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Sample records for siringomielia experiencia 2000-2008

  1. Genetic diversity of feline cowpox virus, Germany 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaysser, Philipp; von Bomhard, Wolf; Dobrzykowski, Linda; Meyer, Hermann

    2010-03-24

    Recent cowpox virus (CPXV) infections of humans in Europe transmitted from cats and pet rats have risen public awareness of this rare zoonosis. Based on serosurveys wild rodents are regarded as primary reservoir hosts. Cats can become infected while hunting and could therefore serve as a sentinel for CPXV strains circulating in wild rodents. In a retrospective study we analysed 73 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin samples from cats with a histologically proven CPXV infection. Specimens had been collected in different parts of Germany during 2000-2008. Following DNA extraction part of the hemagglutinin gene was amplified and sequenced from 72 samples. A phylogenetic analysis was inferred resulting in a total of 21 different CPXV genetic variants. The geographic distribution was imposed on a map. PMID:19879071

  2. [Vegetation net primary productivity in Northeast China in 2000-2008: simulation and seasonal change].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-shuai; Wang, Jun-bang; Fan, Wen-yi; Ying, Tian-yu

    2011-03-01

    By using GLOPEM-CEVSA model, the spatiotemporal pattern and its affecting factors of the vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in Northeast China in 2000-2008 were simulated, and, taking four forest ecosystem stations (Daxing' anling, Laoyeling, Liangshui and Changbai Mountains) as the cases, the seasonal changes and their main driving force of forest NPP in Northeast China were studied. In 2000-2008, the annual averaged vegetation NPP in the region was 445 g C x m(-2) x a(-1), being the highest in the areas from Changbai Mountains to Xiaoxing' anling Mountains and parts of Sanjiang Plain, followed by in the areas from Changbai Mountains to Liaohe River Plain, eastern Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, and Daxing' anling Mountain, and the lowest in the sparse grass and desert areas in the west. Forest ecosystem had the highest annual averaged NPP, followed by shrub, cropland and grassland, and desert. In forest ecosystem, coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forests had the highest annual averaged NPP (722 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)), while deciduous needle-leaf forest had the lowest one (451 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)). During the study period, no significant inter-annual changes were observed in the forest NPP though it was higher in 2007 and 2008 probably due to the increased air temperature (1 degrees C-2 degrees C higher than that in other years). The beginning time of forest growth season in Northeast China advanced gradually from north to south, and the growth season became longer.

  3. Forcing mechanisms of intraseasonal SST variability off central Peru in 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, Serena; Dewitte, Boris; Goubanova, Katerina; Cambon, Gildas; Boucharel, Julien; Romero, Carlos; Purca, Sara; Flores, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) intraseasonal variability (40-90 days) along the coast of Peru is commonly attributed to the efficient oceanic connection with the equatorial variability. Here we investigate the respective roles of local and remote equatorial forcing on the intraseasonal SST variability off central Peru (8°S-16°S) during the 2000-2008 period, based on the experimentation with a regional ocean model. We conduct model experiments with different open lateral boundary conditions and/or surface atmospheric forcing (i.e., climatological or not). Despite evidence of clear propagations of coastal trapped waves of equatorial origin and the comparable marked seasonal cycle in intraseasonal Kelvin wave activity and coastal SST variability (i.e., peak in Austral summer), this remote equatorial forcing only accounts for ˜20% of the intraseasonal SST regime, which instead is mainly forced by the local winds and heat fluxes. A heat budget analysis further reveals that during the Austral summer, despite the weak along-shore upwelling (downwelling) favorable wind stress anomalies, significant cool (warm) SST anomalies along the coast are to a large extent driven by Ekman-induced advection. This is shown to be due to the shallow mixed layer that increases the efficiency by which wind stress anomalies relates to SST through advection. Diabatic processes also contribute to the SST intraseasonal regime, which tends to shorten the lag between peak SST and wind stress anomalies compared to what is predicted from an advective mixed-layer model.

  4. Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although mentoring is acknowledged as a key to successful and satisfying careers in medicine, formal mentoring programs for medical students are lacking in most countries. Within the framework of planning a mentoring program for medical students at Zurich University, an investigation was carried out into what types of programs exist, what the objectives pursued by such programs are, and what effects are reported. Methods A PubMed literature search was conducted for 2000 - 2008 using the following keywords or their combinations: mentoring, mentoring program, medical student, mentor, mentee, protégé, mentorship. Although a total of 438 publications were identified, only 25 papers met the selection criteria for structured programs and student mentoring surveys. Results The mentoring programs reported in 14 papers aim to provide career counseling, develop professionalism, increase students' interest in research, and support them in their personal growth. There are both one-to-one and group mentorships, established in the first two years of medical school and continuing through graduation. The personal student-faculty relationship is important in that it helps students to feel that they are benefiting from individual advice and encourages them to give more thought to their career choices. Other benefits are an increase in research productivity and improved medical school performance in general. Mentored students also rate their overall well-being as higher. - The 11 surveys address the requirements for being an effective mentor as well as a successful mentee. A mentor should empower and encourage the mentee, be a role model, build a professional network, and assist in the mentee's personal development. A mentee should set agendas, follow through, accept criticism, and be able to assess performance and the benefits derived from the mentoring relationship. Conclusion Mentoring is obviously an important career advancement tool for medical students. In Europe

  5. Quantifying intra and inter-annual variation of MODIS derived leaf area index time-series 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, A.; de Santis, F.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS image the entire Earth's surface every one to two days and provide vital information for global-change research. MODIS derived leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter for describing vegetation canopy structure in the terrestrial ecosystem on the global, continental, and regional scales. In this study we analyse intra and inter-annual variation of MODIS derived leaf area index time-series 2000-2008 data for Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. The objective is to explore seasonal trends in the phenology of southern Italy woodlands and shrublands and inter-annual long-term variations related to plant's photosynthesis process or growth status.

  6. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Stolle, Fred; Potapov, Peter; Arunarwati Margono, Belinda; Adusei, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  7. The impact of the Nitrates Directive on nitrogen emissions from agriculture in the EU-27 during 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Velthof, G L; Lesschen, J P; Webb, J; Pietrzak, S; Miatkowski, Z; Pinto, M; Kros, J; Oenema, O

    2014-01-15

    A series of environmental policies have been implemented in the European Union (EU) to decrease nitrogen (N) emissions from agriculture. The Nitrates Directive (ND) is one of the main policies; it aims to reduce nitrate leaching from agriculture through a number of measures. A study was carried out to quantify the effects of the ND in the EU-27 on the leaching and runoff of nitrate (NO3(-)) to groundwater and surface waters, and on the emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and dinitrogen (N2) to the atmosphere. We formulated a scenario with and a scenario without implementation of the ND. The model MITERRA-Europe was used to calculate N emissions on a regional level in the EU-27 for the period 2000-2008. The calculated total N loss from agriculture in the EU-27 was 13 Mton N in 2008, with 53% as N2, 22% as NO3, 21% as NH3, 3% as N2O, and 1% as NO(x). The N emissions and leaching in the EU-27 slightly decreased in the period 2000-2008. Total emissions in the EU in 2008 were smaller with implementation of the ND than without the ND, by 3% for NH3, 6% for N2O, 9% for NO(x), and 16% for N leaching and runoff in 2008. However, regional differences were large. The lower emissions with ND were mainly due to the lower N inputs by fertilizers and manures. In conclusion, implementation of the ND decreased both N leaching losses to ground and surface waters, and gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. It is expected that the ND will result in a further decrease in N emissions in EU-27 in the near future, because the implementation of the measures for the ND is expected to become more strict. PMID:23731510

  8. The impact of the Nitrates Directive on nitrogen emissions from agriculture in the EU-27 during 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Velthof, G L; Lesschen, J P; Webb, J; Pietrzak, S; Miatkowski, Z; Pinto, M; Kros, J; Oenema, O

    2014-01-15

    A series of environmental policies have been implemented in the European Union (EU) to decrease nitrogen (N) emissions from agriculture. The Nitrates Directive (ND) is one of the main policies; it aims to reduce nitrate leaching from agriculture through a number of measures. A study was carried out to quantify the effects of the ND in the EU-27 on the leaching and runoff of nitrate (NO3(-)) to groundwater and surface waters, and on the emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and dinitrogen (N2) to the atmosphere. We formulated a scenario with and a scenario without implementation of the ND. The model MITERRA-Europe was used to calculate N emissions on a regional level in the EU-27 for the period 2000-2008. The calculated total N loss from agriculture in the EU-27 was 13 Mton N in 2008, with 53% as N2, 22% as NO3, 21% as NH3, 3% as N2O, and 1% as NO(x). The N emissions and leaching in the EU-27 slightly decreased in the period 2000-2008. Total emissions in the EU in 2008 were smaller with implementation of the ND than without the ND, by 3% for NH3, 6% for N2O, 9% for NO(x), and 16% for N leaching and runoff in 2008. However, regional differences were large. The lower emissions with ND were mainly due to the lower N inputs by fertilizers and manures. In conclusion, implementation of the ND decreased both N leaching losses to ground and surface waters, and gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. It is expected that the ND will result in a further decrease in N emissions in EU-27 in the near future, because the implementation of the measures for the ND is expected to become more strict.

  9. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  10. Bathymetric surveys of selected lakes in Missouri--2000-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and abnormally dry conditions in the Midwest in 1999 and 2000 led to the water level decline of many water-supply lakes in Missouri, and caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/volume tables for these lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, surveyed the bathymetry of 51 lakes in Missouri from July 2000 to May 2008. The data were used to provide water managers with area/volume tables and bathymetric maps of the lakes at the time of the surveys. In 50 of the lakes, bathymetric surveys were made using a boat-mounted single-beam survey-grade fathometer. In Clearwater Lake, bathymetric data were collected primarily using a boat-mounted survey-grade multibeam fathometer, and some bathymetric data were collected using a single-beam fathometer in areas of the lake that were inaccessible to the multibeam fathometer. Data processing, area/volume table computation, and bathymetric map production were completed for each lake.

  11. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Kaohsiung City Located at Southern Taiwan, 2000-2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2015-01-01

    Background We present the first comprehensive analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates circulating in southern Taiwan. In this 9-year population-based study, the TB situation in the Kaohsiung region was characterized by genotypic analysis of 421 MTB isolates. Methods All 421 isolates of MTB were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. Drug-resistance patterns were also analyzed. Results The percentage of EAI (East African-Indian) strains increased across sampling years (2000–2008) in southern Taiwan, whereas the proportion of Beijing lineages remained unchanged. Clustering was more frequent with EAI genotype infections (odds ratio = 3.6, p<0.0001) when compared to Beijing genotypes. Notably, MTB resistance to streptomycin (STR) had significantly increased over time, but resistance to other antibiotics, including multidrug resistance, had not. Three major genes (gidB, rpsL and rrs) implicated in STR resistance were sequenced and specific mutations identified. Conclusions This study revealed that EAI strains were highly transmissible and that STR resistance has increased between 2000 and 2008 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. PMID:25629610

  13. Botulism in Brazil, 2000-2008: epidemiology, clinical findings and laboratorial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Lopes, Giselle Ibette S Lopez; Paula, Ana Maria Ramalho de; Sakuma, Harumi; Grigaliunas, Raquel; Lopreato Filho, Roberto; Gelli, Dilma Scala; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Jakabi, Miyoko

    2010-01-01

    Botulism is a rare and potentially lethal illness caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. We describe the findings of a laboratorial investigation of 117 suspected cases of botulism reported to the surveillance system in Brazil from January 2000 to October 2008. Data on the number and type of samples analyzed, type of toxins identified, reporting of the number of botulism cases and transmission sources are discussed. A total of 193 clinical samples and 81 food samples were analyzed for detection and identification of the botulism neurotoxin. Among the clinical samples, 22 (11.4%) presented the toxin (nine type A, five type AB and eight with an unidentified type); in food samples, eight (9.9%) were positive for the toxin (five type A, one type AB and two with an unidentified type). Of the 38 cases of suspected botulism in Brazil, 27 were confirmed by a mouse bioassay. Laboratorial botulism diagnosis is an important procedure to elucidate cases, especially food-borne botulism, to confirm clinical diagnosis and to identify toxins in food, helping sanitary control measures.

  14. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle.

  15. Aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis cases in Galicia (NW Spain), 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium infects millions of people worldwide causing acute gastroenteritis, but despite its remarkable epidemiological and economic impact, information on the epidemiological trends of human cryptosporidiosis is still scarce in most countries. Here we investigate a panel of 486 cases collected in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 2000 and 2008, which sheds new light on the epidemiology in this region of the South Atlantic European façade. Incidence rates in Galicia are one order of magnitude higher than those reported in other regions of Spain, suggesting that this parasite remains largely underdiagnosed in this country, and are also larger than those typical of other European countries with available data. Two species dominate our dataset, Cryptosporidium hominis (65%) and C. parvum (34%). The sex ratio of patients infected by either species was 0·5, but C. hominis was significantly more common in younger males. C. parvum infections were more acute and required more specialized medical attention, which suggests a differential adaptation of each species to human hosts. The parasites display strong seasonal and geographical variation. C. parvum incidence peaked during summer and was mainly detected in rural areas while C. hominis infections were more frequent in autumn and exhibited a more even geographical distribution. Such differences probably reflect their distinct sources of infection - C. parvum is mainly zoonotic and C. hominis anthroponotic - and the effects of climatic variables, like temperature and rainfall.

  16. Marketing Activities and Usage in Historically Black College and University Libraries 2000-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The academic library has experienced overall growth and decline based on demographics, technology, and convenience, yet several problems face academic libraries today including: (a) perceived relevance, (b) market share, and (c) competition. The purpose of this study was to explore marketing activities and library usage in HBCU libraries. The…

  17. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System and the Influence of Policies:The Case of Taiwan (2000-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the influence of policies on the development of biopharmaceuticals. We choose the experiences of Taiwan for our empirical study and focus on the evolution between 2000 and 2008; in the period of time the country provides an interesting example for further exploration of biopharmaceutical policies. Among all the policies, the two National Programs (National Research Program for Genetic Medicine and National Science and Technology Program for Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals) and the Law of Pharmaceutical Affairs showed the contrasting effects on the innovation system of biopharmaceuticals. As a result, the government generated very limited positive influence on the innovation of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24596851

  18. A profile of middle-aged and older adults admitted to nursing homes: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nancy A; Pinet-Peralta, Luis M; Elder, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Middle-aged adults are becoming an increasing share of the nursing home population. Minimum Data Set assessment data for 2000 and 2008 are used to explore similarities and differences in sociodemographic, residential, medical, and psychiatric characteristics of newly admitted middle-aged adults (31-64) compared to their older counterparts (65+). Relative to their share of the state population, Black middle-aged adults are overrepresented in nursing homes across 45 states and the District of Columbia. Chronic conditions, including diabetes, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and circulatory/heart disorders, appeared to contribute to the increasing presence of middle-aged adults. There were substantial increases in diagnoses of psychiatric disorders at admission; psychiatric diagnoses were significantly higher among middle-aged adults. Middle-aged adults were also more likely to have residential histories of prior stays in psychiatric facilities relative to older adults. States' rebalancing efforts need to attend to the increasing presence of disability associated with chronic medical and psychiatric conditions among middle-aged adults. PMID:22720887

  19. Evolving patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Poland in the years 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Grzegorz P; Stańczak, Janusz J; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Firlag-Burkacka, Ewa; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Jabłonowska, Elzbieta; Małolepsza, Ewa; Dyda, Tomasz; Zabek, Piotr; Horban, Andrzej

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rate of transmission of drug resistant human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) variants among therapy-naïve HIV positive patients in Poland in the year 2008, to compare the data with the results from the years 2000 to 2007 and to monitor patterns of HIV-1 subtypes present in Polish population and their evolution. Complete protease and part of reverse transcriptase regions were sequenced from the sera of patients directed to the laboratory for drug resistance testing. The Stanford's HIVdb program was used for the interpretation of results and subtyping. The variants scoring at least "intermediate resistance" for at least one drug were considered as resistant. The results obtained were compared to those obtained in the years 2000-2007. A total of 95 patients were enrolled in the 2008 study. Homosexual transmission of infection was documented in more than 55% of all cases. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was 5.3% (3.9% in 2007, 5.8% in 2006, and 14.1% in the years 2002-2005). The study from the years 2000 to 2001 revealed 28.7% prevalence. Preliminary analysis of the first half of 2009 shows the ratio of 7.8%. In four (4.2%) cases drug resistance was associated with protease inhibitors class, in one case (1.1%) with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors class. In four cases (4.2%) non-B subtype was identified (C, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG). An increase of percentage of drug resistant mutants-from 3.9% (2007) to 5.3% (2008)-was recognized. In this study, TDR was limited to single classes of antiretroviral drugs. HIV-1 subtype B prevails in Poland. PMID:20513098

  20. Biopharmaceutical innovation system and the influence of policies:the case of taiwan (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Chung, Chao Chen

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the influence of policies on the development of biopharmaceuticals. We choose the experiences of Taiwan for our empirical study and focus on the evolution between 2000 and 2008; in the period of time the country provides an interesting example for further exploration of biopharmaceutical policies. Among all the policies, the two National Programs (National Research Program for Genetic Medicine and National Science and Technology Program for Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals) and the Law of Pharmaceutical Affairs showed the contrasting effects on the innovation system of biopharmaceuticals. As a result, the government generated very limited positive influence on the innovation of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24596851

  1. Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.

    Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularización de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuición al oficio. Tras revisar las señas de identidad de la divulgación científica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la práctica y su posterior análisis crítico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronomía, que se cuentan entre las más espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author's thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

  2. Reformatted data sets used in the Cooperative LACSD/USGS Palos Verdes Flow Study, 2000--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Todd; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes shelf in southern California as a Superfund site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. A number of agencies, including the EPA, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), conducted two oceanographic measurement programs in 2004 and 2007-2008 (SAIC, 2004, 2005; Rosenberger and others, 2010; Sherwood and others, unpublished data) to improve our understanding of the natural processes that resuspend and transport sediment in the area, especially in the region southeast of the Whites Point ocean outfall where earlier measurements were thought to be deficient. Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) deployed a simpler but much broader array of instruments on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northern reaches of San Pedro Bay from 2000 to 2008 in order to characterize the current and temperature patterns within these regions. This program overlapped the two programs run by USGS and other agencies in 2004 and 2007. The LACSD data were made available to the USGS and the EPA in order to support their joint efforts to model the transport of the contaminated sediments in the region. This report describes the LACSD data sets, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  3. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    PubMed

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision. PMID:24936814

  4. Half Empty or Half Full? Staffing Trends in Academic Libraries at U.S. Research Universities, 2000-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study is a quantitative analysis of FTE staffing levels at academic libraries at 176 U.S. research universities between 2000 and 2008. Results showed that overall staffing levels at these libraries declined but that the average number of professional librarian FTE positions modestly increased. Other professional staff positions increased at a…

  5. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    PubMed

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  6. The Unchanging American Capacity in Languages Other than English: Speaking and Learning Languages Other than English, 2000-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, William P.; Robinson, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of 2006 and 2008 replications of the 2000 General Social Survey (GSS), which included nine questions on languages other than English (LOEs) spoken (Robinson, Rivers, & Brecht, 2006). In 2000, 26% claimed they could speak another language, with 10% saying they could speak it "very well." In 2000, foreign language speakers were…

  7. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  8. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  9. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  10. International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years: An Analysis of Results from 2000-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Crespo-Richey, Jessica; Baumann, David; Rhatigan, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first 15 Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating and inspiring the next generation even when these do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These investigations on the ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.

  11. Human T-lymphotropic virus infections in active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Bruno P; Murray, Clinton K; Davis, Kenneth W; McBride, Richard; Peel, Sheila A; Michael, Nelson; Scott, Paul T; Hakre, Shilpa

    2014-02-01

    Emergency whole blood transfusions may increase the risk of transmitting bloodborne pathogens, including human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). U.S. military personnel with any medical encounter for HTLV infection during 2000-2013;2008 were identified from surveillance data. Using both inclusive and restrictive case definitions, the incidence of diagnoses of HTLV infection was analyzed in relation to demographic factors and prior deployment. There were 247 "possible" cases of HTLV infection identified, or 1.88 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs) (95% CI 1.66, 2.13). Seventy of these met the restrictive definition, translating to a rate of 0.53 per 100,000 p-yrs (95% CI 0.42, 0.67). Under the restrictive definition, a higher rate was noted among females versus males (RR 2.37; 95% CI 1.41, 3.98), service members with a healthcare occupation versus those who are primarily trained to engage in combat (RR 2.54; 95% CI 1.06, 6.10), and service members with any deployment experience (RR 8.98; 95% CI 5.61, 14.37). These findings, and a prior military case report of transfusion-transmitted HTLV-I, suggest a need to better define the epidemiology of HTLV in U.S. military personnel to further ensure emergency transfusion safety.

  12. Detection of non-polio enteroviruses in Hungary 2000-2008 and molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 30.

    PubMed

    Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Szomor, Katalin N; Farkas, Agnes; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György

    2010-04-01

    Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes from minor febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal conditions like aseptic meningitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and neonatal enteroviral sepsis. Between June 2000 and August 2008 echovirus (E) type 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 25, 30, coxsackievirus (CV) -A16, -A19, -B5, and enterovirus 71 (EV71) were reported in Hungary. In this study, 29 previously enterovirus positive samples from 28 patients diagnosed with hand, foot and mouth disease, meningitis and encephalitis, were molecularly typed. The genetic relationships of identified serotypes CV-A16, EV71, and E30 were assessed by direct sequencing of genomic region encoding the capsid protein VP1. The sequences were compared to each other and sequences from other geographical regions possessed in Genbank. The phylogenetic analysis of CV-A16 revealed that the viruses were mostly of Far-Eastern or Asia-Pacific origin. Typing of EV71 showed that one virus from 2000 belonged to genotype C1 and five viruses observed in 2004 and 2005 were identified as genotype C4. The 11 echovirus 30 strains showed homology with those of neighbor European countries. The molecular examination of E30 revealed that three separate lineages circulated in 2000, 2001, and 2004-2006 in Hungary.

  13. Resource Endowments and Responses to Regulatory Pressure: Publications of Economics, Management, and Political Science Departments of Turkish Universities in Indexed Journals, 2000-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Cetin; Kasapoglu-Onder, Rana

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how differences in resource endowments of universities shape variation in their response to regulatory pressures. Earlier research on higher education institutions tends to conceive regulatory rules as the primary basis of action and does not attend to differences in the salient characteristics of universities. This paper…

  14. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death amongst MDR-TB patients, the contribution of conditions other than TB to deaths, and to determine if causes differ between HIV-uninfected patients, HIV-infected patients receiving ART and those without ART. Methods We carried out a retrospective review of data captured from the register of the MDR-TB programme of the North West Province, South Africa. We included 671 patients treated between 2000–2008; 59% of the cohort was HIV-infected and 33% had received ART during MDR treatment. The register contained data on treatment outcomes and causes of death. Results Treatment outcomes between HIV-uninfected cases, HIV-infected cases receiving ART and HIV-infected without ART differed significantly (p<0.000). The cohort death rate was 24%, 13% for HIV-uninfected cases and 31% for HIV-infected cases. TB caused most of the deaths, resulting in a cohort CFR of 15%, 9% for HIV-uninfected cases and 20% for HIV-infected cases. Cohort mortality rate due to other conditions was 2%. AIDS-conditions rather than TB caused significantly more deaths among HIV-infected cases receiving ART than those not (p = 0.02). Conclusions The deaths among HIV-infected individuals contribute substantially to the high death rate. ART co-therapy protected HIV-infected cases from death due to TB and AIDS-conditions. Mechanisms need to be in place to ensure that HIV-infected individuals are retained in care upon completion of their MDR-TB treatment. PMID:26950554

  15. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  16. Evaluation of carbon fluxes and trends (2000-2008) in the Greater Platte River Basin: a sustainability study on the potential biofuel feedstock development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, Li; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the carbon fluxes and trends and examines the environmental sustainability (e.g., carbon budget, source or sink) of the potential biofuel feedstock sites identified in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). A 9-year (2000–2008) time series of net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of net carbon absorption or emission by ecosystems, was used to assess the historical trends and budgets of carbon flux for grasslands in the GPRB. The spatially averaged annual NEP (ANEP) for grassland areas that are possibly suitable for biofuel expansion (productive grasslands) was 71–169 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, indicating a carbon sink (more carbon is absorbed than released) in these areas. The spatially averaged ANEP for areas not suitable for biofuel feedstock development (less productive or degraded grasslands) was −47 to 69 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, showing a weak carbon source or a weak carbon sink (carbon emitted is nearly equal to carbon absorbed). The 9-year pre-harvest cumulative ANEP was 1166 g C m−2 for the suitable areas (a strong carbon sink) and 200 g C m−2 for the non-suitable areas (a weak carbon sink). Results demonstrate and confirm that our method of dynamic modeling of ecosystem performance can successfully identify areas desirable and sustainable for future biofuel feedstock development. This study provides useful information for land managers and decision makers to make optimal land use decisions regarding biofuel feedstock development and sustainability.

  17. Scientific advancement of novel protein allergenicity evaluation: an overview of work from the HESI Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karluss; MacIntosh, Sue; Bannon, Gary; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holsapple, Michael; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Vieths, Stefan; Woolhiser, Michael; Privalle, Laura

    2009-06-01

    The safety assessment of genetically modified crops includes the evaluation for potential allergenicity. The current 'state-of-the-science' utilizes a weight of evidence approach, as outlined by the Codex Alimentarius commission (Alinorm 03/34 A), recognizing no single endpoint is predictive of the allergenic potential of a novel protein. This approach evaluates: whether the gene source is allergenic, sequence similarity to known allergens, and protein resistance to pepsin in vitro. If concerns are identified, serological studies may be necessary to determine if a protein has IgE binding similar to known allergens. Since there was a lack of standardized/validated methods to conduct the allergenicity assessment, a committee was assembled under the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute to address this issue. Over the last eight years, the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee has convened workshops and symposia with allergy experts and government authorities to refine methods that underpin the assessment for potential protein allergenicity. This publication outlines this ongoing effort, summarizing workshops and formal meetings, referencing publications, and highlighting outreach activities. The purpose is to (1) outline 'the state-of-the-science' in predicting protein allergenicity in the context of current international recommendations for novel protein safety assessment, and (2) identify approaches that can be improved and future research needs.

  18. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  19. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

  20. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  1. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  2. Adult Latino College Students: Experiencias y la Educacion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Ana Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the learning experiences of adult Latino college students, as described directly in their own voices. The study was guided by two research questions: RQ1: "How do adult Latinos describe their undergraduate college learning experiences?" and RQ2: "How do culture, gender, and ethnic identity affect…

  3. Expresiones de Desarrollo Profesional en Educadoras Principiantes y con Experiencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsalel-Presser, Raquel

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to identify the conditions which affect the professional development of both experienced and inexperienced teachers. After presenting the theoretical and conceptual framework of the problem, discusses professional development needs identified by preschool and primary school teachers in an exploratory study done in Montreal, Quebec…

  4. Experiencia - Taller: sondas espaciales y satélites artificiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinenco, F. V.

    Results of a simple experiment made by Astronomy students (5th year, Liceo Víctor Mercante, UNLP), and assistants to the 7th Pro-Ciencia Congress (Chivilcoy, May 2000) and by amateur astronomers, are presented. Its goal is to show, in a simple and conceptual way, how the Magellan probe in orbit around Venus codifies and transmits data back to the Earth. The experiment, which was adapted from my personal experience at the International Space Camp 1999 (Huntsville, USA), is made with scale models representing details of the planet's surface, while a color code and binary numbers are used to codify the data. Educational material from CONAE (National Commission of Space Activities, Argentina) is used to further illustrate the subject.

  5. [Syringomyelias in paediatrics: a retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Albaladejo, I; Prochazkova, M; Perez-Sebastian, I; Bernardino-Cuesta, B; Martinez-Ferrandez, C; Suarez-Traba, O M; Budke, M; Garcia-Penas, J J

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Se define siringomielia como una cavidad que contiene liquido cefalorraquideo dispuesta en el interior de la medula espinal. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas clinicas de una serie de pacientes con siringomielia, su diagnostico y tratamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado mediante la revision de historias clinicas en nuestro centro. Resultados. Se revisaron 25 pacientes diagnosticados de siringomielia. En cinco el diagnostico fue casual y ocho presentaban una patologia grave previa (tumoral, osea o vascular). Dos pacientes comenzaron con hidrocefalia y clinica de hipertension intracraneal y unicamente dos destacaban cefalea como unico sintoma. Cuatro presentaron escoliosis progresiva, dos de ellos como queja inicial, y precisaron cirugia con artrodesis y uso de corse, respectivamente. Destaca la precocidad del diagnostico. La mayoria presentaba unicamente perdida de fuerza leve, con potenciales somatosensoriales y electromiograma normales. En todos se hicieron controles con resonancia magnetica. Ocho pacientes precisaron craniectomia descompresiva con laminectomia posterior C1-C2, con drenaje de la cavidad siringomielica en cuatro. Nueve requirieron valvula de derivacion y dos precisaron, ademas, ventriculostomia. Conclusiones. La presencia de siringomielia en pediatria es rara, y se asocia generalmente a malformaciones en la fosa posterior y antecedentes de disrafismo espinal. Destaca la escoliosis progresiva como posible manifestacion aislada. Un abordaje multidisciplinar con controles radiologicos seriados y la valoracion por servicios de neurologia y neurocirugia pediatricos son mandatorios para su seguimiento.

  6. Una Experiencia Pedagogica en el Jardin Infantil "La Cabana" (A Teaching Experience in "La Cabana" Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, B.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the history of La Cabana kindergarten, which provides preschool education and meals for 100 children and sewing classes for mothers in a working class neighborhood in Bogota, Colombia. Describes the implementation of a new curriculum which develops child creativity through free choice of activities around a common project. (AC)

  7. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  8. Nuestras Experiencias: A Phenomenological Study of Latina First Generation Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Diana E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that Latinos lag behind White and African American students in higher education degree attainment. This educational gap is of concern because Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, and the Latino population is expected to increase in the future. Higher education degree attainment for…

  9. Una experiencia europea de innovacion pedagogica basada en la escritura de un ibro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montane, Mireia; Roc, Merce

    2002-01-01

    Describes a European project based on writing a book from an educational perspective. Participants included 18 schools from 13 countries. The study originated in a Spanish Comenius 3.1 project, which determined that university teams would visit "book writing" schools, supporting teachers and analyzing and publishing their experiences. After…

  10. La Cooperacion Internacional en Educacion: Estudio De La Experiencia Peruana. (International Cooperation in Education: Case Study of the Peruvian Experience).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappo, Leopoldo

    Educational development in Peru is discussed as part of a series surveying UNESCO's involvement in educational cooperation with developing nations. There are seven chapters to the report, which is written in Spanish. The first chapter describes Peru's national education policy, and discusses how it relates to the country's plan for national…

  11. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  12. Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students (Experiencias significativas para estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Luz María; McNulty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human…

  13. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  14. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  15. Experiencias, Sentido y Significado de la Consejeria en Justicia Social a Nivel Universitario: Estudio de Caso Cualitativo Mediante Tres Narrativas De Consejeros Profesionales en Educacion Superior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago Tosado, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and profoundly describe the nature of social justice practice, as is comes up from the experience of three professional counselors whose working settings are the academic arena. Detailed descriptions are presented concerning the meanings and sense of counseling for social justice, as the interviews…

  16. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Cinco (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: Five).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Merri

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing fifth grade social studies curriculum. The 12 lessons, translated into Spanish, cover the following concepts: responsibility, rules and laws,…

  17. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Cuatro (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: Four).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarine, Dianne

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing fourth grade social studies curriculum. The 11 lessons, translated into into Spanish, cover the following concepts: responsibility in the care…

  18. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Dos (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: Two).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Jean

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing second grade social studies curriculum. The 10 lessons, translated into Spanish, cover the following concepts: friendly, unfriendly and…

  19. Formacion de Formadores: Experiencias Institucionales en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Educacion. (The Formation of Educational Planners: Institutional Experiences in Planning and Administration for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senen Gonzalez, Silvia N. de

    Information collected from interviews with 15 ministers of education and 30 program directors and researchers at 18 universities in Venezuela, Costa Rica, Chile, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina is used to study academic programs which prepare persons to be educational planners and administrators. Section one describes background…

  20. Experiencia Pedagogica con Adolescentes Paraliticos Cerebrales: La Musica, Un Elemento Rehabilitador (A Pedagogical Experience with Teenage Cerebral Paralytics Using Music as a Rehabilitating Element).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomer, Marta; And Others

    The monograph describes efforts carried out in the Department of Work Therapy of a center for cerebral paralysis in Barcelona, Spain. The rehabilitation program incorporated music and movement in an attempt to develop the musical ear, sensitivity, and a sensorial education. The program stresses rhythm, melody, harmony, voice, musical audition, and…

  1. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Uno (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Richard

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum, written in Spanish, provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing social studies curriculum in grade 1. Using short stories, field trips, and class discussions, the 11 lessons on…

  2. En Busqueda de la Escuela del Siglo XXI: Dos Experiencias de Autoaprendizaje (In Search of the 21st Century School: Two Self-Learning Experiences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto; And Others

    This book is a contribution to the dialogue that is maintained today around the problems of education. The book contains four parts: (1) "In Search of the 21st Century School. Can the Colombian New School (EN) Show Us the Way?"; (2) "Experimentation with Self-Learning Materials in Two Schools in Conchali (Chile)"; (3) "Self-Learning Module for the…

  3. Planteamientos multiculturales en la educacion: una experiencia alemana. Studies and Evaluation Papers 14. (Multicultural Approaches in Education: A German Experience. Studies and Evaluation Papers 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treppte, Carmen

    This paper describes the development of Turkish Children and Mothers, a project designed to help 5-year-old preschoolers in the Ruhr Valley of Germany develop linguistic, motor, cognitive, and social abilities. The paper also describes various aspects of the project, including those that relate to maternal involvement, educational facilities, the…

  4. Yo, Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Kindergarten (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardeman, Lou

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing social studies curriculum at the kindergarten level. Consisting of 11 lessons, the guide, written in Spanish, introduces the meaning of rules,…

  5. Experiencias en Lenguaje Para su Nino ed Edad Pre-escolar. Parte I: Actividades Para la Casa. (Language Experiences for Your Preschooler. Part I: Activities at Home.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The purpose of this manuscript (written in Spanish) is to encourage the development of communication skills of preschool children by introducing their parents to a number of learning activities suitable for home use. It is written to be used by an instructor who is working with preschool parents. The activities, which are designed to be…

  6. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  7. Experiencias y repercusión de una formación en ética de investigación

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito describir los logros y repercusiones de la capacitación en ética de la investigación que brinda el Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, sirviendo de estímulo, motivación y orientación a profesionales que requieren conocer y aplicar las normas y el raciocinio conducente a la deliberación de los problemas en esta disciplina. Asimismo, describe cómo este conocimiento genera un efecto multiplicador en aspectos tales como la participación en un comité de ética de la investigación (CEI), organización de cursos y creación y desarrollo de líneas de investigación, que repercuten en publicaciones realizadas con estudiantes de posgrado. Relata además los contenidos y estrategias didácticas que pueden ser empleados en cursos de ética y bioética para estudiantes de estomatología y concluye mencionando la aplicación práctica de esta capacitación en los ámbitos docente, institucional y de investigación. PMID:24482556

  8. The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom = El proyecto de la cosechadora: una experiencia en una clase bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca

    This article, also available in Spanish, describes what happened when a bilingual kindergarten class in West Liberty, Iowa, investigated a combine. The dual-language Kindergarten program supports content area instruction in both Spanish and English. The first part of the article tells the story of the Combine Project, this class's first project…

  9. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias Para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Tres (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: Three).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javora, Angela

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing third grade social studies curriculum. The 10 lessons, translated into Spanish, cover school rules as personal safety measures, consequences of…

  10. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They seek to: (1)…

  11. [Radiological percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP), 17 años de experiencia, serie de casos del hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Navarro Falcón, Magnolia Del Carmen; Parejo Campos, Juana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-10-25

    When assessing a patient nutritional support the state of the gastrointestinal tract is the most important point to consider, whenever possible we should choose the enteral nutrition (EN) over parenteral nutrition (PN) and recognized by its various advantages. The percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP) were introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to surgical gastrostomy (GQ). The speed, simplicity, low cost, low morbidity and low mortality of these techniques has allowed its rapid development.The feeding tubes types used were the balloon-retained devices catheter, the pig tail and the ballon-retained with gastropexia (gastropexia). It is a retrospective study of all patients who were placed GPR in the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla, between September 1996 and September 2013, which aims to study is to describe the characteristics of patients and the complications presented for different types of enteral feeding tubes used. GPR 186 were performed in 176 patients (135 males (76.70%), with an average duration of 303.6 days, the most frequent diseases were cancers of the head and neck 49.46%. The types of feeding tubes used were pigtail 118 (63.44%), balloon-retained devices 22 (11.83%), and gastropexia 46 (24.73%). The most common early complications in the pigtail group were early purulent exudate and early bleeding (2.5 and 3.4% respectively), while in the balloon catheter group the initial output of the probe was most frequent early complication (13.7%), none of these complications were observed in the group of gastropexy. The most common late complication was obstruction probe. The GPR is a safe technique with lower mortality of 1%; Low frequently of early and late complications. A better understanding of this technique can reduce the frequency of complications.

