Hudson Bay and James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data ...

  16. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  17. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay     View Larger Image ... winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra ...

  18. Sir John Meurig Thomas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2013-10-11

    "My greatest achievement has been to combine being a teacher, a researcher, and a popularizer of science for over 50 years. My worst nightmare is to find myself dumbstruck when I am about to give a lecture …︁" This and more about Sir John Meurig Thomas can be found on page 10938.

  19. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  20. Sir Paul Nurse.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, K

    2001-11-01

    Prizes in science don't come any bigger than the Nobels, and more often than not this award catapults its recipients from the general research milieu into the realms of scientific stardom. In this, its centenary year, the Nobel committee for Physiology or Medicine decided to honor investigators who have identified vital components of the cell cycle. Nature Medicine talked to one of the winners, Sir Paul Nurse. PMID:11689871

  1. Sir Paul Nurse.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, K

    2001-11-01

    Prizes in science don't come any bigger than the Nobels, and more often than not this award catapults its recipients from the general research milieu into the realms of scientific stardom. In this, its centenary year, the Nobel committee for Physiology or Medicine decided to honor investigators who have identified vital components of the cell cycle. Nature Medicine talked to one of the winners, Sir Paul Nurse.

  2. Sir Harold Jeffreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Sir Harold Jeffreys is a world authority in theoretical geophyiscs. hew as born in Northumbria (northeast of England) and educated at Armstrong College (now the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) and Cambridge University. He is now a Senior Fellow of St.John's College, Cambridge. He has published over 300 scientific papers and is the author of 7 books, including Theory of Probability and Mathematical Physics (with his wife, Lady Bertha Swirles Jeffreys). Sir Harold has made innumerable theoretical contributions to seismology. Many of these are documented in his book The Earth, which has been published in six editions. His papers have recently been collated by Gordon and Breach (Publishers) into six volumes, Collected Papers on Sir Harold Jeffreys on Geophyiscs and other Sciences. Some idea of the breadth of this research can be seen from the individual volume titles: "Theoretical and Observational Seismology," "Observational Seismology," "Gravity," "Dissipation of Energy and Thermal History," "Astronomy and Geophysics," and "Matematics, Probability and Miscellaneious Other Sciences." 

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  4. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  5. Sir William Hingston

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Sir William Hingston was one of Canada’s most illustrious surgeons in the second half of the 19th century. Not only was he a very innovative surgeon but he was an excellent teacher and wrote many medical articles during a career that spanned over 50 years. Active as he was medically, he found time to serve a term as mayor of Montreal and was on the board of directors of various banks and companies. As recognition of his many talents, he was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. He died in 1907 at the age of 78 years. PMID:8857994

  6. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  7. James Welch's Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines Surrealism, its definition, and history through example. Special emphasis is on James Welch, a Blackfeet poet from Montana with a comic way of viewing the world in a surrealistic fashion. (RTS)

  8. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  9. James Joule and meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1989 was the hundredth anniversary of the death of James Prescott Joule, the Prescott being his mother's family name and the Joule, rhyming with cool, originating from the Derbyshire village of Youlgreave. Joule is rightly famous for his experimental efforts to establish the law of conservation of energy, and for the fact that J, the symbol known as the mechanical equivalent of heat, is named after him. Astronomically his "light has been hidden under a bushel". James Joule had a major influence on the physics of meteors.

  10. New Zealand SIR-B science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A.; Oliver, P. J.; Cochrane, G. R.; Cole, J.; Coombs, D. S.; Barnes, E. J.; Ching, N. P.; Bennets, R. L.; Stephens, P. H.; Laing, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that shuttle imaging radar (SIR) data be used to study unusual geological features of New Zealand. Particular attention is planned for geological faults. SIR-B imagery is to be compared with LANDSAT multispectral imagery. Three other investigations which are to use SIR data are discussed. An ocean eddy is to be studied from a correlation of SIR-B and advanced very high resolution radiometer imagery. Timber volume is to be assessed by determining the age and size of pine forests from SIR-B data. Soil moisture is to be investigated by comparing SIR-B data with simultaneous gravimetric data. Land cover in a region already subjected to intensive investigation using LANDSAT and aircraft scanner data is to be discriminated by SIR-B data.

  11. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  12. James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers).

  13. The James Report Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    2008-01-01

    The 1972 Report of the Government's Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Education and Training (James Report) suggested radical changes, many of which conflicted both with the interests of existing providers and with emerging policies on the organisation of higher education. Its proposals concerning in-service education, whilst generally welcomed,…

  14. Winter Naming: James Welch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  15. Reply to James Muir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2004-01-01

    In "EPAT", vol. 36, no. 1, 2004, James Muir takes the author and fellow philosophers of education to task for their ignorance of the history of philosophy of education. "[T]oo many currently influential educationists, Professor White in particular, are literally unaware that educational philosophy has a history more than three hundred years in…

  16. Teaching James Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  17. Learning from James Coleman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines three works by James Coleman: "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (the Coleman Report), 1966; Coleman's study of school busing and white flight in the 1970s; and his 1980s research on the advantages of private schools. His conclusions included: social composition is more important than school spending and socioeconomic integration is…

  18. William James on Teaching Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes philosopher William James' writings on political representation and participatory democracy. Although he argued in favor of democratic principles, James also strongly supported the role of a well-educated elite serving as leaders. Attempts to reconcile these contradictory positions and considers James' influence on the development of…

  19. William James's Talks about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 years after it was published, William James's (1899/1939) book, "Talks to Teachers on Psychology," is relevant and helpful for teachers and those who aspire to teach. In this article, I highlight certain memorable points in "Talks" and relate them to James's (1890) classic work, "The Principles of Psychology." Many of James's…

  20. A nonlinear SIR with stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisilowati, Darti, I.; Fitri, S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of a nonlinear susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) epidemic model with vaccination. We analyze the stability of the model by linearizing the model around the equilibrium point. Then, diphtheria data from East Java province is fitted to the model. From these estimated parameters, we investigate which parameters that play important role in the epidemic model. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results and the behavior of the model.

  1. The SIR-B science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) will be the third in a series of spaceborne SAR experiments conducted by NASA which began with the 1978 launch of SEASAT and continued with the 1981 launch of SIR-A. Like SEASAT and SIR-A, SIR-B will operate at L-band and will be horizontally polarized. However, SIR-B will allow digitally processed imagery to be acquired at selectable incidence angles between 15 and 60 deg, thereby permitting, for the first time, parametric studies of the effect of illumination geometry on SAR image information extraction. This document presents a science plan for SIR-B and serves as a reference for the types of geoscientific, sensor, and processing experiments which are possible.

  2. A fractional-order infectivity SIR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, C. N.; Henry, B. I.; McGann, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Fractional-order SIR models have become increasingly popular in the literature in recent years, however unlike the standard SIR model, they often lack a derivation from an underlying stochastic process. Here we derive a fractional-order infectivity SIR model from a stochastic process that incorporates a time-since-infection dependence on the infectivity of individuals. The fractional derivative appears in the generalised master equations of a continuous time random walk through SIR compartments, with a power-law function in the infectivity. We show that this model can also be formulated as an infection-age structured Kermack-McKendrick integro-differential SIR model. Under the appropriate limit the fractional infectivity model reduces to the standard ordinary differential equation SIR model.

  3. Joint Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott Joule, James

    2011-06-01

    Experiments and observations on the mechanical powers of electro-magnetism, steam, and horses with Dr. Scoresby; On atomic volume and specific gravity with Sir Lyon Playfair; On the thermal effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of elastic fluids with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson.

  4. Historical note on Darwin's consideration of early-onset dementia in older persons, thirty-six years before Alzheimer's initial case report.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Peter J; Pearn, Alison M

    2007-07-01

    In February 1871, the great naturalist Charles Darwin received a letter from Dr. James-Crichton Browne, who was serving as Director of the largest lunatic asylum in England. Darwin had been introduced to Crichton-Browne 2 years earlier by Henry Maudsley, who believed that the young psychiatrist could provide Darwin with clinical examples of extreme emotional expression, to aid him in preparing to write Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). This particular letter from Crichton-Browne contained the first and only reference to "premature dotage" or "senile decay" found anywhere in Darwin's entire corpus of correspondence, which amounted to more than 80,000 pages of handwritten letters to nearly 2,000 individuals throughout his lifetime. Moreover, this letter from Crichton-Browne, received by Darwin 36 years before the first case report of senile dementia by Professor Alois Alzheimer, explicitly noted that such premature dotage is the result of "brain wasting." Crichton-Browne believed that senile dementia was the result of a central nervous system disease, with the emotional lability observed in his patients linked inextricably to the disease process. This early hypothesis, of interest to Darwin in 1871, anticipated the groundbreaking neurohistopathologic research and case description by Alzheimer 36 years later, and has been confirmed by all clinical research in this field since 1907. This concordance between psychological symptoms and Alzheimer's disease continues to be an important area of study, leading to recent advances in our understanding of the genetics, neurobiology, and neurochemistry of psychiatric illness in older adults.

  5. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, David

    2015-06-01

    Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.

  6. The SIR-B science investigations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) is the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to be flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Transportation System (Shuttle). It is the first spaceborne SAR to feature an antenna that allows acquisition of multiincidence angle imagery. An international team of scientists will use SIR-B to conduct investigations in a wide range of disciplines. The radar, the mission, and the investigations are described.

  7. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  8. James Carroll: a biography.

    PubMed

    del Regato, J A

    1998-10-01

    James Carroll was born in England in 1854; at the age of 15, he emigrated to Canada where he worked at various odd jobs. At age 20, he crossed the border and volunteered for the US Army, in which he remained for the rest of his life. Appointed as Hospital Steward, he became interested in medicine. He was permitted to take basic courses at St Paul University and later at Bellevue Hospital in New York. He received his MD degree in 1891 from the University of Maryland while still a sergeant. He then took the course in bacteriology offered by Welch at Hopkins. At an 1893 international exposition in Chicago, Carroll was put in charge of the Army's exhibit on bacteriology. He was then called to become Assistant Professor of Microscopy at the new Army Medical School; his senior there was Walter Reed. Both men were offered professorships in pathology and bacteriology at George Washington University, and in 1900, both were appointed to the US Board sent to Havana. After several weeks, the Board determined that the alleged agent causing yellow fever was Bacillus cholerae suis (Sanarelli). Visiting British researchers informed the Board of their favorable view of Carlos Finlay's theory that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito. The Board then visited Finlay, who gave them eggs of the particular species of mosquito that he had discovered to be the culprit. Board members Lazear and Carroll submitted themselves to the bite of an infected mosquito; both developed severe fever and Lazear died. The Board then carried out a well-planned experiment which proved that Finlay had been right for 20 years. Further experiments by Carroll showed that the agent could pass through a Berkefeld filter and was not bacterial.

  9. Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1735): his life and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stanley A

    2010-01-01

    Sir Hans Sloane was born in Killyleagh, Co Down, the seventh and last son of Alexander Sloane. His father, who was of Scottish ancestry, had a long association with James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil who had acquired the castle in Killyleagh and extensive estates in east Down. The Hamilton family took an interest in the education of the Sloane children, and much of the early tuition of Hans was conducted within the library of Killyleagh Castle. In 1679 he moved to London to study medicine and botany. In 1683, he continued his studies in Paris and Montpellier, and graduated from the University of Orange. On his return to London, he became a protégé of Thomas Sydenham. In 1687 he was appointed physician to the Duke of Albemarle and surgeon to the West Indies fleet. While in Jamaica he added countless specimens to his collections, continuing a lifetime passion. He also invented milk chocolate there. Following the untimely death of the duke, he returned to London and built up a fashionable medical practice. He married Elizabeth Langley, heiress of a wealthy city alderman, and widow of a sugar planter in Jamaica. They set up house in Great Russell Street. The family home accommodated his burgeoning collections of books, specimens and curiosities. In 1685 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, later becoming the honorary secretary and president. Following his death, his collections were bought for the nation and formed the foundation of the British Museum. PMID:20844729

  10. Tectonic geomorphology of the Andes with SIR-A and SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    1986-01-01

    Data takes from SIR-A and SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) crossed all of the principal geomorphic provinces of the central Andes between 17 and 34 S latitude. In conjunction with Thematic Mapping images and photographs from hand-held cameras as well as from the Large Format Camera that was flown with SIR-B, the radar images give an excellent sampling of Andean geomorphology. In particular, the radar images show new details of volcanic rocks and landforms of late Cenozoic age in the Puna, and the exhumed surfaces of tilted blocks of Precambrian crystalline basement in the Sierras Pampeanas.

  11. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  12. James B. Macdonald: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L., Comp.; Brookbank, Gayle, Comp.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of James B. Macdonald's writings and printed speeches arranged chronologically according to the educator's themes of inquiry. Macdonald's videotaped autobiography identifies four explorative stages: (1) Scientism, (2) person-centered humanism, (3) sociopolitical humanism, and (4) transcendentalism, signaling a need for…

  13. Captain James Cook's antimony cup.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    2001-12-01

    Medicinal cups made of pure antimony metal were once common but are now rare and only about ten have been described. An unusual cup which belonged to Captain James Cook, the explorer, which has not previously been reported in the medical literature is described here. PMID:11958223

  14. Sumoylation of Sir2 differentially regulates transcriptional silencing in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Abdul; Abraham, Neethu Maria; Goyal, Siddharth; Jamir, Imlitoshi; Priyakumar, U. Deva; Mishra, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates several physiological processes including genome stability, gene silencing, metabolism and life span in yeast. Within the nucleus, Sir2 is associated with telomere clusters in the nuclear periphery and rDNA in the nucleolus and regulates gene silencing at these genomic sites. How distribution of Sir2 between telomere and rDNA is regulated is not known. Here we show that Sir2 is sumoylated and this modification modulates the intra-nuclear distribution of Sir2. We identify Siz2 as the key SUMO ligase and show that multiple lysines in Sir2 are subject to this sumoylation activity. Mutating K215 alone counteracts the inhibitory effect of Siz2 on telomeric silencing. SUMO modification of Sir2 impairs interaction with Sir4 but not Net1 and, furthermore, SUMO modified Sir2 shows predominant nucleolar localization. Our findings demonstrate that sumoylation of Sir2 modulates distribution between telomeres and rDNA and this is likely to have implications for Sir2 function in other loci as well. PMID:26319015

  15. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    scattering is much weaker, and this allowed him to develop a method of successive approximation. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission (UPS) from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. Sam Edwards (now Sir Sam) was head of SRC (forerunner of EPSRC) at the time and recognised the problem of interpreting all the data that the machine would provide. And after UPS would come EXAFS, and after that XANES and all the rest of the alphabet soup. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did

  16. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    27. On the viscosity or internal friction of air and other gases; 28. On the dynamical theory of gases; 29. On the theory of the maintenance of electric currents by mechanical work without the use of permanent magnets; 30. On the equilibrium of a spherical envelope; 31. On the best arrangement for producing a pure spectrum on a screen; 32. The construction of stereograms of surfaces; 33. On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress; 34. On governors; 35. Experiment in magneto-electric induction; 36. On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with electromagnetic force; 37. On the cyclide; 38. On a bow seen on the surface of ice; 39. On reciprocal figures, frames, and diagrams of forces; 40. On the displacement in a case of fluid motion; 41. Address to the mathematical and physical sections of the British Association, 1870; 42. On colour-vision at different points of the retina; 43. On hills and dales; 44. Introductory lecture on experimental physics; 45. On the solution of electrical problems by the transformation of conjugate functions; 46. On the mathematical classification of physical quantities; 47. On colour vision; 48. On the geometrical mean distance of two figures on a plane; 49. On the induction of electric currents in an infinite plane sheet of uniform conductivity; 50. On the condition that, in the transformation of any figure by curvilinear co-ordinates in three dimensions, every angle in the new figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original figure; 51. Reprint of Papers on electrostatics and magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review); 52. On the proof of the equations of motion of a connected system; 53. On a problem in the calculus of variations in which the solution is discontinuous; 54. On action at a distance; 55. Elements of natural philosophy. By Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. (Review); 56. On the theory of a system of electrified conductors, and other physical theories involving

  17. Sir Bernard Lovell (1913-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sir Bernard Lovell, founder and first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory (UK), died on August 6th, 2012, at the age of 98. Lovell was one of the pioneers of radio astronomy. Much of his observational work in the early days of the Observatory focused on radio meteors. Using ex-army radar equipment, Lovell and his colleagues recorded the spectacular Draconid storm of October 1946 and went on to publish many papers in the field, settling some of the big arguments of the time. Sir Bernard's legacy is immense, extending from his wartime work on military radar systems to his pioneering contributions to radio astronomy, and including his dedication to education and public engagement with scientific research.

  18. A comparison of the writings of Sir William Osler and his exemplar, Sir Thomas Browne.

    PubMed Central

    Hookman, P.

    1995-01-01

    Sir William Osler was known throughout his life as a great humanitarian. His writings touched all of us, and to persons of every race, creed, and color, he showed universal feelings of justice and mercy. Osler's writing supports great tolerance for all, yet Osler's contemporaries were far less broad-minded and not free of bigotry. Osler's role model, Sir Thomas Browne, wrote openly about his marked prejudices against Catholics, Jews, Moslems, and even women. This paradox between Osler's tolerance and humanitarianism and the prejudice and bigotry of his time, as well as his role model Browne, are explored. PMID:7581308

  19. Conference James F.Buckli

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  20. JAMES RIVER FACE WILDERNESS, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Ervin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey concluded that the James River Face Wilderness, Virginia, had little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Two major rock units in the area do contain large nonmetallic mineral resources of quartzite and shale that have been mined for silica products and for brick and expanded aggregate, respectively. Because large deposits of the same material are more easily available in nearby areas, demand for the deposits within the wilderness is highly unlikely. No energy resources were identified in the course of this study.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  2. President of Council-Sir Alec

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  3. Sir Thomas Brisbane - Patron of Colonial Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Peter J.

    British Army office Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was sworn in as Governor of New South Wales on 1 December 1821. His appointment allowed him to pursue his plans for astronomical observations of the southern sky by setting up an observatory near his residence at Government House Parramatta. He also joined the Philosophical Society of Australasia and became Patron of the newly formed Agricultural Society of New South Wales. These societies were the precursors of many important later professional bodies, so that Brisbane's connection with them represents his most important contribution to Australian science.

  4. Sir John Gurdon: Father of nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Sir John Gurdon founded the field of nuclear reprogramming. His work set the stage for the ever burgeoning area of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Here I provide personal reflections on times I shared with John Gurdon and professional reflections of the impact of his ground-breaking research on my own development as a scientist and on the field in general. His paradigm-shifting experiments will continue to provoke scientists to think outside the box for many years to come. PMID:24954777

  5. York, Alcuin, and Sir George Newman

    PubMed Central

    WALKER-SMITH, J

    2001-01-01

    The history of medicine can give insights into past achievements and provide knowledge and even inspiration, a valuable commodity for young students and all doctors. The contribution of Alcuin of York to basic education, and its appreciation by Sir George Newman, medical officer of health and first Chief Medical Officer of the UK in 1919, is recalled. Newman's Quaker education at Bootham School, his views on the main principles of such an education, as well as his influence on its establishment are summarised. A liberal education for doctors is important and knowledge and inspiration from the past may be one factor in enhancing morale.

 PMID:11668116

  6. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man. PMID:22507419

  7. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.

  8. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  9. James Hillman (1926-2011).

    PubMed

    Stern, E Mark

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for James Hillman. James Hillman, the third child of Madeline and Julian Hillman, died of metastatic bone cancer at his home in Thompson, Connecticut, on October 27, 2011. The parent of "archetypal psychology," he was born on April 12, 1926, at the Breakers, a then-opulent hotel founded by his family that overlooked the boardwalk and beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. With an extensive footing in the classics and classical humanism, Jim established the foundations for his emerging archetypal psychology. With archetypal psychology, he was to move away from a dependence on the concept of a personal ego in favor of larger sources that relied on his notion of variegated identity. He proposed a profusion of mythical images that emerge under the rubric of "soul." Soul stands as an appellation indicating a deepening of psychic events, such as when dreams, chaos, and "pathologizing" (the struggles of imagination) are most experienced. For Hillman, psychology could not be taken as a separate discipline isolated from mythology, literature, art, philosophy, politics, religion, natural science, and the ordinary affairs of individuals. Hillman envisioned archetypes as processes that bear evidence to personal suffering and, in so doing, prompt the expansion of compassion. In 1975, Jim was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for his book Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row). In addition to many other citations, Jim had the high honor in 2001 of receiving the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. PMID:22963419

  10. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  11. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often devasting comments…

  12. The Yellowstone Fires as Observed by SIR-C SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Despain, Don; Holecz, Francesco

    1996-01-01

    Covers SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar C) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging of the 1988 Yellowstone National Forest fires. Discusses some of the images and data collected, and some conclusions drawn from them about both the fires, and SIR-C SAR imaging capabilities.

  13. Differences between Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 sensitivity estimates among forensic inpatients: A criterion groups comparison.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M

    2016-10-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) underwent a major revision in 2010 yielding the SIRS-2. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS-2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of 263 criminal defendants (215 males, 48 females) who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning (primarily the M-FAST) at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS (.87) and SIRS-2 (.54). The marked differences in sensitivity were partially explained by a global interpretation discordance rate of 47%, with discordance primarily resulting from SIRS-based feigning cases being classified as indeterminate on the SIRS-2. Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS-2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates (which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS-2 in this sample). Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS-2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound. PMID:18704219

  15. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  19. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19602363

  20. [Concept of SIRS and severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masahiko; Sugita, Hiroki; Maeda, Keisuke; Ichibara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Michio

    2004-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease, the severity of which ranges from a mild edematous form to a severe necrotizing form. Most patients develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The cytokine production can be induced by activation of Toll-like receptor. The breakdown products of the pancreatic and peripancreatic tissues by proteases might be the agonists. Cytokines are supposed to be produced as a biological defense system. However, cytokines may often evoke organ failure and/or immunosuppressive state, if they would be produced excessively. To express this complicated pathologic condition, Ogawa proposed a concept of LISIS(local inflammation-induced systemic immunosuppression syndrome). We have to pay attention to such aspects in the management of this disease. PMID:15552899

  1. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  2. Budding Yeast Silencing Complexes and Regulation of Sir2 Activity by Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Gerber, Scott A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2004-01-01

    Gene silencing in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the enzymatic activity of the Sir2 protein, a highly conserved NAD-dependent deacetylase. In order to study the activity of native Sir2, we purified and characterized two budding yeast Sir2 complexes: the Sir2/Sir4 complex, which mediates silencing at mating-type loci and at telomeres, and the RENT complex, which mediates silencing at the ribosomal DNA repeats. Analyses of the protein compositions of these complexes confirmed previously described interactions. We show that the assembly of Sir2 into native silencing complexes does not alter its selectivity for acetylated substrates, nor does it allow the deacetylation of nucleosomal histones. The inability of Sir2 complexes to deacetylate nucleosomes suggests that additional factors influence Sir2 activity in vivo. In contrast, Sir2 complexes show significant enhancement in their affinities for acetylated substrates and their sensitivities to the physiological inhibitor nicotinamide relative to recombinant Sir2. Reconstitution experiments showed that, for the Sir2/Sir4 complex, these differences stem from the physical interaction of Sir2 with Sir4. Finally, we provide evidence that the different nicotinamide sensitivities of Sir2/Sir4 and RENT in vitro could contribute to locus-specific differences in how Sir2 activity is regulated in vivo. PMID:15282295

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  4. The Teaching Spirit of William James

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, James H.

