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Sample records for sir james hector

  1. James Hector (1834-1907): doctor, geologist, explorer of Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Loosmore, Brian

    2009-08-01

    A graduate of the University of Edinburgh, James Hector joined the Palliser Expedition of 1857 as a doctor and geologist. The objectives of the expedition were to explore the plains of North America along the 49th parallel of latitude, the recently agreed boundary between the USA and Canada, and investigate passes through the Rocky Mountains for possible railway passage. Hector's contribution was immense, his dedication and endurance contributing in large measure to the success of the venture.

  2. Sir James Paget and his contributions to pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Sir James Paget's Lectures on Surgical Pathology, published in 1853, was based on Lectures given at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in the previous six years. It makes use of the pathological material collected by John Hunter in the late eighteenth century which was housed in the College. It expands the principles of pathophysiology enunciated by Hunter using microscopic observations. The first half of the book covers mainly inflammation and repair; the second is involved in a description of tumours with particular emphasis on the difference between benign and malignant growths. This book indicates a concept of pathology before the realization of the role of infectious organisms. However, there is some inkling of the contagious nature of syphilis and variola following on Hunter's work. The concept, current at that time, that tuberculosis was related to cancer is expressed. This work acts as a bridge between the pathology of John Hunter and that of the present time. Images Figure 1 PMID:8652365

  3. Experimental tectonics: from Sir James Hall to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, Giorgio

    2001-09-01

    The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth (Hutton, J., 1795. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. I & II. Cadell & Davies, Edinburgh). Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems (crystallization and melting) not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments. From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics. One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: the initiation and time-history of subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere, and the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges.

  4. Sir James Young Simpson and religion: myths and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ewen A; MacGillivray, Neil

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses two key aspects of the life and work of Sir James Young Simpson: his evangelical Christianity and his reaction to criticism following his use of anaesthesia in obstetrics. Simpson's personal religious struggle is placed in the context of the devastating events surrounding the Disruption of the established Church of Scotland in 1843. Whatever his involvement in the events of that year, the development of his faith demonstrates his simple evangelical conviction in the atonement of Christ, very much in keeping with that of many believers in Victorian Britain. There has arisen the notion (still current as is clear from publications in medical journals within recent years) that there was a savage religious response, especially in Presbyterian Scotland, to his use of chloroform - in reality the attack on Simpson's enthusiastic promotion of chloroform was brief, sporadic and of little moment. Simpson's carefully constructed counter to criticism of anaesthesia, drawing on considerable theological and linguistic expertise, reveals a complexity at odds with the simplicity of his faith. The contrast is so great and the reaction so elaborate that it is proposed that Simpson deliberately exaggerated the affair, believing the publicity could only be valuable.

  5. Sir James Paget: Paget's disease of the nipple, Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-04-01

    Sir James Paget was one of the 'great' Victorians. Eminent as a surgeon, pathologist and teacher, his nobility of character and application to his work made him a leader in his profession in that age of great men.

  6. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Victorian physician ahead of his time. The story of fluorine advocate Sir James Crichton-Browne.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2003-11-01

    Sir James Crichton-Browne, one of England's most renowned psychiatrists, whose career spanned two centuries, had very strong feelings about the need to secure proper dental care for all the children of his country. He translated these feelings into action when he advocated that fluorine be added to the diets of pregnant women and children. And this was almost a half-century before definitive research showed the value of fluorine as a preventive of caries.

  8. Sir James Black and propranolol. The role of the basic sciences in the history of cardiovascular pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M P

    1997-01-01

    The history of cardiology encompasses some of the most revered names in medical history, many belonging to physicians who have advanced knowledge beyond their time. However, there have been countless others whose work in the basic sciences has paid large dividends to clinical cardiology. The original example of such an individual is William Harvey, whose reasoned experimentation led to the understanding of the circulation of blood. Another such man, Sir James Black, has contributed to basic scientific and clinical knowledge in cardiology, both as a physician and as a basic scientist. His invention of propranolol, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris, is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century. His method of research, his discoveries about adrenergic pharmacology, and his clarification of the mechanisms of cardiac action are all strengths of his work. In 1988, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Sir James's conclusions and method of research have continued to influence work in clinical pharmacology and cardiovascular medicine. Thus, the development of propranolol runs parallel to most other great achievements in medicine: the genius of a few builds on the accomplishments of many, and the discovery influences thinking long after the breakthrough has occurred. Images PMID:9456487

  9. About strawberry, crab claws, and the Sir James Black's invention. Hypothesis: can we battle keloids with propranolol?

    PubMed

    de Mesquita, Charles Jean G

    2010-02-01

    The cutaneous hemangiomas of infancy or infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of childhood. They were formerly known as strawberry hemangiomas in reason of its typical appearance although uncommon morphologic variations can be found. Usually hemangiomas are harmless growths that are the result of proliferation of endothelial cells during early childhood. Involution of the lesion occurs at 12-18 months and can last up to 7 years. Occasionally, infantile hemangiomas suffer dramatic overgrowth causing esthetical damages, as well compromises to vital structures that requires prompt intervention. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist that was invented by Sir James Black in 1960s, appears to be an effective treatment for infantile hemangiomas and should now be used as a first-line treatment in hemangiomas when intervention is required. Keloids (that resembles crab claws) and hypertrophic scars are fibrous tissue outgrowths that result from a derailment in the normal wound-healing process. Systemic or intralesional propranolol may play a role in the amelioration of keloids and hypertrophic scars due to their potential to induce vasoconstriction of over proliferating tissues, triggering apoptosis of endothelial cells and also to their effect as modulator of inflammatory process during wound healing. In adding the propranolol to the melting pot of abnormal (or supra-normal) wound healing, we hypothesized that we can battle keloids with propranolol.

  10. Sir James Jeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, E. A.

    2013-09-01

    Memoir by S. C. Roberts; 1. Merchant Taylor's and Cambridge; 2. Princeton, 1905-9; 3. Return to England. The Adams Prize essay, 1909-19; 4. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1919-29; 5. Popular exposition, 1929-30; 6. Later years, 1931-46; 7. Science in Jeans's boyhood; 8. The partition of energy; 9. Rotating fluid masses; 10. Star clusters; 11. The equilibrium of the stars; 12. Jeans and philosophy; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Sir Archibald Hector McIndoe (1900-1960) and the Guinea Pig Club: the development of reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation in the Second World War (1939-1945).

    PubMed

    Macnamara, Alexandra F; Metcalfe, Neil H

    2014-11-01

    This article discusses the work of pioneering surgeon Sir Archibald McIndoe and particularly his reconstructive surgery and patient-centred approach during the Second World War. It also covers how this affected the lives of his patients and the subsequent formation of the Guinea Pig Club. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Les teletheses de communication: l'apport des sciences du langage a "HECTOR" (Communication Aids: The Contribution of Linguistic Science to "HECTOR").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Rene, Ed.

    A collection of papers on HECTOR, a communication aid for disabled persons without speech, includes: "La telethese de communication HECTOR" ("The Communication Aid HECTOR") (Rene Jeanneret); "Lorsque HECTOR rencontre un psycholinguiste experimentaliste...que se disent-ils?" ("When HECTOR Meets an Experimental…

  13. Les teletheses de communication: l'apport des sciences du langage a "HECTOR" (Communication Aids: The Contribution of Linguistic Science to "HECTOR").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Rene, Ed.

    A collection of papers on HECTOR, a communication aid for disabled persons without speech, includes: "La telethese de communication HECTOR" ("The Communication Aid HECTOR") (Rene Jeanneret); "Lorsque HECTOR rencontre un psycholinguiste experimentaliste...que se disent-ils?" ("When HECTOR Meets an Experimental…

  14. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... (MISR) on February 24, 2000, show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The ...

  15. Hurricane Hector in the Eastern Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-17

    Infrared, microwave, and visible/near-infrared images of Hurricane Hector in the eastern Pacific were created with data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on August 17, 2006. The infrared AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the hurricane. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the surface of the Earth, revealing warmer temperatures (red). At the time the data were taken from which these images were made, Hector is a well organized storm, with the strongest convection in the SE quadrant. The increasing vertical wind shear in the NW quadrant is appearing to have an effect. Maximum sustained winds are at 85 kt, gusts to 105 kt. Estimated minimum central pressure is 975 mbar. The microwave image is created from microwave radiation emitted by Earth's atmosphere and received by the instrument. It shows where the heaviest rainfall is taking place (in blue) in the storm. Blue areas outside of the storm where there are either some clouds or no clouds, indicate where the sea surface shines through. The "visible" image is created from data acquired by the visible light/near-infrared sensor on the AIRS instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00507

  16. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ...     View Larger Image In late February 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... Thomas James, who first explored the area in 1631 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Visible in these images are some of the ...

  17. Commissioning of the High Efficiency Total Absorption Spectrometer (HECTOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingold, C. S.; Simon, A.; Spyrou, A.; Naqvi, F.; Dombos, A.; Palmisano, A.; Anderson, T.; Henderson, S. L.; Moylan, S.; Seymour, C.; Skulski, M. A.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Vande Kolk, B.

    2016-09-01

    P-process nucleosynthesis occurs in supernovae where the s-process seeds are present, and is responsible for the production of proton-rich nuclei. Photons from SN explosions induce characteristic (γ,n), (γ,p), and (γ , α) reactions. These reactions are typically studied via the inverse reactions. For this purpose, the High Efficiency Total Absorption Spectrometer (HECTOR), a NaI(Tl) summing detector at the University of Notre Dame, was built. The array is designed to make precision cross section measurements for (p, γ) and (α , γ) reactions. HECTOR is composed of 16 separate NaI(Tl) crystals and 32 photomultiplier tubes read by a digital data acquisition system, with gain-matching and summing done offline. The efficiency of HECTOR is about 52.7 (2.0)% for a 60Co source. The commissioning run for HECTOR was performed via measurements of known resonances in the 27Al(p, γ)28Si reaction to determine the efficiency of the array. The first results from HECTOR will be presented, as well as future plans with the array. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY1614442 and PHY1430152 (JINA-CEE).

  18. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  19. Seeking key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2016-02-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm which develops in northern Australia, are analyzed with the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the storm's convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study (Crook, 2001), wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, convective available potential energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high-resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analyses are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector's development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection, defined in terms of vertical velocity, largely contributes to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting versus low-level moisture, convective available potential energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. However, Crook's hypothesis of low-level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can only be applied if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to assess how the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector's development in terms of percentage.

  20. Seeking for key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm developing in the northern Australia, are analyzed to the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study tep{Crook} wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, Convective Available Potential Energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analysis are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection is largely contributing to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting vs. low level moisture, Convective Available Potential Energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. On the other hand, Crook's hypothesis of low level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can be applied only if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to asses how the the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector development in terms of percentage.

  1. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity.

  2. Sir Alec Clegg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred".

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  4. Interview--Hector H. Garcia. Iinterviewed by Christo Hall.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Garcia is a Wellcome Trust Senior International Research Fellow in Public Health and Tropical Medicine and a Coordinating Member of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurocysticercosis is a global health problem and is majorly responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in the developing world. Despite the introduction of potent cysticidal drugs, this parasitic disease continues to pose a threat to millions of people living in these areas. More recent efforts, directed to interrupt all interrelated steps in the life cycle of the causal agent, the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, will undoubtedly reduce the impact burden of the disease. In this regard, the work of Dr. Hector H. Garcia is commendable, as he is co-directing a large-scale control program for the disease complex Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Tumbes, Perú , whose final lresults we are anxiously awaiting.

  5. Optical design for the TAIPAN and HECTOR transmissive spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Lawrence, Jon; Gers, Luke; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    TAIPAN is a multi-fibre project for the UK-Schmidt Telescope and Hector is a multi-IFU project for the Anglo- Australian Telescope (AAT) using fibres. Many different transparent designs were studied covering a large parameter space. An important trade-off study was between the use of microlenses on the slit or just bare fibres. Microlenses have disadvantages but permit considerable simplification of the collimator by making the beam very slow. The disadvantages are more important with the UK-Schmidt due to the faster beam from the telescope. With microlenses, the collimator can be a unique spherical plano-convex lens significantly smaller than the mirror that would be needed in a reflective design. For Hector, 26 different camera designs where done to cover the parameter space for 2k x 2k, 2k x 4k, or 4k x 4k detectors, and for 50, 75 or 100 micron fibre cores, with or without microlenses, with a triplet in the camera or a doublet plus singlet, and with a maximum wavelength of 1 or 1.05 microns. Not all combinations were designed but for each parameter there are at least two representative cameras with all other parameters identical. A preliminary cost estimate was made for the most promising designs which permitted to reduce them to 3 for more detailed designing. Also, a theoretical study was done of the PSF obtained with highly packed microlenses at the slit with no space between them and imaging to 2 pixels per microlenses. This maximizes the number of fibres per spectrograph, and thus the total field of view of all IFUs together, but it comes with some disadvantages.

  6. Sir Harold Jeffreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Sir Harold Jeffreys is a world authority in theoretical geophyiscs. hew as born in Northumbria (northeast of England) and educated at Armstrong College (now the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) and Cambridge University. He is now a Senior Fellow of St.John's College, Cambridge. He has published over 300 scientific papers and is the author of 7 books, including Theory of Probability and Mathematical Physics (with his wife, Lady Bertha Swirles Jeffreys). Sir Harold has made innumerable theoretical contributions to seismology. Many of these are documented in his book The Earth, which has been published in six editions. His papers have recently been collated by Gordon and Breach (Publishers) into six volumes, Collected Papers on Sir Harold Jeffreys on Geophyiscs and other Sciences. Some idea of the breadth of this research can be seen from the individual volume titles: "Theoretical and Observational Seismology," "Observational Seismology," "Gravity," "Dissipation of Energy and Thermal History," "Astronomy and Geophysics," and "Matematics, Probability and Miscellaneious Other Sciences." 

  7. Stress triggering of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake by transient deformation following the 1992 Landers earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Sacks, I.S.

    2002-01-01

    The M 7.3 June 28, 1992 Landers and M 7.1 October 16, 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes, California, both right lateral strike-slip events on NNW-trending subvertical faults, occurred in close proximity in space and time in a region where recurrence times for surface-rupturing earthquakes are thousands of years. This suggests a causal role for the Landers earthquake in triggering the Hector Mine earthquake. Previous modeling of the static stress change associated with the Landers earthquake shows that the area of peak Hector Mine slip lies where the Coulomb failure stress promoting right-lateral strike-slip failure was high, but the nucleation point of the Hector Mine rupture was neutrally to weakly promoted, depending on the assumed coefficient of friction. Possible explanations that could account for the 7-year delay between the two ruptures include background tectonic stressing, dissipation of fluid pressure gradients, rate- and state-dependent friction effects, and post-Landers viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle. By employing a viscoelastic model calibrated by geodetic data collected during the time period between the Landers and Hector Mine events, we calculate that postseismic relaxation produced a transient increase in Coulomb failure stress of about 0.7 bars on the impending Hector Mine rupture surface. The increase is greatest over the broad surface that includes the 1999 nucleation point and the site of peak slip further north. Since stress changes of magnitude greater than or equal to 0.1 bar are associated with documented causal fault interactions elsewhere, viscoelastic relaxation likely contributed to the triggering of the Hector Mine earthquake. This interpretation relies on the assumption that the faults occupying the central Mojave Desert (i.e., both the Landers and Hector Mine rupturing faults) were critically stressed just prior to the Landers earthquake.

  8. Sir William Hingston

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Sir William Hingston was one of Canada’s most illustrious surgeons in the second half of the 19th century. Not only was he a very innovative surgeon but he was an excellent teacher and wrote many medical articles during a career that spanned over 50 years. Active as he was medically, he found time to serve a term as mayor of Montreal and was on the board of directors of various banks and companies. As recognition of his many talents, he was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. He died in 1907 at the age of 78 years. PMID:8857994

  9. James Dunlop's historical catalogue of southern nebulae and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozens, Glen; Walsh, Andrew; Orchiston, Wayne

    2010-03-01

    In 1826 James Dunlop compiled the second ever catalogue of southern star clusters, nebulae and galaxies from Parramatta (NSW, Australia) using a 23-cm reflecting telescope. Initially acclaimed, the catalogue and author were later criticised and condemned by others - including Sir John Herschel and both the catalogue and author are now largely unknown. The criticism of the catalogue centred on the large number of fictitious or ‘missing’ objects, yet detailed analysis reveals the remarkable completeness of the catalogue, despite its inherent errors. We believe that James Dunlop was an important early Australian astronomer, and his catalogue should be esteemed as the southern equivalent of Messier's famous northern catalogue.

  10. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  11. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  12. James Welch's Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines Surrealism, its definition, and history through example. Special emphasis is on James Welch, a Blackfeet poet from Montana with a comic way of viewing the world in a surrealistic fashion. (RTS)

  13. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling for the 1999 Hector Mine Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.

    2003-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of studies finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Other studies find the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993; Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for attenuation, radiation inhomogeneities, bandwidth and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We try to improve upon earlier results by using consistent techniques over common paths for a wide range of sizes and seismic phases. We have examined about 130 earthquakes from the Hector Mine earthquake sequence in Southern California. These earthquakes range in size from the October 16,1999 Mw=7.1 mainshock down to ML=3.0 aftershocks into 2000. The mainshock has unclipped Pg and Lg phases at a number of high quality regional stations (e.g. CMB, ELK, TUC) where we can use the common path to examine apparent stress scaling relations directly. We are careful to avoid any event selection bias that would be related to apparent stress values. We fix each stations path correction using the independent moment and energy estimates for the mainshock. We then use those corrections to determine the seismic energy for each event based on regional Lg spectra. We use a modeling technique (MDAC) based on a modified Brune (1970) spectral shape but without any assumptions of corner-frequency scaling (Walter and Taylor, 2002). We perform similar analysis using the Pg spectra. We find the energy estimates for the same events are consistent for Lg estimates, Pg estimates and the estimates using the independent regional coda envelope technique (Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al

  14. Hector Garcia Middle School: A School's Design Aspires to Live Up to Its Name

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Brown discusses the history of Hector Garcia, a Mexican immigrant who, as U.S. Army captain, worked diligently to assist minority servicemen in navigating the Veterans Administration, and found the GI Forum. Dr. Garcia's activism, through the Forum, was instrumental in desegregating hospitals, swimming pools, schools and cemeteries. Brown's case…

  15. Earthquake triggering by seismic waves following the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, J; Reasenberg, P A; Bodin, P; Harris, R A

    2001-05-24

    The proximity and similarity of the 1992, magnitude 7.3 Landers and 1999, magnitude 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California permit testing of earthquake triggering hypotheses not previously possible. The Hector Mine earthquake confirmed inferences that transient, oscillatory 'dynamic' deformations radiated as seismic waves can trigger seismicity rate increases, as proposed for the Landers earthquake. Here we quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of the seismicity rate changes. The seismicity rate increase was to the north for the Landers earthquake and primarily to the south for the Hector Mine earthquake. We suggest that rupture directivity results in elevated dynamic deformations north and south of the Landers and Hector Mine faults, respectively, as evident in the asymmetry of the recorded seismic velocity fields. Both dynamic and static stress changes seem important for triggering in the near field with dynamic stress changes dominating at greater distances. Peak seismic velocities recorded for each earthquake suggest the existence of, and place bounds on, dynamic triggering thresholds. These thresholds vary from a few tenths to a few MPa in most places, depend on local conditions, and exceed inferred static thresholds by more than an order of magnitude. At some sites, the onset of triggering was delayed until after the dynamic deformations subsided. Physical mechanisms consistent with all these observations may be similar to those that give rise to liquefaction or cyclic fatigue.

  16. Earthquake triggering by seismic waves following the landers and hector mine earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Harris, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The proximity and similarity of the 1992, magnitude 7.3 Landers and 1999, magnitude 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California permit testing of earthquake triggering hypotheses not previously possible. The Hector Mine earthquake confirmed inferences that transient, oscillatory 'dynamic' deformations radiated as seismic waves can trigger seismicity rate increases, as proposed for the Landers earthquake1-6. Here we quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of the seismicity rate changes7. The seismicity rate increase was to the north for the Landers earthquake and primarily to the south for the Hector Mine earthquake. We suggest that rupture directivity results in elevated dynamic deformations north and south of the Landers and Hector Mine faults, respectively, as evident in the asymmetry of the recorded seismic velocity fields. Both dynamic and static stress changes seem important for triggering in the near field with dynamic stress changes dominating at greater distances. Peak seismic velocities recorded for each earthquake suggest the existence of, and place bounds on, dynamic triggering thresholds. These thresholds vary from a few tenths to a few MPa in most places, depend on local conditions, and exceed inferred static thresholds by more than an order of magnitude. At some sites, the onset of triggering was delayed until after the dynamic deformations subsided. Physical mechanisms consistent with all these observations may be similar to those that give rise to liquefaction or cyclic fatigue.

  17. Near-field postseismic deformation associated with the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    After the Landers earthquake (Mw = 7.3, 1992.489) a linear array of 10 monuments extending about 30 km N50??E on either side of the earthquake rupture plus a nearby offtrend reference monument were surveyed frequently by GPS until 2003.2. The array also spans the rupture of the subsequent Hector Mine earthquake (Mw = 7.1, 1999.792 . The pre-Landers velocities of monuments in the array relative to interior North America were estimated from earlier trilateration and very long baseline interferometry measurements. Except at the reference monument, the post-Landers velocities of the individual monuments in the array relaxed to their preseismic values within 4 years. Following the Hector Mine earthquake the velocities of the monuments relaxed to steady rates within 1 year. Those steady rates for the east components are about equal to the pre-Landers rates as is the steady rate for the north component of the one monument east of the Hector Mine rupture. However, the steady rates for the north components of the 10 monuments west of the rupture are systematically ???10 mm yr1 larger than the pre-Landers rates. The relaxation to a steady rate is approximately exponential with decay times of 0.50 ?? 0.10 year following the Landers earthquake and 0.32 ?? 0.18 year following the Hector Mine earthquake. The postearthquake motions of the Landers array following the Landers earthquake are not well approximated by the viscoelastic-coupling model of Pollitz et al. [2000]. A similar viscoelastic-coupling model [Pollitz et al., 2001] is more successful in representing the deformation after the Hector Mine earthquake.

  18. Transient stress-coupling between the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterlark, Timothy; Wang, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) of the Mojave block region in southern California is constructed to investigate transient stress-coupling between the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes. The FEM simulates a poroelastic upper-crust layer coupled to a viscoelastic lower-crust layer, which is decoupled from the upper mantle. FEM predictions of the transient mechanical behavior of the crust are constrained by global positioning system (GPS) data, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, fluid-pressure data from water wells, and the dislocation source of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Two time-dependent parameters, hydraulic diffusivity of the upper crust and viscosity of the lower crust, are calibrated to 10–2 m2·sec–1 and 5 × 1018 Pa·sec respectively. The hydraulic diffusivity is relatively insensitive to heterogeneous fault-zone permeability specifications and fluid-flow boundary conditions along the elastic free-surface at the top of the problem domain. The calibrated FEM is used to predict the evolution of Coulomb stress during the interval separating the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes. The predicted change in Coulomb stress near the hypocenter of the Hector Mine earthquake increases from 0.02 to 0.05 MPa during the 7-yr interval separating the two events. This increase is primarily attributed to the recovery of decreased excess fluid pressure from the 1992 Landers coseismic (undrained) strain field. Coulomb stress predictions are insensitive to small variations of fault-plane dip and hypocentral depth estimations of the Hector Mine rupture.

  19. Hector: a new massively multiplexed IFU instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Julia J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Croom, Scott; Brown, David; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Zhelem, Ross; Content, Robert; Saunders, Will; Staszak, Nicholas F.; van de Sande, Jesse; Couch, Warrick; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Tims, Julia; McDermid, Richard; Schaefer, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Hector[1,2,3] will be the new massively-multiplexed integral field spectroscopy (IFS) instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) in Australia and the next main dark-time instrument for the observatory. Based on the success of the SAMI instrument, which is undertaking a 3400-galaxy survey, the integral field unit (IFU) imaging fibre bundle (hexabundle) technology under-pinning SAMI is being improved to a new innovative design for Hector. The distribution of hexabundle angular sizes is matched to the galaxy survey properties in order to image 90% of galaxies out to 2 effective radii. 50-100 of these IFU imaging bundles will be positioned by `starbug' robots across a new 3-degree field corrector top end to be purpose-built for the AAT. Many thousand fibres will then be fed into new replicable spectrographs. Fundamentally new science will be achieved compared to existing instruments due to Hector's wider field of view (3 degrees), high positioning efficiency using starbugs, higher spectroscopic resolution (R=3000-5500 from 3727-7761Å, with a possible redder extension later) and large IFUs (up to 30 arcsec diameter with 61-217 fibre cores). A 100,000 galaxy IFS survey with Hector will decrypt how the accretion and merger history and large-scale environment made every galaxy different in its morphology and star formation history. The high resolution, particularly in the blue, will make Hector the only instrument to be able to measure higher-order kinematics for galaxies down to much lower velocity dispersion than in current large IFS galaxy surveys, opening up a wealth of new nearby galaxy science.

  20. James Joule and meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1989 was the hundredth anniversary of the death of James Prescott Joule, the Prescott being his mother's family name and the Joule, rhyming with cool, originating from the Derbyshire village of Youlgreave. Joule is rightly famous for his experimental efforts to establish the law of conservation of energy, and for the fact that J, the symbol known as the mechanical equivalent of heat, is named after him. Astronomically his "light has been hidden under a bushel". James Joule had a major influence on the physics of meteors.

  1. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    PubMed

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  2. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  3. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  4. The James Report Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    2008-01-01

    The 1972 Report of the Government's Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Education and Training (James Report) suggested radical changes, many of which conflicted both with the interests of existing providers and with emerging policies on the organisation of higher education. Its proposals concerning in-service education, whilst generally welcomed,…

  5. James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers).

  6. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  7. Teaching James Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  8. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  9. Winter Naming: James Welch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  10. The James Report Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    2008-01-01

    The 1972 Report of the Government's Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Education and Training (James Report) suggested radical changes, many of which conflicted both with the interests of existing providers and with emerging policies on the organisation of higher education. Its proposals concerning in-service education, whilst generally welcomed,…

  11. Reply to James Muir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2004-01-01

    In "EPAT", vol. 36, no. 1, 2004, James Muir takes the author and fellow philosophers of education to task for their ignorance of the history of philosophy of education. "[T]oo many currently influential educationists, Professor White in particular, are literally unaware that educational philosophy has a history more than three hundred years in…

  12. Winter Naming: James Welch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  13. Teaching James Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  14. Hector - Next Generation Multi-Object IFU for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2016-10-01

    Hector will be the new massively-multiplexed IFU spectrograph for the Anglo-Australian Observatory in Australia and the next main dark-time instrument for the observatory. Based on the success of the SAMI instrument, which is undergoing the largest galaxy survey done to-date, the hexabundle technology underpinning SAMI is being improved to a new innovative design and scaled up in numbers to give 50-100 IFU imaging bundles across a 2 or 3-degree field. 'Starbug' robots will position the hexabundles across the field plate and several thousand fibers will then be fed into new replicable spectrographs. First prototypes will be on-sky in mid-2016, with full instrument build expected to take ˜5 years. Hector will allow a survey of 100,000 nearby galaxies, sufficient to disentangle intertwined processes in order to investigate the buildup of angular momentum in galaxies and how gas gets into and out of galaxies.