  12. Trends in pesticide concentrations in urban streams in the United States, 1992-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide concentration trends in streams dominated by urban land use were assessed using data from 27 urban streams sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The sites were divided into four regions, Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, to examine possible regional patterns. Three partially overlapping 9-year periods (1992-2000, 1996-2004, and 2000-2008) were examined for eight herbicides and one degradation product (simazine, prometon, atrazine, deethylatrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, pendimethalin, tebuthiuron, and Dacthal), and five insecticides and two degradation products (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, fipronil, fipronil sulfide, desulfinylfipronil, and carbaryl). The data were analyzed for trends in concentration using a parametric regression model with seasonality, flow-related variability, and trend, called SEAWAVE-Q. The SEAWAVE-Q model also was used to generate estimated daily concentration percentiles for each analysis period to provide a summary of concentration magnitudes. For herbicides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for simazine were in the South, prometon at some sites in all of the regions, atrazine and deethylatrazine in the South and Midwest, metolachlor in the Midwest and a few sites in the South, pendimethalin at scattered sites in all of the regions, and tebuthiuron in the South and a few sites in the Midwest and West. For insecticides, the largest 90th percentiles of estimated concentrations for diazinon and carbaryl were distributed among various sites in all regions (especially during 1996-2004), and fipronil at isolated sites in all of the regions during 2000-2008. Trend analysis results for the herbicides indicated many significant trends, both upward and downward, with varying patterns depending on period, region, and herbicide. Overall, deethylatrazine showed the most consistent pattern of upward trends, especially in the Northeast (2000-2008), South

  13. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  14. Legislating Language in Taiwan: From Equality to Development to Status Quo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupré, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks into failed attempts by the Democratic Progressive Party's (DPP) minority government (2000-2008) to alter Taiwan's Mandarin-dominated language regime by drafting law proposals recognizing the languages of all Taiwanese ethnic groups as equal national languages. This paper argues that the failure to enact language regime change in…

  15. Growth reproductive potential and control strategies for deeproot sedge (Cyperus entreianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS in 2000-2008 to determine the growth rate, reproductive and overwintering potential, and control of deeproot sedge. In growth chamber studies, deeproot sedge growth rate (height) and plant dry weights were greatest for 2...

  16. Fostering Locomotor Behavior of Children with Developmental Disabilities: An Overview of Studies Using Treadmills and Walkers with Microswitches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Manfredi, Francesco; Putignano, Pietro; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Basili, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of studies using programs with treadmills or walkers with microswitches and contingent stimulation to foster locomotor behavior of children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-six studies were identified in the period 2000-2008 (i.e., the period in which research in this area has actually taken shape).…

  17. Learning in Communities of Inquiry: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate learning in communities of inquiry (CoI) as the terms are defined in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's (2000) framework. We identified 252 reports from 2000-2008 that referenced the framework, and we reviewed them using Ogawan and Malen's (1991) strategy for synthesizing multi-vocal bodies of literature.…

  18. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  19. NSA AERI Hatch Correction Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David

    2012-03-23

    From 2000-2008, the NSA AERI hatch was determined to be indicated as open too frequently. Analysis suggests that the hatch was actually opening and closing properly but that its status was not being correctly reported by the hatch controller to the datastream. An algorithm was written to determine the hatch status from the observed

  20. Leading with "Emotional" Intelligence--Existential and Motivational Analysis in Leadership and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual and practical paper is integrating the work of Viktor Frankl (1985) and Steven Reiss (2000, 2008) into a model of Existential and Motivational Analysis (EMotiAn). This integrated model and approach may provide scholars, educators, consultants and practitioners alike with an innovative and meaningful framework for leadership and…

  1. Understanding about Water in Liquid Modernity: Critical Imperatives for English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misson, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We are at a particularly difficult historical juncture marked by uncertainty, contingency and change. Zygmunt Bauman characterises the present time as "liquid modernity" (2000, 2008, 2011b) because of the fluidity and instability that we live with. Our identities and our relations to the world are changing radically. There is an urgent need for…

  2. From Awareness to Cultural Agency: EFL Colombian Student Teachers' Travelling Abroad Experiences (De la concientización a la agencia cultural: las experiencias en el extranjero de futuros profesores de inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viafara González, John Jairo; Ariza Ariza, J. Aleida

    2015-01-01

    Colombian English as a foreign language student teachers' opportunities to grow as educators through international sojourns do not usually subsume the traditional study and residence abroad goal. This was the case for our participants who engaged mainly in working abroad with study being ancillary. Fifty student teachers from two public…

  3. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  4. Publishing and Academic Writing: Experiences of Authors Who Have Published in "PROFILE" (Publicación y escritura académica: experiencias de autores que han publicado en "PROFILE")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas, Melba L.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the publication of academic journals is closely related to the growing interest of research communities as well as of institutional policies that demand visibility of the work done by their staff through publications in highly-ranked journals. The purpose of this paper is to portray the experiences of some authors who published…

  5. Nuevas estrategias de gestión, tratamiento y valorización de los efluentes organicos pecuarios: Experiencias en USDA. (Management strategies for organic livestock effluents,innovative treatment and valorization)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En la actualidad el impacto potencial de los residuos ganaderos en el medio-ambiente representa uno de los desafíos más grandes de la agricultura. Las tecnologías de tratamiento pueden tener un importante papel en el manejo de los residuos ganaderos dando más flexibilidad en los programas de la apli...

  6. Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language and Curriculum: A Narrative Experience (Conocimiento de los profesores acerca de la segunda lengua y el currículo: una experiencia narrativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendieta Aguilar, Jenny Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with a group of three teachers who work for the foreign languages department of a private university in Colombia. It was aimed at unveiling and characterizing the narrative knowledge these teachers hold about language teaching and learning processes as well as the role this knowledge plays in the constant construction…

  7. Self-Access Language Learning: Students' Perceptions of and Experiences within This New Mode of Learning (Aprendizaje de idiomas mediante la modalidad de autoacceso: percepciones y experiencias de los estudiantes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Díaz, Luz Edith

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of fostering autonomy in learning, both innovations, the self-access centre and the mode of learning derived from it, were adopted in the context of the study (Language Centre in the University of Veracruz, Mexico). Based on a case study, I have adopted a qualitative perspective to do this research, which aimed to know how the…

  8. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  9. An Examination of the Impact of Air from China on Air Quality in Hokkaido, Japan Before, During, and After the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, G. A.; Akimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.; Hirokawa, J.; Hasebe, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Ishida, K.; Miyagawa, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Christensen, S.; Kellams, N.; Lehmann, B.; Pietrzak, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    During July through September 2008 pollution controls in China associated with the Beijing Olympics led to a decrease of emissions of about 30%, as observed by NASA's OMI instrument on the Aura satellite. Pollution from China has an impact on air quality throughout East Asia. In this presentation, we examine specifically the impact of China's pollution on Hokkaido, Japan through the use of Aura satellite data (2004 - 2008), ozonesonde data (2000 - 2008), and data from air quality surface monitors (2000 - 2008). We also examine the year-to-year variability in meteorological flow regimes through trajectory model simulations of transport to Japan from the areas around Beijing and Shanghai, China and around Seoul, South Korea in order to apportion remote sources of pollution. These simulations indicate that while August 2008 experienced less frequent incursions of air from Beijing than previous years, at least one pollution event in Hokkaido in early August can be linked to the Beijing area.

  10. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China.

  11. Human Resources Staffing Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    SciTech Connect

    BOSLEY, J.W.

    2000-04-22

    The Human Resources Staffing Plan quantified the equivalent staffing needs required for the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) and its subcontractors to execute the readiness to proceed baseline between FY 2000-2008. The TFC staffing needs were assessed along with the staffings needs of Fluor Hanford and the privatization contractor. The plan then addressed the staffing needs and recruitment strategies required to execute the baseline.

  12. [The role of experience in the neurology of facial expression of emotions].

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Fernando; Pérez, Miguel A; Arana, José M; Mestas, Lilia; López, Rafael M

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La expresion facial de las emociones tiene una funcion social importante que facilita la interaccion entre las personas. Este proceso tiene una base neurologica, que no se aisla del contexto ni de la experiencia acumulada por la interaccion entre las personas en dicho contexto. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, no se conocen con claridad los efectos de la experiencia sobre la percepcion de las emociones. Objetivos. Discutir que funcion desempeña la experiencia en el reconocimiento de la expresion facial de las emociones y analizar los sesgos que las experiencias negativas y positivas podrian tener sobre la percepcion emocional. Desarrollo. La maduracion de las estructuras que soportan la capacidad para reconocer la emocion pasa por un periodo sensible durante la adolescencia, donde la experiencia adquirida puede tener mayor impacto sobre el reconocimiento emocional. Experiencias de abuso, maltrato, abandono, guerras o estres generan un sesgo hacia las expresiones de ira y tristeza. De igual manera, las experiencias positivas dan lugar a un sesgo hacia la expresion de alegria. Conclusiones. Solo cuando las personas son capaces de utilizar la expresion facial de las emociones como un canal de comprension y expresion interaccionaran de manera adecuada con su entorno. Este entorno, a su vez, dara lugar a experiencias que modulan dicha capacidad. Por lo tanto, es un proceso autorregulatorio que puede ser dirigido a traves de la implementacion de programas de intervencion sobre los aspectos emocionales.

  13. Exploring EFL Pre-Service Teachers' Experience with Cultural Content and Intercultural Communicative Competence at Three Colombian Universities (Indagación sobre la experiencia con el contenido cultural y la competencia comunicativa intercultural de docentes de inglés en formación, en tres universidades colombianas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaya, Alba; Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research project that explored pre-service English teachers' perceptions of and attitudes toward the aspects of culture and intercultural competence addressed in their English classes in the undergraduate programs at three Colombian universities. Findings reveal that pre-service teachers are…

  14. Experiencias interculturales y la pedagogia de la anglofonia en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE) desde una perspectiva deweyana. Working Paper (A Deweyan Perspective on Cross-Cultural Experiences and Anglophone Pedagogy in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses a framework for teaching English as a foreign language that incorporates significant cultural content and fosters critical encounters with Anglophone culture. It reviews relevant contemporary perspectives for understanding cross-cultural processes within the foreign language teaching environment with emphasis on the issue of…

  15. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding while Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning (Nuevos entornos educativos destinados a desarrollar la comprensión intercultural y a reforzar el uso del inglés mediante el aprendizaje basado en experiencias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruguier, Leonard R.; Greathouse Amador, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course…

  16. Spatially distributed evapotranspiration and recharge estimation for sand regions of Hungary in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Water balance of sand regions of Hungary was analysed using remote-sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps (1*1 km spatial resolution) by CREMAP model over the 2000-2008 period. The mean annual (2000-2008) net groundwater recharge (R) estimated as the difference in mean annual precipitation (P) and ET, taking advantage that for sand regions the surface runoff is commonly negligible. For the examined nine-year period (2000-2008) the ET and R were about 90 percent and 10 percent of the P. The mean annual ET and R were analysed in the context of land cover types. A Budyko-model was used in spatially-distributed mode for the climate change impact analysis. The parameters of the Budyko-model (α) was calculated for pixels without surplus water. For the extra-water affected pixels a linear model with β-parameters (actual evapotranspiration / pan-evapotranspiration) was used. These parameter maps can be used for evaluating future ET and R in spatially-distributed mode (1*1 km resolution). By using the two parameter maps (α and β) and data of regional climate models (mean annual temperature and precipitation) evapotranspiration and net groundwater recharge projections have been done for three future periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100). The expected ET and R changes have been determined relative to a reference period (1981-2010). According to the projections, by the end of the 21th century, ET may increase while in case of R a heavy decrease can be detected for the sand regions of Hungary. This research has been supported by Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project. Keywords: evapotranspiration, net groundwater recharge, climate change, Budyko-model

  17. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Los trastornos del espectro esquizofrénico, así como las experiencias psicóticas, se han asociado con un mayor consumo de sustancias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la relación entre las experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y el consumo de sustancias en adultos jóvenes. La muestra la formaron un total de 660 participantes universitarios (M = 20,3 años; DT = 2,6). Los resultados mostraron que un 96% de la muestra informó de alguna experiencia de ideación delirante, mientras que el 20,3% informó de, al menos, una experiencia atenuada de tipo cognitivo-perceptual. El 41,1% de la muestra refirió algún consumo de sustancias, encontrándose diferencias en función del género. Los participantes consumidores informaron de un mayor número de experiencias psicóticas, sobre todo de tipo positivo. Asimismo, el consumo de alcohol predijo, en la mayoría de los casos, las puntuaciones extremas en las medidas de ideación delirante y experiencias pseudopsicóticas. La asociación entre estas dos variables parece mostrar un patrón diferenciado, encontrándose el consumo de sustancias más relacionado con las experiencias pseudo-psicóticas de tipo cognitivoperceptual. Estos hallazgos parecen apoyar los modelos dimensionales del fenotipo psicótico y permiten mejorar la comprensión de la relación entre las experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y el consumo de sustancias en adultos jóvenes. Futuros estudios deberían seguir analizando el papel de los factores de riesgo a los trastornos psicóticos, así como incorporar modelos de interacción gen x ambiente.

  18. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  19. Crew on the ISS: Creativity or determinism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikalev, Sergey K.; Kalery, Alexander Yu.; Sorokin, Igor V.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the experience of human flights to the Mir space station in 1986-2000 and to the ISS in 2000-2008, as well as Space Shuttle missions we can define structural and organizational tendencies in human missions to space and mission support. The tendency to the increased determinism in flight operations leads to lower flexibility of the "Crew-Mission Control Center" link in case of contingency. We justify the necessity to reduce the centralization of the control process and to hand over some mission control centers (MCC) authority to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. We conclude that human missions to the Moon and Mars where crew actions will be independent to a high degree will be impossible without resolution of this issue. Creativity and determinism should be properly balanced.

  20. Estimates of the fraction of precipitation seedable under application of the Wyoming weather modification pilot project seeding criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzman, Jaclyn M.

    The objective of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project is to evaluate the effect of glaciogenic seeding on wintertime precipitation over two co-located barriers in southeast Wyoming. Orographic clouds are to be targeted if they meet strict criteria. An analysis of the impact of seeding requires knowledge of the amount of precipitation that fell from seedable clouds. This amount of precipitation was determined by applying the strict seeding criteria to an eight-year simulation from the Weather Research and Forecasting model at 4-km horizontal resolution. Results from the analysis from the model suggested that the fraction of seedable precipitation was 35.1% (35.5%) over the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow mountain ranges from 2000-2008. This fraction decreases to 23.2% (23.0%) under a warmer, future climate scenario over the Sierra Madres (Medicine Bows).

  1. Longitudinal Relationships Between Productive Activities and Functional Health in Later Years: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Sung-Geun; Turk, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationships between functional health in later years and three types of productive activities: volunteering, full-time, and part-time work. Using the data from five waves (2000-2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, we applied multivariate latent growth curve modeling to examine the longitudinal relationships among individuals 50 or over. Functional health was measured by limitations in activities of daily living. Individuals who volunteered, worked either full time or part time exhibited a slower decline in functional health than nonparticipants. Significant associations were also found between initial functional health and longitudinal changes in productive activity participation. This study provides additional support for the benefits of productive activities later in life; engagement in volunteering and employment are indeed associated with better functional health in middle and old age. PMID:27461262

  2. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  3. Time-dependency of the 137Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Zibold, Gregor; Klemt, Eckehard

    2009-11-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, (137)Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg(-1). While the long term (137)Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ("Landkreis") Ravensburg. The (137)Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg(-1) and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of (137)Cs in wild boar organism. T(ag) values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m(2)kg(-1) during 2000-2008.

  4. Urban social and built environments and trajectories of decline in social engagement in vulnerable elders: findings from Detroit's Medicaid home and community-based waiver population.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinHee; Clarke, Philippa

    2015-05-01

    There is little knowledge on the relationships between neighborhood environments and trajectories of social engagement among physically and economically vulnerable older adults. We examined the association between neighborhood social and built environments (physical disorder, the presence of crime watch signs, and street conditions) and 36-month trajectories of social engagement among 965 older adults living in Detroit, Michigan. Social withdrawal was defined as a decline in social engagement without distress while social isolation was defined as a decline in social engagement with distress. We utilized data from Michigan's Minimum Data Set for Home Care (2000-2008), merged with contextual data collected through a virtual audit instrument using Google Earth's "Street View" feature. Results from multilevel multinomial analyses indicated that the presence of neighborhood watch signs was associated with increased chance of social withdrawal and social isolation among frail older adults over time, highlighting the potential anxiety-provoking effect of precautionary measures against crime. PMID:25651577

  5. Analysis of maternal and abortion-related mortality in Mexico over the last two decades, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Troncoso, Erika; Polo, Gerardo

    2012-09-01

    To document the relative contribution of abortion-related deaths to overall maternal deaths in Mexico, official mortality data were analyzed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. During 1990-2008, among 24 805 maternal deaths, 1786 (7.2%) were abortion related. Of these, 13.2% occurred in adolescents and 65% in uninsured women; 60% were probably associated with unsafely induced procedures. The study calculated the number of abortion-related deaths per 100,000 abortion-related hospitalizations, expressed as a modified abortion case-fatality rate. During 2000-2008, this rate was 48 at the national level, with wide variations among states: from 140 deaths in Guerrero to 8 in Baja California Sur per 100,000 abortion hospitalizations. Unsafe abortion continues to represent a significant proportion of all maternal deaths in Mexico.

  6. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira; Østergaard, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-10-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15% in 1996. Nevertheless, the disease persists in the Vendsyssel district of Northern Jutland, despite the eradication efforts. In this study, we used spatial epidemiological analysis to test for spatial autocorrelation of the distribution of farms positive for the disease. We investigated 2375 farms in Denmark (342 of which were located in the Vendsyssel district), during the period 2000-2008. For the purpose of our study, a farm was considered positive when, on any test conducted in a year, at least three animals were tested positive. To detect spatial clusters, we performed a retrospective analysis with spatial scan statistics. We performed one analysis for each of the nine years (2000-2008). A separate analysis was conducted with only the farms in Vendsyssel included. The spatial cluster analysis revealed a significant cluster throughout the time period studied in Northern Jutland. The only exception was 2002 when an outbreak was detected in the southern part of Jutland, and not in the north. The farm-level prevalence of the disease in Denmark was highest in this year, suggesting that the outbreak in the south could have masked the persistent signal from the north; the northern cluster was still significant when analysing only the Vendsyssel populations. These results confirm that Northern Jutland continues to have a significantly higher number of cases than expected if the disease was randomly distributed. PMID:21788091

  7. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge Rivas Diaz); "Una…

  8. Language and Literacy in the Borderlands: Acting upon the World through "Testimonios"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Cinthya M.

    2011-01-01

    Saavedra discusses how children in the borderlands can inform our language and literacy practices through the Latin American literary genre known as "testimonio." Drawing from the work of Chicana/Latina feminist pedagogy, I frame my "experiencias" with language and literacy in three different moments in my life. Through these "testimonios," I make…

  9. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  10. Use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth and spatial clustering to predict ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-10-01

    Satellite-based PM(2.5) monitoring has the potential to complement ground PM(2.5) monitoring networks, especially for regions with sparsely distributed monitors. Satellite remote sensing provides data on aerosol optical depth (AOD), which reflects particle abundance in the atmospheric column. Thus AOD has been used in statistical models to predict ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. However, previous studies have shown that AOD may not be a strong predictor of PM(2.5) ground levels. Another shortcoming of remote sensing is the large number of non-retrieval days (i.e., days without satellite data available) due to clouds and snow- and ice-cover. In this paper we propose statistical approaches to overcome these two shortcomings, thereby making satellite imagery a viable method to estimate PM(2.5) concentrations. First, we render AOD a robust predictor of PM(2.5) mass concentration by introducing an AOD daily calibration approach through the use of mixed effects model. Second, we develop models that combine AOD and ground monitoring data to predict PM(2.5) concentrations during non-retrieval days. A key feature of this approach is that we develop these prediction models separately for groups of days defined by the observed amount of spatial heterogeneity in concentrations across the study region. Subsequently, these methodologies were applied to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of daily PM(2.5) concentrations for both retrieval days (i.e., days with satellite data available) and non-retrieval days in the New England region of the United States during the period 2000-2008. Overall, for the years 2000-2008, our statistical models predicted surface PM(2.5) concentrations with reasonably high R(2) (0.83) and low percent mean relative error (3.5%). Also the spatial distribution of the estimated PM(2.5) levels in the study domain clearly exhibited densely populated and high traffic areas. The method we have developed demonstrates that remote sensing can have a

  11. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiangkun; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Chi; Gong, Yuanbo; Tu, Lihua

    2016-04-01

    The Miyun Reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contribute to the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in the Miyun Reservoir are debatable under a non-stationary climate in the past 4 decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into the Miyun Reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies on this watershed, we used a comprehensive approach to quantify the timing of changes in hydrology and associated environmental variables using the long-term historical hydrometeorology and remote-sensing-based land use records. To effectively quantify the different impacts of the climate variation and land use change on streamflow during different sub-periods, an annual water balance model (AWB), the climate elasticity model (CEM), and a rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in annual streamflow, a significant positive trend in annual potential evapotranspiration (p < 0.01), and an insignificant (p > 0.1) negative trend in annual precipitation during 1961-2008. We identified two streamflow breakpoints, 1983 and 1999, by the sequential Mann-Kendall test and double-mass curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to the Miyun Reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in actual evapotranspiration due to the expansion of forestland and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. The contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008

  12. X-ray long-term variations in the low-luminosity AGN NGC 835 and its circumnuclear emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Martín, O.; Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Esparza Arredondo, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are thought to be very common in the Universe. Observations and surveys have shown that the number of sources increases for near galaxies and at the low-luminosity regime (the so-called LLAGNs). Furthermore, many AGNs show changes in their obscuration properties at X-rays that may suggest a configuration of clouds very close to the accretion disk. However, these variations could also be due to changes in the intrinsic continuum of the source. It is therefore important to study nearby AGN to better understand the locus and distribution of clouds in the neighbourhood of the nucleus. Aims: We aim to study the nuclear obscuration of LLAGN NGC 835 and its extended emission using mid-infrared observations. Methods: We present sub-arcsecond-resolution mid-infrared 11.5 μm imaging of the LLAGN galaxy NGC 835 obtained with the instrument CanariCam in the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), archival Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, and archival Chandra data observed in 2000, 2008, and 2013. Results: The GTC/CanariCam 11.5 μm image reveals faint extended emission out to ~6 arcsec. We obtained a nuclear flux of F(11.5 μm) ~ 18 mJy, whereas the extended emission accounts for 90% of the total flux within the 6 arcsec. This means that the low angular resolution (~4 arcsec) IRS spectrum is dominated by this extended emission and not by the AGN. This is clearly seen in the Spitzer/IRS spectrum, which resembles that of star-forming galaxies. Although the extended soft X-ray emission shows some resemblance with that of the mid-infrared, the knots seen at X-rays are mostly located in the inner side of this mid-infrared emission. The nuclear X-ray spectrum of the source has undergone a spectral change between 2000/2008 and 2013. We argue that this variation is most probably due to changes in the hydrogen column density from ~8 × 1023 cm-2 to ~3 × 1023 cm-2. NGC 835 therefore is one of the few LLAGN, together with NGC 1052, in which changes in

  13. Use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth and spatial clustering to predict ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-10-01

    Satellite-based PM(2.5) monitoring has the potential to complement ground PM(2.5) monitoring networks, especially for regions with sparsely distributed monitors. Satellite remote sensing provides data on aerosol optical depth (AOD), which reflects particle abundance in the atmospheric column. Thus AOD has been used in statistical models to predict ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. However, previous studies have shown that AOD may not be a strong predictor of PM(2.5) ground levels. Another shortcoming of remote sensing is the large number of non-retrieval days (i.e., days without satellite data available) due to clouds and snow- and ice-cover. In this paper we propose statistical approaches to overcome these two shortcomings, thereby making satellite imagery a viable method to estimate PM(2.5) concentrations. First, we render AOD a robust predictor of PM(2.5) mass concentration by introducing an AOD daily calibration approach through the use of mixed effects model. Second, we develop models that combine AOD and ground monitoring data to predict PM(2.5) concentrations during non-retrieval days. A key feature of this approach is that we develop these prediction models separately for groups of days defined by the observed amount of spatial heterogeneity in concentrations across the study region. Subsequently, these methodologies were applied to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of daily PM(2.5) concentrations for both retrieval days (i.e., days with satellite data available) and non-retrieval days in the New England region of the United States during the period 2000-2008. Overall, for the years 2000-2008, our statistical models predicted surface PM(2.5) concentrations with reasonably high R(2) (0.83) and low percent mean relative error (3.5%). Also the spatial distribution of the estimated PM(2.5) levels in the study domain clearly exhibited densely populated and high traffic areas. The method we have developed demonstrates that remote sensing can have a

  14. Breast Cancer Screening at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Aidan T.; Eaton, Anne; Azu, Michelle; Sampson, Michelle; Patil, Sujata; Godfrey, Diana; Beesen, Ayshe A.; Liberman, Laura; Gemignani, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Here we describe patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem to determine if these characteristics have changed in comparison to an earlier study period. The BECH continues to serve a population of ethnic minorities. The majority of breast cancer cases diagnosed in this population are now of early stage with good prognosis; however, compliance with follow-up and patient outcomes remain poor. Background To describe patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem (BECH), and determine if these characteristics have changed over time. Methods Retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH from 2000-2008 was performed. Comparisons were made to data from an earlier study period (1995-2000). Results From 2000-2008, 339 women were diagnosed with breast cancer following attendance at BECH—55% were Black, 39% Hispanic, 5% of other race/ethnicity. 52% had no health insurance. Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to have no health insurance compared with Black patients (p=.0091). 29% of patients had pre-invasive disease; 36.5% had stage I disease. Almost 40% of the entire group was followed for <1 year. 5-year overall survival for the entire group was 83% (95% CI, 75-89%) and 79% for 188 Black women (95% CI, 68-87%). Compared to the earlier study period (1995-2000), fewer patients presented with palpable masses (45.4% versus 67%) and more had either stage 0 or stage I disease (65.6% versus 46%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH are predominantly Black and Hispanic, and most of these patients do not have health insurance. An increasing proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer are presenting with non-palpable, early-stage disease. Despite improved access to breast cancer screening, early stage at diagnosis, and access to appropriate

  15. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. K.; Sun, G.; Li, W. H.; Yu, X. X.; Zhang, C.; Gong, Y. B.; Tu, L. H.

    2015-08-01

    Miyun reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contributes the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in Miyun reservoir are debatable in a non-stationary climate in the past four decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into Miyun reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies, this work objectively identified breakpoints by analyzing the long-term historical hydrometeorology and land cover records. To effectively study the different impacts of the climate variation and land cover change during different sub-periods, annual water balance model (AWB), climate elasticity model (CEM), and rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant decrease in annual streamflow (p < 0.01), a significant positive trend in annual potential evapotranspiration (p < 0.01), and an insignificant negative trend in annual precipitation (p > 0.1) during 1961-2008. Combined with historical records, we identified two breakpoints as in 1983 and 1999 for the period 1961-2008 by the sequential Mann-Kendall Test and Double Mass Curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to Miyun reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in evapotranspiration rates due to the expansion of forestlands and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. Our study found that the contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8

  16. [Screening and early care programmes in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Santos-Borbujo, José; Bueno-Carrera, Gloria; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. La necesidad de la deteccion y de tratamientos eficaces de forma temprana para los trastornos del espectro autista es algo actualmente aceptado tanto por las sociedades profesionales como por la administracion sanitaria. Una informacion actualizada y sintetizada sobre los procedimientos de cribado y las tecnicas de atencion temprana para niños con trastornos del espectro autista facilitara la puesta en marcha de mejores dispositivos de deteccion y la labor de asesoramiento a familias y profesionales sobre la atencion e intervencion a edades tempranas de los niños. Desarrollo. Se proporciona una revision actualizada de los procedimientos de deteccion precoz y de atencion temprana en el autismo, reflejando los aspectos mas relevantes que se deducen de las experiencias y estudios llevados a cabo hasta el momento. Conclusiones. Tras la revision realizada sobre las experiencias de deteccion precoz de autismo, se obtiene un grupo de consideraciones importantes para realizar analisis criticos de programas de cribado en marcha, asi como recomendaciones para experiencias futuras. La revision sobre los programas de atencion temprana proporciona una vision esperanzadora porque cada vez son mas frecuentes, sistematicos y metodologicamente mas apropiados los estudios sobre la eficacia de los programas de atencion temprana.

  17. Knowledge mobilisation in healthcare: a critical review of health sector and generic management literature.

    PubMed

    Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Peckham, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The health policy domain has displayed increasing interest in questions of knowledge management and knowledge mobilisation within healthcare organisations. We analyse here the findings of a critical review of generic management and health-related literatures, covering the period 2000-2008. Using 29 pre-selected journals, supplemented by a search of selected electronic databases, we map twelve substantive domains classified into four broad groups: taxonomic and philosophical (e.g. different types of knowledge); theoretical discourse (e.g. critical organisational studies); disciplinary fields (e.g. organisational learning and Information Systems/Information Technology); and organisational processes and structures (e.g. organisational form). We explore cross-overs and gaps between these traditionally separate literature streams. We found that health sector literature has absorbed some generic concepts, notably Communities of Practice, but has not yet deployed the performance-oriented perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm. The generic literature uses healthcare sites to develop critical analyses of power and control in knowledge management, rooted in neo-Marxist/labour process and Foucauldian approaches. The review generates three theoretically grounded statements to inform future enquiry, by: (a) importing the RBV stream; (b) developing the critical organisational studies perspective further; and (c) exploring the theoretical argument that networks and other alternative organisational forms facilitate knowledge sharing.

  18. Salmonellosis and charter tourism: epidemiology and trends of imported human cases to Norway from the Canary Islands and Thailand, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Emberland, K E; Nygård, K; Aavitsland, P

    2012-09-01

    More than 70% of reported human Salmonella infections in Norway are infected abroad. The Canary Islands and Thailand are two of the most popular charter tourist destinations for Norwegians. Using surveillance data for the years 1994-2008, and denominator data on travel to the Canary Islands 2000-2008 and to Thailand 1997-2008, we present the epidemiology and trends of Salmonella infections in Norwegian tourists to these destinations. We found a declining trend in risk of salmonellosis in tourists returning from the Canary Islands, and a change in serovar distribution in travellers to Thailand with more S. Enteritidis infections, similar to that observed in Western European countries. The use of denominator data is important when studying risk of travel-related disease, as surveillance data tend to reflect travel activity more than the risk. Infections among tourists do not always affect the local residents and therefore may not be detected by local public health authorities. Sharing knowledge on the epidemiology of infections in tourists could be useful for observation of changes in trends in the countries visited, and in future outbreak investigations. PMID:22051449

  19. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  20. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Guo, Huadong

    2009-10-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  1. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  2. [Dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years with mild malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake < 85% of the requirement, in accordance with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in over 50% of the sample; weekly consumption of vegetables (57%) and miscellaneous (66%) was inadequate; inadequate intake of formula and whole milk in more than 60%; 9% were exclusively breastfed during the first six months; 64% lacked a regular eating place; in child-caregiver interaction during mealtimes, more than half of the children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.

  3. An individual-based model of the krill Euphausia pacifica in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Sydeman, William J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2015-11-01

    Euphausia pacifica is an abundant and important prey resource for numerous predators of the California Current and elsewhere in the North Pacific. We developed an individual-based model (IBM) for E. pacifica to study its bioenergetics (growth, stage development, reproduction, and mortality) under constant/ideal conditions as well as under varying ocean conditions and food resources. To model E. pacifica under varying conditions, we coupled the IBM to an oceanographic-ecosystem model over the period 2000-2008 (9 years). Model results under constant/ideal food conditions compare favorably with experimental studies conducted under food unlimited conditions. Under more realistic variable oceanographic conditions, mean growth rates over the continental shelf were positive only when individuals migrated diurnally to the depth of maximum phytoplankton layer during nighttime feeding. Our model only used phytoplankton as prey and coastal growth rates were lower than expected (0.01 mm d-1), suggesting that a diverse prey base (zooplankton, protists, marine snow) may be required to facilitate growth and survival of modeled E. pacifica in the coastal environment. This coupled IBM-ROMS modeling framework and its parameters provides a tool for understanding the biology and ecology of E. pacifica and could be developed to further the understanding of climatic effects on this key prey species and enhance an ecosystem approach to fisheries and wildlife management in this region.

  4. Change in carbon sequestration and water cost after ecosystem restoration on China's Loess Plateau: implications on forestation in the semiarid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Forests are known to have a large capacity of carbon sequestration and reforestation/afforestation has been recognized as a potential strategy for the mitigation of global warming by reducing CO2 through the photosynthesis processes. However, due to limited water resources in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, forest management toward carbon sequestration is facing many challenges. Scientific understanding of carbon sequestration and water relationship is of paramount importance in the semiarid area. We examined regional net primary production (NPP) and water use efficiency (WUE) (NPP/ET, evapotransporation ) using remote sensing data over 1999-2007 period representing before and after the a massive afforestation program was implemented. We also examined the tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and water resources with a monthly scale ecosystem model (WASSI-CB). Both NPP and water use efficiency of the Loess Plateau increased during 2000-2008. Afforestation had significant positive impact on NPP and water use efficiency (P<0.0001). Annual precipitation was the key factor affecting NPP and WUE (P<0.0001, R2=0.36). Ecosystems in regions with annual precipitation of 450-550 mm, experienced more prominent increase in NPP and WUE (P<0.01). As a whole, each unit increase in NPP (1 g C m-2) required about an increase of water use by 0.48 mm water.; ;

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of major pollutants in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lok, Raymond K. C.; Chiu, Long S.; Chokngamwong, Roongroj

    2010-05-01

    Eight years (2000-2008) of hourly data obtained from the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) in Hong Kong is examined together with meteorological data recorded at automatic weather stations by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO). Respirable suspended particulates (RSP), SO2 and NOx all show maxima in the fall and winter while minima are seen in summer. Analysis of the diurnal cycle show minima in early morning hours shortly before sunrise. Factors affecting the hourly variations, such as wind direction and speed, mixed layer depth, and source emission, are examined. High RSP levels are associatd with winds from the north and northwest, suggesting cross border transport, while relatively pristine conditions prevail when the surface wind is southerly. Assuming that daily variations are dominated by local emission and corss border transport, the contribution of local is estimated to be around 50% with large internannual variations. Annual trends in RSP show a maximum in 2003 winter to 2004, which is associated with relatively low wind speed. NOx concentration, which is mostly contributed by vehicular emission show a decrease after 2004, which may be attributed to implementation of emission policies on vehicles.

  6. Water-level altitudes 2008 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973-2007 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2008-01-01

    This report, done in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The report contains 17 sheets and 16 tables: 3 sheets are maps showing current-year (2008) water-level altitudes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 1-year (2007-08) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 5-year (2003-08) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 4 sheets are maps showing long-term (1990-2008 and 1977-2008) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing long-term (2000-2008) water-level change for the Jasper aquifer; 1 sheet is a revision of a previously published water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer for 2003; 1 sheet is a map showing site locations of borehole extensometers; and 1 sheet comprises graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the sites from 1973 or later through 2007, respectively. Tables listing the data used to construct the aquifer-data maps and the compaction graphs are included.

  7. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  8. Is the prescribing behavior of Chinese physicians driven by financial incentives?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Dong, Weizhen; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Christopher; Wang, Ying; Hao, Mo

    2014-11-01

    The prescribing behavior to prescribe high-priced drugs has been hypothesized to be related to the increasing drug expenditures in China, but little empirical evidence exists. The purpose of this study was to examine whether Chinese physicians, driven by financial incentives, tend to prescribe high-priced drugs. The 2000-2008 drug data in the Yangtze River Basin Hospitals' Drug Use Analysis System were analyzed to examine the prescription patterns of penicillins and cephalosporins in Shanghai. Among the top-100 drugs (by volume), cephalosporins cost as 1.1- 2.3 times as penicillins and their volume was 1.7-18.2 times. Revenues generated from prescribing cephalosporins were 3.4-24.2 times as those from prescribing penicillins. The tendency of prescribing relatively high-priced drugs was observed given the same chemical name, dosage, and specification but different trade names. Furthermore, high-priced drugs remained on the top-100 list with increasing volumes, while some lower-priced drugs exited from the list due to decreases in volumes. Facing the policy dilemmas, the Chinese government needs to implement a new financially rewarding system in which hospitals and physicians are able to achieve financial gains in a cost-effective way including prescribing similar drugs with lower prices. Reforming hospitals' payment methods is necessary and feasible to reshape financial incentives of healthcare providers. The combination of the global budget policy and financial incentive measures would be likely to change providers' prescribing behaviors towards a cost-effective direction.

  9. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  10. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  11. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  12. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p < 0.0001) when entering pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the odds ratio of obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p < 0.0001). This study showed a strong association between maternal obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  13. Impact of universal vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella in Veneto, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Francesca; Piovesan, Cinzia; Russo, Francesca; Bella, Antonino; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Emberti Gialloreti, Leonardo

    2011-11-28

    In 2005, universal varicella vaccination was introduced in the Veneto region, Italy. We examined trends in varicella incidence and hospitalization rates before and after vaccine introduction, and applied statistical models to assess vaccine effectiveness. Varicella incidence rates for 2000-2008 were calculated from the mandatory regional surveillance data and from a special surveillance system based on reports from a sample of family pediatricians that during the study period followed more than 40,000 children. To evaluate hospital admission rates, we analyzed the regional hospital discharge registry. The vaccine coverage rate was 6.8% in the 2004 birth-cohort and 78.6% in the 2008 cohort. Varicella incidence in 0-14 year-olds was 6136.8/100,000 person-years in 2000 and 4004.8 in 2008; hospitalization rates were 18.7 and 8.4. Incidence rates significantly decreased 2.5 years after beginning the universal vaccination, while hospitalization rates showed a significant decrease one year earlier. There was a remarkable decline of both varicella incidence and hospitalizations especially in 1-4 year-old children. This study confirms the positive impact of universal vaccination.