    2003-01-01

    William James provided not only practical advice to teachers but also wisdom concerning values in living. Statements from his students show his qualities as a teacher, although some of his statements convey his ambivalence about teaching.

  5. James Johnson on Asteroid Mission Simulation Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to James Johnson, the test director for a simulated mission to an asteroid taking place at the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at the Johnson Space Cente...

  6. Characteristics of the SIR-A system and images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, PH.

    1984-01-01

    Sample images obtained with the Shuttle Imaging Radar A (SIR-A) are presented, along with design and performance features of the SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat images of the same scenes for comparison purposes. The SIR-A functions at the L-band 25 cm at a frequency of 1278 GHz with a spectral bandwidth of 6 MHz. The images were taken at an angle of 47 deg and furnished a resolution of 40 m from an altitude of 259 km. The images covered a ground swath 50 km wide. The images are provided to assist in the development of effective techniques for interpreting radar imagery. The SIR-A instrument is a precursor of another imaging device which will be flown around Venus. The images provided include sections of France, Sardinia and Algeria.

  7. Sir John Cornforth AC CBE FRS: his synthetic work.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Rupert; Hanson, James R

    2015-01-01

    Sir John Cornforth work on the synthesis of cholesterolandpenicillamine, on the chemistry of oxazoles, the stereochemistry of the synthesis of alkenes, the synthesis of abscisic acid and of dibenzophospholes as mimics of enzyme action, is reviewed. PMID:26601337

  8. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  10. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous?

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues (like open-mindedness and tolerance) may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take.

  11. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous?

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues (like open-mindedness and tolerance) may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. PMID:25091260

  12. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Editor); Cimino, J. B. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The SIR-A experiment was conducted in order to acquire radar data over a variety of regions to further understanding of the radar signatures of various geologic features. The capability of the Shuttle as a scientific platform for observation of the Earth's resources was assessed. The SIR-A sensor operated nominally and the full data acquisition capacity of the optical recorder was used.

  13. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  14. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    James R. Houck, the leading figure in developing infrared spectroscopy for astrophysics, died in Ithaca, NY, on September 18, 2015, at age 74 from complications of Alzheimer's Disease. He was born on October 5, 1940, in Mobile, Alabama, but lived much of his early life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received his undergraduate degree from Carnegie Institute of Technology. Jim spent his scientific career at Cornell University. He came to Cornell as a physics graduate student in 1962 and remained until his retirement as the Kenneth A. Wallace Professor of Astronomy in 2012. His only year away from Ithaca was as a Guggenheim Fellow at Caltech, and he declined job offers from other universities because of his opinion that Ithaca provided the best environment for raising his family. His passion for learning, doing, and teaching science by building instruments and understanding physics led to great benefits for his students and astronomy colleagues. After receiving his PhD in condensed matter physics, he changed fields to work in astronomy at Cornell. He first collaborated with colleague Martin Harwit to develop a rocket program at Cornell for infrared observations and made numerous treks to the White Sands Missile Range flying payloads on Aerobee sounding rockets. Jim emphasized building spectrographs and making pioneering observations with ground based, airborne, and rocket-borne infrared instrumentation. Jim flew on every airplane NASA provided for astronomy. Those were pioneering times. One of his survival stories was of the Learjet in which both engines flamed out over the Pacific when the pilot did a celebratory barrel role after successful completion of their observations. His observations with rockets and airplanes were primarily of a variety of Galactic objects, including planetary nebulae, HII regions, and stars. But the most notable was an observation on the Convair 990 that produced a prescient discovery paper in 1973 led by Jim which discovered bound

  15. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  16. Sir Charles Edward Saunders, Dominion cerealist.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Malcolm J

    2008-06-01

    Charles Edward Saunders was born in London, Ontario, in 1867. His father, Sir William Saunders, was the first director of the Dominion Experimental Farms (1886-1911). Charles received his B.A. with honours in science from the University of Toronto in 1888 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891. He attempted a career in music, his first love, from 1893 to 1902. With his father, Charles attended the 1902 International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization in New York, where he learned of Mendel's theories of inheritance and their applicability to plant breeding. When he began work in 1903 in the Division of Cereal Breeding and Experimentation at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, he used the knowledge he had gained at that conference. It was Charles's goal to achieve "fixity" in the varieties that had been bred and released using phenotypic mass selection, prior to his tenure as Cerealist. He selected four heads from the wheat variety Markham and in the winter of 1904 he performed a "chewing test" to select for gluten elasticity and colour. Seeds from two heads were chosen, and seeds from one went on to produce the variety Marquis after extensive yield trials on the Prairies. Marquis was 7 to 10 days earlier than Red Fife, the standard bread wheat of the Prairies. The earliness and tremendous yield of Marquis wheat resulted in the rapid and successful settlement of the Great Plains and countless billions of dollars in revenue to Canada. By 1923, 90% of the spring wheat in Canada and 70% in the USA was Marquis. Charles continued as Dominion Cerealist until his retirement in 1922. He was knighted in 1934, and died in 1937.

  17. Sir Charles Edward Saunders, Dominion cerealist.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Malcolm J

    2008-06-01

    Charles Edward Saunders was born in London, Ontario, in 1867. His father, Sir William Saunders, was the first director of the Dominion Experimental Farms (1886-1911). Charles received his B.A. with honours in science from the University of Toronto in 1888 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891. He attempted a career in music, his first love, from 1893 to 1902. With his father, Charles attended the 1902 International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization in New York, where he learned of Mendel's theories of inheritance and their applicability to plant breeding. When he began work in 1903 in the Division of Cereal Breeding and Experimentation at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, he used the knowledge he had gained at that conference. It was Charles's goal to achieve "fixity" in the varieties that had been bred and released using phenotypic mass selection, prior to his tenure as Cerealist. He selected four heads from the wheat variety Markham and in the winter of 1904 he performed a "chewing test" to select for gluten elasticity and colour. Seeds from two heads were chosen, and seeds from one went on to produce the variety Marquis after extensive yield trials on the Prairies. Marquis was 7 to 10 days earlier than Red Fife, the standard bread wheat of the Prairies. The earliness and tremendous yield of Marquis wheat resulted in the rapid and successful settlement of the Great Plains and countless billions of dollars in revenue to Canada. By 1923, 90% of the spring wheat in Canada and 70% in the USA was Marquis. Charles continued as Dominion Cerealist until his retirement in 1922. He was knighted in 1934, and died in 1937. PMID:18521125

  18. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  19. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment. PMID:22016738

  20. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    James R. Houck, the leading figure in developing infrared spectroscopy for astrophysics, died in Ithaca, NY, on September 18, 2015, at age 74 from complications of Alzheimer's Disease. He was born on October 5, 1940, in Mobile, Alabama, but lived much of his early life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received his undergraduate degree from Carnegie Institute of Technology. Jim spent his scientific career at Cornell University. He came to Cornell as a physics graduate student in 1962 and remained until his retirement as the Kenneth A. Wallace Professor of Astronomy in 2012. His only year away from Ithaca was as a Guggenheim Fellow at Caltech, and he declined job offers from other universities because of his opinion that Ithaca provided the best environment for raising his family. His passion for learning, doing, and teaching science by building instruments and understanding physics led to great benefits for his students and astronomy colleagues. After receiving his PhD in condensed matter physics, he changed fields to work in astronomy at Cornell. He first collaborated with colleague Martin Harwit to develop a rocket program at Cornell for infrared observations and made numerous treks to the White Sands Missile Range flying payloads on Aerobee sounding rockets. Jim emphasized building spectrographs and making pioneering observations with ground based, airborne, and rocket-borne infrared instrumentation. Jim flew on every airplane NASA provided for astronomy. Those were pioneering times. One of his survival stories was of the Learjet in which both engines flamed out over the Pacific when the pilot did a celebratory barrel role after successful completion of their observations. His observations with rockets and airplanes were primarily of a variety of Galactic objects, including planetary nebulae, HII regions, and stars. But the most notable was an observation on the Convair 990 that produced a prescient discovery paper in 1973 led by Jim which discovered bound

  1. Sir Thomas Brisbane's Legacy to Colonial Science: Colonial Astronomy at the Parramatta Observatory, 1822-1848

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Shirley D.

    2004-12-01

    Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane's legacy to colonial science derives from his initiative in establishing a privately owned observatory in the southern hemisphere, the Parramatta Observatory, during his term as Governor of the Colony of New South Wales from 1822 to 1825. In this paper a discussion is given of the origin and setting up of Brisbane's Parramatta Observatory, including the recruitment and employment of Carl Rümker and James Dunlop. An account is given of the choice of the work undertaken at Parramatta Observatory when it was privately owned by Brisbane such as the rediscovery of Encke's Comet in 1822, the publication of a catalogue of 7,385 southern stars in 1835 and measurements of earthly phenomena such as the weather, the temperature of the interior of the Earth and the figure of the Earth. An investigation is made of the ensuing struggles as the Parramatta Observatory moved from a private, gentlemanly endeavour to a more accountable public-sector institution in a distant colony of Britain. The main events concerning the public Parramatta Observatory are chronicled from 1826 to 1830 during the years when Rümker worked at the Observatory. A discussion is given of the period 1831 to 1848 at the Parramatta Observatory during Dunlop's term of public office, concluding with an account of the decay and demolition of the observatory.

  2. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stone, J L

    1999-03-01

    Sir Charles A. Ballance (1856-1936) began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in 1875, receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery. Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later 1880s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others. In June of 1887, Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated. Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection (1890), standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess (1894). Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses. He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor (1894); 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma (1906) and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome (1908). Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately 400 cases, which are detailed in his 1907 book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes. His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone (1919), remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on

  3. Speculation on Curriculum from the Perspective of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, William H; Zissis, Georgiana

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for curriculum theory, research, and practice of William James' thought. Also considered is the question of what curriculum theory and research might be like if James had garnered greater influence than Thorndike. (IAH)

  4. William James, Philosophical Father of Experience-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.; Vinson, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly describes the life of William James, nineteenth-century philosopher and psychologist, noting the development of his pragmatist philosophy. The article uses James' work and ideas to support 11 principles of contemporary experience-based education. (SB)

  5. A concert of music by Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Hammer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Orchester Göttinger Musikfreunde presented an evening of music in the magnificent Aula of the University as one of the social events of the conference. The astronomical highlights of the concert were two symphonic works by Sir William Herschel, including an oboe solo by a member of the LOC (W. Glatzel). This is the text from the concert programme. A recording of the concert is included in this proceedings. Programme --------- Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Symphony No. 13 in D Major (1762) W. A. Mozart (1756-1791): Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Major (KV 595), C. Hammer (piano) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Fragment of an Oboe Concerto in C Major (MS790), W. Glatzel (oboe) J. Haydn (1732-1809): Symphony No. 91 E-flat Major We would like to acknowledge the Sparkasse Göttingen and the Versicherungsgesellschaft Hannover for generously making this concert possible.

  6. Plasma biomarkers of SIRS and MODS associated with canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V

    2016-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance P<0.05 were detected between groups. SIRS in babesiosis was characterised by increases in paraoxonase 1 and apoA-I, whereas MODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. PMID:27033937

  7. The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) experiment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.

  8. James Bernard Russell: Scholar, collaborator, mentor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the time of his untimely death in 2009, ARS scientist Dr. James B. Russell had established himself as the premier rumen microbiologist of his generation. Dr. Russell’s many contributions to the field, including much of the early work on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate System model, were the product ...

  9. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  10. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  11. The Religion Journalism of James Gordon Bennett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study was conducted to examine the journalism work of James Gordon Bennett, who founded the "New York Herald" in the 1830s, and to determine the nature of his coverage of religion before, during, and after the "Moral War" waged in 1840 against Bennett's popular newspaper. In addition, the study analyzed what Bennett's religion coverage reveals…

  12. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  13. Astronaut James Buchli wearing extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James F. Buchli, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is about to be submerged in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) to simulate a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for STS 61-A. In this portrait view, Buchli is wearing a communications carrier assembly (CCA).

  14. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  15. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs…

  16. A Conversation with James Cross Giblin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Violet J.; McCarthey, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with James Cross Giblin. Discusses how writing non-fiction books for children aged 8 to 12 gives him the opportunity to pursue his research interests, meet interesting and stimulating experts in various fields, and share his enthusiasm with a young audience. (SG)

  17. Performance of the SIR-B digital image processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A ground-based system to generate digital SAR image products has been developed and implemented in support of the SIR-B mission. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Its capabilities include: automated radiometric and geometric correction of the output imagery; high-precision absolute location without tiepoint registration; filtering of the raw data to remove spurious signals from alien radars; and automated catologing to maintain a full set of radar and image production facility in support of the SIR-B science investigators routinely produces over 80 image frames per week.

  18. The Darwinian Center to the Vision of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    The essence of William James's vision can sometimes be hard to discover due to emotional volatility and exploratory impulsiveness. On the other hand, beneath James's apparent inconsistency was a constancy of purpose that can be easily underestimated. This paper argues that the center of James's vision lay in an interpretation of Darwinism. By…

  19. 7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, May 17, 1926, (John and James Dobson, Inc. East Falls, Aero Service Corp., Neg. No. 5986, May 17, 1926, Free Library of Philadelphia, Print Collection). - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Developmental and Spatial Expression of sir2 Genes in the Cellular Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Takahiro; Yasukawa, Hiro

    2008-01-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum grows as unicellular free-living amoebae in the presence of nutrients. Upon starvation, the amoebae aggregate and form multicellular structures that each consist of a stalk and spores. D. discoideum encodes at least four proteins (Sir2A, Sir2B, Sir2C, and Sir2D) homologous to human SIRT. RT-PCR and WISH analyses showed that the genes for Sir2A, Sir2C, and Sir2D were expressed at high levels in growing cells but at decreased levels in developing cells, whereas the gene encoding Sir2B was expressed in the prestalk-cell region in the developmental phase.

  1. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  2. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  3. Sir William Johnson and the Indians of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Milton W.

    In order to make the vast literature about the history of Indian and white relations in New York readily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers, this booklet brings together the main points of the relationship between the Indians and Sir William Johnson. Johnson is a key figure in the Indian story of New York state during the 1770s.…

  4. Sir John and Lady Rita Cornforth: a distinguished chemical partnership.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Rupert; Hanson, James R

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the life of Sir John Cornforth AC CBE FRS, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975. It covers his early life in Australia, his work in Oxford, the National Institute for Medical Research, the Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology and the University of Sussex, together with the contributions made by his wife, Lady Rita Cornforth.

  5. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  6. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des Etudes,…

  7. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  8. The Biblical Chronology of James Ussher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in James Ussher and his chronological work saw a re-awakening as the date of 22nd October 1996 approached and it was realised that we were commencing the 6000th year from Archbishop Ussher's estimated date of Creation, viz. the beginning of the night of the 22nd October 4004 BC. In the popular press some, playing on the inherent uncertainty of our existence, suggested that Ussher had predicted that the world would end on the evening of 22 October 1996; thus the Irish Times headline of this date `An early tea would be advisable as the world may end at 6 p.m.', but this certainly misrepresents Ussher's work, for he made no such prediction. Who then was James Ussher and why is he so strongly associated with chronological matters in the public mind?

  9. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  10. God, James Watt, and the public's land

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1981-05-01

    The political career of James Watt, Secretary of the Interior, is chronicled. His current reputation as archenemy of the environmental movement is largely the outgrowth of three and a half years of activity on behalf of the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Since taking office in January 1981, Watt has moved swiftly to impose his individual standards on USDI. Various programs and agencies are being terminated, and public lands may soon be open for mineral and energy exploitation. (7 drawings, 1 photo)

  11. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    PubMed

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  12. The SIR-C experiment - Measuring new variables from space with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    SIR-C is a continuation of the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems flown by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory aboard the Space Shuttle. SIR-A, flown in 1981, showed that SAR can be a useful remote sensing tool in the fields of geology, hydrology, and oceanography. SIR-B added the capability of moving the radar's antenna in 1984, showing that multiple incidence angle images add materially to the usefulness of SAR. SIR-C will add the dimensions of wavelength and polarization, providing the most powerful system ever flown for SAR scientific studies of the earth.

  13. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  14. SIR-B cartography and stereo topographic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, M.; Leberi, F.; Raggam, J.; Domik, G.; Welch, R.; Carr, H.; Hammak, J.; Kaupp, V.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The SIR-B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR-B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.

  15. Comparing vector–host and SIR models for dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mubayi, Anuj; Medlock, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Various simple mathematical models have been used to investigate dengue transmission. Some of these models explicitly model the mosquito population, while others model the mosquitoes implicitly in the transmission term. We study the impact of modeling assumptions on the dynamics of dengue in Thailand by fitting dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) data to simple vector–host and SIR models using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation. The parameter estimates obtained for both models were consistent with previous studies. Most importantly, model selection found that the SIR model was substantially better than the vector–host model for the DHF data from Thailand. Therefore, explicitly incorporating the mosquito population may not be necessary in modeling dengue transmission for some populations.

  16. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-06-19

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

  17. The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marious; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S

    2010-08-20

    Sir William Turner (1832-1916) was Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. His classic paper of 1863 on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in 1863 and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion. A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented.

  18. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004. PMID:20029076

  19. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  20. A Fractional Order Recovery SIR Model from a Stochastic Process.

    PubMed

    Angstmann, C N; Henry, B I; McGann, A V

    2016-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The fractional order recovery model is shown to be consistent with the Kermack-McKendrick age-structured SIR model, and it reduces to the Hethcote-Tudor integral equation SIR model. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations. We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. PMID:26940822

  1. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  2. Broadband spectral photography of the James River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    On May 28, 1974, a photographic mission from 5.3 kilometers altitude was flown over the James River from Norfolk to Hopewell. During the mission 252 photographs were exposed over the river. The photographs are divided into four simultaneously exposed groups with each group exposed through a different broadband optical filter. The four filters isolated blue-green, green, yellow, and near-infrared radiation from the water body. The document summarizes the mission photography in relation to flight altitude, sunglint, and photographic exposure.

  3. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. STABLES, INTERIOR DEMOLISHED - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. ARCHWAY TOWARD ENTRANCE - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 FRONT VIEW REAR WING (NORTH ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  7. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, 1936. FRONT VIEW OF SERVANTS HOME (WEST ELEVATION) - Auburn, Auburn Boulevard, Duncan Memorial Park, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 GENERAL REAR VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, 1936. GENERAL FRONT VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Marschalk Printing Office, Wall & Franklin Streets, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  10. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fugono, N.; Furuhama, Y.; Takasugi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Yoshikado, S.; Masuko, H.; Shinozuka, T.; Inomata, H.; Shiro, I.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B). It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR-B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR-B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR-B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR-B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR.

  11. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14637; dated March 26, 2010... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  12. 76 FR 12295 - James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC or the Commission) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by James Luehman (the... was decided by the Commission in the Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit...

  13. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-upper right, and survey-below, 1885. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1885, pp. 1890-1891. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1875. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1875, pp. 46-47. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower left, and surrounding environs, 1925. Bromley, George Washington and Bromley, Walter Scott. Atlas of the City of Philadelphia (North Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George W. and Walter S. Bromley, 1925, p. 106. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1901. Baist, George William. Northern District of Baist's Detail Property Atlases of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1901, Plan 17. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-lower left, and survey-right, 1877. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1877, pp. 1095-1096. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, revised through 1914. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1914, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, and survey lower left, 1865. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1865, p. 279. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West parcel, site plan-left, elevation-upper right, and survey-lower right, 1873. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1873, pp. 670-671. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan, revised through 1895. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1895, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-right, and western environs, 1908. Smith, Elvino Victor. Atlas of the 38th and Part of the 37th Ward of the City of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elvino V. Smith, 1908, Plate 24. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  8. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things,...

  9. Elaboration, Diversification and Regulation of the Sir1 Family of Silencing Proteins in Saccharomyces

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Babiarz, Joshua E.; Teytelman, Leonid; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Rine, Jasper

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin renders domains of chromosomes transcriptionally silent and, due to clonal variation in its formation, can generate heritably distinct populations of genetically identical cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae's Sir1 functions primarily in the establishment, but not the maintenance, of heterochromatic silencing at the HMR and HML loci. In several Saccharomyces species, we discovered multiple paralogs of Sir1, called Kos1–Kos4 (Kin of Sir1). The Kos and Sir1 proteins contributed partially overlapping functions to silencing of both cryptic mating loci in S. bayanus. Mutants of these paralogs reduced silencing at HML more than at HMR. Most genes of the SIR1 family were located near telomeres, and at least one paralog was regulated by telomere position effect. In S. cerevisiae, Sir1 is recruited to the silencers at HML and HMR via its ORC interacting region (OIR), which binds the bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain of Orc1. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which diverged from Saccharomyces after the appearance of the silent mating cassettes, but before the whole-genome duplication, contained an ortholog of Kos3 that was apparently the archetypal member of the family, with only one OIR. In contrast, a duplication of this domain was present in all orthologs of Sir1, Kos1, Kos2, and Kos4. We propose that the functional specialization of Sir3, itself a paralog of Orc1, as a silencing protein was facilitated by the tandem duplication of the OIR domain in the Sir1 family, allowing distinct Sir1–Sir3 and Sir1–Orc1 interactions through OIR–BAH domain interactions. PMID:19171939

  10. Sir2 phosphorylation through cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling inhibits the lifespan extension activity of Sir2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Kyu; Kim, Yeong Hyeock; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2015-09-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, has been proposed to be a longevity factor that plays important roles in dietary restriction (DR)-mediated lifespan extension. In this study, we show that the Sir2's role for DR-mediated lifespan extension depends on cAMP-PKA and casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling in yeast. Sir2 partially represses the transcription of lifespan-associated genes, such as PMA1 (encoding an H(+)-ATPase) and many ribosomal protein genes, through deacetylation of Lys 16 of histone H4 in the promoter regions of these genes. This repression is relieved by Sir2 S473 phosphorylation, which is mediated by active cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling. Moderate DR increases the replicative lifespan of wild-type yeast but has no effect on that of yeast expressing the Sir2-S473E or S473A allele, suggesting that the effect of Sir2 on DR-mediated lifespan extension is negatively regulated by S473 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which Sir2 contributes to lifespan extension.