  15. William James's Talks about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 years after it was published, William James's (1899/1939) book, "Talks to Teachers on Psychology," is relevant and helpful for teachers and those who aspire to teach. In this article, I highlight certain memorable points in "Talks" and relate them to James's (1890) classic work, "The Principles of Psychology." Many of James's…

  16. William James on Teaching Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes philosopher William James' writings on political representation and participatory democracy. Although he argued in favor of democratic principles, James also strongly supported the role of a well-educated elite serving as leaders. Attempts to reconcile these contradictory positions and considers James' influence on the development of…

  17. Hector Berlioz and his Vesuvius: an analysis of historical evidence from an epileptological perspective.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The epileptologically informed in-depth analysis of auto- and heteroanamnestic historical sources supports the hypothesis that Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) might have suffered from a photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with absences, absence status, myoclonic seizures, and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. The study outlines the possible influence of the composer's probable epilepsy on his literary and musical oeuvre, including the Symphonie fantastique en cinq parties.

  18. On the reported ionospheric precursor of the Hector Mine, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.N.; Love, J.J.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O.P.; Butala, M.; Rivera, N.

    2012-01-01

    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) data from sites near the 16 Oct. 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake, Pulinets et al. (2007) identified anomalous changes in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) starting one week prior to the earthquake. Pulinets (2007) suggested that precursory phenomena of this type could be useful for predicting earthquakes. On the other hand, and in a separate analysis, Afraimovich et al. (2004) concluded that TEC variations near the epicenter were controlled by solar and geomagnetic activity that were unrelated to the earthquake. In an investigation of these very different results, we examine TEC time series of long duration from GPS stations near and far from the epicenter of the Hector Mine earthquake, and long before and long after the earthquake. While we can reproduce the essential time series results of Pulinets et al., we find that the signal they identified as being anomalous is not actually anomalous. Instead, it is just part of normal global-scale TEC variation. We conclude that the TEC anomaly reported by Pulinets et al. is unrelated to the Hector Mine earthquake.

  19. On the reported ionospheric precursor of the 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jeremy N.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Butala, Mark; Rivera, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) data from sites near the 16 Oct. 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake, Pulinets et al. (2007) identified anomalous changes in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) starting one week prior to the earthquake. Pulinets (2007) suggested that precursory phenomena of this type could be useful for predicting earthquakes. On the other hand, and in a separate analysis, Afraimovich et al. (2004) concluded that TEC variations near the epicenter were controlled by solar and geomagnetic activity that were unrelated to the earthquake. In an investigation of these very different results, we examine TEC time series of long duration from GPS stations near and far from the epicenter of the Hector Mine earthquake, and long before and long after the earthquake. While we can reproduce the essential time series results of Pulinets et al., we find that the signal they identify as anomalous is not actually anomalous. Instead, it is just part of normal global-scale TEC variation. We conclude that the TEC anomaly reported by Pulinets et al. is unrelated to the Hector Mine earthquake.

  20. A nonlinear SIR with stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisilowati, Darti, I.; Fitri, S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of a nonlinear susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) epidemic model with vaccination. We analyze the stability of the model by linearizing the model around the equilibrium point. Then, diphtheria data from East Java province is fitted to the model. From these estimated parameters, we investigate which parameters that play important role in the epidemic model. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results and the behavior of the model.

  1. Sir Busick Harwood: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Sir Busick Harwood was Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge from 1785 to 1814 and simultaneously Downing Professor of Medicine from 1800 to 1814. Some historical accounts suggest that he was not highly regarded either as a scientist or a teacher, and this note attempts to restore his academic reputation and show how his achievements helped to initiate improvements in medical education at that time. PMID:6358728

  2. James R. Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    James R. Thompon served as director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from September 29, 1986 until July 6, 1989, when he was appointed as NASA Deputy Administrator. Prior to his tenure as Marshall's Director, Thompson served from March to June 1986 as the vice-chairman of the NASA task force investigating the cause of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. He was credited with playing a significant role in returning the Space Shuttle to flight following the Challenger disaster.

  3. The 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake: A test of the stress shadow hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    We test the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions by examining the relationship between two large earthquakes that occurred in the Mojave Desert of southern California, the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. We want to determine if the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake occurred at a location where the Coulomb stress was increased (earthquake advance, stress trigger) or decreased (earthquake delay, stress shadow) by the previous large earthquake. Using four models of the Landers rupture and a range of possible hypocentral planes for the Hector Mine earthquake, we discover that most scenarios yield a Landers-induced relaxation (stress shadow) on the Hector Mine hypocentral plane. Although this result would seem to weigh against the stress shadow hypothesis, the results become considerably more uncertain when the effects of a nearby Landers aftershock, the 1992 ML 5.4 Pisgah earthquake, are taken into account. We calculate the combined static Coulomb stress changes due to the Landers and Pisgah earthquakes to range from -0.3 to +0.3 MPa (- 3 to +3 bars) at the possible Hector Mine hypocenters, depending on choice of rupture model and hypocenter. These varied results imply that the Hector Mine earthquake does not provide a good test of the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions. We use a simple approach, that of static dislocations in an elastic half-space, yet we still obtain a wide range of both negative and positive Coulomb stress changes. Our findings serve as a caution that more complex models purporting to explain the triggering or shadowing relationship between the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes need to also consider the parametric and geometric uncertainties raised here.

  4. The SIR-B science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) will be the third in a series of spaceborne SAR experiments conducted by NASA which began with the 1978 launch of SEASAT and continued with the 1981 launch of SIR-A. Like SEASAT and SIR-A, SIR-B will operate at L-band and will be horizontally polarized. However, SIR-B will allow digitally processed imagery to be acquired at selectable incidence angles between 15 and 60 deg, thereby permitting, for the first time, parametric studies of the effect of illumination geometry on SAR image information extraction. This document presents a science plan for SIR-B and serves as a reference for the types of geoscientific, sensor, and processing experiments which are possible.

  5. A fractional-order infectivity SIR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, C. N.; Henry, B. I.; McGann, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Fractional-order SIR models have become increasingly popular in the literature in recent years, however unlike the standard SIR model, they often lack a derivation from an underlying stochastic process. Here we derive a fractional-order infectivity SIR model from a stochastic process that incorporates a time-since-infection dependence on the infectivity of individuals. The fractional derivative appears in the generalised master equations of a continuous time random walk through SIR compartments, with a power-law function in the infectivity. We show that this model can also be formulated as an infection-age structured Kermack-McKendrick integro-differential SIR model. Under the appropriate limit the fractional infectivity model reduces to the standard ordinary differential equation SIR model.

  6. The fatal wound of Hector, according to a drawing by Peter Paul Rubens designed for tapestry weaving.

    PubMed

    Rubino, M; Viale, G L

    2001-02-01

    According to the Iliad(Chapter XXII, Verses 322-329), Hector, while fighting his last duel, was almost entirely protected by bronze armor, with only a small area "where the clavicle marks the boundary between neck and thorax" exposed. It was precisely into this area, "the shorter way to death," that Achilles thrust his lance. This fatal wound, although covering Hector with blood, allowed the victim to pronounce a few words. In designing the Story of Achilles, his fourth and last series of drawings especially designed for tapestry weaving, Rubens depicted Achilles stabbing Hector near the midline of his neck. There is evidence that Rubens was always well acquainted with the literary sources of his pictures. It is also likely that he became familiar with contemporary editions of the Iliad that were enhanced with commentaries. Realizing that the wound depicted in his original drawing should have prevented Hector from speaking, Rubens altered the scene, then showing the lance piercing the cervical vascular bundle. The careful scrutiny for literary accuracy that was typical of Rubens' artistic behavior did not prevent an additional minor imprecision in the final tapestry. Nevertheless, his outstanding expressive power enabled him to give form to a gigantic baroque representation of the death of Hector in masterly fashion.

  7. Properties of the SIRS suppressor pathway.

    PubMed

    Aune, T M; Pierce, C W

    1983-01-01

    The SIRS suppressor pathway is initiated by activation of Ly 2+ T lymphocytes by either con A or IFN beta. SIRS is a protein which has been purified and exists as two species with mol. wts. of 14,000 and 21,500. The target of SIRS is the macrophage and macrophages appear to oxidize or activate SIRS in a peroxide dependent process. Catalase blocks SIRS or IFN beta action by consuming H2O2 and levamisole blocks SIRS or IFN beta by preventing activation or oxidation of SIRS by H2O2. Other agents which block SIRS or IFN beta action include electron donors which can inactivate SIRSox. SIRSox is a potent inhibitor of immune responses and proliferation of normal and neoplastic cells. The mechanism of SIRSox-mediated inhibition of proliferation appears to involve oxidation or modification of protein sulfhydryls. Although the applicability of this pathway to the regulation of immune responses and cellular proliferation remains to be determined, both IFN beta and levamisole have been found to affect a wide variety of cellular processes. The involvement of both IFN beta and levamisole in the SIRS pathway suggests that this pathway may be an important host mechanism for regulating both immune responses and cellular proliferation in general.

  8. Parallelization of the SIR code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonhofer, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Utz, D.; Jurčak, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Piantschitsch, I.; Pauritsch, J.; Lemmerer, B.; Guttenbrunner, S.

    A high-resolution 3-dimensional model of the photospheric magnetic field is essential for the investigation of small-scale solar magnetic phenomena. The SIR code is an advanced Stokes-inversion code that deduces physical quantities, e.g. magnetic field vector, temperature, and LOS velocity, from spectropolarimetric data. We extended this code by the capability of directly using large data sets and inverting the pixels in parallel. Due to this parallelization it is now feasible to apply the code directly on extensive data sets. Besides, we included the possibility to use different initial model atmospheres for the inversion, which enhances the quality of the results.

  9. Joint Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott Joule, James

    2011-06-01

    Experiments and observations on the mechanical powers of electro-magnetism, steam, and horses with Dr. Scoresby; On atomic volume and specific gravity with Sir Lyon Playfair; On the thermal effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of elastic fluids with Sir Wm. Thomson; On the thermal effects of fluids in motion with Sir Wm. Thomson.

  10. James E. Webb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    James E. Webb served as the second Administrator for NASA from February 14, 1961, to October 7, 1968. Webb was born on October 7, 1906, in Tally Ho, North Carolina. After receiving a B.A. in Education from the University of North Carolina, he went on to serve as a pilot in the Marine Corps and later graduated from George Washington University with a law degree. Webb worked in various positions on Capitol Hill until World War II when he re-entered the Marine Corps. After the war Webb served as the executive assistant to the Under Secretary of the Treasury before he was appointed Director of the Bureau of the Budget in the Executive Office of the President. During the Truman Administration Webb served as the Under Secretary of State until he joined the private sector in 1953. James Webb guided the agency through the Apollo years, taking responsibility for the failure of Apollo 1 and the death of three astronauts. He retired in 1968 and served on many advisory boards. He died in 1992.

  11. Hector Copland Macpherson (1888-1956), Clergyman, educator, lecturer and writer on astronomy and its history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, M. T.; Gavine, D. M.

    2011-02-01

    Hector Macpherson was the author of several well-known books on astronomy during the first half of the last century, his magnum opus, a Biographical Dictionary of Astronomy (1940), was for various reasons not published in his lifetime, and was not widely distributed. Now, after a long lapse of years, it has achieved its due recognition, having served as a core element in the recent Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (2007), to which Macpherson himself thus becomes a posthumous contributor. In this paper we recall the career of this energetic promoter of astronomy and significant recorder of its history and personalities.

  12. An atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii as a cause of mortality in Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    PubMed

    Roe, W D; Howe, L; Baker, E J; Burrows, L; Hunter, S A

    2013-02-18

    Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are a small endangered coastal species that are endemic to New Zealand. Anthropogenic factors, particularly accidental capture in fishing nets, are believed to be the biggest threat to survival of this species. The role of infectious disease as a cause of mortality has not previously been well investigated. This study investigates Toxoplasma gondii infection in Hector's dolphins, finding that 7 of 28 (25%) dolphins examined died due to disseminated toxoplasmosis, including 2 of 3 Maui's dolphins, a critically endangered sub-species. A further 10 dolphins had one or more tissues that were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA using PCR. Genotyping revealed that 7 of 8 successfully amplified isolates were an atypical Type II genotype. Fatal cases had necrotising and haemorrhagic lesions in the lung (n=7), lymph nodes (n=6), liver (n=4) and adrenals (n=3). Tachyzoites and tissue cysts were present in other organs including the brain (n=5), heart (n=1), stomach (n=1) and uterus (n=1) with minimal associated inflammatory response. One dolphin had a marked suppurative metritis in the presence of numerous intra-epithelial tachyzoites. No dolphins had underlying morbillivirus infection. This study provides the first evidence that infectious agents could be important in the population decline of this species, and highlights the need for further research into the route of entry of T. gondii organisms into the marine environment worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Hector Survey: integral field spectroscopy of 100,000 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2015-02-01

    In March 2013, the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) began a major survey of 3400 galaxies at the AAT, the largest of its kind to date. At the time of writing, over a third of the targets have been observed and the scientific impact has been immediate. The Manga galaxy survey has now started at the SDSS telescope and will target an even larger sample of nearby galaxies. In Australia, the community is now gearing up to deliver a major new facility called Hector that will allow integral field spectroscopy of 100 galaxies observed simultaneously. By the close of the decade, it will be possible to obtain integral field spectroscopy of 100,000 galaxies over 3000 square degrees of sky down to r=17 (median). Many of these objects will have HI imaging from the new ASKAP radio surveys. We discuss the motivation for such a survey and the use of new cosmological simulations that are properly matched to the integral field observations. The Hector survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  14. An isentropic perspective of the atmospheric overturning induced by Hector the Convector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Mascart, Patrick; Pauluis, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The overturning inside Hector the Convector, a tropical multicellular convective system of the Northern Australia that regularly overshoots into the stratosphere, is synthesized at the scale of a Large-Eddy Simulation (Dauhut et al., 2015). The isentropic analysis offers the advantage to filter out the reversible motions due to the gravity waves and to take into account the turbulent fluxes that contribute to the vertical transport. Two key circulations are evidenced: the troposphere-deep overturning and the mass exchange due to the overshoots into the stratosphere. The transition from deep to very deep convection is associated with a change in the diabatic tendency inside the tallest updrafts: the latent heat release due to the freezing of a large amount of hydrometeors overrode the loss of energy due to mixing with the drier, colder air of the environment. In agreement with a previous study of Hector examining the properties of its two tallest updrafts (Dauhut et al., 2016), the entrainment rate exhibits a minimum during the very deep convection phase, as low as 0.04 /km. The two-stream approximation corroborates the Eulerian computation of the vertical mass flux in the mid-troposphere and in the lower stratosphere. It however gives a lower estimate of the flux in the upper troposphere, filtering out the reversible motions, and a larger estimate in the lower troposphere and at the tropopause, where slow vertical motions contribute significantly to the transport.

  15. Variants of the Sir4 Coiled-Coil Domain Improve Binding to Sir3 for Heterochromatin Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Samel, Anke; Rudner, Adam; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by the assembly of the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) complex, which consists of the histone deacetylase Sir2 and the structural components Sir3 and Sir4, and binds to unmodified nucleosomes to provide gene silencing. Sir3 contains an AAA+ ATPase-like domain, and mutations in an exposed loop on the surface of this domain abrogate Sir3 silencing function in vivo, as well in vitro binding to the Sir2/Sir4 subcomplex. Here, we found that the removal of a single methyl group in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain (mutation T1314S) of Sir4 was sufficient to restore silencing at the silent mating-type loci HMR and HML to a Sir3 version with a mutation in this loop. Restoration of telomeric silencing required further mutations of Sir4 (E1310V and K1325R). Significantly, these mutations in Sir4 restored in vitro complex formation between Sir3 and the Sir4 coiled-coil, indicating that the improved affinity between Sir3 and Sir4 is responsible for the restoration of silencing. Altogether, these observations highlight remarkable properties of selected amino-acid changes at the Sir3-Sir4 interface that modulate the affinity of the two proteins. PMID:28188183

  16. Variants of the Sir4 Coiled-Coil Domain Improve Binding to Sir3 for Heterochromatin Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Samel, Anke; Rudner, Adam; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E

    2017-04-03

    Heterochromatin formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by the assembly of the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) complex, which consists of the histone deacetylase Sir2 and the structural components Sir3 and Sir4, and binds to unmodified nucleosomes to provide gene silencing. Sir3 contains an AAA(+) ATPase-like domain, and mutations in an exposed loop on the surface of this domain abrogate Sir3 silencing function in vivo, as well in vitro binding to the Sir2/Sir4 subcomplex. Here, we found that the removal of a single methyl group in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain (mutation T1314S) of Sir4 was sufficient to restore silencing at the silent mating-type loci HMR and HML to a Sir3 version with a mutation in this loop. Restoration of telomeric silencing required further mutations of Sir4 (E1310V and K1325R). Significantly, these mutations in Sir4 restored in vitro complex formation between Sir3 and the Sir4 coiled-coil, indicating that the improved affinity between Sir3 and Sir4 is responsible for the restoration of silencing. Altogether, these observations highlight remarkable properties of selected amino-acid changes at the Sir3-Sir4 interface that modulate the affinity of the two proteins.

  17. Sir William Turner (1832-1916) - Lancastrian, anatomist and champion of the Victorian era.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Quenton; Correia, Janine Carla; Taylor, Adam M

    2016-11-01

    Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister.

  18. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  19. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  20. Maniac Talk - Dr. James Garvin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    James Garvin Maniac Lecture, 28 May 2014 Dr. James Garvin, Chief Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, presented a Maniac Talk entitled "From Brownian Motion to Mars, by way of hockey on the rocks." Jim shared how his passion for rocks and landscapes drove him to promote new remote sensing approaches for measuring their topologies and led to founding of the Mars Science Laboratory and its Curiosity Rover.

  1. Analysis of novel Sir3 binding regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Risa; Ohashi, Tomoe; Kugou, Kazuto; Ichino, Ayako; Taniguchi, Kei; Ohta, Kunihiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oki, Masaya

    2016-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HMR, HML, telomere and rDNA regions are silenced. Silencing at the rDNA region requires Sir2, and silencing at the HMR, HML and telomere regions requires binding of a protein complex, consisting of Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4, that mediates repression of gene expression. Here, several novel Sir3 binding domains, termed CN domains (Chromosomal Novel Sir3 binding region), were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip analysis of S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Furthermore, analysis of G1-arrested cells demonstrated that Sir3 binding was elevated in G1-arrested cells compared with logarithmically growing asynchronous cells, and that Sir3 binding varied with the cell cycle. In addition to 14 CN regions identified from analysis of logarithmically growing asynchronous cells (CN1-14), 11 CN regions were identified from G1-arrested cells (CN15-25). Gene expression at some CN regions did not differ between WT and sir3Δ strains. Sir3 at conventional heterochromatic regions is thought to be recruited to chromosomes by Sir2 and Sir4; however, in this study, Sir3 binding occurred at some CN regions even in sir2Δ and sir4Δ backgrounds. Taken together, our results suggest that Sir3 exhibits novel binding parameters and gene regulatory functions at the CN binding domains.

  2. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, David

    2015-06-01

    Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.

  3. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

  4. Amplitude calibration experiment for SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and expected results of the amplitude calibration experiment for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) are outlined. Specific objectives include: (1) the determination of the repeatability (stability) of the SIR-B; (2) the absolute and relative calibration of the system; and (3) the ground truth verification of the calibration accuracy using measurements made by a ground spectrometer and an airborne synthetic aperture radar.

  5. The SIR-B science investigations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) is the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to be flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Transportation System (Shuttle). It is the first spaceborne SAR to feature an antenna that allows acquisition of multiincidence angle imagery. An international team of scientists will use SIR-B to conduct investigations in a wide range of disciplines. The radar, the mission, and the investigations are described.

  6. The strange case of Sir Henry Gray.

    PubMed

    Adam, A; Hutchison, J D; Scotland, T R

    2010-02-01

    Sir Henry Williamson Gray was a prominent Aberdeen surgeon who took up the post of Chief of Surgery at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal in 1923. In what subsequently became known as "The Sir Henry Williamson Gray Affair" in the annals of McGill University, his career was ruined and his reputation left in tatters. The authors examine the available evidence and conclude that Gray was treated unfairly. They hope they have helped restore his name and reputation.

  7. Deep convection in the tropical area: Hector a case study using TRMM data and high resolution model simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Silvio Marzano, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The tropics are one of the most important regions for the exchange and transport of water vapor and chemical species from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere; changes in emissions of chemicals at the ground or how quickly they are carried aloft could cause the chemistry of the stratosphere to change and as a consequence the net radiative balance. The tropical storms are one of the main devices for this type of interaction. In Australia, the tropical thunderstorms have different possible sources; in particular the development of equatorial events is related to convergence zones typical of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). One of the deepest convective systems of the globe is the tropical thunderstorm Hector that develops almost daily in the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin city (tropical northern Australia), during the pre-monsoon period and break monsoon. The thunderstorm Hector has been observed to reach to altitudes of 20 km and thus potentially in the lower stratosphere, so it represents one of processes for exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Hector is the topics of numerous campaigns because of difficulties in its predictability: during the SCOUT-O3 project (Stratosphere-Climate Links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere), a campaign was held on Tiwi Islands to the purposes of improving the understanding of the interaction between convection and the tropical tropopause layer. In the framework of this UE project a study of Hector tropical thunderstorm is performed to the aim of evaluating the vertical transport. The triggering factor together with the microphysical structure of this deep tropical cyclone has been investigated using MM5V3 and the new model WRF with data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and from TRMM Microwave Imager. A comparison between the hydrometers retrieved by the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and the one detected by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has been carried out. The model

  8. A Simple Object-Oriented and Open Source Model for Scientific and Policy Analyses of the Global Carbon Cycle-Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Patel, P.; Link, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used in climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe, Hector an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes, e.g., carbon fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, and respiration and primary production on land. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The terrestrial carbon cycle is represented by a simple design with respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. The ocean carbon cycle actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the large-scale global trends found in historical data of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature and simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways. Hector's results compare well with current observations of critical climate variables, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), as well as, model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector has the ability to be a key analytical tool used across many scientific and policy communities due to its modern software architecture, open source, and object-oriented structure. In particular, Hector can be used to emulate larger complex models to help fill gaps in scenario coverage for future scenario processes.

  9. Evolution and Functional Trajectory of Sir1 in Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ellahi, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    We used the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii to examine the evolution of Sir-based silencing, focusing on Sir1, silencers, the molecular topography of silenced chromatin, and the roles of SIR and RNA interference (RNAi) genes in T. delbrueckii. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis of Sir proteins in T. delbrueckii revealed a different topography of chromatin at the HML and HMR loci than was observed in S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae Sir1, enriched at the silencers of HMLα and HMRa, was absent from telomeres and did not repress subtelomeric genes. In contrast to S. cerevisiae SIR1's partially dispensable role in silencing, the T. delbrueckii SIR1 paralog KOS3 was essential for silencing. KOS3 was also found at telomeres with T. delbrueckii Sir2 (Td-Sir2) and Td-Sir4 and repressed subtelomeric genes. Silencer mapping in T. delbrueckii revealed single silencers at HML and HMR, bound by Td-Kos3, Td-Sir2, and Td-Sir4. The KOS3 gene mapped near HMR, and its expression was regulated by Sir-based silencing, providing feedback regulation of a silencing protein by silencing. In contrast to the prominent role of Sir proteins in silencing, T. delbrueckii RNAi genes AGO1 and DCR1 did not function in heterochromatin formation. These results highlighted the shifting role of silencing genes and the diverse chromatin architectures underlying heterochromatin. PMID:26811328

  10. Evolution and Functional Trajectory of Sir1 in Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Ellahi, Aisha; Rine, Jasper

    2016-01-25

    We used the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii to examine the evolution of Sir-based silencing, focusing on Sir1, silencers, the molecular topography of silenced chromatin, and the roles of SIR and RNA interference (RNAi) genes in T. delbrueckii. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis of Sir proteins in T. delbrueckii revealed a different topography of chromatin at the HML and HMR loci than was observed in S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae Sir1, enriched at the silencers of HMLα and HMR A: , was absent from telomeres and did not repress subtelomeric genes. In contrast to S. cerevisiae SIR1's partially dispensable role in silencing, the T. delbrueckii SIR1 paralog KOS3 was essential for silencing. KOS3 was also found at telomeres with T. delbrueckii Sir2 (Td-Sir2) and Td-Sir4 and repressed subtelomeric genes. Silencer mapping in T. delbrueckii revealed single silencers at HML and HMR, bound by Td-Kos3, Td-Sir2, and Td-Sir4. The KOS3 gene mapped near HMR, and its expression was regulated by Sir-based silencing, providing feedback regulation of a silencing protein by silencing. In contrast to the prominent role of Sir proteins in silencing, T. delbrueckii RNAi genes AGO1 and DCR1 did not function in heterochromatin formation. These results highlighted the shifting role of silencing genes and the diverse chromatin architectures underlying heterochromatin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Sir Laurence Kirwan, KCMG, TD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. M. W.

    Sir Laurence Kirwan, Director and Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society from 1945 to 1975, and one of the founders of the Institute, of which he was an Honorary Member, died in London on 16 April 1999 aged 91. The events that took place early in 1946, and led to the foundation of the Institute of Navigation the following year, have been well documented by Pat Hansford in his article in the special issue of the Journal (September 1997) published to commemorate the Institute's fiftieth anniversary. Kirwan was a member of the original Steering Committee and then of the Provisional Council which undertook the preliminary work that culminated in the inaugural meeting in March 1947. He served on the first elected Council as Chairman of the Executive Committee, which in those days assumed responsibility for administering the Institute between meetings of the Council.In his article, Hansford recalls how the Royal Society, when approached about the formation of the Institute, had suggested that (in the somewhat uncertain situation immediately after the war) the new body might thrive best, at any rate to start with, under the aegis of an existing scientific society with similar objectives. Kirwan, then the recently appointed Director of the Royal Geographical Society, took the suggestion up by proposing various ways in which the RGS might assist the new body, and notably by offering it accommodation; and the Institute has, of course, been at the Society's house ever since. The original accommodation was not lavish but, quite apart from the prestigious address and pleasant and appropriate surroundings, the facilities available included the use of the Society's lecture theatre and the Council and committee rooms. It is difficult to see how the new body, with a handful of members and no money, could have survived without some such assistance. But it was perhaps at a deeper level that the arrangement was to prove so influential, for it brought the young Institute into

  12. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: Postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Wicks, C.; Thatcher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Two recent large earthquakes in the Mojave Desert, California - the magnitude 7.3 1992 Landers and magnitude 7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes - have each been fog[owed by elevated crustal strain rates over periods of months and years. Geodetic data collected after the Hector Mine earthquake exhibit a temporaLLy decaying horizOntaL velocity field and a quadrant uplift pattern opposite to that expected for LocaLized shear beneath the earthquake rupture. We interpret the origin of this accelerated crustal deformation to be vigorous flow in the upper mantle in response to the stress changes generated by the earthquake. Our results suggest that transient flow in the upper mantle is a fundamental component of the earthquake cycle and that the Lower crust is a coherent stress guide coupling the upper crust with the upper mantle.

