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Sample records for sirtuin mediated pathways

  1. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long T; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, attributed to diverse and interactive genetic and environmental factors. The associated health consequences of obesity are pleiotropic, with individuals being more susceptible to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and lipotoxicity-related chronic diseases. The contribution of maternal obesity to the offspring's predisposition to both obesity and its complications is increasingly recognized. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these "transmissible" effects is critical to develop therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk for "programmed" obesity. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1 and SIRT3, are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate metabolic balance and stress responses in both central and peripheral tissues, of which dysregulation is a well-established mediator for the development and effects of obesity. Nevertheless, their implication in the transmissible effects of maternal obesity across generations remains largely elusive. In this review, we examine multiple pathways and systems that are likely to mediate such effects, with particular emphasis on the role of SIRTs.-Nguyen, L. T., Chen, H., Pollock, C. A., Saad, S. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring? © FASEB.

  2. The sirtuins: Markers of metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    The sirtuins represent a class of proteins first discovered orthologus to the yeast silent information regulator 2 protein that have been retained in mammalian species. Currently, seven sirtuins have been identified in humans, and their functions currently surpass their originally identified role as histone deacetylase and chromatin silencers to encompass nutrient sensing and metabolic function. All seven sirtuins require NAD(+) in order to carry out their enzymatic activity, and thus become activated in conditions of nutrient depletion, starvation, and cellular stress. Caloric restriction and increased physical activity have been postulated, though perhaps controversially, to mediate sirtuin function. Here, we review the current literature surrounding the functions of the seven human sirtuins, mediators of their function, and the roles they play in metabolic health related to dietary and physical activity interventions. Despite the controversy surrounding sirtuin function with regard to longevity, we have aimed to show that regardless of its effects on aging, sirtuin function is pivotal to pathways involving metabolic health, and should therefore be investigated with regard to improving metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sirtuin 1 protects the aging heart from contractile dysfunction mediated through the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in cardiac-specific Sirtuin 1 knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Hsu, Shih-Che; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Chen, Yen-Hui; Chang, Yung-Lung; Sadoshima, Junichi; Huang, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Chih-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    The longevity regulator Sirtuin 1 is an NAD + -dependent histone deacetylase that regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and influences cardiomyocyte apoptosis during cardiac contractile dysfunction induced by aging. The mechanism underlying Sirtuin 1 function in cardiac contractile dysfunction related to aging has not been completely elucidated. We evaluated cardiac contractile function, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in 6- and 12month-old cardiac-specific Sirtuin 1 knockout (Sirt1 -/- ) and control (Sirt1 f/f ) mice using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Mice were injected with a protein disulphide isomerase inhibitor. For in vitro analysis, cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to either a Sirtuin 1 inhibitor or activator, with or without a mitochondrial inhibitor, to evaluate the effects of Sirtuin 1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitric oxide synthase expression, and apoptosis. The effects of protein disulphide isomerase inhibition on oxidative stress and ER stress-related apoptosis were also investigated. Compared with 6-month-old Sirt1 f/f mice, marked impaired contractility was observed in 12-month-old Sirt1 -/- mice. These findings were consistent with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the myocardium. Measures of oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase expression were significantly higher in Sirt1 -/- mice compared with those in Sirt1 f/f mice at 6months. In vitro experiments revealed increased endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with a Sirtuin 1 inhibitor; the effects were ameliorated by a Sirtuin 1 activator. Moreover, consistent with the in vitro findings, impaired cardiac contractility was demonstrated in Sirt1 -/- mice injected with a protein disulphide isomerase inhibitor. The present study demonstrates that the aging heart is characterized by contractile dysfunction associated with increased oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum

  4. SIRTUIN 1 AND SIRTUIN 3: PHYSIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Habegger, Kirk M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Finan, Brian; Banks, Alexander S.; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Sinclair, David A.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Tschöop, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    The sirtuins are a family of highly conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases that act as cellular sensors to detect energy availability and modulate metabolic processes. Two sirtuins that are central to the control of metabolic processes are mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), which are localized to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. Both are activated by high NAD+ levels, a condition caused by low cellular energy status. By deacetylating a variety of proteins that induce catabolic processes while inhibiting anabolic processes, SIRT1 and SIRT3 coordinately increase cellular energy stores and ultimately maintain cellular energy homeostasis. Defects in the pathways controlled by SIRT1 and SIRT3 are known to result in various metabolic disorders. Consequently, activation of sirtuins by genetic or pharmacological means can elicit multiple metabolic benefits that protect mice from diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:22811431

  5. The mechanisms of sirtuin 2-mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanis...

  6. Role of sirtuins in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pantazi, Eirini; Zaouali, Mohamed Amine; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Folch-Puy, Emma; Ben Abdennebi, Hassen; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains an unresolved and complicated situation in clinical practice, especially in the case of organ transplantation. Several factors contribute to its complexity; the depletion of energy during ischemia and the induction of oxidative stress during reperfusion initiate a cascade of pathways that lead to cell death and finally to severe organ injury. Recently, the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases has gained increasing attention from researchers, due to their involvement in the modulation of a wide variety of cellular functions. There are seven mammalian sirtuins and, among them, the nuclear/cytoplasmic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and the mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) are ubiquitously expressed in many tissue types. Sirtuins are known to play major roles in protecting against cellular stress and in controlling metabolic pathways, which are key processes during IRI. In this review, we mainly focus on SIRT1 and SIRT3 and examine their role in modulating pathways against energy depletion during ischemia and their involvement in oxidative stress, apoptosis, microcirculatory stress and inflammation during reperfusion. We present evidence of the beneficial effects of sirtuins against IRI and emphasize the importance of developing new strategies by enhancing their action.

  7. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Won; Sohn, Peter D.; Cho, Seo-Hyun; Swanson, Raymond A.; Gan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 proteins (sirtuins or SIRTs) are a group of deacetylases (or deacylases) whose activities are dependent on and regulated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Compelling evidence supports that sirtuins play major roles in many aspects of physiology, especially in pathways related to aging – the predominant and unifying risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on protein homeostasis, neural plasticity, mitochondrial function, and sustained chronic inflammation. We will also examine the potential and challenges of targeting sirtuin pathways to block these pathogenic pathways. PMID:24093018

  8. Regulation of Sirtuin-Mediated Protein Deacetylation by Cardioprotective Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. Several phytochemicals exert cardioprotective effects by regulating protein acetylation levels. These effects are mainly exerted via activation of Sirt1 and Sirt3 and inhibition of acetyltransferases. Numerous studies support a cardioprotective role for sirtuin activators (e.g., resveratrol), as well as other emerging modulators of protein acetylation, including curcumin, honokiol, oroxilyn A, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, bakuchiol, tyrosol, and berberine. Studies also point to a cardioprotective role for various nonaromatic molecules, such as docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-lipoic acid, sulforaphane, and caffeic acid ethanolamide. Here, we review the vast evidence from the bench to the clinical setting for the potential cardioprotective roles of various phytochemicals in the modulation of sirtuin-mediated deacetylation. PMID:29234485

  9. Sirtuins: molecular traffic lights in the crossroad of oxidative stress, chromatin remodeling, and transcription.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramkumar; Garva, Richa; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Demonacos, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    Transcription is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation reactions of histone and nonhistone proteins mediated by enzymes called KATs and HDACs, respectively. As a major mechanism of transcriptional regulation, protein acetylation is a key controller of physiological processes such as cell cycle, DNA damage response, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. The deacetylase activity of class III histone deacetylases or sirtuins depends on the presence of NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and therefore, their function is closely linked to cellular energy consumption. This activity of sirtuins connects the modulation of chromatin dynamics and transcriptional regulation under oxidative stress to cellular lifespan, glucose homeostasis, inflammation, and multiple aging-related diseases including cancer. Here we provide an overview of the recent developments in relation to the diverse biological activities associated with sirtuin enzymes and stress responsive transcription factors, DNA damage, and oxidative stress and relate the involvement of sirtuins in the regulation of these processes to oncogenesis. Since the majority of the molecular mechanisms implicated in these pathways have been described for Sirt1, this sirtuin family member is more extensively presented in this paper.

  10. Sirtuin 6 protects the heart from hypoxic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Kanfi, Yariv; Hochhauser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. We investigated whether life extension is associated with cardioprotection against hypoxia. The proposed study is to develop approaches to reduce hypoxic damage through the use of the sirtuin pathway and to elucidate the mechanism involved. For that purpose we subjected cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice (TG) with over-expression of SIRT6, to hypoxic stress in cell cultures. We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice subjected to prolonged hypoxia may release survival factors or fewer damage markers to protect them from hypoxic stress compared with wild type (WT) mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)more » and creatine kinase (CK) released to the medium and propidium iodide (PI) binding, were markedly decreased following hypoxia in TG cardiomyocytes. The protective mechanism of SIRT6 over-expression includes the activation of pAMPKα pathway, the increased protein level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction in the protein level of phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) during hypoxia. Together, all these processes impede the necrosis/apoptosis pathways leading to the improved survival of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia, which might explain life extension. - Highlights: • Sirtuin 6 is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 protects cardiocytes from hypoxia and oxidative stress. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 activates the pAMPKα pathway and the Bcl2 expression. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 decreases ROS formation and pAkt level during hypoxia. • These pathways protect cardiocytes from hypoxia and might explain lifespan extension.« less

  11. Fenofibrate inhibits atrial metabolic remodelling in atrial fibrillation through PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Zhong; Hou, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Yue; Hang, Peng-Zhou; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li; Zhao, Guan-Qi; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Jing-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Hang; Liu, Yong-Wu; Zhou, Jing-Hua; Dong, Zeng-Xiang; Liu, Yang; Zhan, Cheng-Chuang; Li, Yue; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Atrial metabolic remodelling is critical for the process of atrial fibrillation (AF). The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1 /PPAR co-activator α (PGC-1α) pathway plays an important role in maintaining energy metabolism. However, the effect of the PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate on AF is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fenofibrate on atrial metabolic remodelling in AF and explore its possible mechanisms of action. The expression of metabolic proteins was examined in the left atria of AF patients. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into sham, AF (pacing with 600 beats·min(-1) for 1 week), fenofibrate treated (pretreated with fenofibrate before pacing) and fenofibrate alone treated (for 2 weeks) groups. HL-1 cells were subjected to rapid pacing in the presence or absence of fenofibrate, the PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 or sirtuin 1-specific inhibitor EX527. Metabolic factors, circulating biochemical metabolites, atrial electrophysiology, adenine nucleotide levels and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets were assessed. The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway was significantly inhibited in AF patients and in the rabbit/HL-1 cell models, resulting in a reduction of key downstream metabolic factors; this effect was significantly restored by fenofibrate. Fenofibrate prevented the alterations in circulating biochemical metabolites, reduced the level of adenine nucleotides and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets, reversed the shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased risk of AF. Fenofibrate inhibited atrial metabolic remodelling in AF by regulating the PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway. The present study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for AF. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Sirtuin 3 mediates neuroprotection of ketones against ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junxiang; Han, Pengcheng; Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death. Growing evidence indicates that ketone bodies have beneficial effects in treating stroke, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study showed ketone bodies reduced reactive oxygen species by using NADH as an electron donor, thus increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial NAD+-dependent Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) could mediate the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies after ischemic stroke. We injected mice with either normal saline or ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) at 30 minutes after ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We found that ketone treatment enhanced mitochondria function, reduced oxidative stress, and therefore reduced infarct volume. This led to improved neurologic function after ischemia, including the neurologic score and the performance in Rotarod and open field tests. We further showed that ketones' effects were achieved by upregulating NAD+-dependent SIRT3 and its downstream substrates forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the penumbra region since knocking down SIRT3 in vitro diminished ketones' beneficial effects. These results provide us a foundation to develop novel therapeutics targeting this SIRT3-FoxO3a-SOD2 pathway. PMID:26058697

  13. Sirtuins in dermatology: applications for future research and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Serravallo, Melissa; Jagdeo, Jared; Glick, Sharon A; Siegel, Daniel M; Brody, Neil I

    2013-05-01

    Sirtuins are a family of seven proteins in humans (SIRT1-SIRT7) that are involved in multiple cellular processes relevant to dermatology. The role of sirtuins in other organ systems is established. However, the importance of these proteins in dermatology is less defined. Recently, sirtuins gained international attention because of their role as "longevity proteins" that may extend and enhance human life. Sirtuins function in the cell via histone deacetylase and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase enzymatic activity that target histone and non-histone substrates, including transcription regulators, tumor suppressors, structural proteins, DNA repair proteins, cell signaling proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes. Sirtuins are involved in cellular pathways related to skin structure and function, including aging, ultraviolet-induced photoaging, inflammation, epigenetics, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle, DNA repair and proliferation. This review highlights sirtuin-related cellular pathways, therapeutics and pharmacological targets in atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular disorders, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic and keloid scars, cutaneous infections, and non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Also discussed is the role of sirtuins in the following genodermatoses: ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, Rubenstein-Taybi, Werner syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The pathophysiology of these inherited diseases is not well understood, and sirtuin-related processes represent potential therapeutic targets for diseases lacking suitable alternative treatments. The goal of this review is to bring attention to the dermatology community, physicians, and scientists, the importance of sirtuins in dermatology and provide a foundation and impetus for future discussion, research and pharmacologic discovery.