  11. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Schumpert, Charles A.; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR in Daphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2. PMID:26978617

  12. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles A; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2016-02-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR inDaphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2. PMID:26978617

  13. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles A; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2016-02-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR inDaphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2.

  14. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn (1751-1804): precision in thermometry.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-02-01

    The universal clinical procedure of recording a patient's temperature depends upon the accuracy of thermometers. This in turn depends upon the accuracy of two fixed datum points (the freezing and boiling points of water) and subsequently on the fine calibration of the etched scale between them. Anders Celsius (1701-44) defined the boiling point of water as the upper fixed point of the thermometric scale, originally designated as 0°C but inverted by Carl Linnaeus (1707-78) to read 100°C. In 1724 Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) had observed that the upper fixed point, that of boiling water, varied with changes in atmospheric pressure. An English scientist, Sir George Shuckburgh (after 1794 known as Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn), addressed this problem and over the period 1774-79 he defined the relationship of the temperature of boiling water to barometric pressure. This latter variable changed both with the ambient meteorological conditions of the moment and the height above sea level at which the calibrations were made. Clinical thermometry depends on an accuracy of 0.1°C in both the baseline and the tracking of a patient's temperature but Shuckburgh's experiments showed that the upper fixed point of reference, that of boiling water, could change by up to 10°C. He demonstrated that these variables must be measured and controlled in the manufacture and calibration of thermometers. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn published his results in the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society (1777-79) and made possible the accuracy of thermometry on which patient care depends.

  15. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is ulxve uperk/rc (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 prnio 28 pn). JWS7 s primaryacicoce goal is k) detect and characterize the first galaxies. U will also study the uascrob|y of galaxies, uiur bzcrou1ion, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will he presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the science goals, the capabilities of each science instrument, and the design and operation of the telescope.

  16. Science with the James Webb Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2011. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. Its science goals are to detect and identify the first galaxies to form in the universe, to trace the assembly of galaxies, and to study stellar and planetary system formation. JWST will have three instruments: The Near Infrared Camera and the Near Infrared multiobject Spectrometer will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, and the Mid Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In this special session, we review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of these major goals.

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a 6.5 m, infrared space telescope designed to be launched in 2013 aboard an Ariane 5. The JWST program is a cooperative program with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) managing the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST). JWST's international partners are the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). JWST will address four major science themes: end of the dark ages: first light and reionization; the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and the formation of planetary systems and the origins of life. We discuss the design of the observatory and review recent progress on the JWST program.

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  19. James Hillman: Toward a poetic psychology.

    PubMed

    Avens, R

    1980-09-01

    InThe Dream and the Underworld James Hillman continues to deepen and to refine Jung's recovery of the spontaneous image-making of the soul. Hillman's contribution lies in his "imaginai reduction"-relating of images to their archetypal background in Greek mythology. Myth is seen as the maker of the psyche, and, in turn, the soul-making ispoesis-a return to the imaginal and poetic basis of consciousness. Dreams, understood poetically, are neither messages to be deciphered and used for the benefit of the rational ego (Freud) nor compensatory to the ego (Jung); they are complete in themselves and must be allowed to speak for themselves. Hillman also sees dreams as initiations into the underworld of death-the other side of life where our imaginal substance is unobstructed by the literal and dualistic standpoints of the dayworld.

  20. James Clerk Maxwell 150 years on.

    PubMed

    Reid, John S; Wang, Charles H-T; Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-05-28

    This paper is the preface to a special Issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A reporting selected proceedings of the international conference marking the 150th anniversary of James Clerk Maxwell's professorial debut at Marischal College, Aberdeen. Following an introduction to Marischal College, a brief historical note summarizes Maxwell's life prior to his entering the college as professor of natural philosophy. The preface provides a short summary of the event and overviews the contributed papers devoted to subjects covering a wide range of Maxwell's research interests and their modern developments. The mixture of review and research papers reflects both the fundamental importance and the diverse applicability of Maxwell's works in electromagnetics, colour science, dynamics and kinetics. Acknowledgements are given to the individuals and bodies who made the conference the success that it was.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture telescope that will extend humanities’ high angular resolution view of the universe into the infrared spectrum to reveal early epochs of the universe that the Hubble cannot see. The Webb’s science instrument payload includes four cryogenic near-infrared sensors that provide imagery, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy over the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  2. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown (1870-1946).

    PubMed

    Keynes, Milo

    2008-02-01

    Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology. He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.

  3. Traffic-driven SIR epidemic spreading in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cunlai; Li, Siyuan; Yang, XianXia; Xu, Zhongqi; Ji, Zexuan; Yang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We study SIR epidemic spreading in networks driven by traffic dynamics, which are further governed by static routing protocols. We obtain the maximum instantaneous population of infected nodes and the maximum population of ever infected nodes through simulation. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. When packet generation rate ρ is small, increasing ρ favors epidemic spreading. However, when ρ is large enough, traffic congestion appears which inhibits epidemic spreading.

  4. Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Zoltán; Brown, Richard E

    2010-06-01

    Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost. However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since 1936. Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits. Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides.

  5. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.

    SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground

  6. Effects of population mixing on the spread of SIR epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukś, H.; Lawniczak, A. T.; Duchesne, R.

    2006-03-01

    We study dynamics of spread of epidemics of SIR type in a realistic spatially-explicit geographical region, Southern and Central Ontario, using census data obtained from Statistics Canada, and examine the role of population mixing in epidemic processes. Our model incorporates the random nature of disease transmission, the discreteness and heterogeneity of distribution of host population.We find that introduction of a long-range interaction destroys spatial correlations very easily if neighbourhood sizes are homogeneous. For inhomogeneous neighbourhoods, very strong long-range coupling is required to achieve a similar effect. Our work applies to the spread of influenza during a single season.

  7. Sir Alexander Fleming: Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-01-01

    The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history. This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine.

  8. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  9. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James’s unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the “hard problems” of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James’s reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his “radically empiricist” ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James’s long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more “wayward and fitful” aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James’s thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his “transmission theory” of consciousness, his ideas on the “knowing of things together,” and, finally, the related concept of “the compounding of consciousness,” which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to “know” the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a “distributive model,” based on his understanding of consciousness as an “awareness” that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to

  10. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War. PMID:22275788

  11. SIR Fronts in Complex Networks with Metapopulation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindes, Jason; Singh, Sarabjeet; Myers, Chris; Schneider, Dave; Analytical FrameworksInfectious Disease Dynamics Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    SIR dynamics has been studied extensively on complex networks, yielding insight into the effects of heterogeneity in contact patterns on the spread of infectious diseases. Separately, metapopulations have provided a paradigm for modeling systems with extended and ``patchy'' organization. In this paper we demonstrate how multi-type networks can be used to combine these paradigms such that simple disease dynamics models can include heterogeneity in connectivity and multi-scale structure. We first present a multi-type generalization of the Volz-Miller mean-field approximation for SIR dynamics on multi-type random graphs. We then use this technique to study the propagation of epidemic fronts in a simple metapopulation model with population centers composed of configuration model networks coupled on a one-dimensional lattice. Using the formalism of front propagation into unstable states, we derive the effective transport coefficients of the linear spreading: asymptotic speed, characteristic perturbation size, and diffusion coefficient for the pulled fronts, and explore their dependence on the underlying graph structure. We also derive the average steady-state incidence, the equilibrium spectrum, and the threshold for invasion.

  12. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  13. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  14. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery." PMID:11841730

  15. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

  16. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  17. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  18. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  19. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  20. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  1. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  2. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  3. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  4. James J. Jenkins (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Foss, Donald J; Overmier, J Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for James J. Jenkins. Jim Jenkins, fondly known as "J-cubed," was born on July 29, 1923, in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended William Jewell College but enlisted in the Army in 1942. He received a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago in 1944 as part of his training as a meteorologist. After serving in the South Pacific, he returned to William Jewell College, obtaining a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1947. Jenkins received a master's degree (1948) and a doctorate (1950) from the University of Minnesota under a giant in industrial psychology, Donald G. Paterson. He joined the Minnesota Psychology Department faculty upon graduation (turning down an offer from General Motors at triple the salary). Jenkins helped lead psychology's "cognitive revolution" from the second half of the 20th century into the present one. His work advanced multiple research areas: learning and memory, sentence processing, aphasia, speech perception, and perceptual organization. His remarkable combination of abilities led to nearly 200 scholarly publications and 500 conference and meeting presentations; multiple leadership positions, teaching awards, and professional accolades; and intense devotion from generations of students. PMID:23895612

  5. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dustenshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope with four instruments, capable of imaging and spectroscopy from 0.6 to 27 microns wavelength.

  6. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  7. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts.

  8. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  11. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts. PMID:19203148

  12. James Moores Ball: Ophthalmologist, medical historian, bibliophile.

    PubMed

    Feibel, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    James Moores Ball (1862-1929) was an ophthalmologist in St. Louis, Missouri, who excelled as a medical historian and collector of rare and historic books about the history of anatomy. During his lifetime, he was best known as the author of a comprehensive, authoritative, and popular textbook titled Modern Ophthalmology First published in 1904, there were five further editions. Ball was very interested in the history of anatomy and wrote two books on this subject, the first being a biography of Andreas Vesalius, one of the earliest in English, and the second a history of the resurrection men or grave robbers who sold corpses to professors of anatomy and surgery for teaching purposes. His legacy today is the 470 volumes of his personal library, which are now in the Archives and Rare Books department of the Becker Medical Library of the Washington University School of Medicine. These texts are one of their major collections, concentrating on the history of anatomy, beginning with a first edition of Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica and holding many important and beautiful landmark volumes of anatomical atlases. PMID:27316691

  13. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response. PMID:9401600

  14. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  15. James L. Outtz (1947-2016).

    PubMed

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Cascio, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    This article memorializes James L. Outtz, who passed away March 26, 2016. For more than 40 years, Outtz was a leading researcher, practitioner, and consultant in the areas of hiring and promotion, employment discrimination, selection-test design and implementation, and legal issues pertaining to employment. He worked tirelessly to enhance opportunities for workforce diversity through greater inclusion of minorities and women. Another important focus was on strategies to minimize adverse impact through alternative approaches to selection. His work significantly influenced best practices in equal employment opportunity, and he was a highly sought-after legal-compliance consultant and testifying expert, advisor to courts, and participant on consent decrees with experts and lawyers from all sides of an issue. His efforts involved some of the most prominent corporations in America and most visible public-sector jurisdictions. In his final 2 years, he became president-elect of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571534

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, 1936 LIVING? (MUSIC) ROOM FIREPLACE (LOOKING NORTH? SOUTH) - Thaddeus Burr Homestead, 491 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  18. 3. James Cant Ranch, view from NW showing Feed Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. James Cant Ranch, view from NW showing Feed Storage Shed and Chicken Coop (in foreground), Barn, and Watchman's Hut - Cant Ranch, East side of State Route 19, North of U.S. 26, Dayville, Grant County, OR

  19. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  20. Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES RENWICK, JR. MANTELPIECE AND MIRROR ARE NOT ORIGINAL TO THE ROOM. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE DETAIL (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Una mirada hacia el pasado -- El Telescopio Espacial James Webb

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA planea usar el nuevo Telescopio Espacial James Webb para mirar el pasado. Al observar la luz de las estrellas que se formaron al principio del universo, la NASA está a punto de arrojar nuev...

  6. 77 FR 25592 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; James River, Hopewell, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison... schedule, the SR 156/Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge, at mile 65.0, across the James River, at...

  7. 3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING EAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter 1979 GENERAL VIEW OF PLYMOUTH PLACE WITH CAPTIOL IN BACKGROUND - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  10. 6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  12. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts. PMID:11700278

  13. An SIRS Epidemic Model Incorporating Media Coverage with Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    An SIRS epidemic model incorporating media coverage with time delay is proposed. The positivity and boundedness are studied firstly. The locally asymptotical stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is studied in succession. And then, the conditions on which periodic orbits bifurcate are given. Furthermore, we show that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the delay. The obtained results show that the time delay in media coverage can not affect the stability of the disease-free equilibrium when the basic reproduction number R0 < 1. However, when R0 > 1, the stability of the endemic equilibrium will be affected by the time delay; there will be a family of periodic orbits bifurcating from the endemic equilibrium when the time delay increases through a critical value. Finally, some examples for numerical simulations are also included. PMID:24723967

  14. Optimal vaccination policies for an SIR model with limited resources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yinggao; Yang, Kuan; Zhou, Kai; Liang, Yiting

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination. We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited. These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination. With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination.

  15. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    PubMed

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.

  16. SIR-B experiments in Japan. I - Sensor calibration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Masaru; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Kawai, Eiji; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    1988-03-01

    A sensor calibration experiment was proposed as part of SIR-B experiments in Japan, together with the rice crop experiment and the ocean oil-pollution detection experiment. This sensor calibration experiment was intended (1) to establish a transfer function from image data to radar backscattering characteristics, (2) to evaluate 3-dB resolutions, (3) to verify the ability to resolve two closely-spaced targets, and (4) to clarify sidelobe structures due to range and azimuth compressions. The disused Akita Airport was chosen as the main test site for the calibration experiment on the first three objectives. This paper describes the test site, the design of the corner reflectors, and briefly predicts the results.

  17. A Calendar of the Correspondence of Sir John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.; Dyck, David R.; Kevin, James R.

    This volume provides for the first time summaries, descriptions, and documentation for 14,815 letters written by or sent to Sir John Herschel (1792-1871). Herschel's numerous contributions to astronomy as well as to mathematics, physics, chemistry (especially photochemistry and photography), meteorology, philosophy of science, and scientific organization, led his British contemporaries to regard him as the most prominent scientist of his era. Because Herschel corresponded on a remarkable array of topics and with leading figures both in Britain and beyond, this volume gives scholars access to a wealth of revealing new information. The many new uses of the volume are enhanced by its Biographical Register, which indentifies about 1500 of Herschel's correspondents, and its Index, which supplies 30,000 references. This volume is far and away the most extensive source of information on John Herschel ever published. Also included are bibliographies of Herschel's publications and of publications on him.

  18. SIR-B image of Montreal from STS 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    False-color image showing Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and was acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) during STS 41-G. The St. lawrence River dominates the right portion of the photo. Several bridges cossing the river are visible. Pink and blue areas are generally buildings or pavement. Light green areas regions of natural vegetation; darker green areas are generally cultivated regions. A race track like structure is apparent at top left. The Riviere des Milles Illes and the Riviere des Prairies (left and right, respectively), join to form a U-shaped waterway at the center of the image. The large elliptical green-centered feature west of the St. Lawrence is Mt. Royal.

  19. Precipitation measurement using SIR-C: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamad, Atiq; Moore, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    A precipitation detection and measurement experiment is planned for the SIR-C/X-SAR mission. This study was conducted to determine under what conditions an off-nadir experiment is feasible. The signal-to-clutter ratio, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the minimum detectable rain rate were investigated. Available models, used in previous studies, were used for the surface clutter and the rain echo. The study also considers the attenuation of the returns at X band. It was concluded that an off-nadir rain-measurement experiment is feasible only for rain rates greater than 10 mm/hr for look angles greater than 60 deg. For the range of look angles 5 less than theta(sub 1) less than 50, the rain rate required is very high for adequate signal-to-clutter ratio, and hence the feasibility of the experiment.

  20. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  1. Sir Robert Ball: Victorian Astronomer and Lecturer par excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. I. G.

    2005-12-01

    Between 1875 and 1910 Sir Robert Stawell Ball gave an estimated 2,500 lectures in towns and cities all over the British Isles and abroad. This paper traces his lecturing career from its beginnings in Ireland to the triumphs of the Royal Institution, and on lecture tours in the United States of America. After a period in mathematics and mechanics, he became a populariser of science, especially astronomy, and found fame and fortune among the working classes and the aristocracy. What motivated him to tireless travels is uncertain, but it might have been that it was rewarding, financially and to his reputation. Whatever his motives, contemporary accounts are clear that BallÕs lectures were extremely popular and well-received.

  2. The SIRS Model of Epidemic Spreading in Virtual Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R.

    2008-09-01

    Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically. On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network.

  3. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts.

  4. Sir Robert Jones: orthopaedic surgeon and war hero.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Tomba, Patrizia; Viganò, Anna; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-05-01

    The First World War was a very harsh conflict and statistics recorded a great number of victims, both soldiers and civilians. One hundred years later, the whole world is commemorating the Great War by celebrating people and events that contributed to shaping the XX century. Beyond remembering political figures, war heroes or even famous battles, it is also important to underline the contribution of those who devoted their efforts to improve the living conditions during war campaigns. This is the case of Sir Robert Jones, one of the fathers of XX century orthopaedics, who contributed to re-organize the military medical assistance during war times and whose teachings, coming directly from his "on the field" experience, inspired an entire generation of European surgeons.

  5. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    PubMed

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764

  6. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  7. SIR dynamics in random networks with heterogeneous connectivity.

    PubMed

    Volz, Erik

    2008-03-01

    Random networks with specified degree distributions have been proposed as realistic models of population structure, yet the problem of dynamically modeling SIR-type epidemics in random networks remains complex. I resolve this dilemma by showing how the SIR dynamics can be modeled with a system of three nonlinear ODE's. The method makes use of the probability generating function (PGF) formalism for representing the degree distribution of a random network and makes use of network-centric quantities such as the number of edges in a well-defined category rather than node-centric quantities such as the number of infecteds or susceptibles. The PGF provides a simple means of translating between network and node-centric variables and determining the epidemic incidence at any time. The theory also provides a simple means of tracking the evolution of the degree distribution among susceptibles or infecteds. The equations are used to demonstrate the dramatic effects that the degree distribution plays on the final size of an epidemic as well as the speed with which it spreads through the population. Power law degree distributions are observed to generate an almost immediate expansion phase yet have a smaller final size compared to homogeneous degree distributions such as the Poisson. The equations are compared to stochastic simulations, which show good agreement with the theory. Finally, the dynamic equations provide an alternative way of determining the epidemic threshold where large-scale epidemics are expected to occur, and below which epidemic behavior is limited to finite-sized outbreaks. PMID:17668212

  8. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  9. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have three instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, and the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  10. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  11. [James Parkinson (1755-1824) revisited].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    The name of Parkinson is universally famous because of the eponymous disease. But as a man, James Parkinson (1755-1824), is poorly known. He was born, married and passed away in his St-Leonard parish in Shoreditch (London). After having studied Latin, Greek, natural philosophy, and stenography (shorthand), which he considered as the basic tools of any doctor, he studied for six months at the London Hospital Medical College, and served his apprenticeship as an apothecary-surgeon with his father for six years. Then he was qualified as a surgeon in 1784 at the age of 29 years. His activity has been deployed in three areas: 1) medicine, 2) political activism and social reformism, 3) paleontology and oryctology. As a physician, Parkinson has published several books, the most important concerned paralysis agitans (future Parkinson's disease), gout, complications of lightning (future Lichtenberg figures and keraunoparalysis), acute appendicitis (with his son John Parkinson) and hernias (diagnosis, development, dangers of hernia ruptures, and design of a simple truss). Its ideological and political commitment was manifested by joining two secret societies and publishing numerous pamphlets, many of which are signed by the pseudonym Old Hubert; he campaigned for a better representation of the people in Parliament, for greater social justice, for the defense and recognition of the rights of the poor, the insane, the children, and against children abuse. He published a small compendium of chemistry, he was one of the thirteen members who create the British Geological Society and is recognized as one of the founders of paleontology; as was Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), he remained a strong supporter of creationism and catastrophism. Distinguished oryctologist, he gave his name to several fossils, mainly molluscs. PMID:23508322

  12. Brief Communication: SIR-2.1-dependent lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by oxyresveratrol and resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Gayeung; Park, Jieun; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol (RES) has been studied for its effects on the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans, but controversy still remains on its mechanism related with SIR-2. In this study, longevity assay was performed to confirm SIR-2-dependent lifespan extension of C. elgeans with RES and oxyresveratrol (OXY), an isomer of hydroxylated RES using loss-of-function mutants of C. elegans including sir-2.1 mutant. The results showed that OXY and RES significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with the control. OXY and RES also significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression levels of sir-2.1 and aak-2 in a dose-dependent manner and increased the protein expression levels of SIR-2.1. OXY and RES treatment extended the lifespan in daf-16 loss-of-function mutants, which suggested that lifespan extension was not occurring via the activation of DAF-16. However, OXY and RES failed to extend the lifespan in loss-of-function mutants of sir-2.1 and aak-2 Therefore, OXY and RES extend the lifespan of C. elegans by overexpression of SIR-2.1, which is related to lifespan extension through calorie restriction and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, although this process is independent of the FOXO/DAF-16 pathway.

  13. Relationships between rDNA, Nop1 and Sir complex in biotechnologically relevant distillery yeasts.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Kaplan, Jakub; Pabian, Sylwia; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains. Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation. The levels of rDNA were negatively correlated with Nop1 (r = -0.59, p = 0.0038). Moreover, the protein levels of Sir transcriptional silencing complex and longevity regulators, namely Sir1, Sir2, Sir3 and Fob1, were studied and negative correlations between Sir2 and Nop1 (r = -0.45, p = 0.0332), and between Sir2 and Fob1 (r = -0.49, p = 0.0211) were revealed. In general, S. paradoxus group of distillery yeasts with higher rDNA pools and Sir2 level than S. bayanus group was found to be more tolerant to fermentation-associated stress stimuli, namely mild cold/heat stresses and KCl treatment. We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process. PMID:27329282

  14. Structural Integrity Recording System (SIR) for U.S. Army AH-1G Helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. G.; Johnson, R. B.; Tyler, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A Structural Integrity Recording System (SIRS) was designed and developed to track the fatigue damage accumulation on 10 critical helicopter components for the subsequent timely replacement of such components for safer and more economical helicopter operation. SIRS comprises three discrete but interrelated subsystems: an airborne microprocessor-based recorder, a portable flight-line data retrieval unit, and a software system. The validation of SIRS, initially configured for the AH-1G helicopter, consisted of two phases. Phase I (Development Test and Evaluation - DT E) covered the design, fabrication, laboratory qualification testing, reliability analysis, and flight-testing of the prototype SIRS recorder. Phase II (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation - IOT E) covered the evaluation of the entire system operation and the resultant data acquired during a 3-month recording period with five AH-1G's, each equipped with a SIRS recorder. As the documentation of both DT E and IOT E, this report describes the characteristics and functions of the entire system and details the successful performance of the SIRS recorder in the laboratory qualification testing and the flight environment. The SIRS recorder performed as designed, operated reliably, and yielded valid data.