  13. Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1735): his life and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stanley A

    2010-01-01

    Sir Hans Sloane was born in Killyleagh, Co Down, the seventh and last son of Alexander Sloane. His father, who was of Scottish ancestry, had a long association with James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil who had acquired the castle in Killyleagh and extensive estates in east Down. The Hamilton family took an interest in the education of the Sloane children, and much of the early tuition of Hans was conducted within the library of Killyleagh Castle. In 1679 he moved to London to study medicine and botany. In 1683, he continued his studies in Paris and Montpellier, and graduated from the University of Orange. On his return to London, he became a protégé of Thomas Sydenham. In 1687 he was appointed physician to the Duke of Albemarle and surgeon to the West Indies fleet. While in Jamaica he added countless specimens to his collections, continuing a lifetime passion. He also invented milk chocolate there. Following the untimely death of the duke, he returned to London and built up a fashionable medical practice. He married Elizabeth Langley, heiress of a wealthy city alderman, and widow of a sugar planter in Jamaica. They set up house in Great Russell Street. The family home accommodated his burgeoning collections of books, specimens and curiosities. In 1685 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, later becoming the honorary secretary and president. Following his death, his collections were bought for the nation and formed the foundation of the British Museum. PMID:20844729

  14. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  15. Sir Harold Ridley: innovator of cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, H; Modi, N

    2014-09-01

    Cataract surgery has evolved greatly over the years, from the ancient practice of 'couching' where the lens is dislodged, to the modern surgical techniques of today. Sir Harold Ridley's invention of the intraocular lens (IOL) has altered the approach towards cataract surgery, benefitting individuals worldwide. This has been his most notable contribution, it is therefore interesting to explore the build up to this event and gain an understanding of the issues faced by Sir Ridley. This paper explores the significant events and key developments that influenced one of the most valuable innovations in the context of cataract surgery--the intraocular lens.

  16. Coupled Afterslip and Mantle Flow Following the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine, CA Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, S. D.; Fialko, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the postseismic deformation following the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes (Mojave desert, eastern California) using all available geodetic data including GPS and InSAR time series between 1992-2009. We test the possible mechanisms of postseismic relaxation using physically-based time-dependent models of deformation driven by coseismic stress changes. Considered mechanisms include power-law viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle, afterslip governed by a rate-dependent friction, and poroelastic rebound. For the post-Landers transient, we compare the model predictions to the campaign GPS data referenced to some chosen station within the network. We find that both afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation models can explain the data equally well. Identification of a "preferred" mechanism depends on a choice of a reference GPS station. For the post-Hector Mine transient, we isolate the postseismic signal in the GPS time series by assuming a complete relaxation 8-10 years after the rupture. Such an assumption is supported by the fact that sites that predate the earthquake returned to preseismic velocities after several years following the event, so that the velocity contribution from the late postseismic signal (after eight years) is small compared to the secular velocities. We find that models of stress-driven afterslip (assuming a velocity-neutral depth of 15 km) can explain the amplitude of surface displacements in the near field (within 50 km from the rupture). Afterslip models indicate a characteristic relaxation timescale of ~1-2 years. However, the orientation of the postseismic velocity vectors warrants the occurrence of both afterslip and viscoelastic flow in the upper mantle. The data do not require a stress-dependent viscosity, and can be explained equally well by power-law and linear Maxwell viscoelastic models. We quantify a tradeoff between the assumed thickness of the elastic layer and the viscosity of the

  17. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  18. Author! Author!: James E. Ransome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of James E. Ransome, a children's book illustrator. Highlights include his background, the influence of filmmaking in his storyboards, illustration as storytelling, manuscript selection, the use of models and realistic themes, awards, future work, and advice for librarians and teachers about how to use his books. (AEF)

  19. Ocular history of James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E

    1984-01-01

    James Joyce , considered by many to be the greatest novelist of the 20th century, was plagued by severe eye problems for most of his adult life. The presence of iritis, glaucoma and cataracts was complicated by the complexity of his systemic medical conditions, his noncompliance with professional advice, and the state of the art of ophthalmology during his lifetime.

  20. The Writings of James Comer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the educational philosophy and the writings of James Comer, who argues that education clings to a model of teaching and learning that promises only failure for countless children and that teacher training fails to equip teachers for the realities and demands of contemporary classrooms. (SR)

  1. Portrait of James P. Comer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1990-01-01

    James P. Comer, a distinguished Black child psychiatrist born of sharecropper parents, credits his family's values and continued support for his success in college. In 1968, Comer and his colleagues developed a school-based management team to help poor families and schools develop trust and mutual respect. The program is widely used in New Haven…

  2. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  3. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-61756 (4 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini-7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA spacesuit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new light-weight spacesuit planned for use during the Gemini-7 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  4. James Frey: Feelings as Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Trysh

    2006-01-01

    James Frey, author of the book "A Million Little Pieces" is accused of embellishing and/or fabricating elements of his story, a graphic but supposedly honest, depiction of his struggle with drugs and alcohol. More and more college students who are caught plagiarizing believe, as Frey seems to, that as long as one agrees with the authors one…

  5. Tectonic geomorphology of the Andes with SIR-A and SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    1986-01-01

    Data takes from SIR-A and SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) crossed all of the principal geomorphic provinces of the central Andes between 17 and 34 S latitude. In conjunction with Thematic Mapping images and photographs from hand-held cameras as well as from the Large Format Camera that was flown with SIR-B, the radar images give an excellent sampling of Andean geomorphology. In particular, the radar images show new details of volcanic rocks and landforms of late Cenozoic age in the Puna, and the exhumed surfaces of tilted blocks of Precambrian crystalline basement in the Sierras Pampeanas.

  6. Androctonus australis hector venom contributes to the interaction between neuropeptides and mast cells in pulmonary hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chaïr-Yousfi, Imène; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome are frequent symptoms observed in the most severe cases of scorpion envenomation. The uncontrolled transmigration of leukocyte cells into the lung interstitium and alveolar space and pulmonary edema may be the cause of death. Mast cells can release various inflammatory mediators known to be involved in the development of lung edema following scorpion venom injection. The present study was designed to determine the evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor and the involvement of mast cell activation to induce pulmonary edema and to increase vascular permeability after Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom administration. To this end, mast cells were depleted using compound 48/80 (C48/80). Furthermore, the involvement of tachykinin NK1 receptors expressed on mast cell membranes was elucidated by their blocking with an antagonist. On the other hand, the ability of Aah venom to increase vascular permeability and to induce edema was also assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lungs of mice. Pulmonary edema, as assessed by the levels of EBD extravasation, was completely inhibited in compound 48/80-treated animals. Depletion by stimuli non-immunological C48/80 component markedly reduced induced inflammatory response following the venom administration. The mast cells seem to play an important role in the development of lung injury and the increase of vascular permeability in mice following the subcutaneous administration of Aah scorpion venom through the NK1 receptor.

  7. Amino acid sequence of neurotoxin III of the scorpion Androctonus austrialis Hector.

    PubMed

    Kopeyan, C; Martinez, G; Rochat, H

    1979-03-01

    The amino acid sequence of neurotoxin III, purified from the venom of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector, has been determined by Edman degradation using a liquid-phase sequencer. Carboxypeptidase A hydrolyses confirmed not only the sequence of the five last residues but also the presence of a free alpha-carboxylic group at the C-terminus. Edman degradation was conducted on one hand with the Quadrol [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylene diamine] program and S-alkylated protein before or after coupling with sulfophenylisothiocynate (the first 34 residues were thus identified), on the other hand on tryptic and chymotryptic peptides with a dimethylbenzylamine program (residues 1--23 and 31--34 were confirmed, the positions of residues 35-64 were established). Neurotoxin III was found to belong to the same group of scorpion toxins active on mammals as neurotoxin I purified from the same venom (50 homologous positions exist in the two proteins).

  8. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  9. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system - Hector v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C. A.; Patel, P.; Schwarber, A.; Link, R. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  10. A simple object-oriented and open source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global carbon cycle - Hector v0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C. A.; Patel, P.; Schwarber, A.; Link, R. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v0.1, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector's actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways with high correlations (R>0.7) with current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector is freely available under an open source license, and its modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  11. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    DOE PAGES

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; ...

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganicmore » carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.« less

  12. Generalized James' effective Hamiltonian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, Xun-Li

    2017-03-01

    James' effective Hamiltonian method has been extensively adopted to investigate largely detuned interacting quantum systems. This method only corresponds to the second-order perturbation theory and cannot be exploited to treat problems which should be solved by using the third- or higher-order perturbation theory. In this paper, we generalize James' effective Hamiltonian method to the higher-order case. Using the method developed here, we reexamine two recently published examples [L. Garziano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601; Ken K. W. Ma and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023842 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023842]; our results turn out to be the same as the original ones derived from the third-order perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination method, respectively. For some specific problems, this method can simplify the calculating procedure and the resultant effective Hamiltonian is more general.

  13. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    27. On the viscosity or internal friction of air and other gases; 28. On the dynamical theory of gases; 29. On the theory of the maintenance of electric currents by mechanical work without the use of permanent magnets; 30. On the equilibrium of a spherical envelope; 31. On the best arrangement for producing a pure spectrum on a screen; 32. The construction of stereograms of surfaces; 33. On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress; 34. On governors; 35. Experiment in magneto-electric induction; 36. On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with electromagnetic force; 37. On the cyclide; 38. On a bow seen on the surface of ice; 39. On reciprocal figures, frames, and diagrams of forces; 40. On the displacement in a case of fluid motion; 41. Address to the mathematical and physical sections of the British Association, 1870; 42. On colour-vision at different points of the retina; 43. On hills and dales; 44. Introductory lecture on experimental physics; 45. On the solution of electrical problems by the transformation of conjugate functions; 46. On the mathematical classification of physical quantities; 47. On colour vision; 48. On the geometrical mean distance of two figures on a plane; 49. On the induction of electric currents in an infinite plane sheet of uniform conductivity; 50. On the condition that, in the transformation of any figure by curvilinear co-ordinates in three dimensions, every angle in the new figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original figure; 51. Reprint of Papers on electrostatics and magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review); 52. On the proof of the equations of motion of a connected system; 53. On a problem in the calculus of variations in which the solution is discontinuous; 54. On action at a distance; 55. Elements of natural philosophy. By Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. (Review); 56. On the theory of a system of electrified conductors, and other physical theories involving

  14. James Clerk Maxwell and religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1986-04-01

    The evolution of James Clerk Maxwell's religious beliefs is described. His college-age conversion experience and his membership in the ``Apostles'' were crucial in his religious development. In his mature statements, Maxwell denied that scientific truth was dependent on religious truth, or the reverse. Nonetheless, scientific conclusions could enrich religious contemplation of God's actions in nature. Maxwell provided a religious interpretation of the apparent uniformity and eternity of atoms.

  15. Conference James F.Buckli

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-07

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  16. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

  17. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    scattering is much weaker, and this allowed him to develop a method of successive approximation. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission (UPS) from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. Sam Edwards (now Sir Sam) was head of SRC (forerunner of EPSRC) at the time and recognised the problem of interpreting all the data that the machine would provide. And after UPS would come EXAFS, and after that XANES and all the rest of the alphabet soup. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did

  18. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V. . E-mail: vchoumet@pasteur.fr

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2} induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab'){sub 2} induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2}. If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} when injected intramuscularly.

  19. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  20. Energy Scaling for the Hector Mine and Landers Sequences Using Coda-Derived Source Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K. M.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-12-01

    Unlike the well-established techniques of long-period waveform modeling for seismic moment (Mo), the measurement of radiated seismic energy (E) requires corrections at and beyond the corner frequency of the event. At these shorter length scales the Earth is considerably more complicated making path and site response corrections the two most important considerations. To minimize the problem of determining path corrections, we have chosen the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine sequences in southern California for study using broadband recordings from both local and regional broadband stations. To minimize the effect of source heterogeneity (e.g., directivity and source radiation pattern effects) we have used the coda methodology of Mayeda et al. (2003) to obtain stable, broadband source spectra which are a factor of 3-to-4 more stable than those derived from the direct waves. This methodology also uses small empirical Green's function events to derive site corrections to account for near-site attenuation and amplification. We independently validate our source spectra by comparing against network averaged moment estimates using long-period waveform modeling. Results for events ranging between Mw ~3 to 7+ for both sequences using the same methodology and stations clearly shows the scaled energy, e=E/Mo, increases with increasing magnitude. This departure from constant energy scaling had been observed elsewhere but has been questioned because of the large uncertainties in the path, site, and source heterogeneity corrections. We believe that this current study clearly points to a difference in rupture dynamics between small and large events in this sequence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  1. Efficient and affordable catadioptric spectrograph designs for 4MOST and Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Will

    2014-08-01

    Spectrograph costs have become the limiting factor in multiplexed fiber-based spectroscopic instruments, because tens of millions of resolution elements (spectral x spatial) are now required. Catadioptric (Schmidt-like) designs allow faster cameras and hence reduced detector costs, and recent advances in aspheric lens production make the overall optics costs competitive with transmissive designs. Classic Schmidt designs suffer from obstruction losses caused by the detector being within the beam. A new catadioptric design puts the detector close to the spectrograph pupil, and hence largely in the shadow of the telescope top-end obstruction. The throughput is competitive with the best transmissive designs, and much better in the Blue, where it is usually most valuable. The design also has milder aspheres and is more compact than classic Schmidts, and avoids most of their operational difficulties. The fast cameras mean that with 15micron pixels, the PSF sampling is close to the Nyquist limit; this minimises the effects of read-noise, which for sky-limited observations, far outweighs any difference in throughput. It does introduce pixellation penalties; these are investigated and found to be modest. For 4MOST, low and high resolution designs are presented, with 300mm beams, 3 arms with f/1.3 cameras, and standard 61mm x 61mm detectors. Coverage is 380-930nm at R=5000-7000, or R~20000 in three smaller ranges. A switchable design is also presented. For Hector, a design is presented with 2 arms, 380-930nm coverage, and R=3000-4500; a 4- armed design with smaller beam-size and detectors is also presented. The designs are costed, and appear to represent excellent value.

  2. [Sir John Charnley and total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Burgers, Paul T P W; van Gijn, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Sir John Charnley (1911-1982), pioneer of the total hip prosthesis, saved countless elderly people from immobility. During the Second World War he assisted Dudley Buxton, orthopaedic surgeon to the British armed forces in the Middle East, in developing new instruments and splints. After the war he first studied healing of bone fractures and the role of compression, and then completely dedicated himself to arthroplasty of the hip. Through countless experiments he found the optimal diameter for the head of the stainless steel prosthesis as well as the optimal polymer for the socket; he also advocated tight cementing of the shaft into the femur. Sir John Charnley received the Lasker Award in 1974 and was knighted in 1977.

  3. Burns as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Punam

    2009-06-01

    Thermal injury following burns is a common clinical condition. Excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following burns leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Development of in vivo experimental models of burns over the past 50 years have facilitated the study of the effects of thermal injury on physiological and immunological parameters in the pathogenesis of burns and associated systemic organ damage. Using these models, researchers have established the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-2 and substance P in burns and associated systemic organ damage. The rationale of this chapter is to present an overview of different experimental animal models, both rodents as well as large animals, of burns and associated SIRS and the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this condition as well as in pathogenesis of the resultant MODS.

  4. Sir Bernard Lovell (1913-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sir Bernard Lovell, founder and first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory (UK), died on August 6th, 2012, at the age of 98. Lovell was one of the pioneers of radio astronomy. Much of his observational work in the early days of the Observatory focused on radio meteors. Using ex-army radar equipment, Lovell and his colleagues recorded the spectacular Draconid storm of October 1946 and went on to publish many papers in the field, settling some of the big arguments of the time. Sir Bernard's legacy is immense, extending from his wartime work on military radar systems to his pioneering contributions to radio astronomy, and including his dedication to education and public engagement with scientific research.

  5. Occurrence of nervous system involvement in SIRS.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Paulo E; Lino, Angelina M M; Hirata, Maria T A; Carvalho, Nise B; Brotto, Mario W I; Scaff, Milberto

    2006-12-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a medical condition in which the all-organ microcirculation is affected including nervous system. We describe neurological findings in 64 patients with SIRS at Hospital das Clínicas of Sao Paulo University School of Medicine; 45.3% were male and 54.7% female; their age ranged from 16 to 95 years old. SIRS was caused by infection in 68.8% of patients, trauma in 10.9%, burns in 7.8%, and elective surgery in 4.7%. The central nervous system involvement occurred in 56.3% of patients and was characterized as encephalopathy in 75%, seizures in 13.9%, non-epileptic myoclonus in 2.8%, and ischemic stroke in 8.3%. The magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalographic changes were unremarkable in encephalopathic patients. Neuromuscular disorders were diagnosed in 43.7%. Critical ill polyneuropathy was characterized in 57.1%, critical ill myopathy in 32.1%, demyelinating neuropathy in 7.2%, and pure motor neuropathy in 3.6%. Nerve and muscle pathological studies dismissed inflammatory abnormalities. The identification of these conditions has important economic implications and may change the critically ill patients' prognosis.

  6. SIR-B experiments in Japan. IV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masaharu; Naito, Hideyuki; Oda, Tadashi

    1988-03-01

    Among the test sites for the SIR-B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits. The SIR-B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution. Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections (RCS) are used to relate the image data number to RCS. The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations. The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques. The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics. Corner reflectors 50-m apart can be recognized on the image, while those 25-m apart seem a single target. The SIR-B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses. The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away.

  7. Conference James F.Buckli

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The James Webb Space Telescope mirrors have completed deep-freeze tests and are removed from the X-ray and Cryogenic test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/features/webb-mirror-cryo.... Credit: Emmett Given, NASA Marshall NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  10. Magic, Mind Control, and the Body Electric: "Materia Medica" in Sir Walter Scott's Library at Abbotsford.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the medical texts, or "Materia Medica", held by Sir Walter Scott in his library at Abbotsford. While the vast majority of Scott's medical texts are antiquarian, his library also contains rare tracts and ephemera relating to the medical practice of the infamous quack, Dr James Graham (1745-94), and the Burke and Hare controversy of 1828 and its aftermath. Examining Scott's holdings of medical texts in relation to his own health and that of his family and friends, it is argued that the lack of contemporary medical self-help texts in his library is striking and indicative of his stoical attitude towards health, despite his clear interest in medical culture.

  11. The near-infrared spectrometer SIR and SIR-2 on SMART-1 and Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, U.; Nathues, A.; Keller, H. U.; Vilenius, E.; Kaydash, V.; SIR Collaboration

    The near-infrared spectrometer SIR was developed as a technology experiment for the European SMART-1 mission, to provide a compact, low mass instrument which features high spectral and spatial resolution and can be flexibly redeployed on other spacecraft platforms, to perform detailed remote spectral investigation of planetary surfaces in the wavelength range of 0.9 - 2.4 microns. Now, at the end of the mission we use the opportunity to review the concept of the instrument and discuss the original observation strategy of the visible imager and the spectrometer in light of the actual operations. Remote geochemical studies [1,2] have used near-infrared reflectance data to characterize the overall spectral slopes of selected lunar sites. The measurement of these slopes can be done using data from SIR and is important for the development and testing of models which can separate the effects of the mineralogical composition from the effects caused by the maturation processes on near-infrared spectra. Data taken with SIR are particularly valuable because they are collected under very different photometric conditions compared to earlier flown missions. We show comparisons of SIR measurements with measurements taken from earlier spectrophotometric lunar data sets. In addition, we summarize some of the lessons learned from the technology experiment SIR on board SMART-1 and discuss the implications for the development and operation of SIR-2 for the upcoming Indian lunar science mission Chandrayaan-1. References. [1] A.T. Basilevsky et al. Planetary and Space Science, 52, 1261-1285 (2004). [2]. C. Pieters, Proc. Lunar Planet. Conf. 9th , 2825-2848 (1978).

  12. A comparison of the writings of Sir William Osler and his exemplar, Sir Thomas Browne.

    PubMed Central

    Hookman, P.

    1995-01-01

    Sir William Osler was known throughout his life as a great humanitarian. His writings touched all of us, and to persons of every race, creed, and color, he showed universal feelings of justice and mercy. Osler's writing supports great tolerance for all, yet Osler's contemporaries were far less broad-minded and not free of bigotry. Osler's role model, Sir Thomas Browne, wrote openly about his marked prejudices against Catholics, Jews, Moslems, and even women. This paradox between Osler's tolerance and humanitarianism and the prejudice and bigotry of his time, as well as his role model Browne, are explored. PMID:7581308

  13. James Hillman (1926-2011).

    PubMed

    Stern, E Mark

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for James Hillman. James Hillman, the third child of Madeline and Julian Hillman, died of metastatic bone cancer at his home in Thompson, Connecticut, on October 27, 2011. The parent of "archetypal psychology," he was born on April 12, 1926, at the Breakers, a then-opulent hotel founded by his family that overlooked the boardwalk and beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. With an extensive footing in the classics and classical humanism, Jim established the foundations for his emerging archetypal psychology. With archetypal psychology, he was to move away from a dependence on the concept of a personal ego in favor of larger sources that relied on his notion of variegated identity. He proposed a profusion of mythical images that emerge under the rubric of "soul." Soul stands as an appellation indicating a deepening of psychic events, such as when dreams, chaos, and "pathologizing" (the struggles of imagination) are most experienced. For Hillman, psychology could not be taken as a separate discipline isolated from mythology, literature, art, philosophy, politics, religion, natural science, and the ordinary affairs of individuals. Hillman envisioned archetypes as processes that bear evidence to personal suffering and, in so doing, prompt the expansion of compassion. In 1975, Jim was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for his book Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row). In addition to many other citations, Jim had the high honor in 2001 of receiving the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

  15. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012, www.opentopography.org); 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (< 1 m); 5) nearly 25% of LiDAR imagery-based measurements that were later ground-truthed were judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to

  16. Sir2 blocks extreme life-span extension.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Paola; Gattazzo, Cristina; Battistella, Luisa; Wei, Min; Cheng, Chao; McGrew, Kristen; Longo, Valter D

    2005-11-18

    Sir2 is a conserved deacetylase that modulates life span in yeast, worms, and flies and stress response in mammals. In yeast, Sir2 is required for maintaining replicative life span, and increasing Sir2 dosage can delay replicative aging. We address the role of Sir2 in regulating chronological life span in yeast. Lack of Sir2 along with calorie restriction and/or mutations in the yeast AKT homolog, Sch9, or Ras pathways causes a dramatic chronological life-span extension. Inactivation of Sir2 causes uptake and catabolism of ethanol and upregulation of many stress-resistance and sporulation genes. These changes while sufficient to extend chronological life span in wild-type yeast require severe calorie restriction or additional mutations to extend life span of sir2Delta mutants. Our results demonstrate that effects of SIR2 on chronological life span are opposite to replicatve life span and suggest that the relevant activities of Sir2-like deacetylases may also be complex in higher eukaryotes.

  17. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  18. President of Council-Sir Alec

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-17

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  19. York, Alcuin, and Sir George Newman

    PubMed Central

    WALKER-SMITH, J

    2001-01-01

    The history of medicine can give insights into past achievements and provide knowledge and even inspiration, a valuable commodity for young students and all doctors. The contribution of Alcuin of York to basic education, and its appreciation by Sir George Newman, medical officer of health and first Chief Medical Officer of the UK in 1919, is recalled. Newman's Quaker education at Bootham School, his views on the main principles of such an education, as well as his influence on its establishment are summarised. A liberal education for doctors is important and knowledge and inspiration from the past may be one factor in enhancing morale.

 PMID:11668116

  20. President of Council-Sir Alec

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  1. Sir Thomas Brisbane - Patron of Colonial Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Peter J.

    British Army office Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was sworn in as Governor of New South Wales on 1 December 1821. His appointment allowed him to pursue his plans for astronomical observations of the southern sky by setting up an observatory near his residence at Government House Parramatta. He also joined the Philosophical Society of Australasia and became Patron of the newly formed Agricultural Society of New South Wales. These societies were the precursors of many important later professional bodies, so that Brisbane's connection with them represents his most important contribution to Australian science.

  2. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  3. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  4. James Moffett's Legacy to "English Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Koshnick, Damian C.; Myers, Miles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at James Moffett's influence on "English Journal". With the 1968 publication of his companion volumes--"Teaching the Universe of Discourse," which provided the theoretical underpinnings of his practice-oriented, and "A Student-Centered Language Arts Curriculum"--James Moffett (1929-96) became a major influence on…

  5. James Moffett's Legacy to "English Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Koshnick, Damian C.; Myers, Miles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at James Moffett's influence on "English Journal". With the 1968 publication of his companion volumes--"Teaching the Universe of Discourse," which provided the theoretical underpinnings of his practice-oriented, and "A Student-Centered Language Arts Curriculum"--James Moffett (1929-96) became a major influence on…

  6. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often…

  7. Writing siblings: Alice James and her brothers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anne Golomb

    2015-02-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of writing to embodiment, through representations of bodily sensation and fantasy in the journal of Alice James. It considers Alice James's writing in relation to her two writer brothers, William and Henry, and in light of their father's experiences of impairment and breakdown.

  8. Portrait - Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-01

    S70-34268 (April 1970) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, pauses for a quick photo while training for the Apollo 13 mission. Photo credit: NASA (Note, this is not the offical Apollo portrait for James Lovell)

  9. Portrait - Astronaut James A. McDivitt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-01-01

    S68-55278 (December 1968) --- Portrait of astronaut James A. McDivitt, in his Air Force uniform with rank insignia showing he is Air Force Colonel. Editor's Note: Since the photo was made, James A. McDivitt retired as Brigadier General from the United States Air Force, and left NASA in June of 1972.

  10. James Ross Island captured by NASA photographer James Ross, from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-16

    James Ross Island captured by NASA photographer James Ross(no relation), from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula. James Ross Island, named for 19th century British polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross, is located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. The island is about 1500 m high and 40-60 km wide. In recent decades, the area has experienced significant atmospheric warming (about 2 degrees C since 1950), which has triggered a vast and spectacular retreat of its floating ice shelves, glacier reduction, a decrease in permanent snow cover and a lengthening of the melt season. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. These photos are from the DC-8 aircraft while flying an AirSAR mission over Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula is more similar to Alaska and Patagonia than to the rest of the Antarctic continent. It is drained by fast glaciers, receives abundant precipitation, and melts significantly in the summer months. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  11. Doctors, disease and James Joyce.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    The Irish author James Joyce is regarded as the greatest modernist writer of his time. His works, notably The Dead, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake--are intensely autobiographic including meticulous descriptions of illness and states of health--no surprise in view of Joyce's medical history and hypochondria. The Dead revolves around the tragic love of a doomed tubercular youth. Ulysses has a graphic description of Mary Joyce-s death, a funeral and a birth; Stephen Dedalus, the character based on Joyce, attends a drinking session with medical students at the lying-in hospital just as Joyce had done as a student; references to syphilis, alcoholism and other illnesses abound.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  16. Enhancement of Telomere-Plasmid Segregation by the X-Telomere Associated Sequence in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Involves Sir2, Sir3, Sir4 and Abf1

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, S.; Longtine, M. S.; Berman, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously shown that circular replicating plasmids that carry yeast telomere repeat sequence (TG(1-3)) tracts segregate efficiently relative to analogous plasmids lacking the TG(1-3) tract and this efficient segregation is dependent upon RAP1. While a long TG(1-3) tract is sufficient to improve plasmid segregation, the segregation efficiency of telomere plasmids (TEL-plasmids) is enhanced when the X-Telomere Associated Sequence (X-TAS) is also included on the plasmids. We now demonstrate that the enhancement of TEL-plasmid segregation by the X-TAS depends on SIR2, SIR3, SIR4 and ABF1 in trans and requires the Abflp-binding site within the X-TAS. Mutation of the Abflp-binding site within the X-TAS results in TEL-plasmids that are no longer affected by mutations in SIR2, SIR3 or SIR4, despite the fact that other Abflp-binding sites are present on the plasmid. Mutation of the ARS consensus sequence within the X-TAS converts the X-TAS from an enhancer element to a negative element that interferes with TEL-plasmid segregation in a SIR-dependent manner. Thus, telomere associated sequences interact with TG(1-3) tracts on the plasmid, suggesting that the TASs have an active role in modulating telomere function. PMID:8005431

  17. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.