  14. Sirtuins and the metabolic hurdles in cancer

    PubMed Central

    German, Natalie J.; Haigis, Marcia C.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic demands of cancer cannot be met by normal cell metabolism. Cancer cells undergo dramatic alteration of metabolic pathways in a process called reprogramming, characterized by increased nutrient uptake and re-purposing of these fuels for biosynthetic, bioenergetic or signaling pathways. Partitioning carbon sources toward growth and away from ATP production necessitates other means of generating energy for biosynthetic reactions. Additionally, cancer cell adaptations frequently leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species and lactic acid- metabolites which can be beneficial to cancer growth but also are potentially toxic and must be appropriately cleared. Sirtuins are a family of deacylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases with clear links to the regulation of cancer metabolism. Through their unique ability to integrate cellular stress and nutrient status with coordination of metabolic outputs, sirtuins are well poised to play pivotal roles in tumor metabolism. Here, we review the multi-faceted duties of sirtuins in tackling the metabolic hurdles in cancer. We focus on both beneficial and adverse effects of sirtuins in the regulation of energetic, biosynthetic and toxicity barriers faced by cancer cells. PMID:26126285

  15. Sirtuins: Novel targets for metabolic disease in drug development

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Weijian

    2008-08-29

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan and produces a metabolic profile desirable for treating diseases such as type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, an NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction that produces beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Activation of SIRT1 leads to enhanced activity of multiple proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and FOXO which helps to mediate some of the in vitro and in vivo effects of sirtuins. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic SIRT1 activator, mimics the effects of calorie restriction in lower organisms and in mice fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance.more » In this review, we summarize recent research advances in unveiling the molecular mechanisms that underpin sirtuin as therapeutic candidates and discuss the possibility of using resveratrol as potential drug for treatment of diabetes.« less

  16. The life span-prolonging effect of sirtuin-1 is mediated by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Markaki, Maria; Megalou, Evgenia; Pasparaki, Angela; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Criollo, Alfredo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Vitale, Ilio; Michaud, Mickael; Madeo, Frank; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The life span of various model organisms can be extended by caloric restriction as well as by autophagy-inducing pharmacological agents. Life span-prolonging effects have also been observed in yeast cells, nematodes and flies upon the overexpression of the deacetylase Sirtuin-1. Intrigued by these observations and by the established link between caloric restriction and Sirtuin-1 activation, we decided to investigate the putative implication of Sirtuin-1 in the response of human cancer cells and Caenorhabditis elegans to multiple triggers of autophagy. Our data indicate that the activation of Sirtuin-1 (by the pharmacological agent resveratrol and/or genetic means) per se ignites autophagy, and that Sirtuin-1 is required for the autophagic response to nutrient deprivation, in both human and nematode cells, but not for autophagy triggered by downstream signals such as the inhibition of mTOR or p53. Since the life spanextending effects of Sirtuin-1 activators are lost in autophagy-deficient C. elegans, our results suggest that caloric restriction and resveratrol extend longevity, at least in experimental settings, by activating autophagy.

  17. The Central Sirtuin 1/p53 Pathway Is Essential for the Orexigenic Action of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Douglas A.; Martínez, Gloria; Romero, Amparo; Vázquez, María J.; Boit, Katia D.; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G.; López, Miguel; Vidal, Anxo; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that increases food intake through the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the molecular mechanisms initiated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, which in turn lead to AMPK activation, remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase activated in response to calorie restriction that acts through the tumor suppressor gene p53. We tested the hypothesis that the central SIRT1/p53 pathway might be mediating the orexigenic action of ghrelin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SIRT1 inhibitors, such as Ex527 and sirtinol, and AMPK activators, such as AICAR, were administered alongside ghrelin in the brain of rats and mice (wild-type versus p53 knockout [KO]). Their hypothalamic effects on lipid metabolism and changes in transcription factors and neuropeptides were assessed by Western blot and in situ hybridization. RESULTS The central pretreatment with Ex527, a potent SIRT1 inhibitor, blunted the ghrelin-induced food intake in rats. Mice lacking p53, a target of SIRT1 action, failed to respond to ghrelin in feeding behavior. Ghrelin failed to phosphorylate hypothalamic AMPK when rats were pretreated with Ex527, as it did in p53 KO mice. It is noteworthy that the hypothalamic SIRT1/p53 pathway seems to be specific for mediating the orexigenic action of ghrelin, because central administration of AICAR, a potent AMPK activator, increased food intake in p53 KO mice. Finally, blockade of the central SIRT1 pathway did not modify ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion. CONCLUSIONS Ghrelin specifically triggers a central SIRT1/p53 pathway that is essential for its orexigenic action, but not for the release of growth hormone. PMID:21386086

  18. Sirtuin7 is involved in protecting neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation-induced injury through regulation of the p53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianrui; Tian, Junbin; Zheng, Guoxi; Zhao, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Sirtuin7 (SIRT7) is known to regulate apoptosis and stress responses. So far, very little is known about the role of SIRT7 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of SIRT7 in regulating oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in neurons. We found a significant increase of SIRT7 expression in neurons in response to OGD/R treatment. Knockdown of SIRT7 aggravated OGD/R-induced injury. Knockdown of SIRT7 augmented the levels of total and acetylated p53 protein. Moreover, knockdown of SIRT7 markedly increased the transcriptional activity of p53 toward apoptosis and activated the p53-mediated proapoptotic signaling pathway. By contrast, overexpression of SIRT7 showed the opposite effects. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that SIRT7 is involved in protecting neurons against OGD/R-induced injury, possibly through regulation of the p53-mediated proapoptotic signaling pathway, indicating a potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sirtuin activators.

    PubMed

    Alcaín, Francisco J; Villalba, José M

    2009-04-01

    Sirtuin 1-7 (SIRT1-7) are deacetylases that are dependent on NAD(+) for their activity. SIRT1 down-regulates p53 activity, increasing lifespan, cell survival, and neuroprotection; it also deacetylates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its coactivator 1alpha, promoting fat mobilization, increasing mitochondrial size and number, and positively regulating insulin secretion. Sirtuins link nutrient availability and energy metabolism. Calorie restriction, which increases lifespan and is beneficial in age-related disorders, activates sirtuin. Major efforts are thus focused to developing sirtuin activators. After discussing the potential involvement of sirtuins in pathophysiological processes, this review looks at new, synthetic sirtuin activators. To date, resveratrol is the most potent natural compound able to activate SIRT1, mimicking the positive effect of calorie restriction. Resveratrol might help in the treatment or prevention of obesity and in preventing the aging-related decline in heart function and neuronal loss. As resveratrol has low bioavailability and interacts with multiple molecular targets, the development of new molecules with better bioavailability and targeting sirtuin at lower concentrations is a promising field of the medicinal chemistry. New SIRT1 activators that are up to 1000 times more effective than resveratrol have recently been identified. These improve the response to insulin and increase the number and activity of mitochondria in obese mice. Human trials with a formulation of resveratrol with improved bioavailability and with a synthetic SIRT1 activator are in progress.

  20. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Sharma, Ankita; Pandey, Vivek Kumar; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2016-01-15

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD(+) dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (P<0.05) at transcriptional level as well as at translational level. Combination of nicotinamide (sirtuin inhibitor) with berberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increased the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, P<0.001), which are known as direct activator of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax that culminated into mitochondria mediated activation of apoptotic cascade. Bim/PUMA knock-down showed no changes in sirtuins' expression while cytotoxicity induced by berberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (P<0.001) and it restored pro/anti apoptotic protein ratio in HepG2 cells. Sirtuins inhibition was accompanied by decline in NAD(+)/NADH ratio, ATP generation, enhanced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. TEM analysis confirmed mitochondrial deterioration and cell damage. SRT-1720 (1-10 μM), a SIRT-1 activator, when pre-treated with berberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (P<0.05). Thus, our findings suggest that berberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2015

  1. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard; Sharma, Ankita

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD{sup +} dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (P < 0.05) at transcriptional level as well as at translational level. Combination of nicotinamide (sirtuin inhibitor) with berberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increasedmore » the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, P<0.001), which are known as direct activator of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax that culminated into mitochondria mediated activation of apoptotic cascade. Bim/PUMA knock-down showed no changes in sirtuins' expression while cytotoxicity induced by berberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (P < 0.001) and it restored pro/anti apoptotic protein ratio in HepG2 cells. Sirtuins inhibition was accompanied by decline in NAD{sup +}/NADH ratio, ATP generation, enhanced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. TEM analysis confirmed mitochondrial deterioration and cell damage. SRT-1720 (1–10 μM), a SIRT-1 activator, when pre-treated with berberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (P < 0.05). Thus, our findings suggest that berberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria-mediated

  2. Targeting Sirtuin-1 prolongs murine renal allograft survival and function

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Matthew H.; Wang, Zhonglin; Xiao, Haiyan; Jiao, Jing; Wang, Liqing; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Beier, Ulf H.

    2016-01-01

    Current immunosuppressive medications used after transplantation have significant toxicities. Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells can prevent allograft rejection without compromising protective host immunity. Interestingly, inhibiting the class III histone/protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 can augment Foxp3+ Treg suppressive function through increasing Foxp3 acetylation. Here we determined whether Sirtuin-1 targeting can stabilize biological allograft function. BALB/c kidney allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients with a CD4-conditional deletion of Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1fl/flCD4cre) or mice treated with a Sirtuin-1 specific inhibitor (EX-527), and the native kidneys removed. Blood chemistries and hematocrit were followed weekly. Sirt1fl/flCD4cre recipients showed markedly longer survival and improved kidney function. Sirt1fl/flCD4cre recipients exhibited donor specific tolerance, accepted BALB/c, but rejected third-party C3H cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c renal allografts that were treated with EX-527 showed improved survival and renal function at 1, but not 10 mg/kg/day. Pharmacologic inhibition of Sirtuin-1 also improved renal allograft survival and function with dosing effects having relevance to outcome. Thus, inhibiting Sirtuin-1 can be a useful asset in controlling T-cell mediated rejection. However, effects on non-T cells that could adversely affect allograft survival and function merit consideration. PMID:27083279

  3. Application of Targeted Mass Spectrometry for the Quantification of Sirtuins in the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasena, T.; Poljak, A.; Braidy, N.; Zhong, L.; Rowlands, B.; Muenchhoff, J.; Grant, R.; Smythe, G.; Teo, C.; Raftery, M.; Sachdev, P.

    2016-10-01

    Sirtuin proteins have a variety of intracellular targets, thereby regulating multiple biological pathways including neurodegeneration. However, relatively little is currently known about the role or expression of the 7 mammalian sirtuins in the central nervous system. Western blotting, PCR and ELISA are the main techniques currently used to measure sirtuin levels. To achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity in a multiplex-format, a targeted mass spectrometric assay was developed and validated for the quantification of all seven mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Quantification of all peptides was by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using three mass transitions per protein-specific peptide, two specific peptides for each sirtuin and a stable isotope labelled internal standard. The assay was applied to a variety of samples including cultured brain cells, mammalian brain tissue, CSF and plasma. All sirtuin peptides were detected in the human brain, with SIRT2 being the most abundant. Sirtuins were also detected in human CSF and plasma, and guinea pig and mouse tissues. In conclusion, we have successfully applied MRM mass spectrometry for the detection and quantification of sirtuin proteins in the central nervous system, paving the way for more quantitative and functional studies.

  4. The role of sirtuins in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Shouji

    2015-01-01

    Modification of histones is one of the important mechanisms of epigenetics, in which genetic control is determined by factors other than an individual's DNA sequence. Sirtuin family proteins, which are class III histone deacetylases, were originally identified as gene silencers that affect the mating type of yeast, leading to the name “silent mating-type information regulation 2” (SIR2). They are characterized by their requirement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for their enzyme activity, unlike other classes of histone deacetylases. Sirtuins have been traditionally linked to longevity and the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and DNA damage repair. Recently, sirtuins have been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including aging, energy responses to low calorie availability, and stress resistance, as well as apoptosis and inflammation. Sirtuins can also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and circadian clocks. Seven sirtuin family proteins (Sirt1-7) have been identified as mammalian SIR2 orthologs, localized in different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytoplasm (Sirt1, 2), the mitochondria (Sirt3, 4, 5), and the nucleus (Sirt1, 2, 6, 7). Sirt1 is evolutionarily close to yeast SIR2 and has been the most intensively investigated in the cardiovascular system. Endogenous Sirt1 plays a pivotal role in mediating the cell death/survival process and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Downregulation of Sirt2 is protective against ischemic-reperfusion injury. Increased Sirt3 expression has been shown to correlate with longevity in humans. In addition, Sirt3 protects cardiomyocytes from aging and oxidative stress and suppresses cardiac hypertrophy. Sirt6 has also recently been demonstrated to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy, and Sirt7 is known to regulate apoptosis and stress responses in the heart. On the other hand, the roles of Sirt4 and Sirt5 in the heart remain largely

  5. Knock-out of a mitochondrial sirtuin protects neurons from degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Amico, Massimo; Grant, Jeff; Della-Morte, David; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of sir-2.3 knock-out is enhanced by block of glycolysis and eliminated by a null mutation in daf-16/FOXO transcription factor, supporting the involvement of the insulin/IGF pathway. However, data in Caenorhabditis elegans cell culture suggest that the effects of sir-2.3 knock-out act downstream of the DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor. Analysis of ROS in sir-2.3 knock-out reveals that ROS become elevated in this mutant under ischemic conditions in dietary deprivation (DD), but to a lesser extent than in wild type, suggesting more robust activation of a ROS scavenging system in this mutant in the absence of food. This work suggests a deleterious role of SIRT4 during ischemic processes in mammals that must be further investigated and reveals a novel pathway that can be targeted for the design of therapies aimed at protecting neurons from death in ischemic conditions.