  15. Relationships between rDNA, Nop1 and Sir complex in biotechnologically relevant distillery yeasts.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Kaplan, Jakub; Pabian, Sylwia; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains. Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation. The levels of rDNA were negatively correlated with Nop1 (r = -0.59, p = 0.0038). Moreover, the protein levels of Sir transcriptional silencing complex and longevity regulators, namely Sir1, Sir2, Sir3 and Fob1, were studied and negative correlations between Sir2 and Nop1 (r = -0.45, p = 0.0332), and between Sir2 and Fob1 (r = -0.49, p = 0.0211) were revealed. In general, S. paradoxus group of distillery yeasts with higher rDNA pools and Sir2 level than S. bayanus group was found to be more tolerant to fermentation-associated stress stimuli, namely mild cold/heat stresses and KCl treatment. We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process.

  16. Structural Basis for Nicotinamide Inhibition and Base Exchange in Sir2 Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, B.; Zhao, K; Slama, J; Marmorstein, R

    2007-01-01

    The Sir2 family of proteins consists of broadly conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases that are implicated in diverse biological processes, including DNA regulation, metabolism, and longevity. Sir2 proteins are regulated in part by the cellular concentrations of a noncompetitive inhibitor, nicotinamide, that reacts with a Sir2 reaction intermediate via a base-exchange reaction to reform NAD+ at the expense of deacetylation. To gain a mechanistic understanding of nicotinamide inhibition in Sir2 enzymes, we captured the structure of nicotinamide bound to a Sir2 homolog, yeast Hst2, in complex with its acetyl-lysine 16 histone H4 substrate and a reaction intermediate analog, ADP-HPD. Together with related biochemical studies and structures, we identify a nicotinamide inhibition and base-exchange site that is distinct from the so-called 'C pocket' binding site for the nicotinamide group of NAD+. These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the development of Sir2-specific effectors.

  17. Functional complementation of sir2Δ yeast mutation by the human orthologous gene SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Davide; D'Alfonso, Anna; Camilloni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuins, class III histone deacetylases, are proteins homologous to the yeast protein Sir2p. Mammalian Sirt1 has been shown to be involved in energy metabolism, brain functions, inflammation and aging through its deacetylase activity, acting on both histone and non-histone substrates. In order to verify whether Sirt1 can replace Sir2p in the yeast cells, we expressed the full-length human Sirt1 protein in S.cerevisiae sir2Δ mutant strain. The structure of chromatin is basically maintained from yeast to human. Thus, yeast chromatin is a favourable environment to evaluate, inhibit or activate an ectopic histone deacetylase activity in an in vivo substrate. Mutant sir2Δ shows a series of different phenotypes, all dependent on the deacetylase activity of Sir2p. We analyzed the three silent loci where normally Sir2p acts: ribosomal DNA, telomeres and the mating type loci. Moreover, we verified extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles production and histone hyperacetylation levels, typical marks of sir2Δ strains. By strong SIRT1 overexpression in sir2Δ cells, we found that specific molecular phenotypes of the mutant revert almost to a wild-type condition. In particular, transcriptional silencing at rDNA was restored, extrachromosomal rDNA circles formation was repressed and histone acetylation at H3K9 and H4K16 decreased. The complementation at the other studied loci: HM loci, telomere and sub-telomere does not occur. Overall, our observations indicate that: i) SIRT1 gene is able to complement different molecular phenotypes of the sir2Δ mutant at rDNA ii) the in vivo screening of Sirt1 activity is possible in yeast.

  18. Direct interactions promote eviction of the Sir3 heterochromatin protein by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Benjamin J.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres. PMID:25453095

  19. Direct interactions promote eviction of the Sir3 heterochromatin protein by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme.

    PubMed

    Manning, Benjamin J; Peterson, Craig L

    2014-12-16

    Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres.

  20. Shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) data analysis for identifying rainfall event occurrence and intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The utility of SIR-B data were evaluated for the detection and measurement of rainfall events, and applications of SIR-B data were developed to the improvement of existing rainfall models. During the SIR-B mission, EarthSat monitored rainfall events occurring within the conterminous United States. The GOES scenes form showed rainfall activity within the conterminous U.S. during the SIR-B mission. Swaths of the actual SIR-B data taken were plotted onto the GOES satellite scenes most closely representing the time of the Shuttle overpass. The JPL provided EarthSat with available SIR-B imagery in paper print form representing the appropriate requested data takes. EarthSat identified the collateral data required for site characterization during subsequent SIR-B contracts with JPL.

  1. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  2. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  3. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  4. Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Ames Director William 'Bill' Ballhaus (center left) joins visitor Sir Jeffrey Pope from Royla Aircraft Industry, England (center right) at the NAS Facility Cray 2 computer with Ron Deiss, NAS Deputy Manager (L) and Vic Peterson, Ames Deputy Director (R).

  5. Sir Howard Walter Florey--the force behind the development of penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-04-01

    The development of penicillin was a watershed in the battle against infectious diseases. The primary individuals responsible for its discovery and development were Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Howard Walter Florey, and Ernst B. Chain, now primary figures in the annals of medical history. The individual who serendipitously "discovered" penicillin was Sir Alexander Fleming. Despite the determination displayed by Fleming, little notice was given to his discovery for more than a decade, and the active substance was not isolated. Finally, in 1939, Florey, along with Chain, led a team of British scientists who successfully manufactured the drug from the liquid broth in which penicillin grows. They, along with Fleming, were given the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their roles in the discovery and development of this agent. This biography focuses on the life and work of Sir Howard Walter Florey.

  6. An overview of the National Space Science data Center Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.; Blecher, S.; Verson, E. E.; King, M. L. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general overview is given of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Standard Information Retrieval System. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Emphasis is placed on providing users with an overview of the capabilities and uses of the NSSDC Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS). Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Detailed information about NSSDC data files is documented in a set of File Users Guides, with one user's guide prepared for each file processed by SIRS. Detailed information about SIRS is presented in the SIRS Users Guide.

  7. Sir Paul McCartney Wake-up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    Paul McCartney and Beatles favorite "Good Day Sunshine" greet the Atlantis crew of Chris Ferguson, Doug Hurley, Sandy Magnus and Rex Walheim first thing on Flight Day 8. Sir Paul and the Beatles’...

  8. Readings that Made a Difference: Cushing's "The Life of Sir William Osler."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrell, Donald D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on the author of reading Harvey Cushing's "The Life of Sir William Osler," a biography of the leading American medical educator in the late nineteenth century, which stressed his reading interests. (DD)

  9. Multiple endemic states in age-structured SIR epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, Andrea; Pugliese, Andrea; Breda, Dmitri

    2012-07-01

    SIR age-structured models are very often used as a basic model of epidemic spread. Yet, their behaviour, under generic assumptions on contact rates between different age classes, is not completely known, and, in the most detailed analysis so far, Inaba (1990) was able to prove uniqueness of the endemic equilibrium only under a rather restrictive condition. Here, we show an example in the form of a 3x3 contact matrix in which multiple non-trivial steady states exist. This instance of non-uniqueness of positive equilibria differs from most existing ones for epidemic models, since it arises not from a backward transcritical bifurcation at the disease free equilibrium, but through two saddle-node bifurcations of the positive equilibrium. The dynamical behaviour of the model is analysed numerically around the range where multiple endemic equilibria exist; many other features are shown to occur, from coexistence of multiple attractive periodic solutions, some with extremely long period, to quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. It is also shown that, if the contact rates are in the form of a 2x2 WAIFW matrix, uniqueness of non-trivial steady states always holds, so that 3 is the minimum dimension of the contact matrix to allow for multiple endemic equilibria.

  10. Sir David Wilkie (1882-1938): surgeon, scientist and philanthropist.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Iain

    2007-11-01

    Until the start of the 20th century, appointment to a chair in surgery in Britain was usually awarded in recognition of an already successful career. Sir David Wilkie was among the first of the new breed of professors of surgery appointed at a relatively young age to develop surgical research and undergraduate teaching. At the University of Edinburgh, he established a surgical research laboratory from which was to emerge a cohort of young surgical researchers destined to become the largest dynasty of surgical professors yet seen in the British Isles. He is widely regarded as the father of British academic surgery. Born in the same Scottish village as the writer JM Barrie (1860-1937), like Barrie, Wilkie became a philanthropist. Both men were to achieve eminence in later life and when Barrie was appointed Chancellor of Edinburgh University, their friendship developed. Barrie's legacy to Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital was one of the greatest ever acts of medical philanthropy, and Wilkie too proved to be a generous benefactor of the disadvantaged.

  11. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  12. Sir3 C-Terminal Domain Involvement in the Initiation and Spreading of Heterochromatin▿

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Hungjiun; Lustig, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    Heterochromatin is nucleated at a specific site and subsequently spreads into distal sequences through multiple interactions between modified histones and nonhistone proteins. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these nonhistone proteins include Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4. We have previously shown that loss of the C-terminal Rap1 domain containing Sir3 and Sir4 association sites can be overcome by tethering a 144-amino-acid C-terminal domain (CTD) of Sir3 adjacent to the telomere. Here, we explore the substructure and functions of the CTD. We demonstrate that the CTD is the minimum domain for Sir3 homodimerization, a function that is conserved in related yeasts. However, CTD heterodimers associate at only low efficiencies and correspondingly have low levels of tethered silencing, consistent with an essential role for dimerization in tethered silencing. Six missense alleles were generated, with ctd-Y964A producing the most extreme phenotypes when tethered to the LexA binding sites. Although ctd-Y964A is capable of dimerization, telomere silencing is abrogated, indicating that the CTD serves a second essential function in silencing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of wild-type and ctd-Y964A mutant cells indicate an association of the CTD with the deacetylated histone tails of H3 and H4 that is necessary for the recruitment of Sir3. The efficiency of spreading depends upon the apparent stoichiometry and stability during the initiation event. The predicted Cdc6 domain III winged-helix structure may well be responsible for dimerization. PMID:16908543

  13. Geologic mapping of Indonesian rain forest with analysis of multiple SIR-B incidence angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Asmoro, P., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discrimination and mapping capabilities are to be evaluated for shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) images of geologic features in Indonesia that are covered by equatorial rain forest canopy. The SIR-B backscatter from the rain forest at L-band is to be compared to backscatter acquired by the SEASAT scatterometer system at Ku-band ever corresponding areas. The approach for data acquisition, handling, and analysis and the expected results of the investigation are discussed.

  14. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  15. Approach to derivation of SIR-C science requirements for calibration. [Shuttle Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Evans, Diane; Van Zyl, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    Many of the experiments proposed for the forthcoming SIR-C mission require calibrated data, for example those which emphasize (1) deriving quantitative geophysical information (e.g., surface roughness and dielectric constant), (2) monitoring daily and seasonal changes in the Earth's surface (e.g., soil moisture), (3) extending local case studies to regional and worldwide scales, and (4) using SIR-C data with other spaceborne sensors (e.g., ERS-1, JERS-1, and Radarsat). There are three different aspects to the SIR-C calibration problem: radiometric and geometric calibration, which have been previously reported, and polarimetric calibration. The study described in this paper is an attempt at determining the science requirements for polarimetric calibration for SIR-C. A model describing the effect of miscalibration is presented first, followed by an example describing how to assess the calibration requirements specific to an experiment. The effects of miscalibration on some commonly used polarimetric parameters are also discussed. It is shown that polarimetric calibration requirements are strongly application dependent. In consequence, the SIR-C investigators are advised to assess the calibration requirements of their own experiment. A set of numbers summarizing SIR-C polarimetric calibration goals concludes this paper.

  16. An ARS element inhibits DNA replication through a SIR2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Amber; Chang, FuJung; Pappas, Donald L; Frisch, Ryan L; Weinreich, Michael

    2008-04-25

    During G1 phase, a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) that determines where DNA synthesis initiates forms at origins. The Sir2p histone deacetylase inhibits pre-RC assembly at a subset of origins, suggesting that Sir2p inhibits DNA replication through a unique aspect of origin structure. Here, we identified five SIR2-sensitive origins on chromosomes III and VI. Linker scan analysis of two origins indicated that they share a common organization, including an inhibitory sequence positioned 3' to the sites of origin recognition complex (ORC) binding and pre-RC assembly. This inhibitory sequence (I(S)) required SIR2 for its activity, suggesting that SIR2 inhibits origins through this sequence. Furthermore, I(S) elements occurred within positioned nucleosomes, and Abf1p-mediated exclusion of nucleosomes from the origin abrogated the inhibition. These data suggest that Sir2p and I(S) elements inhibit origin activity by promoting an unfavorable chromatin structure for pre-RC assembly. PMID:18439895

  17. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  18. Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Keller, H.U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.

    2004-01-01

    The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Revisiting node-based SIR models in complex networks with degree correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jinde; Alofi, Abdulaziz; AL-Mazrooei, Abdullah; Elaiw, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider two growing networks which will lead to the degree-degree correlations between two nearest neighbors in the network. When the network grows to some certain size, we introduce an SIR-like disease such as pandemic influenza H1N1/09 to the population. Due to its rapid spread, the population size changes slowly, and thus the disease spreads on correlated networks with approximately fixed size. To predict the disease evolution on correlated networks, we first review two node-based SIR models incorporating degree correlations and an edge-based SIR model without considering degree correlation, and then compare the predictions of these models with stochastic SIR simulations, respectively. We find that the edge-based model, even without considering degree correlations, agrees much better than the node-based models incorporating degree correlations with stochastic SIR simulations in many respects. Moreover, simulation results show that for networks with positive correlation, the edge-based model provides a better upper bound of the cumulative incidence than the node-based SIR models, whereas for networks with negative correlation, it provides a lower bound of the cumulative incidence.

  20. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  1. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  2. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance. PMID:25400502

  3. The Permanent Secretary as Policy-Maker, Shaper, Taker, Sharer, and Resister in Education--Reflections on Sir James Hamilton as a Centralising Outsider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Given that elevation to permanent secretary is widely recognised as the apotheosis of a career in the Whitehall bureaucracy, it is remarkable that so few have been the subject of sustained biographical research and that this key role remains largely un-theorised. As such, this paper reports on aspects of a longitudinal study which set out to…

  4. Circulating Plasma microRNAs can differentiate Human Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Stefano; Kern, Florian; Cohen, Jonathan; Drage, Stephen; Newbury, Sarah F.; Llewelyn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. Critically ill patients with severe (n = 21) or non-severe (n = 8) intra-abdominal sepsis; severe (n = 23) or non-severe (n = 21) non-infective SIRS; or no SIRS (n = 16) were studied. Next-generation sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to measure plasma microRNAs. Detectable blood miRNAs (n = 116) were generally up-regulated in SIRS compared to no-SIRS patients. Levels of these ‘circulating inflammation-related microRNAs’ (CIR-miRNAs) were 2.64 (IQR: 2.10–3.29) and 1.52 (IQR: 1.15–1.92) fold higher for non-infective SIRS and sepsis respectively (p < 0.0001), hence CIR-miRNAs appeared less abundant in sepsis than in SIRS. Six CIR-miRNAs (miR-30d-5p, miR-30a-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-191-5p) provided good-to-excellent discrimination of severe sepsis from severe SIRS (0.742–0.917 AUC of ROC curves). CIR-miRNA levels inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and others). Thus, among critically ill patients, sepsis and non-infective SIRS are associated with substantial, differential changes in CIR-miRNAs. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:27320175

  5. Overexpression of Cytoplasmic TcSIR2RP1 and Mitochondrial TcSIR2RP3 Impacts on Trypanosoma cruzi Growth and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ritagliati, Carla; Alonso, Victoria L.; Manarin, Romina; Cribb, Pamela; Serra, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan pathogen responsible for Chagas disease. Current therapies are inadequate because of their severe host toxicity and numerous side effects. The identification of new biotargets is essential for the development of more efficient therapeutic alternatives. Inhibition of sirtuins from Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania ssp. showed promising results, indicating that these enzymes may be considered as targets for drug discovery in parasite infection. Here, we report the first characterization of the two sirtuins present in T. cruzi. Methodology Dm28c epimastigotes that inducibly overexpress TcSIR2RP1 and TcSIR2RP3 were constructed and used to determine their localizations and functions. These transfected lines were tested regarding their acetylation levels, proliferation and metacyclogenesis rate, viability when treated with sirtuin inhibitors and in vitro infectivity. Conclusion TcSIR2RP1 and TcSIR2RP3 are cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins respectively. Our data suggest that sirtuin activity is important for the proliferation of T. cruzi replicative forms, for the host cell-parasite interplay, and for differentiation among life-cycle stages; but each one performs different roles in most of these processes. Our results increase the knowledge on the localization and function of these enzymes, and the overexpressing T. cruzi strains we obtained can be useful tools for experimental screening of trypanosomatid sirtuin inhibitors. PMID:25875650

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. O'Gorman, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. O'Gorman, Photographer April 1958 INTERIOR, DETAIL OF HOWE TRUSS, Gift of James F. O'Gorman 1959, HABS - Sandy Creek Bridge, Goldman, Jefferson County, MO

  7. SIS and SIR epidemic models under virtual dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bichara, Derdei; Kang, Yun; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Horan, Richard; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We develop a multi-group epidemic framework via virtual dispersal where the risk of infection is a function of the residence time and local environmental risk. This novel approach eliminates the need to define and measure contact rates that are used in the traditional multi-group epidemic models with heterogeneous mixing. We apply this approach to a general n-patch SIS model whose basic reproduction number R0 is computed as a function of a patch residence-times matrix ℙ. Our analysis implies that the resulting n-patch SIS model has robust dynamics when patches are strongly connected: there is a unique globally stable endemic equilibrium when R0 > 1 while the disease free equilibrium is globally stable when R0 ≤ 1. Our further analysis indicates that the dispersal behavior described by the residence-times matrix ℙ has profound effects on the disease dynamics at the single patch level with consequences that proper dispersal behavior along with the local environmental risk can either promote or eliminate the endemic in particular patches. Our work highlights the impact of residence times matrix if the patches are not strongly connected. Our framework can be generalized in other endemic and disease outbreak models. As an illustration, we apply our framework to a two-patch SIR single outbreak epidemic model where the process of disease invasion is connected to the final epidemic size relationship. We also explore the impact of disease prevalence driven decision using a phenomenological modeling approach in order to contrast the role of constant versus state dependent ℙ on disease dynamics. PMID:26489419

  8. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  9. James Abbot McNeill Whistler: "At the Piano."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Heather

    1987-01-01

    "At the Piano," an oil-on-canvas painting completed in 1859 by James Abbot McNeill Whistler, is used as the basis of a lesson designed to help junior high school students analyze the painting's mood, subject matter, and composition. (JDH)

  10. James Moffett's Mistake: Ignoring the Rational Capacities of the Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donehower, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Using Alasdair MacIntyre's theory of tradition-bound rationalities, this essay analyses James Moffett's depiction of the censors who opposed his "Interactions" textbook series in the Kanawha County, West Virginia, schools. Many reviewers have found Moffett's analysis of the censors in "Storm in the Mountains" even-handed and…

  11. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer February 17, 1937 SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CARRIAGE SHED carriage made by George + David Cook + Co., New Haven- #104 'Hamilton Coach' - $1,200 on left - #60 'Boston Chaise' in Cook 1860 catalogue - John Morris House, Lighthouse Road & Morris Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Boyce, Leslye A.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Johnson, Eric L.; McCloskey, John C.; Voyton, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is described from a systems perspective with emphasis on unique and advanced technology aspects. The major subsystems of this flight element are described including: structure, thermal, command and data handling, and software.

  14. Engineering new medicine: an interview with James Collins.

    PubMed

    Collins, James

    2010-01-01

    At first glance, the commonality among synthetic gene networks, nerve cell response times and the emergence of antibiotic resistance is obscure. Yet, when speaking with James (Jim) Collins, the relationship becomes clear: all are applications-oriented problems, and all inspire unique approaches from this unusual engineer who is empowered by his freedom to fail. PMID:20610692

  15. 36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  16. 34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  17. 35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  18. 37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Pennsylvania spans, aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  19. 33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  20. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Parker spans, aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  1. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee D.; Russell, Kevin; Texter, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) conducted a phase down select process via the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) project to assess the Technology Readiness Level of various candidate mirror materials. This process culminated in the selection of Beryllium as the JWST primary mirror material. This paper outlines the mirror evaluation process, defines the selection criteria and summarizes the candidate mirror's performances.

  2. Keening Woman and Today: James Welch's Early Unpublished Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    It was most likely in the spring of 1966 that the late American Indian novelist James Welch wrote his first novel, predating his first published fiction by eight years. The titleless, hand-corrected typescript, stored in his Missoula home for many years, is 114 pages long and unfinished. The book is playful and experimental the way warm-ups…

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. "To Mediate Relevantly": A Response to James Simpson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In Waters (2009), it was contended that, because of its ideological orientation, a good deal of applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to "mediate relevantly" between academic and practitioner perspectives. James Simpson's rejoinder to my article (Simpson 2009) attempts to refute its claims. However, in my view, it fails to do so,…

  5. James Madison High: A School at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, John T.; Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Broom, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    This case tells the story of James Madison High School, which became the epicenter of a debate over the future reorganization and control of large secondary schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). The LAUSD, recently taken over by the newly elected mayor, was fighting for control of this 3,000-student high school with a charter…

  6. DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF JAMES LEAK CONFEDERATE HEADSTONE (RIGHT FOREGROUND), WITH CANNON, FLAGPOLE, CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, CANNONBALL PYRAMID AND ARC OF UNKNOWN U.S. SOLDIER HEADSTONES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Oak Woods Cemetery, Confederate Mound, 1035 East 67th Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF SAND TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Plan of the principal (second) floor of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the principal (second) floor of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867. The exterior wall outline of the architects’ Early Norman alternative design is shown overlaid across the left third of the drawing. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Astronaut James Lovell hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot, waits in the raft to be hoisted aboard the helicopter.