  14. A population-based study of active and drug-resistant epilepsies in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Giorgia; Canelli, Valentina; Bianchi, Elisa; Franchi, Carlotta; Nobili, Alessandro; Erba, Giuseppe; Beghi, Ettore

    2016-02-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Our aim was to calculate the following: (1) the prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE in a well-defined population of Northern Italy and (2) the proportion of incident cases developing DRE. The study population (146,506; year 2008) resided in the province of Lecco, Northern Italy. The medical records of 123 general practitioners were reviewed to identify patients with epilepsy, diagnosed by a neurologist during the period 2000-2008. The point prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE was calculated on December 31, 2008. A total of 747 prevalent patients with epilepsy, 684 patients with active epilepsy, and 342 incident cases were identified. The frequency of DRE was 15.6% (107/684) of all active epilepsies and 10.5% (36/342) of incident cases. The point prevalence was 0.73 per 1000. The standardized prevalence of DRE was 0.7 per 1000 (Italian population) and 0.8 per 1000 (world population). Our data indicate that 1/6 patients with active epilepsy in the general population has DRE, and 1/10 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy will develop DRE within nine years from the diagnosis.

  15. Using staffing ratios for workforce planning: evidence on nine allied health professions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern healthcare managers are faced with pressure to deliver effective, efficient services within the context of fixed budget constraints. Managers are required to make decisions regarding the skill mix of the workforce particularly when staffing new services. One measure used to identify numbers and mix of staff in healthcare settings is workforce ratio. The aim of this study was to identify workforce ratios in nine allied health professions and to identify whether these measures are useful for planning allied health workforce requirements. Methods A systematic literature search using relevant MeSH headings of business, medical and allied health databases and relevant grey literature for the period 2000-2008 was undertaken. Results Twelve articles were identified which described the use of workforce ratios in allied health services. Only one of these was a staffing ratio linked to clinical outcomes. The most comprehensive measures were identified in rehabilitation medicine. Conclusion The evidence for use of staffing ratios for allied health practitioners is scarce and lags behind the fields of nursing and medicine. PMID:22293082

  16. Composite analysis of dust impacts on African easterly waves in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.; Santiago, Myrna J.

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the synoptic scale impacts of African dust on easterly waves in the tropical northeast Atlantic. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aerosol optical depth (AOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration products, and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields in the Atlantic main hurricane development region (MDR) form the basis for statistical analysis of a limited set of cases objectively selected for the 2000-2008 hurricane seasons when thresholds are exceeded for sea surface temperature (SST), easterly wind shear, cyclonic vorticity, and upward motion. After ranking African easterly waves by AOD, the top (dusty) and bottom (clean) cases are studied as composite differences. African dust and subsidence cause temperatures to warm ˜3°C in the 700 hPa layer, while SSTs cause temperatures to cool, stabilizing the atmosphere. Increased AOD and strong (10 m s-1) 600 hPa easterly winds limit cloud efficiency through shear and oversupply of condensation nuclei. Vertical section composites demonstrate that warm dry subsident air coincides with the African dust plume in the latitudes 18°N-30°N. Hurricane reanalysis data indicate that higher AOD in the MDR reduces chances for the intensification of African easterly waves.

  17. Influence of atmospheric states in semi-arid areas on hospital admission in cardio-surgical department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric state, typical for areas close to big deserts, on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed. Under test was the group of 3256 patients (77 % males, 23 % females), hospitalized in the Cardio-Surgical Department of Soroka Medical Center at Ben-Gurion University (BGU, Israel) during 2000-2008. To explore the relationship between atmospheric parameters and AMI, multivariate regression analysis has been performed. AMI was most frequent in winter to spring and least in summer. The highest number of cases was recorded in December and the lowest in September. Hospital admissions showed a higher prevalence in men than in women; the ratio is 3.3/1.0. About 60 % of males were aged between 45 and 65 years old with maximum ˜55 (21 %), whereas 60 % of women hospital admissions were aged between 65 and 80 years old with maximum ˜72 (24 %). The result suggested that the monthly mean relative humidity at daytime and its overall daily differences, wind speed, and respirable fraction of particulate concentration are associated with the admission for AMI. The results of the study confirm the importance of atmospheric state variability for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. A policy-driven large scale ecological restoration: quantifying ecosystem services changes in the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Chang, Ruiying; Sun, Ge; Wu, Bingfang

    2012-01-01

    As one of the key tools for regulating human-ecosystem relations, environmental conservation policies can promote ecological rehabilitation across a variety of spatiotemporal scales. However, quantifying the ecological effects of such policies at the regional level is difficult. A case study was conducted at the regional level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, China, through the use of several methods including the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), hydrological modeling and multivariate analysis. An assessment of the changes over the period of 2000-2008 in four key ecosystem services was undertaken to determine the effects of the Chinese government's ecological rehabilitation initiatives implemented in 1999. These ecosystem services included water regulation, soil conservation, carbon sequestration and grain production. Significant conversions of farmland to woodland and grassland were found to have resulted in enhanced soil conservation and carbon sequestration, but decreased regional water yield under a warming and drying climate trend. The total grain production increased in spite of a significant decline in farmland acreage. These trends have been attributed to the strong socioeconomic incentives embedded in the ecological rehabilitation policy. Although some positive policy results have been achieved over the last decade, large uncertainty remains regarding long-term policy effects on the sustainability of ecological rehabilitation performance and ecosystem service enhancement. To reduce such uncertainty, this study calls for an adaptive management approach to regional ecological rehabilitation policy to be adopted, with a focus on the dynamic interactions between people and their environments in a changing world.

  19. Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities.

    PubMed

    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika; Tornevi, Andreas; Andersson, Eva M; Johannesson, Sandra; Bellander, Tom; Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Westberg, Håkan; Forsberg, Bertil; Sallsten, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  20. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  1. Assessing groundwater quality in Greece based on spatial and temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Dokou, Zoi; Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2015-12-01

    The recent industrial growth together with the urban expansion and intensive agriculture in Greece has increased groundwater contamination in many regions of the country. In order to design successful remediation strategies and protect public health, it is very important to identify those areas that are most vulnerable to groundwater contamination. In this work, an extensive contamination database from monitoring wells that cover the entire Greek territory during the last decade (2000-2008) was used in order to study the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for the most common and serious anionic and cationic trace element pollutants (heavy metals). Spatial and temporal patterns and trends in the occurrence of groundwater contamination were also identified highlighting the regions where the higher groundwater contamination rates have been detected across the country. As a next step, representative contaminated aquifers in Greece, which were identified by the above analysis, were selected in order to analyze the specific contamination problem in more detail. To this end, geostatistical techniques (various types of kriging, co-kriging, and indicator kriging) were employed in order to map the contaminant values and the probability of exceeding critical thresholds (set as the parametric values of the contaminant of interest in each case). The resulting groundwater contamination maps could be used as a useful tool for water policy makers and water managers in order to assist the decision-making process.

  2. Effects of tropical cyclones on large-scale circulation and ocean heat transport in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidong; Wang, Chunzai; Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Wu, Xinrong

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of tropical cyclones (TCs) on large-scale circulation and ocean heat transport in the South China Sea (SCS) by using an ocean general circulation model at a 1/8° resolution during 2000-2008. The model uses a data assimilation system to assimilate observations in order to improve the representation of SCS circulation. The results reveal an unexpected deep SCS circulation anomaly induced by TCs, which suggests that effects of TC can penetrate deeper into the ocean. This deep effect may result from the near inertial oscillations excited by TCs. The inertial oscillations can propagate downward to the oceanic interior. The analyses confirm that TCs have two effects on ocean heat transport of the SCS. Firstly, the wind stress curl induced by TCs affects the structure of SCS circulation, and then changes heat transport. Secondly, TCs pump surface heat downward to the thermocline, increasing the heat injection from the atmosphere to the ocean. Two effects together amplify the outflow of the surface heat southward away the SCS through the Mindoro and Karimata Straits. The TC-induced heat transports through the Mindoro, Balabac and Karimata Straits account for 20 % of the total heat transport through three straits. An implication of this study is that ocean models need to simulate the TC effect on heat transport in order to correctly evaluate the role of the SCS through flow in regulating upper ocean circulation and climate in the Indonesian maritime continent and its adjacent regions.

  3. Monitoring Rainfall by Combining Ground-based Observed Precipitation and PERSIANN Satellite Product (Case Study Area: Lake Urmia Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishamchi, A.; Mirshahi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The global coverage, quick access, and appropriate spatial-temporal resolution of satellite precipitation data renders the data appropriate for hydrologic studies, especially in regions with no sufficient rain-gauge network. On the other hand, satellite precipitation products may have major errors. The present study aims at reduction of estimation error of the PERSIANN satellite precipitation product. Bayesian logic employed to develop a statistical relationship between historical ground-based and satellite precipitation data. This relationship can then be used to reduce satellite precipitation product error in near real time, when there is no ground-based precipitation observation. The method was evaluated in the Lake Urmia basin with a monthly time scale; November to May of 2000- 2008 for the purpose of model development and two years of 2009 and 2010 for the validation of the established relationships. Moreover, Kriging interpolation method was employed to estimate the average rainfall in the basin. Furthermore, to downscale the satellite precipitation product from 0.25o to 0.05o, data-location downscaling algorithm was used. In 76 percent of months, the final product, compared with the satellite precipitation, had less error during the validation period. Additionally, its performance was marginally better than adjusted PERSIANN product.

  4. Scleractinian coral population size structures and growth rates indicate coral resilience on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs throughout the world are under severe challenges from many environmental factors. This paper quantifies the size structure of populations and the growth rates of corals from 2000 to 2008 to test whether the Discovery Bay coral colonies showed resilience in the face of multiple acute stressors of hurricanes and bleaching. There was a reduction in numbers of colonies in the smallest size class for all the species at all the sites in 2006, after the mass bleaching of 2005, with subsequent increases for all species at all sites in 2007 and 2008. Radial growth rates (mm yr(-1)) of non-branching corals and linear extension rates (mm yr(-1)) of branching corals calculated on an annual basis from 2000-2008 showed few significant differences either spatially or temporally. At Dairy Bull reef, live coral cover increased from 13+/-5% in 2006 to 20+/-9% in 2007 and 31+/-7% in 2008, while live Acropora species increased from 2+/-2% in 2006 to 10+/-4% in 2007 and 22+/-7% in 2008. These studies indicate good levels of coral resilience on the fringing reefs around Discovery Bay in Jamaica.

  5. Wind farm induced changes in wind speed and surface fluxes over the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Offshore wind farm deployment in the North Sea is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology on the North Sea. We assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation over future wind farms built near the German coast. In order to achieve this, the wind farm parameterisation of Fitch et al. 2012, where wind farms are parameterised as elevated sources of turbulent kinetic energy and sinks of momentum ( Blahak et al 2010 and Fitch et al 2012) is implemented in COSMO-CLM at a 1.5 km resolution. As a first step, COSMO-CLM's ability to reproduce wind profiles over the North Sea is evaluated using wind speed data from the FINO1 meteorological mast, toghether with QuikScat scatterometer data, for a time period of 2000-2008. Subsequently, the impact of windfarms on the regional climate over a period of ten years (1999-2008) is assessed. A large scale wind farm can create wakes which depending on the wind direction could affect the power production of a neighbouring farm. Furthermore, wind farms decelerate the flow and create a vertical circulation in the inflow region. As a result, changes in vertical fluxes of moisture are observed. This leads to enhanced low level cloud cover which may trigger changes in precipitation.

  6. Spatial variable selection methods for investigating acute health effects of fine particulate matter components.

    PubMed

    Boehm Vock, Laura F; Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000-2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients.

  7. Remotely-Sensed Active Fire Data for Protected Area Management: Eight-Year Patterns in the Manas National Park, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E.

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  8. Remotely-Sensed Glacial Velocities: Mt. Shasta Advance vs. Sierra Nevada Retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. A.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring changes in alpine glaciers is crucial to understanding the impacts of global climate change because alpine glacier systems respond quickly to changes in the earth´s climate. The glaciers of the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades are of particular interest because they provide a major water reservoir to the state of California. Oddly, while most glaciers worldwide (including in the Sierra Nevada) are retreating, glaciers in northern California are advancing, and examining differences between these two locations will help resolve this paradox. Whereas previous studies have mapped the spatial extents of glaciers from aerial and satellite imagery, this study utilizes glacial velocities as a monitoring tool to examine the differences of the glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and on Mount Shasta. Using the program COSI-Corr in ENVI, horizontal surface ice flow velocities are calculated at the subpixel level from a time-series of co-registered, orthorectified, and correlated, late-summer satellite imagery. Through a combination of 15-meter Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER) and 5-meter SPOT imagery, orthorectified using a 15-meter resampled Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), glacial velocities are derived on major glaciers on Mount Shasta and in the Palisades of the Sierra Nevada for 2000-2008. This study demonstrates the utility of combining various types of remote sensing imagery to create a complete time record, and from this record derive glacial velocities for use in monitoring climate change effectively.

  9. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  10. Life Course Experiences, Pain and Suffering: A Case Study of an Older Mexican American Woman with Mobility Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering experience in adulthood. This adds to the literature on how adversity influences later life pain experience and provides insight on why pharmacological treatment alone may not be as successful as a holistic intervention. Hay escasez de literatura que examine cómo la adversidad da forma a las experiencias de dolor y / o sufrimiento en mujeres mexicana-americana mayores de edad. El propósito de este estudio descriptivo cualitativo fue comprender el dolor y el sufrimiento desde una perspectiva de ciclo de vida como descrito por una mujer mexicana-americana envejeciendo con inicio temprano de deterioro de movilidad. Esta Latina experimentó episodios de maltrato y rechazo, que se percibió haber afectado su experiencia de dolor y sufrimiento luego como adulta. Este estudio aumenta la literatura sobre cómo la adversidad influya la experiencia de dolor más tarde en la vida, y nos permite comprender mejor como el tratamiento farmacológico por sí solo no es tan exitoso como pueda ser una intervención integral. PMID:24830728

  11. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000-2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m(3)) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (µg/m(3)) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance.

  12. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    PubMed

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed.

  13. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  14. Increased uptake of guideline-recommended oral antiplatelet therapy: insights from the Canadian acute coronary syndrome reflective.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumeet; Zile, Brigita; Tan, Mary K; Saranu, Jhansi; Bucci, Claudia; Yan, Andrew T; Robertson, Patrick; Quantz, Mackenzie A; Letovsky, Eric; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Dery, Jean-Pierre; Fitchett, David; Madan, Mina; Cantor, Warren J; Heffernan, Michael; Natarajan, Madhu K; Wong, Graham C; Welsh, Robert C; Goodman, Shaun G

    2014-12-01

    Current guideline-based recommendations for oral dual-antiplatelet therapy in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) include the use of newer adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor (ADPri) regimens and agents. The Canadian ACS Reflective Program is a multicenter observational quality-enhancement project that compared the use of ADPri therapy in 2 phases (November 2011-March 2013 and April 2013-November 2013) and also compared ADPri use with previous national data from the Canadian Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (2000-2008). Of 3099 patients with ACS, 30.6% had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 52.3% had non-STEMI, and 17% had unstable angina. There was high use of dual-antiplatelet therapy for ≤ 24 hours, with important increases noted when compared with previous national experience (P for trend, < 0.0001). Clopidogrel was the most commonly used ADPri (82.2%), with lower use of the newer agents ticagrelor (9.0%) and prasugrel (3.1%). Ticagrelor and prasugrel use was most frequent in patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention PCI (34.3%). There was relatively lower use of ADPri therapy at discharge; it was given mainly to patients who did not undergo PCI (68.2%) and to those with non-ST-elevation ACS (82%). When comparing the 2 consecutive phases of data collection in the ACS Reflective, there was an approximate 3- and 2-fold increase in the early and discharge use of the newer ADPri agents, respectively. In conclusion, there has been a temporal increase in ADPri use compared with previous national experience and an increased uptake of newer ADPri agents. Additional work is needed to identify and address barriers limiting optimal implementation of these newer guideline-recommended agents into routine Canadian practice. PMID:25475475

  15. Two Decades of Seismic Monitoring by WEBNET: Disclosing a Lifecycle of an Earthquake Swarm Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Horalek, J.; Cermakova, H.; Michalek, J.; Doubravova, J.; Bouskova, A.; Bachura, M.

    2014-12-01

    The area of West Bohemia/Vogtland in western Eger Rift is typified by earthquake swarm activity with maximum magnitudes not exceeding ML 5. The seismicity is dominated by the area near Novy Kostel where earthquakes cluster along a narrow and steeply dipping focal zone of 8 km length that strikes about N-S in the depth range 7-11 km. Detailed seismic monitoring has been carried out by the WEBNET seismic network since 1992. During that period earthquake swarms with several mainshocks exceeding magnitude level ML 3 took place in 2000, 2008 and 2011. These swarms were characteristic by episodic character where the activity of individual episodes overlapped in time and space. Interestingly, the rate of activity of individual swarms increased with each subsequent swarm; the 2000 swarm being the slowest and the 2011 swarm the most rapid one. In 2014 the character of seismicity has changed from a swarm-like activity to a mainshock-aftershock activity. Already three mainshocks has occurred since May 2014; the ML 3.6 event of May 24, the ML 4.5 event of May 31 and the ML 3.5 event of August 3. All these events were followed by a short aftershock sequence of one to four days duration. All three events exceeded the following aftershocks by more than one magnitude level and none of these mainshocks were preceded by foreshocks, which differentiates this activity from the preceding swarm seismicity. Interestingly, the hypocenters of the mentioned earthquake swarms and mainshock-aftershock sequences share a common fault zone and overlap significantly. We present detailed analysis of precise hypocenter locations and statistical characteristics of the activity in order to find the origin of different behavior of seismic activity, which results in either earthquake swarms or mainshock-aftershock activity.

  16. Interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: a Lemur catta case study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. In this article, we examine how Tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly special reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs in tamarind dominated gallery forests exhibit extreme wear and tooth loss on their postcanine dentition that has been related to processing T. indica fruits. We measured and compared mechanical properties of individual food parts in the diet of ring-tailed lemurs in different seasons in 1999-2000, 2008, and 2010. Fracture toughness, hardness, and modulus of foods were measured with a portable mechanical tester. The ripe fruits of T. indica are indeed the toughest and hardest foods ingested by the lemurs. In addition, they are among the largest foods consumed, require high numbers of ingestive bites to process, and are the most frequently eaten by volume. During controlled cutting tests of the ripe fruit shell, multiple runaway side cracks form alongside the cut. Similarly, the lemurs repeatedly bite the ripe shell during feeding and thereby introduce multiple cracks that eventually fragment the shell. Studies of enamel microstructure (e.g., Lucas et al.: BioEssays 30 (2008) 374-385; Campbell et al., 2011) advance the idea that the thin enamel of ring-tailed lemur teeth is susceptible to substantial micro-cracking that rapidly erodes the teeth. We conclude that micro-cracking from repeated loads, in combination with the mechanical and physical properties of the fruit, is primarily responsible for the observed dental damage.

  17. Toward a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land-Surface Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2010-12-01

    recovery in LSP, presumably due to refoliation. 2009 Vegetation Disturbances mapped as percent change in max NDVI from June 10 - July 27 2000-2008

  18. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    PubMed

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages <65 and ≥ 65 during the months May-October for years 2000-2008. The most robust relationship was between ATmax on day of death and mortality from direct exposure to high environmental heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males <65 years (ATmax = 102 °F; 38.9 °C). Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  19. Verification of Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Seismicity by Space and Terrestrial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Observations from the last twenty years suggest the existence of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena during or preceding some earthquakes [Haykawa et a!, 2004; Pulinets at al, 1999,2004, 2006, Ouzounov et all 2007 and Liu et all 20041. Both our previous studies [Pulinets at al, 2005, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2006, 20071 and the latest review by the Earthquake Remote Precursor Sensing panel [ERPS; 2003- 20051; have shown that there were precursory atmospheric TIR signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. [Tramutoli at al, 2005, 2006, Cervone et al, 2006, Ouzounov et all 2004,2006JT.o study these signals, we applied both multi parameter statistical analysis and data mining methods that require systematic measurements from an Integrated Sensor Web of observations of several physical and environmental parameters. These include long wave earth infra-red radiation, ionospheric electrical and magnetic parameters, temperature and humidity of the boundary layer, seismicity and may be associated with major earthquakes. Our goal is to verify the earthquake atmospheric correlation in two cases: (i) backward analysis - 2000-2008 hindcast monitoring of multi atmospheric parameters over the Kamchatka region, Russia ; and (ii) forward real-time alert analysis over different seismo-tectonic regions for California, Turkey, Taiwan and Japan. Our latest results, from several post-earthquake independent analyses of more then 100 major earthquakes, show that joint satellite and some ground measurements, using an integrated web, could provide a capability for observing pre-earthquake atmospheric signals by combining the information from multiple sensors into a common framework. Using our methodology, we evaluated and compared the observed signals preceding the latest M7.9 Sichuan earthquake (0511212008), M8.0 earthquake in Peru (0811512007), M7.6 Kashmir earthquake (1010812005) and M9.0 Sumatra earthquake (1212812004). We found evidence of the

  20. Interannual variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean, focusing on the Benguela Upwelling System: Remote versus local forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachèlery, Marie-Lou; Illig, Serena; Dadou, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the respective roles of equatorial remote (Equatorial Kelvin Waves) and local atmospheric (wind, heat fluxes) forcing on coastal variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean extending up to the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) over the 2000-2008 period. We carried out a set of six numerical experiments based on a regional ocean model, that differ only by the prescribed forcing (climatological or total) at surface and lateral boundaries. Results show that at subseasonal timescales (<100 days), the coastal oceanic variability (currents, thermocline, and sea level) is mainly driven by local forcing, while at interannual timescales it is dominated by remote equatorial forcing. At interannual timescales (13-20 months), remotely forced Coastal-Trapped Waves (CTW) propagate poleward along the African southwest coast up to the northern part of the BUS at 24°S, with phase speeds ranging from 0.8 to 1.1 m.s-1. We show that two triggering mechanisms limit the southward propagation of CTW: interannual variability of the equatorward Benguela Current prescribed at the model's southern boundary (30°S) and variability of local atmospheric forcing that modulates the magnitude of observed coastal interannual events. When local wind stress forcing is in (out) of phase, the magnitude of the interannual event increases (decreases). Finally, dynamical processes associated with CTW propagations are further investigated using heat budget for two intense interannual events in 2001 and 2003. Results show that significant temperature anomalies (±2°C), that are mostly found in the subsurface, are primarily driven by alongshore and vertical advection processes.

  1. Recent trends in global methane emissions inferred from 30-years of surface CH4 and δ13C-CH4 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.; Lofdahl, D. B.; Khalil, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Quantitative understanding of the global CH4 budget is important in order to predict future contributions of global warming and to develop effective strategies for its mitigation. After a decade-long period of decreasing growth rates, atmospheric CH4 concentrations have risen in recent years raising concerns about its long-term stability. Despite much study there is no clear consensus about the causes of this increase. Some bottom-up inventories suggest that fugitive emissions from the fossil fuel industry may be increasing though there are considerable uncertainties in these estimates due in part to the variable nature of this source. To better understand the changing budget of atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of CH4 fluxes spanning nearly 30 years using global surface and isotopic CH4 measurements. An earlier inversion from our group suggested that fugitive fossil fuel emissions increased from 2000-2008, contributing to the recent rise. Here we extend this study to year 2015 using the most recent NOAA Global Monitoring Division (GMD) CH4 measurements and available δ13C -CH4 data along with a higher resolution version of the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (2ox2.5o). The higher resolution grid allowed us to extract more information from the observations due to the improved ability of the model to simulate CH4 at each station and the decreased need to aggregate neighboring stations. This in turn increased the error reduction between the a priori and posterior emissions leading to more accurate estimates of the retrieved fluxes and improved understanding of the drivers underlying the current atmospheric record.

  2. Population-based patterns of prescription androgen use, 1976-2008

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan A.; Ranganathan, Gayatri; Tinsley, Liane J.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Kupelian, Varant; Wittert, Gary A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Morales, Alvaro; Araujo, Andre B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prescription testosterone (T) has limited approved medical indications and is a controlled substance in Canada. Utilization studies in other Westernized countries have revealed sharp increases in T use in recent years. We examined medical use of androgens, including T, over a ≥30 year period among adult (18+) men in a population-based study set in a Canadian juridisdiction of universal health care. Methods Analyses were based on data from electronic records of dispensed prescriptions during 1976-2008 in Saskatchewan, Canada. All formulations of androgens listed in the provincial formulary (oral and injectable) were included. We examined demographics of users, androgen types used, switching patterns, and trends in the annual rate of use over time. Results There were 11,521 androgen users who were followed for an average of 11.8 years. Overall, 11 types of androgens were used and there were 86,812 dispensing events. The mean age at first use was 56.4 years (median: 58). Men had 7.5 prescription dispensing events on average (median: 2). The most commonly-used formulations were methyl-T (36.2% of users) followed by T-enanthate (32.5%), T-cypionate (22.3%) and T-undecanoate (20.0%). Most users (82%) did not switch among androgen types. The annual rate of use varied substantially over time, with a marked increase observed from 1994-1999 and a decrease from 2000-2008. Conclusions Androgen users were largely middle-aged and had relatively few dispensings. We hypothesize that observed secular trends in androgen use may align with drug treatment pattern changes for erectile dysfunction (ED), including the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. PMID:24510484

  3. Modeling the Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Impacted by Agricultural Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In many semi-arid and arid regions, interaction between surface water and groundwater plays an important role in the eco-hydrological system. The interaction is often complicated by agricultural activities such as surface water diversion, groundwater pumping, and irrigation. In existing surface water-groundwater integrated models, simulation of the interaction is often simplified, which could introduce significant simulation uncertainty under certain circumstance. In this study, GSFLOW, a USGS model coupling PRMS and MODFLOW, was improved to better characterize the surface water-groundwater interaction. The practices of water diversion from rivers, groundwater pumping and irrigation are explicitly simulated. In addition, the original kinematic wave routing method was replaced by a dynamic wave routing method. The improved model was then applied in Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe River Baisn), China, where the famous 'Silk Road' came through. It is a typical semi-arid region of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis. The model was established and calibrated using the data in 2000-2008. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of those improvements. It has been demonstrated that with the improvements, the observed streamflow and groundwater level were better reproduced by the model. The improvements have a significant impact on the simulation of multiple fluxes associated with the interaction, such as groundwater discharge, riverbed seepage, infiltration, etc. Human activities were proved to be key elements of the water cycle in the study area. The study results have important implications to the water resources modeling and management in semi-arid and arid basins.

  4. Epidemiological surveillance of birth defects compatible with thalidomide embryopathy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Leite, Júlio César Louguercio; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Castilla, Eduardo E; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2011-01-01

    The thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s resulted in thousands of children being born with severe limb reduction defects (LRD), among other malformations. In Brazil, there are still babies born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) because of leprosy prevalence, availability of thalidomide, and deficiencies in the control of drug dispensation. Our objective was to implement a system of proactive surveillance to identify birth defects compatible with TE. Along one year, newborns with LRD were assessed in the Brazilian hospitals participating in the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). A phenotype of LRD called thalidomide embryopathy phenotype (TEP) was established for surveillance. Children with TEP born between the years 2000-2008 were monitored, and during the 2007-2008 period we clinically investigated in greater detail all cases with TEP (proactive period). The period from 1982 to 1999 was defined as the baseline period for the cumulative sum statistics. The frequency of TEP during the surveillance period, at 3.10/10,000 births (CI 95%: 2.50-3.70), was significantly higher than that observed in the baseline period (1.92/10,000 births; CI 95%: 1.60-2.20), and not uniformly distributed across different Brazilian regions. During the proactive surveillance (2007-2008), two cases of suspected TE were identified, although the two mothers had denied the use of the drug during pregnancy. Our results suggest that TEP has probably increased in recent years, which coincides with the period of greater thalidomide availability. Our proactive surveillance identified two newborns with suspected TE, proving to be a sensitive tool to detect TE. The high frequency of leprosy and the large use of thalidomide reinforce the need for a continuous monitoring of TEP across Brazil.

  5. Seasonal streamflow forecasts in a semi-arid Andean watershed using remotely sensed snow cover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, M.; McPhee, J.; Vargas, X.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasts of monthly streamflow during the snowmelt season are highly relevant for real-time decision making such as hydropower production scheduling, irrigation planning, and water transfers in market-driven water resource systems. The Chilean water bureau issues such forecasts, for a number of snowmelt-driven watersheds in northern and central Chile, based on measurements from a sparse network of snow course stations. This research aims at improving the accuracy of the government-issued seasonal forecasts by combining streamflow data and remotely sensed snow cover information through a recurrent neural network (RNN). The snow cover area (SCA) obtained from MODIS-Surface Reflectance product (MOD09) and the Normalized Differentiation Snow Index (NDSI), from 2000-2008 period, allow us to understand the variation of the snowmelt and accumulation processes in six different basins located in central Chile (32,5° - 34,5° south latitude; 69,5° -70,5° west longitude). For the three basins located at higher altitudes (> 1800 m.s.l.), after applying a cross-correlation procedure we determined a strong relation (r > 0.7) between SCA and the seasonal hydrograph, lagged around 4 months. The basin SCA, the NDSI at specific points inside the basin and past basin streamflow data are input to the RNN for recognizing the pattern variation of seasonal hydrograph through supervised learning. The determination coefficients for the validation period (r2 > 0.6) indicate a good support for the application of this methodology in normal-humid hydrological years. Particularly for the dryer years we obtain a considerable overestimation (around 30%) of the monthly snowmelt runoff. These results are limited by the availability of data for different types (dry, normal or humid) of hydrological years.

  6. Interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: a Lemur catta case study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. In this article, we examine how Tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly special reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs in tamarind dominated gallery forests exhibit extreme wear and tooth loss on their postcanine dentition that has been related to processing T. indica fruits. We measured and compared mechanical properties of individual food parts in the diet of ring-tailed lemurs in different seasons in 1999-2000, 2008, and 2010. Fracture toughness, hardness, and modulus of foods were measured with a portable mechanical tester. The ripe fruits of T. indica are indeed the toughest and hardest foods ingested by the lemurs. In addition, they are among the largest foods consumed, require high numbers of ingestive bites to process, and are the most frequently eaten by volume. During controlled cutting tests of the ripe fruit shell, multiple runaway side cracks form alongside the cut. Similarly, the lemurs repeatedly bite the ripe shell during feeding and thereby introduce multiple cracks that eventually fragment the shell. Studies of enamel microstructure (e.g., Lucas et al.: BioEssays 30 (2008) 374-385; Campbell et al., 2011) advance the idea that the thin enamel of ring-tailed lemur teeth is susceptible to substantial micro-cracking that rapidly erodes the teeth. We conclude that micro-cracking from repeated loads, in combination with the mechanical and physical properties of the fruit, is primarily responsible for the observed dental damage. PMID:22610896

  7. Use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth and spatial clustering for PM2.5 prediction and concentration trends in the New England region, U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Coull, B. A.; Bell, M. L.; Kang, C.; Koutrakis, P.

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by investigating the concentration trends of ambient air pollutants. Satellite-based PM2.5 monitoring has the potential to complement the ground monitoring networks, especially for regions with sparsely distributed monitors. In our study, we predicted daily ambient PM2.5 concentrations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and spatial clustering and subsequently examined the PM2.5 concentration trends in the New England region, U.S. for the period 2000-2008. The daily calibration of MODIS AOD data using ground PM2.5 measurements in the mixed effects model rendered AOD a robust predictor of ground PM2.5 concentrations. Also the spatial clustering made it possible to estimate PM2.5 concentrations when AOD values were not available (i.e., non-retrieval days). Overall, we predicted daily surface PM2.5 concentrations (including both retrieval and non-retrieval days) with reasonably high R2 (0.83) and low percent mean relative error (3.5%). Based on the daily predicted PM2.5 concentrations, we found higher concentration decreases in urban areas than in rural ones and the highest and lowest decreases during the winter and the summer, respectively. These concentration trends provide evidence that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary particle ones during the study period. This is also supported by ground speciation data which showed stronger downward concentration trend of primary pollutants including black carbon (BC; -4.5% per year) compared to that of secondary ones including sulfate (SO42-, -2.4% per year). The satellite-based approach of examining spatial patterns of concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 speciation data, can be of tremendous regulatory importance.

  8. Estimation of annual forest evapotranspiration from a coniferous plantation watershed in Japan (2): Comparison of eddy covariance, water budget and sap-flow plus interception loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takanori; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tamai, Koji; Iida, Shin'ichi; Kabeya, Naoki; Ikawa, Reo; Tateishi, Makiko; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated from a planted coniferous forest in southwestern Japan by applying three methods: the eddy covariance method; the measurement of rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) in a small watershed; and a combination of rainfall interception loss (IC), upper canopy transpiration based on a sap-flux density measurement in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don) stands (EUC), and modeled sub-canopy ET (ESC). After inverse multiplication of the energy imbalance ratio, ET by the eddy covariance method (ETEC) was 839.9 mm in 2007 and 811.8 mm in 2008. The yearly values of P-Q were partially affected by P in the previous autumn. After continuous data collection for more than 5 years, P-Q became stable. The 9-year (2000-2008) average P-Q, which was considered most reliable in this study, was 897.5 mm y-1. The cumulative ETEC during the daylight hours from the right stream bank, covered mainly with large Japanese cedars, was 894.1 mm from April 2007 to March 2008. The value was almost the same as that calculated as the components sum (ETCOMP = IC + EUC + ESC: 911.4 mm), and the comparison suggested that the annual totals of ETEC with an energy imbalance correction provide a reliable estimate of ET in a forest stand on a complex topography. Spatial variation in the watershed was likely caused by differences in soil water retention at each slope position. The slight difference in annual ETEC in 2007 compared with 2008 was attributed to differences in the radiative energy input. In the monthly-weekly analysis, ETCOMP was frequently higher than ETEC after heavy rainfall, while ETEC was higher under dry conditions and during active ET. Even under dry canopy conditions, daily ETEC was often higher than EUC + ESC. The results suggested a time-lag in evaporation from the ecosystem and/or under-estimated ETEC after rainfall.

  9. Posterior laryngitis: a study of persisting symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Hillevi; Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne; Jannert, Magnus; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    Posterior laryngitis is a common cause of chronic cough, hoarseness, voice fatigue and throat pain. The aim of the present study was to examine how patients with posterior laryngitis have been examined, treated and followed up, and to assess their present health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients treated for posterior laryngitis at consultation at the ear-, nose- and throat clinic during 2000-2008 were contacted by mail. The letter contained questionnaires addressing the current symptoms and medication, and the HRQOL 36-item short-form questionnaire (SF-36). Medical records were scrutinized. One hundred and twenty-two patients with verified signs and symptoms of posterior laryngitis were included. Forty percent of the patients had been treated for acid-related symptoms prior to consultation. The most common symptoms at the time of consultation were the sensation of hoarseness (women 40 %, men 37 %), globus (women 35 %, men 33 %) and cough (women 33 %, men 26 %). The most frequent diagnosis was gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Ninety percent of the women and 92 % of the men were treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). At the time of study, 63 % of the patients still had symptoms. The results of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significantly lower HRQOL for women. Patients with posterior laryngitis present varying symptoms, and are often not adequately treated or followed up. When PPI treatment fails, other aetiologies of their complaints, such as visceral hypersensitivity, weakly gaseous acid reflux or non-acid reflux are not considered. Symptoms from posterior laryngitis have a negative impact on the HRQOL for women.

  10. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  11. Protein attachment onto silica surfaces--a survey of molecular fundamentals, resulting effects and novel preventive strategies in CE.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Hanno

    2009-06-01

    This review addresses the fundamentals governing the adsorption of individual protein molecules onto the surface of fused-silica capillaries, the protein aggregation to adsorbate clusters and their final accretion to monolayers with subsequent stratification to protein multilayers. The attention in CE protein separation has primarily been focused on (i) tuning the BGE including the buffer type, ionic strength, pH and additives, (ii) tailored post-rinse procedures to detach adhered protein residues and (iii) the optimization of capillary wall shielding in order to reduce protein attachment. Improvements in protein separation as well as related adverse effects are mainly discussed on the basis of parameters known to become deteriorated in case of protein adhesion, e.g. repeatability of the EOF and of migration times, peak width, theoretical plate numbers, resolution and asymmetry factor. However, knowledge of the molecular principles controlling protein adsorption onto silica surfaces is indispensable for separation optimization. Furthermore, it facilitates troubleshooting and the interpretation of undesired concomitant phenomena. This review comprehensively discusses protein adsorption models derived from surface chemistry primarily in terms of their relevance for CE, clearly showing that the adsorption process in its complexity is only partially revealed by models, which address single or binary protein solutions. In a further section theoretical concepts and surface models are related to surface phenomena encountered in CE. The final part of the review surveys recent concepts for prevention of protein adhesion, thereby addressing capillary treatment, favorable buffer types, dynamic and adhesive semi-permanent coating strategies covering the literature from 2000-2008.

  12. A Geospatial Approach to Mapping Bioenergy Potential of Perennial Crops in North American Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Fritschi, F. B.; Stacy, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in the United States and is expected to replace 30% of the domestic petroleum consumption by 2030. Corn ethanol currently constitutes 99% of the country’s biofuels. Extended annual crop planting for biofuel production, however, has raised concerns about long-term environmental, ecological and socio-economical consequences. More sustainable bioenergy resources might therefore be developed to meet the energy demand, food security and climate policy. The DOD has identified switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a model bioenergy crop. Switchgrass, along with other warm-season grasses, is native to the pre-colonial tallgrass prairie in North America. This study maps the spatial distributions of prairie grasses and marginal croplands in the tallgrass prairie with remote sensing and GIS techniques. In 2000-2008, the 8-day composition MODIS imagery was downloaded to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With pixel-level temporal trajectory of NDVI, time-series trend analysis was performed to identify native prairie grasses based on their phenological uniqueness. In a case study in southwest Missouri, this trajectory approach distinguished more than 80% of warm-season prairie grasslands from row crops and cool-season pastures (Figure 1). Warm season grasses dominated in the 19 public prairies in the study area in a range of 45-98%. This study explores the geographic context of current and potential perennial bioenergy supplies in the tallgrass prairie. Beyond the current findings, it holds promise for further investigations to provide quantitative economic and environmental information in assisting bioenergy policy decision-making. Figure 1 The distribution of grasslands in the study area. The "WSG", "CSG" and “non-grass” represent warm-season prairie grasses, introduced cool-season grasses and crops and other non-grasses.