  18. Investigation of the Hector Mine Earthquake Surface Rupture with Airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, D.; Akciz, S. O.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The 16 October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake (Mw7.1) generated significant surface rupture along the Lavic Lake Fault through almost 60 kilometers of sparsely vegetated, relatively barren desert terrain. It was the first large earthquake for which post-earthquake airborne LiDAR, collected to image the fault surface rupture, exists. Despite the lack of pre-earthquake high-resolution topographic data, we were able to make both horizontal and vertical displacement measurements, which complement published field investigation results that include ~254 data points (164 of which are within LiDAR coverage area). We made 255 new horizontal and 83 vertical displacement measurements using a 0.5 m DEM generated from the LiDAR dataset. The maximum horizontal offset value is 6.6 ± 1.1 m, and is located approximately ~700 m south of the maximum horizontal offset observed during the field work. The average horizontal offset value from LiDAR measurements is ~2.27 m, whereas the average calculated from field data is ~2.5 m. The maximum vertical displacement is ~1.2 m, and the average vertical offset value is less than 1 m. No consistent trends are apparent in the sense of the vertical component, except in the north of the mountainous section, which is predominated by east-side-down measurements. Compared to field data, LiDAR-based measurements (a) have larger measurement uncertainties, (b) have slightly higher values, (c) do not include many measurements of offsets <1 m due to the DEM resolution, and (d) are spatially denser. The field investigation produced measurements of higher quality in alluvial deposits (e.g. tire tracks, offset rock or pebble lineaments) which are not typically visible with 0.5 m resolution DEMs unless a piercing feature has a very large or clear offset. LiDAR measurements included more geomorphic features with larger measurement uncertainties, which may not have been measured in the field due to their proximity to higher quality measurements. However, along

  19. Evolution of the October 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake surface rupture: a decadal view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the first ever decadal scale repetition of a high density 3D aerial laser scan covering practically all of a large earthquake surface rupture. The scan was acquired by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) on May 27, 2012 along a 50 km stretch of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. This new scan averages 1100 m total width, overlapping with and significantly increasing the breadth of a previous LiDAR scan acquired on April 19, 2000 by the USGS and Aerotech, LLC. Together, the two datasets comprise a 4D (12 year) snapshot of the post-event landscape evolution of a well-defined fault scarp and its immediate environs as well as a test case for characterization of the interplay between landscape evolution through human timescales and offset measurements made on geomorphic features visible in LiDAR derived DEMs. We investigate a 2 km long focus zone of the Lavic Lake fault where it cuts through Neogene volcanic rocks in the Bullion Mountains, a sparsely vegetated area which contains both the maximum horizontal offset measurements from field study and April 2000 LiDAR DEMs and the highest density of April 2000 LiDAR DEM offset measurements. After gridding both the 2000 and 2012 point cloud data for this zone into exactly congruent 0.5 m resolution DEMs we directly subtracted the two raster DEMs. This new raster elucidates specific and quantifiable areas of erosion and aggradation and shows that no measurable post-seismic slip has occurred within the focus zone during the interscan period. An unresolvable (sub-pixel) roughly southward horizontal shift of the 2012 data throughout the entire focus zone is present and could be due to a combination of factors including tectonic motion relative to the modeled plate velocities inherent in the reference frame or inaccuracies in either the April 2000 or May 2012 scan geolocations. Within the focus zone, 28 offset measurements were made previously using the

  20. New investigations of the October 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake surface rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, F.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We report on new field and computer based investigation of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. In cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms (MCAGCC), our team was allowed ground and aerial access to the extent of the surface rupture for limited times during October - December 2012. As far as we know, this was the first scientific access granted to the entire surface rupture since the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, and the first scientific access of any kind to some parts of the maximum slip zone since before the event. This locale is an excellent natural laboratory for detailed study of a major earthquake surface rupture because: 1) complete circumscription within the boundaries of MCAGCC severely limit both past and future human disruption of the rupture, particularly in the mountainous maximum slip zone; 2) groundbreaking aerial LiDAR survey carried out six months after the earthquake was followed up by a higher density, wider swath LiDAR survey in May 2012, making the temporal evolution of this rupture perhaps the most completely physically documented of any major rupture; and 3) field investigation immediately following the event was followed up by computer based offset measurements using the April 2000 LiDAR dataset, providing a database of published offset measurements. Due to time constraints imposed by MCAGGC we focused our new research effort along the ~8 km long maximum slip zone of the rupture, roughly corresponding to the zone of >4 m dextral offset. Our investigation includes 1) walking this entire section of the fault and making >30 measurements of dextral slip while photo documenting the current state of the rupture; 2) creating a difference raster for the entire 8 km maximum slip zone from exactly congruent DEM's made from the 2000 and 2012 LiDAR data sets; 3) documenting the fault traces with a Trimble GeoXH high precision handheld GPS unit (+/- 10 cm); 4

  1. The Yellowstone Fires as Observed by SIR-C SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Despain, Don; Holecz, Francesco

    1996-01-01

    Covers SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar C) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging of the 1988 Yellowstone National Forest fires. Discusses some of the images and data collected, and some conclusions drawn from them about both the fires, and SIR-C SAR imaging capabilities.

  2. Differences between Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 sensitivity estimates among forensic inpatients: A criterion groups comparison.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M

    2016-10-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) underwent a major revision in 2010 yielding the SIRS-2. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS-2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of 263 criminal defendants (215 males, 48 females) who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning (primarily the M-FAST) at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS (.87) and SIRS-2 (.54). The marked differences in sensitivity were partially explained by a global interpretation discordance rate of 47%, with discordance primarily resulting from SIRS-based feigning cases being classified as indeterminate on the SIRS-2. Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS-2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates (which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS-2 in this sample). Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS-2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Structure-function relationships in scorpion neurotoxins. Identification of the supperreactive lysine residue in toxin I of Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, F; Habersetzer-Rochat, C

    1978-07-21

    In a previous article (Habersetzer-Rochat, C. and Sampieri, R. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 2254--2261) it was demonstrated that the toxin I of the North African Scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was inactivated after reaction with iodoacetate; the toxicity loss in mice was correlated with the carboxymethylation of one superreactive residue. In the present work, alkylation of toxin I was performed with iodo[14C]-acetate. Hence, it was possible, after reduction, S-methylation and chymotryptic hydrolysis of this toxin, to isolate the peptide containing the labelled lysine residue. By automatic Edman degradation, this residue was identified as being the penultimate lysine at position 56 in the primary sequence. Comparison of three primary structures of scorpion neurotoxins and comparison in different kinds of activity seem to indicate that this lysine residue is mainly important for toxicity in mice.

  4. A Study of the Jacobi Shape Transition in Light, Fast Rotating Nuclei with the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Brekiesz, M.; Grebosz, J.; Meczyński, W.; Styczeń, J.; Ziebliński, M.; Zuber, K.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Benzoni, G.; Million, B.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Leoni, S.; Pignanelli, M.; Wieland, O.; Airoldi, A.; Herskind, B.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.; Farnea, E.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Nyberg, J.; Kicińska-Habior, M.; Petrache, C. M.; Petrache, D.; Dubray, N.; Dudek, J.; Pomorski, K.

    2004-02-01

    The high-energy and discrete γ-ray spectra, as well as the charged particle angular distribution have been measured in the reaction 105 MeV 18O+28Si using the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES arrays in order to investigate the predicted Jacobi shape transition in light nuclei. A comparison of the GDR line shape data with the predictions of the thermal shape fluctuation model, based on the most recent rotating liquid drop LSD calculations, shows evidence for such Jacobi shape transition in hot, rapidly rotating 46Ti. The found narrow low-energy component in the GDR line shape is interpreted as the consequence both of the elongated shape and of the Coriolis effect.

  5. A Study of the Jacobi Shape Transition in Light, Fast Rotating Nuclei with the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Brekiesz, M.; Grebosz, J.; Meczynski, W.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Zuber, K.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Benzoni, G.; Million, B.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Leoni, S.; Pignanelli, M.; Wieland, O.; Airoldi, A.; Herskind, B.; Bednarczyk, P.

    2004-02-27

    The high-energy and discrete {gamma}-ray spectra, as well as the charged particle angular distribution have been measured in the reaction 105 MeV 18O+28Si using the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES arrays in order to investigate the predicted Jacobi shape transition in light nuclei. A comparison of the GDR line shape data with the predictions of the thermal shape fluctuation model, based on the most recent rotating liquid drop LSD calculations, shows evidence for such Jacobi shape transition in hot, rapidly rotating 46Ti. The found narrow low-energy component in the GDR line shape is interpreted as the consequence both of the elongated shape and of the Coriolis effect.

  6. Sir2 and calorie restriction in yeast: a skeptical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Powers, R Wilson

    2007-08-01

    Activation of Sir2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction (CR) has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast. We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries. Several specific cases where the Sir2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted. These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model.

  7. SIR - a NIR Spectrometer for Studying the Lunar Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Nathues, A.; SIR Science Team

    2005-08-01

    SIR is a highly compact grating, near-infrared spectrometer, which covers the wavelength range between 0.9 and 2.4 μ m, with a spectral resolution of Δ λ pixel = 6 nm. SIR is operating on board the European mission SMART-1. SIR serves as a technology demonstration ex-periment for a new series of instruments. SIR's scientific goal is to determine the Moon's mineralogical surface composition by means of reflectance spectra. SIR has already collected first data during several lunar scans and is expected during the sec-ond half of 2005 to be pointed towards targets of special interest, for expample, large craters, swirls, pyroclastic deposits, areas of very young mare volcanism, and permanently shadowed depressions at the lunar poles. We report about the instrument itself and on the first spectral results obtained during the initial phase of the SMART-1 mission.

  8. The SIR-B science investigations plan: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) and its capabilities are described. The SIR-B instrument is an upgraded version of SIR-A that has the additional capability of tilting the antenna mechanically to acquire data at incidence angles that vary from 15 to 60 deg. Like SEASAT and SIR-A, SIR-B will be an L-band (23-cm) HH polarized radar. The variable-incidence-angle capability will allow several experiments. A specific area may be imaged with a variety of incidence angles on successive days. These images can then be registered and used to produce curves of backscatter as a function of incidence angle for various terrain types. These curves can be used ultimately to characterize the terrain. Stereoimaging may also be done in the multiple-incidence-angle mode. In addition, large areas may be imaged and mosaicked together with only slight variations in incidence angle with each swath.

  9. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  10. Continuous GPS observations of postseismic deformation following the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (Mw 7.1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnutt, K.W.; King, N.E.; Galetzka, J.E.; Stark, K.F.; Behr, J.A.; Aspiotes, A.; van, Wyk S.; Moffitt, R.; Dockter, S.; Wyatt, F.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid field deployment of a new type of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) network and data from Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) stations that had recently begun operating in the area allow unique observations of the postseismic deformation associated with the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Innovative solutions in fieldcraft, devised for the 11 new GPS stations, provide high-quality observations with 1-year time histories on stable monuments at remote sites. We report on our results from processing the postseismic GPS data available from these sites, as well as 8 other SCIGN stations within 80 km of the event (a total of 19 sites). From these data, we analyze the temporal character and spatial pattern of the postseismic transients. Data from some sites display statistically significant time variation in their velocities. Although this is less certain, the spatial pattern of change in the postseismic velocity field also appears to have changed. The pattern now is similar to the pre-Landers (pre-1992) secular field, but laterally shifted and locally at twice the rate. We speculate that a 30 km ?? 50 km portion of crust (near Twentynine Palms), which was moving at nearly the North American plate rate (to within 3.5 mm/yr of that rate) prior to the 1992 Landers sequence, now is moving along with the crust to the west of it, as though it has been entrained in flow along with the Pacific Plate as a result of the Landers and Hector Mine earthquake sequence. The inboard axis of right-lateral shear deformation (at lower crustal to upper mantle depth) may have jumped 30 km farther into the continental crust at this fault junction that comprises the southern end of the eastern California shear zone.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    John Mather, James Webb Space Telescope senior project scientist, speaks in front of the mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Mirror Halfway Complete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Inside NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's massive clean room in Greenbelt, Maryland, the ninth flight mirror was installed onto the telescope structure with a robotic arm. This marks the halfway completion point for the James Webb Space Telescope's segmented primary mirror. Nine of the James Webb Space Telescope's 18 primary flight mirrors have been installed on the telescope structure. This marks the halfway point in the James Webb Space Telescope's primary mirror installation. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Chris Gunn Read more: go.nasa.gov/1kqK6fW

  13. Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases.

    PubMed

    Davies, Alwyn G

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between 1894 and 1898, he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize.

  14. Understanding sepsis: from SIRS to septic shock.

    PubMed

    Hynes-Gay, Patricia; Lalla, Patti; Leo, Maria; Merrill-Bell, Audrey; Nicholson, Marjorie; Villaruel, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients, despite improvements in supportive treatment modalities such as antimicrobial drugs and ventilation therapy. Further, the incidence of sepsis is projected to increase in years to come, related to factors including a rise in immunosuppressed patient populations and more widespread use of invasive lines and procedures. In this article, the authors seek to advance nurses' understanding of sepsis by reviewing the SIRS to septic shock paradigm and using a case study to illustrate how a patient progressed along the continuum. The role of the critical care nurse is an important aspect of the care of these patients. Early identification of patients at risk for, or who are developing, sepsis is crucial in order to improve patient outcomes.

  15. Acute pancreatitis as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. Excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in acute pancreatitis leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Development of in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis and associated systemic organ damage has enabled us to study the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and associated systemic organ damage. Using these models, recent studies by us and other investigators have established the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, PAF, IL-10, CD40L, C5a, ICAM-1, chemokines, substance P and hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. This chapter intends to present an overview of different experimental animal models of acute pancreatitis and associated MODS and the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  16. Sir Charles Locock and potassium bromide.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 1857, Edward Sieveking read a paper on epilepsy to the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in London. During the discussion that followed Sir Charles Locock, obstetrician to Queen Victoria, was reported to have commented that during the past 14 months he had used potassium bromide to successfully stop epileptic seizures in all but one of 14 or 15 women with 'hysterical' or catamenial epilepsy. This report of Locock's comment has generally given him credit for introducing the first reasonably effective antiepileptic drug into medical practice. However examination of the original reports raises questions as to how soundly based the accounts of Locock's comments were. Subsequently, others using the drug to treat epilepsy failed to obtain the degree of benefit that the reports of Locock's comments would have led them to expect. The drug might not have come into more widespread use as a result, had not Samuel Wilks provided good, independent evidence for the drug's antiepileptic efficacy in 1861.

  17. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; hide

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  1. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  2. James Johnson on Asteroid Mission Simulation Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to James Johnson, the test director for a simulated mission to an asteroid taking place at the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at the Johnson Space Cente...

  3. The Teaching Spirit of William James

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, James H.

    2003-01-01

    William James provided not only practical advice to teachers but also wisdom concerning values in living. Statements from his students show his qualities as a teacher, although some of his statements convey his ambivalence about teaching.

  4. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. MCDIVITT - TRAINING - SIMULATOR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-10

    S65-19472 (10 May 1965) --- Astronaut James A. McDivitt is shown in the gondola of a realistic manned spaceflight simulator developed by the Astronautics Division of Ling-Temco-Vought in Dallas, Texas.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, John C.

    2010-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the planned successor to the magnificent Hubble Space Telescope and the smaller but remarkably powerful Spitzer Space Telescope. It will extend the Hubble and Spitzer science in many areas, ranging from the first stars and galaxies, to the current formation of stars and planets, and the evolution of planetary systems to conditions capable of supporting life. The JWST is a NASA-led project in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies. The deployable cooled 6.5 meter telescope will cover the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 μm with imaging and spectroscopy. With diffraction-limited image < 10 μm, the JWST will be the most powerful space observatory yet constructed. To enable the huge telescope to fit into the rocket fairing, it is very carefully folded up for launch. It has a primary mirror with 18 segments, each one able to be positioned with 6 degrees of freedom and a radius of curvature adjustment. While it is quite well protected from thermal variations, it is nevertheless expected that the JWST primary mirror may be readjusted on the order of every two weeks. This design enables a primary mirror larger than the rocket fairing, but also leads to very interesting calibration issues. In the years since JWST was conceived, the potential scientific benefits of greatly improved calibration and stability have become apparent. Now the challenge is to find ways to achieve those improvements with hardware that has already been designed. In this paper, I outline the basic issues and some strategies to pursue.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  7. [Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and endothelial cell injury].

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    During recent years, evidences have been accumulated demonstrating bidirectional crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation. This review outlines the influences that coagulation and inflammation exert on each other to the endothelium and how these systems induce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Then we discussed the implications of leucocyte-endothelial activation to endothelial cell injury followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in patients with sustained SIRS. Last we demonstrated an important role of inflammatory circulation disturbance induced by endothelial cell injury for the pathogenesis of MODS in SIRS and sepsis.

  8. Final closure assessment work plan for sites 2 and 10, 119th Fighter-Interceptor Group, North Dakota Air National Guard Base, Hector Field, Fargo, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This Work Plan (WP) outlines closure assessment activities to be conducted at two sites at the North Dakota Air National Guard (NDANG) Base, Hector International Airport (also known as Hector Field), Fargo, North Dakota. The sites to be assessed include one 300-gal nominal capacity waste oil underground storage tank (UST) which is scheduled to be removed (Site 2), and a former fire training area (Site 10) where removal of contaminated soils is scheduled. The objectives of the assessment are to provide documentation of soil and water conditions following excavation of the UST at Site 2 and excavation of contaminated soils at Site 10 in order to support closure in accordance with applicable North Dakota State Department of Health and Consolidated Laboratories requirements.

  9. Temporal and spatial precursors in ionospheric total electron content of the 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y. C.; Liu, J. Y.; Chen, S. P.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, M. Q.

    2013-10-01

    this paper, temporal and spatial analyses are employed to detect seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during the 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. To discriminate anomalies caused by global effects, such as solar radiations, magnetic storms, etc., and local effects, such as earthquake, we cross-examine the GPS TECs and their gradients in the eastward and northward directions at epicenter/centers of the Hector Mine area and the other two reference areas at similar magnetic latitudes in Europe and Japan. Temporal variations of the northward TEC gradient suggest SIPs most likely appearing on days 6-5 before the earthquake. A global search by using the TEC of the global ionosphere map shows that the TEC increase and decrease anomalies continuously and specifically appear around the epicenter on day 5 before the earthquake.

  10. Seismo-ionospheric Precursors in the GPS Total Electron Content of the 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H.; Su, Y.; Liu, J. G.; Chen, S.; Chen, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, temporal and spatial analyses are employed to detect seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. To discriminate anomalies caused by global effects, such as solar radiations, magnetic storms, etc., and local effects, such as earthquake, we cross-examine the GPS TECs and their gradients in the eastward and northward directions at epicenter/centers of the Hector Mine area and the other two reference areas at similar magnetic latitudes in Europe and Japan. Temporal variations of the northward TEC gradient suggest SIPs most likely appearing day 6-5 before the earthquake. A global search by using the TEC of GIM (global ionosphere map) shows that the TEC increase and decrease anomalies continuously and specifically appear around the epicenter day 5 before the earthquake.

  11. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  12. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  13. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    James R. Houck, the leading figure in developing infrared spectroscopy for astrophysics, died in Ithaca, NY, on September 18, 2015, at age 74 from complications of Alzheimer's Disease. He was born on October 5, 1940, in Mobile, Alabama, but lived much of his early life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received his undergraduate degree from Carnegie Institute of Technology. Jim spent his scientific career at Cornell University. He came to Cornell as a physics graduate student in 1962 and remained until his retirement as the Kenneth A. Wallace Professor of Astronomy in 2012. His only year away from Ithaca was as a Guggenheim Fellow at Caltech, and he declined job offers from other universities because of his opinion that Ithaca provided the best environment for raising his family. His passion for learning, doing, and teaching science by building instruments and understanding physics led to great benefits for his students and astronomy colleagues. After receiving his PhD in condensed matter physics, he changed fields to work in astronomy at Cornell. He first collaborated with colleague Martin Harwit to develop a rocket program at Cornell for infrared observations and made numerous treks to the White Sands Missile Range flying payloads on Aerobee sounding rockets. Jim emphasized building spectrographs and making pioneering observations with ground based, airborne, and rocket-borne infrared instrumentation. Jim flew on every airplane NASA provided for astronomy. Those were pioneering times. One of his survival stories was of the Learjet in which both engines flamed out over the Pacific when the pilot did a celebratory barrel role after successful completion of their observations. His observations with rockets and airplanes were primarily of a variety of Galactic objects, including planetary nebulae, HII regions, and stars. But the most notable was an observation on the Convair 990 that produced a prescient discovery paper in 1973 led by Jim which discovered bound

  14. Poor and Rich in James: A Relevance Theory Approach to James's Use of the Old Testament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Nelson R.

    2015-01-01

    The epistle of James was for years a forgotten book in academic circles. In recent decades, however, a renewed focus on early Judaism has generated interest in looking at James with new eyes. Poverty and wealth in the epistle continues to be a point of interest. Other topics, however, are still to be explored. One of these topics is the rhetorical…

  15. The Emerson Lake Body: A link between the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, southern California, as inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data indicate a mafic crustal heterogeneity that lies between the Hector Mine 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) and Landers 28 June 1992 (Mw 7.3) epicenters. The aftershocks and ruptures of these two events avoided the interior of the body. Two- and three-dimensional modeling of the potential-field anomalies shows that the source, here named the Emerson Lake body (ELB), extends to a depth of approximately 15 km. The source of the gravity and magnetic anomaly is most likely Jurassic diorite because exposures of these rocks coincide with both gravity and magnetic highs west of Emerson Lake. Seismic tomography also shows higher velocities within the region of the ELB. We propose that the ELB was an important influence on the rupture geometry of the Landers and Hector Mine ruptures and that the ELB may have played a role in transferring of stress from the Landers earthquake to the Hector Mine hypocenter. Seismicity before the Landers earthquake also tended to avoid the ELB, suggesting that the ELB affects how strain is distributed in this part of the Mojave Desert. Thus, faults within the body should have limited rupture sizes and lower seismic hazard than faults bounding or outside this mafic crustal heterogeneity.

  16. SIR - a NIR spectrometer for studying the Lunar mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Nathues, A.

    SIR is a highly compact grating near-infrared spectrometer which covers the wavelength range between 0 9 and 2 4 mu m with a spectral resolution of Delta lambda pixel 6 nm SIR is operating on board the European mission SMART-1 SIR serves as a technology demonstration experiment for a new series of instruments The spectrometer s scientific goal is to determine the Moon s mineralogical surface composition by means of reflectance spectra The operation of SIR is ongoing until August 2006 Soon after the spacecraft is expected to crash onto the Moon s surface Currently targets of special interest are observed such as large craters swirls pyroclastic deposits areas of very young mare volcanism and some permanently shadowed depressions at the lunar poles We briefly report about the instrument itself and on spectral variations found across the lunar surface

  17. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  18. A Curriculum for Peace: A Conversation with Sir John Daniel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah; Lindfors, Sally; Ernst, Don

    2002-01-01

    Interview with Sir John Daniel, Assistant Director-General for Education of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Discusses UNESCO's role in promoting a peace curriculum in schools throughout the world. (PKP)

  19. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  20. Sepsis as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; He, Min; Zhang, Huili; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Sepsis describes a complex clinical syndrome that results from the host inability to regulate the inflammatory response against infection. Despite more than 20 years of extensive study, sepsis and excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are still the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The clinical study of sepsis and new therapeutics remains challenging due to the complexity of this disease. Therefore, many animal models have been employed to investigate the pathogenesis of sepsis and to preliminarily test potential therapeutics. However, so far, most therapeutics that have shown promising results in animal models failed in human clinical trials. In this chapter we will present an overview of different experimental animal models of sepsis and compare their advantages and disadvantage. The studies in animal models have greatly improved our understanding about the inflammatory mediators in sepsis. In this chapter we will also highlight the roles of several critical mediators including TNF-a , IL-1b , IL-6, chemokines, substance P, hydrogen sulfide and activated protein C in animal models of sepsis as well as in clinical studies.

  1. 'Mind in general' by Sir Alexander Crichton.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2006-12-01

    The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i.e., from the fact that psychiatry unsteadily straddles the natural and human sciences. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can (or should) do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

  2. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous?

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues (like open-mindedness and tolerance) may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Editor); Cimino, J. B. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The SIR-A experiment was conducted in order to acquire radar data over a variety of regions to further understanding of the radar signatures of various geologic features. The capability of the Shuttle as a scientific platform for observation of the Earth's resources was assessed. The SIR-A sensor operated nominally and the full data acquisition capacity of the optical recorder was used.

  4. (abstract) The SIR-C/X-SAR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Evans, Diane; Elachi, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is a cooperative experiment between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the German Space Agency (DARA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The experiment is the next evolutionary step in NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR) program that began with the Seasat SAR in 1978, and continued with SAR -A in 1981 and SAR-B in 1984. The program will eventually lead to the Earth Observing System (EOS) SAR later in this decade. SIR-C will provide increased capability over Seasat, SIR-A, and SIR-B by acquiring polarimetric images simultaneously at two microwave frequencies: L-band (wavelength 24 cm) and C-band (wavelength 6 cm). X-SAR will operate at X-band (wavelength 3 cm) with VV polarization, resulting in a three-frequency capability. Because radar backscatter is most strongly influenced by objects comparable in size to the radar wavelength, this multifrequency capability will provide information about the Earth's surface over a wide range of scales not discernable with single-frequency experiments. The polarimetric data will yield quantitative information about the surface geometric structure, vegetation dielectric properties, and surface discontinuities. The first SIR-C/X-SAR flight is planned for early in 1994, with two subsequent flights in different seasons to enable data aquisition under different environmental conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR will collect data for a period of 6 to 9 days during each flight. The instrument will be flown in a 57(deg) inclination orbit with a nomimal orbit altitude of 215 km. This altitude will result in a slightly drifting orbit. The latest status of the SIR-C/X-SAR mission and instrument design, science activities, and expected results will be presented.

  5. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  6. Heterochromatin assembly by interrupted Sir3 bridges across neighboring nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Reza; Lu, Chenning; Currie, Mark A; Jih, Gloria; Iglesias, Nahid; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomes with central roles in regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. Heterochromatin formation involves spreading of chromatin-modifying factors away from initiation points over large DNA domains by poorly understood mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterochromatin formation requires the SIR complex, which contains subunits with histone-modifying, histone-binding, and self-association activities. Here, we analyze binding of the Sir proteins to reconstituted mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleosomal chromatin templates and show that key Sir-Sir interactions bridge only sites on different nucleosomes but not sites on the same nucleosome, and are therefore 'interrupted' with respect to sites on the same nucleosome. We observe maximal binding affinity and cooperativity to unmodified di-nucleosomes and propose that nucleosome pairs bearing unmodified histone H4-lysine16 and H3-lysine79 form the fundamental units of Sir chromatin binding and that cooperative binding requiring two appropriately modified nucleosomes mediates selective Sir recruitment and spreading. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17556.001 PMID:27835568

  7. Hydrodynamics of internal solitons and a comparison of SIR-A and SIR-B data with ocean measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apel, J. R.; Gasparovic, R. F.; Thompson, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Large internal solitary waves have been observed by Shuttle SIR-A and SIR-B at locations in the Andaman Sea and the New York Bight. Satellite imagery and oceanographic measurements are used in conjunction with hydrodynamic interaction and electromagnetic scattering models to estimate the expected SAR image intensity modulations associated with the internal waves. There is reasonable agreement between the predicted and observed internal wave signatures.