  10. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  11. 11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLDING CONVEYOR, AIR CLEANING A PATTERN AS IT SITS WITHIN A FLASK ON A MOLDING MACHINE PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND FROM THE OVERHEAD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. More than Mere Weather: James's Talks to Students about Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Randall D.

    2003-01-01

    William James addressed the last 3 lectures in "Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals" (1899/1958) specifically to students. The first of these lectures, "The Gospel of Relaxation," encouraged students to be both relaxed and active. The second, "On a Certain Blindness in Human Beings," promoted awareness of and…

  13. Reflections on Policy in Gifted Education: James J. Gallagher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa F.; Garland, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brown and Garland, reflect on issues raised by James J. Gallagher, such as educational policies helping to create and support an infrastructure within which the needs of students can be addressed. Gallagher felt that a strong federal policy, such as IDEA, was critical to building and maintaining a solid infrastructure. Gallagher…

  14. Robert Green's "James IV:" Love, Power, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Tetsumaro

    1984-01-01

    How events of the late medieval period of Great Britain are depicted in Robert Greene's play, "The Scottish History of James the Fourth," is discussed. The play reflects the spirit of a time in which some began to claim that women were the intellectual equals of men. (RM)

  15. A Final Glory: The Novels of James Salter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowie, William

    1988-01-01

    Critiques five novels by James Salter--THE HUNTERS, THE ARM OF FLESH, A SPORT AND A PASTIME, LIGHT YEARS, and SOLO FACES. Notes that Salter's works have been ignored by literary critics and the public though praised by other authors. (MM)

  16. A Review of James Coleman's "Public and Private Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James Gordon

    This is a review of James Coleman's 1981 report, "Public and Private Schools," which has stated that private high schools provide education superior to that provided by public high schools. The study is summarized and criticisms of Coleman's research and conclusions are offered in the following areas: (1) method of analysis; (2) use of achievement…

  17. Licence to Kill: About Accreditation Issues and James Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheele, Ko

    2004-01-01

    Accreditation has become something of a hot topic in higher education. In Europe it has been described as a 'Licence to Kill'. The James Bond metaphor is particularly illustrative when reflecting on quality assurance challenges in higher education. Publications on this subject in recent years reveal that the array of issues associated with…

  18. The Adolescent Society: James Coleman's Still-Prescient Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The high-school problem is nothing new. In one of his early writings, James S. Coleman, the brilliant sociologist who later wrote the famous report on the equality of opportunity for education (the "Coleman Report") and the first study of public and private schools, identified the essential high-school problem: "our adolescents today are cut off,…

  19. The Word for Teaching Is Learning: Essays for James Britton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Martin, Ed.; Martin, Nancy, Ed.

    Reflecting the influence of James Britton in the field of language and learning, this book--a collection of essays by researchers and practitioners in the area of language and learning--focuses on recent issues of language development in learning. The book contains the following 27 essays: (1) "Social Interaction as Scaffold: The Power and Limits…

  20. James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Hoxie, V. C.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and "invented" modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

  1. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  2. A Conversation with James E. Gilliam on Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.; Smith, Burt Kruger

    James E. Gilliam is the author of a book entitled "Autism," published in 1981 by Charles C. Thomas Company. This brochure records an interview with Mr. Gilliam conducted by Burt Smith and later converted to narrative form for publication by Charlene Warren. Adapted from a series of radio broadcasts entitled "The Human Condition," the brochure is…

  3. James Bryant Conant and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay critically examines the commitment of James Bryant Conant to equality of opportunity as a guide for educational practice in his own era and in contemporary society. Noted chemist, president of Harvard University from the 1930s through the early 1950s, and noted analyst of the American high school from the time of publication of his…

  4. Governor James Wright in Georgia, 1760-1782.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kenneth

    One of a series of pamphlets about the American Revolution in Georgia, this document examines the role of James Wright as British governor in the colony, and his viewpoints about revolution from 1765-1775. The pamphlet can be used as supplementary reading or as a one-week unit for junior or senior high school students. A brief teacher's guide is…

  5. Groundbreaking Investigator of Creativity: An Interview with James C. Kaufman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James C. Kaufman, an associate professor of psychology at the California State University at San Bernardino, where he directs the Learning Research Institute. Kaufman received his PhD in cognitive psychology from Yale University in 2001. Dr. Kaufman's research broadly focuses on nurturing and encouraging…

  6. View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and family plot among other demarcated family plots in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE, STEPHENS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MISSOURI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCBRIDE, WILMA

    THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE AT STEPHENS COLLEGE IS A COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS DESIGNED TO MAKE POSSIBLE A FLEXIBLE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT. A LIBRARY HOUSES A GREAT VARIETY OF AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES AND BOOKS. A COMMUNICATION CENTER INCORPORATES TELEVISION AND RADIO FACILITIES, A FILM PRODUCTION STUDIO, AND AUDIO-VISUAL FACILITIES. THE LEARNING…

  8. Wise, Holistic Thinking: An Interview with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James H. Borland, Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he directs the graduate programs in the education of gifted students. Dr. Borland is the author of numerous books, book chapters, journal articles, and miscellanea. He has won…

  9. APOLLO 13 CREW JOHN SWIGERT, JAMES LOVELL, AND FRED HAISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    John L. Swigert, Jr., left, the Apollo 13 backup crewman being considered as command module pilot in place of Thomas K. Mattingly II because of the latter's exposure to measles, has been training with the prime crew -- James A. Lovell, Jr., center and Fred W. Haise, Jr.

  10. 7. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), AND W.H. SAYLOR (RIGHT), AT THE DEDICATION CEREMONY, May 7, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. James J. Gallagher: Man in the White Hat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In classic Western movies, the good guy could be frequently identified by his trademark white Stetson hat, whereas the bad guy always wore black. James J. Gallagher wore many hats during his career that spanned over six decades; he too would be known as the "man in the white hat,"--trusted to do the right thing. From 1967 to 1970,…

  12. James Baldwin (1841-1925): A Man Who Loved Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; Shapiro, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that James Baldwin was one of the most prolific authors of schoolbooks for children during his lifetime (1841-1925). Notes that in addition to the Baldwin Readers (1897), he coauthored the Harper Readers (1888) and Expressive Readers (1911). Estimates that his publications numbered 54 volumes and that 26 million copies of his works sold…

  13. James Mark Baldwin and the Aesthetic Development of the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper recounts the ideas of the American cognitive-developmental psychologist James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) on aesthetic experience: his conceptualization of aesthetic experience as immediate, semblant, personalized, and idealized; and his three-stage theory of aesthetic development. (SJL)

  14. Lobell, Rickaby, and Vrugt Receive 2010 James B. Macelwane Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Lobell, David B.; Elderfield, Harry; Rickaby, Rosalind; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2011-03-01

    David B. Lobell, Rosalind E. Rickaby, and Jasper A. Vrugt were awarded the 2010 James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by an outstanding young scientist.”

  15. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) data as a complement to Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Carney, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Principal components analysis and supervised classifications were performed on two dates of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data registered to one date of Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) data in a wheat-growing area of New South Wales, Australia. The purpose was to evaluate SIR-A data as a complement to Landsat MSS data in an agricultural environment. The SIR-A data was filtered using a 7 x 7 pixel moving window median filter. Principal components analysis indicated the SIR-A data were discriminating between trees and agricultural fields. Supervised classifications using wheat, pasture, trees, and idle classes resulted in increased accuracies for wheat and pasture and slightly decreased accuracies for trees and idle for the Landsat MSS/SIR-A registered data sets over the Landsat MSS alone. Overall classification accuracies were unchanged for one date and substantially increased for the other when the SIR-A data were added to the Landsat MSS data.

  16. Salmonella SirA is a global regulator of genes mediating enteropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmer, B M; van Reeuwijk, J; Watson, P R; Wallis, T S; Heffron, F

    1999-02-01

    SirA of Salmonella typhimurium is known to regulate the hilA and prgH genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1). To identify more members of the SirA regulon, we screened 10,000 random lacZY fusions (chromosomal MudJ insertions) for regulation by SirA and identified 10 positively regulated fusions. Three fusions were within the SPI1 genes hilA (an SPI1 transcriptional regulator), spaS (a component of the SPI1 type III export apparatus) and sipB (a substrate of the SPI1 export apparatus). Two fusions were within the sopB gene (also known as sigD). sopB is located within SPI5, but encodes a protein that is exported via the SPI1 export apparatus. In addition, five fusions were within genes of unknown function that are located in SPI4. As spaS and sipB were likely to be hilA dependent, we tested all of the fusions (except hilA) for hilA dependence. Surprisingly, we found that all of the fusions require hilA for expression and that plasmid-encoded SirA cannot bypass this requirement. Therefore, SirA regulates hilA, the product of which regulates genes within SPI1, SPI4 and SPI5. Both sirA and hilA mutants are dramatically attenuated in a bovine model of gastroenteritis, but have little or no effect in the mouse model of typhoid fever. This study establishes the SirA/HilA regulatory cascade as the primary regulon controlling enteropathogenic virulence functions in S. typhimurium. Because S. typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in both cattle and humans, we believe that this information may be directly applicable to the human disease.

  17. Identification of Predictive Early Biomarkers for Sterile-SIRS after Cardiovascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veseli, Kujtim; Stang, Katharina; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ), other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1) and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (p<0.001) at the end of surgery in all patients but could not distinguish between groups. Normalization of samples revealed significant increases in IL1β changes (p<0.05) and decreased responses to endotoxin (p<0.01) in the SIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (p<0.01). This small scale patient study could show that common sepsis markers PCT, CRP, IL6 and TNFα had low predictive value for early diagnosis of SIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions. PMID:26263001

  18. From Father to Son: Generative Care and Gradual Conversion in William James's Writing of "The Varieties"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgers, Lynn; Snarey, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Using a historical and biographical, then developmental, approach, this article examines William James's spiritual family history by reviewing key events in the life of his father, Henry James, Sr. It pays particular attention to Henry Sr's tumultuous relationship with his own father, William James of Albany, and Henry Sr's subsequent conversion…

  19. "The Bravest of the Brave": A Conversation with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Higher Education Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi. Mary Bitterman, former President and CEO of The James Irvine Foundation, is President of The Bernard Osher Foundation and Immediate Past Chairman of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). James Narduzzi is Dean of the University of Richmond's School of Continuing Studies.…

  20. Environmental Assessment on the leasing of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, St. James Terminal, St. James Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease the Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s (SPR) St. James Terminal to private industry. The St. James Terminal consists of six storage tanks, a pumping station, two maine docks and ancillary facilities. DOE believes that the St. James Terminal presents an opportunity to establish a government- industry arrangement that could more effectively use this asset to serve the nations`s oil distribution needs, reduce the operational cost of the SPR, and provide a source of revenue for the Government. DOE solicited interest in leasing its distribution facilities in a notice published March 16, 1994. In response, industry has expressed interest in leasing the St. James Terminal, as well as several DOE pipelines, to enhance the operation of its own facilities or to avoid having to construct new ones. Under such a lease, industry use would be subordinate to DOE use in the event of a national energy emergency. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed leasing operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) OF 1969 and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. SirT1—A Sensor for Monitoring Self-Renewal and Aging Process in Retinal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Kao, Chung-Lan; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Wu, Chih-Chia; Chen, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chen, Shih-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Retinal stem cells bear potency of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into many retinal cells. Utilizing appropriate sensors one can effectively detect the self-renewal and aging process abilities. Silencing information regulator (SirT1), a member of the sirtuin family, is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase and an essential mediator for longevity in normal cells by calorie restriction. We firstly investigate the SirT1 mRNA expression in retinal stem cells from rats and 19 human eyes of different ages. Results revealed that SirT1 expression was significantly decreased in in vivo aged eyes, associated with poor self-renewal abilities. Additionally, SirT1 mRNA levels were dose-dependently increased in resveratrol- treated retinal stem cells. The expression of SirT1 on oxidative stress-induced damage was significantly decreased, negatively correlated with the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with resveratrol could effectively further reduce oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment in retinal stem cells. Importantly, the anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol in H2O2-treated retinal stem cells were significantly abolished by knockdown of SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1). SirT1 expression provides a feasible sensor in assessing self-renewal and aging process in retinal stem cells. Resveratrol can prevent reactive oxygen species-induced damages via increased retinal SirT1 expression. PMID:22219708

  2. Sir Nicholas Harold Ridley. He changed the world, so that we might better see it.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rupal H; Apple, David J; Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Izak, Andrea M; Vasavada, Abhay R; Ram, Jagat

    2003-09-01

    Cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has become the most common and most successful of all operations in medicine. Sir Harold Ridley's first cataract extraction with implantation of an IOL marked the beginning of a major change in the practice of ophthalmology. Millions of patients worldwide have benefited from Sir Ridley's invention, and are likely to continue to derive benefit from this device. However, the development of the IOL was not without its share of ups and downs. Sir Harold Ridley, the inventor of IOL, died at the age of 94, on 25 May 2001, and ophthalmology lost one of its greatest and most influential practitioners. We are happy that he lived to enjoy the fruits of his labour--to see the amazing improvements and the expansive growth that evolved in the cataract-IOL technique, from early and unsatisfactory operations in previous decades, to the superb results attainable today. The invention of the IOL has not been just the addition of one new form of treatment, but rather, Sir Harold's tiny disc-shaped sliver of plastic has changed the world so that our patients may better see it. This article presents a brief biographical sketch of Sir Harold and lists his major inventions and contributions to ophthalmology. PMID:14601845

  3. Soluble Immune Response Suppressor (SIRS): Reassessing the immunosuppressant potential of an elusive peptide.

    PubMed

    Webb, David R

    2016-10-01

    A previously studied immunosuppressive cytokine, Soluble Immune Response Suppressor (SIRS), may have relevance to current studies of immune suppression in a variety of human disease states. Despite extensive efforts using experimental models, mainly in mice, much remains to be discovered as to how autoimmune cells in mice and humans escape normal regulation and, conversely, how tumor cells evade evoking an immune response. It is the contention of this commentary that the literature pre-2000 contain results that might inform current studies. The broadly immunosuppressive protein, SIRS, was studied extensively from the 1970s to 1990s and culminated in the determination of the n-terminal 21mer sequence of this 15kDa protein which had high homology to the short neurotoxins from sea snakes, that are canonical members of the three finger neurotoxin superfamily (3FTx). It was not until 2007 that the prophylactic administration of the synthetic N-terminal peptide of the SIRS 21mer, identical to the published sequence, was reported to inhibit or delay the development of two autoimmune diseases in mice: experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and type I diabetes (T1D). These findings were consistent with other studies of the 3FTx superfamily as important probes in the study of mammalian pharmacology. It is the perspective of this commentary that SIRS, SIRS peptide and the anti-peptide mAb, represent useful, pharmacologically-active probes for the study of the immune response as well as in the potential treatment of autoimmune, inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  4. A new SIR-based sigmoid power control game in cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2014-01-01

    Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

  5. Space Shuttle Columbia views the world with imaging radar: The SIR-A experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    Images acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) in November 1981, demonstrate the capability of this microwave remote sensor system to perceive and map a wide range of different surface features around the Earth. A selection of 60 scenes displays this capability with respect to Earth resources - geology, hydrology, agriculture, forest cover, ocean surface features, and prominent man-made structures. The combined area covered by the scenes presented amounts to about 3% of the total acquired. Most of the SIR-A images are accompanied by a LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) or SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image of the same scene for comparison. Differences between the SIR-A image and its companion LANDSAT or SEASAT image at each scene are related to the characteristics of the respective imaging systems, and to seasonal or other changes that occurred in the time interval between acquisition of the images.

  6. A Comparison of SIR-B Directional Ocean Wave Spectra with Aircraft Scanning Radar Spectra.

    PubMed

    Beal, R C; Monaldo, F M; Tilley, D G; Irvine, D E; Walsh, E J; Jackson, F C; Hancock, D W; Hines, D E; Swift, R N; Gonzalez, F L; Lyzenga, D R; Zambresky, L F

    1986-06-20

    Directional ocean wave spectra derived from Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) L-band imagery collected off the coast of southern Chile on 11 and 12 October 1984 were compared with independent spectral estimates from two airborne scanning radars. In sea states with significant wave heights ranging from 3 to 5 meters, the SIR-B-derived spectra at 18 degrees and 25 degrees off nadir yielded reasonable estimates of wavelengths, directions, and spectral shapes for all wave systems encountered, including a purely azimuth-traveling system. A SIR-B image intensity variance spectrum containing predominantly range-traveling waves closely resembles an independent aircraft estimate of the slope variance spectrum. The prediction of a U.S. Navy global spectral ocean wave model on 11 October 1984 exhibited no significant bias in dominant wave number but contained a directional bias of about 30 degrees espect to the mean of the aircraft and spacecraft estimates.

  7. A New SIR-Based Sigmoid Power Control Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2014-01-01

    Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

  8. An exploitation of coregistered SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, P.; Nguyen, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral registration and classification of SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat MSS data is presented over two playas located in the northeastern Algerian Sahara. A supervised classification was made over six classes: salt, palm trees, dunes, limestones, gypsum and sand. The best classification is obtained by using all of the data. The images using radar only misclassify trees and salt, limestone and dunes, gypsum and dunes. Landsat only gives a good map but lacks the roughness information contained in the radar data. The Landsat/SIR-A combination gives a better classification than the Landsat/Seasat combination. Density number histograms computed within several classes on the Seasat and SIR-A data show the misclassification is mainly due to the Seasat data.

  9. Structural Insights into Intermediate Steps in the Sir2 Deacetylation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Hoff, Kevin G.; Fatkins, David G.; Daines, Alison; Zubkova, Olga V.; Schramm, Vern L.; Zheng, Weiping; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2010-07-22

    Sirtuin enzymes comprise a unique class of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylases. Although structures of many sirtuin complexes have been determined, structural resolution of intermediate chemical steps are needed to understand the deacetylation mechanism. We report crystal structures of the bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, in complex with an S-alkylamidate intermediate, analogous to the naturally occurring O-alkylamidate intermediate, and a Sir2Tm ternary complex containing a dissociated NAD{sup +} analog and acetylated peptide. The structures and biochemical studies reveal critical roles for the invariant active site histidine in positioning the reaction intermediate, and for a conserved phenylalanine residue in shielding reaction intermediates from base exchange with nicotinamide. The new structural and biochemical studies provide key mechanistic insight into intermediate steps of the Sir2 deacetylation reaction.

  10. Study on the threshold of a stochastic SIR epidemic model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dianli

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides a simple but effective method for estimating the threshold of a class of the stochastic epidemic models by use of the nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem. Firstly, the threshold R0SIR is obtained for the stochastic SIR model with a saturated incidence rate, whose value is below 1 or above 1 will completely determine the disease to go extinct or prevail for any size of the white noise. Besides, when R0SIR > 1 , the system is proved to be convergent in time mean. Then, the threshold of the stochastic SIVS models with or without saturated incidence rate are also established by the same method. Comparing with the previously-known literatures, the related results are improved, and the method is simpler than before.

  11. Analysis of multiple incidence angle SIR-B data for determining forest stand characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Lozano-Garcia, D. F.; Gillespie, D. D.; Mueller, P. W.; Ruzek, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    For the first time in the U.S. space program, digital synthetic aperture radar (SR) data were obtained from different incidence angles during Space Shuttle Mission 41-G. Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data were obtained at incidence angles of 58 deg., 45 deg., and 28 deg., on October 9, 10, and 11, 1984, respectively, for a predominantly forested study area in northern Florida. Cloud-free LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (T.M.) data were obtained over the same area on October 12. The SIR-B data were processed and then digitally registered to the LANDSAT T.M. data by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is the only known digitally registered SIR-B and T.M. data set for which the data were obtained nearly simultaneously. The data analysis of this information is discussed.

  12. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Shuttle imaging radar views the Earth from Challenger: The SIR-B experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Cimino, J. B.; Holt, B.; Ruzek, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, SIR-B obtained digital image data of about 6.5 million km2 of the Earth's surface. The coverage is mostly of selected experimental test sites located between latitudes 60 deg north and 60 deg south. Programmed adjustments made to the look angle of the steerable radar antenna and to the flight attitude of the shuttle during the mission permitted collection of multiple-incidence-angle coverage or extended mapping coverage as required for the experiments. The SIR-B images included here are representative of the coverage obtained for scientific studies in geology, cartography, hydrology, vegetation cover, and oceanography. The relations between radar backscatter and incidence angle for discriminating various types of surfaces, and the use of multiple-incidence-angle SIR-B images for stereo measurement and viewing, are illustrated with examples. Interpretation of the images is facilitated by corresponding images or photographs obtained by different sensors or by sketch maps or diagrams.

  14. Global stability and optimal control of an SIRS epidemic model on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Sun, Jitao

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider an SIRS epidemic model with vaccination on heterogeneous networks. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model is investigated. Also we firstly study an optimally controlled SIRS epidemic model on complex networks. We show that an optimal control exists for the control problem. Finally some examples are presented to show the global stability and the efficiency of this optimal control. These results can help in adopting pragmatic treatment upon diseases in structured populations.

  15. Characteristics of playa deposits as seen on SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat coregistered data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, PH.; Naraghi, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classification technique currently under development has been applied for the qualitative study of a playa located in Northeastern Algeria using coregistered SIR-A, Seasat and Landsat MSS 7 data. This classification which is texture based can be applied to only single band imagery at this time. The first results are very encouraging and reach conclusions similar to those obtained with more time consuming classifiers. The signature of each class is well expressed for the Landsat picture. Misclasifications occur with the SIR-A or Seasat images.

  16. Periodic solution for a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with logistic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model, in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. For the periodic system, we present sufficient conditions for persistence of the epidemic and in the case of persistence, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we show that there is at least one nontrivial positive periodic solution. One of the most important findings is that random perturbations may be beneficial to formate the periodic solution to the stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model.

  17. In-flight calibration of SIR near infrared spectrometer onboard SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.; Kaydash, V.