  13. Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; McDowell, W.H.; Stallard, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The 326 ha R??o Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and total suspended sediment (TSS) data sets from three discrete periods: 1983-1987, 1991-1997, and 2000-2008. During this period three major hurricanes crossed the site: Hugo in 1989, Hortense in 1996, and Georges in 1998. Stream chemistry reflects sea salt inputs (Na, Cl, and SO4), and high weathering rates of the granodiorite (Ca, Mg, Si, and alkalinity). During rainfall, stream composition shifts toward that of precipitation, diluting 90% or more in the largest storms, but maintains a biogeochemical watershed signal marked by elevated K and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC exhibits an unusual "boomerang" pattern, initially increasing with flow but then decreasing at the highest flows as it becomes depleted and/or vigorous overland flow minimizes contact with watershed surfaces. TSS increased markedly with discharge (power function slope 1.54), reflecting the erosive power of large storms in a landslide-prone landscape. The relations of TSS and most solute concentrations with stream discharge were stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from repeated hurricane disturbance. Nitrate concentration, however, increased about threefold in response to hurricanes then returned to baseline over several years following a pseudo first-order decay pattern. The combined data sets provide insight about important hydrologic pathways, a long-term perspective to assess response to hurricanes, and a framework to evaluate future climate change in tropical ecosystems. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; McDowell, William H.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The 326 ha Río Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and total suspended sediment (TSS) data sets from three discrete periods: 1983-1987, 1991-1997, and 2000-2008. During this period three major hurricanes crossed the site: Hugo in 1989, Hortense in 1996, and Georges in 1998. Stream chemistry reflects sea salt inputs (Na, Cl, and SO4), and high weathering rates of the granodiorite (Ca, Mg, Si, and alkalinity). During rainfall, stream composition shifts toward that of precipitation, diluting 90% or more in the largest storms, but maintains a biogeochemical watershed signal marked by elevated K and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC exhibits an unusual "boomerang" pattern, initially increasing with flow but then decreasing at the highest flows as it becomes depleted and/or vigorous overland flow minimizes contact with watershed surfaces. TSS increased markedly with discharge (power function slope 1.54), reflecting the erosive power of large storms in a landslide-prone landscape. The relations of TSS and most solute concentrations with stream discharge were stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from repeated hurricane disturbance. Nitrate concentration, however, increased about threefold in response to hurricanes then returned to baseline over several years following a pseudo first-order decay pattern. The combined data sets provide insight about important hydrologic pathways, a long-term perspective to assess response to hurricanes, and a framework to evaluate future climate change in tropical ecosystems.

  15. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    PubMed

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed. PMID:23564411

  16. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic 1970-2008.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Maly, Marek; Benes, Cestmir; Daniel, Milan

    2012-11-01

    This article presents major epidemiologic features of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Czech Republic, using data of laboratory-confirmed cases since 1970. A total of 17,053 cases of TBE were reported in the Czech Republic (population 10 million) in 1970-2008. The data show several important features. First, the pattern of TBE incidence changed over time. Until the end of the 1970s, TBE was characterized by periods of alternately higher and lower incidence (between 180 and 595 cases per year); the 1980s were a period of low incidence with minimum variability; since the beginning of the 1990 s, there has been a steep rise in incidence, with marked year-to-year variation (e.g., 745 cases were registered in 1995, and a maximum of 1029 cases were registered in 2006). Second, the age distribution of TBE incidence has changed. Until the end of 1990 s, incidence peaked among those 15-19 years of age, with a gradual decline with age. In the 2000s, however, TBE incidence has been rising in those aged 60-64 years, with a sharp decline in those older than 65 years. Third, the seasonal pattern of TBE has changed markedly over time. In the earlier period, incidence had a clear peak in July/August; since the 1990 s, more cases have occurred in earlier and later months of the year. The proportion of cases occurring in April, May, October, and November increased from 9% in the 1970s to 23% in 2000-2008. Fourth, the geographical distribution of TBE also changed over time, with TBE increasingly occurring in the mountainous districts at higher altitudes. These changes in incidence patterns appear to be linked with changes in climatic and meteorological conditions. The link between climate change and TBE incidence is plausible, since TBE is a recreation-related infection associated with outdoor activities, and since climatic changes affect the life cycle of the vector. PMID:23025693

  17. Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, James B.; McDowell, William H.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2011-07-01

    The 326 ha Río Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and total suspended sediment (TSS) data sets from three discrete periods: 1983-1987, 1991-1997, and 2000-2008. During this period three major hurricanes crossed the site: Hugo in 1989, Hortense in 1996, and Georges in 1998. Stream chemistry reflects sea salt inputs (Na, Cl, and SO4), and high weathering rates of the granodiorite (Ca, Mg, Si, and alkalinity). During rainfall, stream composition shifts toward that of precipitation, diluting 90% or more in the largest storms, but maintains a biogeochemical watershed signal marked by elevated K and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC exhibits an unusual "boomerang" pattern, initially increasing with flow but then decreasing at the highest flows as it becomes depleted and/or vigorous overland flow minimizes contact with watershed surfaces. TSS increased markedly with discharge (power function slope 1.54), reflecting the erosive power of large storms in a landslide-prone landscape. The relations of TSS and most solute concentrations with stream discharge were stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from repeated hurricane disturbance. Nitrate concentration, however, increased about threefold in response to hurricanes then returned to baseline over several years following a pseudo first-order decay pattern. The combined data sets provide insight about important hydrologic pathways, a long-term perspective to assess response to hurricanes, and a framework to evaluate future climate change in tropical ecosystems.

  18. Black-White Latino Racial Disparities in HIV Survival, Florida, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Prado, Guillermo; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Maddox, Lorene M

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to estimate Black/White racial disparities in all-cause mortality risk among HIV-positive Latinos. Florida surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000-2008) were merged with 2007-2011 American Community Survey data. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using multi-level Cox regression. Of 10,903 HIV-positive Latinos, 8.2% were Black and 91.9% White. Black Latinos were at increased mortality risk compared with White Latinos after controlling for individual and neighborhood factors (aHR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.62). In stratified analyses, risk factors for Black Latinos included: age ≥60 years compared with ages 13-19 (aHR 4.63, 95% CI 1.32-16.13); US birth compared with foreign birth (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.16-2.11); diagnosis of AIDS within three months of HIV diagnosis (aHR 3.53, 95% CI 2.64-4.74); residence in the 3rd (aHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.94) and 4th highest quartiles (aHR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12-2.86) of neighborhood poverty compared with the lowest quartile; and residence in neighborhood with 25%-49% (aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07-2.42) and ≥50% Latinos compared with <25% Latinos (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03-2.42). Significant racial disparities in HIV survival exist among Latinos. Differential access to-and quality of-care and perceived/experienced racial discrimination may be possible explanations.

  19. Evaluation of hydrological balance in the eastern Amazon using a terrestrial ecosystem model, and satellite-based evapotranspiration (MODIS) and terrestrial water storage (GRACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, P. K.; Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Beck, P.

    2013-12-01

    High historical deforestation rates and a rapidly changing agricultural landscape may dramatically alter the energy and water balance of the eastern Amazon basin. Understanding the surface water dynamics and hydrological balance of the region is critical for accurately assessing the historical and potential future impacts of deforestation, land-use change, and land management practices. We examine the water balance of the Xingu river basin by combining the IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator) terrestrial ecosystem model with satellite-based models of evapotranspiration (MOD16) and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). IBIS simulations were forced with prescribed climate to produce modeled evapotranspiration and runoff, which were then compared with MODIS evapotranspiration and observed discharge at Altamira (PA, Brazil). Results from both satellite observations and model simulations support earlier studies demonstrating that dry-season evapotranspiration is higher than wet-season evapotranspiration in the wetter forests of the northern Xingu basin, while the contrary is true in the seasonally dry forests of the southern Xingu. Seasonal variation in modeled soil water storage agrees with the GRACE measurements in both timing and magnitude. Soil moisture anomalies averaged over the Xingu basin suggest that annual changes in soil water storage account for a large part of the interannual variation in observed discharge. Field measurements of discharge and soil moisture in the southern Xingu also support the findings that changes in soil water storage drive inter-annual variations in river discharge. Figure 1. Comparison of observed discharge at Altamira (Pará, Brazil) against MODIS- derived P-E (PCRU-MODISET), IBIS simulated discharge, IBIS (PCRU-ETIBIS), and IBIS (PCRU-ETIBIS- Δ Soil moisture IBIS). The bottom panel shows annual basin precipitation from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) climatological data for the 2000-2008 period

  20. Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for the CoI isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fan-Chang; Zhou, Li; Huang, Min; Chen, Chong-Yang; Wang, Yan-Sen; Zou, Ya-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In our recent reports (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 4269-86 and 2008 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109 2000-2008), we performed detailed and large-scale ab initio calculations on the total dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for Co-like gold and tungsten. Here we extend the calculations for another eight ions (Kr9+, Mo15+, Ag20+, Xe27+, Pr32+, Dy39+, At58+ and U65+) along the CoI isoelectronic sequence in the ground state employing the flexible atomic code. The total DR rates mainly come from complex series 3d84ln'l' and 3p53d94ln'l'. The complex series 3p53d10n'l' and 3d85ln'l' also contribute significantly at low (<0.1EI, EI is the ionization energy of the corresponding Ni-like ions) and high (>1.0EI) electron temperatures, respectively. On the basis of the calculated results, a general analytic formula for the total DR rate coefficients of all the ions along the CoI isoelectronic sequence is constructed. This formula can generally reproduce the calculated DR rate coefficients to within 3% for electron temperatures above 0.1EI. Comparisons of the present results with those obtained from the commonly used Burgess-Merts (BM) semiempirical formula show that the BM formula is not adequate to predict the total DR rate coefficients at relatively low electron temperatures and for low-Z ions. In addition, the total DR rate coefficients from the first excited state are also presented.

  1. Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario. PMID:22833694

  2. El aprendizaje significativo en las ciencias al participar en proyectos de investigacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Polanco, Miguelena

    La ciencia es el eje fundamental a traves del cual se desarrollan las habilidades necesarias para el pensar cientifico que va a la busqueda del conocimiento cientifico. La intencion de este estudio fue indagar en el tema de investigacion cientifica desde el punto de vista de los participantes en los siguientes aspectos relacionados con la experiencia de investigacion cientifica: a) conceptos, b) proceso, c) destrezas y d) disposicion. Tambien se analizaron: a) las perspectivas del metodo cientifico, b) la estrategia de ensenanza, c) la cultura cientifica y d) la exposicion del proyecto investigativo en la Feria Cientifica; como parte del aprendizaje significativo de la ciencias de los participantes. Esta investigacion cualitativa propuso como diseno el estudio de caso. Los aspectos relacionados a la experiencia de participar en proyecto de investigacion cientifica son el fenomeno o caso bajo estudio. En el estudio participaron cinco (5) estudiantes egresados de escuela publica o privada que cursaban hasta el tercer ano de estudios universitarios, conducentes a un bachillerato en educacion secundaria en ciencias o en ciencias naturales. Las tecnicas utilizadas para recopilar los datos fueron: analisis de documentos del DEPR, revision de artefactos y entrevistas profundas. Para el analisis de los datos de las entrevistas se utilizo el modelo de Wolcott (1994). Del analisis de documentos del DEPR se identificaron areas a mejorar en las guias de las cartas circulares con relacion a la investigacion escolar y la feria cientifica. El analisis de los artefactos proveyo evidencia de como los internados, simposios e investigaciones fomentan el que los estudiantes se superen en el aspecto cognitivo, se conviertan en creadores del conocimiento, al hacer suyo los conceptos para poder explicarlos al publico. De las entrevistas los participantes manifestaron que la experiencia de investigacion fue una de aprendizaje significativo que los marco para toda la vida y les expandio su

  3. Una visita en Sud America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!

  4. [The use of therapeutic writing in an institutional context].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Iraola, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: se expone el efecto del uso de la escritura en un espacio terapéutico-institucional, como un medio para lograr el cambio terapéutico en el paciente y una mayor eficiencia de los tiempos y espacios institucionales. Métodos: se muestran y se sustentan teóricamente en el contexto de la terapia narrativa y colaborativa diferentes formas de uso del documento escrito, además de ejemplos de ellos con la presentación de extractos de escritos de los participantes. La muestra fue conformada por pacientes que acudieron a un hospital de psiquiatría a recibir tratamiento (por medio de internamiento o consulta externa). Resultados: la escritura y el lenguaje oral intercambian significados en un continuo paralelo y demuestran que el proceso terapéutico se produce más allá del tiempo y espacio terapéutico institucional, lo cual alienta las ventajas que ofrece el uso del lenguaje escrito en los procesos psicoterapéuticos orales. Conclusión: la escritura es un recurso intelectual que facilita el pensamiento, pues al escribir la propia experiencia, los eventos que la conforman se logran organizar en el tiempo, lo cual genera una percepción del cambio, una representación de significados y promueve la autoeficacia al producir diferentes relatos de los eventos y la experiencia.

  5. [DIETARY HABITS AND FEEDING BELIEFS OF PEOPLE WITH CROHN'S DISEASE].

    PubMed

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Crohn es una enfermedad crónica de etiopatogenia desconocida. Las consecuencias que esta enfermedad provoca a nivel nutricional dependen de varios factores. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre las prácticas nutricionales que adoptan estos pacientes una vez diagnosticados. Objetivo: explorar la experiencia de los afectados en relación con la ingesta alimentaria, con el objetivo futuro de comprender dichas experiencias y diseñar intervenciones eficaces y adecuadas. Metodología y sujetos: se empleó un diseño cualitativo basado en el enfoque etnográfico. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas, hasta conseguir la saturación de la información, a afectados por la enfermedad de Crohn, en la provincia de Alicante y, posteriormente, se realizó el análisis temático. Resultados: cinco categorías con sus respectivas subcategorías de análisis fueron identificadas a partir de los datos sobre la experiencia de alimentación de las personas entrevistadas. 1) Creencias sobre nutrición y EC, 2) Modificación de los hábitos alimentarios, 3) Búsqueda de información sobre alimentación y EC, 4) El papel de los profesionales, 5) Autogestión. Conclusiones: el conocimiento de los hábitos dietéticos de la persona con EC en una población en la que su dieta se presupone que culturalmente es reconocida como saludable, nos puede dar pautas de abordaje o apoyo profesional tanto en materia de prevención, promoción y educación para la salud, así como sobre su nivel organizativo en las instituciones sanitarias, cosas que actualmente no se tienen en cuenta, puesto que el abordaje de la EC es meramente clínico y con enfoque patológico, pero no desde una perspectiva de salud, fomentando hábitos saludables desde la multidisciplinariedad.

  6. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Estudios previos han analizado los efectos de la práctica de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en poblaciones sedentarias. No existen estudios sobre los beneficios del Pilates en estas varibles tras un corto periodo de desentrenamiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas, la composición coporal y el somatotipo, en mujeres adultas con experiencia previa tras 3 semanas de desentrenamiento. Metodología: A veintiuna mujeres se les realizó una valoración antropométrica completa siguiendo las indicaciones de la ISAK antes y después de un programa de Pilates mat de 16 semanas (2 días a la semana, una hora por día). Todas las mujeres tenían una experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates mat de entre 1 y 3 años y venían de un proceso de desentrenamiento de 3 semanas (vacaciones de Navidad). Resultados y discusión: Las mujeres mostraron una reducción significativa del peso corporal, el IMC, los pliegues cutáneos individuales del miembro superior (bíceps y tríceps) y el tronco (subescapular, cresta iliaca, supraespinal y abdominal), el sumatorio de 6 y 8 pliegues, la endomorfia y la masa grasa; y un aumento significativo de la masa muscular. El somatotipo medio se clasificó en meso-endomorfo para el pre- (4,91, 4,01, 1,47) y el post-test (4,68, 4,16, 1,69). Ocho mujeres cambiaron su clasificación del somatotipo tras el programa de intervención. Conclusiones: La práctica de Pilates mat durante 16 semanas provocó cambios asociados a una mejora del estado de salud en las variables antropométricas, sobre todo en los pliegues cutáneos que disminuyeron significativamente, la composición corporal (masa grasa y muscular, que disminuyeron y aumentaron, respectivamente) y el somatotipo (una reducción significativa del componente endomórfico) en mujeres con experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates después de tres semanas

  7. Assessing the simple dynamical systems approach in a Mediterranean context: application to the Ardeche catchment (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.; Braud, I.; Branger, F.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how catchment heterogeneity and variability can be summarized in simplified models, representing the dominant hydrological processes. It focuses on Mediterranean catchments, characterized by heterogeneous geology, pedology and land use, as well as steep topography and a rainfall regime in which summer droughts contrast with high-rainfall periods in autumn. The Ardeche catchment (Southeast France), typical of this environment, is chosen to explore the following questions: (1) can such a Mediterranean catchment be adequately characterized by a simple dynamical systems approach and what are the limits of the method under such conditions? (2) what information about dominant predictors of hydrological variability can be retrieved from this analysis in such catchments? In this work we apply the data-driven approach of Kirchner (2009) to estimate discharge sensitivity functions that summarize the behaviour of four sub-catchments of the Ardeche, using low-vegetation periods (November-March) from 9 years of measurements (2000-2008) from operational networks. The relevance of the inferred sensitivity function is assessed through hydrograph simulations, and through estimating precipitation rates from discharge fluctuations. We find that the discharge sensitivity function is downward-curving in double-logarithmic space, thus allowing further simulation of discharge and non-divergence of the model, only during low-vegetation periods. The analysis is complemented by a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showing how the parameters summarizing the discharge sensitivity function impact the simulated hydrographs. The resulting discharge simulation results are good for granite catchments, which are likely to be characterized by shallow subsurface flow at the interface between soil and bedrock. The simple dynamical system hypothesis works especially well in wet conditions (peaks and recessions are well modelled). On the other hand, poor model performance is associated

  8. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  9. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability by the Future Land Use Change in Geum River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, B.; Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Koh, D.

    2011-12-01

    determined as optimum model by logistic regression in Geum river watershed. The logistic regression method was also applied to predict groundwater vulnerability reflecting the future change of land use of Geum river watershed by LCM(land change modeler). Four data set, year of 2000, 2008, 2050 and 2100, of land use were used to claculate groundwater vulnerability. The land use map of 2000 and 2008 for Geum river watershed was made by using data provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) and National Spatial Information Clearinghouse and those of 2050 and 2100 were made by LCM prediction. The results of land change by LCM prediction showed 233% increase of resident area and 10% dcrease of field area indicating increase of groundwater vulnerability in Geum river area.

  10. The Cloud-Radiative Forcing of North American landfalling Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Tung, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are narrow elongated regions with strong horizontal water vapor flux associated with extratropical cyclones. Upon making landfall, conspicuous mid-to-high-latitude stratiform cloud decks with high reflectivity are observed along with the ARs in satellite imagery. The cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) associated with these clouds has only been preliminarily established (e.g., Luo and Tung 2015). Their climatological impacts are not understood, yet the related cloud microphysics and radiation processes are poorly represented in global climate models. We studied the correlations between observed variables including the ECMWF-Interim horizontal water vapor fluxes (IVT) integrated from 1000—300 hPa, CERES-derived cloud water path and CRF, and MODIS cirrus reflectance before, during, and after the ARs impinged on the southwest and northwest coasts of North America (NA) in Nov—March, 2000-2008, with 60 ARs affecting the southwest coast (southwest ARs), and 60 ARs affecting the northwest coast (northwest ARs, Dettinger et al., 2011). Anomalies were calculated by subtracting the average over all time steps. For the southwest ARs, a significant increase of ice clouds took place around the landfalling regions with IVT anomalies >130 kg/m/s on landfalling day-1 and day+0. On day+1, a substantial increase of ice clouds with 50% reduction of IVT anomalies was found along with the ARs. On day+2 to day+3, positive IVT anomalies existed over the central and eastern US. These anomalies could be attributed to the southwest ARs and the secondary ARs that rooted in the Gulf of Mexico and made landfall over central and eastern US. Many parts of the NA continent were covered under ice cloud decks. The IVT anomalies for the northwest ARs were >250 kg/m/s on day-1 to day+0, and approximately 120 kg/m/s on day+1. Nevertheless, the northwest ARs were not observed to make landfall concurrently with the secondary landfalling ARs from the Gulf of Mexico. Only a small

  11. A comparison of methods for smoothing and gap filling time series of remote sensing observations - application to MODIS LAI products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, S.; Baret, F.; Verger, A.; Neveux, P.; Weiss, M.

    2013-06-01

    Moderate resolution satellite sensors including MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) already provide more than 10 yr of observations well suited to describe and understand the dynamics of earth's surface. However, these time series are associated with significant uncertainties and incomplete because of cloud cover. This study compares eight methods designed to improve the continuity by filling gaps and consistency by smoothing the time course. It includes methods exploiting the time series as a whole (iterative caterpillar singular spectrum analysis (ICSSA), empirical mode decomposition (EMD), low pass filtering (LPF) and Whittaker smoother (Whit)) as well as methods working on limited temporal windows of a few weeks to few months (adaptive Savitzky-Golay filter (SGF), temporal smoothing and gap filling (TSGF), and asymmetric Gaussian function (AGF)), in addition to the simple climatological LAI yearly profile (Clim). Methods were applied to the MODIS leaf area index product for the period 2000-2008 and over 25 sites showed a large range of seasonal patterns. Performances were discussed with emphasis on the balance achieved by each method between accuracy and roughness depending on the fraction of missing observations and the length of the gaps. Results demonstrate that the EMD, LPF and AGF methods were failing because of a significant fraction of gaps (more than 20%), while ICSSA, Whit and SGF were always providing estimates for dates with missing data. TSGF (Clim) was able to fill more than 50% of the gaps for sites with more than 60% (80%) fraction of gaps. However, investigation of the accuracy of the reconstructed values shows that it degrades rapidly for sites with more than 20% missing data, particularly for ICSSA, Whit and SGF. In these conditions, TSGF provides the best performances that are significantly better than the simple Clim for gaps shorter than about 100 days. The roughness of the reconstructed temporal profiles shows large

  12. A comparison of methods for smoothing and gap filling time series of remote sensing observations: application to MODIS LAI products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, S.; Baret, F.; Verger, A.; Neveux, P.; Weiss, M.

    2012-12-01

    Moderate resolution satellite sensors including MODIS already provide more than 10 yr of observations well suited to describe and understand the dynamics of the Earth surface. However, these time series are incomplete because of cloud cover and associated with significant uncertainties. This study compares eight methods designed to improve the continuity by filling gaps and the consistency by smoothing the time course. It includes methods exploiting the time series as a whole (Iterative caterpillar singular spectrum analysis (ICSSA), empirical mode decomposition (EMD), low pass filtering (LPF) and Whittaker smoother (Whit)) as well as methods working on limited temporal windows of few weeks to few months (Adaptive Savitzky-Golay filter (SGF), temporal smoothing and gap filling (TSGF) and asymmetric Gaussian function (AGF)) in addition to the simple climatological LAI yearly profile (Clim). Methods were applied to MODIS leaf area index product for the period 2000-2008 over 25 sites showing a large range of seasonal patterns. Performances were discussed with emphasis on the balance achieved by each method between accuracy and roughness depending on the fraction of missing observations and the length of the gaps. Results demonstrate that EMD, LPF and AGF methods were failing in case of significant fraction of gaps (%Gap > 20%), while ICSSA, Whit and SGF were always providing estimates for dates with missing data. TSGF (respectively Clim) was able to fill more than 50% of the gaps for sites with more than 60% (resp. 80%) fraction of gaps. However, investigation of the accuracy of the reconstructed values shows that it degrades rapidly for sites with more than 20% missing data, particularly for ICSSA, Whit and SGF. In these conditions, TSGF provides the best performances significantly better than the simple Clim for gaps shorter than about 100 days. The roughness of the reconstructed temporal profiles shows large differences between the several methods, with a decrease

  13. Detecting Changes of Thermal Environment over the Bohai Coastal Region by Spectral Change Vector Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

    2009-12-01

    intensifier in major cities, such as Beijing and Tianjin. Further, the continual drier climate combined with human actions over past fifties years have intensified land thermal pattern change and the continuation will be an important aspects to understand land surface processes and local climate change. Land surface temperature trends from 2000-2008 over the Bohai coastal region

  14. Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo

    2016-05-01

    Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV

  15. Monitoring Drought at Continental Scales Using Thermal Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Kustas, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    assessing standard meteorologically-based drought indicators, and may be more robust in regions with limited monitoring networks. In this study, monthly maps of ESI anomalies for 2000-2008 are compared to standard drought indices and to drought classifications in the U.S. Drought Monitor. The ESI shows better skill in ranking drought severity than do precipitation-based indices composited over comparable time intervals. The thermal remote sensing inputs to ALEXI detect drought conditions even under the dense forest cover along the East Coast of the United States, where microwave soil moisture retrievals typically lose sensitivity. On the other hand, microwave observations are not constrained by cloud cover and provide better temporal continuity, but typically at significantly lower spatial resolution. A merged TIR-microwave moisture anomaly product may have potential for optimizing both spatial and temporal coverage in continental-scale drought monitoring.

  16. Net greenhouse gas balance in response to nitrogen enrichment: perspectives from a coupled biogeochemical model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin

    2013-02-01

    Increasing reactive nitrogen (N) input has been recognized as one of the important factors influencing climate system through affecting the uptake and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of N-induced GHG fluxes at regional and global scales remain far from certain. Here we selected China as an example, and used a coupled biogeochemical model in conjunction with spatially explicit data sets (including climate, atmospheric CO2 , O3 , N deposition, land use, and land cover changes, and N fertilizer application) to simulate the concurrent impacts of increasing atmospheric and fertilized N inputs on balance of three major GHGs (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O). Our simulations showed that these two N enrichment sources in China decreased global warming potential (GWP) through stimulating CO2 sink and suppressing CH4 emission. However, direct N2 O emission was estimated to offset 39% of N-induced carbon (C) benefit, with a net GWP of three GHGs averaging -376.3 ± 146.4 Tg CO2  eq yr(-1) (the standard deviation is interannual variability of GWP) during 2000-2008. The chemical N fertilizer uses were estimated to increase GWP by 45.6 ± 34.3 Tg CO2  eq yr(-1) in the same period, and C sink was offset by 136%. The largest C sink offset ratio due to increasing N input was found in Southeast and Central mainland of China, where rapid industrial development and intensively managed crop system are located. Although exposed to the rapidly increasing N deposition, most of the natural vegetation covers were still showing decreasing GWP. However, due to extensive overuse of N fertilizer, China's cropland was found to show the least negative GWP, or even positive GWP in recent decade. From both scientific and policy perspectives, it is essential to incorporate multiple GHGs into a coupled biogeochemical framework for fully assessing N impacts on climate changes.

  17. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Eeckhaut, M. Van; Marre, A.; Poesen, J.

    2010-02-01

    The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne-Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA - Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. With regard to the variables assumed to be important environmental factors controlling landslides, the two models are in agreement. They both indicate that present and future landslides are mainly controlled by slope gradient and lithology. However, the comparison of the two landslide susceptibility maps through (1) an evaluation with the location of mapped 'old' landslides and through (2) a temporal validation with spatial data of 'recent' (1960-1999; n = 48) and 'very recent' (2000-2008; n = 46) landslides showed a better prediction capacity for the statistical model produced in this study compared to the heuristic model. In total, the statistically-derived landslide susceptibility map succeeded in correctly classifying 81.0% of the 'old' and 91.6% of the 'recent' and 'very recent' landslides. On the susceptibility map

  18. [Prevalence and associated risk factors of arterial hypertension in Sobremonte and Ojo de Agua Departments in Cordoba State].

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Antonio; Camino Willhuber, Gastón; Chaile, Iván

    2008-01-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is a disease with multiple risk factors (RF), and it is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of AH in Sobremonte area and its correlation to other risk factors. The study was done in an special programme called "Solidarity in Health" (SIH) supported by the College of Medicine at the National University of Córdoba, which provided primary care to residents of Cachi Yaco (Sobremonte Department). It is an small village near Santiago del Estero province located in 226 km from Córdoba city. They went to the city and they examined the patients at the the "French and Berutti" school for nine consecutive years (2000-2008). Sobremonte area is the poorest deparment in the province of Córdoba and it has the highest rate of lowest socio-economic development, and a very deficient health care system.. The only hospital providing primary care is in San Francisco del Chañar, and the access is not free. The study involved the determination of the arterial pressure (AP) according to the seventh "JNC"criteria, body mass index (BMI), levels of alcohol consumption, exercise, salt consumption, diabetes and smoking in all the patients. Additionally, three water samples from different representative zones were collected and tested for sodium concentration. 471 patients were included. The incidence of AH was 43.5% of the patients. (51% men and 36% women). Higher incidence of AH was found in patients between 50 and 59 years old. There was a stadistical difference in the BMI, diabetes, and alcohol consumption between healthy patients and patients with AH. There was not any correlation between AH and exercise. We found higher levels of sodium in the water of this area and it was between 13-35 higher than in C6rdoba city and it was correlated with AH. We conclude that the increased sodium consumption is one of the most important risk factor of AH in this population.

  19. Risk of Malignant Neoplasms of Kidney and Bladder in a Cohort Study of the Diabetic Population in Taiwan With Age, Sex, and Geographic Area Stratifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Fen; Chen, Shwe-Winn; Chang, Ya-Hui; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes has been reported to increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of kidney and bladder, but the studies' results are still inconclusive. Age, sex, and geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of above neoplasms are also scarce in the literature. We prospectively investigated the age, sex, geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of kidney and bladder neoplasms in diabetic population of Taiwan. Diabetic patients (n = 615,532) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 614,871) were linked to inpatient claims (2000-2008) to identify the admissions for malignant neoplasm of kidney (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 189) and bladder (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 188). The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to evaluate the incidence density. We also estimated the age, sex, and geographical area-specific relative risks of above malignancy in relation to diabetes with Cox proportional hazard regression model. The overall incidence density of malignant neoplasm of kidney for diabetic men and women were 3.87 and 4.28 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively; the corresponding figures for malignant neoplasm of bladder were 5.73 and 3.25 per 10,000 patient-years. Compared with the controls, diabetic men were at significantly increased hazards of kidney (covariate adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.46) and bladder aHR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23). Diabetic women, on the contrary, only experienced significantly elevated hazard of kidney neoplasm (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.26). Diabetic men aged >65 years showed the most significantly increased hazard of developing neoplasm of kidney (aHR: 1.40) and bladder (aHR: 1.13). The most significantly increased hazard of kidney neoplasm was noted for women diabetic patients aged >65 years. There was also a significant interactive effect of geographic area

  20. A Long Term View of Forest Response to Environmental Change: 25 Years of Studying Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; David, F.; David, O.

    2014-12-01

    Forests influence the budgets of greenhouse gases, and understanding how they will respond to environmental change is critical to accurately predicting future GHG trends. The time scale for climate change is long and forest growth is slow, thus very long measurement periods are required to observe meaningful forest response. We established an eddy flux tower within a mixed forest stand dominated by red oak and red maple at the Harvard Forest LTER site in 1989 where CO2, H2O and energy fluxes together with meteorological observations have been measured continuously. An array of plots for biometric measurements was established in 1993. Flux measurement at an adjacent hemlock stand began in 2000. Records of land use and disturbance and vegetation plot data extend back to 1907. The combined suite of measurements merges observations of instantaneous ecosystem responses to environmental forcing with details of vegetation dynamics and forest growth that represent the emergent properties relevant to long-term ecosystem change. Both the deciduous stand and hemlock stand are accumulating biomass. Each has added over 20 Mg-C ha-1 as woody biomass in trees >10cm dbh since 1990, even though the hemlock stand is older. Net carbon exchange shows enhanced uptake in early spring and late fall months in response to warmer temperatures and likely an increase in evergreen foliage at the deciduous site. Net carbon uptake efficiency at the deciduous stand has increased over time as well as indicated by peak NEE under optimum light conditions. The trend is only partly explained by variation in mean leaf area index and cannot be directly attributed to climate response. The combination of longer growing season and increased uptake efficiency yields a general trend of increasing annual NEE (Fig. 1). However, significant excursions in the trend highlight the sensitivity of forest carbon stocks. The pulse of high annual carbon uptake (peak 6 Mg-C ha-1y-1 in 2008) from 2000-2008 is only

  1. Inter-annual coastal-trapped wave in the South-Atlantic ocean : Remote versus local forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelery, Marie-Lou; Illig, Serena; Dadou, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Among the different eastern boundary upwelling systems, the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) presents one of the highest primary production. The dynamic and the variability (physics and biogeochemistry) of the northern part of the BUS is under the influence of both, the equatorial remote forcing and the local forcing (Ekman dynamic associated to wind and heat flux forcing). The remote forcing is mainly associated with the propagation of Equatorial Kelvin Waves as well as the intrusion of warm, salty, high nutrient and low oxygen water. The relative influence of the remote versus the local forcing in the BUS have not been quantified yet. We investigated the respective role of remote (Equatorial Kelvin Waves) and local (wind and heat fluxes) forcing on the BUS variability using a set of 4 numerical experiments based on an oceanic regional model (ROMS) at high resolution (1/12°) over the period 2000-2008. The experiments only differ by their boundary conditions (surface and lateral), which are either climatological or real-time. Our results show that at sub-seasonal time-scales, the oceanic variability (Currents, thermocline depth and sea level anomalies) is mainly driven by the local forcing whereas at inter-annual time-scales it is largely explained by the remote forcing. At inter-annual time scale, remotely forced coastal-trapped waves (CTW) propagate poleward in sub-surface along the African west coast to the Northern part to the BUS (up to 25°S). Phase speeds of these propagations range from 0,9 up to 1,3 m/s. The inter-annual variability of the local forcing modulate the magnitude of the coastal interannual event. In particular, when the local wind stress forcing is in phase (out of phase), the magnitude of the inter-annual event increases (decreases). Then, the dynamics associated with the CTW propagations is further investigated using the online budget of the temperature tracer, for two intense inter-annual events that occurred in 2001 and 2004. Results show

  2. Phenology Shifts at Start vs. End of Growing Season in Temperate Vegetation Over the Northern Hemisphere for the Period 1982-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Brown, Molley E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in vegetative growing seasons are dominant indicators of the dynamic response of ecosystems to climate change. Therefore, knowledge of growing seasons over the past decades is essential to predict ecosystem changes. In this study, the long-term changes in the growing seasons of temperate vegetation over the Northern Hemisphere were examined by analyzing satellite-measured normalized difference vegetation index and reanalysis temperature during 1982 2008. Results showed that the length of the growing season (LOS) increased over the analysis period; however, the role of changes at the start of the growing season (SOS) and at the end of the growing season (EOS) differed depending on the time period. On a hemispheric scale, SOS advanced by 5.2 days in the early period (1982-1999) but advanced by only 0.2 days in the later period (2000-2008). EOS was delayed by 4.3 days in the early period, and it was further delayed by another 2.3 days in the later period. The difference between SOS and EOS in the later period was due to less warming during the preseason (January-April) before SOS compared with the magnitude of warming in the preseason (June September) before EOS. At a regional scale, delayed EOS in later periods was shown. In North America, EOS was delayed by 8.1 days in the early period and delayed by another 1.3 days in the later period. In Europe, the delayed EOS by 8.2 days was more significant than the advanced SOS by 3.2 days in the later period. However, in East Asia, the overall increase in LOS during the early period was weakened in the later period. Admitting regional heterogeneity, changes in hemispheric features suggest that the longer-lasting vegetation growth in recent decades can be attributed to extended leaf senescence in autumn rather than earlier spring leaf-out. Keywords: climate change, growing season, NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), Northern Hemisphere, phenology,

  3. Rapid Fire Damage Assessment by Using a Synergic Approach with Radar and Optical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadau, Enrico G.; Burini, Alessandro; Putignano, Cosimo; Goryl, Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Miranda, Nuno; Laur, Henri

    2010-12-01

    Forest fires represent the main cause of forest degradation in the Mediterranean area. This phenomenon, progressively increasing, reached an average of 57,000 fires per year in the period 2000-2008 with the destruction of almost 450,000 ha of vegetated areas in southern European countries. Fires occurring in the Mediterranean area are rarely significant in terms of pollution or greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, they have a dramatic impact on forest and scrub in regions with relatively sparse vegetation, as well as on human lives and infrastructures. The most effective passive remote- sensing methods for detecting and mapping burn scars in vegetated areas, rely upon the observation of near- infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) bands, with wavelengths comprised between 0.8 and 2.3μm. An innovative method to separate reflectance variation due to vegetation damages from changes due to other factors influencing the at-satellite reflectance is that of identifying pseudo-invariant features to be used as reference targets in different scenes. On the other hand, SAR seems to be another good candidate for fire assessment, because of sensitivity of backscattering to the geometric structure of targets and surfaces, particularly during the fire, when the smoke makes the approach with optical sensors not feasible. The incident wave is influenced by several target's parameters, such as moisture, orientation, roughness. When a fire occurs, the landscape is modified dramatically; the grassland, the leaves and bushes are completely burned, while the trunks can disappear depending on the fire intensity. The backscattering of a vegetated area is mainly dominated by a volumetric scattering mechanism, with the backscattered wave is highly depolarized; after a fire, when all the vegetation has been burnt, the backscattering is dominated by a surface scattering mechanism (burnt soil) or by the double bounce mechanism (by the presence of scattered

  4. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  5. Verification of Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Seismicity by Space and Terrestrial Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Habib, S.