  8. Static-stress impact of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence on nucleation and slip at the site of the 1999 M=7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom; Dreger, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    The proximity in time (∼7 years) and space (∼20 km) between the 1992 M=7.3 Landers earthquake and the 1999 M=7.1 Hector Mine event suggests a possible link between the quakes. We thus calculated the static stress changes following the 1992 Joshua Tree/Landers/Big Bear earthquake sequence on the 1999 M=7.1 Hector Mine rupture plane in southern California. Resolving the stress tensor into rake-parallel and fault-normal components and comparing with changes in the post-Landers seismicity rate allows us to estimate a coefficient of friction on the Hector Mine plane. Seismicity following the 1992 sequence increased at Hector Mine where the fault was unclamped. This increase occurred despite a calculated reduction in right-lateral shear stress. The dependence of seismicity change primarily on normal stress change implies a high coefficient of static friction (µ≥0.8). We calculated the Coulomb stress change using µ=0.8 and found that the Hector Mine hypocenter was mildly encouraged (0.5 bars) by the 1992 earthquake sequence. In addition, the region of peak slip during the Hector Mine quake occurred where Coulomb stress is calculated to have increased by 0.5–1.5 bars. In general, slip was more limited where Coulomb stress was reduced, though there was some slip where the strongest stress decrease was calculated. Interestingly, many smaller earthquakes nucleated at or near the 1999 Hector Mine hypocenter after 1992, but only in 1999 did an event spread to become a M=7.1 earthquake.

  9. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  10. Sir Charles Edward Saunders, Dominion cerealist.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Malcolm J

    2008-06-01

    Charles Edward Saunders was born in London, Ontario, in 1867. His father, Sir William Saunders, was the first director of the Dominion Experimental Farms (1886-1911). Charles received his B.A. with honours in science from the University of Toronto in 1888 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1891. He attempted a career in music, his first love, from 1893 to 1902. With his father, Charles attended the 1902 International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization in New York, where he learned of Mendel's theories of inheritance and their applicability to plant breeding. When he began work in 1903 in the Division of Cereal Breeding and Experimentation at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, he used the knowledge he had gained at that conference. It was Charles's goal to achieve "fixity" in the varieties that had been bred and released using phenotypic mass selection, prior to his tenure as Cerealist. He selected four heads from the wheat variety Markham and in the winter of 1904 he performed a "chewing test" to select for gluten elasticity and colour. Seeds from two heads were chosen, and seeds from one went on to produce the variety Marquis after extensive yield trials on the Prairies. Marquis was 7 to 10 days earlier than Red Fife, the standard bread wheat of the Prairies. The earliness and tremendous yield of Marquis wheat resulted in the rapid and successful settlement of the Great Plains and countless billions of dollars in revenue to Canada. By 1923, 90% of the spring wheat in Canada and 70% in the USA was Marquis. Charles continued as Dominion Cerealist until his retirement in 1922. He was knighted in 1934, and died in 1937.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, left, moderates a question and answer session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, second from left, and James Webb Space Telescope Senior Project Scientist John Mather, right, during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and James Webb Space Telescope Senior Project Scientist John Mather, right, are seen as they answer questions during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden is seen in front of the mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope as he speaks during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks about the James Webb Space Telescope during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    The mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope are seen as senior project scientist John Mather speaks during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Media Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    Christopher Scolese, director of NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center delivers opening remarks in front of the mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope during a media event on Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2016 at NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The James Webb Space Telescope, the world's largest and most complex space telescope, will study every phase in the history of the universe; from the first luminous glows of the Big Bang, to the formation of planetary systems capable of supporting life, to the evolution of our own solar system. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Mirror Halfway Complete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Inside NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's massive clean room in Greenbelt, Maryland, the ninth flight mirror was installed onto the telescope structure with a robotic arm. This marks the halfway completion point for the James Webb Space Telescope's segmented primary mirror. This rare overhead shot of the James Webb Space Telescope shows the nine primary flight mirrors installed on the telescope structure in a clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Chris Gunn Read more: go.nasa.gov/1kqK6fW

  18. First chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin affecting sodium channels: the Aah I toxin of Androctonus australis hector.

    PubMed

    M'Barek, Sarrah; Fajloun, Ziad; Cestèle, Sandrine; Devaux, Christiane; Mansuelle, Pascal; Mosbah, Amor; Jouirou, Besma; Mantegazza, Massimo; Van Rietschoten, Jurphaas; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Rochat, Hervé; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Sampieri, François

    2004-11-01

    Aah I is a 63-residue alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Buthidae scorpion Androctonus australis hector, which is considered to be the most dangerous species. We report here the first chemical synthesis of Aah I by the solid-phase method, using a Fmoc strategy. The synthetic toxin I (sAah I) was renatured in DMSO-Tris buffer, purified and subjected to thorough analysis and comparison with the natural toxin. The sAah I showed physico-chemical (CD spectrum, molecular mass, HPLC elution), biochemical (amino-acid composition, sequence), immunochemical and pharmacological properties similar to those of the natural toxin. The synthetic toxin was recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal anti-Aah I antibody, with an IC50 value close to that for the natural toxin. Following intracerebroventricular injection, the synthetic and the natural toxins were similarly lethal to mice. In voltage-clamp experiments, Na(v) 1.2 sodium channel inactivation was inhibited by the application of sAah I or of the natural toxin in a similar way. This work describes a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin, making it possible to produce structural analogues in time.

  19. The 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine, California, Earthquake: Near-Field Postseismic Deformation from ERS Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Allison; Sandwell, David; Fialko, Yuri; Sichoix, Lydie

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data over the area of the Hector Mine earthquake (Mw 7.1, 16 October 1999) reveal postseismic deformation of several centimeters over a spatial scale of 0.5 to 50 km. We analyzed seven SAR acquisitions to form interferograms over four time periods after the event. The main deformations seen in the line-of-sight (LOS) displacement maps are a region of subsidence (60 mm LOS increase) on the northern end of the fault, a region of uplift (45 mm LOS decrease) located to the northeast of the primary fault bend, and a linear trough running along the main rupture having a depth of up to 15 mm and a width of about 2 km. We correlate these features with a double left-bending, rightlateral, strike-slip fault that exhibits contraction on the restraining side and extension along the releasing side of the fault bends. The temporal variations in the near-fault postseismic deformation are consistent with a characteristic time scale of 135 + 42 or - 25 days, which is similar to the relaxation times following the 1992 Landers earthquake. High gradients in the LOS displacements occur on the fault trace, consistent with afterslip on the earthquake rupture. We derive an afterslip model by inverting the LOS data from both the ascending and descending orbits. Our model indicates that much of the afterslip occurs at depths of less than 3 to 4 km.

  20. Correlations Between Hector Battifora Mesothelial-1 (HBME-1) Expression and Clinical Pathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Osteosarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Xin; Gao, Song-Tao; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Yao, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Cai-Li

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1) expression and the clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS). Material/Methods HBME-1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in OS tissues (n=152), osteochondroma tissues (n=91), and normal bone tissues (n=74). We carried out a follow-up lasting 8–60 months to investigate HBME-1 expression and its correlations with the clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of OS. Results HBME-1 was highly expressed in OS tissues compared with osteochondroma tissues and normal bone tissues, and was highly expressed in osteochondroma tissues compared with normal bone tissues (all P<0.05). HBME-1 expression was correlated with clinical stages, postoperative recurrence, metastasis, and 5-year survival (all P<0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of HBME-1 expression was 0.864, with sensitivity of 80.92%, specificity of 91.89%, and accuracy of 84.51%. The survival rate was lower in the HBME-1 positive expression group than the HBME-1 negative expression group (P<0.05). Clinical stages, metastasis, and HBME-1 expression were independent risk factors for the survival of patients with OS (all P<0.05). Conclusions HBME-1 expression was correlated with the occurrence and development of OS. HBME-1 positive expression was a risk factor for the prognosis of OS. PMID:28163298

  1. Primary surface rupture associated with the Mw 7.1 16 October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treiman, J.A.; Kendrick, K.J.; Bryant, W.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; McGill, S.F.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake occurred within the Mojave Desert portion of the eastern California shear zone and was accompanied by 48 km of dextral surface rupture. Complex northward rupture began on two branches of the Lavic Lake fault in the northern Bullion Mountains and also propagated southward onto the Bullion fault. Lesser amounts of rupture occurred across two right steps to the south. Surface rupture was mapped using postearthquake, 1:10,000-scale aerial photography. Field mapping provided additional detail and more than 400 fault-rupture observations; of these, approximately 300 measurements were used to characterize the slip distribution. En echelon surface rupture predominated in areas of thick alluvium, whereas in the bedrock areas, rupture was more continuous and focused within a narrower zone. Measured dextral offsets were relatively symmetrical about the epicentral region, with a maximum displacement of 5.25 ?? 0.85 m. Vertical slip was a secondary component and was variable, with minor west-side-down displacements predominat.ing in the Bullion Mountains. Field and aerial photographic evidence indicates that most of the faults that ruptured in 1999 had had prior late-Quaternary displacement, although only limited sections of the rupture show evidence for prior Holocene displacement.

  2. Making James Joyce Contemporary: Recreating Classical Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Can you make James Joyce's short story "Eveline" contemporary and create a modern short story based on Joyce's work? The purpose of this study was to provide a context to Joyce's short story "Eveline," illustrate the journey of my fiction writing, and expand the conversation on using classical fiction as a guide to modern short…

  3. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  4. James Bernard Russell: Scholar, collaborator, mentor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At the time of his untimely death in 2009, ARS scientist Dr. James B. Russell had established himself as the premier rumen microbiologist of his generation. Dr. Russell’s many contributions to the field, including much of the early work on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate System model, were the product ...

  5. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  6. "Restructuring" Stirs Outcry at James Madison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1995-01-01

    An administration plan to discontinue the physics major at James Madison University (Virginia) has raised concerns about the president's leadership and management style, and the role of faculty in institutional decision making. Faculty were notified of the plan only after student leaders were told. (MSE)

  7. William James Sidis, The Broken Twig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montour, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    By presenting cases of prodigies who entered college as early as William James Bidis but who succeeded, this paper attempts to dissuade the public from its opposition to educational acceleration for precocious children, to which the "Sidis fallacy" has helped give rise. (Author)

  8. James Joyce: steps towards a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lyons, J B

    2000-12-01

    Authors whose scholarship is in the golden realm of English literature have not hesitated to make pronouncements on James Joyce's health. A publication in this genre claims he had tabes dorsalis. One feels that an authoritative comment, accepting or rejecting a diagnosis of neurosyphilis, should be provided by the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences.

  9. William James Sidis, The Broken Twig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montour, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    By presenting cases of prodigies who entered college as early as William James Bidis but who succeeded, this paper attempts to dissuade the public from its opposition to educational acceleration for precocious children, to which the "Sidis fallacy" has helped give rise. (Author)

  10. James H Nicoll: pioneer paediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Willetts, I E

    1997-07-01

    James H Nicoll is a little known figure in the history of surgery. Yet, this Glasgow surgeon was a pioneer, particularly in the care of the infant patient both in hospital and after discharge. A great teacher and innovator, he developed effective techniques for the surgical cure of pyloric stenosis of infancy and for the outpatient postoperative care of children with spina bifida.

  11. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs without…

  12. An Interview with James T. Webb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    This interview with James T. Webb, clinical psychologist and coauthor of "Guiding the Gifted Child" (1982), focuses on ambivalent messages communicated to gifted/talented children, balancing parental attention among gifted and less gifted siblings, teaching social skills, underachievement, benefits of special programing for emotional development,…

  13. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  14. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs without…

  15. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  16. William James, Philosophical Father of Experience-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.; Vinson, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly describes the life of William James, nineteenth-century philosopher and psychologist, noting the development of his pragmatist philosophy. The article uses James' work and ideas to support 11 principles of contemporary experience-based education. (SB)

  17. Speculation on Curriculum from the Perspective of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, William H; Zissis, Georgiana

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for curriculum theory, research, and practice of William James' thought. Also considered is the question of what curriculum theory and research might be like if James had garnered greater influence than Thorndike. (IAH)

  18. W. St. James Street, view looking southwest River Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. James Street, view looking southwest - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  19. W. St. James Street, view looking south River Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. James Street, view looking south - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  20. SIR-B - The second Shuttle Imaging Radar experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, J.; Elachi, C.; Settle, M.

    1986-01-01

    On October 5, 1984, the second Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) was launched into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. SIR-B is part of an evolutionary radar program designed to progressively develop a multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar with a variable earth-imaging geometry. The SIR-B instrument is an upgraded version of SIR-A, with the additional capability of tilting the antenna mechanically to acquire imagery at variable incidence angles ranging from 15 to 60 deg. The variable look angle capability provided a means of acquiring multiple incidence angle imagery over specific targets on successive days of the mission. These data are being used to classify surface features by their backscatter signatures as a function of incidence angle and for topographic mapping. In addition to the antenna tilt capability, a digital data-handling system was added to increase the dynamic range, the resolution was improved by a factor of two over SIR-A, and a calibration subsystem was added to improve the radiometric accuracy of the data. The mission had a number of problems, including loss of the primary digital data path between the Shuttle and the ground. In spite of these problems, approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected over the 8-day Shuttle mission corresponding to an areal coverage of about 6.4 million sq km.

  1. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.

  2. The Darwinian Center to the Vision of William James.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    The essence of William James's vision can sometimes be hard to discover due to emotional volatility and exploratory impulsiveness. On the other hand, beneath James's apparent inconsistency was a constancy of purpose that can be easily underestimated. This paper argues that the center of James's vision lay in an interpretation of Darwinism. By…

  3. 7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, May 17, 1926, (John and James Dobson, Inc. East Falls, Aero Service Corp., Neg. No. 5986, May 17, 1926, Free Library of Philadelphia, Print Collection). - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): molecular pathophysiology and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoyuki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, extensive basic science research has led to a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of sepsis. Sepsis is now defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in which there is an identifiable focus of infection. SIRS can be also precipitated by non-infective events such as trauma, pancreatitis, and surgery. As a consequence of an overactive SIRS response, the function of various organ systems may be compromised, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Production and activation of multiple proinflammatory genes are likely to play a key role in the pathogenesis of MODS development. This review article focuses on the molecular mechanisms and components involved in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis. This includes cellular targets of sepsis-inducing bacterial products and their signaling pathways with a major emphasis on transcription factors and new therapeutic approaches to severe sepsis.

  5. The Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) experiment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.

  6. The 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake, Southern California: Vector Near-Field Displacements from ERS InSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Smith, Bridget

    2002-01-01

    Two components of fault slip are uniquely determined from two line-of-sight (LOS) radar interferograms by assuming that the fault-normal component of displacement is zero. We use this approach with ascending and descending interferograms from the ERS satellites to estimate surface slip along the Hector Mine earthquake rupture. The LOS displacement is determined by visually counting fringes to within 1 km of the outboard ruptures. These LOS estimates and uncertainties are then transformed into strike- and dip-slip estimates and uncertainties; the transformation is singular for a N-S oriented fault and optimal for an E-W oriented fault. In contrast to our previous strike-slip estimates, which were based only on a descending interferogram, we now find good agreement with the geological measurements, except at the ends of the rupture. The ascending interferogram reveals significant west-sidedown dip-slip (approximately 1.0 m) which reduces the strike-slip estimates by 1 to 2 m, especially along the northern half of the rupture. A spike in the strike-slip displacement of 6 m is observed in central part of the rupture. This large offset is confirmed by subpixel cross correlation of features in the before and after amplitude images. In addition to strike slip and dip slip, we identify uplift and subsidence along the fault, related to the restraining and releasing bends in the fault trace, respectively. Our main conclusion is that at least two look directions are required for accurate estimates of surface slip even along a pure strike-slip fault. Models and results based only on a single look direction could have major errors. Our new estimates of strike slip and dip slip along the rupture provide a boundary condition for dislocation modeling. A simple model, which has uniform slip to a depth of 12 km, shows good agreement with the observed ascending and descending interferograms.

  7. Performance of the SIR-B digital image processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A ground-based system to generate digital SAR image products has been developed and implemented in support of the SIR-B mission. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Its capabilities include: automated radiometric and geometric correction of the output imagery; high-precision absolute location without tiepoint registration; filtering of the raw data to remove spurious signals from alien radars; and automated catologing to maintain a full set of radar and image production facility in support of the SIR-B science investigators routinely produces over 80 image frames per week.

  8. Performance of the SIR-B digital image processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A ground-based system to generate digital SAR image products has been developed and implemented in support of the SIR-B mission. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Its capabilities include: automated radiometric and geometric correction of the output imagery; high-precision absolute location without tiepoint registration; filtering of the raw data to remove spurious signals from alien radars; and automated catologing to maintain a full set of radar and image production facility in support of the SIR-B science investigators routinely produces over 80 image frames per week.

  9. The SIR-C/X-SAR synthetic aperture radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Rolando L.; Huneycutt, Bryan L.; Werner, Marian

    1991-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR, a three-frequency radar to be flown on the Space Shuttle in September 1993, is described. The SIR-C system is a two-frequency radar operating at 1250 MHz (L-band) and 5300 MHz (C-band), and is designed to get four-polarization radar imagery at multiple surface angles. The X-SAR system is an X-band imaging radar operating at 9600 MHz. The discussion covers the mission concept; system design; hardware; RF electronics; digital electronics; command, timing, and telemetry; and testing.

  10. Relationship of the 1999 Hector Mine and 1992 Landers fault ruptures to offsets on neogene faults and distribution of late Cenozoic basins in the eastern California shear zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Matti, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the Hector Mine and Landers earthquakes in the broader context of faults and fault-related basins of the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). We compile new estimates of total strike-slip offset (horizontal separation) at nearly 30 fault sites based on offset magnetic anomaly pairs. We also present a map of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rock (thickness of basin-filling late Cenozoic deposits) for the region, based on an inversion of gravity and geologic data. Our estimates of total long-term strike-slip offsets on faults that slipped during the 1999 Hector Mine (3.4 km), and the 1992 Landers earthquakes (3.1 ? to 4.6 km) fall within the 3- to 5-km range of total strike-slip offset proposed for most faults of the western ECSZ. Faults having offsets as great as 20 km are present in the eastern part of the ECSZ. Although the Landers rupture followed sections of a number of faults that had been mapped as independent structures, the similarity in total strike-slip offset associated with these faults is compatible with one of the following hypotheses: (1) the Landers multistrand rupture is a typical event for this linked fault system or (2) this complex rupture path has acted as a coherent entity when viewed over some characteristic multiearthquake cycle. The second hypothesis implies that, for each cycle, slip associated with smaller earthquakes on individual fault segments integrates to a uniform slip over the length of the linked faults. With one exception, the region surrounding the Hector Mine and Landers ruptures is devoid of deep late Cenozoic basins. In particular, no deep basins are found immediately north of the Pinto Mountain fault, a place where a number of kinematic models for development of the ECSZ have predicted basins. In contrast, some basins exist near Barstow and along the eastern part of the ECSZ, where the model of Dokka et al. (1998) predicts basins.

  11. Postseismic relaxation following the 1992 M7.3 Landers and 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Postseismic relaxation (measured postseismic deformation less the deformation that would have occurred at the preseismic rate) has been monitored at the same 10 monuments over ???6 years following both the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes. For both earthquakes the displacement components of the observed relaxation are well described by ??i + ??if1(t), where ??i and ??i are constants peculiar to each component at each monument, t is the time after the earthquake, and f1(t) is a temporal function common to all components and all monuments for that earthquake. The temporal fanction f1(t) can be approximated by bt + c loge(1 + t /??), where ?? = 38.7 ?? 15.2 days and 25.6 ?? 7.7 days for the Landers and Hector Mine relaxations, respectively. Because the estimated values of ?? do not differ significantly, the transient term loge(1 + t/??) in the temporal function may be the same for both earthquakes. The asymptotic (t ??? ???) relaxation rates ??ib are only a few mm/a and do not appear to be significantly different following the two earthquakes. The asymptotic deformation rates appear to be slightly greater than the preseismic deformation rates, but the preseismic rates were not measured directly. Thus, the deformations of the Landers array measured over the first 5.6 years following the Landers earthquake and over the first 6.4 years following the Hector Mine earthquake are generally consistent with a simple model in which the transient postearthquake relaxation depends upon time as loge(1 + t/??) with ?? = 28 ?? 5 days and the asymptotic postseismic speeds of the monuments exceed the preseismic speeds by at most only a few millimeters per annum.

  12. Fluid Pressure Changes in the Surprise Spring Basin Near Twenty-Nine Palms, California, Induced by the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeloffs, E. A.; Martin, P. M.; Clark, D. A.; Pimentel, I.

    2001-12-01

    Pore pressure changes induced by the June 28, 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake have been assumed to affect geodetic measurements as well as Coulomb stress changes. Groundwater levels measured manually by the U.S. Geological Survey in and around the Surprise Spring basin, approximately between the fault ruptures of the Landers earthquake and the October 16, 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes, show that strain-induced pressure changes in the alluvial basins can dissipate by vertical flow on a time scale of days within several hundred m of the surface, and that the spatial distribution and time variation of pressure changes reflects not only the coseismic strain field but also spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity. The Landers earthquake imposed about 20 x 10-6 contractional volumetric strain on the Surprise Spring basin. Although fluid pressure in sedimentary rocks typically increases 20-50 cm of water per 10-6 contraction, groundwater level measurements in August, 1992, detected few changes that could be attributed to the earthquake. We argue that strain-induced pressure changes did occur, but had dissipated by vertical flow during the 60 days before water levels were measured. More specifically, because the wells are perforated 100 m or less below the water table, in rocks with vertical hydraulic diffusivities of 1-10 m2/s, only 10-20% of the immediate post-earthquake fluid pressure changes would have remained at the time of the first post-Landers measurements. In contrast to the expected monotonic decay of coseismic fluid pressure changes, water levels in eight wells rose 1-10 m between August and December, 1992, and remained elevated until at least 1996. Although lower pumping rates due to a post-earthquake population decline in 1992-1994 could have affected water levels in two wells near the town of Landers, other wells where this delayed response occurred are not influenced by pumping. The wells exhibiting this delayed and sustained pressure increase are

  13. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Mirror Halfway Complete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Inside NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's massive clean room in Greenbelt, Maryland, the ninth flight mirror was installed onto the telescope structure with a robotic arm. This marks the halfway completion point for the James Webb Space Telescope's segmented primary mirror. Engineers worked tirelessly to install the ninth primary flight mirror onto the telescope structure. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Chris Gunn Read more: go.nasa.gov/1kqK6fW

  15. James A. Van Allen (1914-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    James A. Van Allen, who served as presidentof AGU from 1982 to 1984, died on 9August. Van Allen was president of the PlanetarySciences Section from 1964 to 1968 andpresident of the Solar-Planetary RelationshipsSection (now the Space Physics andAeronomy Section) from 1976 to 1978. Hewas awarded the John Adam Fleming Medalin 1963 and the William Bowie Medal in1977. Van Allen joined AGU in 1948.

  16. Charles Bolden and James Cameron Meet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-19

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, and award-winning writer-director James Cameron, meet at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2010. Cameron who is a former member of the NASA Advisory Council has had a life-long interest in space and science. The two talked about public outreach and education among other subjects. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Charles Bolden and James Cameron Meet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-19

    Award-winning writer-director James Cameron, left, and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, meet at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2010. Cameron who is a former member of the NASA Advisory Council has had a life-long interest in space and science. The two talked about public outreach and education among other subjects. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bil Ingalls)

  18. Charles Bolden and James Cameron Meet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-19

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to award-winning writer-director James Cameron, during a meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2010. Cameron who is a former member of the NASA Advisory Council has had a life-long interest in space and science. The two talked about public outreach and education among other subjects. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. God, James Watt, and the public's land

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1981-05-01

    The political career of James Watt, Secretary of the Interior, is chronicled. His current reputation as archenemy of the environmental movement is largely the outgrowth of three and a half years of activity on behalf of the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Since taking office in January 1981, Watt has moved swiftly to impose his individual standards on USDI. Various programs and agencies are being terminated, and public lands may soon be open for mineral and energy exploitation. (7 drawings, 1 photo)

  20. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    PubMed

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  1. Developmental and Spatial Expression of sir2 Genes in the Cellular Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Takahiro; Yasukawa, Hiro

    2008-01-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum grows as unicellular free-living amoebae in the presence of nutrients. Upon starvation, the amoebae aggregate and form multicellular structures that each consist of a stalk and spores. D. discoideum encodes at least four proteins (Sir2A, Sir2B, Sir2C, and Sir2D) homologous to human SIRT. RT-PCR and WISH analyses showed that the genes for Sir2A, Sir2C, and Sir2D were expressed at high levels in growing cells but at decreased levels in developing cells, whereas the gene encoding Sir2B was expressed in the prestalk-cell region in the developmental phase.

  2. A single institute retrospective trial of concurrent chemotherapy with SIR-Spheres(®) versus SIR-Spheres(®) alone in chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Cho, May; Kessler, Jonathan; Park, John J; Lee, Aram; Gong, Jun; Singh, Gagandeep; Chen, Yi-Jen; Ituarte, Philip H G; Fakih, Marwan

    2017-08-01

    The use of selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium 90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres(®)) in chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer liver metastases has been associated with favorable progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when given alone or concurrently with chemotherapy. We conducted a single institute retrospective trial to explore the potential impact of SIR-Spheres(®) with concurrent chemotherapy vs. SIR-Spheres(®) alone on liver PFS in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Patients with 5-fluorouracil-refractory CRLM treated with SIR-Spheres(®) between 2009 and 2014 were identified. Patients were excluded if they received any chemotherapy/targeted regimen following radioembolization on which they did not previously progress. This strategy was adopted to minimize the impact of post-SIR-Spheres(®) systemic therapy bias on PFS. Twenty-seven patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. Patients' demographics were similar between the two treatment arms, except for the median number of prior therapies. No associated ≥ grade 3 toxicities were noted. Liver disease control rates were 84% and 14% on the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy arms and SIR-Spheres(®) alone arms, respectively (P=0.001). Median PFS in the liver was 176 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy group vs. 91 days in the SIR-Sphere(®) alone group (P=0.0009). Median overall survival was 212 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy group vs. 154 days in the SIR-Spheres(®) alone group (P=0.1023). In patients with 5-fluorouracil-refractory disease, SIR-Spheres(®) plus chemotherapy is associated with an increased liver disease control rate and a prolonged liver PFS in comparison with SIR-Spheres(®) alone.

  3. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    McCleary, David F; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2016-09-15

    Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir(-) mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

  4. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  5. Sir William Johnson and the Indians of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Milton W.

    In order to make the vast literature about the history of Indian and white relations in New York readily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers, this booklet brings together the main points of the relationship between the Indians and Sir William Johnson. Johnson is a key figure in the Indian story of New York state during the 1770s.…

  6. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  7. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  8. A Study of the SIRS with severely traumatized patients.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Correa, Amor A; Gillard, Nathan D; Ross, Colin A

    2009-09-01

    Clinical research has revealed that traumatized patients often elevate feigning indicators on psychological measures, which raises the possibility that traumatization and concomitant dissociation may lead to misclassifications of malingering. Within the domain of feigned mental disorders, the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is a well established measure with excellent reliability and validity across clinical and forensic settings. Although recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness with outpatient posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) samples, the SIRS usefulness with severely traumatized patients remains to be investigated. In this study, we recruited traumatized patients for a within-subjects simulation design in which we asked feigners to convincingly portray themselves as examinees claiming total disabilities. When compared to standard instructions, feigned presentations produced substantial effect sizes. Although the standard SIRS classifications produced moderately high sensitivities (M = .82), the false-positive rates were problematic. To minimize false-positives, we constructed a Trauma Index (TI) from 3 primary SIRS scales that appeared unaffected by severe trauma. Implementation of the TI substantially reduced false-positive rates (M = .09).