    The near-infrared, point spectrometer SIR onboard the European Space Agency's SMART-1 spacecraft was built by a consortium led by Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany. It covers a spectral range from 934 nm to 2394 nm and surpasses any previous Moon mission in the number of channels and spectral resolution with 256 channels and 6 nm resolution [1]. The field of view is 3.8 arcmin, which translates to a spatial resolution of 330 m from an altitude of 300 km. Analysis of the SIR data will provide surface composition and mineralogy maps of the major minerals as well as information on the effects of space weathering. To obtain reliable results the instrument has been calibrated in a controlled environment at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in the summer of 2002. The SMART-1 spacecraft was launched in September 2003 and started its scientific mission in February 2005, after 16 months of spiraling orbits, including 150 crossings of Earth's radiation belts. While the tuning of calibration during a mission can be challenging for near infrared instrumentation (as we know from the Clementine mission in 1994 [2]), it has to be assumed that due to the long journey of SMART-1 to the Moon and the thermal cycling involved, the instrument function extracted from preflight calibration of SIR may not represent the current SIR instrument function accurately enough. It therefore has to be systematically compared with in-flight data. In-flight calibration of SIR data can be done by observing Apollo 16 and other sites on the lunar surface, whose near infrared spectrum is known from soil samples or atmosphere corrected telescopic observations. In addition to that, data from the Clementine mission, either by using Clementine's five channels that are within the spectral range of SIR or Clementine UVVIS data for consistency checks can be used as well. We report on various calibration issues of SIR including on comparisons of target tracking observations

  18. A demonstration of stereophotogrammetry with combined SIR-B and Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.; Fu, Xiu-Yen

    1988-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images can be viewed stereoscopically if the illumination geometries are compatible. To create the stereoscopic effect points must be coregistered. Simplified stereophotogrammetric equations permit the height of an object above a reference plane to be crudely calculated from the target offset toward the SIR-B radar antenna with reference to its position on a TM image. Precision is limited by pixel resolution and target correlation. Future spaceborne imaging radar missions will offer the potential for topographic mapping in many areas where TM coverage is available.

  19. Modelling the effect of telegraph noise in the SIRS epidemic model using Markovian switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.

  20. STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., tosses mission hats to his two children shortly after arrival at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. The crew of STS-90 arrived at KSC in preparation for their mission, scheduled for launch from KSC's Launch Pad 39B on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The flight of Neurolab is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.

  1. James Jurin (1684-1750): a pioneer of crowding research?

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Hans; Wade, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    James Jurin wrote an extended essay on distinct and indistinct vision in 1738. In it, he distinguished between "perfect," "distinct," and "indistinct vision" as perceptual categories, and his meticulous descriptions and analyses of perceptual phenomena contained observations that are akin to crowding. Remaining with the concepts of his day, however, he failed to recognize crowding as separate from spatial resolution. We present quotations from Jurin's essay and place them in the context of the contemporary concerns with visual resolution and crowding.

  2. STS-104 MS James Reilly inside Atlantis during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist James F. Reilly checks out equipment inside Atlantis. He and other crew members are taking part in a simulated countdown exercise, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled July 12. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module and High Pressure Gas Assembly.

  3. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  4. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  5. STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-74 Pilot James D. Halsell Jr. gets ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Assisting him are the white room closeout crew: (from left) KSC NASA quality assurance technician Eartha Shoemaker; KSC Lockheed closeout crew lead Mike Mangione; and Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos. Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  6. Seasonal Variations of the James Webb Space Telescope Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Petersen, Jeremy; Villac, Benjamin; Yu, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While spacecraft orbital variations due to the Earth's tilt and orbital eccentricity are well-known phenomena, the implications for the James Webb Space Telescope present unique features. We investigate the variability of the observatory trajectory characteristics, and present an explanation of some of these effects using invariant manifold theory and local approximation of the dynamics in terms of the restricted three-body problem.

  7. Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One year ago, in late February 2000, MISR began acquiring Earth imagery. Its 'first light' images showed a frozen James Bay in the Ontario-Quebec region of Canada. These more recent nadir-camera views of the same area illuminate stark contrasts between summer and winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra orbit 5757).

    James Bay lies at the southern end of Hudson Bay. It is named for the English explorer Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the many rivers that flow into the bay; starting at the southern tip and moving clockwise on the western side are the Harricana, Moose, Albany, and Attawapiskat. The latter enters the bay just to the west of the large, crescent-shaped Akimiski Island.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. The deacetylase Sir2 from the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae lacks the evolutionarily conserved capacity to generate subtelomeric heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Froyd, Cara A; Kapoor, Shivali; Dietrich, Fred; Rusche, Laura N

    2013-10-01

    Deacetylases of the Sir2 or sirtuin family are thought to regulate life cycle progression and life span in response to nutrient availability. This family has undergone successive rounds of duplication and diversification, enabling the enzymes to perform a wide variety of biological functions. Two evolutionarily conserved functions of yeast Sir2 proteins are the generation of repressive chromatin in subtelomeric domains and the suppression of unbalanced recombination within the tandem rDNA array. Here, we describe the function of the Sir2 ortholog ClHst1 in the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae, an occasional opportunistic pathogen. ClHst1 was localized to the non-transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA repeats and deacetylated histones at these loci, indicating that, like other Sir2 proteins, ClHst1 modulates chromatin structure at the rDNA repeats. However, we found no evidence that ClHst1 associates with subtelomeric regions or impacts gene expression directly. This surprising observation highlights the plasticity of sirtuin function. Related yeast species, including Candida albicans, possess an additional Sir2 family member. Thus, it is likely that the ancestral Candida SIR2/HST1 gene was duplicated and subfunctionalized, such that HST1 retained the capacity to regulate rDNA whereas SIR2 had other functions, perhaps including the generation of subtelomeric chromatin. After subsequent species diversification, the SIR2 paralog was apparently lost in the C. lusitaniae lineage. Thus, C. lusitaniae presents an opportunity to discover how subtelomeric chromatin can be reconfigured.

  9. The man behind the DNA fingerprints: an interview with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this interview we talk with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys about DNA fingerprinting, his wider scientific career, and the past, present and future of forensic DNA applications. The podcast with excerpts from this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/alec-jeffreys. PMID:24245655

  10. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Suppressors of Sir4 Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, R.; D'Ari, L.; Foss, M.; Goodman, D.; Rine, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to learn more about other proteins that may be involved in repression of HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extragenic suppressor mutations were identified that could restore repression in cells defective in SIR4, a gene required for function of the silencer elements flanking HML and HMR. These suppressor mutations, which define at least three new genes, SAN1, SAN2 and SAN3, arose at the frequency expected for loss-of-function mutations following mutagenesis. All san mutations were recessive. Suppression by san1 was allele-nonspecific, since san1 could suppress two very different alleles of SIR4, and was locus-specific since san1 was unable to suppress a SIR3 mutation or a variety of mutations conferring auxotrophies. The SAN1 gene was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a null allele. The null allele had the same phenotype as the EMS-induced mutations and exhibited no pleiotropies of its own. Thus, the SAN1 gene was not essential. SAN1-mediated suppression was neither due to compensatory mutations in interacting proteins, nor to translational missense suppression. SAN1 may act posttranslationally to control the stability or activity of the SIR4 protein. PMID:2471670

  11. Learning Resource Centres at Sir Sandford Fleming College. LRC Project Team Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markanen, Susan; And Others

    Developed by the Learning Resource Centres (LRC) Project Team at Sir Sanford Fleming College, in Ontario, Canada, this report presents a model for establishing LRCs at the college. The first section reviews the need for LRCs, including the provision of lifelong learning and expected funding decreases for traditional operations. The next sections…

  12. Bulimia: A Comment on an Old Case Report by Sir Thomas Browne

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Gerald L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of recent literature on the incidence and age of onset of bulimia in the light of a 17th century description of a female centenarian with bulimia, together with a brief account of the physician, Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), and the etymology and early usage of the term. PMID:21248899

  13. Asymptotic behaviors of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence. We firstly show that the system has a unique global positive solution with any positive initial value, then by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functionals, we investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium, respectively.

  14. SirT1 gain-of-function increases energy efficiency and prevents diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Alexander S.; Kon, Ning; Knight, Colette; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Rossetti, Luciano; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Summary In yeast, worms and flies, an extra copy of the gene encoding the Sirtuin Sir2 increases metabolic efficiency, as does administration of polyphenols like resveratrol, thought to act through Sirtuins. But evidence that Sirtuin gain-of-function results in increased metabolic efficiency in mammals is limited. We generated transgenic mice with moderate overexpression of SirT1, designed to mimic the Sirtuin gain-of-function that improves metabolism in C.elegans. These mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity, but decreased food intake and locomotor activity, resulting in decreased energy expenditure. However, in various models of insulin resistance and diabetes, SirT1 transgenics display improved glucose tolerance due to decreased hepatic glucose production and increased adiponectin levels, without changes in body weight or composition. We conclude that SirT1 gain-of-function primes the organism for metabolic adaptation to insulin resistance, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and decreasing whole-body energy requirements. These findings have important implications for Sirtuin-based therapies in humans. PMID:18840364

  15. Language as Sensuous Action: Sir Richard Paget, Kenneth Burke, and Gesture-Speech Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawhee, Debra

    2006-01-01

    This somatic genealogy of Dramatism's core terms--symbolic action, attitude, identification--argues for the importance of keeping rhetoric, rhetorical theory, and rhetorical pedagogy more closely tied to bodies that generate, induce, and respond to rhetoric. It does so by examining Burke's use of Sir Richard Paget's theory that spoken language…

  16. Sir Hermann Bondi: A journey through his life and the early endeavours of Europe into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.

    2007-06-01

    This paper highlights the life, work and personality of Sir Hermann Bondi, with an emphasis on his years as Director General (DG) of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), the predecessor of ESA. Born in Austria, but being at his ease in Cambridge, Sir Hermann Bondi has had a varying and impressive career as a lecturer, researcher, manager and advisor in many fields like cosmology, radar technology, space research, energy and defence. He became well known for the Steady State theory of the Universe, a theory that was disproved by the Big Bang theory but that caused a lot of fruitful discussions in the scientific world. As a DG of ESRO, Sir Hermann Bondi has proven his intellectual, organisational and communication capabilities while being one of the main players in helping the rise of a European space effort to a success. Apart from his work, Sir Hermann Bondi loved to travel, to ski and to climb in the mountains. He was also an active member and later president of the British Humanist Association, he was influenced by Popper's science philosophy and he stimulated science to be brought to the public. He was known as a very strong personality, which impressed many people who have met him.

  17. The Methodist Recruiting Officer Myth: Sir Sam Hughes and World War I Recruitment in French Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Desmond

    1986-01-01

    During World War I, so the story goes, recruiting in French Canada went slowly because the Minister of Militia, Sir Sam Hughes, was a bigoted Ontario Orangeman with the gall to appoint a Methodist minister as recruiting officer for Quebec. Secondary students analyze primary source materials regarding this matter. (RM)

  18. Sir Joshua Reynolds's "Invention": Intellectual Activity as a Foundation of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Floyd W.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that educators often view art as an intellectually shallow, mechanical process. Describes Sir Joshua Reynolds's concept of invention as the intellectual combination of placing the painter's mental picture of actions, expressions, and characters on canvas. Calls for educators to stress intellectual qualities of art in order to develop…

  19. Motion Compensated Abdominal Diffusion Weighted MRI by Simultaneous Image Registration and Model Estimation (SIR-ME).

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.

  20. The Burt Controversy: An Essay Review of Hearnshaw's and Joynson's Biographies of Sir Cyril Burt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John

    1991-01-01

    Two biographies of Sir Cyril Burt argue the case of Britain's most famous psychologist, accused of academic fraud relating to his studies of IQ and heredity. The verdict is unclear, but lessons abound for social science researchers, students, universities, and investigators of research fraud. Contains 62 references. (SV)

  1. Fathers' Role as Attachment Figures: An Interview with Sir Richard Bowlby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2010-01-01

    Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father's work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about…

  2. Esc1, a Nuclear Periphery Protein Required for Sir4-Based Plasmid Anchoring and Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Andrulis, Erik D.; Zappulla, David C.; Ansari, Athar; Perrod, Severine; Laiosa, Catherine V.; Gartenberg, Marc R.; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    A targeted silencing screen was performed to identify yeast proteins that, when tethered to a telomere, suppress a telomeric silencing defect caused by truncation of Rap1. A previously uncharacterized protein, Esc1 (establishes silent chromatin), was recovered, in addition to well-characterized proteins Rap1, Sir1, and Rad7. Telomeric silencing was slightly decreased in Δesc1 mutants, but silencing of the HM loci was unaffected. On the other hand, targeted silencing by various tethered proteins was greatly weakened in Δesc1 mutants. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that Esc1 and Sir4 interact via a 34-amino-acid portion of Esc1 (residues 1440 to 1473) and a carboxyl-terminal domain of Sir4 known as PAD4 (residues 950 to 1262). When tethered to DNA, this Sir4 domain confers efficient partitioning to otherwise unstable plasmids and blocks the ability of bound DNA segments to rotate freely in vivo. Here, both phenomena were shown to require ESC1. Sir protein-mediated partitioning of a telomere-based plasmid also required ESC1. Fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Esc1 showed that the protein localized to the nuclear periphery, a region of the nucleus known to be functionally important for silencing. GFP-Esc1 localization, however, was not entirely coincident with telomeres, the nucleolus, or nuclear pore complexes. Our data suggest that Esc1 is a component of a redundant pathway that functions to localize silencing complexes to the nuclear periphery. PMID:12417731

  3. Treatment of post-cardiopulmonary bypass SIRS by hemoadsorption: a case series.

    PubMed

    Träger, Karl; Fritzler, Daniel; Fischer, Guenther; Schröder, Janpeter; Skrabal, Christian; Liebold, Andreas; Reinelt, Helmut

    2016-05-16

    The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cardiothoracic surgery results in a well-known activation of the immunologic response. In some cases, however, this triggered immunologic response may be excessive, leading to a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and induced organ dysfunction. For example, patients frequently develop hemodynamic instability with hypotension and low systemic vascular resistance. To date, different therapeutic approaches, such as steroids, have been tried to control this maladaptive postoperative SIRS response, yet definitive proof of clinical efficacy is missing. A new cytokine adsorber device (CytoSorb; CytoSorbents) may be a useful approach to control hyperinflammatory systemic reactions by reducing a broad range of proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. This may, in turn, help to reestablish a physiologic immune response and help to restore deranged clinical parameters in these patients. In this retrospective case series study, we describe 16 cardiac surgery patients following prolonged CPB with post-CPB SIRS and subsequent acute kidney injury, who were then treated with hemoadsorption using CytoSorb in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Treatment of patients with CytoSorb who presented with severe post-CPB SIRS resulted in a reduction of elevated cytokine levels, which was associated with a clear stabilization of deranged hemodynamic, metabolic, and organ function parameters. Treatment was well tolerated and safe, with no device-related adverse events occurring. CytoSorb therapy combined with CRRT is a potentially promising new treatment approach to achieve hemodynamic stability, cytokine reduction, and improved organ function in cardiac surgery patients who develop post-CPB SIRS. PMID:27140295

  4. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2011, will study the origin and evolution of luminous objects, galaxies, stars, planetary systems and the origins of life. It is optimized for near infrared wavelength operation of 0.6-28 micrometers and will have a 5 year mission life (with a 10 year goal). This presentation reviews JWST's science objectives, the JWST telescope and mirror requirements and how they support the JWST architecture. Additionally, an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development effort is highlighted.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation review the mission objective, the organization of the mission planning, the design, and testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There is also information about the orbit, in comparison to the Hubble Space Telescope, the mirror design, and the science instruments. Pictures of the full scale mockup of the JWST are given. A brief history of the universe is also presented from the big bang through the formation of galaxies, and the planets, to life itself. One of the goals of the JWST is to search for extra solar planets and then to search for signs of life.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission no sooner than 2013, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  7. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the recent selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  8. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  9. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Campbell, Doug; Clampin, Mark; Decker, John; Greenhouse, Matt; Johns, Alan; Menzel, Mike; Smith, Robert; Sullivan, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  10. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic, space telescope ever built, and will address a broad range of scientific goals from first light in the universe and re-ionization, to characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Recently, significant progress has been made in the construction of the observatory with the completion of all 21 flight mirrors that comprise the telescope's optical chain, and the start of flight instrument deliveries to the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this paper we discuss the design of the observatory, and focus on the recent milestone achievements in each of the major observatory sub-systems.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  12. James Cameron speaks out about ocean discovery and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Ocean explorer and filmmaker James Cameron delivered his DEEPSEA CHALLENGER submersible vehicle to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Mass., on 14 June, following a cross-country journey from California. He has donated the vehicle to WHOI as part of a new Center for Marine Robotics. Cameron, who will serve on the center's advisory board, used the submersible in March 2012 to dive to the deepest part of the ocean, the Challenger Deep section of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean (see Eos, 93(50), 523, doi:10.1029/2012EO500003).

  13. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  14. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  15. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  16. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  17. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  18. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of James E. Zelinski, Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. Aerial view (southwest to northeast) of remote sprint launch site #2, nearing completion. The RLOB has been earth-mounded. The limited access sentry station can be seen in the PAR right foreground, behind it are the waste stabilization ponds. Barely discernible is the exclusion area sentry station at the entrance to the sprint field - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Remote Sprint Launch Site No. 2, West of Mile Marker 220 on State Route 1, 6.0 miles North of Langdon, ND, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  20. James F. Crow: His Life in Public Service

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Seymour

    2012-01-01

    The readers of this journal may well be aware of Professor Crow’s scientific achievements and his role as the editor of Perspectives. In addition, for many thousands of students at the University of Wisconsin over many generations, James F. Crow was one of the most memorable teachers at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. What is less known is his major role in public service where he served as chair of many important committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Justice as well as various international programs. In all of these efforts, Professor Crow has left a lasting impact. PMID:22219505

  1. Sir2 Acts through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 to maintain insulin Signaling and Metabolic Homeostasis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Palu, Rebecca A S; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-04-01

    SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, which couple cellular metabolism to systemic physiology. Although studies in mouse models have defined a central role for SIRT1 in maintaining metabolic health, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that loss of the Drosophila SIRT1 homolog sir2 leads to the age-progressive onset of hyperglycemia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Tissue-specific functional studies show that Sir2 is both necessary and sufficient in the fat body (analogous to the mammalian liver) to maintain glucose homeostasis and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Transcriptional profiling of sir2 mutants by RNA-seq revealed a major overlap with genes regulated by the nuclear receptor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 (HNF4). Consistent with this, Drosophila HNF4 mutants display diabetic phenotypes similar to those of sir2 mutants, and protein levels for dHNF4 are reduced in sir2 mutant animals. We show that Sir2 exerts these effects by deacetylating and stabilizing dHNF4 through protein interactions. Increasing dHNF4 expression in sir2 mutants is sufficient to rescue their insulin signaling defects, defining this nuclear receptor as an important downstream effector of Sir2 signaling. This study demonstrates that the key metabolic activities of SIRT1 have been conserved through evolution, provides a genetic model for functional studies of phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes, and establishes HNF4 as a critical downstream target by which Sir2 maintains metabolic health.

  2. Sir2 Acts through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 to maintain insulin Signaling and Metabolic Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Palu, Rebecca A. S.; Thummel, Carl S.

    2016-01-01

    SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, which couple cellular metabolism to systemic physiology. Although studies in mouse models have defined a central role for SIRT1 in maintaining metabolic health, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that loss of the Drosophila SIRT1 homolog sir2 leads to the age-progressive onset of hyperglycemia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Tissue-specific functional studies show that Sir2 is both necessary and sufficient in the fat body (analogous to the mammalian liver) to maintain glucose homeostasis and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Transcriptional profiling of sir2 mutants by RNA-seq revealed a major overlap with genes regulated by the nuclear receptor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 (HNF4). Consistent with this, Drosophila HNF4 mutants display diabetic phenotypes similar to those of sir2 mutants, and protein levels for dHNF4 are reduced in sir2 mutant animals. We show that Sir2 exerts these effects by deacetylating and stabilizing dHNF4 through protein interactions. Increasing dHNF4 expression in sir2 mutants is sufficient to rescue their insulin signaling defects, defining this nuclear receptor as an important downstream effector of Sir2 signaling. This study demonstrates that the key metabolic activities of SIRT1 have been conserved through evolution, provides a genetic model for functional studies of phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes, and establishes HNF4 as a critical downstream target by which Sir2 maintains metabolic health. PMID:27058248

  3. Sir2 Acts through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 to maintain insulin Signaling and Metabolic Homeostasis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Palu, Rebecca A S; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-04-01

    SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, which couple cellular metabolism to systemic physiology. Although studies in mouse models have defined a central role for SIRT1 in maintaining metabolic health, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that loss of the Drosophila SIRT1 homolog sir2 leads to the age-progressive onset of hyperglycemia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Tissue-specific functional studies show that Sir2 is both necessary and sufficient in the fat body (analogous to the mammalian liver) to maintain glucose homeostasis and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Transcriptional profiling of sir2 mutants by RNA-seq revealed a major overlap with genes regulated by the nuclear receptor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 (HNF4). Consistent with this, Drosophila HNF4 mutants display diabetic phenotypes similar to those of sir2 mutants, and protein levels for dHNF4 are reduced in sir2 mutant animals. We show that Sir2 exerts these effects by deacetylating and stabilizing dHNF4 through protein interactions. Increasing dHNF4 expression in sir2 mutants is sufficient to rescue their insulin signaling defects, defining this nuclear receptor as an important downstream effector of Sir2 signaling. This study demonstrates that the key metabolic activities of SIRT1 have been conserved through evolution, provides a genetic model for functional studies of phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes, and establishes HNF4 as a critical downstream target by which Sir2 maintains metabolic health. PMID:27058248

  4. Use of SIR-B multiincidence-angle imagery to study iceberg detectability and offshore ocean feature extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, A. L.; Princz, J.; Livingstone, C. E.; Hawkins, R. K.; Wong, M.; Pearson, D.; Gower, J.; Mullane, T. F.; Ramseier, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) iceberg experiment is described and expected results are outlined. The specific objectives are: (1) to study the L-band satellite SAR detectability of iceberg targets as a function of incidence angle and observed conditions; (2) to compare L-, X-, and C-band aircraft imagery, and to use this data as a basis for an appropriate simulation of satellite imagery and to compare with SIR-B images; and (3) to determine the possibility of comparive available surface or near surface currents with estimates of the range component of surface current derived from the SIR-B data (IOS experiment).

  5. DNA discoverer James Watson now dreams of curing genetic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Breo, D.L.

    1989-12-15

    The best-selling The Double Helix, published 20 years ago, describes the events that had led to the discovery by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the building block of genes and heredity. At the time, the 25-year-old Watson was widely perceived as arrogant, brash, gawky, and intense. Subsequent events did little to change that impression. Today, at age 61, James Dewey Watson is still an angry young man. As director since 1968 of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, NY, and as director since 1988 of the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), he is coordinating the attempt to decipher biology's deepest secrets: the mapping, sequencing, and defining of the estimated 50,000 to 100,000 human genes arranged over the 23 pairs of chromosomes. The results, expected by early next century, may reveal the chemical script of life and help solve the riddles of inherited genetic diseases and certain cancers.