  6. Knock-out of a mitochondrial sirtuin protects neurons from degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sangaletti, Rachele; Grant, Jeff; Della-Morte, David

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of sir-2.3 knock-out is enhanced by block of glycolysis and eliminated by a null mutation in daf-16/FOXO transcription factor, supporting the involvement of the insulin/IGF pathway. However, data in Caenorhabditis elegans cell culture suggest that the effects of sir-2.3 knock-out act downstream of the DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor. Analysis of ROS in sir-2.3 knock-out reveals that ROS become elevated in this mutant under ischemic conditions in dietary deprivation (DD), but to a lesser extent than in wild type, suggesting more robust activation of a ROS scavenging system in this mutant in the absence of food. This work suggests a deleterious role of SIRT4 during ischemic processes in mammals that must be further investigated and reveals a novel pathway that can be targeted for the design of therapies aimed at protecting neurons from death in ischemic conditions. PMID:28820880

  7. Sirtuins, Bioageing, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, D.; McGuinness, D. H.; McCaul, J. A.; Shiels, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    The Sirtuins are a family of orthologues of yeast Sir2 found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to man. They display a high degree of conservation between species, in both sequence and function, indicative of their key biochemical roles. Sirtuins are heavily implicated in cell cycle, cell division, transcription regulation, and metabolism, which places the various family members at critical junctures in cellular metabolism. Typically, Sirtuins have been implicated in the preservation of genomic stability and in the prolongation of lifespan though many of their target interactions remain unknown. Sirtuins play key roles in tumourigenesis, as some have tumour-suppressor functions and others influence tumours through their control of the metabolic state of the cell. Their links to ageing have also highlighted involvement in various age-related and degenerative diseases. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the role of Sirtuins in age-related diseases while taking a closer look at their roles and functions in maintaining genomic stability and their influence on telomerase and telomere function. PMID:21766030

  8. Role of NAD+ and mitochondrial sirtuins in cardiac and renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Kathleen A.; Martin, Angelical S.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has key roles in the regulation of redox status and energy metabolism. NAD+ depletion is emerging as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal diseases and NAD+ repletion strategies have shown therapeutic potential as a means to restore healthy metabolism and physiological function. The pleotropic roles of NAD+ enable several possible avenues by which repletion of this coenzyme could have therapeutic efficacy. In particular, NAD+ functions as a co-substrate in deacylation reactions carried out by the sirtuin family of enzymes. These NAD+-dependent deacylases control several aspects of metabolism and a wealth of data suggests that boosting sirtuin activity via NAD+ supplementation might be a promising therapy for cardiac and renal pathologies. This Review summarizes the role of NAD+ metabolism in the heart and kidney, and highlights the mitochondrial sirtuins as mediators of some of the beneficial effects of NAD+-boosting therapies in preclinical animal models. We surmise that modulating the NAD+–sirtuin axis is a clinically relevant approach to develop new therapies for cardiac and renal diseases. PMID:28163307

  9. Role of NAD+ and mitochondrial sirtuins in cardiac and renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Kathleen A; Martin, Angelical S; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) has key roles in the regulation of redox status and energy metabolism. NAD + depletion is emerging as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal diseases and NAD + repletion strategies have shown therapeutic potential as a means to restore healthy metabolism and physiological function. The pleotropic roles of NAD + enable several possible avenues by which repletion of this coenzyme could have therapeutic efficacy. In particular, NAD + functions as a co-substrate in deacylation reactions carried out by the sirtuin family of enzymes. These NAD + -dependent deacylases control several aspects of metabolism and a wealth of data suggests that boosting sirtuin activity via NAD + supplementation might be a promising therapy for cardiac and renal pathologies. This Review summarizes the role of NAD + metabolism in the heart and kidney, and highlights the mitochondrial sirtuins as mediators of some of the beneficial effects of NAD + -boosting therapies in preclinical animal models. We surmise that modulating the NAD + -sirtuin axis is a clinically relevant approach to develop new therapies for cardiac and renal diseases.

  10. Metabolic Reprogramming by 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM): A New Perspective to Reverse Obesity through Co-Regulation of Sirtuin 4 and 6 Expression.

    PubMed

    Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Reiland, Hannah; Sabatini, Martina; Lorenzini, Leonardo; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Rogowski, Micheal; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Tonelli, Marco; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Saba, Alessandro; Zucchi, Riccardo; Chiellini, Grazia

    2018-05-22

    Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of subchronic T1AM treatment at two pharmacological daily doses (10 and 25 mg/kg) on targeted metabolic pathways. Multi-analytical results indicated that T1AM at 25 mg/kg can act as a novel master regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism in mice through sirtuin-mediated pathways. In liver, we observed an increased gene and protein expression of Sirt6 (a master gene regulator of glucose) and Gck (glucose kinase) and a decreased expression of Sirt4 (a negative regulator of fatty acids oxidation (FAO)), whereas in white adipose tissue only Sirt6 was increased. Metabolomics analysis supported physiological changes at both doses with most increases in FAO, glycolysis indicators and the mitochondrial substrate, at the highest dose of T1AM. Together our results suggest that T1AM acts through sirtuin-mediated pathways to metabolically reprogram fatty acid and glucose metabolism possibly through small molecules signaling. Our novel mechanistic findings indicate that T1AM has a great potential as a drug for the treatment of obesity and possibly diabetes.

  11. Nicotinamide Suppresses the DNA Damage Sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Independently of Sirtuin Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Rössl, Anthony; Bentley-DeSousa, Amanda; Tseng, Yi-Chieh; Nwosu, Christine; Downey, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Nicotinamide is both a reaction product and an inhibitor of the conserved sirtuin family of deacetylases, which have been implicated in a broad range of cellular functions in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. Phenotypes observed following treatment with nicotinamide are most often assumed to stem from inhibition of one or more of these enzymes. Here, we used this small molecule to inhibit multiple sirtuins at once during treatment with DNA damaging agents in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. Since sirtuins have been previously implicated in the DNA damage response, we were surprised to observe that nicotinamide actually increased the survival of yeast cells exposed to the DNA damage agent MMS. Remarkably, we found that enhanced resistance to MMS in the presence of nicotinamide was independent of all five yeast sirtuins. Enhanced resistance was also independent of the nicotinamide salvage pathway, which uses nicotinamide as a substrate to generate NAD+, and of a DNA damage-induced increase in the salvage enzyme Pnc1 Our data suggest a novel and unexpected function for nicotinamide that has broad implications for its use in the study of sirtuin biology across model systems. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Nicotinamide Suppresses the DNA Damage Sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Independently of Sirtuin Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Rössl, Anthony; Bentley-DeSousa, Amanda; Tseng, Yi-Chieh; Nwosu, Christine; Downey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide is both a reaction product and an inhibitor of the conserved sirtuin family of deacetylases, which have been implicated in a broad range of cellular functions in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. Phenotypes observed following treatment with nicotinamide are most often assumed to stem from inhibition of one or more of these enzymes. Here, we used this small molecule to inhibit multiple sirtuins at once during treatment with DNA damaging agents in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. Since sirtuins have been previously implicated in the DNA damage response, we were surprised to observe that nicotinamide actually increased the survival of yeast cells exposed to the DNA damage agent MMS. Remarkably, we found that enhanced resistance to MMS in the presence of nicotinamide was independent of all five yeast sirtuins. Enhanced resistance was also independent of the nicotinamide salvage pathway, which uses nicotinamide as a substrate to generate NAD+, and of a DNA damage-induced increase in the salvage enzyme Pnc1. Our data suggest a novel and unexpected function for nicotinamide that has broad implications for its use in the study of sirtuin biology across model systems. PMID:27527516

  13. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Liang; Hu, Jia; Weng, Yuxiong

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptionalmore » activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.« less

  14. Are sirtuins viable targets for improving healthspan and lifespan?

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Joseph A.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Minor, Robin K.; Couteur, David G. Le; de Cabo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Although the increased lifespan of our populations illustrates the success of modern medicine, the risk of developing many diseases increases exponentially with old age. Caloric restriction is known to retard ageing and delay functional decline as well as the onset of disease in most organisms. Studies have implicated the sirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) as mediators of key effects of caloric restriction during ageing. Two unrelated molecules that have been shown to increase SIRT1 activity in some settings, resveratrol and SRT1720, are excellent protectors against metabolic stress in mammals, making SIRT1 a potentially appealing target for therapeutic interventions. This Review covers the current status and controversies surrounding the potential of sirtuins as novel pharmacological targets, with a focus on SIRT1. PMID:22653216

  15. Sirtuins and Disease: The Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Carafa, Vincenzo; Nebbioso, Angela; Altucci, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins represent a promising new class of conserved histone deacetylases, originally identified in yeast. The activity of the sirtuin (SirT) family – made up of seven members (SirT1-7) – is NAD+ dependent. Sirtuins target a wide range of cellular proteins in nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria for post-translational modification by acetylation (SirT1, 2, 3, and 5) or ADP-ribosylation (SirT4 and 6). Sirtuins regulate responses to stress and ensure that damaged DNA is not propagated, thus contrasting the accumulation of mutations. To date, sirtuins have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of human pathologies such as metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. SirT1 is the founding member of this class of enzymes and is currently the best known of the group. SirT1 acts in various cellular processes, deacetylating both chromatin and non-histone proteins, and its role in cancer and aging has been extensively studied. SirT1 may play a critical role in tumor initiation and progression as well as drug resistance by blocking senescence and apoptosis, and by promoting cell growth and angiogenesis. Recently, growing interest in sirtuin modulation has led to the discovery and characterization of small molecules able to modify sirtuin activity. The present review highlights SirT mechanism(s) of action and deregulation in cancer, focusing on the therapeutic potential of SirT modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22319497

  16. Could Sirtuin Activities Modify ALS Onset and Progression?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2017-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS. Moving forward, it is important that the potentially beneficial effect of Sirtuins in ALS disease onset and progression are assessed in ALS models with TDP-43, FUS, and C9orf72 mutations.

  17. Pleiotropic effects of the sirtuin inhibitor sirtinol involves concentration-dependent modulation of multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell LNCaP

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sirtinol, a purported specific inhibitor of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent type III histone deacetylase (also known as sirtuin), has been used extensively to identify chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents that modulate the activity of this group of enzymes. However, the mole...

  18. Sirtuin 7 is decreased in pulmonary fibrosis and regulates the fibrotic phenotype of lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Anne E; Noor, Zahid; Fishelevich, Rita; Lockatell, Virginia; Shah, Nirav G; Todd, Nevins W; Atamas, Sergei P

    2017-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe condition with no cure and limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of its pathophysiology is needed. Recent studies have suggested that pulmonary fibrosis may be driven by accelerated aging-related mechanisms. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6, are well-known mediators of aging; however, limited data exist on the contribution of sirtuins to lung fibrosis. We assessed the mRNA and protein levels of all seven known sirtuins in primary lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) in comparison with lung fibroblasts from healthy controls. These unbiased tests revealed a tendency for all sirtuins to be expressed at lower levels in fibroblasts from patients compared with controls, but the greatest decrease was observed with SIRT7. Similarly, SIRT7 was decreased in lung tissues of bleomycin-challenged mice. Inhibition of SIRT7 with siRNA in cultured lung fibroblasts resulted in an increase in collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Reciprocally, overexpression of SIRT7 resulted in lower basal and TGF-β-induced levels of COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, and α-SMA mRNAs, as well as collagen and α-SMA proteins. Induced changes in SIRT7 had no effect on endogenous TGF-β mRNA levels or latent TGF-β activation, but overexpression of SIRT7 reduced the levels of Smad3 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, the decline in SIRT7 in lung fibroblasts has a profibrotic effect, which is mediated by changes in Smad3 levels.

  19. Sirtuins and resveratrol-derived compounds: a model for understanding the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Russo, Matteo A; Sansone, Luigi; Polletta, Lucia; Runci, Alessandra; Rashid, Mohammad M; De Santis, Elena; Vernucci, Enza; Carnevale, Ilaria; Tafani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. The scientific explanation of such beneficial effects was limited to the reduction of the oxidative stress by compounds present in the MD. However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD. In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function.