  9. Why Creativity Now? A Conversation with Sir Ken Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this interview, creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for creativity as the crucial 21st-century skill. Genuine creative processes involve critical thinking as well as imaginative insights and fresh ideas. Also, creativity is a process, not a single event, one that requires continual evaluation. It's about everyone, it's a function…

  10. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  11. Why Creativity Now? A Conversation with Sir Ken Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this interview, creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for creativity as the crucial 21st-century skill. Genuine creative processes involve critical thinking as well as imaginative insights and fresh ideas. Also, creativity is a process, not a single event, one that requires continual evaluation. It's about everyone, it's a function…

  12. Sir John Robert Vane: 29 March 1927 - 19 November 2004.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Sir John Robert Vane, who died on 19 November 2004, will be remembered as one of the most influential British pharmacologists. During his distinguish career he published more than 700 scientific papers and wrote or editing 20 books. His many awards include the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1982) and a knighthood in 1984.

  13. A yeast sir2 mutant temperature sensitive for silencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Lin; Landry, Joseph; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2008-12-01

    A screen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive silencing mutants identified a strain with a point mutation in the SIR2 gene. The mutation changed Ser276 to Cys. This amino acid is in the highly conserved NAD(+) binding pocket of the Sir2 family of proteins. Haploid strains of either mating type carrying the mutation were severely defective at mating at 37 degrees but normal at 25 degrees . Measurements of RNA from the HMR locus demonstrated that silencing was lost rapidly upon shifting the mutant from the low to the high temperature, but it took >8 hours to reestablish silencing after a shift back to 25 degrees . Silencing at the rDNA locus was also temperature sensitive. On the other hand, telomeric silencing was totally defective at both temperatures. Enzymatic activity of the recombinant wild-type and mutant Sir2 protein was compared by three different assays. The mutant exhibited less deacetylase activity than the wild-type protein at both 37 degrees and 25 degrees . Interestingly, the mutant had much more NAD(+)-nicotinamide exchange activity than wild type, as did a mutation in the same region of the protein in the Sir2 homolog, Hst2. Thus, mutations in this region of the NAD(+) binding pocket of the protein are able to carry out cleavage of NAD(+) to nicotinamide but are defective at the subsequent deacetylation step of the reaction.

  14. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  15. The Student Instructional Report for Distance Education: e-SIR II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Recently the Educational Testing Service (ETS) has modified its Student Instructional Report II (SIR II) for use in online distance education courses. The SIR II is a second-generation survey based on more than thirty years of experience with student evaluations (Centra, 1998; Centra and Gaubatz, n.d.). The e-SIR II is based on the highly…

  16. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des…

  17. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des…

  18. SIR/CAR Analysis Technique for Voluntary School Sport or Amateur Athletic Organizations. A SIR/CAR Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Zarebski, John

    This paper delineates the exact methodology developed by the Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for applying a systems analysis technique to a voluntary mutual benefit organization, such as a school or amateur athletic group. The functions of the technique are to compare avowed and actual behavior, to utilize group…

  19. Observed and simulated ground motions in the San Bernardino basin region for the Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the MW 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, peak ground velocities recorded at sites in the central San Bernardino basin region were up to 2 times larger and had significantly longer durations of strong shaking than sites just outside the basin. To better understand the effects of 3D structure on the long-period ground-motion response in this region, we have performed finite-difference simulations for this earthquake. The simulations are numerically accurate for periods of 2 sec and longer and incorporate the detailed spatial and temporal heterogeneity of source rupture, as well as complex 3D basin structure. Here, we analyze three models of the San Bernardino basin: model A (with structural constraints from gravity and seismic reflection data), model F (water well and seismic refraction data), and the Southern California Earthquake Center version 3 model (hydrologic and seismic refraction data). Models A and F are characterized by a gradual increase in sediment thickness toward the south with an abrupt step-up in the basement surface across the San Jacinto fault. The basin structure in the SCEC version 3 model has a nearly uniform sediment thickness of 1 km with little basement topography along the San Jacinto fault. In models A and F, we impose a layered velocity structure within the sediments based on the seismic refraction data and an assumed depth-dependent Vp/Vs ratio. Sediment velocities within the SCEC version 3 model are given by a smoothly varying rule-based function that is calibrated to the seismic refraction measurements. Due to computational limitations, the minimum shear-wave velocity is fixed at 600 m/sec in all of the models. Ground-motion simulations for both models A and F provide a reasonably good match to the amplitude and waveform characteristics of the recorded motions. In these models, surface waves are generated as energy enters the basin through the gradually sloping northern margin. Due to the basement step along the San Jacinto fault, the

  20. Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D

    2016-12-01

    The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  2. Broadband spectral photography of the James River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    On May 28, 1974, a photographic mission from 5.3 kilometers altitude was flown over the James River from Norfolk to Hopewell. During the mission 252 photographs were exposed over the river. The photographs are divided into four simultaneously exposed groups with each group exposed through a different broadband optical filter. The four filters isolated blue-green, green, yellow, and near-infrared radiation from the water body. The document summarizes the mission photography in relation to flight altitude, sunglint, and photographic exposure.

  3. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  4. SirT1 Regulates Energy Metabolism and Response to Caloric Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Gino; Seifert, Erin L.; Bevilacqua, Lisa; He, Xiao Hong; Sabourin, Guillaume; Estey, Carmen; Moffat, Cynthia; Crawford, Sean; Saliba, Sarah; Jardine, Karen; Xuan, Jian; Evans, Meredith; Harper, Mary-Ellen; McBurney, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction. PMID:18335035

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. ARCHWAY TOWARD ENTRANCE - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey James R. Dunlop, Inc., Photographer, n.d. STABLES, INTERIOR DEMOLISHED - Larz Anderson House, 2118 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Direct evidence for SIR2 modulation of chromatin structure in yeast rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, C E; Verschueren, K; Strich, R; Easton Esposito, R

    1997-01-01

    The yeast SIR2 gene maintains inactive chromatin domains required for transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. We previously demonstrated that SIR2 also acts to repress mitotic and meiotic recombination between the tandem ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA). Here we address whether rDNA chromatin structure is altered by loss of SIR2 function by in vitro and in vivo assays of sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease and dam methyltransferase, respectively, and present the first chromatin study that maps sites of SIR2 action within the rDNA locus. Control studies at the MAT alpha locus also revealed a previously undetected MNase-sensitive site at the a1-alpha 2 divergent promoter which is protected in sir2 mutant cells by the derepressed a1-alpha 2 regulator. In rDNA, SIR2 is required for a more closed chromatin structure in two regions: SRR1, the major SIR-Responsive Region in the non-transcribed spacer, and SRR2, in the 18S rRNA coding region. None of the changes in rDNA detected in sir2 mutants are due to the presence of the a1-alpha 2 repressor. Reduced recombination in the rDNA correlates with a small, reproducible transcriptional silencing position effect. Deletion and overexpression studies demonstrate that SIR2, but not SIR1, SIR3 or SIR4, is required for this rDNA position effect. Significantly, rDNA transcriptional silencing and rDNA chromatin accessibility respond to SIR2 dosage, indicating that SIR2 is a limiting component required for chromatin modeling in rDNA. PMID:9351831

  8. SIR-B cartography and stereo topographic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, M.; Leberi, F.; Raggam, J.; Domik, G.; Welch, R.; Carr, H.; Hammak, J.; Kaupp, V.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The SIR-B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR-B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.

  9. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-06-19

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

  10. The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marious; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S

    2010-08-20

    Sir William Turner (1832-1916) was Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. His classic paper of 1863 on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in 1863 and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion. A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented.

  11. James R. Wait (1924-1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David A.

    James (Jim) R.Wait, a pioneer in electromagnetic theory and applications to geophysical exploration, died of cancer in Tucson, Arizona, on October 1, 1998. At 74, he was still very active and innovative in electromagnetics as Regents Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, and as a consultant in electrical geophysics. He is survived by his wife, Gertrude; his son, George; his daughter, Laura; and three grandchildren, James, Carolyn, and Connor.Jim was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, on January 23, 1924. He obtained B.A.Sc.and M.A.Sc. degrees in 1948 and 1949, respectively and his Ph.D. degree in 1951, in electrical engineering, all from the University of Toronto. He obtained his “T” in skiing and remained an avid skier all his life. Jim stayed in great shape and always found time to work out despite his busy schedule. I still remember the business trip where Jim and I ran laps around the parking lot of a Holiday Inn for his daily workout.

  12. Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? No SIRS, Not Just Yet.

    PubMed

    Dunne, W Michael

    2015-08-01

    In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed.

  13. Digital simulation of the SIR-C sensor electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Jeffrey D.; Curlander, John C.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper software for simulation of the response of the SIR-C sensor to a point target is described. Synthetic SAR data is generated by passing successive chirps through a simulation of the transmitter electronics, propagation path and receiver electronics. This result is then processed with a digital correlator to yield the point target response of the system. This allows an accurate assessment of the effect of the radar design on the final image product.

  14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? No SIRS, Not Just Yet

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. PMID:25631808

  15. Sir John Harington, Thomas Crapper, and the flush toilet.

    PubMed

    DuPont, H L; Bean, W B

    1978-09-01

    With the population explosion of the last century, major changes in sewage removal and sanitation were necessary. Two men offered important designs for the modern flush toilet. Sir John Harington was a poet in 16th Century England, while Thomas Crapper was a plumber and businessman in the same country 300 years later. Harington will be remembered for eloquent words about the toilet and Crapper may be assured even greater remembrance for selling toilets and being named Crapper.

  16. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  17. Chaotic dynamics in the seasonally forced SIR epidemic model.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Pablo G; Rodríguez, J Ángel; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-04-22

    We prove analytically the existence of chaotic dynamics in the forced SIR model. Although numerical experiments have already suggested that this model can exhibit chaotic dynamics, a rigorous proof (without computer-aided) was not given before. Under seasonality in the transmission rate, the coexistence of low birth and mortality rates with high recovery and transmission rates produces infinitely many periodic and aperiodic patterns together with sensitive dependence on the initial conditions.

  18. Plasma biomarkers of SIRS and MODS associated with canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V

    2016-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance P<0.05 were detected between groups. SIRS in babesiosis was characterised by increases in paraoxonase 1 and apoA-I, whereas MODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprogramming of circulatory cells in sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Cavaillon, J-M; Adrie, C; Fitting, C; Adib-Conquy, M

    2005-01-01

    Immune status is altered in patients with sepsis or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Reduced ex-vivo TNF production by endotoxin-activated monocytes has been regularly reported. This observation is reminiscent of the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance, and the term 'leukocyte reprogramming' well defines this phenomenon. This review will outline that the hyporesponsiveness of circulating leukocytes is not a generalized phenomenon in sepsis and SIRS. Indeed, the nature of the insult (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious SIRS; under anesthesia [surgery] or not [trauma, burn]), the nature of the activator used to trigger leukocytes (i.e. different Toll-like receptor ligands or whole bacteria), the nature of the cell culture (i.e. isolated monocytes versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells versus whole blood assays), and the nature of the analyzed cytokines (e.g. IL-1beta versus IL-1ra; TNF versus IL-10) have a profound influence on the outcome of the response.

  20. A Fractional Order Recovery SIR Model from a Stochastic Process.

    PubMed

    Angstmann, C N; Henry, B I; McGann, A V

    2016-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The fractional order recovery model is shown to be consistent with the Kermack-McKendrick age-structured SIR model, and it reduces to the Hethcote-Tudor integral equation SIR model. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations. We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero.

  1. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  2. Fat Body dSir2 Regulates Muscle Mitochondrial Physiology and Energy Homeostasis Nonautonomously and Mimics the Autonomous Functions of dSir2 in Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kushal K.; Ayyub, Champakali; Sengupta, Samudra

    2013-01-01

    Sir2 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase which has been shown to play a critical role in glucose and fat metabolism. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that dSir2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body dSir2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between dSir2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide (dILP)-dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body dSir2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids (FFA) and dILPs (from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs]). In summary, we show that fat body dSir2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. PMID:23129806

  3. Six cases with severe insulin resistance (SIR) associated with mutations of insulin receptor: Is a Bartter-like syndrome a feature of congenital SIR?

    PubMed

    Grasso, Valeria; Colombo, Carlo; Favalli, Valeria; Galderisi, Alfonso; Rabbone, Ivana; Gombos, Sara; Bonora, Enzo; Massa, Ornella; Meschi, Franco; Cerutti, Franco; Iafusco, Dario; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Monciotti, Carla; Barbetti, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Biallelic insulin receptor (INSR) gene mutations cause congenital syndromes of severe insulin resistance (SIR) known as Donohue syndrome (DS) and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS). At presentation, DS and RMS are difficult to differentiate since they share many clinical features; however, while patients with DS usually die within 1 year of birth, individuals classified as RMS can reach adult age. INSR mutations can be also found in pubertal females with hyperinsulinism, hyperandrogenism, and acanthosis nigricans (type A SIR). We studied the INSR gene in five subjects with congenital SIR and in a patient with type A SIR. Nine biallelic INSR gene mutations (eight novels, including an in-frame deletion of INSR signal peptide) were identified in patients with congenital SIR; a heterozygous, spontaneous INSR mutation was detected in the patient with type A SIR. Two probands, presenting severe hirsutism at birth, died at the age of 3 months and were classified as DS, while other 2, currently 2 and 3 years old, were diagnosed with RMS (patients 3 and 4). The fifth patient with congenital SIR died when 14 months old. Nephrocalcinosis, hyperaldosteronism, hyperreninemia, and hypokalemia, in the absence of hypertension, were discovered in patients 3 and 5 when 24 and 4 months old, respectively. Patient 3, now 3 years/3 months old, still shows hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism requiring potassium supplementation. We conclude that renal abnormalities resembling antenatal Bartter's syndrome type II, recently reported also by others, is a common observation in patients with congenital SIR.

  4. Clustering heterochromatin: Sir3 promotes telomere clustering independently of silencing in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ruault, Myriam; De Meyer, Arnaud; Loïodice, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    A general feature of the nucleus is the organization of repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in clusters concentrating silencing factors. In budding yeast, we investigated how telomeres cluster in perinuclear foci associated with the silencing complex Sir2–Sir3–Sir4 and found that Sir3 is limiting for telomere clustering. Sir3 overexpression triggers the grouping of telomeric foci into larger foci that relocalize to the nuclear interior and correlate with more stable silencing in subtelomeric regions. Furthermore, we show that Sir3′s ability to mediate telomere clustering can be separated from its role in silencing. Indeed, nonacetylable Sir3, which is unable to spread into subtelomeric regions, can mediate telomere clustering independently of Sir2–Sir4 as long as it is targeted to telomeres by the Rap1 protein. Thus, arrays of Sir3 binding sites at telomeres appeared as the sole requirement to promote trans-interactions between telomeres. We propose that similar mechanisms involving proteins able to oligomerize account for long-range interactions that impact genomic functions in many organisms. PMID:21300849

  5. SIR-nucleosome interactions: structure-function relationships in yeast silent chromatin.

    PubMed

    Oppikofer, Mariano; Kueng, Stephanie; Gasser, Susan M

    2013-09-15

    Discrete regions of the eukaryotic genome assume a heritable chromatin structure that is refractory to gene expression, referred to as heterochromatin or "silent" chromatin. Constitutively silent chromatin is found in subtelomeric domains in a number of species, ranging from yeast to man. In addition, chromatin-dependent repression of mating type loci occurs in both budding and fission yeasts, to enable sexual reproduction. The silencing of chromatin in budding yeast is characterized by an assembly of Silent Information Regulatory (SIR) proteins-Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4-with unmodified nucleosomes. Silencing requires the lysine deacetylase activity of Sir2, extensive contacts between Sir3 and the nucleosome, as well as interactions among the SIR proteins, to generate the Sir2-3-4 or SIR complex. Results from recent structural and reconstitution studies suggest an updated model for the ordered assembly and organization of SIR-dependent silent chromatin in yeast. Moreover, studies of subtelomeric gene expression reveal the importance of subtelomeric silent chromatin in the regulation of genes other than the silent mating type loci. This review covers recent advances in this field.

  6. Involvement of SirABC in Iron-Siderophore Import in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Suzanne E.; Sebulsky, M. Tom; Heinrichs, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus SirA was previously identified as a lipoprotein, and SirB and SirC are thought to encode the transmembrane domains of an ABC transporter. Sir proteins show similarity to iron-siderophore transporters in several bacteria. Here, we show that the iron-regulated sirABC operon is divergently transcribed from the sbn operon that encodes enzymes involved in the synthesis of staphylobactin, a recently described siderophore produced by S. aureus. Mutation of either sirA or sirB increased the resistance of iron-starved S. aureus to streptonigrin and resulted in compromised growth in iron-restricted, but not iron-rich, media. We also demonstrated that sirA and sirB mutants are compromised in the ability to transport iron complexed to staphylobactin but are not compromised for uptake of other iron complexes, such as ferric hydroxamates, ferric enterobactin, or ferric citrate. SirA- and SirB-deficient S. aureus, however, retain the ability to produce staphylobactin. Moreover, we found that transcription from the sbn operon was increased, relative to the wild type, in both sirA and sirB knockout strains, likely in response to an increased level of iron starvation in these cells. These results provide evidence of a role for these proteins in iron import in S. aureus and for full fitness of the bacterium in iron-restricted environments and demonstrate a function for S. aureus genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of an endogenously produced siderophore. PMID:15576785

  7. The ubiquitin ligase CHIP prevents SirT6 degradation through noncanonical ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Wu, Yaxu; McDonough, Holly; Patterson, Cam

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) regulates protein quality control, and CHIP deletion accelerates aging and reduces the life span in mice. Here, we reveal a mechanism for CHIP's influence on longevity by demonstrating that CHIP stabilizes the sirtuin family member SirT6, a lysine deacetylase/ADP ribosylase involved in DNA repair, metabolism, and longevity. In CHIP-deficient cells, SirT6 protein half-life is substantially reduced due to increased proteasome-mediated degradation, but CHIP overexpression in these cells increases SirT6 protein expression without affecting SirT6 transcription. CHIP noncanonically ubiquitinates SirT6 at K170, which stabilizes SirT6 and prevents SirT6 canonical ubiquitination by other ubiquitin ligases. In CHIP-depleted cells, SirT6 K170 mutation increases SirT6 half-life and prevents proteasome-mediated degradation. The global decrease in SirT6 expression in the absence of CHIP is associated with decreased SirT6 promoter occupancy, which increases histone acetylation and promotes downstream gene transcription in CHIP-depleted cells. Cells lacking CHIP are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but DNA repair and cell viability are rescued by enforced expression of SirT6. The discovery of this CHIP-SirT6 interaction represents a novel protein-stabilizing mechanism and defines an intersection between protein quality control and epigenetic regulation to influence pathways that regulate the biology of aging.

  8. The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Prevents SirT6 Degradation through Noncanonical Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Wu, Yaxu; McDonough, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) regulates protein quality control, and CHIP deletion accelerates aging and reduces the life span in mice. Here, we reveal a mechanism for CHIP's influence on longevity by demonstrating that CHIP stabilizes the sirtuin family member SirT6, a lysine deacetylase/ADP ribosylase involved in DNA repair, metabolism, and longevity. In CHIP-deficient cells, SirT6 protein half-life is substantially reduced due to increased proteasome-mediated degradation, but CHIP overexpression in these cells increases SirT6 protein expression without affecting SirT6 transcription. CHIP noncanonically ubiquitinates SirT6 at K170, which stabilizes SirT6 and prevents SirT6 canonical ubiquitination by other ubiquitin ligases. In CHIP-depleted cells, SirT6 K170 mutation increases SirT6 half-life and prevents proteasome-mediated degradation. The global decrease in SirT6 expression in the absence of CHIP is associated with decreased SirT6 promoter occupancy, which increases histone acetylation and promotes downstream gene transcription in CHIP-depleted cells. Cells lacking CHIP are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but DNA repair and cell viability are rescued by enforced expression of SirT6. The discovery of this CHIP-SirT6 interaction represents a novel protein-stabilizing mechanism and defines an intersection between protein quality control and epigenetic regulation to influence pathways that regulate the biology of aging. PMID:24043303

  9. 78 FR 48609 - Safety Zone; James River; Newport News, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; James River; Newport News, VA AGENCY: Coast... as follows: Sec. 165.T05-0670 Safety Zone, James River, Newport News, VA. (a) Definitions. For the...'' N longitude 076 38'40'' W, located near Fort Eustis in Newport News, VA. (c) Regulations. (1)...

  10. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 76 FR 12295 - James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 James Luehman; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC or the Commission) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by James Luehman (the... was decided by the Commission in the Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit...

  12. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  13. Sharing Good Stories: The Work of James Stevenson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the career and work of James Stevenson, author and illustrator of children's books. Presents suggestions for extension activities. Includes a selected annotated bibliography of his picture books, titles from some of his series, autobiographical picture books, illustrations, poetry, and fiction, as well as books about James Stevenson.…

  14. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  17. 9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West parcel, site plan-left, elevation-upper right, and survey-lower right, 1873. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1873, pp. 670-671. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1875. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1875, pp. 46-47. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, revised through 1914. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1914, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan, revised through 1895. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1895, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-lower left, and survey-right, 1877. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1877, pp. 1095-1096. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-right, and western environs, 1908. Smith, Elvino Victor. Atlas of the 38th and Part of the 37th Ward of the City of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elvino V. Smith, 1908, Plate 24. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower left, and surrounding environs, 1925. Bromley, George Washington and Bromley, Walter Scott. Atlas of the City of Philadelphia (North Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George W. and Walter S. Bromley, 1925, p. 106. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, and survey lower left, 1865. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1865, p. 279. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-upper right, and survey-below, 1885. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1885, pp. 1890-1891. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1901. Baist, George William. Northern District of Baist's Detail Property Atlases of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1901, Plan 17. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope Sunshield Waterfall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This shiny silver "waterfall" is actually the five layers of the full-scale engineering model of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope sunshield being laid out by technicians at the Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Space Park facility in Redondo Beach, Calif. who are conducting endurance tests on them. For more information, visit: jwst.nasa.gov Credit: Northrop Grumman NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture telescope that will extend humanities’ high angular resolution view of the universe into the infrared spectrum to reveal early epochs of the universe that the Hubble cannot see. The Webb’s science instrument payload includes four cryogenic near-infrared sensors that provide imagery, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy over the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  12. STS-101: Crew Interview / James S. Voss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist James S. Voss is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Voss became an astronaut, the individuals who influenced him, and the events that led to his interest. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is his reaction to and the reasons for the change of the mission objectives. Voss also mentions the scheduled space-walk that he will perform with Jeffrey N. Williams, docking with the International Space Station (ISS), the repairs of equipment, and the change of the batteries. Voss explains why himself, Susan J. Helms, and Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev are the perfect choice for this mission because of their certification from Russia to work on the Zarya Control Module.

  13. A tribute to James Gordon Kelly.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Erin P; Espino, Susan Ryerson; Ritzler, Tina Taylor; Trickett, Edison J; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2005-03-01

    During the June 2001, eighth biennial meeting of the Society for Community Research and Action in Atlanta, a wide variety of community psychologists across generations attended a tribute in honor of James Gordon Kelly. What follows is an attempt to capture the spirit of the afternoon tribute as expressed through remarks made by colleagues and readings of letters sent by those unable to attend. The wide range of individuals represented here attests to the many additive ways in which Jim has cared about the field of community psychology and has contributed to its essence. Three additional invited contributions are included wherein Dick Reppucci, Rhona Weinstein, and Julian Rappaport reflect on the influence of Jim on their own career and on the development of the field.

  14. James Clerk Maxwell 150 years on.

    PubMed

    Reid, John S; Wang, Charles H-T; Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-05-28

    This paper is the preface to a special Issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A reporting selected proceedings of the international conference marking the 150th anniversary of James Clerk Maxwell's professorial debut at Marischal College, Aberdeen. Following an introduction to Marischal College, a brief historical note summarizes Maxwell's life prior to his entering the college as professor of natural philosophy. The preface provides a short summary of the event and overviews the contributed papers devoted to subjects covering a wide range of Maxwell's research interests and their modern developments. The mixture of review and research papers reflects both the fundamental importance and the diverse applicability of Maxwell's works in electromagnetics, colour science, dynamics and kinetics. Acknowledgements are given to the individuals and bodies who made the conference the success that it was.

  15. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, protoplanetary systems, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We will review recent progress in the design of JWST' s observatory architecture leading up to JWST's recent Mission Preliminary Design Review (PDR). In particular, we will discuss the status of JWST's optical system, the current status of the telescope mirror fabrication effort, the final design of the observatory sunshield and the plans for integration and test. In this context, we will discuss the expected scientific performance of the observatory.

  16. Science with the James Webb Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2011. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. Its science goals are to detect and identify the first galaxies to form in the universe, to trace the assembly of galaxies, and to study stellar and planetary system formation. JWST will have three instruments: The Near Infrared Camera and the Near Infrared multiobject Spectrometer will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, and the Mid Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In this special session, we review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of these major goals.

  17. Remembering James Alan Bassham (1922-2012).

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Bassham, Helen; Bassham, Susan

    2016-04-01

    James Alan Bassham, known to many as Al, was born on November 26, 1922, in Sacramento, California (CA), USA. He died on November 19, 2012, in El Cerrito, CA. To celebrate his life at his 3rd death anniversary, we present here a brief biography, comments on his discoveries, but most importantly, remembrances from family and friends; we remember this wonderful and modest person who had played a major pivotal role in the discoveries that led to what he would like to call the P(hotosynthetic) C(arbon) R(eduction) cycle, known to many as the Calvin Cycle, the Calvin-Benson Cycle, or the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle. Based on a personal request by Bassham himself to one of us (Govindjee), we refrain from including his name in the cycle-in recognition of his many students and associates he would have liked to honor.

  18. James Astor in conversation with Warren Colman.

    PubMed

    Astor, James

    2013-11-01

    In this interview with Warren Colman, James Astor speaks about his development as a Jungian analyst from his own experience of personal analysis in the 1960s to his recent retirement from clinical practice. The discussion covers his long association with Michael Fordham, the child analytic training at the SAP, the infant observation seminars with Fordham and Gianna Henry through which Fordham was able to make new discoveries about infant development, his experience of supervision with Donald Meltzer and the development of his own thinking through a series of papers on the analytic process, supervision and the relation between language and truth. The interview concludes with reflections about the legacy of Michael Fordham and the future of analytic work.

  19. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James’s unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the “hard problems” of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James’s reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his “radically empiricist” ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James’s long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more “wayward and fitful” aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James’s thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his “transmission theory” of consciousness, his ideas on the “knowing of things together,” and, finally, the related concept of “the compounding of consciousness,” which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to “know” the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a “distributive model,” based on his understanding of consciousness as an “awareness” that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to

  20. John B. Watson remembered: an interview with James B. Watson. Interview by Mufid James Hannush.

    PubMed

    Watson, J B

    1987-04-01

    Little is known about the personal life of John B. Watson, and this interview aims at capturing the personality of the founder of American behaviorism through the eyes of his son, James B. Watson. Today, psychologists and other social scientists increasingly realize that there is an intimate link between the biography of a psychologist and the kind of psychology he or she founds. Thus biographical information about a founding psychologist can help researchers make explicit this essential link.