    2008-12-01

    Observations from the last twenty years suggest the existence of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena during or preceding some earthquakes [Hayakawa et al, 2004; Pulinets at al, 1999,2004, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2007 and Liu et al, 2004]. Both our previous studies [Pulinets at al, 2005, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2006, 2007] and the latest review by the Earthquake Remote Precursor Sensing panel [ERPS; 2003-2005]; have shown that there were precursory atmospheric TIR signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. [Tramutoli et al, 2005, 2006, Cervone et al, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2004,2006]. To study these signals, we applied both multi parameter statistical analysis and data mining methods that require systematic measurements from an Integrated Sensor Web of observations of several physical and environmental parameters. These include long wave earth infra-red radiation, ionospheric electrical and magnetic parameters, temperature and humidity of the boundary layer, seismicity and may be associated with major earthquakes. Our goal is to verify the earthquake atmospheric correlation in two cases: (i) backward analysis - 2000-2008 hindcast monitoring of multi atmospheric parameters over the Kamchatka region, Russia ; and (ii) forward real-time alert analysis over different seismo-tectonic regions for California, Turkey, Taiwan and Japan. Our latest results, from several post-earthquake independent analyses of more then 100 major earthquakes, show that joint satellite and some ground measurements, using an integrated web, could provide a capability for observing pre-earthquake atmospheric signals by combining the information from multiple sensors into a common framework. Using our methodology, we evaluated and compared the observed signals preceding the latest M7.9 Sichuan earthquake (05/12/2008), M8.0 earthquake in Peru (08/15/2007), M7.6 Kashmir earthquake (10/08/2005) and M9.0 Sumatra earthquake (12/26/2004). We found evidence of the

  6. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Amann, M.

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm) limit values at individual air quality monitoring stations reporting to the AirBase database. The modelling approach relies on a combination of bottom up modelling of emissions, simplified atmospheric chemistry and dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful

  7. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) limit values at individual air quality monitoring stations reporting to the AirBase database. The modelling approach relies on a combination of bottom up modelling of emissions, simplified atmospheric chemistry and dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful

  8. Glacial lake outburst floods from Kyagar Glacier, Karakoram, P. R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmig, Christoph; Huss, Matthias; Keusen, Hansrudolf; Hess, Josef; Wegmüller, Urs; Ao, Zhigang; Kulubayi, Wubuli

    2013-04-01

    Kyagar Glacier is located in the Karakoram Mountains in the southwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, P.R. China. The glacier tongue entirely blocks the riverbed of the upper Shaksgam Valley and impounds a glacial lake at 4750 m a.s.l., which was the source of several violent and disastrous Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) over the past decades. The spontaneous floods are a threat to over 1 mio. inhabitants in the floodplains of the Yarkant River. A GLOF early warning system, combining satellite remote sensing and two terrestrial observation and warning stations at Kyagar Lake and 200 km downstream, was implemented in 2011 and 2012. The stations provide daily images based on automatic cameras, water level measurements, and are equipped with weather sensors to monitor local climate. We discuss the GLOF early warning system and present first measurement series of melt-water runoff and meteorological conditions from one of the remotest regions of the Karakoram mountains. The ongoing project also elaborates scenario-based forecasts of future glacier lake developments, considering the ice-flow dynamics of Kyagar Glacier as well as surface mass-balance response to climate change. Comparison of two high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the ice dam show surface lowering rates of more than 4 m a-1 between 2002 and 2011 leading to a significant reduction in lake volume and hence, a decreasing GLOF hazard potential. Glacier melt modelling using climate scenarios indicates a rapid retreat of the glacier tongue over the next decades. However, two DEMs covering the entire glacier for 2000-2008 show small elevation changes in the accumulation area and even a slight mass gain in the central part. This is supported by the observation of a moderate ice-flow speed-up in this region. This pattern is typical for surge-type glaciers and is consistent with the numerous documented glacier surges in the Karakoram. Furthermore, the displacement rate of the glacier

  9. High-resolution of trace elements (Mg, U, Sr, Ba and Zn) in speleothems as Holocene palaeoclimatic proxies: Père Noël cave, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Mohammed; Verheyden, Sophie; Riotte, Jean; Ghaleb, Bassam; Chmeleff, Jerome; fagel, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Speleothems are now regarded as valuable archives of climatic conditions on the continents, offering the advantages of absolute U-series dating relative to other continental climate proxy recorders such as lake sediments and peat cores. High spatial resolution measurements of Mg, U, Sr, Ba and Zn were realized by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the Belgian Père Noël cave Holocene stalagmite (Verheyden et al., 2000, 2008). The stalagmite of 65 cm long was deposited from ~12000 years to ~2000 years dated by U/Th method. Mg, Sr, Ba, U, and Zn are known as indicators for hydrological conditions (e.g. Ayalon et al., 1999; Fairchild et al., 2000). Mg, Sr, Ba concentrations are positively correlated (r> 0.7) with similar changes in the δ 13C implying similar processes influence their concentration changes. U has an inverse relationship with δ 13C. The study suggests that trace elements in the Père Noël stalagmite have the potential to provide high resolution insights into variability in water recharge during the Holocene. References Ayalon A., Bar-Matthews M. and Kaufman A., 1999. Petrography, strontium, barium and uranium concentrations, and strontium and uranium isotope ratios in speleothems as palaeoclimatic proxies: Soreq cave, Israel. The Holocene 9 (6), 715-722. Fairchild I.J., Borsato A., Tooth A.F.,Frisia S., Hawkesworth C.J., Huang Y., Mcdermott F. and Spiro B., 2000. Controls on trace element (Sr-Mg) compositions of carbonate cave waters: implications for speleothem climatic records. Chemical Geology 166, 255-269. Verheyden S., Keppens E. , Fairchild I.J., Mc Dermott F. and D. Weis, 2000. Sr isotope geochemistry of a Belgian Holocene speleothem: implications for paleoclimate reconstructions. Chemical Geology, 169: 131 144. Verheyden S., Genty D., Deflandre G., Quinif Y. and Keppens E., 2008. Monitoring climatological, hydrological and geochemical parameters in the Père Noël cave (Belgium): Implication for the interpretation

  10. Decadal trends of ocean and land carbon fluxes from a regional joint ocean-atmosphere inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, K.; Gruber, N.

    2015-12-01

    From 1980 until 2010, the combined CO2 sink strengths of ocean and land increased by nearly 50% (-0.55 Pg C yr-1 decade-1), but the spatial distribution of this trend is not well known. We address this by performing a joint cyclostationary ocean-atmosphere inversion for the three decades 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2008, using only carbon data from the ocean and atmosphere as constraints, i.e., without applying any prior information about the land fluxes. We find that in the inversion, most of the 30 year sink trend stems from the ocean (-0.44 Pg C yr-1 decade-1). The contribution of the terrestrial biosphere is commensurably smaller but has more decadal variability. First, the land sink strength intensified in the 1990s by 0.4 (±0.3) Pg C yr-1 compared to the 1980s but then weakened slightly by 0.2 (±0.4) Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s. The different land regions contributed very variedly to these global trends. While the northern extratropical land acted as an increasing carbon sink throughout the examined period primarily driven by boreal regions, the tropical land is estimated to have acted as an increasing source of CO2, with source magnitude and trend dominated by enhanced release in tropical America during the Amazon mean wet season. This pattern is largely unchanged if the oceanic inversion constraint, which is based on a stationary ocean circulation, is replaced by an estimate based on simulation results from an ocean biogeochemical general circulation model that includes year-to-year variability in the air-sea CO2 fluxes and also has a trend (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 decade-1) that is at the very low end of current estimates. However, the land/ocean partitioning of the trend contribution is adjusted accordingly. Oceanic carbon data has a major impact on carbon exchange for all tropical regions and southern Africa but also for observationally better constrained regions in North America and temperate Asia. The European trend exhibits a strong sensitivity to the choice

  11. Remotely sensed forest phenology and its relation with Nephropathia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    J.M. Barrios1, W.W. Verstraeten1, P. Maes2, J. Clement2, J-M. Aerts1, S. Amirpour1, J. Wambacq2, K. Lagrou3, M. Van Ranst2, D. Berckmans1, P. Coppin1 1. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Biosystems Departement, M3-BIORES, Willem de Croylaan 34, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium 2. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Hantavirus Reference Center, Rega Institute, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Experimental Laboratory Medicine, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is a zoonotic disease caused by a Hanta virus called Puumala virus in Europe. Concern about this disease has increased in recent years due to the increase in the amount of reported cases. In 2005, 2007 and 2008 the number of infected cases surpassed 300 cases per 100000 inhabitants in Belgium, which was never observed before. NE incidence is closely related to environmental conditions. The main role in the virus transmission mechanism is played by the red bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a rodent species that is native in West European broad-leaved forests (BLF) and acts as the virus reservoir. Although the link between vegetation and NE in Belgium has been underlined repeatedly in recent research works, so far little has been done towards the exploration of remote sensing techniques for analyzing vegetation systems as an input in early warning systems. This study aims at determining whether observed NE occurrence pattern in Belgium can be connected to specific trends in BLF phenology parameters. Hence, phenology information was derived from time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for the period 2000-2008 in 10 major BLF in southern Belgium. EVI values were calculated from the MOD09A1 dataset which provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance for bands 1-7 at 500 m resolution every 8 days. Based on our preliminary

  12. Understanding Storm Time Poynting Flux Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, H. M.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that energy deposited by dayside Earth-directed Poynting flux (S||) is greater during geomagnetic storms; however, S|| spatial and temporal variability are less well understood. Eight years (2000-2008) of data from the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, were collected to identify thirteen large and five super storms according to specific criteria: "classic" storm structure in which the time interval between sudden storm commencement (SSC) and minimum Dst (Dstmin) was ≤ 24 hours; the main and recovery phases did not experience secondary or tertiary disturbances; large storms where Dst ≤ -93 nT; and, super storms where Dst ≤ -184 nT. Solar wind and magnetospheric data for the 18 storms were collected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F-15) and NASA OMNI. For all storms, the data were averaged and plotted to identify S|| variability for the mantle, cusp, polar rain, and central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions during geomagnetic storm time. As known for all storms, while Dst decreased, average S|| peaked, as did Kp. The energy deposited per square-meter by precipitating energetic particles (electrons) did not increase, though average hemispheric power increased by nearly a factor of two for the large and super storms between SSC and Dstmin. For the large storms, average S|| from the central and boundary layer plasma sheet regions (on closed field lines) was enhanced by nearly a factor of two between SSC and Dstmin; for the super storms, enhancement was over a factor of three. Average large storm S|| enhancement from the mantle, cusp, and polar rain regions (on open field lines) was significantly more enhanced by a factor of three between SSC and Dstmin. It was enhanced by a factor of over five for the super storms. For the open field line regions, a large, prolonged secondary peak in S|| was observed for large and super storms during the recovery phase. As suggested by this and prior studies, research is needed to better

  13. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; Fátima Andrade, María.; Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    making a greater contribution during the 2000-2008 period, whereas HDVs made a greater contribution during the 2009-2013 period, and decreases in NOx emissions resulted in increases in O3 observations.

  14. Using remote sensing and ancillary data to extend airborne electromagnetic resistivity surveys for regional permafrost interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastick, N.; Wylie, B. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Ji, L.; Walvoord, M. A.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Rose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost has a significant impact on high latitude ecosystems and is spatially heterogeneous. However, only generalized maps of permafrost extent are available. Due to its impacts on subsurface hydrology, lake water levels, vegetation communities, and surface soil deformations, understanding the spatial extents and depth of permafrost are critical. Electrical resistivity increases dramatically as a soil freezes and can be used as a proxy for permafrost presence particularly if the underlying soils and geologic characteristics are understood. An airborne electromagnetic survey (AEM) was conducted over a portion of the Yukon Flats ecoregion in central Alaska with measurements taken in both reconnaissance lines and contiguous block area coverage. The AEM was flown in June 2010 and subsurface resistivity models were derived by inverting the AEM data. Landsat TM at-sensor reflectance, thermal, and spectral index data from late August to early September 2008, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and derivatives, and other ancillary data were used in a regression tree model to predict near surface electrical resistivity at the 0-1m and the 0-2.6m depth intervals. AEM locations from homogenous landsat 90 m by 90 m windows were randomly separated into a training set for model development (n = 8,848) and an impendent test data set (n = 988) for model accuracy assessment. Model development and independent test accuracies for 0-1 m electric resistivity had training and test R2 values of 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, and for the 0-2.6m electric resistivity training and test R2 values were also 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated accurate prediction models. Important variables for stratifying the various piecewise regressions were elevation and averaged 2000-2008 ecosystem performance anomalies. Important independent variables used in the multiple regression equations were the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), NDII7 (NDII using band 7), soil moisture mapped from

  15. Patterns of Hits to the Nearshore from a Major Fairway in the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikmae, B.; Soomere, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Baltic Sea hosts one of the heaviest ship traffic in the world. Although relatively small in size, still up to 15% of the world's cargo is transported along its numerous fairways. The largest threat to the environment is oil transportation that has increased more than by a factor of two in 2000-2008 and a 40% increase is expected by the year 2015. One of the major marine highways in the European waters enters the Baltic Sea through the Danish Straits, crosses the Baltic Proper and stretches through the Gulf of Finland to Saint Petersburg. An area that is highly vulnerable to ship pollution is the nearshore that usually has the largest ecological value. While the probability of coastal pollution for open ocean coasts can be reduced by shifting ship routes farther offshore, the problem for narrow bays, like the Gulf of Finland, is how to minimize the probability of hitting any of the coasts. To a certain extent, light can be shed to this problem by means of quantification of the offshore areas in terms of their ability to serve a danger to coastal environment if pollution would happen in these areas. A convenient way to address this problem is to use statistical analysis of a large number of Lagrangian trajectories of test particles representing the potential pollution and passively carried by surface currents. In this paper, we make and attempt to quantify the link between potential sources of pollution along an existing fairway and the sections of the coast reached by current-driven pollution. The problem is analysed by means of considering hits to the nearshore from a major fairway in the Gulf of Finland and by making sure whether certain parts of the coast are hit by pollution particles most frequently and whether or not these pollution particles stem from certain specific parts of the fairway. Trajectories are simulated in the Gulf of Finland by placing tracers among a line that follows one of the major fairways from the Baltic Proper to Saint Petersburg

  16. [Haemorrhagic pineal cysts: two clinical cases successfully treated by means of microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Arevalo, A; Pulido-Rivas, P; Gilo-Arrojo, F; Sola, R G

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Los quistes pineales son un hallazgo incidental relativamente frecuente en las pruebas de imagen; sin embargo, la apoplejia pineal se considera rara y se asocia a sintomas graves. Casos clinicos. Varon de 25 a˜os y mujer de 15 a˜os, que acudieron a urgencias con clinica de hipertension intracraneal; mediante pruebas de imagen se confirmo la existencia de una hemorragia pineal. Se les trato con exito mediante microcirugia. Conclusion. En nuestra experiencia, y avalado por la bibliografia, creemos que el mejor tratamiento de esta infrecuente patologia es el abordaje microquirurgico. Sin embargo, no se excluye la posibilidad de que, en un futuro, las tecnicas endoscopicas puedan tener un lugar importante en el tratamiento de la apoplejia pineal.

  17. Eight years of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  18. Micosis fungoide e inhibidores del TNFα: ¿riesgo o beneficio?

    PubMed

    Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Burillo-Martínez, Sara; Tous-Romero, Fátima; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Ortiz de Frutos, Javier; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The growing use of anti-TNF drugs during the last years has reopened the discussion about the possible increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with such type of treatments. We present our clinical experience and critical opinion about the current situation of such issue regarding cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.El creciente uso de fármacos anti-TNF durante los últimos años ha reabierto el debate sobre el posible aumento de riesgo de linfomas no Hodgkin en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamientos. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica y opinión critica sobre la situación actual de este tema en relación a los linfomas cutáneos de células T. PMID:27617528

  19. Micosis fungoide e inhibidores del TNFα: ¿riesgo o beneficio?

    PubMed

    Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Burillo-Martínez, Sara; Tous-Romero, Fátima; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Ortiz de Frutos, Javier; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo Luis

    2016-05-15

    The growing use of anti-TNF drugs during the last years has reopened the discussion about the possible increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with such type of treatments. We present our clinical experience and critical opinion about the current situation of such issue regarding cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.El creciente uso de fármacos anti-TNF durante los últimos años ha reabierto el debate sobre el posible aumento de riesgo de linfomas no Hodgkin en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamientos. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica y opinión critica sobre la situación actual de este tema en relación a los linfomas cutáneos de células T.

  20. Mechanisms and models which govern bending and reconfiguring of trees under water flow action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Catherine; Whittaker, Peter; Hydroenvironmental Research Centre Team

    2015-11-01

    A model for predicting the drag and reconfiguration of flexible vegetation under hydrodynamic loading is presented. The model is based on a refined ``vegetative'' Cauchy number to incorporate the magnitude and rate of a tree's reconfiguration. In addition, analysis of data from a tree drag force study conducted at the Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinamicas de El Pardo, Madrid, is also presented. This data enables the analysis of the frontal projected and the side-view areas as well as the bending angle of the main tree stems over a full range of velocities. New physical mechanisms which link tree posture, permeability, and the Reconfiguration number-Cauchy number relationship for various key stages of reconfiguration are proposed. These mechanisms are mainly developed for multi-stem trees in their foliated state. In addition direct comparisons of mechanisms for foliated and defoliated states are also presented.

  1. [Iatrogenic after spinal puncture technique. Prevalence study of headache and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bauset-Navarro, José Luis; Sánchez-Ortuño, Isabel M; Gómez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Sanz-Monllor, Ainara; Cinesi-Gómez, César; Piñera-Salmerón, Pascual

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo. Establecer la prevalencia existente de cefalea tras practicar una puncion lumbar transdural y los factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de cohortes. Se reclutaron pacientes del Servicio de Urgencias, del Servicio de Neurologia y del Hospital de Dia. Se recogio la experiencia del facultativo, el numero de punciones, la variacion de plano, la postura del paciente, el anestesico local, el calibre y bisel de la aguja, los grados de inclinacion, la cantidad de liquido, la sobrecarga de fluidoterapia y la indicacion o no de reposo tras la puncion. Tras 48 horas, se establecio la aparicion o no de cefalea. Resultados. Muestra de 59 pacientes, 31 (52,5%) de ellos hombres. Edad media: 47 años; 32 (54,2%) procedentes de Urgencias, 18 (30,5%) de Neurologia y 9 (15,3%) del Hospital de Dia. Hubo 41 (69,5%) en decubito lateral y 7 (11,9%) en sedestacion. Todos con agujas biseladas, 21 (35,6%) del calibre 20 y 38 (64,4%) del calibre 22. Sin reposo estuvieron 8 (13,56%) pacientes y 18 (33,3%) sin sobrecarga de fluidos. Veintitres (38,98%) con cefalea pospuncion lumbar, 12 (52,2%) mujeres, con una edad media de 38,3 ± 16,4 años. La mediana de intensidad de la cefalea fue de 2,6. El tiempo medio de aparicion fue de siete horas. Sin diferencias para ninguno de los factores estudiados, salvo la tendencia observada de mayor incidencia de cefalea a menor edad. Conclusiones. La cefalea pospuncion lumbar en nuestra serie es elevada, sin diferencias segun el servicio donde se practica o la experiencia. Tampoco influye la cantidad de liquido extraido, la posicion del paciente, la indicacion de reposo o la sobrecarga de fluidos.

  2. Seismic Tomography Reveals Breaking Crust and Lithosphere Beneath a Classic Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R.; Kuo-Chen, H.; Lee, Y.; Ouimet, W. B.; Van Soest, M. C.; Huang, C.; Wu, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    erosion, or lower rock uplift rates along the range crest. We propose that the surfaces represent relict topography that formed prior to a recent acceleration in rock uplift rate, consistent with the presence of a propagating crustal-scale crack and slab breakoff. Taken together, these results raise questions about the notion of steady state topography and critically tapered wedges in Taiwan. Kuo-Chen, H., Wu, F., and Roecker, S. W., 2012, Three-dimensional P velocity structures of the lithosphere beneath Taiwan from the analysis of TAIGER and related seismic data sets: Journal Geophysical Research, v. 117, no. B06306. Ching, K.-E., Hsieh, M.-L., Johnson, K., Chen, K.-H., Rau, R.-J., and Yang, M., 2011, Modern vertical deformation rates and mountain building in Taiwan from precise leveling and continuous GPS observations, 2000-2008: Journal Geophysical Research, v. 116, no. B08406.

  3. Carbon Fluxes in a Managed Landscape: Assessing the Drivers of Temporal and Spatial Variability in Flux Tower, MODIS and Forest Inventory Data of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, S.; Bible, K.; Falk, M.; Paw U, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research focuses on the Wind Late Successional Reserve of Southern Washington where clear-cut logging over the past 100 years has created a fragmented landscape of coniferous forests that range in age from 0 to 500 years. In this study, we integrate several datasets to examine the environmental drivers of carbon exchange in this region across time and space. These sources include: (1) network of flux towers across a disturbance choronosequence, (2) MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index, (3) aboveground net primary production (ANPP) from forest inventories, (4) and regional precipitation and air temperature measurements from the NOAA network of weather stations and PRISM reanalysis data. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) has been measured at the Wind River Canopy Crane AmeriFlux site since 1998. The canopy crane is located in an old-growth forest composed of late seral Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Two flux towers were erected in early seral stands to study the effects of silviculture on net ecosystem exchange. CO2 uptake at the old-growth stand is highest in the spring before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit are relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels are favorable for photosynthesis, while maximum CO2 uptake is observed two to three months later at the early seral stands and coincide with peak leaf area index. This CO2 pattern is driven by different water conserving strategies. A reduction in carbon exchange is observed at the old-growth forest when moisture becomes limiting and canopy conductance rates drop sharply after mid-morning in the summer. In contrast, inhibition in canopy conductance rates and CO2 exchange is not observed at the early seral stands until soil moisture levels become critically low at the very end of the summer. The regional MODIS data (200 km X 200 km area) from 2000-2008 show that annual variability in the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) also

  4. Channel Change and Bed-Material Transport in the Lower Chetco River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Anderson, Scott W.; Cannon, Charles; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2009-01-01

    The lower Chetco River is a wandering gravel-bed river flanked by abundant and large gravel bars formed of coarse bed-material sediment. The large gravel bars have been a source of commercial aggregate since the early twentieth century for which ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns have motivated this assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates. Analysis of historical channel change and bed-material transport rates for the lower 18 kilometers show that the upper reaches of the study area are primarily transport zones, with bar positions fixed by valley geometry and active bars mainly providing transient storage of bed material. Downstream reaches, especially near the confluence of the North Fork Chetco River, have been zones of active sedimentation and channel migration. Multiple analyses, supported by direct measurements of bedload during winter 2008-09, indicate that since 1970 the mean annual flux of bed material into the study reach has been about 40,000-100,000 cubic meters per year. Downstream tributary input of bed-material sediment, probably averaging 5-30 percent of the influx coming into the study reach from upstream, is approximately balanced by bed-material attrition by abrasion. Probably very little bed material leaves the lower river under natural conditions, with most of the net influx historically accumulating in wider and more dynamic reaches, especially near the North Fork Chetco River confluence, 8 kilometers upstream from the Pacific Ocean. The year-to-year flux, however, varies tremendously. Some years probably have less than 3,000 cubic meters of bed-material entering the study area; by contrast, some high-flow years, such as 1982 and 1997, likely have more than 150,000 cubic meters entering the reach. For comparison, the estimated annual volume of gravel extracted from the lower Chetco River for commercial aggregate during 2000-2008 has ranged from 32,000 to 90,000 cubic meters and averaged about 59

  5. Channel Change and Bed-Material Transport in the Lower Chetco River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Anderson, Scott W.; Cannon, Charles; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2010-01-01

    The lower Chetco River is a wandering gravel-bed river flanked by abundant and large gravel bars formed of coarse bed-material sediment. Since the early twentieth century, the large gravel bars have been a source of commercial aggregate for which ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns have motivated this assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates. Analysis of historical channel change and bed-material transport rates for the lower 18 kilometers shows that the upper reaches of the study area are primarily transport zones, with bar positions fixed by valley geometry and active bars mainly providing transient storage of bed material. Downstream reaches, especially near the confluence of the North Fork Chetco River, are zones of active sedimentation and channel migration. Multiple analyses, supported by direct measurements of bedload during winter 2008-09, indicate that since 1970 the mean annual flux of bed material into the study reach has been about 40,000-100,000 cubic meters per year. Downstream tributary input of bed-material sediment, probably averaging 5-30 percent of the influx coming into the study reach from upstream, is approximately balanced by bed-material attrition by abrasion. Probably little bed material leaves the lower river under natural conditions, with most net influx historically accumulating in wider and more dynamic reaches, especially near the North Fork Chetco River confluence, 8 kilometers upstream from the Pacific Ocean. The year-to-year flux, however, varies tremendously. Some years may have less than 3,000 cubic meters of bed material entering the study area; by contrast, some high-flow years, such as 1982 and 1997, likely have more than 150,000 cubic meters entering the reach. For comparison, the estimated annual volume of gravel extracted from the lower Chetco River for commercial aggregate during 2000-2008 has ranged from 32,000 to 90,000 cubic meters and averaged about 59,000 cubic meters per year

  6. Validation of Erosion 3D in Lower Saxony - Comparison between modelled soil erosion events and results of a long term monitoring project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bug, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    obtain better results, the DEM needs a higher resolution, and soil and landuse parameters have to been optimized in tractor tracks and headlands (higher bulk density, less coverage). Other models like LINERO (Bug &Mosimann 2012) can help to get an overview over the location of erosion forms and the soil loss due to rill erosion. References: Bug J., & T. Mosimann (2012): Modellierung der linearen Bodenerosion. Entwicklung eines entscheidungsbasierten Modells zur flächenhaften Prognose der linearen Erosionsaktivität, Geosynthesis 15, Hannover, 105 S. Michael, A., Schmidt, J. & W. A. Schmidt (1996): EROSION 2D/3D - Ein Computermodell zur Simulation der Bodenerosion durch Wasser. Parameterkatalog Sachsen, Freiberg. Mosimann, T., Bug, J. Sanders, S. & F. Beisiegel (2009): Bodenerosionsdauerbeobachtung in Niedersachsen 2000-2008. Methodik, Erosionsgeschehen, Bodenabträge und Anwendung der Ergebnisse, Geosynthesis 14, Hannover, 101 S. Schmidt, J., & M. v. Werner (2000): Modeling sediment and heavy metal yields of drinking water reservoirs in the Osterzgebirge region of Saxony (Germany). In: Schmidt, J. (Ed.), Soil Erosion—Application of Physically Based Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93- 108.

  7. Evaluation of medium-range runoff forecasts for a 50 km2 watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneis, David; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Forecasting of medium-range runoff for small mountainous catchments is a particular challenge for a number of reasons: (1) Reaction times are short, thus hydrological forecasts necessarily rely on the uncertain output of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, (2) There is a high sensitivity to positional errors in the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) as well as to errors in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), (3) Given that rainfall is spatially variable, small catchments are generally more likely to experience extreme areal precipitation than larger river basins, (4) Runoff-coefficients are typically high and flood events originate from both heavy rainfall or/and snow melt. Nevertheless, there is a demand for medium-range hydrological forecasts for small catchments which can be used for the purposes of early warning and the proactive management of multi-purpose reservoirs. We studied the quality of runoff forecasts for the Lehnmühle Reservoir watershed (50 km2) located at the border between Germany and Czech Republic (Weißeritz River). For this catchment, we set up the conceptual, semi-distributed hydrological model LARSIM which is in operational use at many flood forecasting centres. LARSIM is typically run as a continuous model with stream flow assimilation enabled during the simulation period. The usual time step of in- and output is 1 h. We produced medium-range forecasts (actually 'hindcasts') of runoff by driving the calibrated hydrological model with NWP data of the past. For the period 2000-2008, we computed daily forecasts with a maximum lead time of +120 h based on the 51-member ensemble prediction issued by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast). Expanded downscaling, a variant of empirical downscaling, was used to make the spatially coarse ECMWF forecast applicable to the target scale. For the period 2005-2008, we also tried the deterministic COSMO-EU forecast (+78 h maximum lead time, 7×7 km resolution

  8. The impact of climate and land use changes on water resources. The application of the integrated hydrological modelling system, IHMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, R.; Bromley, J.; Dörflinger, G.; Katsikides, S.; D'Agostino, D. R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Trisorio, G. L.; Montenegro, S. G.; Montenegro, A.

    2010-12-01

    DiCaSM model has been applied on Mimoso catchment in the Brazilian NE region. The model successfully simulated streamflows (2000 -2008) and forecasted a reduction of 27% to 71%, for ground water recharge, and 26% to 67%, for streamflow. Introducing castor beans would increase the groundwater recharge and streamflow, if the caatinga areas would be converted into castor beans. Changing an area of 1000 ha from caatinga to castor beans would increase the groundwater recharge by 46% and streamflow by 3%. If the same area of pasture is converted into castor beans, there would be an increase of groundwater recharge and streamflow by 24% and 5%, respectively. The examples suggest that IHMS is an effective tool for the authorities to help balance water demand and supply under the climate and land use changes.

  9. Climatic and management influence on the carbon sequestration capacity of a deciduous oak coppice forest in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli Marchesini, L.; Rey Simó, A.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent updated estimates of the carbon balance of European forests based on a suite of ecological inventories and models confirmed their active role as sink (Ciais at al. 2008, Luyssaert et al. 2010), determined primarily by the management applied in the last decades with wood removals being lower than Net Primary Productivity (NPP). Eddy covariance (EC) continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes can detect responses of the carbon dynamics to environmental or management factors in the short term, overcoming the limitation of inventories representing a snapshot of the carbon pools typically at temporal resolution of several years or decades. However the majority of EC studies, so far performed mostly on middle-aged or mature stands, still have poorly investigated the role of actively managed forest types such as coppices, the changes in the Net Ecosystem Produtivity (NEP) over long chronosequence data and ultimately their capacity to store the uptaken atmospheric carbon in the long term. In the framework of the Carbo-Extreme EU project, we present an analysis of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of a deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) coppice forest in central Italy (Roccarespampani site) monitored during the years 2000-2008 over two differently aged forest stands covering almost all the stages of the 20 years rotation period. After coppicing the forest ecosystem turned into a net C source for 1 year only, then it intensified its sink strength along with stand age (R2=0.66; P<0.001) up to a maximum observed NEE of -1077.9 gC m-2 yr-1. This trend was explained by a decreasing ratio between Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)(R2=0.70; P<0.001), underlying the noticeable effect of the harvesting on the enhancement of soil CO2 effluxes, partly because of altered microclimatic conditions but also due to changes in the availability of decomposable substrate and nutrients, as witnessed by a negative correlation of temperature independent basal

  10. Space and time distribution of foci and source-mechanisms of West-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarms - a tool for insight into their triggering mechanisms and driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horalek, Josef; Fischer, Tomas; Cermakova, Hana

    2013-04-01

    West Bohemia/Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) belongs to the most active intraplate earthquake-swarm regions in Europe. Above, this area is characteristic by high activity of crustal fluids. Swarm earthquakes with magnitudes ML < 4.0 occur frequently in the area of about 3 000 km2, however, the Nový Kostel focal zone (NK), which shows a few tens of thousands events within the last twenty years, dominates the recent seismicity of the whole region. During last fifteen years there were four earthquake swarms in 1997, 2000, 2008 and 20011 (besides a few tens of microswarms) encompassing a fault plane of about 15 x 6 km. The swarms were located close to each other. Moreover, the 2000 (MLmax = 3.3) and 2008 (MLmax = 3.8) swarms were "twins", i.e. their hypocenters fall precisely on the same portion of the NK fault plane; and the 1997 (MLmax = 2.9) and 2011 (MLmax = 3.6) swarms also occurred on the same fault segment. However, the individual swarms differed considerably in their evolution, mainly in the rate of the seismic-moment release and foci migration. Source mechanisms (in the full moment-tensor description) and their time and space variations also show different patterns. All the 2000- and 2008-swarm events were pure shears, most of them showing the oblique normal faulting. Although source mechanisms of majority of the 2000- and 2008 events signify the faulting parallel to the main NK fault plane, there is a significant amount of events having different source mechanisms. We also found alteration of the source mechanisms with depths. The 1997 and 2011 swarms took place on two differently oriented fault segments thus two different source mechanisms occurred: the oblique-normal on the one segment and the oblique-thrust type on the other one. Moreover, source mechanisms of the oblique thrust events suggest combined sources (possessing significant non-DC components). This indicates complexity of both NK focal zone (where earthquake swarms have

  11. Space and time distribution of foci and source mechanisms of West-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarms - a tool for understanding of their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, Josef; Čermáková, Hana; Fischer, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    The origin of earthquake swarms remains still an enigma. The swarms typically accompany volcanic activity at the plate margins but also occur in intracontinental areas. West Bohemia-Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) represents one of the most active intraplate earthquake-swarm regions in Europe. Above, this area is characteristic by high activity of crustal fluids. Swarm earthquakes occur persistently in the area of about 3 000 km2. However, the Novö Kostel focal zone (NK), which shows a few tens of thousands events within the last twenty years, dominates the recent seismicity of the whole region. There were swarms in 1997, 2000, 2008 and 20011 followed by reactivation in 2013, and a few tens of microswarms which forming a focal belt of about 15 x 6 km. We analyse geometry of the NK focal zone applying the double-difference method to seismicity in the period 1997 - 2013. The swarms are located close to each other in at depths from 6 to 13 km. The 2000 (MLmax = 3.3) and 2008 (MLmax = 3.8) swarms are 'twins' i.e. their hypocenters fall precisely on the same portion of the NK fault; similarly the 1997 (MLmax = 2.9), 2011 (MLmax = 3.6) and 2013 (MLmax = 2.4) swarms also occurred on the same fault segment. However, the individual swarms differ considerably in their evolution, mainly in the rate of the seismic-moment release and foci migration. Source mechanisms (in the full moment-tensor description) and their time and space variations also show different patterns. All the 2000- and 2008-swarm events are pure shears, signifying both oblique-normal and oblique-thrust faulting but the former prevails. We found a several families of source mechanisms, which fit well geometry of respective fault segments being determined on the basis of the event location: The 2000 and 2008 swarms activated the same portion of the NK fault, hence the source mechanisms are similar. The 1997 and 2011 swarms took place on two differently oriented fault segments, thus

  12. Ecosystems resilience to drought: indicators derived from time-series of Earth Observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Monica; Fernández, Nestor; Delibes, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    recovery was characterized by (i) the duration of -effects (ii) resistance to change and (iii) autocorrelation of the time-series. Time series of 2000-2008 from the satellite MODIS and meteorological stations were used. Evapotranspiration was estimated using a surface energy balance contextual or triangle approach using EO data. Analyses were performed at time-steps from 1 month up to 1 year. Among the four ecosystems, wetlands were the most resilient with a faster rate of recovery from drought but at the same time greater transient responses. Perennial vegetation types showed more resistance to drought but higher persistence of effects into the following year, especially shrublands without access to groundwater. Drought effects in pine forests were minimum as they access groundwater during dry periods. Our results suggest that in a future context of higher rainfall extremes, the long-term success in the case of vegetation types with access to the water table might depend on their capability to balance groundwater extractions and rainfall recharge. In the vegetation types without access to the water table their success will depend on their recovery potential after a drought sequence of several years.

  13. Evaluation of methods to derive green-up dates based on daily NDVI satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktor, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Bridging the gap between satellite derived green-up dates and in situ phenological observations has been the purpose of many studies over the last decades. Despite substantial advancements in satellite technology and data quality checks there is as yet no universally accepted method for extracting phenological metrics based on satellite derived vegetation indices. Dependent on the respective method derived green-up dates can vary up to serveral weeks using identical data sets. Consequently, it is difficult to compare various studies and to accurately determine an increased vegetation length due to changing temperature patterns as observed by ground phenological networks. Here, I compared how the characteristic NDVI increase over temperate deciduous forests in Germany in spring relates to respective budburst events observed on the ground. MODIS Terra daily surface reflectances with a 250 m resolution (2000-2008) were gathered to compute daily NDVI values. As ground truth, observations of the extensive phenological network of the German Weather Service were used. About 1500 observations per year and species (Beech, Oak and Birch) were available evenly distributed all over Germany. Two filtering methods were tested to reduce the noisy raw data. The first method only keeps NDVI values which are classified as ‚ideal global quality' and applies on those a temporal moving window where values are removed which differ more than 20% of the mean. The second method uses an adaptation of the BISE (Best Index Slope Extraction) algorithm. Subsequently, three functions were fitted to the selected observations: a simple linear interpolation, a sigmoidal function and a double logistic sigmoidal function allowing to approximate two temporally separated green-up signals. The green-up date was then determined at halfway between minimum and maximum (linear interpolation) or at the inflexion point of the sigmoidal curve. A number of global threshold values (NDVI 0.4,0.5,0.6) and

  14. Geological and Geochemical Criteria for the Estimation of the Area of The Lesser Hinggan for the Endogenous Gold Mineralization (The Far East, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Yuriy

    2015-04-01

    The Area of the Lesser Hinggan in the middle of the XIX century has been known as one of the Gold areas of the Far East. Exploration of gold in different years were engaged by P.K. Yavorovskiy (1904), E.E. Anert (1928), G.V. Itsikson (1961), V.A. Buryak (1999, 2002, 2003), A.M. Zhirnov (1998, 2000, 2008), L.V. Eyrish (1960, 1964, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2008) and many others. But despite the abundance of factual materials in the problem of the gold metallogeny of the Lesser Hinggan are more aspects that still have not received a answer. Among them is the key issue about indigenous sources of the gold. First for the Lesser Hinggan area, structural-geochemical zoning at 1:200 000 scale was carried out based on the results of the precise analyses of over 2,600 soil and sediment stream samples. Three anomalous geochemical zones and nine anomalous geochemical clusters in their contours specialized for gold mineralization were revealed. Regional clarkes (fersms) for 19 chemical elements were calculated. Geological formations geochemically specialized for gold and their role in endogenous ore-forming processes were defined. Geochemical criteria for endogenous gold mineralization and its ore-formational affiliation were defined as well. Thus, from the geological and geochemical data, are the following signs of the gold mineralization of the Lesser Hinggan: 1. Some geological formations are geochemical specialized by the gold (carbon ("black") schists and ferruginous quartzite Vendian-Cambrian Hinggan series). They're considered as a source of the gold, involved in younger epigenetic processes of mobilization and redistribution of this element; 2. Contrasting geochemical anomalies of the gold and elements satellites in the secondary halos and stream sediments displayed in the contours of the geological formations of a wide age range - terrigenous-carbonate rocks of the Hinggan series, the Paleozoic granitoid massives, the Cretaceous volcanic fields ; 3. Samples of the native gold

  15. A calibration-free evapotranspiration mapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, J.

    2010-12-01

    in Central-Europe over the 2000-2008 period, and in Nebraska in Central-North America for 2000-2009. The resulting monthly ET rates have been validated with eddy-covariance measurements at three sites in Hungary with other two sites in Nebraska together with Bowen-ratio station measurements at six additional locations in Nebraska. The vegetation cover of the sites varied greatly, from grass, to agricultural crop, to orchards and forests. On an annual and multi-year basis the ET estimates have also been validated with catchment water-balance data of five watersheds (spanning three magnitudes of spatial scale) in Hungary. On a monthly basis ET estimates typically give an R2 value of 0.8 - 0.9, with a minimum value of 0.73 and maximum of 0.95, and on an annual and multi-year basis a typical value of 0.7 - 0.8 with a minimum of 0 (for riparian forest sites with diminished inter-annual variability) and maximum of 0.91. The mean annual ET estimates remain well within 10% of the measured values.