  20. Characteristics of expression and regulation of sirtuins in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Ma, Zheng; Li, Yanmin; Li, Cuicui; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Liu, Xiaojun; Kang, Xiangtao

    2017-05-01

    Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are a family of NAD + -dependent protein deacetylases that are linked to post-translational regulation of many metabolic processes. There are few reports available for chicken sirtuins (designated cSIRT1-cSIRT7), whose expression and regulation in the liver have yet to be explored. In the present study, we characterized the expression and regulation of sirtuin family members in chicken liver. The results showed that the sirtuin family members in chicken share the same conserved functional SIR2 domains. All the sirtuin family members were expressed extensively in all tissues examined, and the expression levels of cSIRT1, cSIRT2, cSIRT4, cSIRT6, and cSIRT7 in the liver increased significantly with sexual maturity. However, all sirtuin family members were downregulated (P < 0.05) in chicken livers and cultured primary hepatocytes treated with 17β-estradiol. We concluded that the expression levels of some chicken sirtuin family members in the liver were upregulated with sexual maturation, but might not be regulated directly by estrogen. Whereas estrogen could be used as an inhibitor of all sirtuins, both in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Calorie restriction extends the chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae independently of the Sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; McClure, Julie M; Matecic, Mirela; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2007-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends the mean and maximum lifespan of a wide variety of organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, although the molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reducing glucose in the growth medium extends both the replicative and chronological lifespans (CLS). The conserved NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2p, promotes replicative longevity in S. cerevisiae by suppressing recombination within the ribosomal DNA locus and has been proposed to mediate the effects of CR on aging. In this study, we investigated the functional relationships of the yeast Sirtuins (Sir2p, Hst1p, Hst2p, Hst3p and Hst4p) with CLS and CR. SIR2, HST2, and HST4 were not major regulators of CLS and were not required for the lifespan extension caused by shifting the glucose concentration from 2 to 0.5% (CR). Deleting HST1 or HST3 moderately shortened CLS, but did not prevent CR from extending lifespan. CR therefore works through a Sirtuin-independent mechanism in the chronological aging system. We also show that low temperature or high osmolarity additively extends CLS when combined with CR, suggesting that these stresses and CR act through separate pathways. The CR effect on CLS was not specific to glucose. Restricting other simple sugars such as galactose or fructose also extended lifespan. Importantly, growth on nonfermentable carbon sources that force yeast to exclusively utilize respiration extended lifespan at nonrestricted concentrations and provided no additional benefit when restricted, suggesting that elevated respiration capacity is an important determinant of chronological longevity.

  2. Fenofibrate suppresses cellular metabolic memory of high glucose in diabetic retinopathy via a sirtuin 1-dependent signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuzhi; Li, Jun; Wang, Na; Zheng, Bingqing; Li, Tao; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a major contributing factor in the development of diabetic microvascular complications, regardless of whether improved glycaemic control is achieved. Studies have increasingly indicated that fenofibrate, a lipid‑lowering therapeutic agent in clinical use, exerts a potential anti‑inflammatory effect, which is mediated by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1; an NAD+‑dependent deacetylase) in endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of fenofibrate on metabolic memory (via the regulation of SIRT1), and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The data demonstrated that high glucose treatment in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) inhibited the expression and deacetylase activity of SIRT1. The reduction of SIRT1 expression and deacetylase activity persisted following a return to normal glucose levels. Furthermore, nuclear factor‑κB expression was observed to be negatively correlated with SIRT1 expression and activity in HRECs under high glucose levels and the subsequent return to normal glucose levels. Fenofibrate treatment abrogated these changes. Knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated the effect of fenofibrate on high glucose‑induced NF‑κB expression. In addition, fenofibrate upregulated SIRT1 expression through peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor α in high glucose‑induced metabolic memory. These findings indicate that fenofibrate is important in anti‑inflammatory processes and suppresses the cellular metabolic memory of high glucose‑induced stress via the SIRT1‑dependent signalling pathway. Thus, treatment with fenofibrate may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for halting the development of DR and other complications of diabetes.

  3. A patent review of sirtuin activators: an update.

    PubMed

    Villalba, José M; de Cabo, Rafael; Alcain, Francisco J

    2012-04-01

    Reversible acetylation is a key post-translational modification of target proteins. Sirtuin deacetylases represent the homolog of the yeast silent information regulator (SIR2). Although seven sirtuins have been found in mammals, all sirtuin activators described to date act through SIRT1. Areas covered in this paper include a review of the patent literature associated with SIRT1 activators, with a focus on therapeutic applications, primarily related to the use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals containing resveratrol (RSV), and the development of second-generation activators unrelated to RSV. Also discussed is the current controversy over whether or not these molecules are actual SIRT1 activators. Developing effective strategies to protect against diet-induced metabolic imbalance is necessary to fight against current obesity rates. The hypothalamus is a candidate for developing drugs that suppress SIRT1 degradation, as a strategy for treating metabolic syndrome. Deciphering the basic mechanism of activators is essential to develop effective strategies to alter sirtuin activity. This is true regardless of the apparent controversy of whether in vitro activation of SIRT1 is direct or not, depending on the experimental design, and whether sirtuins may play a major role in longevity. The numerous studies on their positive effects against age-related diseases, obesity and other metabolic disorders are still valid, promising to positively influence the development of treatments to improve human health.

  4. Sirtuins, Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms: Building a Bridge between Aging and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung-Hynes, Brittney; Reiter, Russel J.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been under intense scientific investigation for a number of years. However, only recently the unique class III HDACs, sirtuins, have gained increasing investigational momentum. Originally linked to longevity in yeast, sirtuins and more specifically, SIRT1 have been implicated in numerous biological processes having both protective and/or detrimental effects. SIRT1 appears to play a critical role in the process of carcinogenesis, especially in age-related neoplasms. Similarly, alterations in circadian rhythms as well as production of the pineal hormone melatonin have been linked to aging and cancer risk. Melatonin has been found act as a differentiating agent in some cancer cells and to lower their invasive and metastatic status. In addition, melatonin synthesis and release occurs in a circadian rhythm fashion and it has been linked to the core circadian machinery genes (Clock, Bmal1, Periods, and Cryptochromes). Melatonin has also been associated with chronotherapy, the timely administration of chemotherapy agents to optimize trends in biological cycles. Interestingly, a recent set of studies have linked SIRT1 to the circadian rhythm machinery through direct deacetylation activity as well as through the NAD+ salvage pathway. In this review, we provide evidence for a possible connection between sirtuins, melatonin, and the circadian rhythm circuitry and their implications in aging, chronomodulation and cancer. PMID:20025641

  5. Sirtuins in gamete biology and reproductive physiology: emerging roles and therapeutic potential in female and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tatone, Carla; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Barbonetti, Arcangelo; Carta, Gaspare; Luciano, Alberto M; Falone, Stefano; Amicarelli, Fernanda

    2018-05-01

    grown or matured in vitro in humans and animal models. Recently, SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT3 have emerged as protectors of oocyte against postovulatory aging. Transgenic models provide strong evidence that SIRT1 is involved in spermatogenesis by influencing specific functions of male germ cell, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. When our attention moves to post-fertilization events, maternally derived SIRT3 appears crucial in the protecting early embryos against stress conditions. Finally, increasing SIRT1 activity may have the potential to ameliorate fertility in PCOS, diabetes, endometriosis, xenobiotic stress and aging. Overall, these effects have been ascribed to Sirtuin-mediated regulation of energy homoeostasis, mitochondrial biogenesis, chromatin remodelling and protection against oxidative stress. The present review provides challenges and opportunities to stimulate research and exploit Sirtuin-based signalling as diagnostic tools and potential targets for therapeutic applications in reproductive medicine.

  6. The human sirtuin family: Evolutionary divergences and functions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The sirtuin family of proteins is categorised as class III histone deacetylases that play complex and important roles in ageing-related pathological conditions such as cancer and the deregulation of metabolism. There are seven members in humans, divided into four classes, and evolutionarily conserved orthologues can be found in most forms of life, including both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The highly conserved catalytic core domain composed of a large oxidised nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-binding Rossmann fold subunit suggests that these proteins belong to a family of nutrient-sensing regulators. Along with their function in regulating cellular metabolism in response to stressful conditions, they are implicated in modifying a wide variety of substrates; this increases the complexity of unravelling the interplay of sirtuins and their partners. Over the past few years, all of these new findings have attracted the interest of researchers exploring potential therapeutic implications related to the function of sirtuins. It remains to be elucidated whether, indeed, sirtuins can serve as molecular targets for the treatment of human illnesses. PMID:21807603

  7. miR-217 regulates ethanol-induced hepatic inflammation by disrupting sirtuin 1-lipin-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huquan; Liang, Xiaomei; Jogasuria, Alvin; Davidson, Nicholas O; You, Min

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol-mediated injury, combined with gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), provokes generation of proinflammatory cytokines in Kupffer cells, causing hepatic inflammation. Among the mediators of these effects, miR-217 aggravates ethanol-induced steatosis in hepatocytes. However, the role of miR-217 in ethanol-induced liver inflammation process is unknown. Here, we examined the role of miR-217 in the responses to ethanol, LPS, or a combination of ethanol and LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in primary Kupffer cells. In macrophages, ethanol substantially exacerbated LPS-mediated induction of miR-217 and production of proinflammatory cytokines compared with LPS or ethanol alone. Consistently, ethanol administration to mice led to increases in miR-217 abundance and increased production of inflammatory cytokines in isolated primary Kupffer cells exposed to the combination of ethanol and LPS. miR-217 promoted combined ethanol and LPS-mediated inhibition of sirtuin 1 expression and activity in macrophages. Moreover, miR-217-mediated sirtuin 1 inhibition was accompanied by increased activities of two vital inflammatory regulators, NF-κB and the nuclear factor of activated T cells c4. Finally, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-217 led to steatosis and inflammation in mice. These findings suggest that miR-217 is a pivotal regulator involved in ethanol-induced hepatic inflammation. Strategies to inhibit hepatic miR-217 could be a viable approach in attenuating alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5′-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  9. Red ginseng represses hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 through sirtuin1 activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wonchung; Shim, Myeong Kuk; Kim, Sikwan; Lee, YoungJoo

    2015-06-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herbal medicine made by steaming and drying the fresh ginseng, leading to chemical transformation of some components by heat. It ameliorates various inflammatory diseases and strengthens the endocrine, immune, and central nervous systems. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells has important implications for stimulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study we examined the effects and the mechanism underlying Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells. The effect of the KRG on suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or qRT-PCR. The anti-invasive effect of KRG-WE was evaluated on A549 cells using matrigel invasion assay. The activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was examined by using specific inhibitors. We first observed that hypoxia induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels and promoter activity were suppressed by KRG-WE. Second, we observed that hypoxia-induced cell migration is dramatically reduced by KRG-WE. Third, we found that the effect of KRG-WE was not antagonized by the GR antagonist RU486 implying that the effect is mediated other than GR pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of Sirt1 abolished the effect of KRG-WE on hypoxia-induced COX-2 suppression and cell-invasion indicating that the suppression is mediated by Sirt1. Taken together, KRG-WE inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through Sirt1 activation. Our results imply that KRG-WE could be effective for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Induced meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Chih; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Chen, Ke-Min; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood-brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sirtuins in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Targets in Pediatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Alessandro; Yuan, Xuejun; Bober, Eva; Braun, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of death and morbidity. Cardiac and vascular pathologies develop predominantly in the aged population in part due to lifelong exposure to numerous risk factors but are also found in children and during adolescence. In comparison to adults, much has to be learned about the molecular pathways driving cardiovascular diseases in the pediatric population. Sirtuins are highly conserved enzymes that play pivotal roles in ensuring cardiac homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. In this review, we discuss novel findings about the biological functions of these molecules in the cardiovascular system and their possible involvement in pediatric cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Alkaloids from psychotria target sirtuins: in silico and in vitro interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Sacconnay, Lionel; Ryckewaert, Lucie; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Kato, Lucilia; Alves de Oliveira, Cecilia Maria; Henriques, Amélia; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Simões-Pires, Claudia; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic enzymes such as histone deacetylases play a crucial role in the development of ageing-related diseases. Among the 18 histone deacetylase isoforms found in humans, class III histone deacetylases, also known as sirtuins, seem to be promising targets for treating neurodegenerative conditions. Recently, Psychotria alkaloids, mainly monoterpene indoles, have been reported for their inhibitory properties against central nervous system cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase proteins. Given the multifunctional profile of these alkaloids in the central nervous system, and the fact that the indole scaffold has been previously associated with sirtuin inhibition, we hypothesized that these indole derivatives could also interact with sirtuins. In the present study, alkaloids previously isolated from Psychotria spp. were evaluated for their potential interaction with human sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 2 by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches. The in silico results allowed for the selection of five potentially active compounds, namely, prunifoleine, 14-oxoprunifoleine, E-vallesiachotamine, Z-vallesiachotamine, and vallesiachotamine lactone. The sirtuin inhibition of these compounds was confirmed in vitro in a dose-response manner, with preliminary information on their pharmacokinetics properties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The sirtuin family's role in aging and age-associated pathologies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jessica A; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-03-01

    The 7 mammalian sirtuin proteins compose a protective cavalry of enzymes that can be invoked by cells to aid in the defense against a vast array of stressors. The pathologies associated with aging, such as metabolic syndrome, neurodegeneration, and cancer, are either caused by or exacerbated by a lifetime of chronic stress. As such, the activation of sirtuin proteins could provide a therapeutic approach to buffer against chronic stress and ameliorate age-related decline. Here we review experimental evidence both for and against this proposal, as well as the implications that isoform-specific sirtuin activation may have for healthy aging in humans.