  1. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fugono, N.; Furuhama, Y.; Takasugi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Yoshikado, S.; Masuko, H.; Shinozuka, T.; Inomata, H.; Shiro, I.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B). It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR-B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR-B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR-B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR-B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR.

  2. SIR: a simple indexing and retrieval system for biological flat file databases.

    PubMed

    Ramu, C

    2001-08-01

    SIR is a Simple Indexing and Retrieval tool for indexing and searching biological flat file databases. SIR is a cross-platform solution entirely written in Python. Since the package is very small and installation is trivial, this would be an ideal solution for database providers to provide a custom retrieval tool to access them. The modules will be made available at http://www.EMBLHeidelberg.de/~chenna/PySAT/sir.html

  3. Elaboration, Diversification and Regulation of the Sir1 Family of Silencing Proteins in Saccharomyces

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Babiarz, Joshua E.; Teytelman, Leonid; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Rine, Jasper

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin renders domains of chromosomes transcriptionally silent and, due to clonal variation in its formation, can generate heritably distinct populations of genetically identical cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae's Sir1 functions primarily in the establishment, but not the maintenance, of heterochromatic silencing at the HMR and HML loci. In several Saccharomyces species, we discovered multiple paralogs of Sir1, called Kos1–Kos4 (Kin of Sir1). The Kos and Sir1 proteins contributed partially overlapping functions to silencing of both cryptic mating loci in S. bayanus. Mutants of these paralogs reduced silencing at HML more than at HMR. Most genes of the SIR1 family were located near telomeres, and at least one paralog was regulated by telomere position effect. In S. cerevisiae, Sir1 is recruited to the silencers at HML and HMR via its ORC interacting region (OIR), which binds the bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain of Orc1. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which diverged from Saccharomyces after the appearance of the silent mating cassettes, but before the whole-genome duplication, contained an ortholog of Kos3 that was apparently the archetypal member of the family, with only one OIR. In contrast, a duplication of this domain was present in all orthologs of Sir1, Kos1, Kos2, and Kos4. We propose that the functional specialization of Sir3, itself a paralog of Orc1, as a silencing protein was facilitated by the tandem duplication of the OIR domain in the Sir1 family, allowing distinct Sir1–Sir3 and Sir1–Orc1 interactions through OIR–BAH domain interactions. PMID:19171939

  4. Sir protein–independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McCleary, David F.; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir− mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. PMID:27466318

  5. The SirT3 Divining Rod Points to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Eric L.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD-dependent deacetylases that counter aging and diseases of aging. Sirtuin research has focused on SirT1, which deacetylates transcription factors and cofactors in the nucleus. More recent findings highlight SirT3 as a mitochondrial sirtuin that regulates metabolism and oxidative stress. This review focuses on new data linking SirT3 to management of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, which may have profound implications for aging and late-onset diseases PMID:21658599

  6. Sir2 phosphorylation through cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling inhibits the lifespan extension activity of Sir2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Kyu; Kim, Yeong Hyeock; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2015-09-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, has been proposed to be a longevity factor that plays important roles in dietary restriction (DR)-mediated lifespan extension. In this study, we show that the Sir2's role for DR-mediated lifespan extension depends on cAMP-PKA and casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling in yeast. Sir2 partially represses the transcription of lifespan-associated genes, such as PMA1 (encoding an H(+)-ATPase) and many ribosomal protein genes, through deacetylation of Lys 16 of histone H4 in the promoter regions of these genes. This repression is relieved by Sir2 S473 phosphorylation, which is mediated by active cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling. Moderate DR increases the replicative lifespan of wild-type yeast but has no effect on that of yeast expressing the Sir2-S473E or S473A allele, suggesting that the effect of Sir2 on DR-mediated lifespan extension is negatively regulated by S473 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which Sir2 contributes to lifespan extension.

  7. Selective management of cardiovascular dysfunction in posttraumatic SIRS and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martin, R Shayn; Kincaid, Edward H; Russell, Hyde M; Meredith, J Wayne; Chang, Michael C

    2005-03-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction associated with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is caused by a combination of decreased myocardial contractility and low vascular resistance. The contribution of each of these components can be determined at the bedside, and directed therapy can be appropriately initiated. Over an 8-month period of time, 23 consecutive patients who experienced posttraumatic SIRS while still being monitored with a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) were prospectively evaluated. Ventricular pressure-volume diagrams were constructed to quantify myocardial contractility and afterload. In a resuscitation protocol, dobutamine was administered to patients with an isolated decrease in contractility, and dopamine or epinephrine was instituted for the combination of reduced contractility and afterload. Variables describing cardiovascular function were measured at the time of resolution of initial shock resuscitation (BASE), at the onset of SIRS (ONSET), and after administration of inotropic or vasoactive agents (TREAT). ONSET was associated with a significant decrease in left ventricular power (LVP) (362 +/- 96 to 235 +/- 55 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P < 0.00001) and stroke work index (SWI) (4670 +/- 1213 to 3060 +/- 848 mmHg.mL/m, P < 0.00001) from BASE. Sixteen patients (70%) demonstrated predominantly decreased contractility, which returned to near BASE values after the administration of dobutamine. The remaining seven patients (30%) had both decreased contractility and afterload, which was treated with dopamine or epinephrine. LVP and SWI significantly increased (235 +/- 55 to 328 +/- 77 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P < 0.00001, and 3060 +/- 848 to 4554 +/- 1423 mmHg.mL/m(2), P < 0.00001, respectively) on the initiation of directed therapy. Specific cardiovascular abnormalities can be identified at the bedside, and this information can guide pharmacologic management. Directed therapy improves cardiovascular function.

  8. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn (1751-1804): precision in thermometry.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-02-01

    The universal clinical procedure of recording a patient's temperature depends upon the accuracy of thermometers. This in turn depends upon the accuracy of two fixed datum points (the freezing and boiling points of water) and subsequently on the fine calibration of the etched scale between them. Anders Celsius (1701-44) defined the boiling point of water as the upper fixed point of the thermometric scale, originally designated as 0°C but inverted by Carl Linnaeus (1707-78) to read 100°C. In 1724 Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) had observed that the upper fixed point, that of boiling water, varied with changes in atmospheric pressure. An English scientist, Sir George Shuckburgh (after 1794 known as Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn), addressed this problem and over the period 1774-79 he defined the relationship of the temperature of boiling water to barometric pressure. This latter variable changed both with the ambient meteorological conditions of the moment and the height above sea level at which the calibrations were made. Clinical thermometry depends on an accuracy of 0.1°C in both the baseline and the tracking of a patient's temperature but Shuckburgh's experiments showed that the upper fixed point of reference, that of boiling water, could change by up to 10°C. He demonstrated that these variables must be measured and controlled in the manufacture and calibration of thermometers. Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn published his results in the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society (1777-79) and made possible the accuracy of thermometry on which patient care depends.

  9. SIR-C Measurements of Soil Moisture, Vegetation and Surface Roughness and their Hydrological Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) Analysis of SIR-C/X-SAR response to soil moisture, vegetation and surface roughness and development of an algorithm to retrieve these parameters; (2) Combination of the visible and near-infrared data and the SIR-C/X-SAR data to improve the range and accuracy of vegetation classification; (3) Testing of theoretical models for microwave propagation with SIR-C/X-SAR and microwave radiometric measurements over rough surfaces; and (4) Evaluation of a water balance model using SIR-C/X-SAR derived soil moisture values and other ancillary data. Progress, significant results and future plans are presented.

  10. Skeletal muscle function, oxygenation and biochemistry in an endotoxemic model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Iannoli, E D; Gayeski, T E

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a reproducible low-dose endotoxin model which is useful for the investigation of early SIRS. The data confirm that organ function cannot be inferred from whole animal data (e.g. SVR vs. MVR). Thus, the study of SIRS at the organ and cellular level is essential. Decreased skeletal muscle oxygen consumption with 4 Hz exercise in early SIRS may be related to depletion of physiologic reserves, especially microcirculatory reserves, as suggested by decreased myoglobin saturation and decreased energy charge. Using this model, we will investigate whether organ dysfunction in SIRS is due to oxygen-limited cellular ATP production or impaired cellular metabolism.

  11. [Understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of SIRS and sepsis and development of innovative therapies of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Naoki; Fujishima, Seitaro

    2004-12-01

    The concept of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was introduced in 1992 to define and objectively diagnose sepsis. Over the last decade, the definition of sepsis has been used for inclusion criteria of multicenter trials to develop innovative therapies of sepsis. With the recent understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of sepsis, many drugs have been tested, but only two drugs (activated protein C and neutrophil-elastase inhibitor) have been approved for clinical use in sepsis or SIRS. Further understanding of basic pathophysiology of SIRS and sepsis holds promise to develop a new therapeutic strategy to improve survival of patients with SIRS and sepsis.

  12. [Changes in the cytokine network through escalating SIRS after heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Sablotzki, A; Mann, V; Simm, A; Czeslick, E

    2001-09-01

    Changes in the Cytokine Network Through Escalating SIRS After Heart Surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. Plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, GM-CSF and TGF-beta) were measured at the first four postoperative days in 12 adult male patients with severe SIRS (SIRS-group), and 15 patients with uncomplicated course (control-group) following myocardial revascularization. All cytokines (except IL-1beta) were significantly elevated in SIRS-patients, the analysis of differences between the survivors and non-survivors within the SIRS-group showed dramatically elevated levels of IL-8 and IL-18 in non-survivors. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.g. IL-8 and/or IL-18 may be helpful for the early detection and prognosis of high-risk patients with severe SIRS and MODS following cardiac surgery.

  13. [SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome): clinical entity, definitions, and the significance].

    PubMed

    Kushimoto, S; Yamamoto, Y

    1999-01-01

    The clinical entity, definitions, and the significance of SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) were reviewed. The term, SIRS was proposed to define sepsis and its sequelae clearly in 1991, in order to make early detection of the disease possible, and to improve the ability to compare innovative potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities by standardizing terms. Although the criteria of SIRS is not strict and too sensitive, SIRS has been shown to be useful as a warning sign of severe condition in clinical setting. We also discussed about a new concept, CARS (compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome), which was characterized as anti-inflammatory mediators-dominant condition, in this issue.

  14. SIR-C Measurements of Soil Moisture, Vegetation and Surface Roughness and their Hydrological Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) Analysis of SIR-C/X-SAR response to soil moisture, vegetation and surface roughness and development of an algorithm to retrieve these parameters; (2) Combination of the visible and near-infrared data and the SIR-C/X-SAR data to improve the range and accuracy of vegetation classification; (3) Testing of theoretical models for microwave propagation with SIR-C/X-SAR and microwave radiometric measurements over rough surfaces; and (4) Evaluation of a water balance model using SIR-C/X-SAR derived soil moisture values and other ancillary data. Progress, significant results and future plans are presented.

  15. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Schumpert, Charles A.; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR in Daphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2. PMID:26978617

  16. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir2 in regulating stress response and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles A; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2016-02-01

    The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR inDaphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2.

  17. Australian Multiexperimental Assessment of SIR-B (AMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, J. A.; Forster, B. C.; Milne, A. K.; Taylor, G. R.; Trinder, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of SIR-B data for analysis of surface properties and subsurface morphology in three arid regions of Australia is investigated. This study area is located in western New South Wales. It contains extensive aeolian and alluvially derived depositional plains and is the site of the University's Arid Zone Research Station; it is well-mapped and surveyed. Radar backscatter is mapped and evaluated against known terrain conditions. Relative components of surface and subsurface return are determined with a view to identifying structural properties of surface and subsurface morphology. The capability of microwave remote sensing in locating likely groundwater sources in the Bancannia Basin, near Fowler's Gap is assessed.

  18. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  19. Sir Ronald A. Fisher and the International Biometric Society.

    PubMed

    Billard, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Sir Ronald A. Fisher, one of the two Fathers of Statistics and a Founder of the International Biometric Society (the "Society"). To celebrate the extraordinary genius of Fisher and the far-sighted vision of Fisher and Chester Bliss in organizing and promoting the formation of the Society, this article looks at the origins and growth of the Society, some of the key players and events, and especially the roles played by Fisher himself as the First President. A fresh look at Fisher, the man rather than the scientific genius is also presented.

  20. Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Jiang, Guirong; Liu, Suyu; Ling, Lin

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. The Poincaré map and center manifold theorem are used to discuss flip bifurcation of the endemic periodic solution. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  1. Radar Interferometric and Penetration Investigations using SIR-C Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Elachi, Charles; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: (1) To model, experimentally characterize, and verify penetration phenomena in hyperarid and vegetated regions using the SIR-C/X-SAR multiparameter radar system and groundbased receivers; (2) To invert measured radar backscatter as a function of frequency and polarization in terms of geophysical parameters of the surface, subsurface and vegetation canopy such as surface roughness, subsurface geomorphology, or tree height and density; and (3) To display subsurface and within-canopy features in an image format, thus easing the interpretability of the results.

  2. STS-59 payload SIR-C/X-SAR antenna view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) antenna, developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), is seen in this photo taken at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) before loading into the Shuttle Endeavour. The MTPE spaceborne data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity.

  3. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.

    SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground

  4. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.

    SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground

  5. Australian Multiexperimental Assessment of SIR-B (AMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, J. A.; Forster, B. C.; Milne, A. K.; Taylor, G. R.; Trinder, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of SIR-B data for analysis of surface properties and subsurface morphology in three arid regions of Australia is investigated. This study area is located in western New South Wales. It contains extensive aeolian and alluvially derived depositional plains and is the site of the University's Arid Zone Research Station; it is well-mapped and surveyed. Radar backscatter is mapped and evaluated against known terrain conditions. Relative components of surface and subsurface return are determined with a view to identifying structural properties of surface and subsurface morphology. The capability of microwave remote sensing in locating likely groundwater sources in the Bancannia Basin, near Fowler's Gap is assessed.

  6. Geological, structural, and geomorphological analyses from SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zisk, S. H.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Peterfreund, A. R.; Sullivan, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    A Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) study designed to develop a better understanding of the application of radar in geological studies is described. The specific objectives for deltaic environments include the examination of delta morphology and the intertidal zone, the surface expression of shallow bathymetry, the characterization of vegetation cover, and the water balance of the delta. In impact crater environments, the goals include the establishment of the radar characteristics of exposed craters and the application of this knowledge to test for the detectability of very poorly exposed craters.

  7. Traffic-driven SIR epidemic spreading in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cunlai; Li, Siyuan; Yang, XianXia; Xu, Zhongqi; Ji, Zexuan; Yang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We study SIR epidemic spreading in networks driven by traffic dynamics, which are further governed by static routing protocols. We obtain the maximum instantaneous population of infected nodes and the maximum population of ever infected nodes through simulation. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. When packet generation rate ρ is small, increasing ρ favors epidemic spreading. However, when ρ is large enough, traffic congestion appears which inhibits epidemic spreading.

  8. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  9. The sartorial self: William James's philosophy of dress.

    PubMed

    Watson, Cecelia A

    2004-08-01

    William James placed great importance on clothing, and this emphasis on apparel is reflected in his writings on psychology, in his letters, and in his own style of dress. his perspective on dress was influenced by a passage on the "philosophy of clothing" in Hermann Lotze's Microcosmus. James believed clothing to be an essential part of the material self; in this article it is argued that it is important to the spiritual and social selves as well. James's interest in the self-expressive aspects of clothing was reflected in his attire, his descriptions of colleagues" clothing, his account book, and his chairmanship of Harvard's Committee on Academic Dress.

  10. Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model.

    PubMed

    Osthus, Dave; Hickmann, Kyle S; Caragea, Petruţa C; Higdon, Dave; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-03-01

    Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U.S. remains challenging because the form of the disease transmission process is uncertain, the disease dynamics are only partially observed, and the public health observations are noisy. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data. We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics.

  11. Studies of coastal mesoscale winds using SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Pierson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The variability of the mesoscale wind fields near coastlines which can be caused by mountains that shadow offshore wind and by valleys that enhance them. These wind, provide relatively fixed patterns that must be considered in the development of algorithms for future spaceborne scatterometer systems; mesoscale variability over the offshore regions is random and must be averaged out for forecasting yet nearshore fixed patterns are treated differently. Before the patterns of interest can be defined quantitatively, the scattering response of the ocean to winds at the L-band frequency and SIR-B angles of incidence must be developed from the SIR-B data. Patterns can be analyzed on the images both in regions selected for high probability of the occurrence of suitable patterns, and in other regions where the patterns are observed. The patterns are analyzed for topographic effects and the distance to sea over which these effects cause variations in the oceanic wind patterns. The results are interpreted in terms of quantitative description of the processes involved and in for need of modifications of future scatterometer algorithms.

  12. Sir Douglas Shields (1876-1952): a forgotten Australian surgeon.

    PubMed

    Murphy, L J

    1987-08-01

    The remarkable and colourful career of Sir Douglas Shields of Melbourne is unparalleled among Australian surgeons of his generation: Murray Morton describes it as a romance. He graduated in 1897 and was, in turn, a country general practitioner, the principal medical officer of an overcrowded plague-ship bringing home soldiers from the Boer War, senior surgeon of St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne then, in London, surgeon-in-chief of his own hospital converted to the 'Hospital for Wounded Officers' with promotion to the ranks of brigadier-general and rear-admiral, then knighted and, finally, a consultant surgeon with private hospitals in Park Lane and in Cannes, and with patients largely drawn from the aristocracy, the rich and the famous. His name is now virtually forgotten in Australia but, for many years after he left Melbourne in 1912, stories used to be told about his career and experiences, many of which had little basis in fact, and even the two brief biographical accounts of his career by Murray Morton and Ormond Smith contradict each other. This paper will, I hope, help to preserve the memory of Sir Douglas Shields whom Ormond Smith considered 'one of the brightest ornaments of the Medical School of the Melbourne University'.

  13. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  14. STS-59 payload SIR-C/X-SAR antenna view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    S93-48551 (October 1993) --- The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) antenna, developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), will fly aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The radar antenna uses microwave energy which gives it the ability to collect data over virtually any region at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The radar waves can penetrate clouds, and under certain conditions the radar can also see through vegetation, ice and dry sand. In many cases, spaceborne radar is the only way scientists can explore large-scale and inaccessible regions of the Earth's surface. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-Band (24 cm), C-Band (6 cm) and X-Ban (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to monitor global environmental processes with a focus on climate change. The MTPE spaceborne data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity.

  15. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War. PMID:22275788

  16. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

  17. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  18. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  19. James J. Jenkins (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Foss, Donald J; Overmier, J Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for James J. Jenkins. Jim Jenkins, fondly known as "J-cubed," was born on July 29, 1923, in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended William Jewell College but enlisted in the Army in 1942. He received a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago in 1944 as part of his training as a meteorologist. After serving in the South Pacific, he returned to William Jewell College, obtaining a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1947. Jenkins received a master's degree (1948) and a doctorate (1950) from the University of Minnesota under a giant in industrial psychology, Donald G. Paterson. He joined the Minnesota Psychology Department faculty upon graduation (turning down an offer from General Motors at triple the salary). Jenkins helped lead psychology's "cognitive revolution" from the second half of the 20th century into the present one. His work advanced multiple research areas: learning and memory, sentence processing, aphasia, speech perception, and perceptual organization. His remarkable combination of abilities led to nearly 200 scholarly publications and 500 conference and meeting presentations; multiple leadership positions, teaching awards, and professional accolades; and intense devotion from generations of students.

  20. James Parkinson's Chimera: syndrome or disease?

    PubMed

    Kempster, P A; Hurwitz, B; Lees, A J

    2017-06-01

    It is 200 years since James Parkinson published An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. While his monograph continues to be acclaimed for its precedence and clarity of description, what is often overlooked is the originality of Parkinson's ideas. Here we show that he appreciated the weakness of the systematic 18th century nosologies, which presupposed that medical species, the building blocks of these Linnaean taxonomic schemes, were as distinct as plant and animal species; and that Parkinson made a conceptual leap about combinations of clinical phenomena in recurring patterns, now recognised to be one of the germs of neurological thinking about syndromes. The Essay's written style underpins another aspect of significance to contemporary neurological practice - an inherent intellectual humility. In this commemorative year we locate the continuing importance of the related notions of syndrome and disease in successive frameworks of knowledge about the shaking palsy. Syndrome and disease are interpreted as dual character concepts, one clinically-based and the other restricted to pathophysiological causation. They both remain fundamental to understanding Parkinson's syndrome-disease today.

  1. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  2. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  3. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dustenshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope with four instruments, capable of imaging and spectroscopy from 0.6 to 27 microns wavelength.

  4. James Moores Ball: Ophthalmologist, medical historian, bibliophile.

    PubMed

    Feibel, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    James Moores Ball (1862-1929) was an ophthalmologist in St. Louis, Missouri, who excelled as a medical historian and collector of rare and historic books about the history of anatomy. During his lifetime, he was best known as the author of a comprehensive, authoritative, and popular textbook titled Modern Ophthalmology First published in 1904, there were five further editions. Ball was very interested in the history of anatomy and wrote two books on this subject, the first being a biography of Andreas Vesalius, one of the earliest in English, and the second a history of the resurrection men or grave robbers who sold corpses to professors of anatomy and surgery for teaching purposes. His legacy today is the 470 volumes of his personal library, which are now in the Archives and Rare Books department of the Becker Medical Library of the Washington University School of Medicine. These texts are one of their major collections, concentrating on the history of anatomy, beginning with a first edition of Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica and holding many important and beautiful landmark volumes of anatomical atlases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  6. STS-109 Crew Interviews: James H. Newman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Mission Specialist James H. Newman is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his most memorable experiences. He gives details on the mission's goals and objectives, which focus on the refurbishing of the Hubble Space Telescope, and his role in the mission. He provides a brief background on the Hubble Space Telescope, and explains the plans for the rendezvous of the Columbia Orbiter with the Hubble Space Telescope. He provides details and timelines for each of the planned Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), which include replacing the solar arrays, changing the Power Control Unit, installing the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and installing a new Cryocooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). He gives further explanation of each of these pieces of equipment. He also describes the break-out plan in place for these spacewalks. The interview ends with Newman explaining the details of a late addition to the mission's tasks, which is to replace a reaction wheel on the Hubble Space Telescope.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  8. James F. T. Bugental (1915-2008).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kirk J; Greening, Tom

    2009-01-01

    James F. T. Bugental died peacefully at age 92 at his Petaluma, California, home on September 18, 2008. Jim was a leading psychotherapist and a founding father, with Abraham Maslow and others, of humanistic psychology, or the "third force" (in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism). Jim was also the creator, along with Rollo May, of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. Jim was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on Christmas Day in 1915. Jim earned his doctorate in 1948 from Ohio State University, where he was influenced by Victor Raimy and George Kelly. After a brief time on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) faculty in psychology, Jim resigned in 1953 to found the first group practice of psychotherapy, Psychological Service Associates, with Alvin Lasko. With Abraham Maslow and others, Jim was a cofounder of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (JHP) and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1961. Jim also wrote many books on the topic of psychotherapy during his lifetime. Jim was a great and bold spirit--his many writings and teachings are cherished today widely, and the field of psychology is much richer for his efforts.

  9. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  11. James Doolittle and Frederick Crawford Tour Lewis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-06-21

    National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Chairman James Doolittle and Thompson Products Chairman of the Board Frederick Crawford receive a tour of the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory during the last few months of the NACA. Lewis mechanic Leonard Tesar demonstrates the machining of a 20,000-pound thrust rocket engine for the group in the Fabrication Shop. From left to right, Associate Director Eugene Manganiello, researcher Edward Baehr, Doolittle, NACA Executive Secretary John Victory, Crawford, Tesar, Lewis Director Raymond Sharp, and mechanic Curtis Strawn. Doolittle began his career as a test pilot and air racer. In 1942 he famously flew a B-25 Mitchell on a daring raid over Tokyo. Doolittle also worked with the aviation industry on the development of aircraft fuels and instrumentation. After the war he served as vice president of Shell Oil and as a key government advisor. In this capacity he also served on the NACA’s Executive Committee for a number of years and served as its Chairman in 1957 and 1958. Tesar was a supervisor at the Sheet Metal Shop in the Fabrication Building. He joined the laboratory in 1948 and enrolled in their Apprentice Program. He graduated from the school three years later as an aviation metalsmith. The Fabrication Branch created a wide variety of hardware for the laboratory’s research projects. Requests from research divisions ranged from sheetmetal manufacturing for aircraft to fabrication of rocket engines. Tesar retired in 1982 after 37 years of service.

  12. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  13. James Frame's The Philosophy of Insanity (1860).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan; Philo, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations. It is also valuable as a subjective, but heavily mediated, kaleidoscopic view of old and new theories concerning mental afflictions, offering many insights about the medico-moral ethos and milieu of the mid-Victorian Scottish asylum. Alternating as consolatory and admonitory illness biography, insanity treatise, mental health self-help guide, and asylum reform and promotion manual, it demands scrutiny for both its more progressive views and its more compromised and prejudicial attitudes.

  14. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  15. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, dwarfed by the large Syncom IV-3 satellite, moves in for initial contact. Dr. van Hoften stands on a foot restraint/extension to the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm.

  16. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  17. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING KOS-KA-TSIETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 10, 1936 GRINDING PLATFORM, VIEW OF INTERIOR LOOKING WEST - Old Town Mill, Mill Brook, near Mill Street, New London, New London County, CT

  19. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  20. 82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES RENWICK, JR. MANTELPIECE AND MIRROR ARE NOT ORIGINAL TO THE ROOM. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 EAST END OF BLOCK NO. 3 HOUSES NOS. 17 AND 18. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  2. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 7 FROM ROOF HOUSE NO. 12. (SHU-TRA-MEETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  3. 61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (BLOCK NO. 5) HOUSE NO, 6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. 44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 11 AND 12 IN BLOCK NO. 3 FROM ROOF - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH SIDE BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  7. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL HOUSE NO. 4, BLOCK NO. 1 (LOOKING WEST) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 2 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  9. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  10. 62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (Showing Ceiling) BLOCK No 5 HOUSE No.6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  11. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 WEST END OF BLOCK NO. 1 FROM SOUTH EAST (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  12. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 12, 13 AND 14, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  13. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 1 FROM BLOCK NO. 5 (SHOWING KIVA RIGHT CENTER) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  14. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 18, 1934 HOUSE No. 7, BLOCK No. 2 (DETAIL STAIR BULKHEAD) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  15. 34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 11, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 1, 2, AND 3, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  16. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  17. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2, BLOCK NO. 3 (SHOWING FIREPLACE) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  18. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  19. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 FROM SOUTHEAST (STARTING WITH HOUSE NO. 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  20. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON, BLOCK NO. 5. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  1. 42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 17, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 9, 10, 11, 12 AND 13. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  2. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 15 AND 16 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  3. 74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 1, 2 AND 3, BLOCK NO. 7 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. 58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM SOUTHEAST (SHOWING HOUSE NO. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 36. James River Visitor Center. View of visitor center entrance, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. James River Visitor Center. View of visitor center entrance, bench, and drinking fountain. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between James and Boone Drives. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue between James and Boone Drives. Cafeteria (gymnasium building no. 217A) is shown on the right. Camera facing west. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  8. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Fire station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Fire station (building no. 117) is shown on left. Camera facing northeast. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  9. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Administration building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Administration building (building no. 217) is shown on right. Camera facing west. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  10. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Administration building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Administration building (building no. 217) is shown in foreground. Camera facing southwest. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  11. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Fire station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue and James Drive. Fire station (building no. 117) is shown on right. Camera facing northwest. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, 1959 INTERIOR LOOKING TO REAR. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, 1959 REAR FACADE ON RANSTEAD STREET. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, 1959 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAPITAL, FRONT ALCOVE. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, James C. Massey, Photographer November, 1959 DETAIL OF EXPOSED ROOF TRUSS. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February 20, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. - Nichols-Rice-Cherry House, Sam Houston Park (moved from San Jacinto Street), Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February 20, 1934 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE. - Nichols-Rice-Cherry House, Sam Houston Park (moved from San Jacinto Street), Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February 20, 1934 FRONT PORCH FROM EAST. - Nichols-Rice-Cherry House, Sam Houston Park (moved from San Jacinto Street), Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February 20, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Nichols-Rice-Cherry House, Sam Houston Park (moved from San Jacinto Street), Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, James I. Campbell, Photographer February 20, 1934 DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRANCE. - Nichols-Rice-Cherry House, Sam Houston Park (moved from San Jacinto Street), Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. 4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants of John and Elizabeth Bull, 1919 WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS - Mount Pleasant, Bulltown Road (East Nantmeal Township), East Nantmeal, Chester County, PA

  2. Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan of the entresol (third floor) of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  4. 5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  7. 3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING EAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph from Harvard University Archives James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, photographers January 6, 1964 INNER COURT FROM SECOND TIER (THIRD FLOOR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - The Dunster, Dunster Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James Rainey, Photographer May 16, 1936 LIVING? (MUSIC) ROOM FIREPLACE (LOOKING NORTH? SOUTH) - Thaddeus Burr Homestead, 491 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Town Hall - Panel question and

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Town Hall - Panel question and answer - Bill Ochs; Dr. John Mather; Dr. Eric Smith; Thomas Zurbuchen; Center Director Chris Scolese; NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden.