  6. Monitoring of the tidal dynamics of the Dutch Waddensea by SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopmans, B. N.; Vanderzee, D.; Verstappen, A. T.; Woldai, T.; Hoschititzky, H.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of LANDSAT data, covering the entire tidal flats at a certain, known, tidal situation, was assessed. It was discovered that the data cannot be used for systematic survey because of the long interval between subsequent passes, weather conditions often interfere with recording, and of the lack of correlation between passes and the tidal situation. The objective is to overcome the problems by using: (1) the synoptic view obtained by SIR-B, which has the potential of surveying large areas of the flats simultaneously; (2) the all-weather capability of the microwave system; (3) the recording during consecutive days, which results in a straightforeward correlation with the tidal cycle and the picturing of different tidal stages; and (4) the multiangle incidence of SIR-B to analyze the bottom configuration of submerged parts of the flats. The use of a weather independent monitoring device, such as radar, an improvement in the monitoring technique of tidal coastal areas.

  7. On the number of recovered individuals in the SIS and SIR stochastic epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Artalejo, J R; Economou, A; Lopez-Herrero, M J

    2010-11-01

    The basic models of infectious disease dynamics (the SIS and SIR models) are considered. Particular attention is paid to the number of infected individuals that recovered and its relationship with the final epidemic size. We investigate this descriptor both until the extinction of the epidemic and in transient regime. Simple and efficient methods to obtain the distribution of the number of recovered individuals and its moments are proposed and discussed with respect to the previous work. The methodology could also be extended to other stochastic epidemic models. The theory is illustrated by numerical experiments, which demonstrate that the proposed computational methods can be applied efficiently. In particular, we use the distribution of the number of individuals removed in the SIR model in conjunction with data of outbreaks of ESBL observed in the intensive care unit of a Spanish hospital.

  8. Reinventing Heterochromatin in Budding Yeasts: Sir2 and the Origin Recognition Complex Take Center Stage ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Meleah A.; Froyd, Cara A.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best-studied models of repressive heterochromatin. However, this type of heterochromatin, which is mediated by the Sir proteins, has a distinct molecular composition compared to the more ubiquitous type of heterochromatin found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, other fungi, animals, and plants and characterized by the presence of HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1). This review discusses how the loss of important heterochromatin proteins, including HP1, in the budding yeast lineage presented an evolutionary opportunity for the development and diversification of alternative varieties of heterochromatin, in which the conserved deacetylase Sir2 and the replication protein Orc1 play key roles. In addition, we highlight how this diversification has been facilitated by gene duplications and has contributed to adaptations in lifestyle. PMID:21764908

  9. The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

  10. SIRS: An Experiment to Measure the Free Air Temperature from a Satellite.

    PubMed

    Wark, D Q

    1970-08-01

    The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) on the Nimbus III satellite was designed to measure the earth's spectral radiances in the 15-microm band of carbon dioxide. From simultaneous measurements of spectral radiances it is possible to obtain the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. The measurements are approximated by the integral equation of radiative transfer, modified by one or two layers of clouds. A solution requires that the surface radiative temperature and the surface air temperature be known. By iteration, a solution based upon the statistical behavior of the atmosphere is obtained for the free air temperature and the cloud heights and amounts. Examples are presented, comparing the SIRS soundings with coincident radiosonde soundings. The results from this experiment indicate that the technique can be applied as a routine observing tool for meteorological use.

  11. Segmenting and extracting terrain surface signatures from fully polarimetric multilook SIR-C data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2016-05-01

    We report results from the segmenting and study of terrain surface signatures of fully polarimetric multilook L-band and C-band SIR-C data. Entropy/alpha/anisotropy decomposition features are available from single multilook pixel data. This eliminates the need to average data from several pixels. Entropy and alpha are utilized in the segmentation along with features we have developed primarily from the eigenanalysis of the Kennaugh matrices of multilook data. We have previously reported on our algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 data featuring the iterative application of a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer. A comparison of signatures from simultaneously recorded data at L and C bands is presented. The terrain surfaces surveyed include the ocean, lakes, lake ice, bare ground, desert salt flats, lava beds, vegetation, sand dunes, rough desert surfaces, agricultural and urban areas.

  12. Lava flow surface textures - SIR-B radar image texture, field observations, and terrain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.

    1990-01-01

    SIR-B images, field observations, and small-scale (cm) terrain measurements are used to study lave flow surface textures related to emplacement processes of a single Hawaiian lava flow. Although smooth pahoehoe textures are poorly characterized on the SIR-B data, rougher pahoehoe types and the a'a flow portion show image textures attributed to spatial variations in surface roughness. Field observations of six distinct lava flow textural units are described and used to interpret modes of emplacement. The radar smooth/rough boundary between pahoehoe and a'a occurs at a vertical relief of about 10 cm on this lava flow. While direct observation and measurement most readily yield information related to lava eruption and emplacement processes, analyses of remote sensing data such as those acquired by imaging radars and altimeters can provide a means of quantifying surface texture, identifying the size and distribution of flow components, and delineating textural unit boundaries.

  13. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    PubMed Central

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  14. Dependence of image grey values on topography in SIR-B images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Cimino, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) to aid in rectifying and enhancing synthetic aperture radar images. Using a synthetic backscatter image, the SIR-B images are manually rectified and resampled to remove geometric distortions caused by topography. In a second step, an improved reflectance function of incidence angle is derived from the DEM and the rectified image and this function is used to reduce radiometric effects of topography yielding an albedo image which clearly shows the thematic, as opposed to topographic content of the image. The procedure is tested on four SIR-B images of a scene in Argentina (crossover point) that is imaged under different azimuth and incidence angles. The similarity of the resulting images indicates that the procedure effectively reduces artefacts from the images that are dependent on topography.

  15. The SIR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its role as an extragenic suppressor of several mating-defective mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, E M; Swanson, M J; Romeo, A M; Hicks, J B; Sternglanz, R

    1991-01-01

    The SIR1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of several proteins involved in repressing transcription of the silent mating-type genes. Strains with mutations in the genes coding for these proteins are defective in mating due to derepression of the silent loci. We have found that overexpression of the SIR1 gene suppresses the mating defects of several of these mutants, including nat1 and ard1 mutants (the products of these two genes are responsible for N-terminal acetylation of a subset of yeast proteins), certain sir3 mutants, and a histone H4 mutant. The SIR1 gene has been sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame coding for a 678-amino-acid protein. Images PMID:2005909

  16. Milestones in plant sulfur research on sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Schnug, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Until the 1970's of the last century sulfur (S) was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980's SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer "fertilized" indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990's and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR) was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals. The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed. PMID:25642233

  17. Extragenic Suppressors of Mar2(sir3) Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, CIP.; Livi, G. P.; Ivy, J. M.; Klar, AJS.

    1990-01-01

    The silent mating-type genes (HML and HMR) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are kept under negative transcriptional control by four trans-acting MAR (or SIR) loci. We have isolated extragenic suppressors of the mar2-1 mutation which, based on genetic complementation tests, define two additional loci involved in regulating the expression of HML and HMR. A strain with the genotype HMLa MATα HMRa mar2-1 is sterile due to the simultaneous expression of a and α information. Two mutants exhibiting an α phenotype (which may result from the restoration of MAR/SIR repression) were isolated and genetically characterized. The mutations in these strains: (1) are recessive, (2) are capable of suppressing a mar2-deletion mutation, (3) are unlinked to MAT, (4) complement one another as well as the previously identified sum1-1 mutation, and (5) are not new alleles of the known MAR/SIR loci. We designate these new regulatory loci SUM2 and SUM3 (supressor of mar). Unlike the sum1-1 mutation, suppression by sum2-1 and sum3-1 is mar2-locus specific. Both sum2-1 and sum3-1 affect the expression of a information at the HM loci. Transcript analysis shows a significant reduction in HMLa and HMRa gene transcription in mar2-1 sum2-1 and mar2-1 sum3-1 cells. Furthermore, we have found genetic evidence to suggest that mar2-1 sum2-1 cells exhibit only partial expression of silent α information. We conclude that the SUM2 and SUM3 gene products are required for expression of the HM loci and act downstream of the MAR2 (SIR3) gene function. Possible mechanisms for the action of the SUM gene products are discussed. PMID:2199314

  18. Sir David K Henderson and the origins of British occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Duncan; Pentland, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Sir David K Henderson made several major contributions in the field of psychiatry, gaining an international reputation but, perhaps lesser known is his role in the introduction of occupational therapy in the United Kingdom. The part Henderson played in establishing occupational therapy as an aspect of his evolving approach to treating mental illness in Scotland is discussed, as is the influence he had in stimulating and supporting the early pioneers of the profession elsewhere in the UK.

  19. Special Issue dedicated to Sir Alistair G.J. MacFarlane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos; Limebeeer, David J. N.

    2013-11-01

    This special issue of the International Journal of Control is dedicated to Sir Alistair MacFarlane. It contains a collection of papers on systems and multivariable control contributed by a number of people, including ex-students and collaborators of Alistair, or those who know Alistair's work, reflecting his diverse interests. During his time in Cambridge, Alistair was Editor of the International Journal of Control.

  20. Stability of traveling waves of a diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Wan-Tong; Yang, Yun-Rui

    2016-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the stability and uniqueness of traveling waves of a delayed diffusive susceptible-infective-removed (SIR) epidemic model. We first prove the exponential stability of traveling waves by using the weighted energy method, where the traveling waves are allowed to be non-monotone. Then we establish the exact asymptotic behavior of traveling waves at -∞ by using Ikehara's theorem. Finally, the uniqueness of traveling waves is proved by the stability result of traveling waves.

  1. Carbon-14 dating of an iron bloom associated with the voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W. Washburn, W.; Olin, J.S.; Fitzhugh, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recounts the history of the iron bloom associated with the English Elizabethan explorer Sir Martin Frobisher who made 3 voyages to the North American mainland in the 1570's. Specifically the paper deals with the use of proportional counters in carbon-14 dating of the Frobisher iron bloom which is located at the Smithsonian Institution. The procedures for preparing the samples for counting are described. (KRM)

  2. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  3. Milestones in plant sulfur research on sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Schnug, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Until the 1970's of the last century sulfur (S) was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980's SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer "fertilized" indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990's and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR) was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals. The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed.

  4. Geologic interpretation of texture in Seasat and SIR-A radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Geological information in radar images of heavily vegetated areas is contained mainly in the depiction of topography as image texture. This paper describes three techniques for the analysis of texture in radar images: the split-spectrum technique, Fourier transforms of subareas, and spatial frequency bandpass classification. These techniques were applied to a heavily vegetated area of Belize in Central America in order to evaluate their utility for geological mapping; Seasat and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) images were considered.

  5. The publications of Sir Victor Horsley: a listing and an assessment.

    PubMed

    Vilensky, Joel A; Sinish, Pandy R; Stone, James L; Gilman, Sid

    2005-09-01

    Sir Victor Horsley is well recognized as the father of neurological surgery, publishing many articles within this discipline and on other neurologically related topics. Furthermore, he published many important articles in other areas of science and medicine, as well as on social issues (e.g., women's suffrage). Accordingly, we compiled, for the first time, a complete listing of his writings. We briefly describe here some of the characteristics of his bibliography, which is available on the Journal's web site. PMID:16145539

  6. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosyreva, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10–12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose—15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats. PMID:27350991

  7. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Chen, Qingmei; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity. Sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic are established. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the epidemic is obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the deterministic system.

  8. A Comparison of SIR-B Synthetic Aperture Radar Data with Ocean Internal Wave Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gasparovic, R F; Apel, J R; Thompson, D R; Tochko, J S

    1986-06-20

    An image from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) shows internal wave features in an area south of Long Island, New York Coincident oceanographic measurements are used in conjunction with hydrodynamic interaction and electromagnetic scattering models to estimate the expected SAR image intensity modulations associated with the internal waves. There is reasonable agreement between the predicted and observed internal wave signatures.

  9. Recombinant NAD-dependent SIR-2 Protein of Leishmania donovani: Immunobiochemical Characterization as a Potential Vaccine against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Baharia, Rajendra K; Tandon, Rati; Sharma, Tanuj; Suthar, Manish K; Das, Sanchita; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Sunder, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of a vaccine conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Immunoproteomic characterization of Leishmania donovani proteins led to the identification of a novel protein NAD+-dependent Silent Information regulatory-2 (SIR2 family or sirtuin) protein (LdSir2RP) as one of the potent immunostimulatory proteins. Proteins of the SIR2 family are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain that exerts unique NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. In the present study, an immunobiochemical characterization of LdSir2RP and further evaluation of its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential was done to assess for its possible involvement as a vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings LdSir2RP was successfully cloned, expressed and purified. The gene was present as a monomeric protein of ~45 kDa and further established by the crosslinking experiment. rLdSir2RP shown cytosolic localization in L. donovani and demonstrating NAD+-dependent deacetylase activity. Bioinformatic analysis also confirmed that LdSir2RP protein has NAD binding domain. The rLdSir2RP was further assessed for its cellular response by lymphoproliferative assay and cytokine ELISA in cured Leishmania patients and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in comparison to soluble Leishmania antigen and it was observed to stimulate the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α significantly but not the IL-4 and IL-10. The naïve hamsters when vaccinated with rLdSir2RP alongwith BCG resisted the L. donovani challenge to the tune of ~75% and generated strong IL-12 and IFN-γ mediated Th1 type immune response thereof. The efficacy was further supported by remarkable increase in IgG2 antibody level which is indicative of Th1 type of protective response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of rLdSir2RP was done using computational approach. Conclusion

  10. 77 FR 63734 - Security Zone; James River, Kingsmill Resort, Williamsburg, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... establishing a temporary security zone on the James River in the vicinity of Kingsmill Resort Marina... the navigable waters of the James River in the vicinity Kingsmill Resort Marina, Williamsburg,...

  11. Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyndgaard, Kyhl

    2010-01-01

    The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

  12. On the Relation of Morality and Religion: Two Lessons from James's "Varieties of Religious Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keljo, Kurt; Christenson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Drawing chiefly on the reflections of William James in his classic work, "The Varieties of Religious Experience," this article explores the dynamics of a mutually enriching relationship between religion and morality, whereby the two domains animate and inform each other. James's work is explored to suggest the outlines of such a relationship,…

  13. 78 FR 11094 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; James River, Between Isle of Wight and Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... and Newport News, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation... News, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate generator replacement on the James River Draw... operating schedule, the James River Bridge, mile 5.0, between Isle of Isle and Newport News, VA opens...

  14. Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stob, Paul

    2012-01-01

    On May 31, 1897, William James, one of America's most influential philosophers and psychologists, delivered the first civic oration of his career. The principal orator at the dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw memorial in Boston, James did what commemorative speakers are not supposed to do. He chose to be confrontational and divisive in a…

  15. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  16. Moral Development as the Personal Education of Feeling and Reason: From James to Piaget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel; Okamoto, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the connection between William James's writings in "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and Jean Piaget's work on moral development through Piaget's early work on religious experience. James characterises religious experience as unlocking deep personal power that can sustain a "strenuous mood". These ideas impacted the early…

  17. Introspecting in the Spirit of William James: Comment on Fox, Ericsson, and Best (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Fox, Ericsson, and Best's (2011) thoughtful justification of the use of think-aloud protocols for revealing the stream of consciousness comes on the centennial of the death of William James, history's greatest practitioner and advocate of introspection. This confluence naturally invites speculation about how James might have responded to the…

  18. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  19. The Varieties of Emotional Experience: A Meditation on James-Lange Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    This article traces the origin of the James-Lange theory of emotion, considers differences in their thinking, and assesses early criticisms and debate. Research on physiological patterns in emotion is reviewed. New paths for emotion research are outlined and homage is paid to the inspiration of William James. (SLD)

  20. Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming

    2014-07-01

    Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.

  1. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  2. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  3. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    PubMed

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight. PMID:11624576

  4. Increase in Ty1 cDNA Recombination in Yeast sir4 Mutant Strains at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Sarah J.; Boyle, Meredith L.; Sheely, Catherine J.; Graham, Joel; Haeusser, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Leigh; Keeney, Jill B.

    2004-01-01

    Transposition of the Ty1 element of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is temperature sensitive. We have identified a null allele of the silent information regulator gene SIR4 as a host mutant that allows for transposition at high temperature. We show that the apparent increase in transposition activity in sir4 mutant strains at high temperature is dependent on the RAD52 gene and is thus likely resulting from an increase in Ty1 cDNA recombination, rather than in IN-mediated integration. General cellular recombination is not increased at high temperature, suggesting that the increase in recombination at high temperature in sir4 mutants is specific for Ty1 cDNA. Additionally, this high-temperature Ty1 recombination was found to be dependent on functional Sir2p and Sir3p. We speculate that the increase in recombination seen in sir4 mutants at high temperature may be due to changes in chromatin structure or Ty1 interactions with chromosomal structures resulting in higher recombination rates. PMID:15454529

  5. The Drosophila melanogaster sir2+ gene is nonessential and has only minor effects on position-effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Aström, Stefan U; Cline, Thomas W; Rine, Jasper

    2003-01-01

    Five Drosophila melanogaster genes belong to the highly conserved sir2 family, which encodes NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Of these five, dsir2(+) (CG5216) is most similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2 gene, which has profound effects on chromatin structure and life span. Four independent Drosophila strains were found with P-element insertions near the dsir2 transcriptional start site as well as extraneous linked recessive lethal mutations. Imprecise excision of one of these P elements (PlacW07223) from a chromosome freed of extraneous lethal mutations produced dsir2(17), a null intragenic deletion allele that generates no DSIR2 protein. Contrary to expectations from the report by Rosenberg and Parkhurst on their P-mobilization allele dSir2(ex10), homozygosity for dsir2(17) had no apparent deleterious effects on viability, developmental rate, or sex ratio, and it fully complemented sir2(ex10). Moreover, through a genetic test, we ruled out the reported effect of dSir2(ex10) on Sex-lethal expression. We did observe a modest, strictly recessive suppression of white(m4) position-effect variegation and a shortening of life span in dsir2 homozygous mutants, suggesting that dsir2 has some functions in common with yeast SIR2. PMID:12663533

  6. STS-88 Mission Specialist James Newman suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Mission Specialist James H. Newman takes part in a complete suit check before launch. Newman holds a toy dog, 'Pluto,' representing the crew nickname Dog Crew 3 and Newman's nickname, Pluto. Mission STS-88 is expected to launch at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

  7. The case of James A. Garfield: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bradley K

    2003-05-15

    In 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot in the back and died 79 days later. During this time, many controversies arose that had repercussions for years to come. Who was to manage the President's care? A prominent local physician took on the case, but after Garfield's death, he was highly criticized for inappropriate care and for excluding more highly qualified surgeons. Where was the bullet? Multiple opinions were given including that of Alexander Graham Bell. The correct suggestion turned out to be that of a young, unknown assistant demonstrator of anatomy. What was the proper treatment? Local wound care, removal of the bullet, and laparotomy all were considered. Many have felt that the choice of treatment may have proved to be worse than the injury itself. What did the autopsy show? Even this was controversial, with different observers claiming different results. This historical perspective reviews the case as well the controversies that surrounded it. PMID:12768155

  8. Transit Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the capabilities of each science instrument, and discuss the performance of each mode, with reference to current transiting systems.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  10. STS-114 Crew Interview: James M. Kelly, PLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly, Lieutenant Colonel USAF, is shown during a prelaunch interview. He expresses the major goals of the mission which are to replace the Expedition Six crew of the International Space Station (ISS), install the Raffello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, deliver the External Stowage Platform to the ISS, and replace the Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG). The major task that he has is to be the backup pilot for Commander Eileen Collins. He talks about the three new research racks brought up to the International Space Station inside the U.S. Destiny Laboratory along with the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), Human Research Facility 2 (HRF-2), and a Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer (MELF-1). Kelly also explains how he uses the ISS' Robotic arm to lift the MPLM out of Atlantis' payload bay and attach it to the Unity node to unload hardware, supplies and maintenance items. This will be his second trip to the International Space Station.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  12. Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell On Phone With President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Lovell, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  13. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5-meter, space telescope designed for infrared imaging and spectroscopy. Its planned launch in 2013, aboard an Ariane 5, will place it in n L2 orbit. The JWST program is a cooperative program with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) managing the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST). JWST's international partners are the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). JWST will address four major science themes: First light and re-ionization; the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and the formation of planetary systems and the origins of life. We discuss the design of the observatory as it is currently base-lined, and review recent progress with the observatory.

  14. MEMS Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Beamesderfer, Michael; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschkar, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Oh, Lance; Rapchum, Dave; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Silverberg, Robert; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Valeriano

    2006-01-01

    MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instruments will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast, Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x200 microns. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are made on to each shutter for light leak prevention so to enhance optical contrast, Shutters are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. The shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies.

  15. Astronaut James S. Voss Performs Tasks in the Destiny Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  16. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold <50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral field units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's key science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and mission status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limited down to a wavelength of 2 microns. The MIRI instrument just completed its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  17. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral fie ld units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's k ey science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and miss ion status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limite d down to a wavelength of 2 micron. The MIRI instrument just complete d its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  18. The case of James A. Garfield: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bradley K

    2003-05-15

    In 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot in the back and died 79 days later. During this time, many controversies arose that had repercussions for years to come. Who was to manage the President's care? A prominent local physician took on the case, but after Garfield's death, he was highly criticized for inappropriate care and for excluding more highly qualified surgeons. Where was the bullet? Multiple opinions were given including that of Alexander Graham Bell. The correct suggestion turned out to be that of a young, unknown assistant demonstrator of anatomy. What was the proper treatment? Local wound care, removal of the bullet, and laparotomy all were considered. Many have felt that the choice of treatment may have proved to be worse than the injury itself. What did the autopsy show? Even this was controversial, with different observers claiming different results. This historical perspective reviews the case as well the controversies that surrounded it.

  19. James Cameron discusses record dive and science concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    James Cameron, the explorer and filmmaker, led a 4 December panel at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco to discuss his daring dive on 26 March to the bottom of the ocean in a one-person vertical "torpedo" submarine, the Deepsea Challenger, and to present some initial science findings from expedition samples and data. The dive touched the bottom of the Challenger Deep, a valley in the floor of the nearly 11-kilometer-deep Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean. The vessel landed close to the same depth and at a location similar to where Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard descended in the Trieste bathyscaphe on 23 January 1960 at a then record-setting depth of 10,911 meters.