  14. Reprogramming metabolism by targeting sirtuin 6 attenuates retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Du, Jianhai; Justus, Sally; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Bonet-Ponce, Luis; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Wei-Pu; Jia, Yading; Duong, Jimmy K.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Wang, Shuang; Hurley, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a diverse group of Mendelian disorders leading to progressive degeneration of rods and then cones. For reasons that remain unclear, diseased RP photoreceptors begin to deteriorate, eventually leading to cell death and, consequently, loss of vision. Here, we have hypothesized that RP associated with mutations in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) provokes a metabolic aberration in rod cells that promotes the pathological consequences of elevated cGMP and Ca2+, which are induced by the Pde6 mutation. Inhibition of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a histone deacetylase repressor of glycolytic flux, reprogrammed rods into perpetual glycolysis, thereby driving the accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates, improving outer segment (OS) length, enhancing photoreceptor survival, and preserving vision. In mouse retinae lacking Sirt6, effectors of glycolytic flux were dramatically increased, leading to upregulation of key intermediates in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and glutaminolysis. Both transgenic and AAV2/8 gene therapy–mediated ablation of Sirt6 in rods provided electrophysiological and anatomic rescue of both rod and cone photoreceptors in a preclinical model of RP. Due to the extensive network of downstream effectors of Sirt6, this study motivates further research into the role that these pathways play in retinal degeneration. Because reprogramming metabolism by enhancing glycolysis is not gene specific, this strategy may be applicable to a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27841758

  15. Sirtuins of parasitic protozoa: In search of function(s)

    PubMed Central

    Religa, Agnieszka A.; Waters, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The SIR2 family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, collectively called sirtuins, has been of central interest due to their proposed roles in life-span regulation and ageing. Sirtuins are one group of environment sensors of a cell interpreting external information and orchestrating internal responses at the sub-cellular level, through participation in gene regulation mechanisms. Remarkably conserved across all kingdoms of life SIR2 proteins in several protozoan parasites appear to have both conserved and intriguing unique functions. This review summarises our current knowledge of the members of the sirtuin families in Apicomplexa, including Plasmodium, and other protozoan parasites such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania. The wide diversity of processes regulated by SIR2 proteins makes them targets worthy of exploitation in anti-parasitic therapies. PMID:22906508

  16. The Role of Mammalian Sirtuins in the Regulation of Metabolism, Aging, and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Akiko; Stein, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of sirtuins a decade ago, interest in this family of NAD-dependent deacetylases has exploded, generating multiple lines of evidence implicating sirtuins as evolutionarily conserved regulators of lifespan. In mammals, it has been established that sirtuins regulate physiological responses to metabolism and stress, two key factors that affect the process of aging. Further investigation into the intimate connection among sirtuins, metabolism, and aging has implicated the activation of SIRT1 as both preventative and therapeutic measures against multiple age-associated disorders including type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. SIRT1 activation has clear potential to not only prevent age-associated diseases but also to extend healthspan and perhaps lifespan. Sirtuin activating compounds and NAD intermediates are two promising ways to achieve these elusive goals. PMID:21879449

  17. Lysine acetylation stoichiometry and proteomics analyses reveal pathways regulated by sirtuin 1 in human cells.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Chiappe, Diego; Luna-Peñaloza, Juan; Fernandez-Reyes, Francis C; Arcos-Encarnación, Bolivar; Contreras, Sandra; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-11-03

    Lysine acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification affecting many biological pathways. Recent studies indicate that acetylated lysine residues mainly exhibit low acetylation occupancy, but challenges in sample preparation and analysis make it difficult to confidently assign these numbers, limiting understanding of their biological significance. Here, we tested three common sample preparation methods to determine their suitability for assessing acetylation stoichiometry in three human cell lines, identifying the acetylation occupancy in more than 1,300 proteins from each cell line. The stoichiometric analysis in combination with quantitative proteomics also enabled us to explore their functional roles. We found that higher abundance of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) correlated with lower acetylation occupancy and lower levels of ribosomal proteins, including those involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 confirmed SIRT1's role in the regulation of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing. Specifically, proteins involved in pre-rRNA transcription, including subunits of the polymerase I and SL1 complexes and the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3, were up-regulated after SIRT1 inhibition. Moreover, many protein effectors and regulators of pre-rRNA processing needed for rRNA maturation were also up-regulated after EX-527 treatment with the outcome that pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA levels also increased. More generally, we found that SIRT1 inhibition down-regulates metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism. Together, these results provide the largest data set thus far of lysine acetylation stoichiometry (available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005903) and set the stage for further biological investigations of this central posttranslational modification. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Aging and cancer: are sirtuins the link?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ramon M; Fraga, Mario F

    2010-06-01

    Classically, aging has been defined as a general degeneration process that leads to the loss of corporal function. The loss of function caused by degeneration limits the maximum lifespan of all organisms and is linked to disease and cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind aging and their connection to cancer are not well understood. NAD-dependent protein deacetylase enzymes, sirtuins, are emerging as a novel molecular link between aging and cancer due to their specific role in cell cycle regulation, antistress response and cell survival. This article reviews the contribution of sirtuins and environmental factors to ontogenic development, senescence and cancer.

  19. Tanshinone IIA suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell signaling and anaphylaxis by activation of the Sirt1/LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Park, Soon Jin; Jin, Fansi; Deng, Yifeng; Yang, Ju Hye; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Ae; Lee, Youn Ju; Murakami, Makoto; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2018-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream mediators liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) are generally known as key regulators of metabolism. We have recently reported that the AMPK pathway negatively regulates mast cell activation and anaphylaxis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract that is currently used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, shows anti-diabetic activity and improves insulin resistance in db/db mice through activation of AMPK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-allergic activity of Tan IIA in vivo and to investigate the underlying mechanism in vitro in the context of AMPK signaling. The anti-allergic effect of Tan IIA was evaluated using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from AMPKα2 -/- or Sirt1 -/- mice, or BMMCs transfected with siRNAs specific for AMPKα2, LKB1, or Sirt1. AMPKα2 -/- and Sirt1 -/- mice were used to confirm the anti-allergic effect of Tan IIA in anaphylaxis in vivo. Tan IIA dose-dependently inhibited FcεRI-mediated degranulation and production of eicosanoids and cytokines in BMMCs. These inhibitory effects were diminished by siRNA-mediated knockdown or genetic deletion of AMPKα2 or Sirt1. Moreover, Tan IIA inhibited a mast cell-mediated local passive anaphylactic reaction in wild-type mice, but not in AMPKα2 -/- or Sirt1 -/- mice. In conclusion, Tan IIA suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis through activation of the inhibitory Sirt1-LKB1-AMPK pathway. Thus, Tan IIA may be useful as a new therapeutic agent for mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Melatonin-mediated upregulation of Sirt3 attenuates sodium fluoride-induced hepatotoxicity by activating the MT1-PI3K/AKT-PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Li, Dan; Mao, Tingchao; Peng, Wei; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells. Melatonin exerted its hepatoprotective effects by upregulating Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) expression level and its activity. Melatonin increased the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) by promoting Sirt3-mediated deacetylation and promoted SOD2 expression through Sirt3-regulated DNA-binding activity of forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a), thus inhibiting the production of mitochondrial ROS induced by NaF. Notably, increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) by melatonin activated the Sirt3 expression, which was regulated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR) binding element (ERRE) mapped to Sirt3 promoter region. Analysis of the cell signaling pathway profiling systems and specific pathway inhibition indicated that melatonin enhances PGC-1α expression by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Importantly, inhibition of melatonin receptor (MT)-1 blocked the melatonin-activated PI3K/AKT-PGC-1α-Sirt3 signaling. Mechanistic study revealed that the protective effects of melatonin were associated with down-regulation of JNK1/2 phosphorylation. Our findings provided a theoretical basis that melatonin mitigated NaF-induced hepatotoxicity, which, in part, was mediated through the activation of the Sirt3 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activation mediates sildenafil induced delayed cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Shalwala, Mona; Zhu, Shu-Guang; Das, Anindita; Salloum, Fadi N; Xi, Lei; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2014-01-01

    It has been well documented that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil (SIL) protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I-R) injury. SIRT1 is part of the class III Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that deacetylates proteins involved in cellular stress response including those related to I-R injury. We tested the hypothesis that SIL-induced cardioprotection may be mediated through activation of SIRT1. Adult male ICR mice were treated with SIL (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.), Resveratrol (RSV, 5 mg/kg, a putative activator of SIRT1 used as the positive control), or saline (0.2 mL). The hearts were harvested 24 hours later and homogenized for SIRT1 activity analysis. Both SIL- and RSV-treated mice had increased cardiac SIRT1 activity (P<0.001) as compared to the saline-treated controls 24 hours after drug treatment. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, pretreatment with SIL (1 µM) or RSV (1 µM) for one hour in vitro also upregulated SIRT1 activity (P<0.05). We further examined the causative relationship between SIRT1 activation and SIL-induced late cardioprotection. Pretreatment with SIL (or RSV) 24 hours prior to 30 min ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 activity (P<0.05). Moreover, sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min before I-R blunted the infarct-limiting effect of SIL and RSV (P<0.001). Our study shows that activation of SIRT1 following SIL treatment plays an essential role in mediating the SIL-induced cardioprotection against I-R injury. This newly identified SIRT1-activating property of SIL may have enormous therapeutic implications.

  2. Resveratrol Reduces Steroidogenesis in Rat Ovarian Theca-Interstitial Cells: The Role of Inhibition of Akt/PKB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Israel; Villanueva, Jesus A.; Wong, Donna H.; Cress, Amanda B.; Sokalska, Anna; Stanley, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by theca-interstitial hyperplasia and increased expression of steroidogenic genes, leading to excessive androgen production. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, promotes apoptosis and reduces rat theca-interstitial cell growth, in part by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway and decreasing the availability of substrates of isoprenylation [farnesyl-pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP)]. This study evaluated the effect of resveratrol on rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis. Because resveratrol may activate sirtuins, this study also investigated whether steroidogenesis was affected by sirtuin inhibitors (nicotinamide, sirtinol). Theca-interstitial cells were cultured with or without resveratrol (1–10 μm), GGPP (30 μm), FPP (30 μm), nicotinamide (1 mm), and/or sirtinol (10 μm). Resveratrol did not affect progesterone levels but reduced androgen production in a concentration-dependent fashion (androstenedione by up to 78% and androsterone by up to 76%). This inhibitory effect correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression of genes regulating androgen production, especially Cyp17a1 (by up to 73%). GGPP and FPP had no effect on androgen levels and Cyp17a1 mRNA levels and did not alter the effects induced by resveratrol. Similarly, sirtuin inhibitors did not reverse resveratrol-induced inhibition of steroidogenesis. However, resveratrol decreased activity of serine-threonine kinase/protein kinase B pathway, a cell-signaling pathway involved in ovarian steroidogenesis. The present findings indicate that resveratrol reduces androgen production primarily by inhibiting Cyp17a1 mRNA expression, and this inhibition may be mediated, in part, by blocking the activity of the serine-threonine kinase/protein kinase B pathway. These findings may be of clinical relevance to conditions associated with excessive production of androgens by theca cells, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:22719052

  3. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Claudia A.; Fievez, Laurence; Neyrinck, Audrey M.

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact ofmore » sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.« less

  4. Structural Modifications of Benzimidazoles via Multi-Step Synthesis and Their Impact on Sirtuin-Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeong Keng; Choon, Tan Soo

    2016-01-01

    Benzimidazole derivatives have been shown to possess sirtuin-inhibitory activity. In the continuous search for potent sirtuin inhibitors, systematic changes on the terminal benzene ring were performed on previously identified benzimidazole-based sirtuin inhibitors, to further investigate their structure-activity relationships. It was demonstrated that the sirtuin activities of these novel compounds followed the trend where meta-substituted compounds possessed markedly weaker potency than ortho- and para-substituted compounds, with the exception of halogenated substituents. Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize these observations. Apart from this, the methods used to synthesize the interesting compounds are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD+, NADH, or their ratio.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    NAD + is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD + , NADH, and the NAD + /NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD + , NADH, or NAD + /NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD + , but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we identify future studies that might be informative to further interrogate physiological and pathophysiological changes in NAD + and NADH, as well as enzymes like sirtuins that sense and respond to redox changes in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Novel Interacting Partners of Sirtuin6

    PubMed Central

    Polyakova, Oxana; Borman, Satty; Grimley, Rachel; Vamathevan, Jessica; Hayes, Brian; Solari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SIRT6 is a member of the Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that has been implicated in inflammatory, aging and metabolic pathways. Some of its actions have been suggested to be via physical interaction with NFκB and HIF1α and transcriptional regulation through its histone deacetylase activity. Our previous studies have investigated the histone deacetylase activity of SIRT6 and explored its ability to regulate the transcriptional responses to an inflammatory stimulus such as TNFα. In order to develop a greater understanding of SIRT6 function we have sought to identify SIRT6 interacting proteins by both yeast-2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation studies. We report a number of interacting partners which strengthen previous findings that SIRT6 functions in base excision repair (BER), and novel interactors which suggest a role in nucleosome and chromatin remodeling, the cell cycle and NFκB biology. PMID:23240041

  7. A Novel Role for SIRT3 in Regulating Mediators Involved in the Terminal Pathways of Human Labor and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Menon, Ramkumar; Lappas, Martha