  11. STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman chats with white room closeout crew members Rene Arriens (far left), Travis Thompson and Bob Saulnier (right) prior to entering the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE DETAIL (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey James C. Massey, Photographer 1964 MAIN (SOUTH) ENTRANCE (4x5' b&w film copy neg. from 35mm slide) - Albert F. Madlener House, 4 West Burton Place, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Time from onset of SIRS to antibiotic administration and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Elan L; Kamel, Hooman; Azran, Carmil; Shah, Maulik P; Claude Hemphill, J; Smith, Wade S; Navi, Babak B

    2014-08-01

    The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection. We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population. We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH. Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. SIRS developed in 57 patients (86%, 95% CI 78-95%). In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores (OR per hour, 0.994; 95% CI 0.987-1.001). In this cohort of patients with SAH, time from SIRS onset until antibiotic administration was not related to functional outcomes. Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.

  15. Sir2 regulates histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Shankaranarayana, Gurumurthy D; Motamedi, Mohammad R; Moazed, Danesh; Grewal, Shiv I S

    2003-07-15

    Hypoacetylated histones are a hallmark of heterochromatin in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Histone deacetylation is carried out by both NAD(+)-dependent and NAD(+)-independent enzymes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deacetylation of histones in heterochromatic chromosomal domains requires Sir2, a phylogenetically conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, NAD(+)-independent histone deacetylases are required for the formation of heterochromatin, but the role of Sir2-like deacetylases in this process has not been evaluated. Here, we show that spSir2, the S. pombe Sir2-like protein that is the most closely related to the S. cerevisiae Sir2, is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that efficiently deacetylates histone H3 lysine 9 (K9) and histone H4 lysine 16 (K16) in vitro. In sir2 Delta cells, silencing at the donor mating-type loci, telomeres, and the inner centromeric repeats (imr) is abolished, while silencing at the outer centromeric repeats (otr) and rDNA is weakly reduced. Furthermore, Sir2 is required for hypoacetylation and methylation of H3-K9 and for the association of Swi6 with the above loci in vivo. Our findings suggest that the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase Sir2 plays an important and conserved role in heterochromatin assembly in eukaryotes.

  16. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  17. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  18. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  19. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  20. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  1. Sir2 is required for Clr4 to initiate centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Benjamin J; Job, Godwin; Yadav, Rajesh K; Shanker, Sreenath; Lowe, Brandon R; Partridge, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast depends on the Clr4 histone methyltransferase, which targets H3K9. We show that the histone deacetylase Sir2 is required for Clr4 activity at telomeres, but acts redundantly with Clr3 histone deacetylase to maintain centromeric heterochromatin. However, Sir2 is critical for Clr4 function during de novo centromeric heterochromatin assembly. We identified new targets of Sir2 and tested if their deacetylation is necessary for Clr4-mediated heterochromatin establishment. Sir2 preferentially deacetylates H4K16Ac and H3K4Ac, but mutation of these residues to mimic acetylation did not prevent Clr4-mediated heterochromatin establishment. Sir2 also deacetylates H3K9Ac and H3K14Ac. Strains bearing H3K9 or H3K14 mutations exhibit heterochromatin defects. H3K9 mutation blocks Clr4 function, but why H3K14 mutation impacts heterochromatin was not known. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of Clr4 to centromeres is blocked by mutation of H3K14. We suggest that Sir2 deacetylates H3K14 to target Clr4 to centromeres. Further, we demonstrate that Sir2 is critical for de novo accumulation of H3K9me2 in RNAi-deficient cells. These analyses place Sir2 and H3K14 deacetylation upstream of Clr4 recruitment during heterochromatin assembly. PMID:23771057

  2. Stochastic regime switching SIR model driven by Lévy noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yingjia

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic regime switching SIR model driven by Lévy noise. A unique global positive solution is obtained under some appropriate conditions. Moreover, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic SIR model with jumps under regime switching.

  3. Heat Stress-Induced Cup9-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of SIR2

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Shyamasree; K, Sheeba; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K.; Nair, Achuthsankar S.; Dhar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    The epigenetic writer Sir2 maintains the heterochromatin state of chromosome in three chromosomal regions, namely, the silent mating type loci, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism by which Sir2 is regulated under heat stress. Our study reveals that a transient heat shock causes a drastic reduction in the SIR2 transcript which results in sustained failure to initiate silencing for as long as 90 generations. Hsp82 overexpression, which is the usual outcome of heat shock treatment, leads to a similar downregulation of SIR2 transcription. Using a series of genetic experiments, we have established that heat shock or Hsp82 overexpression causes upregulation of CUP9 that, in turn, represses SIR2 transcription by binding to its upstream activator sequence. We have mapped the cis regulatory element of SIR2. Our study shows that the deletion of cup9 causes reversal of the Hsp82 overexpression phenotype and upregulation of SIR2 expression in heat-induced Hsp82-overexpressing cells. On the other hand, we found that Cup9 overexpression represses SIR2 transcription and leads to a failure in the establishment of heterochromatin. The results of our study highlight the mechanism by which environmental factors amend the epigenetic configuration of chromatin. PMID:25384977

  4. Rubber elasticity: Solution of the James-Guth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, B. E.

    2015-05-01

    The solution of the many-body statistical mechanical theory of elasticity formulated by James and Guth in the 1940s [H. M. James, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 651 (1947)], 10.1063/1.1746624 is presented. The remarkable aspect of the solution is that it gives an elastic free energy that is essentially equivalent to that developed by Flory over a period of several decades.

  5. Saving our future: James Comer and the School Development Program.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Naaila

    2011-06-01

    Since the founding of the School Development Program (SDP) by Dr. James Comer in 1968, the manner in which child development is addressed in many schools has changed drastically. By working together using the SDP model, schools, parents, and child development experts are able to foster healthy social, emotional, and academic development in children, resulting in improvement in all areas. This review briefly describes the creation and implementation of the SDP model by Dr. James Comer.

  6. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  7. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  8. [Basic concept and definition of SIRS and sepsis--present consideration and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Matsuda, Kenichi; Watanabe, Eizo

    2004-12-01

    SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) is thought to be caused by hypercytokinemia. On the other hand, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported to be one of most easily measurable cytokines and we found that IL-6 blood levels on SIRS patients are above 1,500 pg/ml which is compatible to the previously reported values. Since only 6% of SIRS patients developed MOF according to our own data, we need not overestimate SIRS as a grave clinical signs. On the other hand, it is reported that cytokine-related genetic polymorphism may affect the cytokine production following insult, or may affect the development of SIRS following insult. Therefore, we must also consider genetic aspect of cytokine biology in future study.

  9. Mechanism of sirtuin inhibition by nicotinamide: altering the NAD(+) cosubstrate specificity of a Sir2 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Avalos, José L; Bever, Katherine M; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2005-03-18

    Sir2 enzymes form a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases required for diverse biological processes, including transcriptional silencing, regulation of apoptosis, fat mobilization, and lifespan regulation. Sir2 activity is regulated by nicotinamide, a noncompetitive inhibitor that promotes a base-exchange reaction at the expense of deacetylation. To elucidate the mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition, we determined ternary complex structures of Sir2 enzymes containing nicotinamide. The structures show that free nicotinamide binds in a conserved pocket that participates in NAD(+) binding and catalysis. Based on our structures, we engineered a mutant that deacetylates peptides by using nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD) as a cosubstrate and is inhibited by nicotinic acid. The characteristics of the altered specificity enzyme establish that Sir2 enzymes contain a single site that participates in catalysis and nicotinamide regulation and provides additional insights into the Sir2 catalytic mechanism.

  10. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  11. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  12. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have three instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, and the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  13. [James Parkinson (1755-1824) revisited].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    The name of Parkinson is universally famous because of the eponymous disease. But as a man, James Parkinson (1755-1824), is poorly known. He was born, married and passed away in his St-Leonard parish in Shoreditch (London). After having studied Latin, Greek, natural philosophy, and stenography (shorthand), which he considered as the basic tools of any doctor, he studied for six months at the London Hospital Medical College, and served his apprenticeship as an apothecary-surgeon with his father for six years. Then he was qualified as a surgeon in 1784 at the age of 29 years. His activity has been deployed in three areas: 1) medicine, 2) political activism and social reformism, 3) paleontology and oryctology. As a physician, Parkinson has published several books, the most important concerned paralysis agitans (future Parkinson's disease), gout, complications of lightning (future Lichtenberg figures and keraunoparalysis), acute appendicitis (with his son John Parkinson) and hernias (diagnosis, development, dangers of hernia ruptures, and design of a simple truss). Its ideological and political commitment was manifested by joining two secret societies and publishing numerous pamphlets, many of which are signed by the pseudonym Old Hubert; he campaigned for a better representation of the people in Parliament, for greater social justice, for the defense and recognition of the rights of the poor, the insane, the children, and against children abuse. He published a small compendium of chemistry, he was one of the thirteen members who create the British Geological Society and is recognized as one of the founders of paleontology; as was Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), he remained a strong supporter of creationism and catastrophism. Distinguished oryctologist, he gave his name to several fossils, mainly molluscs.

  14. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts.

  15. [Cytokine imbalance in critically ill patients: SIRS and CARS].

    PubMed

    Murata, A; Kikuchi, M; Mishima, S; Sakaki, S; Goto, H; Matsuoka, T; Tanaka, H; Yukioka, T; Shimazaki, S

    1999-07-01

    It remains difficult to treat severely ill patients, especially those who have sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We propose the hypothesis that the pathophysiology in the sequential sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome may be strongly related to the imbalance between inflammatory cytokines and antiinflammatory cytokines induced for the host defense to active neutrophils and endothelial cells. Thus we attempted to develop cytokine modulation therapy to normalize the cytokine balance in the host defense system. In this review, we elucidate the relationship between cytokine imbalance and SIRS/CARS in patients with severe burn injury. Furthermore, we examine the possible usage of G-CSF to amplify neutrophil function, and clarify the reasons why various innovative therapies against sepsis have failed.

  16. Precipitation measurement using SIR-C: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamad, Atiq; Moore, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    A precipitation detection and measurement experiment is planned for the SIR-C/X-SAR mission. This study was conducted to determine under what conditions an off-nadir experiment is feasible. The signal-to-clutter ratio, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the minimum detectable rain rate were investigated. Available models, used in previous studies, were used for the surface clutter and the rain echo. The study also considers the attenuation of the returns at X band. It was concluded that an off-nadir rain-measurement experiment is feasible only for rain rates greater than 10 mm/hr for look angles greater than 60 deg. For the range of look angles 5 less than theta(sub 1) less than 50, the rain rate required is very high for adequate signal-to-clutter ratio, and hence the feasibility of the experiment.

  17. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  18. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  19. Agoraphobia is a disease: a tribute to Sir Martin Roth.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Rafanelli, Chiara; Tossani, Eliana; Grandi, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks. In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. indicates that agoraphobia, as a diagnostic category, is frequently independent of panic disorder and panic attacks, is unlikely to remit spontaneously and entails compromised quality of life. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity. These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth (1917-2006) and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis.

  20. Sir William Mackenzie: sympathetic ophthalmia and glaucoma before ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Geoffrey

    2009-12-01

    One of the practitioners of probably the oldest surgical specialty, ophthalmic, was the eminent Scottish ophthalmologist, Sir William Mackenzie. Educated in Edinburgh, he moved to Glasgow, and described and named sympathetic ophthalmia before the time of the ophthalmoscope, well defining his powers of observation and deduction. Founding the Glasgow Eye Infirmary, his 'Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Eye' appeared in English in four editions (1850-1884) and in French and German. In this also appears the first full and clear account of glaucoma. Both he and the illustrator of his book, Wharton Jones, moved to Glasgow because of rather indefinite connections with Robert Knox, the anatomist, who was allegedly helped by the bodysnatchers, Burke and Hare. Mackenzie and his book were highly regarded before the revolutionary ophthalmoscope. He was knighted and appointed Surgeon Oculist to the Queen in Scotland.

  1. Sirtuin/Sir2 Phylogeny, Evolutionary Considerations and Structural Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Greiss, Sebastian; Gartner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The sirtuins are a protein family named after the first identified member, S. cerevisiae Sir2p. Sirtuins are protein deacetylases whose activity is dependent on NAD+ as a cosubstrate. They are structurally defined by two central domains that together form a highly conserved catalytic center, which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl moiety from acetyllysine to NAD+, yielding nicotinamide, the unique metabolite O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and deacetylated lysine. One or more sirtuins are present in virtually all species from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of sirtuins. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, sirtuins can be grouped into over a dozen classes and subclasses. Humans, like most vertebrates, have seven sirtuins: SIRT1-SIRT7. These function in diverse cellular pathways, regulating transcriptional repression, aging, metabolism, DNA damage responses and apoptosis. We show that these seven sirtuins arose early during animal evolution. Conserved residues cluster around the catalytic center of known sirtuin family members. PMID:19936627

  2. The SIRS Model of Epidemic Spreading in Virtual Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R.

    2008-09-01

    Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically. On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network.

  3. Repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres is moderated by Sir2 and Sir3, and inhibited by yKu-Sir4 interaction.

    PubMed

    Guintini, Laetitia; Tremblay, Maxime; Toussaint, Martin; D'Amours, Annie; Wellinger, Ralf E; Wellinger, Raymund J; Conconi, Antonio

    2017-05-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) causes DNA damage that is removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). UV-induced DNA lesions must be recognized and repaired in nucleosomal DNA, higher order structures of chromatin and within different nuclear sub-compartments. Telomeric DNA is made of short tandem repeats located at the ends of chromosomes and their maintenance is critical to prevent genome instability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the chromatin structure of natural telomeres is distinctive and contingent to telomeric DNA sequences. Namely, nucleosomes and Sir proteins form the heterochromatin like structure of X-type telomeres, whereas a more open conformation is present at Y'-type telomeres. It is proposed that there are no nucleosomes on the most distal telomeric repeat DNA, which is bound by a complex of proteins and folded into higher order structure. How these structures affect NER is poorly understood. Our data indicate that the X-type, but not the Y'-type, sub-telomeric chromatin modulates NER, a consequence of Sir protein-dependent nucleosome stability. The telomere terminal complex also prevents NER, however, this effect is largely dependent on the yKu-Sir4 interaction, but Sir2 and Sir3 independent. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Inhibition of human Kv3.1 current expressed in Xenopus oocytes by the toxic venom fraction of Androctonus australis hector.

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Amani; Benkhalifa, Rym; Landoulsi, Zied; Chatti, Imen; Ayeb, Mohamed El

    2014-11-01

    AahG50, the toxic fraction of Androctonus australis hector venom, was studied on human Kv3.1 channels activation, stably expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. AahG50 reduced Kv3.1 currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 40.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml and 1.3 ± 0.05, respectively. AahG50 inhibited IKv3.1 without modifying the current activation kinetics. The AahG50-induced inhibition of Kv3.1 channels was voltage-dependent, with a gradual increase at lower concentrations and over the voltage range of channels opening. However, at higher concentrations, the inhibition exhibited voltage dependence only in the first range of channels opening from -20 to +10 mV, but demonstrates a low degree of voltage-dependence when channels are fully activated. In the literature, toxins have previously been isolated from AahG50, KAaH1 and KAaH2 and were reported not to have any effect on IKv3.1. The present article's findings suggest that AahG50 may contain a peptidic component active on Kv3.1 channels, which inhibits IKv3.1 in a selective manner.

  5. High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California (Mw 7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnutt, K.W.; Borsa, A.; Glennie, C.; Minster, J.-B.

    2002-01-01

    In order to document surface rupture associated with the Hector Mine earthquake, in particular, the area of maximum slip and the deformed surface of Lavic Lake playa, we acquired high-resolution data using relatively new topographic-mapping methods. We performed a raster-laser scan of the main surface breaks along the entire rupture zone, as well as along an unruptured portion of the Bullion fault. The image of the ground surface produced by this method is highly detailed, comparable to that obtained when geologists make particularly detailed site maps for geomorphic or paleoseismic studies. In this case, however, for the first time after a surface-rupturing earthquake, the detailed mapping is along the entire fault zone rather than being confined to selected sites. These data are geodetically referenced, using the Global Positioning System, thus enabling more accurate mapping of the rupture traces. In addition, digital photographs taken along the same flight lines can be overlaid onto the precise topographic data, improving terrain visualization. We demonstrate the potential of these techniques for measuring fault-slip vectors.

  6. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Gulyàs, J.; Lodetti, S.; Frega, S.; Miani, A.; Million, B.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2014-03-01

    A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5" x 8" LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5" PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU) and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD) will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ-rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ-rays.

  7. Fractal Structure of inter-event distances: three examples for the aftershock series of Landers, Northridge and Hector Mine mainshocks (Southern California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Maria-Dolors; Monterrubio, Marisol; Lana, Xavier; Serra, Carina

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism of the complex spatial distribution of aftershocks is illustrated by several fractal analyses of the series of distances, Δ, between consecutive events. These fractal techniques are applied to inter-event distance series corresponding to the aftershock series of Landers (1992), Northridge (1994) and Hector Mine (1999) mainshocks (Southern California). A first picture of this complex mechanism is offered by the concept of lacunarity. The persistence, anti-persistence or randomness is quantified by the Hurst exponent. At the same time, long/short range persistence or anti-persistence is determined by means of the autocorrelation function and the exponent β of the power spectrum density, S(?), modelled by the power law ?-β. The self-affine character of these series is analysed using semivariograms and Hausdorff exponents. Additionally, comparisons among Hurst, Hausdorff and β exponents permit to assess if the series of Δ could be modelled by filtered Gaussian noise series. Finally, the formulation based on the reconstruction theorem quantifies the complexity (minimum number of nonlinear equations), loss of memory (Kolmogorov entropy) and predictive instability and chaotic behaviour (Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimension) of the mechanism.

  8. Glacial history of Prince Gustav Channel and James Ross Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Davies, B. J.; Hambrey, M.; Carrivick, J.; Nyvlt, D.; Smellie, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Antarctica, circa 18 cal. ka BP, ice draining from northeast Antarctic Peninsula and an ice dome over James Ross Island coalesced in Prince Gustav Channel. These glaciers formed a palaeo-ice stream flowing northwards and southwards to the shelf edge, resulting in an ice divide off northwest James Ross Island. However, this record is largely derived from marine sediment cores and swath bathymetry. The onshore interaction of Antarctic Peninsula-derived ice and an extended Mount Haddington Ice Cap on James Ross Island remains uncertain, and chronostratigraphy is poor, being largely based on radiocarbon dates, which are influenced by the large marine reservoir effect. A key issue is the age of the glacial incursion that deposited the granite erratics on Ulu Peninsula. Our hypothesis is that James Ross Island was initially inundated by a thick Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet, which deposited the inland and high-elevation erratic boulders on James Ross Island. During deglaciation, this ice sheet was subsequently drained by fast-flowing ice streams including the ice stream that developed in the Prince Gustav Channel. At this time the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet ice was thinner and therefore only impinged on the coastal fringes of James Ross Island. We therefore anticipate that the inland and high-elevation granite boulders on basalt-rich glacial deposits will yield the age of pre-LGM ice advances of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet onto James Ross Island, and that the erratic boulders associated with glacial deposits enriched in Trinity Peninsula erratics at low-lying coastal sites will represent the age of the deglacial Prince Gustav Ice Stream.

  9. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  10. [Comment on “The Paradigm: Thomas Kuhn and the Trojan horse”] Comment: The finer points of mythology and science; Reply: Ajax, Hector, and Pandarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    Kingsley Amis once (or perhaps twice) observed, “If you can't annoy somebody with what you write I think there is little point in writing.” Ajax L. East gives some very sound advice: “always verify your references.” This quote is not quite right and is taken out of context. Dr. Routh, when asked for some advice by a young man, replied, “I think, sir, since you care for the advice of an old man sir, you will find it a very good practice always to verify your references, sir.” This advice was offered thoughtfully and not gratuitously, out of the blue, or whatever color cyberspace is. So, it is good to verify your references. Ironically, in my account of the Trojan War, I did not refer to Homer, or the Iliad, and certainly not to an English translation or the long lost Nostoi. My sources were more eclectic and original, not that I have anything against Homer or Lattimore. Students of the Trojan War must distinguish between myth, legend, history, archeology, metaphor, parable, allegory, and geophysics. Homer, of course, takes liberties. Chieftains ride up to battle in chariots, dismount, and exchange quite long speeches before engaging in gruesome hand-to-hand combat.

  11. Brief Communication: SIR-2.1-dependent lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by oxyresveratrol and resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Gayeung; Park, Jieun; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol (RES) has been studied for its effects on the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans, but controversy still remains on its mechanism related with SIR-2. In this study, longevity assay was performed to confirm SIR-2-dependent lifespan extension of C. elgeans with RES and oxyresveratrol (OXY), an isomer of hydroxylated RES using loss-of-function mutants of C. elegans including sir-2.1 mutant. The results showed that OXY and RES significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with the control. OXY and RES also significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression levels of sir-2.1 and aak-2 in a dose-dependent manner and increased the protein expression levels of SIR-2.1. OXY and RES treatment extended the lifespan in daf-16 loss-of-function mutants, which suggested that lifespan extension was not occurring via the activation of DAF-16. However, OXY and RES failed to extend the lifespan in loss-of-function mutants of sir-2.1 and aak-2 Therefore, OXY and RES extend the lifespan of C. elegans by overexpression of SIR-2.1, which is related to lifespan extension through calorie restriction and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, although this process is independent of the FOXO/DAF-16 pathway. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Structural Basis for Nicotinamide Inhibition and Base Exchange in Sir2 Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, B.; Zhao, K; Slama, J; Marmorstein, R

    2007-01-01

    The Sir2 family of proteins consists of broadly conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases that are implicated in diverse biological processes, including DNA regulation, metabolism, and longevity. Sir2 proteins are regulated in part by the cellular concentrations of a noncompetitive inhibitor, nicotinamide, that reacts with a Sir2 reaction intermediate via a base-exchange reaction to reform NAD+ at the expense of deacetylation. To gain a mechanistic understanding of nicotinamide inhibition in Sir2 enzymes, we captured the structure of nicotinamide bound to a Sir2 homolog, yeast Hst2, in complex with its acetyl-lysine 16 histone H4 substrate and a reaction intermediate analog, ADP-HPD. Together with related biochemical studies and structures, we identify a nicotinamide inhibition and base-exchange site that is distinct from the so-called 'C pocket' binding site for the nicotinamide group of NAD+. These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the development of Sir2-specific effectors.

  13. Structural basis for nicotinamide inhibition and base exchange in Sir2 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brandi D; Zhao, Kehao; Slama, James T; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2007-02-09

    The Sir2 family of proteins consists of broadly conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that are implicated in diverse biological processes, including DNA regulation, metabolism, and longevity. Sir2 proteins are regulated in part by the cellular concentrations of a noncompetitive inhibitor, nicotinamide, that reacts with a Sir2 reaction intermediate via a base-exchange reaction to reform NAD(+) at the expense of deacetylation. To gain a mechanistic understanding of nicotinamide inhibition in Sir2 enzymes, we captured the structure of nicotinamide bound to a Sir2 homolog, yeast Hst2, in complex with its acetyl-lysine 16 histone H4 substrate and a reaction intermediate analog, ADP-HPD. Together with related biochemical studies and structures, we identify a nicotinamide inhibition and base-exchange site that is distinct from the so-called "C pocket" binding site for the nicotinamide group of NAD(+). These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the development of Sir2-specific effectors.

  14. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  15. Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) Weddell Sea ice observations - A comparison of SIR-B and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer ice concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Seelye; Holt, Benjamin; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Squire, Vernon

    1987-01-01

    Ice concentrations over the Weddell Sea were studied using SIR-B data obtained during the October 1984 mission, with special attention given to the effect of ocean waves on the radar return at the ice edge. Sea ice concentrations were derived from the SIR-B data using two image processing methods: the classification scheme at JPL and the manual classification method at Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI), England. The SIR ice concentrations were compared with coincident concentrations from the Nimbus-7 SMMR. For concentrations greater than 40 percent, which was the smallest concentration observed jointly by SIR-B and the SMMR, the mean difference between the two data sets for 12 points was 2 percent. A comparison between the JPL and the SPRI SIR-B algorithms showed that the algorithms agree to within 1 percent in the interior ice pack, but the JPL algorithm gives slightly greater concentrations at the ice edge (due to the fact that the algorithm is affected by the wind waves in these areas).

  16. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  17. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  18. Analysis of Sir2E in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: cellular localization, spatial expression and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Takahiro; Yasukawa, Hiro

    2008-10-01

    It has been reported that Dictyostelium discoideum encodes four silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (Sir2A-D) showing sequence similarity to human homologues of Sir2 (SIRT1-3). Further screening in a database revealed that D. discoideum encodes an additional Sir2 homologue (Sir2E). The amino acid sequence of Sir2E is not similar to those of SIRTs but is similar to those of proteins encoded by Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Fluorescence of Sir2E-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was detected in the D. discoideum nucleus, indicating that Sir2E is a nuclear localizing protein. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that D. discoideum expressed sir2E in amoebae in the growth phase and in prestalk cells in the developmental phase. D. discoideum overexpressing sir2E grew faster than the wild type. These results indicate that Sir2E plays important roles both in the growth phase and developmental phase of D. discoideum.

  19. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  20. Shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) data analysis for identifying rainfall event occurrence and intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The utility of SIR-B data were evaluated for the detection and measurement of rainfall events, and applications of SIR-B data were developed to the improvement of existing rainfall models. During the SIR-B mission, EarthSat monitored rainfall events occurring within the conterminous United States. The GOES scenes form showed rainfall activity within the conterminous U.S. during the SIR-B mission. Swaths of the actual SIR-B data taken were plotted onto the GOES satellite scenes most closely representing the time of the Shuttle overpass. The JPL provided EarthSat with available SIR-B imagery in paper print form representing the appropriate requested data takes. EarthSat identified the collateral data required for site characterization during subsequent SIR-B contracts with JPL.