  16. Water Resource Monitoring over the Yangtze Middle Reaches Exploiting Dragon Time Series, Envisat, Beijing 1, Altimetric Data and Field easements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Yésou; Claire, Huber; Xijun, Lai; Stéphane, Averty; Jiren, Li; Sylviane, Daillet; Muriel, Bergé-Nguyen; Xiaoling, Chen; Shifeng, Huang; Burnham, James; Jean-François, Crétaux; Tiphanie, Marie; Jinggang, Li; Rémi, Andreoli; Carlos, Uribe

    2010-10-01

    Dongting and Poyang Lakes can be considered as key natural flood control and reduction elements within the Yangtze middle basin. As part of the Wetland Flood DRAGON Project, Poyang and Dongting lakes water extent was monitored with a revisiting period of about ten days over a 9 years period, 2000-2008.. For Poyang Lake, ENVISAT ASAR and MERIS data that have been mostly exploited from 2003 to 2008, completed from 2000-2003 by MODIS timers series. For the Dongting Lake it is MODIS decade synthesis products that have been exploited. In addition, a set of 16 large, Beijing 1 time series was exploited for validation purposes. During the same data span, water level has been measured using Topex, and/or ENVISAT RA2 and also Jason 2 for Dongting Lake. In parallel, to derive regional meteorological indicators, GPCP and TRMM, times series were exploited for the derivation of monthly averaged rainfall, residues analysis and global precipitations trends. At lake's scale, the obtained results allowed the characterization of lakes behaviors and identification of lakes sub divisions behaviors. Even if Dongting and Poyang lakes' mechanism are substantially different, theirs water extent and water level variations show very good concordance. For example 2002 corresponds to the largest flood extents for the analyzed period whereas 2001 year to the lowest extent of inundated waters. Both lakes present a global decrease of the amplitude tendency of minimum and maximum water surfaces and level. The two lakes present also astonishing low levels and low surfaces of water in summer 2006 assocaited with a very early draw off. Few reasons could be advanced to explain this event such as 1) deficit of rain fall at sub watershed level, 2) event in the upper stream part, a possible closing of the Three Gorges Dam gates in 2003, in order to infill the reservoir, 3) a more global climate change effect at regional scale. For the 2006 astonishing drop down of on Dongting and Poyang lakes, carried

  17. Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Špičák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-07-01

    swarms. The sealed focal domains retain ascending magmatic fluids until their critical pressure and volumes accumulated cause rock micro-fractures perceived as single earthquake bursts. During a swarm period, the focal depths of these sequential events become shallower while their magnitudes grow. We assume that coalescence of the induced micro-fractures forms temporary permeability zones in the final swarm phase and the accumulated fluids release into the overburden via the adjacent fault systems. The fluid release usually occurs after the shallowest events with the strongest magnitudes ML > 3. The seasonal summer declines of hydrostatic pressure in the Cheb Basin aquifer system seem to facilitate and trigger the fluid escape as happened for the 2000, 2008, and 2011 earthquake swarms. The temporary fluid release, known as the valve-fault action, influences the surface aquifer systems in various manners. In particular, we found three quantities, the strain, mantle-derived 3He content in CO2 surface sources and ground water levels, which display a 3-5 months decline before and then a similar restoration after each peak earthquake during the swarm activities. The revealed structure features are particularly important since the main Nový Kostel earthquake swarm area is proposed as a site for the ICDP project, `Eger Rift Drilling'.

  18. Remotely sensed spatio-temporal trends of irrigation agriculture in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela Diaz, F.; Siegfried, T. U.; Vasquez, V.; Pollard, B. S.; Temimi, M.; Narula, K. K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agricultural production plays a key role in covering the world’s food demand. Its importance will grow in the future given increasing population numbers and uncertain climate. Irrigation, however, has also a major impact on water resources, esp. in the drylands on the planet. For example, most of the large-scale problems of aquifer mining can be linked to groundwater-irrigated agriculture. South Asia is one of these regions of concern where roughly 40 percent of the total global groundwater irrigated area is located. In India, almost half of the total agricultural area is irrigated and it is estimated that groundwater irrigation in the country sustains 27 million ha. Esp. in the northwestern part of the country, water tables are falling at increasing rates that give rise to concern about the future viability of irrigation there. Since the majority of food grains in India are produced in that region, this development is a direct threat to the national food security with potentially global implications. We present a novel remote sensing approach to map the temporal development of irrigated agriculture at large spatial scales with high accuracy. We use time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NDVI and surface temperature as well as high-resolution precipitation data from the Indian Meteorological Department from 2000 - 2008 and ancillary data for our supervised classification approach. A cascade of classifiers was chosen to deal with the problem of obtaining labeled examples. A first stage classifier uses large regions of known irrigated and non-irrigated areas to learn a rough estimate of the multi-dimensional time series signature on variables of interest in non-irrigated areas. An estimate of the probability of non-irrigation is generated and passed to a second stage classifier along with the variables used to derive it. The second stage classifier is trained with a small dataset of very high quality estimates

  19. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    the Ampato volcanic complex (15º24´- 15º 51´ S, 71º 51´ - 73º W; 6.288 masl), one of the most important complexes of the northern sector of the CVZ. Photointerpretation of aerial photographs and teledetection through satellite images of Huayuray Valley (15º 41´ 14´´ S - 71º 51´ 53´´ W), located to the north of the complex, aided in accurately reconstructing the area occupied by the ice mass at different times (LIA, 1955, 2000 and 2008). Also the paleo-ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) and the ELA were calculated using the Accumulation Area (AA) method (Kaser and Osmaston, 2002; Osmaston, 2005) in a GIS. The ELA shows the relationship between climate and glacier mass balance (González Trueba, 2005). The data from Huayuray Valley show that the glaciers reached a minimum altitude of 5400 masl and covered an area of ~2.81 Km2 during the LIA. The paleo-ELA was located at ~5780 masl, ~120 m below the current ELA (~5900 m). Based on a vertical thermal gradient of 0.65ºC/100 m, the temperature during this event would have been about 0.7º C colder than present temperature in the Ampato volcanic complex. In 1955, Huayuray glacier covered ~2.45 km2, 12.8% less than in the LIA. In the same year, the glaciers in the Huayuray valley reached a minimum elevation of ~5660 masl and the ELA rose ~20 m, to 5800 masl. In only 45 years (1955 - 2000) the surface area of the ice was significantly reduced (~1 km2), i.e. 40.8%. The ELA continued to rise, until it reached 5890 masl in 2000. From 2000 - 2008, the Huayuray glacier was reduced to ~0.78 km2 and the ELA rised ~10 m to reach the 5900 masl These results from the CVZ confirm the dramatic recession of the glaciers in the tropical Andes during recent decades. They also suggest that if the rate of recession associated with the period 2000-2008 continues, glaciers in the Ampato volcanic complex will disappear in 10 years approximately. References González Trueba, J.J. (2005): La Pequeña Edad del Hielo en los Picos de

  20. A Voice and a Vote: The Advisory Board Experiences of Spanish-Speaking Latina Mothers

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities. Los niños latinos experimentan disparidad en el acceso y calidad del cuidado de salud. Grupos de familias asesoras para clínicas y hospitales pueden ser una forma de hacer frente a las disparidades. Nosotros implementamos y sostuvimos un consejo asesor cuyos participantes fueron exclusivamente madres latinas con dominio limitado del inglés. Como parte de la evaluación del consejo, condujimos entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales con las madres participantes durante la participación inicial y después de la última reunión del año del consejo. Los miembros estaban satisfechas con su participación en el consejo en ambas entrevistas, la inicial y la de seguimiento. Ellas reportaron que ser miembros del consejo era una forma importante para mejorar los servicios de la clínica y una oportunidad única para los latinos en la comunidad. Las experiencias de discriminación y marginalización en las instalaciones de

  1. [Integration of a software for hospital nutritional support prescription and the electronic medical record].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Martínez, José Joaquín; López Díaz, Mariano; Hernández López, Antonio; Gonzalvo Díaz, César; Botella Romero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La prescripción y seguimiento de la nutrición parenteral es un acto médico que debe ser correctamente documentado y que precisa de una adecuada comunicación entre médicos, farmacéuticos y personal de enfermería. Dicha prescripción puede realizarse mediante órdenes y formularios en papel o con aplicaciones informáticas, en cuyo caso surge la dificultad de su integración con el resto de la informática hospitalaria. Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro centro en la integración de un programa informático de prescripción de nutrición hospitalaria con la historia clínica electrónica. Material y métodos: Con objeto de desarrollar una aplicación informática de prescripción de nutrición artificial se llevaron a cabo reuniones entre personal de la Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y el Servicio de Informática donde se establecieron las necesidades de los servicios implicados y las características que debía tener la aplicación. Descripción de la aplicación: El programa informático permite la prescripción de nutrición parenteral componente por componente o mediante plantillas prediseñadas, genera alertas en caso de valores extremos de componentes o posible incompatibilidad físico-química, importa y almacena los resultados de las analíti cas de los pacientes y escribe la composición de la fórmula de nutrición parenteral prescrita en la historia clínica electrónica, entre otras características. Discusión: Nuestra experiencia muestra que la colaboración entre los servicios clínicos y de Informática permite desarrollar aplicaciones hospitalarias adaptadas a la forma de trabajo de los equipos clínicos y que pueden integrarse con el resto de los programas informáticos del hospital.

  2. [Gender and work: the experience of providers of health services to indigenous women from Guerrero y Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia Isabel; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara

    2012-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to identify the role of gender for women as workers, through the perception and discourse of health service providers at the 'Health Centers for Indigenous Women' ("Casas de Salud de las Mujeres Indígenas") in Ometepec, Guerrero and Matías Romero, Oaxaca, Mexico. It is a qualitative study, based on a secondary analysis of the interviews conducted as part of the "Rescatando la experiencia de la Casa de la Mujer Indígena: sistematización y evaluación del proceso" project. A strong sense of the value of work and a strong commitment towards the community were identified. Guilt appears as the result of tension between work outside the home and the responsibilities as mothers and wives. The possibility of helping other women is a source of gratification that dissipates these conflicts; prestige and recognition are added to the benefits of their role. The labor experience of female workers in the "Casas de Salud de las Mujeres Indígenas" of Matías Romero, Oaxaca and Ometepec, Guerrero, described in this paper, reveals that it has very specific characteristics, which are difficult to replicate in other regions of the country. In future studies it is necessary to consider the different contexts of vulnerability.

  3. Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados. PMID:24791218

  4. [The role of the prefrontal cortex in the sensory problems of children with autism spectrum disorder and its involvement in social aspects].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. En las personas con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA), las percepciones sensoriales aberrantes podrian ser tan caracteristicas y disruptivas como la presencia de anomalias en la comunicacion e interaccion social, asi como de intereses restringidos y repetitivos. La mayoria presenta trastornos de la modulacion sensorial (hiper o hiporresponsividad) en varios canales sensoriales. Ademas, muestra un deficit en la integracion de la informacion procedente de varios sistemas sensoriales (por ejemplo, auditivo y visual). Todo ello agravaria los sintomas nucleares relacionados con la comunicacion y aumentaria la aparicion de problemas conductuales. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia experimental que aborda el papel de la corteza prefrontal en las experiencias sensoriales inusuales en los TEA y su implicacion en los aspectos sociales. Hay evidencia de hipoactivacion y disfuncion en redes neurales, que incluyen la corteza prefrontal y participan en la cognicion social, como la red por defecto y el sistema de neuronas espejo en niños con TEA. Conclusiones. Los problemas sensoriomotores a edad temprana suponen una disrupcion de la organizacion y regulacion no solo de la percepcion y la accion, sino tambien del lenguaje, el pensamiento, la emocion e incluso la memoria.

  5. [Relationships between language disorders and socio-emotional competence].

    PubMed

    Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Roselló-Miranda, Belén; Colomer-Diago, Carla

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Existe una comorbilidad elevada entre los trastornos del lenguaje y los problemas conductuales, emocionales y sociales. Objetivo. Revisar la bibliografia existente sobre las dificultades sociales y emocionales de los niños con trastorno especifico del lenguaje desde una perspectiva evolutiva. Desarrollo. En la infancia temprana, los resultados acerca de este tipo de dificultades en niños con un retraso del lenguaje no son concluyentes. Sin embargo, desde el periodo de educacion infantil, la investigacion advierte de una mayor ocurrencia de alteraciones en el area social y emocional. Los estudios longitudinales que han permitido determinar el ajuste psicosocial en la adolescencia indican un mayor riesgo de presentar experiencias de victimizacion y bullying o de desarrollar ansiedad y depresion a largo plazo, aunque algunos trabajos ofrecen una panoramica mas alentadora. Conclusiones. La afectacion de la comprension y del componente pragmatico del lenguaje es un predictor importante en la manifestacion de alteraciones socioemocionales. En los trastornos mixtos comprensivos-expresivos, una dificultad de procesamiento general podria justificar, al menos parcialmente, esta asociacion. A su vez, es probable que limitaciones en el desarrollo de la cognicion social contribuyan a explicar, en cierta medida, las dificultades de las personas con trastornos pragmaticos, si bien no existe una consistencia en la investigacion en este sentido.

  6. [Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: an update and future prospects of percutaneous techniques].

    PubMed

    Bescós, Agustín; Pascual, Vicenç; Escosa-Bage, Marcos; Malaga, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. La neuralgia del trigemino es uno de los sindromes de dolor facial mas graves. La incidencia anual varia entre el 4-13% y altera de forma significativa la calidad de vida de los afectados. Cuando el dolor no puede controlarse con tratamiento farmacologico, existen diferentes opciones quirurgicas. La seleccion de la tecnica esta basada en estudios observacionales y su aplicacion depende de la experiencia de cada centro. Objetivos. Evaluar la efectividad y el nivel de evidencia del tratamiento farmacologico y quirurgico en la neuralgia del trigemino, y analizar el papel actual de las tecnicas percutaneas en el tratamiento de esta patologia. Desarrollo. El tratamiento inicial de la neuralgia del trigemino es el farmacologico y la carbamacepina es el unico farmaco con suficiente nivel de evidencia. Las tecnicas quirurgicas percutaneas son efectivas y de facil aplicacion, pero la tendencia a la recidiva conduce a la preferencia por la microdescompresion vascular. Sin embargo, no hay estudios comparativos que determinen la superioridad de alguna tecnica con buen nivel de evidencia. Se han revisado las tres tecnicas percutaneas mas utilizadas, la compresion con balon, la rizotomia con glicerol y la termocoagulacion por radiofrecuencia. Esta ultima es la que ha presentado mayor desarrollo en los ultimos años, con la aparicion de tecnicas neurofisiologicas que pueden optimizar los resultados. Conclusiones. La seleccion de una tecnica quirurgica en la neuralgia del trigemino no esta bien apoyada por ensayos clinicos aleatorizados. Los nuevos procedimientos en la aplicacion de la radiofrecuencia pueden mejorar las perspectivas del tratamiento de esta patologia.

  7. [Clinical experience with omalizumab in patients with severe asthma. Real-world data].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Correa, Jorge Bernardo; Bracamonte-Peraza, Raúl; Espinosa-Morales, Sylvia Marcela; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El omalizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal que se prescribe en esquema de adición por pasos para el tratamiento del asma severa. Objetivos: Informar la experiencia en pacientes con asma severa a quienes se aplicó omalizumab conforme a las guías internaciones, en un contexto de datos de mundo real. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, clínico, observacional, abierto, analítico y transversal a partir de datos de la vida real. Se utilizó el esquema de Control del Asma de GINA 2006 para evaluar a los pacientes y con un cuestionario se calificaron las características del paciente, efectividad, seguridad y tolerancia al omalizumab. Resultados: Se estudiaron 48 pacientes, 34 mujeres y 14 hombres, con edad promedio de 39 años. La duración promedio de la enfermedad fue de 26 años. La concentración sérica promedio de la IgE fue de 522 UI. Al inicio del tratamiento, todos los pacientes estaban sin control del asma; al final, en 69% se obtuvo control del asma, 19% estaba parcialmente controlado y 12% sin modificaciones. Los cambios se observaron en promedio a los siete meses. Conclusión: El omalizumab es efectivo y seguro para tratar el asma severa cuando se aplica conforme las guías internacionales para el manejo del asma bronquial.

  8. [Prevalence and differentiating aspects related to gender with regard to the bullying phenomenon in poor countries].

    PubMed

    Romera Félix, Eva M; Del Rey Alamillo, Rosario; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario

    2011-11-01

    There is a large body of scientific knowledge about school violence and bullying in Europe and some other regions of the so-called developed world. However, improvement is scarce in poor and developing regions, as in the case of Latin America and, in particular, Nicaragua. The goal of this work was to determine the prevalence of the bullying phenomenon in Nicaraguan primary schools, to analyze the eventual relationships between the different forms of violence used by the students and to explore, in relation to these aspects, the similarities and differences between boys and girls. For this purpose, we surveyed 3042 pupils of primary school (50.3% girls) using the "Cuestionario sobre Convivencia, Violencia y Experiencias de Riesgo" (COVER, in English, Questionnaire about Living Together, Violence and Risk Experiences). We found that the level of involvement in bullying is significantly higher than in developed countries, that boys are more involved than girls in verbal, physical and psychological bullying, and that there are no differences with regard to social exclusion. The results are discussed, comparing them with studies conducted in different countries but with similar methodologies.

  9. [Musical hallucinations: perpetual music].

    PubMed

    Zabalza-Estévez, Ramón J

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. Las alucinaciones musicales son un tipo de alucinacion auditiva prevalente en la poblacion no psiquiatrica, pero escasamente comunicada en la bibliografia neurologica. Ocurren con mayor frecuencia en la poblacion anciana, del sexo femenino y con perdida de audicion, pero su fisiopatologia esta por desentrañar. Casos clinicos. Se presentan seis casos (cinco mujeres y un hombre) de alucinaciones musicales diagnosticados en una consulta de neurologia general en un lapso de tiempo de cinco años. En cinco de ellos concurria la hipoacusia en mayor o menor grado y uno estaba desencadenado por la pentoxifilina. En su mayoria, el contenido musical de las alucinaciones provenia de experiencias musicales vividas en la infancia y juventud. En los casos sometidos a tratamiento farmacologico la respuesta fue pobre; sin embargo, una vez explicada a los pacientes la benignidad del cuadro y su desvinculacion con patologia psicotica, el grado de aceptacion del sintoma fue bueno. Conclusiones. Las alucinaciones musicales son una patologia fronteriza entre la neurologia, la otorrinolaringologia y la psiquiatria poco conocida, que, con frecuencia, se vincula erroneamente a la enfermedad mental. Es fundamental explicar a pacientes y familiares el caracter no necesariamente psiquiatrico de este sintoma, asi como conocer la potencialidad que tienen algunos farmacos de uso comun para generarlo.

  10. [Neuropsychotherapy in brain injury rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa; Enseñat-Cantallops, Antònia; Sánchez-Carrión, Rocío

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. Las personas que han sufrido lesiones cerebrales pueden experimentar un amplio abanico de alteraciones cognitivas, conductuales y emocionales. No obstante, la rehabilitacion neuropsicologica acostumbra a centrarse, de manera casi exclusiva, en los deficits cognitivos y presta escasa atencion a los retos emocionales asociados al impacto psicologico de la lesion. En esta faceta mas personal del daño cerebral es donde la neuropsicoterapia puede ser de gran utilidad para facilitar el proceso de aceptacion y adaptacion despues de una lesion neurologica. Desarrollo. En el presente articulo se describen los aspectos teoricos y conceptuales de la psicoterapia orientada a personas con daño cerebral, implicaciones de los deficits cognitivos en la practica de la neuropsicoterapia y evidencias sobre su efectividad. Conclusiones. En el pasado se considero que la neuropsicoterapia tenia escasa utilidad en la rehabilitacion del daño cerebral. Hoy en dia, cada vez son mas los profesionales que reconocen su importancia en el abordaje del sufrimiento psicologico/emocional asociado al daño cerebral. El objetivo de la rehabilitacion neuropsicologica no es unicamente promover la recuperacion de las funciones cerebrales alteradas, sino tambien mejorar la capacidad funcional del individuo, tratar con sus experiencias de perdida y ayudarle a encontrar, de nuevo, sentido a la vida.

  11. [Museum diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Alcázar, Jaim

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: en el medio médico de México es común utilizar el término "diagnóstico de camión" para referirse al que puede hacerse sólo con echar un vistazo a alguna persona, gracias al conocimiento y experiencia previos, con algo de imaginación. Eso mismo, como especial privilegio, puede hacer el oftalmólogo al contemplar algunos cuadros de pintores famosos; es decir "diagnóstico de museo." Material y métodos: la investigación estética e histórica efectuada durante años proporcionó el material. Resultados: se expusieron algunos ejemplos en obras de Sharaku, Georg Groz, Il Bronzino, De la Tour, Vermeer, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Remedios Varo, Tolouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Ingres y otros. Conclusiones: los "diagnósticos de museo" hacen más interesantes los cuadros e incrementan el placer estético. El arte puede servir como herramienta para la enseñanza clínica de la oftalmología.

  12. [National consensus on the modified Atkins diet].

    PubMed

    Vaccarezza, María; Agustinho, Ariela; Alberti, M Julia; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; DeMartini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Diz, Mariana; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Gonzalez, Lara; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Rios, Viviana; Semprino, Marcos; Sosa, Patricia; Toma, Marisol; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-04-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que afecta al 0,5-1% de la poblacion, y un tercio de los pacientes evoluciona hacia una forma refractaria a los farmacos antiepilepticos. Dentro de los tratamientos no farmacologicos disponibles, la dieta cetogenica Atkins modificada es un tratamiento efectivo utilizado desde 2003 como otra alternativa en niños y adultos con epilepsia refractaria. Desarrollo. El Comite Nacional de Dieta Cetogenica, dependiente de la Sociedad Argentina de Neurologia Infantil, elaboro este consenso sobre dieta Atkins modificada basandose en una revision de la bibliografia y en su experiencia clinica. Este consenso explica los distintos aspectos que hay que tener en cuenta sobre la dieta Atkins modificada, eleccion de pacientes, forma de implementacion, diversos controles y efectos adversos. A diferencia de la dieta cetogenica clasica, se inicia sin ayuno ni hospitalizacion, y no hay restriccion proteica, calorica o hidrica, por lo que mejora la palatabilidad y, consecuentemente, la tolerabilidad. Conclusiones. La dieta Atkins modificada es un tratamiento util para pacientes con epilepsia intratable. La publicacion de este consenso ofrece la posibilidad de orientar a nuevos centros en su implementacion.

  13. [Neurological maturation retardation].

    PubMed

    Campos-Castelló, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. Los primeros años de vida, esencialmente los primeros tres, estan presididos por una serie de hechos anatomofuncionales que expresan el progresivo enriquecimiento de la conducta a traves del proceso de maduracion neurologica, expresado como el alcanzar en cada etapa del desarrollo el maximo nivel funcional a traves del aprendizaje. Desarrollo. A partir de la experiencia personal, se abordan los principales aspectos conceptuales que definen la maduracion neurologica tanto en los aspectos de la normalidad, es decir, sus limites, como sus desviaciones patologicas, precisando limites conceptuales del llamado retraso madurativo. Se analizan los conceptos de 'niño de riesgo', y su control neuroevolutivo y factores de pronostico. Conclusiones. El fin ultimo y primordial de todos los estudios longitudinales es la deteccion precoz de todas las anomalias neurologicas –incluido el retraso madurativo– que permita un tratamiento precoz, curativo o paliativo, evitando generar 'falsos positivos' y, si la patologia neurologica queda definida como residual, establecer la ayuda al paciente y su entorno familiar para que ambos se adapten adecuadamente a esta situacion.

  14. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    PubMed

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que afecta al 0,5-1% de la poblacion, mayormente de inicio durante la infancia. Un tercio de los pacientes evoluciona hacia una forma refractaria al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, lo que plantea al equipo de salud un desafio terapeutico. La dieta cetogenica (DC) es un tratamiento no farmacologico efectivo utilizado como un metodo alternativo para el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Objetivos. Es necesario establecer directrices para utilizar la DC adecuadamente y asi expandir su conocimiento y utilizacion en paises hispanoparlantes. El Comite Nacional de Dieta Cetogenica, dependiente de la Sociedad Argentina de Neurologia Infantil, elaboro este consenso para estandarizar el uso de la DC basandose en la bibliografia publicada y la experiencia clinica. El grupo esta formado por neuropediatras, medicos nutricionistas y licenciadas en nutricion de cinco provincias de Argentina pertenecientes a 10 centros que aplican la DC como tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria. Desarrollo. Se exponen temas tales como la seleccion del paciente, el asesoramiento a la familia antes del tratamiento, las interacciones de la DC con la medicacion anticonvulsionante, los suplementos, el control de efectos adversos y la retirada de dicha dieta. Conclusiones. La DC es un tratamiento util para los pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia intratable. Es fundamental la educacion y colaboracion del paciente y la familia. El tratamiento debe llevarlo a cabo un equipo interdisciplinar experimentado, siguiendo un protocolo. La formacion de un grupo nacional interdisciplinar, y la publicacion de este consenso, ofrece la posibilidad de orientar a nuevos centros en su implantacion.

  15. [Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: two paediatric cases].

    PubMed

    González-Toro, M Cristina; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Sempere-Pérez, Ángela; Martínez-Pastor, Pedro; Jover-Cerdá, Jenaro; Gómez-Gosálvez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. La encefalitis asociada a anticuerpos antirreceptores de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una patologia neurologica autoinmune documentada en la poblacion pediatrica de manera creciente en los ultimos años. Se presentan dos casos de nuestra experiencia con clinica similar. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: niña de 5 años que inicia un cuadro de convulsiones y alteracion de conciencia, asociando trastornos del movimiento y regresion de habilidades previamente adquiridas que evoluciona a autismo. Caso 2: niña de 13 años que presenta hemiparesia izquierda, movimientos anomalos, trastorno de conducta y disautonomia. En ambos casos se obtienen anticuerpos antirreceptores de NMDA positivos en el liquido cefalorraquideo y se diagnostican de encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA. En el primer caso se inicia el tratamiento con perfusion intravenosa de corticoides e inmunoglobulinas y es necesario asociar rituximab. En el segundo, corticoides e inmunoglobulinas. La evolucion fue favorable en ambas pacientes, con una leve alteracion del lenguaje como secuela en el primer caso y una recaida en el segundo caso, con resolucion completa. Conclusion. La encefalitis antirreceptor de NMDA es un trastorno tratable y es importante el diagnostico y tratamiento precoz, ya que mejora el pronostico y disminuye las recaidas.

  16. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  17. [Depressive phenomenology at the outset of neuropaediatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Narbona, Juan

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. La depresion, en sus diversas formas, afecta al 8-10% de niños y adolescentes y en la mayor parte de casos su origen es primario, siguiendo el modelo genetico multifactorial. Pero hay una proporcion de pacientes, no bien cuantificada todavia, en la que la depresion acompaña precozmente una enfermedad neurologica o marca un punto de inflexion en el curso de esta. El objetivo es revisar la bibliografia al respecto. Desarrollo. Se observa fenomenologia depresiva, con una frecuencia significativamente mayor que por azar, en niños y adolescentes afectos de epilepsia, trastornos del sueño, cefaleas primarias cronicas recurrentes, enfermedades neurometabolicas y tumores intracraneales. En varias de estas patologias neuropediatricas se hipotetizan puntos de coincidencia fisiopatologica con la depresion a traves de un deficit de disponibilidad cerebral de serotonina y noradrenalina. No se considera aqui la depresion disadaptativa a una neurodiscapacidad cronica. Conclusiones. En niños y adolescentes, los trastornos del animo sintomaticos de enfermedad neurologica deben sospecharse en ausencia de antecedentes familiares o de experiencias vitales que los expliquen. La busqueda sistematica de anomalias neurologicas y los examenes complementarios permitirian en estos casos abordar precozmente el tratamiento de la enfermedad cerebral causante del cuadro depresivo. A su vez, como ocurre en casos de epilepsia, cefaleas o trastorno del sueño, la terapia farmacologica y psicologica del cuadro depresivo contribuye a mejorar la calidad de vida de los afectados.

  18. [The mind-brain problem (II): about consciousness].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J; Goni-Saez, F

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. La conciencia es el resultado de una serie de procesos neurobiologicos en el cerebro y a su vez es un rasgo del nivel de su complejidad. En realidad, el estar y el ser consciente nos situan ante lo que Chalmers ha denominado el 'problema blando' y el 'problema duro' de la conciencia. El primero hace referencia a aspectos como la vigilia, la atencion o el conocimiento, y el segundo a conceptos tan complejos como autoconciencia, 'yo neural' o cognicion social. En este sentido se puede afirmar que el concepto de conciencia como algo unitario plantea problemas de acercamiento a una realidad sumamente compleja. Desarrollo. Planteamos los principales modelos que desde una perspectiva neurocientifica han abordado el tema de la conciencia. Por un lado, los modelos de experiencia consciente de Crick, Edelman y Tononi, y Llinas, y por otro, los modelos y las bases neuronales de la autoconciencia de autores como Damasio (conciencia central y extendida), Tulving (conciencia autonoetica, noetica y cronestesia), el problema de los qualia (Dennett, Popper, Ramachandran) y el modelo de los cognitos (Fuster). Conclusiones. Todos los estimulos que recibimos del mundo externo y de nuestro mundo interno son convertidos y tratados por el cerebro para integrarlos y que formen parte de nuestra identidad. Desde la percepcion de un perro y reconocerlo como tal hasta la comprension de la propia conciencia responden al funcionamiento de estructuras cerebrales, neuronas y sinapsis. Ahora bien, los procesos mas complejos de la conciencia, como la autoconciencia o la empatia, son probablemente procesos emergentes del cerebro.

  19. [Gender and work: the experience of providers of health services to indigenous women from Guerrero y Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia Isabel; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara

    2012-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to identify the role of gender for women as workers, through the perception and discourse of health service providers at the 'Health Centers for Indigenous Women' ("Casas de Salud de las Mujeres Indígenas") in Ometepec, Guerrero and Matías Romero, Oaxaca, Mexico. It is a qualitative study, based on a secondary analysis of the interviews conducted as part of the "Rescatando la experiencia de la Casa de la Mujer Indígena: sistematización y evaluación del proceso" project. A strong sense of the value of work and a strong commitment towards the community were identified. Guilt appears as the result of tension between work outside the home and the responsibilities as mothers and wives. The possibility of helping other women is a source of gratification that dissipates these conflicts; prestige and recognition are added to the benefits of their role. The labor experience of female workers in the "Casas de Salud de las Mujeres Indígenas" of Matías Romero, Oaxaca and Ometepec, Guerrero, described in this paper, reveals that it has very specific characteristics, which are difficult to replicate in other regions of the country. In future studies it is necessary to consider the different contexts of vulnerability. PMID:22450415

  20. [Multicentric hyaline vascular Castleman's disease. A POEMS type variant].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Ramos, Abraham Edgar; Cruz-Domínguez, María del Pilar; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Castleman es un trastorno linfoproliferativo atípico en el que pueden existir manifestaciones compatibles con síndrome POEMS. Caso clínico: hombre de 53 años de edad con antecedente de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Addison. Se iniciaron parestesias y debilidad en las extremidades y, posteriormente, disnea, endurecimiento cutáneo, fenómeno de Raynaud y pérdida de peso. Se identificó taquipnea, hiperpigmentación cutánea generalizada y extremidades con endurecimiento cutáneo, debilidad muscular, hipoestesia e hiporreflexia; así como hiperprolactinemia, testosterona baja, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Addison; los anticuerpos antinucleares y antiScl-70 fueron negativos. Los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales indicaron neuropatía periférica y la electromiografía, olineuropatía axonal severa. Radiografía torácica: infiltrado reticular bilateral y ensanchamiento mediastinal. Electrocardiograma: hipertensión arterial pulmonar moderada. Tomografía toracoabdominal: ganglios axilares, mediastinales y retroperitoneales. Con la biopsia se identificó enfermedad de Castleman multicéntrica hialina vascular. El paciente recibió rituximab. Conclusiones: si bien la experiencia con el rituximab aún es limitada, en el caso descrito se observó buena respuesta.

  1. [Influenza-like illness. Therapeutic experience in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cortés, Gerardo; García-Zavala, Guadalupe Ulises; Estrada-Andrade, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la influenza es una enfermedad respiratoria muy contagiosa. Se debe iniciar el tratamiento antiviral en las primeras 48 horas para evitar la neumonía. El objetivo de este informe es describir la experiencia en el tratamiento de la enfermedad tipo influenza en una unidad de medicina familiar. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de pacientes que acudieron a urgencias con enfermedad tipo influenza (fiebre de 38 °C, cefalea y tos, acompañadas de otro síntoma) y que fueron contactados por vía telefónica. Los datos se expresan en media ± desviación estándar. Resultados: de 537 consultas por infecciones respiratorias agudas, 1.3 % reunió los criterios de enfermedad tipo influenza; 85.7 % era del sexo masculino. El promedio de la edad fue de 18 ± 24.21 años. La atención inicial ocurrió a las 19.14 horas después de que se iniciaron los síntomas. Todos los pacientes recibieron oseltamivir y zanamivir; 14.3 % presentó neumonía. El 100 % se restableció. No hubo enfermedades concomitantes. Conclusiones: existe un protocolo para el manejo de la enfermedad tipo influenza que hace posible el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos de los pacientes.

  2. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. PMID:25724751

  3. [Prevalence and differentiating aspects related to gender with regard to the bullying phenomenon in poor countries].

    PubMed

    Romera Félix, Eva M; Del Rey Alamillo, Rosario; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario

    2011-11-01

    There is a large body of scientific knowledge about school violence and bullying in Europe and some other regions of the so-called developed world. However, improvement is scarce in poor and developing regions, as in the case of Latin America and, in particular, Nicaragua. The goal of this work was to determine the prevalence of the bullying phenomenon in Nicaraguan primary schools, to analyze the eventual relationships between the different forms of violence used by the students and to explore, in relation to these aspects, the similarities and differences between boys and girls. For this purpose, we surveyed 3042 pupils of primary school (50.3% girls) using the "Cuestionario sobre Convivencia, Violencia y Experiencias de Riesgo" (COVER, in English, Questionnaire about Living Together, Violence and Risk Experiences). We found that the level of involvement in bullying is significantly higher than in developed countries, that boys are more involved than girls in verbal, physical and psychological bullying, and that there are no differences with regard to social exclusion. The results are discussed, comparing them with studies conducted in different countries but with similar methodologies. PMID:22047849

  4. [Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) across different levels of pediatric training].

    PubMed

    Di Lalla, Sandra; Manjarin, Mercedes; Torres, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Wainsztein, Raquel; Ferrero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes:Evaluar competencias profesionales es objetivo principal de todo programa de capacitación; el examen clínico objetivo estructurado (ECOE) es una herramienta útil para explorarlas. Objetivo:Describimos la implementación del ECOE en tres instancias de enseñanza de la pediatría (carrera de especialista, módulo pediatría del internado anual rotatorio, materia pediatría en el grado). Métodos: En relación con situaciones y patologías frecuentes en pediatría, se evaluaron conocimiento aplicado, juicio clínico y habilidad comunicacional. Resultados: En el posgrado el ECOE se aplica desde hace 8 años, examinando 330 alumnos, con 60%-82% de aprobación. En el Internado Anual Rotatorio el ECOE se emplea desde hace 2 años, examinando 12 alumnos, con 84% de aprobación. En el grado el ECOE se empleó sólo en una oportunidad, examinando 15 alumnos, con 93,4% de aprobación. Conclusión:En nuestra experiencia, a pesar de desafíos logísticos, la implementación del ECOE fue factible en distintas instancias de enseñanza de la pediatría.

  5. The experience of bedaquiline implementation at a decentralised clinic in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cariem, R.; Cox, V.; de Azevedo, V.; Hughes, J.; Mohr, E.; Durán, L. Triviño; Ndjeka, N.

    2016-01-01

    centro de atención Nolungile. En general, los miembros del personal del centro refirieron una experiencia positiva con la administración del medicamento. Las dificultades surgieron en gran parte con respecto a aspectos logísticos del suministro y la administración del medicamento. Es posible iniciar un tratamiento eficaz con BDQ en condiciones ambulatorias, y represente una experiencia positiva para los pacientes y los profesionales de salud. PMID:27695682

  6. The experience of bedaquiline implementation at a decentralised clinic in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cariem, R.; Cox, V.; de Azevedo, V.; Hughes, J.; Mohr, E.; Durán, L. Triviño; Ndjeka, N.