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth remains the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, mediated largely by an inflammatory process. The sirtuin (SIRT) family of cellular regulators has been implicated as key inhibitors of inflammation. We have previously reported a role for SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT6 in regulating inflammation-induced prolabor mediators. In this study, we determined the effect of term labor and pro-inflammatory cytokines on SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, and SIRT7 expression in human myometrium. Functional studies were also used to investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of SIRTs in regulating inflammation-induced prolabor mediators. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to determine SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, and SIRT7 mRNA and protein expression in human myometrium. Small interfering RNA knockdown of SIRT3 in myometrial primary cells determined its role in response to inflammatory stimuli IL1B and TNF. SIRT3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly lower in term laboring myometrium compared with term nonlaboring myometrium. There was no effect of labor on SIRT4, SIRT5 or SIRT7 protein expression. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1B and TNF significantly decreased levels of SIRT3 mRNA and protein expression. SIRT3 knockdown by siRNA significantly augmented IL1B- and TNF-stimulated IL6, CXCL8, and CCL2 mRNA expression and release; PTGS2 mRNA expression and subsequent PGF 2alpha release; the mRNA expression and secretion of the adhesion molecule ICAM1 and the extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme MMP9; and nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFkappaB1) transcriptional activity. In human myometrium, SIRT3 expression decreases with term labor and regulates the mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labor and delivery through the NFkappaB1 pathway. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. New clinical findings on the longevity gene in disease, health, & longevity: Sirtuin 1 often decreases with advanced age & serious diseases in most parts of the human body, while relatively high & constant Sirtuin 1 regardless of age was first found in the hippocampus of supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic P; Jones, Marilyn; O'Young, Brian; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2011-01-01

    The expression of the longevity gene, Sirtuin 1, was non-invasively measured using Electro-Magnetic Field (EMF) resonance phenomenon between a known amount of polyclonal antibody of the C-terminal of Sirtuin 1 & Sirtuin 1 molecule inside of the body. Our measurement of over 100 human adult males and females, ranging between 20-122 years old, indicated that the majority of subjects had Sirtuin 1 levels of 5-10 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. When Sirtuin 1 was less than 1 pg, the majority of the people had various degrees of tumors or other serious diseases. When Sirtuin 1 levels were less than 0.25 pg BDORT units, a high incidence of AIDS was also detected. Very few people had Sirtuin 1 levels of over 25 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. We selected 7 internationally recognized supercentenarians who lived between 110-122 years old. To our surprise, most of their body Sirtuin 1 levels were between 2.5-10 pg BDORT units. However, by evaluating different parts of the brain, we found that both sides of the Hippocampus had a much higher amount of Sirtuin 1, between 25-100 pg BDORT units. With most subjects, Sirtuin 1 was found to be higher in the Hippocampus than in the rest of the body and remains relatively constant regardless of age. We found that Aspartame, plastic eye contact lenses, and asbestos in dental apparatuses, which reduce normal cell telomeres, also significantly reduce Sirtuin 1. In addition, we found that increasing normal cell telomere by electrical or mechanical stimulation of True ST-36 increases the expression of the Sirtuin 1 gene in people in which expression is low. This measurement of Sirtuin 1 in the Hippocampus has become a reliable indicator for detecting potential longevity of an individual.

  9. Adenosine mimetics as inhibitors of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, from kinase to sirtuin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Johannes; Jochum, Anne; Meier, Rene; Saunders, Laura; Marshall, Brett; Kunick, Conrad; Verdin, Eric; Goekjian, Peter; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred

    2006-12-14

    NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, sirtuins, cleave acetyl groups from lysines of histones and other proteins to regulate their activity. Identification of potent selective inhibitors would help to elucidate sirtuin biology and could lead to useful therapeutic agents. NAD+ has an adenosine moiety that is also present in the kinase cofactor ATP. Kinase inhibitors based upon adenosine mimesis may thus also target NAD+-dependent enzymes. We present a systematic approach using adenosine mimics from one cofactor class (kinase inhibitors) as a viable method to generate new lead structures in another cofactor class (sirtuin inhibitors). Our findings have broad implications for medicinal chemistry and specifically for sirtuin inhibitor design. Our results also raise a question as to whether selectivity profiling for kinase inhibitors should be limited to ATP-dependent targets.

  10. Involvement of cortisol and sirtuin1 during the response to stress of hypothalamic circadian system and food intake-related peptides in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Fatemeh; Hernández-Pérez, Juan; Chivite, Mauro; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M; López-Patiño, Marcos A

    2018-05-08

    Stress is conditioning animal welfare by negatively affecting a wide range of physiological and behavioral functions. This may be applied to circadian physiology and food intake. Cortisol, the stress-related hormone, may mediate such effect of stress, but other indirect mediators might be considered, such as sirtuin1. Then, either the independent modulatory effect or the existence of any interaction between mediators may be responsible. The circadian system is the main modulator of several integrative mechanisms at both central and peripheral levels that are rhythmically presented, thus influencing different processes such as food intake. In this way, food intake is controlled by the circadian system, as demonstrated by the persistence of such rhythms of food intake in the absence of environmental external cues. Our study aimed to evaluate the daily profile of hypothalamic mRNA abundance of circadian clock genes (clock1a, bmal1, per1 and rev-erbβ-like), and food intake regulators (crf, pomc-a1, cart, and npy) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the impact of stress on such rhythms, and the involvement of cortisol and sirtuin1 as mediators. Four cohorts of trout were subjected to 1) normal stocking density (control group), 2) high stocking density for 72 hours (stress group), 3) normal stocking density and implanted with mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptors antagonist, and 4) mifepristone administered and stressed for 72 hours. Fish from each group were sampled every 4-h along the 24-h LD cycle, and cortisol, glucose and lactate plasma levels were evaluated. Hypothalamic mRNA abundance of clock genes, food intake regulators, glucocorticoid receptors and sirtuin1 were qPCR assayed. Our results reveal the impact of stress on most of the genes assayed, but different mechanisms appear to be involved. The rhythm of clock genes displayed decreased amplitude and averaged levels in stressed trout, with no changes of the acrophase being observed. This effect was

  11. Sirtuin 1-dependent resveratrol cytotoxicity and pro-differentiation activity on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Serafim, Teresa L; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Vilaça, Andreia; Moreira, Ana C; Sardão, Vilma A; Cardoso, Susana M; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2017-03-01

    Sirtuins regulate several processes associated with tumor development. Resveratrol was shown to stimulate sirtuin 1 and 3 (SIRT1/3) activities and to result in cytotoxicity for some tumor types. The relationship between modulation of sirtuin activities, cellular metabolic remodeling and resveratrol cytotoxicity mechanism on breast cancer cells is still an open question. Here, we evaluated whether sirtuin 1 and 3 are involved in resveratrol toxicity and whether resveratrol leads to a metabolic remodeling and cell differentiation. Results using the Extracellular Flux Analyzer indicated that resveratrol inhibits mitochondrial respiration in breast cancer cells. We also demonstrated here for the first time that resveratrol cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells were modulated by SIRT1 and also involved mitochondrial complex I inhibition. Importantly, we also demonstrated that resveratrol reduced the pool of breast cancer cells with stemness markers through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. Our data highlights the role of SIRT1 in regulating resveratrol induced differentiation and/or toxicity in breast cancer cells.

  12. Protective effects of sirtuins in cardiovascular diseases: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Winnik, Stephan; Auwerx, Johan; Sinclair, David A.; Matter, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins (Sirt1–Sirt7) comprise a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent enzymes. While deacetylation reflects their main task, some of them have deacylase, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylase, demalonylase, glutarylase, and desuccinylase properties. Activated upon caloric restriction and exercise, they control critical cellular processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria to maintain metabolic homeostasis, reduce cellular damage and dampen inflammation—all of which serve to protect against a variety of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular pathologies. This review focuses on the cardiovascular effects of Sirt1, Sirt3, Sirt6, and Sirt7. Most is known about Sirt1. This deacetylase protects from endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis, diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, liver steatosis, and myocardial infarction. Sirt3 provides beneficial effects in the context of left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, oxidative stress, metabolic homeostasis, and dyslipidaemia. Sirt6 is implicated in ameliorating dyslipidaemia, cellular senescence, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Sirt7 plays a role in lipid metabolism and cardiomyopathies. Most of these data were derived from experimental findings in genetically modified mice, where NFκB, Pcsk9, low-density lipoprotein-receptor, PPARγ, superoxide dismutase 2, poly[adenosine diphosphate-ribose] polymerase 1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were identified among others as crucial molecular targets and/or partners of sirtuins. Of note, there is translational evidence for a role of sirtuins in patients with endothelial dysfunction, type 1 or type 2 diabetes and longevity. Given the availability of specific Sirt1 activators or pan-sirtuin activators that boost levels of the sirtuin cofactor NAD+, we anticipate that this field will move quickly from bench to bedside. PMID:26112889

  13. [Perspectives on pharmacological and clinical benefits from sirtuin 1 activators in oxidative damage].

    PubMed

    Kutinová, Canová Nikolina; Gaier, Norbert; Farghali, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins, named after their homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Silent Information Regulator Two, constitute a family of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes that deacetylate histones and residues of acetylated lysine. The main aim of this article is to put forward the pharmacological importance of major sirtuin 1 activators of natural or synthetic origin tested in last years in cases of oxidative tissue damage. The related bioactivity of these activators as "leading" compounds in the search for new drugs and remedies is also described. With the recent development of our knowledge on the cross talks between sirtuin 1 and its modulators (e.g. resveratrol), pharmacological and clinical research on this topic is getting a new horizon.

  14. Development of Pyrazolone and Isoxazol-5-one Cambinol Analogues as Sirtuin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that play critical roles in epigenetic regulation, stress responses, and cellular aging in eukaryotic cells. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of sirtuins for potential use as chemotherapeutics as well as tools to modulate sirtuin activity, we previously identified a nonselective sirtuin inhibitor called cambinol (IC50 ≈ 50 μM for SIRT1 and SIRT2) with in vitro and in vivo antilymphoma activity. In the current study, we used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments with recombinant SIRT1 and 20 to map parts of the inhibitor that interacted with the protein. Our ongoing efforts to optimize cambinol analogues for potency and selectivity have resulted in the identification of isoform selective analogues: 17 with >7.8-fold selectivity for SIRT1, 24 with >15.4-fold selectivity for SIRT2, and 8 with 6.8- and 5.3-fold selectivity for SIRT3 versus SIRT1 and SIRT2, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity studies with these compounds as well as EX527, a potent and selective SIRT1 inhibitor, suggest that antilymphoma activity of this compound class may be predominantly due to SIRT2 inhibition. PMID:24697269

  15. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed. PMID:26161238

  16. A pilot study of the modulation of sirtuins on arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Turiján-Espinoza, Eneida; Salazar-González, Rául Alejandro; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Hernández-Hernández, Gloria Estela; Ortega-Juárez, Montserrat; Milán, Rosa; Portales-Pérez, Diana

    2018-03-01

    Arylamine N -acetyltransferase (NAT; E.C. 2.3.1.5) enzymes are responsible for the biotransformation of several arylamine and hydrazine drugs by acetylation. In this process, the acetyl group transferred to the acceptor substrate produces NAT deacetylation and, in consequence, it is susceptible of degradation. Sirtuins are protein deacetylases, dependent on nicotine adenine dinucleotide, which perform post-translational modifications on cytosolic proteins. To explore possible sirtuin participation in the enzymatic activity of arylamine NATs, the expression levels of NAT1, NAT2, SIRT1 and SIRT6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy subjects were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot. The in situ activity of the sirtuins on NAT enzymatic activity was analyzed by HPLC, in the presence or absence of an agonist (resveratrol) and inhibitor (nicotinamide) of sirtuins. We detected a higher percentage of positive cells for NAT2 in comparison with NAT1, and higher numbers of SIRT1+ cells compared to SIRT6 in lymphocytes. In situ NAT2 activity in the presence of NAM inhibitors was higher than in the presence of its substrate, but not in the presence of resveratrol. In contrast, the activity of NAT1 was not affected by sirtuins. These results showed that NAT2 activity might be modified by sirtuins.

  17. Overexpression of mitochondrial sirtuins alters glycolysis and mitochondrial function in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Van Houten, Bennett; Goetzman, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial deacylases that impact multiple facets of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. SIRT3 activates several mitochondrial enzymes, SIRT4 represses its targets, and SIRT5 has been shown to both activate and repress mitochondrial enzymes. To gain insight into the relative effects of the mitochondrial sirtuins in governing mitochondrial energy metabolism, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 overexpressing HEK293 cells were directly compared. When grown under standard cell culture conditions (25 mM glucose) all three sirtuins induced increases in mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation, but with no change in growth rate or in steady-state ATP concentration. Increased proton leak, as evidenced by oxygen consumption in the presence of oligomycin, appeared to explain much of the increase in basal oxygen utilization. Growth in 5 mM glucose normalized the elevations in basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and glycolysis in all sirtuin over-expressing cells. While the above effects were common to all three mitochondrial sirtuins, some differences between the SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 expressing cells were noted. Only SIRT3 overexpression affected fatty acid metabolism, and only SIRT4 overexpression altered superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that all three mitochondrial sirtuins can promote increased mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 appear to respond to excess glucose by inducing a coordinated increase of glycolysis and respiration, with the excess energy dissipated via proton leak.