  20. STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  2. James E. Healy Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Bayport, New York high school student, James E. Healy, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Healy was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  3. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper, we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant-planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Milam, S. N.; Kalirai, J. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is poised to revolutionize many areas of astrophysical research including Solar System Science. Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST is ~100 times more powerful than the Hubble and Spitzer observatories. It has greater sensitivity, higher spatial resolution in the infrared, and significantly higher spectral resolution in the mid infrared. Imaging and spectroscopy (both long-slit and integral-field) will be available across the entire 0.6 - 28.5 micron wavelength range. Herein, we discuss the capabilities of the four science instruments with a focus on Solar System Science, including instrument modes that enable observations over the huge range of brightness presented by objects within the Solar System. The telescope is being built by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems for NASA, ESA, and CSA. JWST development is led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST.

  5. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  7. 75 FR 59237 - TRICARE Co-Pay Waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE Co-Pay Waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center... waiver at Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center demonstration project. SUMMARY: This notice... Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care (FHCC) Demonstration Project.'' Under this...

  8. Competition between Heterochromatic Loci Allows the Abundance of the Silencing Protein, Sir4, to Regulate de novo Assembly of Heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Larin, Michelle L.; Harding, Katherine; Williams, Elizabeth C.; Lianga, Noel; Doré, Carole; Pilon, Sophie; Langis, Éric; Yanofsky, Corey; Rudner, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the locations and boundaries of heterochromatin are critical during development, and de novo assembly of silent chromatin in budding yeast is a well-studied model for how new sites of heterochromatin assemble. De novo assembly cannot occur in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and one to two divisions are needed for complete silent chromatin assembly and transcriptional repression. Mutation of DOT1, the histone H3 lysine 79 (K79) methyltransferase, and SET1, the histone H3 lysine 4 (K4) methyltransferase, speed de novo assembly. These observations have led to the model that regulated demethylation of histones may be a mechanism for how cells control the establishment of heterochromatin. We find that the abundance of Sir4, a protein required for the assembly of silent chromatin, decreases dramatically during a G1 arrest and therefore tested if changing the levels of Sir4 would also alter the speed of de novo establishment. Halving the level of Sir4 slows heterochromatin establishment, while increasing Sir4 speeds establishment. yku70Δ and ubp10Δ cells also speed de novo assembly, and like dot1Δ cells have defects in subtelomeric silencing, suggesting that these mutants may indirectly speed de novo establishment by liberating Sir4 from telomeres. Deleting RIF1 and RIF2, which suppresses the subtelomeric silencing defects in these mutants, rescues the advanced de novo establishment in yku70Δ and ubp10Δ cells, but not in dot1Δ cells, suggesting that YKU70 and UBP10 regulate Sir4 availability by modulating subtelomeric silencing, while DOT1 functions directly to regulate establishment. Our data support a model whereby the demethylation of histone H3 K79 and changes in Sir4 abundance and availability define two rate-limiting steps that regulate de novo assembly of heterochromatin. PMID:26587833

  9. Sir Humphry Davy: boundless chemist, physicist, poet and man of action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sir John Meurig; Edwards, Peter P; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L

    2008-01-11

    The years 2007 and 2008 mark the bi-centenary of two brilliant discoveries by Sir Humphry Davy: the isolation of sodium and potassium (1807) and the subsequent first observation (1808) of the beautiful blue and bronze colours now known to be characteristic of the solvated electron(1) in potassium-ammonia systems. In celebration of these dazzling discoveries, we reflect on Davy's many extraordinary contributions to science, technology and poetry. Humphry Davy, a truly great man, of Cornish spirit, brought immeasurable benefits to humankind.

  10. Sir William McCrea at 90: A great Irish astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, D.

    1997-01-01

    Ireland can rightly claim some proprietorial rights to Sir William Hunter McCrea for he was born in Dublin, he was Professor of Mathematics at the Queen's University Belfast, and he has made significant contributions to the development of scientific life in Ireland. Indeed, those aspects of science in a whole Ireland which McCrea worked to foster may be counted a hopeful precedent for further continued growth of cooperation within the island. The author presents a personal profile of the great Irish astronomer with a brief description of the contemporary Irish astronomical scene.

  11. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  12. Meeting report: the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) South America Conference (August 5-7, 2011).

    PubMed

    Massuda, Raffael; Chaves, Cristiano; Trzesniak, Clarissa; Machado-de-Sousa, Joao P; Zanetti, Marcus V; Murray, Robin M; Gattaz, Wagner F; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2012-05-01

    On August 5-7, 2011, São Paulo was home to the first regional meeting of the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS). Over 400 people from many countries attended the activities and contributed with around 200 submissions for oral and poster presentations. This article summarizes the data presented during the meeting, with an emphasis on the plenary talks and sessions for short oral presentations. For information on the poster presentations, readers are referred to the special issue of Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica (Brazil) dedicated to the conference (available at: http://www.hcnet.usp.br/ipq/revista/vol38/s1/).

  13. Influence analysis of information erupted on social networks based on SIR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xue; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yue; Xiong, Xi

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, according to the similarity of chain reaction principle and the characteristics of information propagation on social network, we proposed a new word "information bomb". Based on the complex networks and SIR model, dynamical evolution equations were setup. Then methods used to evaluate the four indexes of bomb power were given, including influence breadth, influence strength, peak time and relaxation time. At last, the power of information was ascertained through these indexes. The process of information propagation is simulated to illustrate the spreading characteristics through the results. Then parameters which impact on the power of information bomb are analyzed and some methods which control the propagation of information are given.

  14. Sir Humphry Davy: boundless chemist, physicist, poet and man of action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sir John Meurig; Edwards, Peter P; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L

    2008-01-11

    The years 2007 and 2008 mark the bi-centenary of two brilliant discoveries by Sir Humphry Davy: the isolation of sodium and potassium (1807) and the subsequent first observation (1808) of the beautiful blue and bronze colours now known to be characteristic of the solvated electron(1) in potassium-ammonia systems. In celebration of these dazzling discoveries, we reflect on Davy's many extraordinary contributions to science, technology and poetry. Humphry Davy, a truly great man, of Cornish spirit, brought immeasurable benefits to humankind. PMID:18175370

  15. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  16. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the threshold dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination. We obtain sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the stochastic system is also obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number Rbar0 of the deterministic system. Results show that time delay has important effects on the persistence and extinction of the epidemic.

  17. Tyrosine O-prenyltransferase SirD catalyzes S-, C-, and N-prenylations on tyrosine and tryptophan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Poulter, C Dale

    2013-12-20

    The tyrosine O-prenyltransferase SirD in Leptosphaeria maculans catalyzes normal prenylation of the hydroxyl group in tyrosine as the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the phytotoxin sirodesmin PL. SirD also catalyzes normal N-prenylation of 4-aminophenylalanine and normal C-prenylation at C7 of tryptophan. In this study, we found that 4-mercaptophenylalanine and several derivatives of tryptophan are also substrates for prenylation by dimethylallyl diphosphate. Incubation of SirD with 4-mercaptophenylalanine gave normal S-prenylated mercaptophenylalanine. We found that incubation of the enzyme with tryptophan gave reverse prenylation at N1 in addition to the previously reported normal prenylation at C7. 4-Methyltryptophan also gave normal prenylation at C7 and reverse prenylation at N1, whereas 4-methoxytryptophan gave normal and reverse prenylation at C7, and 7-methyltryptophan gave normal prenylation at C6 and reverse prenylation at N1. The ability of SirD to prenylate at three different sites on the indole nucleus, with normal and reverse prenylation at one of the sites, is similar to behavior seen for dimethylallyltryptophan synthase. The multiple products produced by SirD suggests it and dimethylallyltryptophan synthase use a dissociative electrophilic mechanism for alkylation of amino acid substrates.

  18. Smc5/6 Is a Telomere-Associated Complex that Regulates Sir4 Binding and TPE.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Fard, Sarah; Sarthi, Jessica; Tittel-Elmer, Mireille; Lalonde, Maxime; Cusanelli, Emilio; Chartrand, Pascal; Cobb, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    SMC proteins constitute the core members of the Smc5/6, cohesin and condensin complexes. We demonstrate that Smc5/6 is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and its association with chromosome ends is dependent on Nse3, a subcomponent of the complex. Cells harboring a temperature sensitive mutant, nse3-1, are defective in Smc5/6 localization to telomeres and have slightly shorter telomeres. Nse3 interacts physically and genetically with two Rap1-binding factors, Rif2 and Sir4. Reduction in telomere-associated Smc5/6 leads to defects in telomere clustering, dispersion of the silencing factor, Sir4, and a loss in transcriptional repression for sub-telomeric genes and non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). SIR4 recovery at telomeres is reduced in cells lacking Smc5/6 functionality and vice versa. However, nse3-1/ sir4 Δ double mutants show additive defects for telomere shortening and TPE indicating the contribution of Smc5/6 to telomere homeostasis is only in partial overlap with SIR factor silencing. These findings support a role for Smc5/6 in telomere maintenance that is separate from its canonical role(s) in HR-mediated events during replication and telomere elongation. PMID:27564449

  19. Smc5/6 Is a Telomere-Associated Complex that Regulates Sir4 Binding and TPE

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, Pascal; Cobb, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    SMC proteins constitute the core members of the Smc5/6, cohesin and condensin complexes. We demonstrate that Smc5/6 is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and its association with chromosome ends is dependent on Nse3, a subcomponent of the complex. Cells harboring a temperature sensitive mutant, nse3-1, are defective in Smc5/6 localization to telomeres and have slightly shorter telomeres. Nse3 interacts physically and genetically with two Rap1-binding factors, Rif2 and Sir4. Reduction in telomere-associated Smc5/6 leads to defects in telomere clustering, dispersion of the silencing factor, Sir4, and a loss in transcriptional repression for sub-telomeric genes and non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). SIR4 recovery at telomeres is reduced in cells lacking Smc5/6 functionality and vice versa. However, nse3-1/ sir4 Δ double mutants show additive defects for telomere shortening and TPE indicating the contribution of Smc5/6 to telomere homeostasis is only in partial overlap with SIR factor silencing. These findings support a role for Smc5/6 in telomere maintenance that is separate from its canonical role(s) in HR-mediated events during replication and telomere elongation. PMID:27564449

  20. Sir2 is induced by oxidative stress in a yeast model of Huntington disease and its activation reduces protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sorolla, M Alba; Nierga, Clara; Rodríguez-Colman, M José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Arenas, Alicia; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2011-06-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats, leading to an elongated polyglutamine sequence (polyQ) in the huntingtin protein. Misfolding of mutant polyQ proteins with expanded tracts results in aggregation, causing cytotoxicity. Oxidative stress in HD has been documented in humans as important to disease progression. Using yeast cells as a model of HD, we report that when grown at high glucose concentration, cells expressing mutant polyQ do not show apparent oxidative stress. At higher cell densities, when glucose becomes limiting and cells are metabolically shifting from fermentation to respiration, protein oxidation and catalase activity increases in relation to the length of the polyQ tract. Oxidative stress, either endogenous as a result of mutant polyQ expression or exogenously generated, increases Sir2 levels. Δ sir2 cells expressing expanded polyQ lengths show signs of oxidative stress even at the early exponential phase. In a wild-type background, isonicotinamide, a Sir2 activator, decreases mutant polyQ aggregation and the stress generated by expanded polyQ. Taken together, these results describe mutant polyQ proteins as being more toxic in respiring cells, causing oxidative stress and an increase in Sir2 levels. Activation of Sir2 would play a protective role against this toxicity. PMID:21513696

  1. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  2. Cometary Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Harker, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Knight, Matthew M.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; de Pater, Imke; Protopapa, Silvia; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as the largest space-based astronomical observatory with near- and mid-infrared instrumentation, will elucidate many mysterious aspects of comets. We summarize four cometary science themes especially suited for this telescope and its instrumentation: the drivers of cometary activity, comet nucleus heterogeneity, water ice in comae and on surfaces, and activity in faint comets and main belt asteroids. With JWST, we can expect the most distant detections of gas, especially CO2, in what we now consider to be only moderately bright comets. For nearby comets, coma dust properties can be simultaneously studied with their driving gases, measured simultaneously with the same instrument or contemporaneously with another. Studies of water ice and gas in the distant Solar System will help us test our understanding of cometary interiors, and coma evolution. The question of cometary activity in main belt comets will be further explored with the possibility of a direct detection of coma gas. We explore the technical approaches to these science cases and provide simple tools for estimating comet dust and gas brightness. Finally, we consider the effects of the observatory's non-sidereal tracking limits and provide a list of potential comet targets during the first five years of the mission.

  3. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  4. Stray light field dependence for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large space based astronomical telescope that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. The architecture has the telescope exposed to space, with a large sun shield providing thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the sun. The instruments will have the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6 μm to 29 μm wavelengths. Stray light analysis has been performed to characterize the stray light getting to the instrument focal planes from the celestial sky. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is defined for the susceptibility of stray light to sky radiance relative to the observatory frame of reference. The stray light is calculated by overlaying the radiance maps of the celestial sky background (both galactic and zodiacal background) onto the RTF map. The product of the two is summed to obtain the total stray light background at the instrument detectors. The orientation of the observatory for observing a given field location in the sky depends on the direction of the sun, hence the day of the year. The variability of stray light with time of year for observing a given sky locations is determined.

  5. The Scientific Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and dark matter, gas, stars, metals morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. A comprehensive, top-level review of JWST sciences was published in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since that paper was published, the JWST Science Working Group, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. In this poster, the main science themes and white papers are reviewed.

  6. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  7. James Franck and the Experimental Discovery of Metastable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2016-03-01

    In 1913 and 1914, James Franck and Gustav Hertz published their experiments on inelastic collisions of slow electrons with helium and mercury vapor atoms. Famously, they thought they were measuring ionization energies, and not, as we understand it today, excitation energies. Franck and Hertz shortly found themselves in the army, and neither resumed experimental work until after the Great War. Nevertheless, these questions were cleared up over the course of the war, primarily through the work of experimentalists in North America, who remeasured the ionization energy of mercury and showed that Franck and Hertz had not detected ionization. After the war, Franck returned to experiments on and theoretical analyses of the collisions of slow electrons with helium atoms, in competition with others in England and America. This time, Franck and his associates were able to measure the ionization energy, and, in the process, to throw new light on the non-combining singlet and ``doublet'' (later found to be triplet) spectral series in helium. They also proposed for the first time the existence of metastable states, first in helium, and later in mercury and other elements, at a time when selection rules and theories of transition probabilities were in their infancy.

  8. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  9. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a cryogenic, 6.5 meter diameter space telescope. JWST has a unique architecture, compared to previous space telescopes, that is driven by its science requirements, ia passively cooled cryogenic design, and the need to stow the observatory for launch. JWST's large, segmented mirror meets the requirement for high angular resolution in the infrared coupled with a significant increase in collecting area compared to the Spitzer and Hubble Space telescopes in order to detect the first galaxies. JWST's unique five-layer sunshield allows the telescope and instrument module to passively cool to cryogenic temperatures. JWST will be launched on an Ariane 5, and so both its telescope optics, and the sunshield have to be stowed in order to fit the Ariane 5 fairing. Following launch the sunshield and telescope optics must be deployed, and the primary mirror phased for science operations. In this presentation we will review the design of the observatory and highlight recent progress in the construction of the JWST observatory. In particular, we address recent progress with the telescope optics, sunshield and spacecraft. We will discuss predicted observatory performance in terms of the scientific goals of JWST and address key operational considerations that might bear upon frontier science observations.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the Infrared successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 sq m aperture (6 m class) telescope yielding diffraction limited angular resolution at a wave1ength of 2 micron. The science instrument payload includes three passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronagraphy, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6

  11. STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee after landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee shakes hands with KSC Director Roy D. Bridges Jr. following landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. From left are Kent Rominger, Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations, Wetherbee, Dr. Daniel R. Mulville, NASA Associate Deputy Administrator, and Bridges. Commander Wetherbee earlier guided Space Shuttle Endeavour to a flawless touchdown on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after completing the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The orbiter also carried the other members of the STS-113 crew, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks. to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  13. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Lunine, J.; Sonneborn, G.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; Stansberry, J.; Schaller, E.; Orton, G.; Isaacs, J.

    2010-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared space telescope currently scheduled for launch in 2014. Webb will reside in a elliptical orbit about the semi-stable second Lagrange point (L2). Its 6.5-meter primary mirror is designed to work primarily in the infrared, with some capability in the visible (i.e., from 0.6 to 27 microns). Webb has four science instruments: the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), the Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec), the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and the Fine Guidance Sensor Tunable Filter Camera (FGS-TFI). One of Webb's science themes is "Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life" which includes observations of Solar System objects; the telescope will be able to track moving targets with rates up to 0.030 arcseconds per second. Its combination of broad wavelength range, high sensitivity, and near-diffraction limited imaging around 2 microns make it a superb facility for a variety of Solar System programs. In this poster, we present an overview of Webb's scientific capabilities and their relevance to current topics in planetary science.

  14. Microshutter array development for the James Webb space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mary J.; Acuna, Nadine; Amatucci, Edward; Beamesderfer, Michael; Boucarut, Ray A.; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey J.; Fettig, Rainer; Franz, David E.; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kelly, Daniel; King, Todd T.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kotechi, Carl A.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Loughlin, James P.; Lynch, Bernard A.; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Newell, Bill; Oh, Lance; Rapchun, David A.; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Schulte, Eric; Schwinger, Scott; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Sparr, Leroy M.; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Wang, Liqin L.; Zheng, Yun; Zincke, Chris A.

    2005-02-01

    Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS) microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as a field selector of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the spontaneous selection of a large number of objects in the sky and the transmission of light to the NIRSpec detector with high contrast. The JWST environment requires cryogenic operation at 35 K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) silicon wafers. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100 x 200 μm. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are processed for blocking light from gaps between shutters and frames. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes multi-layer metal depositions, the patterning of magnetic stripes and shutter electrodes, a reactive ion etching (RIE) to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, followed by a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch to form mechanical supporting grids and release shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition is used to form back electrodes. Shutters are actuated by a magnetic force and latched using an electrostatic force. Optical tests, addressing tests, and life tests are conducted to evaluate the performance and the reliability of microshutter arrays.

  15. STS-94 Commander James D. Halsell suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-94 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., puts his left glove on while he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his fourth space flight, having served as commander of STS-83 and pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds masters degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have uresponsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

  16. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  17. Stapp's quantum dualism: The James and Heisenberg model of consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, H. P.

    1994-02-01

    Henry Stapp attempts to resolve the Cartesian dilemma by introducing what the author would characterize as an ontological dualism between mind and matter. His model for mind comes from William James' description of conscious events and for matter from Werner Heisenberg's ontological model for quantum events (wave function collapse). His demonstration of the isomorphism between the two types of events is successful, but in the author's opinion fails to establish a monistic, scientific theory. The author traces Stapp's failure to his adamant rejection of arbitrariness, or 'randomness.' This makes it impossible for him (or for Bohr and Pauli before him) to understand the power of Darwin's explanation of biology, let alone the triumphs of modern 'neo-Darwinism.' The author notes that the point at issue is a modern version of the unresolved opposition between Leucippus and Democritus on one side and Epicurus on the other. Stapp's views are contrasted with recent discussions of consciousness by two eminent biologists: Crick and Edelman. They locate the problem firmly in the context of natural selection on the surface of the earth. Their approaches provide a sound basis for further scientific work. The author briefly examines the connection between this scientific (rather than ontological) framework and the new fundamental theory based on bit-strings and the combinatorial hierarchy.

  18. Hartmann test for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee; Howard, Joseph; Acton, D. Scott; Whitman, Tony L.; Smith, Koby

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) end-to-end optical system will be tested in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Apollo-era, historic Chamber A thermal vacuum facility. During recent pre-test runs with a prototype "Pathfinder" telescope, the vibration in this environment was found to be challenging for the baseline test approach, which uses phase retrieval of images created by three sub-apertures of the telescope. To address the vibration, an alternate strategy implemented using classic Hartmann test principles combined with precise mirror mechanisms to provide a testing approach that is insensitive to the dynamics environment of the chamber. The measurements and sensitivities of the Hartmann approach are similar to those using phase retrieval over the original sparse aperture test. The Hartmann test concepts have been implemented on the JWST Test Bed Telescope, which provided the rationale and empirical evidence indicating that this Hartmann style approach would be valuable in supplementing the baseline test approach. This paper presents a Hartmann approach implemented during the recent Pathfinder test along with the test approach that is currently being considered for the full optical system test of JWST. Comparisons are made between the baseline phase retrieval approach and the Hartmann approach in addition to demonstrating how the two test methodologies support each other to reduce risk during the JWST full optical system test.

  19. Navigation Concepts for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Leung, Dominic; Kelbel, David; Beckman, Mark; Grambling, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance that can be achieved using candidate ground and onboard navigation approaches for operation of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be in an orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 libration point. The ground navigation approach processes standard range and Doppler measurements from the Deep Space Network The onboard navigation approach processes celestial object measurements and/or ground-to- spacecraft Doppler measurements to autonomously estimate the spacecraft s position and velocity and Doppler reference frequency. Particular attention is given to assessing the absolute position and velocity accuracy that can be achieved in the presence of the frequent spacecraft reorientations and momentum unloads planned for this mission. The ground navigation approach provides stable navigation solutions using a tracking schedule of one 30-minute contact per day. The onboard navigation approach that uses only optical quality celestial object measurements provides stable autonomous navigation solutions. This study indicates that unmodeled changes in the solar radiation pressure cross-sectional area and modeled momentum unload velocity changes are the major error sources. These errors can be mitigated by modeling these changes, by estimating corrections to compensate for the changes, or by including acceleration measurements.

  20. Stationkeeping Monte Carlo Simulation for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Alberding, Cassandra M.; Yu, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled to launch in 2018 into a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point, with a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years after a six-month transfer to the mission orbit. This paper discusses our approach to Stationkeeping (SK) maneuver planning to determine an adequate SK delta-V budget. The SK maneuver planning for JWST is made challenging by two factors: JWST has a large Sunshield, and JWST will be repointed regularly producing significant changes in Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). To accurately model SRP we employ the Solar Pressure and Drag (SPAD) tool, which uses ray tracing to accurately compute SRP force as a function of attitude. As an additional challenge, the future JWST observation schedule will not be known at the time of SK maneuver planning. Thus there will be significant variation in SRP between SK maneuvers, and the future variation in SRP is unknown. We have enhanced an earlier SK simulation to create a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates random draws for uncertainties that affect the budget, including random draws of the observation schedule. Each SK maneuver is planned to optimize delta-V magnitude, subject to constraints on spacecraft pointing. We report the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and discuss possible improvements during flight operations to reduce the SK delta-V budget.