    2016-01-01

    centro de atención Nolungile. En general, los miembros del personal del centro refirieron una experiencia positiva con la administración del medicamento. Las dificultades surgieron en gran parte con respecto a aspectos logísticos del suministro y la administración del medicamento. Es posible iniciar un tratamiento eficaz con BDQ en condiciones ambulatorias, y represente una experiencia positiva para los pacientes y los profesionales de salud.

  7. [Physical activity by pregnant women and its influence on maternal and foetal parameters; a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Rodríguez Blanque, R; Noack Segovia, J P; Pozo Cano, M D; López-Contreras, G; Mur Villar, N

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Las múltiples ventajas que aporta a la salud la práctica de una actividad física de forma continuada son conocidas. Aunque es importante en todas las etapas de la vida, cuando llega la gestación aparecen algunas dudas sobre la conveniencia de realizar ejercicio físico, así como del tipo de actividad, de su frecuencia, intensidad y duración. Objetivo: Analizar los principales estudios sobre la influencia de la actividad física sobre los parámetros materno- fetales. Método: Revisión sistemática de programas de actividad física destinados a las mujeres embarazadas y sus resultados durante el embarazo, el parto y el postparto. Se identificaron 45 artículos a través de la búsqueda automatizada en las bases de datos PUBMED, Scopus y Google Scholar; se llevó a cabo entre los meses de octubre de 2013 y marzo de 2014. Para seleccionar los artículos fue preciso considerar la utilidad y la relevancia del tema estudiado y la credibilidad o experiencia de los autores en la temática. Se tuvo en cuenta la validez interna y externa de cada uno de los artículos revisados. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la revisión ponen de manifiesto la importancia de la actividad física durante el periodo gestacional y se constata que la información disponible en la actualidad puede servir de referente inicial para continuar profundizando en los resultados que sobre la salud materno fetal tiene la práctica de actividad física en el medio acuático.

  8. [Endovascular treatment of spinal dorsal intradural arteriovenous fistulas].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Collado-Arce, María Griselda Lizbeth; Dávila-Romero, Julio César; Saavedra-Andrade, Rafael; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: las fístulas arteriovenosas intradurales dorsales espinales (FAVIDE) son lesiones poco frecuentes y complejas que son subdiagnósticadas y condicionan discapacidad. El objetivo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo endovascular. Métodos: estudio ambispectivo de pacientes con FAVIDE, tratados mediante terapia endovascular (TEV) con n-butil-cianoacrilato en el periodo de 2007 a 2013. Resultados: se incluyeron 15 pacientes con edad media de 37 años. En 12 casos la presentación fue progresiva e insidiosa en un lapso de entre 6 meses y un año, mientras que 3 presentaron hemorragia. La lesión tuvo localización torácica en 73 % de los casos, lumbar en 20 % y cervical en 7 %. Previo al tratamiento observamos discapacidad de grados 5 y 4 en 73 %, y 67 % tenían alteraciones de la micción de grado 3. Como complicaciones, solo una paciente tuvo deterioro del estado de alerta transitorio 6 horas después del procedimiento. Se encontró una mejoría hacia los grados 1 y 2 de discapacidad, a las 48 horas, 3 y 6 meses, de 53 %, 73 % y 87 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones: con la TEV se tiene un tiempo quirúrgico corto, el volumen de hemorragia es bajo y la estancia hospitalaria es corta, respecto de otras técnicas quirúrgicas. La TEV es un procedimiento seguro y con efectividad significativa en el tratamiento de FAVIDE. Esta es la primera serie de casos tratados con TEV en México.

  9. Astronomy at School: Measurements of the Earth-Moon Distance. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela: Medición de la Distancia Tierra-Luna.) Astronomia na Escola: Medida da Distância Terra-Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, Santiago; Pintado, Olga I.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this project is to approach High School students to Science. We propose to measure the Earth-Moon distance using the parallax. The observation and measurements techniques and all the calculations needed are described in this paper. The results obtained in a test experience realized during 2003 are presented. This test shows that this is a feasible project and also shows which things needed to be improved. Se plantea la propuesta de un proyecto educativo dirigido al Nivel Medio de enseñanza, consistente en la determinación de la distancia Tierra - Luna por paralaje. Se describen las técnicas de observación, mediciones y cálculos. Se proporcionan a continuación los resultados obtenidos en la experiencia piloto realizada en el 2003, la que permitió comprobar la factibilidad de llevar a cabo la propuesta, así como perfeccionar los diferentes aspectos involucrados en la misma. Propomos neste trabalho um projeto educativo dirigido ao Ensino Médio que consiste na determinação da distância Terra-Lua pelo efeito da paralaxe. As técnicas de observação, medidas e cálculos auxiliares são descritos, e os resultados obtidos numa experiência-teste realizada no ano de 2003 apresentados. Este último teste permitiu comprovar a viabilidade de execução da proposta e aperfeiçoar diversos aspectos da mesma.

  10. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  11. [Migraine and evolutionary theory: paths for a clinical approach].

    PubMed

    Alvaro-Gonzalez, L C

    2016-10-01

    Introduccion. La migraña es un trastorno muy comun, con incidencia en aumento. La teoria evolutiva permite explicar su aparicion, dadas las ventajas que aportaba a grupos originarios de Homo sapiens una mayor reactividad a estimulos, y la presencia creciente de interaccion con factores ambientales. Analizamos estos aspectos a traves de los mecanismos potenciales que los explican. Desarrollo. El diseño de los organismos y sus respuestas ambientales surgen para mejorar la supervivencia. Asi, el dolor y la cefalea pueden entenderse como respuestas homeostaticas y adaptativas. Menos del 10% de la poblacion no tiene experiencia de cefalea, y el fenotipo migrañoso es una repuesta dolorosa comun en formas secundarias y sindromicas de cefalea. Estas caracteristicas se entienden segun rasgos neurofisiologicos especificos (falta de habituacion, sensibilizacion y baja preactivacion), caracteristicas geneticas (trastorno poligenico con multiples genes de baja penetrancia, que interaccionan con el ambiente y que son comunes a los de los trastornos comorbidos, como depresion-ansiedad) e interaccion ambiental en las sociedades modernas (aumento del numero de ciclos estrogenicos, y especialmente sobreexposicion al estres). Conclusiones. Lo que fue una ventaja evolutiva se ha transformado en la sociedad moderna en un trastorno muy prevalente y frecuentemente incapacitante. Es el resultado de una interaccion con sobrecarga de estimulos externos (estres) e internos (hormonales), lo que, de acuerdo con la teoria evolutiva, convertiria a la migraña en una enfermedad por desajuste. Los efectos ocurririan precozmente, en la infancia, a traves de mecanismos de epigenetica. Se obtendria un gran beneficio terapeutico mediante intervenciones poblacionales y educativas que incorporen estos aspectos.

  12. [Development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the impact of networks of support for breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Baño Piñero, Isabel; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Carrillo García, Cesar; López Araez, Alicia; Martínez Roche, María Emilia

    2015-04-01

    Antecedentes: partimos de la hipótesis de que no existen suficientes cuestionarios validados que midan el impacto de las redes de apoyo a la lactancia materna para población hispano hablante. Objetivo: Por ese motivo, nos planteamos como objetivo general de este trabajo, elaborar y validar (a nivel de contenido y constructo) un instrumento de medida cuantitativa. Método: Se evaluó la validez de contenido sometiendo el cuestionario a un juicio de expertos en lactancia materna de la Región de Murcia. La prueba piloto se llevó a cabo entre los meses de marzo y abril de 2014. Las encuestas fueron realizadas directamente por las usuarias que acudían al grupo de apoyo a la lactancia “Lactando”. Para la validez de constructo se realizó un análisis factorial con el que se determinaron las distintas dimensiones que el cuestionario podría medir. Se realizó una estadística descriptiva de cada uno de los ítems. A través del análisis de componentes principales, se obtuvo la varianza total explicada, determinando así, los factores con los elementos que los definían. Resultados: A través del análisis factorial, el cuestionario obtuvo una alta consistencia interna para sus cinco componentes (satisfacción, consultas, experiencia, problemas y apoyo), consiguiendo valores de 0,942 a 0,632. Y un porcentaje de varianza total explicada elevado (11,157% - 5,093%). Conclusión: Este estudio ha servido para crear un instrumento pertinente y válido a nivel de contenido y de constructo, capaz de medir el impacto de las redes de apoyo a la lactancia a través de 5 dimensiones.

  13. [Type IV paraesophageal hernia with 60% of gastric necrosis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tovar, Fernando; Juárez-de La Torre, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Ayala, Luis Carlos; Quintero-Cabrera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las hernias paraesofágicas son de baja incidencia y generalmente asintomáticas; sin embargo, cuando provocan síntomas, el riesgo de complicaciones se incrementa y se convierten en una urgencia quirúrgica. Caso clínico: mujer de 53 años de edad, con cuadro clínico de tres semanas de evolución, caracterizado por dolor abdominal, náusea y vómito ocasionales, a lo que se agregó oclusión intestinal 24 horas antes de que acudiera a consulta. En la valoración radiográfica y tomográfica se observó una hernia paraesofágica que requería laparotomía exploradora. Se encontró un defecto diafragmático paraesofágico de 9 cm, con un saco herniario de contenido del estómago, colon transverso y epiplón, con necrosis gástrica de 60% (en el fondo y el cuerpo). Se le practicó una resección gástrica no anatómica y plastia diafragmática. El periodo postoperatorio fue complicado porque se le hicieron otras dos intervenciones quirúrgicas por dehiscencia de gastrectomía y una más por esofagostomía cervical y yeyunostomía tipo Witzel. Conclusiones: se recomienda la reparación electiva en todos los sujetos asintomáticos con hernia paraesofágica, con el fin de evitar las posibles complicaciones. El método de abordaje depende de la experiencia del cirujano y de las condiciones en que se encuentre la hernia y las estructuras involucradas al momento del diagnóstico.

  14. [Ethics committees in the experience of the IMSS: a Latin American instance].

    PubMed

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Mata-Valderrama, Guadalupe; Bedolla, Miguel; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es examinar la situación actual de los comités hospitalarios de bioética (CHB) y de los comités locales de investigación y ética en investigación en salud (CLIEIS) del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Métodos: estudio cuantitativo, transversal descriptivo, realizado entre octubre y noviembre de 2014. Se enviaron por correo electrónico dos cuestionarios, autoadministrados o de autorreporte, a todos los hospitales del IMSS (N = 262): uno para los CHB y otro para los CLIEIS. Cinco apartados contenían ambos cuestionarios: localización del comité, fecha en la que fue constituido, estado actual de actividad, composición, funciones y experiencia. Resultados: la tasa de respuesta fue de 85 %. Se identificaron 150 CHB activos y 67 CLIEIS activos. En ambos grupos predominó la profesión médica y el personal directivo entre sus integrantes. Los representantes de la ciudadanía sólo fueron reportados en siete CHB. La función primaria reportada por los CHB fue la consultiva, y su meta primaria: “mejorar la calidad de la atención médica”. Los CLIEIS señalaron como función primaria: “evaluar y dictaminar protocolos de investigación en salud” y dentro de sus metas el “proteger los derechos y el bienestar de los sujetos de investigación”. Conclusiones: ambos grupos de comités debieran ser evaluados regularmente a través de ciclos de auditoría con el propósito de identificar las acciones educativas que promuevan su eficiencia.

  15. Classification of structural lesions in magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical implications in drug-resistant epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, C V; Pastor, J; Garcia-Navarrete, E; Pulido-Rivas, P; Sola, R G

    2015-09-16

    Introduccion. En la seleccion quirurgica del paciente con epilepsia farmacorresistente, el papel de la resonancia magnetica (RM) no se ha cuantificado hasta el momento. Presentamos la experiencia en nuestra Unidad de Cirugia de la Epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los pacientes intervenidos por epilepsia farmacorresistente. Distinguimos dos periodos: 1990-2000 (RM de 0,5 T) y 2001-2008 (RM de 1,5 T). La RM preoperatoria se clasifico en tres grupos: RM con lesion quirurgica (LQ), RM orientativa (LO) y RM normal (NL). Tambien se efectuo una clasificacion anatomopatologica similar. Se correlacionaron las distintas clasificaciones y los resultados quirurgicos. Resultados. Periodo 1990-2000: 151 pacientes. El 70% quedo en las clases de Engel I o II. Segun la RM, los resultados fueron: LQ, 87%; LO, 65%; y NL, 57%. Las diferencias fueron estadisticamente significativas. Periodo 2001-2008: 114 pacientes. El 89% quedo en las clases de Engel I o II. Segun la RM: LQ, 100%; LO, 90%; y NL, 81%. Las diferencias fueron estadisticamente significativas. Los pacientes con epilepsia del lobulo temporal y extratemporal con LQ tuvieron un 100% de control; con LO, el 95% con epilepsia del lobulo temporal y el 43% con estado epileptico; en aquellos pacientes sin lesion (NL), el 88% con epilepsia del lobulo temporal se controlo frente al 50% con estado epileptico. Conclusiones. La RM es una herramienta eficaz en la seleccion de candidatos quirurgicos en la epilepsia. La LQ asocia muy buen pronostico. En la epilepsia del lobulo temporal se pueden obtener muy buenos resultados (80-90% de control) a pesar de una RM normal. En el estado epileptico, las LO pueden tener peor resultado que la NL en la RM.

  16. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  17. [Dapagliflozin, a novel oral antidiabetic with an uncertain future].

    PubMed

    Escudero Vilaplana, Belén; Almodóvar Carretón, María José; Herrero Hernández, Silvia

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es uno de los principales problemas sociosanitarios a nivel mundial, para la que existen multitud de tratamientos. Recientemente, se ha aprobado el primer farmaco de una nueva familia de antidiabeticos orales (ADO): la dapagliflozina. Nuestro objetivo es revisar la evidencia cientifica disponible sobre la dapagliflozina, con el fin de analizar su eficacia, seguridad y coste y poder estimar su papel en la farmacoterapia actual de la DM2. Métodos: La eficacia y seguridad de la dapagliflozina se analizaron mediante una evaluacion de la evidencia cientifica. El coste de los diferentes ADO se calculo en base a sus dosis diarias definidas (DDD) y al precio de venta del laboratorio. Resultados: Se identificaron 7 ensayos clinicos aleatorizados: 2 en monoterapia (840 pacientes) y 5 en terapia combinada con otros antidiabeticos (3184 pacientes). En los 7 ensayos, la dapagliflozina redujo la concentracion de HbA1c; en todos se comparo con placebo, salvo en un estudio en terapia combinada que se comparo frente a farmaco activo (glipizida). Entre los efectos adversos mas frecuentes se detectaron infecciones genitourinarias e hipotension, aunque se debe prestar especial atencion al incremento del cancer de vejiga. Junto con los inhibidores de la DPP-4, la dapagliflozina es uno de los ADO de mayor coste (coste anual de DDD=729,3 euros). Conclusiones: La dapagliflozina no aporta ventajas respecto a la farmacoterapia de la DM2 ya existente. Su falta de experiencia de uso, la ausencia de importantes beneficios clinicos y su elevado coste hacen necesario restringir su utilizacion.

  18. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  19. [Status epilepticus in paediatrics: a retrospective study and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Medinilla, Esther E; Negrillo-Ruano, Rocío; Calvo-Medina, Rocío; Mora-Ramírez, M Dolores; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto L

    2015-05-01

    Introduccion. El estado epileptico (EE) es la emergencia neurologica mas frecuente en pediatria. Dada la posibilidad de secuelas neurologicas y mortalidad asociadas, requiere un tratamiento agresivo precoz. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo a traves de la revision de historias clinicas de pacientes ingresados en nuestro hospital entre 2010-2013 con diagnostico de EE. El objetivo fue describir las caracteristicas epidemiologicas y el manejo de estos pacientes, asi como revisar la bibliografia disponible sobre este tema. Resultados. Hemos recogido 39 pacientes (25 varones) y 51 episodios de EE. Edad media: 4,8 años. Tenian enfermedad de base 22 pacientes. Dieciocho eran epilepticos conocidos y cinco tuvieron un EE previo. De los 51 episodios de EE, 33 fueron sintomaticos, 15 febriles y tres criptogenicos. Los tipos de EE fueron: 25 parciales (de ellos, 16 complejos) y 26 generalizados. El tratamiento de primera eleccion fue benzodiacepinas en 47 pacientes (40, diacepam), fenitoina en tres y acido valproico en uno. Veintisiete pacientes precisaron farmacos de segunda linea: 16, acido valproico; ocho, fenitoina; dos, fenobarbital; y uno, levetiracetam. Diez pacientes precisaron farmacos de tercera linea para la induccion del coma: el midazolam fue el mas utilizado en nuestro centro, seguido del tiopental y el propofol. Dos EE superrefractarios requirieron inmunoglobulinas y corticoides sistemicos por presentarse en el curso de encefalitis autoinmunes. Conclusiones. Debe plantearse el esquema terapeutico del EE desde el inicio de cualquier crisis convulsiva. El tratamiento es escalonado, con benzodiacepinas en la primera etapa, antiepilepticos de amplio espectro y disponibilidad intravenosa en la segunda (acido valproico, levetiracetam en el EE generalizado y fenitoina en el EE focal), mientras que el tercer nivel varia en funcion de la experiencia de cada equipo.

  20. [Drama therapy for the prevention of workplace violence].

    PubMed

    Hermoso Lloret, Diana; Cervantes Ortega, Genís; Blanch, Josep Maria; Ochoa Pacheco, Paola

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Lograr, mediante una intervención formadora y preventiva, un cambio significativo en la experiencia emocional de un grupo de profesionales de la salud expuestos a situaciones de riesgo de violencia ocupacional. MÉTODO: 143 profesionales de la salud catalanes participaron en un curso de prevención de riesgos laborales cuyo contenido se basó en la articulación de técnicas de escenificación teatral y de estrategias psicoterapéuticas y se centró en la interpretación de episodios de violencia en el lugar de trabajo. Su participación en el programa fue voluntaria y fueron seleccionados atendiendo a los criterios de tipo de asistencia prestada y de diversidad profesional. Antes y después del programa les fue aplicado un cuestionario. RESULTADOS: El 92% de los participantes declaró haber presenciado y el 85% haber vivido personalmente algún episodio violento en los últimos cinco años. La comparación de las puntuaciones medias de antes y después indica que la intervención incrementa la valoración positiva de la eficacia de la propia actuación y de las propias competencias de comunicación (p< 0,001) e induce vivencias emocionales en la línea de unamayor tranquilidad (p< 0,005) y unamenor ansiedad (p< 0,005) con respecto al incidente violento. CONCLUSIONES: La escenificación vivencial de las situaciones estresantes es un instrumento útil para el aprendizaje de la gestión de las emociones, que incrementa el grado percibido de la propia capacidad de manejo de la comunicación y del trabajo en equipo y del propio estrés profesional.

  1. [Response to everolimus in patients with giant cell astrocytoma associated to tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Mateos-González, M Elena; López-Laso, Eduardo; Vicente-Rueda, Josefina; Camino-León, Rafael; Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; Baena-Gómez, M Auxiliadora; Peña-Rosa, M José

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los astrocitomas subependimarios de celulas gigantes (SEGA) se presentan en el 5-20% de los pacientes con complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) y son los tumores cerebrales mas comunes en el CET. Son tumores benignos, de estirpe glioneural, que se desarrollan fundamentalmente en las primeras dos decadas de la vida, en general cercanos al foramen de Monro, y pueden ocasionar hidrocefalia e hipertension intracraneal. Constituyen la principal causa de muerte en el CET. Recientemente, los inhibidores mTOR han demostrado ser una alternativa terapeutica a la reseccion quirurgica. Objetivo. Describir nuestra experiencia con everolimus para el tratamiento de pacientes con SEGA y CET. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo de la respuesta de los pacientes con CET y al menos un SEGA en crecimiento. Resultados. Recibieron tratamiento tres mujeres y tres varones con una edad media de 12,3 años. Un paciente habia sido previamente intervenido quirurgicamente por SEGA con hidrocefalia. El diametro maximo medio del SEGA al inicio del tratamiento era de 15,3 mm (rango: 11,3-24,8 mm). Se inicio tratamiento con everolimus, 2,5 mg/dia por via oral en pacientes con superficie corporal < 1,2 m2 y 5 mg/dia en pacientes con superficie corporal > 1,2 m2. Dos pacientes presentaron hipertrigliceridemia; uno, anorexia; otro, un afta; y una paciente, amenorrea. La reduccion media del volumen del SEGA a los tres meses de tratamiento fue del 46%, y la reduccion se mantuvo estable en controles posteriores (6-25 meses). Conclusiones. El tratamiento con everolimus disminuye el tamaño de los SEGA asociados a CET con un perfil de seguridad adecuado, y constituye una alternativa a la cirugia en casos seleccionados.

  2. [Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. A series of 27 patients: their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The current situation of the patients and the opinions of their caregivers regarding the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lago, Raquel; Málaga, Ignacio; García-Peñas, Juan José; García-Ron, Adrián

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn (SWH) es una cromosomopatia producida por una delecion en la region distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4. Se caracteriza por la presencia de un fenotipo peculiar, retraso en el crecimiento, retraso del desarrollo psicomotor y epilepsia. Objetivos. Describir las caracteristicas de una serie de niños con SWH, incluido el tiempo medio empleado para el diagnostico, y valorar la opinion de las familias sobre el proceso diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Se contacto con la Asociacion Nacional de SWH y, a traves de ella, con 29 familias afectadas. Se recogio informacion sobre la clinica del niño y la opinion sobre el proceso diagnostico, y se solicitaron informes medicos que confirmaran la informacion facilitada. Constituida una base de datos de pacientes, se procedio a su analisis estadistico. Resultados. Se obtuvo informacion de 27 familias. Los pacientes presentan una edad media actual de 6,94 ± 6,37 años. La edad media de diagnostico fue de 14,34 meses. Existe retraso del crecimiento intrauterino en el 92,6% de los embarazos. Un 92,6% de los pacientes presenta epilepsia, el 44,4% de ellos en monoterapia. Existe retraso del desarrollo psicomotor/cognitivo en todos los pacientes. Camina sin ayuda el 33%. Los padres califican con una nota media de 7,25 ± 2,17 el trato ofrecido por los facultativos y de 6,29 ± 2,11 la informacion recibida. Conclusiones. No se han encontrado referencias a la edad media de diagnostico para el SWH. En nuestra muestra, existen variaciones importantes en este aspecto, posiblemente condicionadas por el fenotipo del caso y la experiencia del medico. Las caracteristicas clinicas son similares a las esperadas. El grado de dependencia estimado es alto y la calidad de la informacion recibida por la familia, baja.

  3. [What is the optimal dose for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine patients?].

    PubMed

    Irimia, Pablo; Esteve-Belloch, Patricia; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Martinez-Vila, Eduardo

    2014-03-10

    Introduccion. La OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) esta indicada para el tratamiento preventivo de los pacientes con diagnostico de migraña cronica. Existe cierta controversia acerca de cual es la dosis minima eficaz de OnabotA. Objetivo. Determinar cual es la dosis mas adecuada de OnabotA para el tratamiento de la migraña cronica. Desarrollo. Se revisan los estudios controlados frente a placebo, que han evaluado la eficacia y seguridad de OnabotA para el tratamiento de la migraña, prestando especial atencion a las dosis de toxina utilizadas. En los diferentes ensayos clinicos llevados a cabo antes del año 2010 se utilizaron distintos protocolos de infiltracion. La experiencia obtenida de los estudios previos permitio definir un protocolo de infiltracion que se utilizo en el programa PREEMPT, y que demostro que el tratamiento con OnabotA es seguro y eficaz en pacientes con migraña cronica. La dosis elegida en los ensayos PREEMPT 1 y 2 fue de 155-195 U, al observarse en los estudios en fase II que la dosis de 75 U no era eficaz y que la utilizacion de 150-200 U aumentaba la eficacia sin incrementar los efectos adversos. Ademas de la dosis, el paradigma de inyeccion PREEMPT tambien establece de manera detallada los puntos de inyeccion y la metodologia de infiltracion. Conclusiones. La evidencia cientifica disponible hasta la fecha sustenta que la dosis mas adecuada para el tratamiento de la migraña cronica es la utilizacion de al menos 150 U de OnabotA, y que la infiltracion debe realizarse con la metodologia definida en el paradigma de inyeccion PREEMPT.

  4. [DEMOCOPHES SPAIN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HARMONIZATION OF EUROPEAN HUMAN BIOMONITORING].

    PubMed

    Esteban López, Marta; López Martín, Estrella; Rodríguez García, Carolina; Posada De la Paz, Manuel; Castaño Calvo, Argelia

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM.

  5. [Quality of life in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Gomez, J L; Vidriales-Fernandez, R; Carvajal-Molina, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. El concepto de calidad de vida tiene gran importancia en la intervencion dirigida a las personas con discapacidad. Resulta indiscutible que el alcance de una calidad de vida satisfactoria debe ser el objetivo de las intervenciones clinicas dirigidas al colectivo de personas con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y un elemento clave para diseñar los tratamientos necesarios que mejoren el pronostico de desarrollo futuro. A pesar de ello, el conocimiento sobre las condiciones objetivas y subjetivas que predicen una mayor satisfaccion en las personas con TEA es aun muy limitado. Objetivo. Explorar la percepcion de la calidad de vida que experimenta un grupo de niños y adolescentes con TEA sin discapacidad intelectual asociada. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra de 12 niños y 11 adolescentes con TEA sin discapacidad intelectual asociada. Dependiendo de la edad, se les aplico el cuestionario de calidad de vida especifico. Resultados. Ambos grupos informan positivamente sobre su calidad, sin que existan diferencias en las dimensiones basicas. No obstante, en el caso de los adolescentes se obtienen puntuaciones mas bajas en el area de autodeterminacion en comparacion con las demas. Conclusiones. La discusion se centra en la identificacion de las dimensiones mas relevantes para la calidad de vida, las implicaciones para la intervencion y la necesidad de adecuar las metodologias empleadas para la evaluacion subjetiva de estos factores, debido a que las caracteristicas de los TEA pueden alterar las habilidades necesarias para la valoracion de la experiencia personal y requerir la adaptacion de los procedimientos empleados.

  6. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambiar sus prácticas de manejo que aquellos con menos

  7. [Complications of conventional and laparoscopic gastric bypass. Prospective and comparative study].

    PubMed

    Gramática, Luis; Palas Zúñiga, César E; Moreno, Walter; Álvarez Padilla, Facundo; Arias, Ariel; Lerda, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el bypass gástrico en y de roux para el tratamiento de la obesidad mórbida representa hoy en día la opción terapéutica más segura y eficiente. la era laparoscópica ha demostrado sus beneficios en este tipo de cirugía, por lo que algunos autores abogan por su implementación en forma casi sistemática, conduciendo en los últimos años al inexorable cambio en la vía de abordaje. Objetivos: evaluar y comparar las complicaciones del bypass gástrico laparoscópico y convencional en pacientes con obesidad mórbida. Lugar de aplicación: hospital nacional universitario de autogestión. Diseño: estudio comparativo, prospectivo no randomizado. Población: entre el 2002 y 2011, 420 pacientes con obesidad mórbida recibieron un tratamiento quirúrgico para la obesidad ya sea en forma laparoscópica (253) o convencional (167). Resultados: el porcentaje de complicaciones postoperatorias tempranas fue del 4% en el grupo bgl y del 34% en el bgc (p <05, ic95% 22 - 38), representadas en su mayoría por seromas (25%) y abscesos de pared (5,4%). el porcentaje de complicaciones postoperatorias tardías fue del 2,8% en el grupo bgl y del 9,6% en el bgc (p= 0.004, ic95% 1,4 - 12,2), siendo las más frecuentes las eventraciones (7,2%). Conclusiones: de acuerdo a nuestra experiencia y a la literatura consultada, el bypass gástrico laparoscópico es un procedimiento seguro, reproducible y con una menor tasa de complicaciones tanto tempranas como tardías que el bg c, por lo que consideramos y ofrecemos al bgl como técnica ideal en el tratamiento de los pacientes con obesidad mórbida.

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Muros-Molina, José Joaquín; Espejo-Garcés, Tamara; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Linares-Manrique, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la dieta mediterránea (DM) representa uno de los modelos dietéticos más completos y sanos según expresan numerosos estudios. En este sentido, la etapa universitaria supone un cambio sustancial en los hábitos alimentarios de los adultos jóvenes, alejándose de los estándares asociados a la DM. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de adherencia a la DM de un sector de población universitaria, estableciendo patrones de relación con el tipo de población en el que reside y hábitos de ocio digital asociados a videojuegos. Material y métodos: en esta investigación de diseño descriptivo y corte transversal participaron 490 estudiantes universitarios (M = 22,8 años; DT = 3,639), realizándose la recogida de datos mediante los cuestionarios KIDMED, Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con los Videojuegos (CERV) y Cuestionario sobre los Hábitos de Consumo de Videojuegos (CHCV). Resultados: más del 70% de la muestra necesitaba mejorar su alimentación y solo un 26,1% se alimentaba adecuadamente. Asimismo, los niveles de adicción a los videojuegos mostraron que un 17,8% de los participantes manifestaba problemas potenciales y un 2,7% severos. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en las relaciones dadas para la adhesión a la DM, la frecuencia de uso de videojuegos y el número de videojuegos jugados, concretando que los hábitos de consumo de videojuegos influyen en la adhesión a la DM en la etapa universitaria. Conclusión: ante el bajo porcentaje de universitarios que siguen una dieta de calidad óptima y su relación con el uso de videojuegos, resulta de vital importancia la creación de programas de intervención que mejoren la alimentación de este sector y disminuyan el tiempo de ocio sedentario. PMID:27238805

  9. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  10. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  11. [Adnexal neoplasms in the context of skin cancer: trichilemmal carcinoma. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Ignacio Jaime; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Cruz-Esquivel, Iván; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Antecedente: el carcinoma triquilemal es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente originada en los anexos de la piel. Debido a su escasa prevalencia suele confundirse con otros tumores dérmicos, su presentación clínica no favorece el diagnóstico diferencial y generalmente éste se hace por exclusión. En teoría, su comportamiento es lento, con poca tendencia a enviar metástasis regionales ganglionares y sistémicas. Debido al escaso número de casos no existe consenso en relación con el pronóstico, aunque generalmente se estima bueno. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar un caso que, contrario a lo informado, es de manifestación agresiva en un paciente sin factores de riesgo para cáncer de piel, con gran infiltración tumoral de los tejidos blandos alrededor del sitio de origen. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 65 años de edad que acudió con diagnóstico citológico de carcinoma en un tumor facial preparotídeo; al momento del diagnóstico motraba infiltración de la piel de la cara, del pabellón auricular y de la glándula parótida. Se efectuó resección completa de la neoplasia en bloque con isla de piel facial, parotidectomía total y disección radical del cuello; el defecto de partes blandas fue cubierto con un colgajo pediculado. La evolución ha sido satisfactoria; sin embargo, el seguimiento es corto. Se evalúa la experiencia asentada en la bibliografía en relación con el pronóstico y tratamiento de estos pacientes. Conclusión: el carcinoma triquilemal puede tener comportamiento localmente invasor lo que hace difícil determinar el pronóstico, que quizá dependa de la etapa clínica al momento del diagnóstico.

  12. La preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario segun la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico: Una propuesta de secuencia curricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Plaza, Evelyn

    El proposito de esta investigacion fue identificar los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia que deben recibir los estudiantes del Bachillerato en Artes en Educacion Elemental, Nivel Primario, de acuerdo a los documentos que dirigen la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico. Tambien, se identificaron los componentes de los cursos que forman parte de la preparacion en ciencia de estos estudiantes. Se compararon los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia y los componentes de los cursos para determinar congruencias y discrepancias. Con los datos recopilados se identificaron los componentes de los cursos de una secuencia curricular para la preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario. La secuencia curricular que se propone en esta investigacion incluye cursos de contenido cientifico y de metodologia en la ensenanza de la ciencia disenados para satisfacer las necesidades de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los procesos para el diseno, la implantacion y la evaluacion de estos cursos participen profesores de ciencia, profesores de educacion y maestros del nivel elemental primario. Todos los cursos de la secuencia curricular deben tener un enfoque constructivista. Las experiencias educativas que se incluyan en los cursos deben aspirar a desarrollar en los candidatos los atributos de la cultura cientifica y actitudes positivas hacia la ciencia y hacia la ensenanza de esta disciplina. El modelaje por parte de los profesores que ensenen los cursos de la secuencia curricular es fundamental en el desarrollo profesional de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los cursos de contenido cientifico se estudien los conceptos y los conocimientos cientificos que forman parte del curriculo de Kindergarten a tercer grado de forma integrada y con una profundidad universitaria. Estos cursos deben tener un enfoque interdisciplinario e incluir el estudio de la naturaleza de la ciencia y un componente de laboratorio para desarrollar los

  13. [Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Arribas-Martin, Antonio; Díaz-Pizarro-Graf, José Ignacio; Muñoz-Hinojosa, Jorge Demetrio; Valdés-Castañeda, Alberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Omar; Bertrand, Martin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la cirugía laparoscópica para tratar pacientes con cáncer colorrectal ha sido ampliamente aceptada y difundida en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, dependiendo de la experiencia en este abordaje los resultados quirúrgicos y oncológicos a corto plazo pueden variar. En nuestra población existen pocos estudios que comparan los resultados de esta técnica con los de la cirugía abierta. Objetivos: determinar la superioridad de la técnica laparoscópica o abierta en cirugía de cáncer colorrectal. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo y comparativo de pacientes operados con técnica abierta o laparoscópica por cáncer de colon y recto entre 1999 y 2011 en nuestro centro. Resultados: se incluyeron 47 pacientes intervenidos de manera convencional y 35 por laparoscopia. El tiempo operatorio fue menor en el grupo de cirugía abierta (p= 0.008). No se encontraron diferencias en: sangrado intraoperatorio (p= 0.3980), número de ganglios resecados (p= 0.27), inicio de la vía oral (p= 0.31), tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (p= 0.12), y dolor referido por el paciente (p= 0.19). En el grupo de cirugía laparoscópica se requirieron menos dosis de analgésicos (p= 0.04) y menor necesidad de catéter epidural para analgesia postoperatoria (p= 0.01). Las tasas de morbilidad (p= 0.44) y mortalidad (p= 0.39) fueron similares en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: la cirugía laparoscópica es equiparable a la técnica abierta en cuanto a estándares oncológicos y resultados técnicos. Este trabajo demuestra que en nuestro hospital la cirugía laparoscópica en pacientes con cáncer de colon y recto es tan segura como la cirugía abierta.

  14. [Nutritional graph for Argentina's bariatric population].

    PubMed

    Fantelli Pateiro, Laura; Pampillón, N; Coqueugniot, M; De Rosa, P; Pagano, C; Reynoso, C; De Pizzol, C; Iturralde, C; Podestá, S; Penutto, C

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convocó a participar en mesas de trabajo a licenciados en nutrición y médicos especialistas en nutrición en un congreso realizado en el 2011. Se tomó como base científica el Primer Consenso Argentino de Nutrición en Cirugía Bariátrica y las “Guías alimentarias para la Población Argentina normal”. De esta forma se adapta la misma a la población argentina con cirugía bariátrica sumada a la experiencia de los profesionales. Resultado: Como resultado se obtuvo un gráfica alimentaria en forma de óvalo, adaptación de la gráfica de las “Guías alimentarias para la población argentina”, 12 mensajes o recomendaciones dirigidas a individuos con CB, una sugerencia de menú que responde a un valor calórico promedio de 1.273 calorías diarias, 145 g de carbohidratos, 76 g de proteínas y 43,2 g de grasas; 45,5% de calorías proveniente de los carbohidratos, 24% de calorías proveniente de las proteínas y 30,5 % de calorías proveniente de las grasas, 1.160 mg de calcio.

  15. Social Representations of Gynecologic Cancer Screening Assessment a Qualitative research on Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Yolanda; Godoy, Clara; Reyes, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding gynecologic cancer screening on Ecuadorian women users of primary care facilities, to identify the social representations that users of health services make about these programs and their influence on the decision to undergo a screening. An exploratory and qualitative research design was held using focus groups and in-depth interviews for data collection. A narrative content analysis of the results was conducted. Women's knowledge on gynecological cancer screening was confusing. Most frequent misconceptions related to the pap smear were: the belief that it could be useful for detecting pregnancy, ovarian cysts or infections. Most of the participants stated that the pap smear procedure is a traumatic and painful experience. Regarding to mammography women said it was used for sick woman and this procedure by itself may cause cancer. El propósito de esta investigación fue explorar los conocimientos, actitudes y creencias respecto a los programas de detección del cáncer ginecológico entre usuarias de centros de atención primaria de salud para identificar las representaciones sociales que las usuarias de los servicios de salud elaboran acerca de estos programas y de los diferentes procedimientos que comprenden. El diseño de la investigación fue exploratorio y cualitativo, mediante grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad, con el respectivo análisis narrativo e interpretativo del contenido. Se encontró conocimiento confuso acerca de los programas de tamizaje de cáncer ginecológico y dificultades asociadas a la realización de los procedimientos. Los significados más frecuentes acerca de los programas fueron: el uso de la citología cérvico-vaginal para detectar embarazo, quistes ováricos o infecciones. La mayoría de los participantes asociaba este procedimiento con una experiencia dolorosa y traumática. Respecto al autoexamen de mamas, lo calificaron como un masaje

  16. Economic evaluation in collaborative hospital drug evaluation reports.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ana; Fraga, María Dolores; Marín-Gil, Roberto; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Puigventós, Francesc; Dranitsaris, George

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: la evaluación económica es un criterio fundamental en el posicionamiento de medicamentos. El método MADRE (Método de Ayuda para la toma de Decisiones y la Realización de Evaluaciones de medicamentos) es ampliamente utilizado en la evaluación de medicamentos. Fue desarrollado por el grupo GENESIS de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH), e incluye una evaluación económica. Con objeto de mejorar los aspectos económicos de este método, analizaremos la experiencia previa con esta metodología y propondremos mejoras. Método: revisión retrospectiva de las evaluaciones económicas en los informes de evaluación de medicamentos realizados de forma colaborativa (como SEFH) con el método MADRE. Resultados: se revisaron 32 informes, el 87,5% incluían una evaluación económica realizada por los autores y un 65,6% una publicada. El 90,6% incluían un análisis de impacto presupuestario. 14 informes incluían el coste por año de vida o por año de vida ganado ajustado por calidad. 23 informes recibieron alegaciones relacionadas con la evaluación económica. Las principales dificultades fueron: baja calidad de la evidencia en la población diana, falta de estudios comparativos con el comparador relevante, resultados finales no evaluados, falta de datos de calidad de vida, precio del medicamento no fijado, incertidumbre en la dosis y diferentes precios del medicamento. Conclusiones: mejoras propuestas: incorporar ayudas para inclusión de costes no farmacológicos, estimación de la supervivencia y adaptación de evaluaciones económicas publicadas; establecer criterios para: selección de precios, toma de decisiones en condiciones de incertidumbre o evidencia pobre, cálculo de dosis y umbrales de coste-efectividad en diferentes situaciones.