  18. Genomewide screen for negative regulators of sirtuin activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals 40 loci and links to metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raisner, Ryan M; Madhani, Hiten D

    2008-08-01

    Sirtuins are conserved proteins implicated in myriad key processes including gene control, aging, cell survival, metabolism, and DNA repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the sirtuin Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) promotes silent chromatin formation, suppresses recombination between repeats, and inhibits senescence. We performed a genomewide screen for factors that negatively regulate Sir activity at a reporter gene placed immediately outside a silenced region. After linkage analysis, assessment of Sir dependency, and knockout tag verification, 40 loci were identified, including 20 that have not been previously described to regulate Sir. In addition to chromatin-associated factors known to prevent ectopic silencing (Bdf1, SAS-I complex, Rpd3L complex, Ku), we identified the Rtt109 DNA repair-associated histone H3 lysine 56 acetyltransferase as an anti-silencing factor. Our findings indicate that Rtt109 functions independently of its proposed effectors, the Rtt101 cullin, Mms1, and Mms22, and demonstrate unexpected interplay between H3K56 and H4K16 acetylation. The screen also identified subunits of mediator (Soh1, Srb2, and Srb5) and mRNA metabolism factors (Kem1, Ssd1), thus raising the possibility that weak silencing affects some aspect of mRNA structure. Finally, several factors connected to metabolism were identified. These include the PAS-domain metabolic sensor kinase Psk2, the mitochondrial homocysteine detoxification enzyme Lap3, and the Fe-S cluster protein maturase Isa2. We speculate that PAS kinase may integrate metabolic signals to control sirtuin activity.

  19. Sirtuins regulate proteomic responses near thermal tolerance limits in the blue mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossulus.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M Christina; Beam, Michelle; Blackwell, Shelley; Zuzow, Marcus J; Tomanek, Lars

    2017-12-01

    The blue mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. trossulus are competing species with biogeographical ranges set in part by environmental exposure to heat and hyposalinity. The underlying cellular mechanisms influencing interspecific differences in stress tolerance are unknown, but are believed to be under regulation by sirtuins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent deacylases that play a critical role in the cellular stress response. A comparison of the proteomic responses of M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus to an acute heat shock in the presence and absence of the sirtuin inhibitor suramin (SIRT1, 2 and 5) showed that sirtuins affected molecular chaperones, oxidative stress proteins, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal and signaling proteins more in the heat-sensitive M. trossulus than in the heat-tolerant M. galloprovincialis Interactions between sirtuin inhibition and changes in the abundance of proteins of β-oxidation and oxidative stress in M. trossulus suggest a greater role of sirtuins in shifting metabolism to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species near thermal limits. Furthermore, RNA-binding proteins initiating and inhibiting translation were affected by suramin in M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus , respectively. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of mitochondrial sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) were generally three times higher and increased with acute heat stress in response to sirtuin inhibition in M. trossulus but not in M. galloprovincialis , suggesting a possible feedback response in the former species and a greater reliance on SIRT5 for its stress response. Our findings suggest that SIRT5 plays an important role in setting interspecific differences in stress tolerance in Mytilus by affecting the stress proteome. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Fungus-Specific Sirtuin HstD Coordinates Secondary Metabolism and Development through Control of LaeA

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Nishiura, Mika

    2013-01-01

    The sirtuins are members of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase family that contribute to various cellular functions that affect aging, disease, and cancer development in metazoans. However, the physiological roles of the fungus-specific sirtuin family are still poorly understood. Here, we determined a novel function of the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/Aspergillus oryzae Hst4 (AoHst4), which is a homolog of Hst4 in A. oryzae yeast. The deletion of all histone deacetylases in A. oryzae demonstrated that the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/AoHst4 is required for the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. We also show that the expression of the laeA gene, which is the most studied fungus-specific coordinator for the regulation of secondary metabolism and fungal development, was induced in a ΔhstD strain. Genetic interaction analysis of hstD/Aohst4 and laeA clearly indicated that HstD/AoHst4 works upstream of LaeA to coordinate secondary metabolism and fungal development. The hstD/Aohst4 and laeA genes are fungus specific but conserved in the vast family of filamentous fungi. Thus, we conclude that the fungus-specific sirtuin HstD/AoHst4 coordinates fungal development and secondary metabolism via the regulation of LaeA in filamentous fungi. PMID:23729383

  1. Sirtuins and Their Roles in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wencel, Przemysław; Strosznajder, Robert P; Strosznajder, Joanna B

    2017-03-01

    Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD + levels and thus on the cellular metabolic status. SIRTs regulate energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. They orchestrate the stress response and damage repair. Through these functions sirtuins modulate the course of aging and affect neurodegenerative diseases. SIRTSs interact with multiple signaling proteins, transcription factors (TFs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) another class of NAD + -dependent post-translational protein modifiers. The cross-talk between SIRTs TFs and PARPs is a highly promising research target in a number of brain pathologies. This review describes updated results on sirtuins in brain aging/neurodegeneration. It focuses on SIRT1 but also on the roles of mitochondrial SIRTs (SIRT3, 4, 5) and on SIRT6 and SIRT2 localized in the nucleus and in cytosol, respectively. The involvement of SIRTs in regulation of insulin-like growth factor signaling in the brain during aging and in Alzheimer's disease was also focused. Moreover, we analyze the mechanism(s) and potential significance of interactions between SIRTs and several TFs in the regulation of cell survival and death. A critical view is given on the application of SIRT activators/modulators in therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Genealogy of an ancient protein family: the Sirtuins, a family of disordered members.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Susan; Sharma, Ankush; Raucci, Raffaele; Costantini, Maria; Autiero, Ida; Colonna, Giovanni

    2013-03-05

    Sirtuins genes are widely distributed by evolution and have been found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. While prokaryotic and archeal species usually have one or two sirtuin homologs, in humans as well as in eukaryotes we found multiple versions and in mammals this family is comprised of seven different homologous proteins being all NAD-dependent de-acylases. 3D structures of human SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 revealed the overall conformation of the conserved core domain but they were unable to give a structural information about the presence of very flexible and dynamically disordered regions, the role of which is still structurally and functionally unclear. Recently, we modeled the 3D-structure of human SIRT1, the most studied member of this family, that unexpectedly emerged as a member of the intrinsically disordered proteins with its long disordered terminal arms. Despite clear similarities in catalytic cores between the human sirtuins little is known of the general structural characteristics of these proteins. The presence of disorder in human SIRT1 and the propensity of these proteins in promoting molecular interactions make it important to understand the underlying mechanisms of molecular recognition that reasonably should involve terminal segments. The mechanism of recognition, in turn, is a prerequisite for the understanding of any functional activity. Aim of this work is to understand what structural properties are shared among members of this family in humans as well as in other organisms. We have studied the distribution of the structural features of N- and C-terminal segments of sirtuins in all known organisms to draw their evolutionary histories by taking into account average length of terminal segments, amino acid composition, intrinsic disorder, presence of charged stretches, presence of putative phosphorylation sites, flexibility, and GC content of genes. Finally, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the putative phosphorylation sites

  3. Computational Studies on Sirtuins from Trypanosoma cruzi: Structures, Conformations and Interactions with Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sacconnay, Lionel; Angleviel, Melissa; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Marçal Ferreira Queiroz, Marcos; Ferreira Queiroz, Emerson; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Background The silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. Nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of T. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. These observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. Thus, their inhibition could be exploited for the development of novel anti-trypanosomal compounds. Methods Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional features of the sirtuin TcSir2rp1 from T. cruzi. The apo-form of human SIRT2 and the same structure solved in complex with its co-substrate NAD+ allowed the modeling of TcSir2rp1 in the open and closed conformational states. Molecular docking studies were then carried out. A library composed of fifty natural and diverse compounds that are known to be active against this parasite, was established based on the literature and virtually screened against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3, which was previously modeled by our group. Results In this study, two conformational states of TcSir2rp1 were described for the first time. The molecular docking results of compounds capable of binding sirtuins proved to be meaningful when the closed conformation of the protein was taken into account for calculations. This specific conformation was then used for the virtual screening of antritrypanosomal phytochemicals against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3. The calculations identified a limited number of scaffolds extracted from Vismia orientalis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Amomum aculeatum and Anacardium occidentale that potentially interact with both proteins. Conclusions The study provided reliable models for future structure-based drug design projects concerning sirtuins from T. cruzi. Molecular docking studies highlighted not only the advantages of performing in silico

  4. Sirtuin Activation: A Role for Plasma Membrane in the Cell Growth Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the observation that impermeable oxidants can stimulate cell growth has not been satisfactorily explained. The discovery of sirtuins provides a logical answer to the puzzle. The NADH-dependent transplasma membrane electron transport system, which is stimulated by growth factors and interventions such as calorie restriction, can transfer electrons to external acceptors and protect against stress-induced apoptosis. We hypothesize that the activation of plasma membrane electron transport contributes to the cytosolic NAD+ pool required for sirtuin to activate transcription factors necessary for cell growth and survival. PMID:23033342

  5. Sirtuin activation: a role for plasma membrane in the cell growth puzzle.

    PubMed

    Crane, Frederick L; Navas, Plácido; Low, Hans; Sun, Iris L; de Cabo, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    For more than 20 years, the observation that impermeable oxidants can stimulate cell growth has not been satisfactorily explained. The discovery of sirtuins provides a logical answer to the puzzle. The NADH-dependent transplasma membrane electron transport system, which is stimulated by growth factors and interventions such as calorie restriction, can transfer electrons to external acceptors and protect against stress-induced apoptosis. We hypothesize that the activation of plasma membrane electron transport contributes to the cytosolic NAD(+) pool required for sirtuin to activate transcription factors necessary for cell growth and survival.

  6. MicroRNA and receptor mediated signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Simonetta, Irene; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac remodelling is a complex pathogenetic pathway involving genome expression, molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes that cause changes in size, shape and function of the heart after cardiac injury. Areas covered: We will review recent advances in understanding the role of several receptor-mediated signaling pathways and micro-RNAs, in addition to their potential as candidate target pathways in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The myocyte is the main target cell involved in the remodelling process via ischemia, cell necrosis and apoptosis (by means of various receptor pathways), and other mechanisms mediated by micro-RNAs. We will analyze the role of some receptor mediated signaling pathways such as natriuretic peptides, mediators of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 pathways, beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes and relaxin receptor signaling mechanisms, TNF/TNF receptor family and TWEAK/Fn14 axis, and some micro-RNAs as candidate target pathways in pathogenesis of heart failure. These mediators of receptor-mediated pathways and micro-RNA are the most addressed targets of emerging therapies in modern heart failure treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Future treatment strategies should address mediators involved in multiple steps within heart failure pathogenetic pathways.

  7. In Search of New Therapeutic Targets in Obesity Treatment: Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Kurylowicz, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the available non-invasive medical therapies for obesity are non-efficient in a long-term evaluation; therefore there is a constant need for new methods of treatment. Research on calorie restriction has led to the discovery of sirtuins (silent information regulators, SIRTs), enzymes regulating different cellular pathways that may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity. This review paper presents the role of SIRTs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in the differentiation of adipocytes. How disturbances of SIRTs’ expression and activity may lead to the development of obesity and related complications is discussed. A special emphasis is placed on polymorphisms in genes encoding SIRTs and their possible association with susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications, as well as on data regarding altered expression of SIRTs in human obesity. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SIRTs-targeted strategies in the treatment of obesity and related disorders is discussed. PMID:27104517

  8. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway

  9. RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination regulates the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jenny; Kim, Hyungjin; Moreau, Lisa A; Puhalla, Shannon; Garber, Judy; Al Abo, Muthana; Takeda, Shunichi; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    The Fanconi anemia/BRCA (FA/BRCA) pathway is a DNA repair pathway that is required for excision of DNA interstrand cross-links. The 17 known FA proteins, along with several FA-associated proteins (FAAPs), cooperate in this pathway to detect, unhook, and excise DNA cross-links and to subsequently repair the double-strand breaks generated in the process. In the current study, we identified a patient with FA with a point mutation in FANCA, which encodes a mutant FANCA protein (FANCAI939S). FANCAI939S failed to bind to the FAAP20 subunit of the FA core complex, leading to decreased stability. Loss of FAAP20 binding exposed a SUMOylation site on FANCA at amino acid residue K921, resulting in E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9-mediated SUMOylation, RING finger protein 4-mediated (RNF4-mediated) polyubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation of FANCA. Mutation of the SUMOylation site of FANCA rescued the expression of the mutant protein. Wild-type FANCA was also subject to SUMOylation, RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination, and degradation, suggesting that regulated release of FAAP20 from FANCA is a critical step in the normal FA pathway. Consistent with this model, cells lacking RNF4 exhibited interstrand cross-linker hypersensitivity, and the gene encoding RNF4 was epistatic with the other genes encoding members of the FA/BRCA pathway. Together, the results from our study underscore the importance of analyzing unique patient-derived mutations for dissecting complex DNA repair processes.