  17. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Two-case-report].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Martínez, Ixchel; Cornejo-López, Gilberto; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el pseudomixoma peritoneal se caracteriza por la diseminación celular intraperitoneal de un tumor adenomucinoso; el apéndice cecal es la etiología más frecuente. Objetivo: reportar la experiencia de un grupo de Cirugía General y revisar la bibliografía. Casos clínicos: 1: paciente femenina de 74 años de edad, que cuatro días previos inició con dolor abdominal tipo cólico en el mesogastrio y fosa iliaca derecha, evacuaciones diarreicas y fiebre. A su ingreso al hospital se la encontró con datos de irritacion peritoneal y resistencia muscular, leucocitosis de 14,500 células por mm3, neutrófilos 89%, bandas 1%. Se diagnosticó: apendicitis aguda y se programó para laparoscopia diagnóstica, con distensión importante de asas, por lo que se decidió convertir a laparotomía. Caso 2: paciente masculino de 73 años de edad; el padecimiento actual se inició con dolor intermitente en la fosa iliaca derecha e hipogastrio, de un año de evolución. Al cuadro se agregaron: disnea, estreñimiento alternado con periodos de diarrea, plenitud gástrica, y pirosis. A la exploración física se encontró un tumor palpable en el mesogastrio y ambas fosas iliacas. Por eso se le realizó la laparotomía exploradora. En ambos casos el diagnóstico se estableció en el transoperatorio con el hallazgo de múltiples implantes tumorales mucinosos multilobulados diseminados en la cavidad peritoneal, el diagnóstico se confirmó con el reporte histopatológico de pseudomixoma peritoneal. Conclusiones: el pseudomixoma peritoneal es una neoplasia poco frecuente y de difícil diagnóstico, caracterizada por producción copiosa de ascitis mucinosa y de múltiples implantes tumorales en la serosa de las vísceras intracavitarias. El tratamiento ideal es la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal perioperatoria o la quimioterapia postoperatoria, o ambas.

  18. Use of closed systems in the Hospital Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Forte Pérez-Minayo, María; Castillo Bazán, Eva; Hernández Segurado, Marta; Arias Moya, María Ángeles; Pelegrín Torres, Paloma; Bécares Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: En el contexto del auge de los sistemas cerrados para la reconstitución y preparación de estos fármacos, se propone analizar el uso correcto de estos sistemas en el servicio de farmacia, con el objetivo de minimizar los riesgos de exposición no solo de los trabajadores expuestos, sino de todos los trabajadores del servicio, atendiendo también a criterios de eficiencia. Método: Puesto que algunos sistemas protegen frente a la formación de aerosoles pero no frente a vapores, decidimos revisar qué citostáticos debían prepararse con un punzón que constase de una válvula de admisión de aire para implementar un nuevo procedimiento de trabajo. Se revisaron las presentaciones disponibles en nuestro hospital atendiendo a: vía de administración, excipientes y riesgo para el personal manipulador, y se midieron los diámetros de los viales. Se seleccionaron tanto los fármacos de riesgo 1 como aquellos cuyos excipientes incluyesen vehículos alcohólicos, susceptibles de formar vapores. Resultados: De las 66 presentaciones revisadas, un total de 11 fármacos debían reconstituirse con este tipo de punzón: busulfán, cabazitaxel, carmustina, ciclofosfamida, eribulina, etopósido, fotemustina, melfalán, paclitaxel, temsirolimús y tiotepa; representando un 18% respecto al volumen total de presentaciones. Conclusiones: La selección de los productos sanitarios debe realizarse desde los servicios de farmacia, ya que la utilización de un sistema con válvula de admisión de aire para tan solo los fármacos seleccionados supuso un ahorro y un empleo más eficiente del material. Desde nuestra experiencia comprobamos que el uso de la aguja solo podía relegarse si el punzón se adaptaba a las diferentes presentaciones de citostáticos, y esto solo se consigue disponiendo de varios tipos de punzones. Además, las conexiones solo estaban realmente cerradas si se utilizaba un punzón por cada vial. Con el cambio en la metodología de trabajo a la hora de

  19. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Dolan, Chad; Quiles, Justin M; Klemp, Alex; Jo, Edward; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Blanco, Rocky; Whitehurst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el propósito de este estudio fue investigar la eficacia del entrenamiento diario de una repetición máxima (1RM) de la sentadilla en fuerza máxima. Material y método: tres levantadores de peso de competición realizaron la sentadilla durante 37 días consecutivos y se reportan como casos individuales. Participante 1 (P1) (masa corporal = 80,5 kg; edad = 28 años) y participante 3 (P3) (masa corporal = 108,8 kg; edad = 34 años) eran levantadores de fuerza; participante 2 (P2) (masa corporal = 64,1 kg; edad = 19 años) fue un levantador de pesas. Cada participante tenía por lo menos 5 años de experiencia con la posición en sentadilla de formación. Durante los días 1-35, los participantes realizaron una sentadilla de 1RM seguida por 5 conjuntos de volumen de 3 repeticiones al 85% o 2 repeticiones al 90% de la 1RM diario. En el día 36, los participantes realizan solo una serie de 1 repetición al 85% de 1RM del día 1; y el día 37 realizaron un 1RM. Resultados: cambios absolutos y porcentaje para P1 del 1 día al 37: + 5 kg/2,3% y desde el primer día al máximo (1RM era el mayor) + 12,5 kg/5,8%. P2 experimentó un aumento de 13,5 kg/10,8% en 1RM del día 1 al 37 y del día 1 al máximo. P3 demostró un aumento de 21 kg/9,5% del día 1 al 37 y del día 1 al máximo. Los tres participantes exhibieron significativa (p < 0,05) las correlaciones entre el tiempo (días) y 1RM (P1: r = 0,65, P2: r = 0,78, P3: r = 0,48). Conclusión: nuestros resultados sugieren que el entrenamiento diario de 1RM había producido efectivamente cambios significativos en la máxima fuerza en los atletas de fuerza competitiva en un periodo relativamente corto de entrenamiento. PMID:27238810

  1. TRAQUEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA PATIENTS FED THROUGH PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY/GASTROJEJUNOSTOMY: NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND CLINICAL OUTCOME.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Adriana; Pereira, Marta; Martins, Vera Santos; Fonseca, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las fístulas traqueoesofágicas (FTE) pueden surgir en un cáncer de esófago/pulmón o pueden ser secundarias a intubación endotraqueal prolongada. La Gastrostomía Percutánea Endoscópica o la Gastroyeyunostomía (PEG/PEG-J) son útiles para el soporte nutricional. Intentamos evaluar: estado nutricional cuando los pacientes son referenciados/sometidos a gastrostomía, evolución clínica y seguridad de la PEG/ PEG-J en la FTE. Materiales y métodos: pacientes con FTE alimentados por PEG/PEG-J: características clínicas, índice de masa corporal, albúmina, transferrina, colesterol, evaluados en el día de la gastrostomía, y según la causa de la FTE: Grupo 1: complicación de la ventilación mecánica; Grupo 2: cáncer esofágico o respiratorio. Resultados: doce pacientes, mediana de edad 53 años (18-91), 11 PEG, 1 PEG-J: 6 complicaciones de la ventilación mecánica; 6 cánceres. Periodo de referencia entre el diagnóstico de TEF y la gastrostomía: 2 meses en el Grupo 1, 10 meses en el Grupo 2. En el momento de la gastrostomía la mayoría estaban desnutridos, en particular el Grupo 2. En el Grupo 1 solo falleció un paciente, 3 regresaron a la alimentación oral después de cerrar la FTE, 2 mantienen la gastrostomía. Todos los pacientes oncológicos murieron (mediana: 7 meses después la PEG). Uno requirió una extensión yeyunal para PEG-J. Sin otras complicaciones. Conclusión: en nuestra experiencia, la PEG/PEG - J fue un método seguro en pacientes con FTE de causa oncológica u otra, pero los pacientes con cáncer son sometidos a gastrostomía muy tarde. En los pacientes con FTE la PEG/PEG -J se debe considerar antes de que se produzca la malnutrición.

  2. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  3. Malformaciones arteriovenosas revisión y análisis descriptivo de 52 mavs tratadas durante el periodo de 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariano; Mezzano, Emilio; Berra, Matias S.; Parés, Herald R.; Olocco, Ricardo V.; Papalini, Francisco R.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo de las Mavs analizando las características clínicas de los pacientes y los resultados postoperatorios. Método de análisis: Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de 52 pacientes admitidos en el Servicio de neurocirugía para manejo quirúrgico: La información de referencia incluyo síntomas al inicio, diagnostico de admisión, hallazgos neurológicos y hallazgos en estudio por imágenes tales como tomografía cerebral, IRM cerebral y angiografía por sustracción digital. Los hallazgos postoperatorios de interés fueron: Mortalidad, examen neurológico postoperatorio y complicaciones asociadas. Presentamos nuestro análisis estadístico. Resultados: Edad promedio: 37,7 años. Distribución: Hombres: 61,5%. Motivos de consulta más frecuentes: Cefalea 63,5%, evento hemorrágico 59,6%, convulsiones 26,9%. Localización: Supratentorial: 92,9%, Infratentorial: 7,2%. 30,8%, de las Mavs fueron grado 2 y grado 3 Cincuenta por ciento del total presentaron aneurismas, del total de la MAVs, 59,6% debutó con sangrado, 26,9% con Crisis Convulsivas y 13,5% con déficit neurológico. Recibieron tratamiento endovascular previo a cirugía 30,7%. Durante el postoperatorio 23,1% presentaron mejoría clínica, 57,7% no presento modificación, 19,2% empeoraron en el postoperatorio. La mortalidad fue 13,5%. Conclusión: Creemos que el subgrupo de Mavs grados III a V representan una entidad que requiere una compleja toma de decisiones dada la alta incidencia de aneurismas asociados que presentan y su asociación con eventos de sangrado. Nuestra mortalidad postoperatoria coincide con la bibliografía. Palabras clave, Mavs- aneurismas asociados- Acv hemorrágico- convulsiones. PMID:26600984

  4. Social Representations of Gynecologic Cancer Screening Assessment a Qualitative research on Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Yolanda; Godoy, Clara; Reyes, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding gynecologic cancer screening on Ecuadorian women users of primary care facilities, to identify the social representations that users of health services make about these programs and their influence on the decision to undergo a screening. An exploratory and qualitative research design was held using focus groups and in-depth interviews for data collection. A narrative content analysis of the results was conducted. Women's knowledge on gynecological cancer screening was confusing. Most frequent misconceptions related to the pap smear were: the belief that it could be useful for detecting pregnancy, ovarian cysts or infections. Most of the participants stated that the pap smear procedure is a traumatic and painful experience. Regarding to mammography women said it was used for sick woman and this procedure by itself may cause cancer. El propósito de esta investigación fue explorar los conocimientos, actitudes y creencias respecto a los programas de detección del cáncer ginecológico entre usuarias de centros de atención primaria de salud para identificar las representaciones sociales que las usuarias de los servicios de salud elaboran acerca de estos programas y de los diferentes procedimientos que comprenden. El diseño de la investigación fue exploratorio y cualitativo, mediante grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad, con el respectivo análisis narrativo e interpretativo del contenido. Se encontró conocimiento confuso acerca de los programas de tamizaje de cáncer ginecológico y dificultades asociadas a la realización de los procedimientos. Los significados más frecuentes acerca de los programas fueron: el uso de la citología cérvico-vaginal para detectar embarazo, quistes ováricos o infecciones. La mayoría de los participantes asociaba este procedimiento con una experiencia dolorosa y traumática. Respecto al autoexamen de mamas, lo calificaron como un masaje

  5. [Maternal and fetal outcome in Mexican women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Miguel A; Sánchez, Antonio; Bustamante, Reyna; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Soliz-Antezana, Jimena; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Morales, Sara; Jara, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: reportar la experiencia en el desenlace materno-fetal de mujeres con artritis reumatoide en un centro médico nacional de referencia.Métodos: se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los expedientes de mujeres embarazadas con artritis reumatoide que fueron atendidas en una clínica de embarazo y enfermedades reumáticas autoinmunes. Se estudió el desenlace materno-fetal considerado como: actividad de la enfermedad, preeclampsia/eclampsia, tasa de nacidos vivos, abortos, óbitos, parto pretérmino, semanas de gestación, peso al nacer, malformaciones congénitas y uso de fármacos antirreumáticos.Resultados: se incluyeron 73 embarazos en 72 pacientes. Se documentó actividad de la enfermedad en el 47.2 % de las pacientes durante el embarazo y/o posparto. El 87.7 % de las pacientes recibió algún fármaco antirreumático. Se desarrolló preeclampsia en el 8.2 % de los casos. La tasa de nacidos vivos fue de 98.6 %, con parto pretérmino en el 15.9 % y bajo peso a término en el 17.6 % de los casos. El 77.1 % de los productos nació vía cesárea. La actividad de la enfermedad no se asoció a un mayor porcentaje de complicaciones materno-fetales.Conclusiones: nuestro estudio mostró que la mayoría de las pacientes no experimenta actividad significativa de la AR durante el embarazo, el desenlace fetal es satisfactorio y la actividad de la enfermedad no influye de manera importante el desenlace obstétrico.

  6. [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: the best surgical option].

    PubMed

    Maestre-Maderuelo, Maria; Candel-Arenas, Marife; Terol-Garaulet, Emilio; González-Valverde, Francisco Miguel; Marín-Blazquez, Antonio Albarracin

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la vía de acceso laparoscópico es la técnica de elección en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la glándula suprarrenal, excepto del carcinoma suprarrenal. Objetivo: revisar nuestra experiencia en suprarrenalectomías laparoscópicas por vía lateral transperitoneal efectuadas entre los años 2005 y 2012. Material y método: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo efectuado mediante la revisión de historias clínicas de 37 pacientes con diagnóstico, al alta, de tumor adrenal y a quienes se hizo adrenalectomía laparoscópica entre abril de 2005 y abril de 2012. Se consideraron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, lateralidad, indicación quirúrgica, resultados anatomopatológicos, tamaño de la lesión, estancia hospitalaria, tasa de conversión y complicaciones perioperatorias. Resultados: durante el periodo de estudio se intervinieron 37pacientes (19 varones y 18 mujeres) con edad media de 51.72 ± 14.42 años. Se realizaron 22adrenalectomías izquierdas (59.45%) y 15 derechas (40.54%). Las indicaciones de suprarrenalectomía fueron: incidentaloma mayor de 4 cm o con crecimiento rápido y tumores productores de hormonas. El diagnóstico se confirmó con tomografía computada, resonancia magnética, o ambas, y con gammagrafía metaiodobencilguanidina en el caso de sospecha de feocromocitoma y estudio hormonal completo en todos los pacientes. Conclusiones: la suprarrenalectomía laparoscópica sigue siendo la técnica de elección en el tratamiento de pacientes con afectación de la glándula suprarrenal porque ha demostrado ser segura y eficaz, como quedó confirmado en nuestra serie, que tuvo resultados similares a los de la bibliografía.

  7. [Designing a software for drug management in special situations at a hospital's drug administration service].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Cuervo, Marina; Muñoz García, María; Gómez de Salazar López de Silanes, María Esther; Bermejo Vicedo, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo: describir las funcionalidades de un programa informático para gestión de medicamentos en situaciones especiales en un Servicio de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SFH). Describir la metodología seguida para su implantación en los Servicios Médicos. Evaluar su uso tras 2 años de utilización. Método: el diseño se realizó por farmacéuticos del SFH. Las etapas del proceso fueron: selección de una empresa de desarrollo informático, constitución de un grupo de trabajo, selección de una plataforma de desarrollo, diseño de un visor interactivo, definición de funcionalidades y de datos a procesar, creación de las bases de datos, conexión, instalación y configuración, pilotaje de la aplicación y realización de mejoras. Para la implantación en los servicios médicos se empleó una estrategia secuencial dirigida. Se evaluó la utilidad y experiencia de la aplicación tras 2 años. Resultados: se constituyó un grupo de trabajo multidisciplinar y se desarrolló Pk_Usos®. El programa trabaja en entorno web con un visor común para todos los usuarios que permite consultar la situación del expediente en tiempo real y se adapta al procedimiento de la CFT de gestión de medicamentos en situaciones especiales. Pk_Usos® se implantó en primer lugar en el Servicio de Oncología Médica, con 15 oncólogos como usuarios del programa. En dos años se realizaron 384 solicitudes en 343 pacientes, de las cuales se autorizaron 363. Conclusiones: PK_Usos® es el primer software diseñado para la gestión de los medicamentos en situaciones especiales en el SFH. Es una herramienta eficiente y dinámica, que permite la optimización de tiempos a todos los profesionales implicados en el proceso.

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Muros-Molina, José Joaquín; Espejo-Garcés, Tamara; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Linares-Manrique, Marta

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la dieta mediterránea (DM) representa uno de los modelos dietéticos más completos y sanos según expresan numerosos estudios. En este sentido, la etapa universitaria supone un cambio sustancial en los hábitos alimentarios de los adultos jóvenes, alejándose de los estándares asociados a la DM. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de adherencia a la DM de un sector de población universitaria, estableciendo patrones de relación con el tipo de población en el que reside y hábitos de ocio digital asociados a videojuegos. Material y métodos: en esta investigación de diseño descriptivo y corte transversal participaron 490 estudiantes universitarios (M = 22,8 años; DT = 3,639), realizándose la recogida de datos mediante los cuestionarios KIDMED, Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con los Videojuegos (CERV) y Cuestionario sobre los Hábitos de Consumo de Videojuegos (CHCV). Resultados: más del 70% de la muestra necesitaba mejorar su alimentación y solo un 26,1% se alimentaba adecuadamente. Asimismo, los niveles de adicción a los videojuegos mostraron que un 17,8% de los participantes manifestaba problemas potenciales y un 2,7% severos. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en las relaciones dadas para la adhesión a la DM, la frecuencia de uso de videojuegos y el número de videojuegos jugados, concretando que los hábitos de consumo de videojuegos influyen en la adhesión a la DM en la etapa universitaria. Conclusión: ante el bajo porcentaje de universitarios que siguen una dieta de calidad óptima y su relación con el uso de videojuegos, resulta de vital importancia la creación de programas de intervención que mejoren la alimentación de este sector y disminuyan el tiempo de ocio sedentario.

  9. [Predictor variables for low adherence to a lifestyle modification program of overweight treatment in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Arrebola Vivas, Emilia; López Plaza, Bricia; Koester Weber, Thabata; Bermejo López, Laura; Palma Milla, Samara; Lisbona Catalán, Arturo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar variables predictoras de baja adherencia a un programa piloto de Modificación de Estilos de Vida (MEV) para el tratamiento del exceso de peso en Atención Primaria (AP). Material y métodos: Se reclutaron 60 sujetos con IMC > 27 kg/m(2). Profesionales sanitarios dirigieron el programa, en formato grupal y con una periodicidad quincenal, basado en educación nutricional, pautas dietéticas individualizadas, promoción de actividad física y apoyo motivacional. Para identificar las variables relacionadas con la adherencia al programa se utilizó un cuestionario validado sobre Hábitos de Vida de personas con Sobrepeso y Obesidad y se midieron variables antropométricas al inicio y a los seis meses del tratamiento. Una baja adherencia al programa fue considerada cuando los sujetos del estudio acudían a menos del 80% de las visitas quincenales. Resultados: Se adhirieron al programa 27 sujetos (45%). Las variables asociadas a baja adherencia estuvieron relacionadas al inicio del estudio con IMC ≥?35 kg/m(2) (p < 0,05); período de exfumador =?4 meses (p < 0,01); mayor contenido calórico de la dieta (p < 0,01) y menor práctica de ejercicio físico (p < 0,05). A los 6 meses los sujetos que finalizaron el programa presentaron una disminución significativa de: peso (86,0 ± 15,6 vs 79,2 ± 13,4 kg; p < 0,001);% de masa grasa (41,6 ± 4,6 vs 38,8 ± 5,4%; p < 0,001) y glucemia (108 ± 45,48 vs 94,38 ± 11,97 mg/dl; p < 0,01). Además mejoró el perfil calórico de su dieta, disminuyendo sobretodo el porcentaje de grasa sobre el valor calórico total (39,6 ± 4,8 vs. 35,5 ± 5,6%; p < 0,01). Conclusión: Haber dejado de fumar recientemente, padecer obesidad de grado dos o superior, el alto contenido calórico de la dieta y la menor práctica de ejercicio físico fueron las variables basales identificadas como predictoras de una baja adherencia a un programa de MEV para el tratamiento de sobrepeso y obesidad en AP. Esta experiencia piloto una vez

  10. [Primary cardiac hemangioendothelioma: early diagnosis and surgical resection].

    PubMed

    Gaytán-Cortés, Fernando Celso; Arteaga-Adame, Juan; Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos; Álvarez-Sánchez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el hemangioendotelioma engloba todos los tumores que derivan del endotelio de los vasos sanguíneos. Es de pronóstico incierto y siempre se considera como una lesión maligna de bajo grado. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 23 años que ingresó a urgencias con dolor retroesternal intermitente, disnea paroxística nocturna y ataque al estado general. Negó antecedentes crónico-degenerativos y tuvo pérdida ponderal de 6 kg en dos meses. Las pruebas sugirieron derrame pericárdico. Presentó tendencia a la hipotensión por tamponade, resuelta con punción subxifoidea, y drenaje de 800 mL de líquido de características hemáticas antiguas. El paciente presentó un tumor de la aurícula derecha de 8 x 4 cm, dependiente de la pared anterior de la aurícula, sin involucro de septum interatrial. Al someter al paciente a cirugía, se identificó lesión tumoral en la pared anterior de orejuela derecha. Se hizo resección del tumor y del 70 % de la orejuela derecha, sustituida con parche de pericardio bovino. El paciente presentó buena evolución; egresó a los 10 días de la cirugía con seguimiento por seis meses en la consulta externa. Conclusión: estamos ante un tumor vascular oncológicamente impredecible y que rara vez se origina en el corazón. Una detección oportuna y la resección quirúrgica radical es el manejo más aceptado ante la poca experiencia que hay a nivel mundial para lidiar con esta entidad. Sugerimos un abordaje clínico agresivo y la extirpación quirúrgica dentro de las primeras horas de la sospecha diagnóstica para obtener la mayor posibilidad de resección total y la reducción del riesgo de recidiva.

  11. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    êcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudar

  13. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  14. [REBOUND EFFECT OF INTERVENTION PROGRAMS TO REDUCE OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS; SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Ortegón Piñero, Alberto; Baena García, Laura; Noack Segovia, Jessica Pamela; Levet Hernández, María Cristina; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los estudios demuestran que el sobrepeso y la obesidad son el resultado de una compleja interacción entre factores genéticos y ambientales que comienza en la etapa prenatal. Dentro de la evidencia de esta relación se analiza el impacto potencial de la experiencia de la nutrición prenatal en el desarrollo de los sistemas endocrino y neuroendocrino que regulan el balance energético, con especial énfasis en el papel de la hormona derivada de los adipocitos, la leptina. Diferentes autores relacionan el riesgo de obesidad con el aumento rápido de peso en los primeros años de vida. Los niños con lactancia natural tienen un menor grado de adiposidad abdominal y, por ello, menor circunferencia de la cintura. Del mismo modo, se ha relacionado la lactancia materna exclusiva con un ritmo más lento de aumento de peso, del orden del 20%. En el estudio de la obesidad se considera efecto rebote cuando el niño recupera su peso de inicio al año de acabar la intervención. Esta problemática es frecuente, por lo que dicha intervención con la familia se hace imprescindible, ya que se trata de lograr la motivación del niño para que lleve una vida saludable. Para esta revisión se han seleccionado estudios que valoren las intervenciones a medio y largo plazo en la obesidad infantil, comprobando la adhesión al tratamiento y el efecto rebote, una vez finalizada la intervención. Objetivo: revisar los estudios que analizan el efecto rebote y la adhesión a los tratamientos de pérdida de peso de los niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. Método: la revisión sistemática fue elaborada siguiendo las directrices PRISMA. Se han seleccionado 19 estudios que analizan la temática planteada. Resultados: varios autores han establecido los efectos beneficiosos a corto y largo plazo de aquellas intervenciones que combinan dieta y actividad física entre niños obesos. Estos resultados muestran la importancia de los programas multidisciplinares para el

  15. [Physical activity programmes to reduce overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Ortegón Piñero, A; Mur Vilar, N; Sánchez García, J C; García Verazaluce, J J; García García, I; Sánchez López, A M

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El tratamiento contra la obesidad ha sido muy discutido y varios autores abogan por un tratamiento integral de la obesidad. Todos los referentes conducen a plantear ¿cuál es el programa de actividad física más efectivo para reducir el sobrepeso y la obesidad de niños y adolescentes? Objetivo: Analizar los principales estudios sobre la eficacia de la actividad física para reducir el sobrepeso y la obesidad de niños y adolescentes. Método: Revisión sistemática de los resultados de programas de actividad física para reducir el sobrepeso y la obesidad publicados en artículos científicos. Se identificaron 85 artículos a través de la búsqueda automatizada en las bases de datos PUBMED y Google Scholar; se llevó a cabo entre los meses de octubre de 2013 y marzo de 2014. Para seleccionar los artículos fue preciso considerar la utilidad y la relevancia del tema estudiado y la credibilidad o experiencia de los autores en la temática. Se tuvo en cuenta la validez interna y externa de cada uno de los artículos revisados. Conclusiones: Se identificó la efectividad de la actividad física para reducir el sobrepeso y la obesidad de niños y adolescentes. El programa de actividad física más efectivo es el que combina ejercicios aeróbicos y anaeróbicos. Existe consenso en acumular más de 180 minutos a la semana dedicados a estos fines, con 3 sesiones de 60 minutos cada una de ejercicio físico a la semana. De una intensidad moderada, podrían ser suficientes para ejecutar un programa de ejercicio físico para esas personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Coinciden los autores en que, cuando se combina una dieta controlada por una adecuada distribución de las comidas y con la práctica de actividad física, se potencian mutuamente, con lo que se obtie nen los mejores resultados. Los programas de reducción de peso que tengan en cuenta la participación familiar son más eficaces que la propia educación alimentaria y otras intervenciones de rutina

  16. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    que enfrentan dificultades en la escuela. La inclusión debe estar en todas las instituciones educacionales (formales o no). Nuestro objetivo en el trabajo de final de curso de licenciatura, fue el de presentar un relato de la experiencia de mediación a los alumnos con deficiencias visuales del Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) en el Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST) y las modificaciones y nuevas propuestas para el Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) a través de un aparato especialmente construido con el cual se puede percibir el cielo en una latitud próxima a la de Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  18. Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    PARSONS, E C M; FAVARO, BRETT; AGUIRRE, A ALONSO; BAUER, AMY L; BLIGHT, LOUISE K; CIGLIANO, JOHN A; COLEMAN, MELINDA A; CÔTÉ, ISABELLE M; DRAHEIM, MEGAN; FLETCHER, STEPHEN; FOLEY, MELISSA M; JEFFERSON, REBECCA; JONES, MIRANDA C; KELAHER, BRENDAN P; LUNDQUIST, CAROLYN J; MCCARTHY, JULIE-BETH; NELSON, ANNE; PATTERSON, KATHERYN; WALSH, LESLIE; WRIGHT, ANDREW J; SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J

    2014-01-01

    participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y países que varían en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservación, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigación prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categorías temáticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservación marina: pesquerías, cambio climático, otras amenazas antropogénicas, ecosistemas, ciudadanía marina, política, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa científica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son específicas de la conservación marina, y servirán como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservación marina. PMID:24779474

  19. Development and applications of groundwater remediation technologies in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    recientemente descubiertos causarán la revisión de las tecnologías "maduras", pues aquellos pueden ser persistentes, móviles y difíciles para tratar in situ. Las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las tecnologías de recuperación, incluirán eventualmente la formación de subproductos, consecuencias geoquímicas y la sostenibilidad. Las experiencias de campo de largo plazo, que se han hecho aplicando tecnologías de recuperación, pueden por si solas suministrar los datos necesarios para soportar las afirmaciones sobre su efectividad.

  20. [Evaluation of technical skills in surgical training].

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La adquisición de habilidades quirúrgicas constituye un factor central en la formación de todo cirujano. Sin embargo, la evaluación de las habilidades técnicas es uno de los factores más débiles y menos desarrollados. En la actualidad los recursos para evaluar las competencias técnicas adolecen de subjetividad, falta de confiabilidad y validez. La observación directa, método de evaluación más frecuentemente utilizado en nuestro medio, presenta inconvenientes instrumentales y está fuertemente influenciada por las relaciones intersubjetivas y los rasgos de personalidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es proponer creación y el uso de un instrumento objetivo para evaluar el desempeño técnico y determinar su confiabilidad y validez.Material y método: se seleccionaron dos procedimientos: colecistectomía laparoscópica y hernioplastia inguinal (técnica de Lichtenstein). Se constituyeron tres grupos de comparación según la experiencia quirúrgica: inicial, intermedio, y expertos. Se filmaron las cirugías en tiempo real, sin identificación del paciente ni del cirujano. Las filmaciones sin edición fueron asignadas a dos cirujanos expertos en forma aleatoria por sorteo y con sobres sin identificación. Para la evaluación se propuso el uso de un instrumento objetivo (explicitación de pasos a evaluar y cuantificación mediante escala de Likert) y específico para cada procedimiento. Así mismo se utilizó la escala global OSATS (R. Reznick). Se aplicó análisis de varianza no paramétrico para determinar validez. Valores de p menores a 0.05 fueron considerados estadísticamente significativos. Valores superiores a 0,80 del Coeficiente alfa de Cronbach aseguraron confiabilidad. Resultados: Desde Abril del 2010 hasta Diciembre del 2012 se filmaron 36 colecistectomías videolaparoscópicas y 31 hernioplastias inguinales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en todos los ítems evaluados p<0.05. El coeficiente ? de

  1. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  2. Perceptions about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among healthcare professionals in Spain (PERPPRES Study).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández, Javier; Martínez Sesmero, José Manuel; Navarro Aznárez, Herminia; Fernández Espínola, Sergio; Escobar Rodríguez, Ismael; Ventura Cerdá, José Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Objetivo: Determinar el grado de apoyo, conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la profilaxis preexposición (PrEP) de los médicos infectólogos y farmacéuticos hospitalarios en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante encuesta de 31 ítems (datos sociodemográficos, situación laboral/experiencia, conocimiento sobre PrEP, uso, opiniones, barreras detectadas y aspectos financieros). Se realizó un análisis univariante para evaluar las variables relacionadas con el apoyo a PrEP y comparar las valoraciones de médicos y farmacéuticos. Las preguntas sobre apoyo a la PrEP y el acuerdo sobre aprobar la indicación se repitieron tras mostrar datos de estudios publicados. Se analizó la significación del cambio en la respuesta mediante la prueba de McNemar. Resultados: Se recibieron 211 cuestionarios (80,1% farmacéuticos). El 40,3% estuvieron nada/poco familiarizados con la PrEP (46,2% farmacéuticos vs. 16,7% médicos; p < 0,01). El 53,6% apoyaría su uso (49,7% farmacéuticos vs. 69% médicos; p = 0,038). La eficacia mínima considerada aceptable fue 85,0 ± 15,5% (82,6 ± 12,1% médicos vs. 85,6 ± 15,0% farmacéuticos; p = 0,02). Las variables relacionadas con el apoyo fueron: profesión médica (OR = 2,26 IC95% 1,1-4,6; p = 0,038) y menor exigencia de eficacia (diferencia 10,5% IC95% 6,9-14,1; p < 0,001). Tras recibir la información, aumentaron el apoyo al uso y la aprobación. El 81,5% no apoyaron la financiación. Las principales barreras señaladas fueron: aumento de conductas de riesgo (24,1%), aumento de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (19,0%), resistencias (16,6%) y coste (16,0%). Conclusiones: Más de la mitad de los encuestados estaban familiarizados con la PrEP. La mayoría apoyaría su uso y la aprobación de la indicación, pero no la financiaría. El uso en la práctica real de la PrEP es escaso en la actualidad.

  3. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

  4. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    ambiente familiar). Es más, se propuso la hipótesis de que los adolescentes de familias con padrastro manifestarían más efectos sociales y familiares negativos al compararse con adolescentes provenientes de los otros dos tipos de familias. La muestra, compuesta por 1302 adolescentes (M = 13.82 años, SD = 1.88), se reclutó en la ciudad de Leipzig al año siguiente de la unificación de Alemania, 1991. Los participantes respondieron a medidas de síntomas psicosomáticos, estrés, delincuencia, satisfacción por la vida, desempeño académico y variables relativas a la familia. Los análisis de covarianza aplicados, controlando el ingreso ajustado al tamaño de la familia, sugirieron que los adolescentes de familias de madre soltera tenían experiencias muy similares a las de aquéllos que vivían con sus padres biológicos en todas las medidas, excepto en la de evaluación del ambiente familiar. Los adolescentes que vivían en familias con padrastro informaron experiencias menos favorables. Los resultados son indicativos de que el contexto social en Alemania proporcionó aún más oportunidades que restricciones a las familias de madre soltera, a pesar de la unificación y el comienzo de las dificultades que ésta les impuso.

  5. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al

  6. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    ambiente familiar). Es más, se propuso la hipótesis de que los adolescentes de familias con padrastro manifestarían más efectos sociales y familiares negativos al compararse con adolescentes provenientes de los otros dos tipos de familias. La muestra, compuesta por 1302 adolescentes (M = 13.82 años, SD = 1.88), se reclutó en la ciudad de Leipzig al año siguiente de la unificación de Alemania, 1991. Los participantes respondieron a medidas de síntomas psicosomáticos, estrés, delincuencia, satisfacción por la vida, desempeño académico y variables relativas a la familia. Los análisis de covarianza aplicados, controlando el ingreso ajustado al tamaño de la familia, sugirieron que los adolescentes de familias de madre soltera tenían experiencias muy similares a las de aquéllos que vivían con sus padres biológicos en todas las medidas, excepto en la de evaluación del ambiente familiar. Los adolescentes que vivían en familias con padrastro informaron experiencias menos favorables. Los resultados son indicativos de que el contexto social en Alemania proporcionó aún más oportunidades que restricciones a las familias de madre soltera, a pesar de la unificación y el comienzo de las dificultades que ésta les impuso. PMID:24274779

  7. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al

  8. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  9. The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín

    subterránea, estimación de la recarga natural y otros. El impacto de estas actividades en la reciente política hidráulica española parece significativo. La experiencia general puede ser aplicable a otros países.

  10. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambia

  11. Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy in Latin America by the Liada Perspective. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza y Divulgación de la Astronomía en la América Latina en la Perspectiva de la Liada.) Ensino e Divulgação da Astronomia na América Latina na Perspectiva da Liada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2008-12-01

    disponibilizados en la página de la Sección, faz-se una análisis y discusión sobre la importancia de tales relatos para finalidades educacionales. Es presentada una Hoja de reporte elaborado como sugestión para presentación de relatos por parte de individuos y instituciones ben como discutida la importancia de la sistematización de experiencias visando mayor visibilidad y cambio de informaciones en el área. Concluí con una evaluación de los proyectos, su potencial y limitaciones, ben como sugestiones de proyectos futuros visando mayor interacción entre los países de la América Latina y tornando disponible la Sección para esta finalidad.

    Esse trabalho visa divulgar e analisar as atividades da Seção de Ensino e Divulgação de Astronomia (SEDA) da Liga Iberoamericana de Astronomia (LIADA). Após um histórico da LIADA, são apresentados os diversos projetos da Seção que conta com a colaboração de coordenadores locais na maioria dos países da América Latina. São apresentados os projetos que visam chamar a atenção do público em geral, estudantes e professores para a observação do céu e posterior envio de relatos para colocação na página da Seção na Internet. Mais especificamente são analisados os projetos e relatos relacionados aos eclipses ocorridos desde o ano 2000. Utilizando-se os arquivos disponibilizados na página da Seção, faz-se uma análise e discussão sobre a importância de tais relatos para finalidades educacionais. É apresentado um formulário elaborado como sugestão para apresentação de relatos por parte de indivíduos e instituições bem como discutida a importância da sistematização de experiências visando maior visibilidade e troca de informações na área. Conclui com uma avaliação dos projetos, seu potencial e limitações, bem como sugestões de projetos futuros visando maior interação entre os países da América Latina e tornando disponível a Seção para esta finalidade.

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    êcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en paí

  13. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management

    PubMed Central

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    tierras de cultivo que las áreas protegidas, y en cuánto influye sobre su efectividad los consejos y el entrenamiento dado a los granjeros. La lección general de la experiencia europea es que los EAA pueden ser efectivos para la conservación de la vida silvestre en las tierras de cultivo, pero son caros y necesitan ser diseñados y enfocados cuidadosamente. PMID:25997591