  10. Deacetylation Assays to Unravel the Interplay between Sirtuins (SIRT2) and Specific Protein-substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong-Jun; Vassilopoulos, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation has emerged as an important post-translational modification (PTM) regulating a plethora of cellular processes and functions. This is further supported by recent findings in high-resolution mass spectrometry based proteomics showing that many new proteins and sites within these proteins can be acetylated. However the identity of the enzymes regulating these proteins and sites is often unknown. Among these enzymes, sirtuins, which belong to the class III histone lysine deacetylases, have attracted great interest as enzymes regulating the acetylome under different physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Here we describe methods to link SIRT2, the cytoplasmic sirtuin, with its substrates including both in vitro and in vivo deacetylation assays. These assays can be applied in studies focused on other members of the sirtuin family to unravel the specific role of sirtuins and are necessary in order to establish the regulatory interplay of specific deacetylases with their substrates as a first step to better understand the role of protein acetylation. Furthermore, such assays can be used to distinguish functional acetylation sites on a protein from what may be non-regulatory acetylated lysines, as well as to examine the interplay between a deacetylase and its substrate in a physiological context. PMID:26966987

  11. Sirtuin-1 regulation of mammalian metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, Matthew P.; Erion, Derek M.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2011-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) is a nutrient-sensing deacetylase whose levels and activity increase with caloric restriction to preserve euglycemia and promote efficient energy utilization. Focusing on data obtained in vivo, we review how SirT1 orchestrates the adaptive response to fasting by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, increasing circulating adiponectin levels, and limiting immune activation. Finally, we consider its viability as a therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20971038

  12. Temporal variations in sirtuin expression under normal and ultraviolet B-induced conditions and their correlation to energy levels in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins are post-translational modifiers that affect transcriptional signaling, metabolism, and DNA repair. Although originally identified as gene silencers capable of extending cell lifespan, the involvement of sirtuins in many different areas of cell biology has now become widespread. Our approach has been to study the temporal variation and also the effect of environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet B (UVB) and ozone, on sirtuin expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. In this report, we measured the variation in expression of several sirtuins over time and also show how a low dose of UVB can affect this pattern of expression. Moreover, we correlated these changes to variations in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ATP levels. Our data show significant variations in normal sirtuin expression, which may indicate a generalized response by sirtuins to cell cycle kinetics. These results also demonstrate that sirtuins as a family of molecules are sensitive to UVB-induced disruption and may suggest a new paradigm for determining environmental stress on aging and provide direction for the development of new cosmetic products.

  13. Curcumin elevates sirtuin level but does not postpone in vitro senescence of human cells building the vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Grabowska, Wioleta; Suszek, Małgorzata; Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Wasiak, Emilia; Sikora, Ewa; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that curcumin, a component of the turmeric that belongs to hormetins, possesses anti-aging propensity. This property of curcumin can be partially explained by its influence on the level of sirtuins. Previously, we have shown that relatively high (2.5-10 μM) doses of curcumin induce senescence of cancer cells and cells building the vasculature. In the present study we examined whether curcumin at low doses (0.1 and 1 μM) is able to delay cell senescence and upregulate the level of sirtuins in human cells building the vasculature, namely vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial (EC) cells. To this end we used cells senescing in a replicative and premature manner. We showed that low doses of curcumin in case of VSMC neither postponed the replicative senescence nor protected from premature senescence induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, curcumin slightly accelerated replicative senescence of EC. Despite some fluctuations, a clear increasing tendency in the level of sirtuins was observed in curcumin-treated young, senescing or already senescent cells. Sirtuin activation could be caused by the activation of AMPK resulting from superoxide elevation and ATP reduction. Our results show that curcumin at low doses can increase the level of sirtuins without delaying senescence of VSMC. PMID:27034011

  14. RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination regulates the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jenny; Kim, Hyungjin; Moreau, Lisa A.; Puhalla, Shannon; Garber, Judy; Al Abo, Muthana; Takeda, Shunichi; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia/BRCA (FA/BRCA) pathway is a DNA repair pathway that is required for excision of DNA interstrand cross-links. The 17 known FA proteins, along with several FA-associated proteins (FAAPs), cooperate in this pathway to detect, unhook, and excise DNA cross-links and to subsequently repair the double-strand breaks generated in the process. In the current study, we identified a patient with FA with a point mutation in FANCA, which encodes a mutant FANCA protein (FANCAI939S). FANCAI939S failed to bind to the FAAP20 subunit of the FA core complex, leading to decreased stability. Loss of FAAP20 binding exposed a SUMOylation site on FANCA at amino acid residue K921, resulting in E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9-mediated SUMOylation, RING finger protein 4–mediated (RNF4-mediated) polyubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation of FANCA. Mutation of the SUMOylation site of FANCA rescued the expression of the mutant protein. Wild-type FANCA was also subject to SUMOylation, RNF4-mediated polyubiquitination, and degradation, suggesting that regulated release of FAAP20 from FANCA is a critical step in the normal FA pathway. Consistent with this model, cells lacking RNF4 exhibited interstrand cross-linker hypersensitivity, and the gene encoding RNF4 was epistatic with the other genes encoding members of the FA/BRCA pathway. Together, the results from our study underscore the importance of analyzing unique patient-derived mutations for dissecting complex DNA repair processes. PMID:25751062

  15. Diverse exocytic pathways for mast cell mediators.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Bin, Na-Ryum; Sugita, Shuzo

    2018-04-17

    Mast cells play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunities but are also culprits in allergy, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells respond to environmental changes by initiating regulated exocytosis/secretion of various biologically active compounds called mediators (e.g. proteases, amines, and cytokines). Many of these mediators are stored in granules/lysosomes and rely on intricate degranulation processes for release. Mast cell stabilizers (e.g. sodium cromoglicate), which prevent such degranulation processes, have therefore been clinically employed to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, it has become increasingly clear that different mast cell diseases often involve multiple mediators that rely on overlapping but distinct mechanisms for release. This review illustrates existing evidence that highlights the diverse exocytic pathways in mast cells. We also discuss strategies to delineate these pathways so as to identify unique molecular components which could serve as new drug targets for more effective and specific treatments against mast cell-related diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Hypoxia Increases Sirtuin 1 Expression in a Hypoxia-inducible Factor-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Dioum, Elhadji M.; Hogg, Richard T.; Gerard, Robert D.; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are stress-responsive transcriptional regulators of cellular and physiological processes involved in oxygen metabolism. Although much is understood about the molecular machinery that confers HIF responsiveness to oxygen, far less is known about HIF isoform-specific mechanisms of regulation, despite the fact that HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit distinct biological roles. We recently determined that the stress-responsive genetic regulator sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) selectively augments HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 maintains activity during hypoxia is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Sirt1 gene expression increases in a HIF-dependent manner during hypoxia in Hep3B and in HT1080 cells. Impairment of HIF signaling affects Sirt1 deacetylase activity as decreased HIF-1 signaling results in the appearance of acetylated HIF-2α, which is detected without pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1. We also find that Sirt1 augments HIF-2 mediated, but not HIF-1 mediated, transcriptional activation of the isolated Sirt1 promoter. These data in summary reveal a bidirectional link of HIF and Sirt1 signaling during hypoxia. PMID:21345792

  17. Sirtuin 1 promotes the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells via the myostatin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhang, Ting; Xi, Yongyong; Yang, Cuili; Sun, Chengcao; Li, Dejia

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Sirtuin (Sirt)1 serves a significant role in proliferation and differentiation of myoblast cells; however the signaling mechanisms involved remain to be established. Myostatin (MSTN), a member of transforming growth factor‑β family, is an vital regulator of myoblast, fibroblast growth and differentiation. To determine if MSTN is involved in the regulation of myoblast cell proliferation by Sirt1, the present study administrated the Sirt1 activator resveratrol, inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) and MSTN inhibitor SB431542 to C2C12 myoblast cells. It was demonstrated that the Sirt1 activator, resveratrol, repressed, whereas the Sirt1 inhibitor, NAM, enhanced C2C12 myoblast cells proliferation in a Sirt1‑dependent manner. SB431542 promoted the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells and reversed the inhibition effect of NAM on C2C12 myoblast cell proliferation. Additionally, resveratrol upregulated the mRNA expression of MyoD, but inhibited the expression of MSTN. Additionally, NAM significantly repressed the expression of MyoD and the phosphorylation of P107 (p‑P107), but enhanced the expression of MSTN and the protein expression of P107. SB431542 significantly mitigated the effect of NAM on the expression of MyoD, P107 and p‑P107. Taken together, these results indicated that Sirt1 promotes the proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells via the MSTN signaling pathway.

  18. Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Potocki, Leszek; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-05-24

    Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification.

  19. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzazi, Turki Y; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Joo, Nam; Huang, Jing-Yi; Verdin, Eric; D'Silva, Nisha J; Kapila, Yvonne L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several sirtuin family members (SIRT1-7), which are evolutionarily conserved NAD-dependent deacetylases, play an important role in carcinogenesis. However, their role in oral cancer has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether sirtuins play a role in oral cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS The expression levels of all sirtuins in several oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines were compared with normal human oral keratinocytes and observed that SIRT3 was highly expressed. Therefore, tissue microarrays were used to evaluate the clinical relevance of this overexpression. SIRT3 down-regulation in OSCC cell proliferation and survival was investigated and analyzed by using cell-proliferation and cell-viability assays. Ionizing radiation and cisplatin were used to investigate whether SIRT3 down-regulation could increase the sensitivity of OSCC to both treatments. To further assess the in vivo role of SIRT3 in OSCC carcinogenesis, a floor-of-mouth oral cancer murine model was used to study the effect of SIRT3 down-regulation on OSCC tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. RESULTS The current results demonstrated for the first time that SIRT3 is overexpressed in OSCC in vitro and in vivo compared with other sirtuins. Down-regulation of SIRT3 inhibited OSCC cell growth and proliferation and increased OSCC cell sensitivity to radiation and cisplatin treatments in vitro. SIRT3 down-regulation also reduced tumor burden in vivo. CONCLUSIONS The current investigation revealed a novel role for SIRT3 in oral cancer carcinogenesis as a promoter of cell proliferation and survival, thus implicating SIRT3 as a new potential therapeutic target to treat oral cancer. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society. PMID:21472714

  20. Slowing ageing by design: the rise of NAD+ and sirtuin-activating compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bonkowski, Michael S.; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The sirtuins (SIRT1–7) are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases with remarkable abilities to prevent diseases and even reverse aspects of ageing. Mice engineered to express additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and SRT2104 or with NAD+ precursors, have improved organ function, physical endurance, disease resistance and longevity. Trials in non-human primates and in humans have indicated that STACs may be safe and effective in treating inflammatory and metabolic disorders, among others. These advances have demonstrated that it is possible to rationally design molecules that can alleviate multiple diseases and possibly extend lifespan in humans. PMID:27552971

  1. Linking Family Economic Hardship to Early Childhood Health: An Investigation of Mediating Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Wickrama, Kandauda A S

    2015-12-01

    The underlying mechanisms through which family economic adversity influences child health are less understood. Taking a process-oriented approach, this study examined maternal mental health and investment in children, child health insurance, and child healthcare as mediators linking family economic hardship (FEH) to child health. A structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypothesized mediating model. After adjustment for sociodemographic risk factors, results revealed: (1) a significant direct path linking FEH to poor child health (effect size = .372), and (2) six significant mediating pathways (total effect size = .089). In two mediating pathways, exposures to FEH undermined mothers' mental health: in the first pathway poor maternal mental health led to decreased parental investment, which, in turn, contributed to poor child health, whereas in the second pathway the adverse effect of poor maternal mental health was cascaded through child unmet healthcare need, which resulted in poor child health. One pathway involved child insurance status, where the effect of FEH increased the likelihood to be uninsured, which led to unmet healthcare need, and, in turn, to poor health. Three pathways involved preventive care: in one pathway FEH contributed to poor preventive care, which led to unmet healthcare need and then to poor health; in the other two pathways where poor preventive care respectively gave rise to decreased investment in children or poor maternal mental health, which further contributed to poor child health. Results suggest that the association between FEH and children's health is mediated by multiple pathways.

  2. Mediating pathways from central obesity to childhood asthma: a population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Chen, Yang-Ching; Tu, Yu-Kang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-09-01

    The mediating pathways linking obesity and asthma are largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the mediating pathways and to search for the most prominent pathological mechanism between central obesity and childhood asthma.In the Taiwan Children Health Study, we collected data on an open cohort of children aged 9-13 years. Children's respiratory outcomes, atopic conditions, obesity measures and pulmonary function were surveyed annually between 2010 and 2012. Exhaled nitric oxide fraction concentrations were recorded in 2012. Generalised estimating equations and general linear models were used to examine the associations between central obesity, possible mediators and asthma. Structural equation models were applied to investigate the pathways that mediate the link between central obesity and asthma.Central obesity (waist-to-hip ratio) most accurately predicted childhood asthma. In the active asthma model, the percentage of mediation was 28.6% for pulmonary function, 18.1% for atopy and 5.7% for airway inflammation. The percentage of mediation for pulmonary function was 40.2% in the lifetime wheeze model. Pulmonary function was responsible for the greatest percentage of mediation among the three mediators in both models.Decline in pulmonary function is the most important pathway in central obesity related asthma. Pulmonary function screening should be applied to obese children for asthma risk prediction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  3. Distinct Corticostriatal and Intracortical Pathways Mediate Bilateral Sensory Responses in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Reig, Ramon; Silberberg, Gilad

    2016-12-01

    Individual striatal neurons integrate somatosensory information from both sides of the body, however, the afferent pathways mediating these bilateral responses are unclear. Whereas ipsilateral corticostriatal projections are prevalent throughout the neocortex, contralateral projections provide sparse input from primary sensory cortices, in contrast to the dense innervation from motor and frontal regions. There is, therefore, an apparent discrepancy between the observed anatomical pathways and the recorded striatal responses. We used simultaneous in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings combined with focal cortical silencing, to dissect the afferent pathways underlying bilateral sensory integration in the mouse striatum. We show that unlike direct corticostriatal projections mediating responses to contralateral whisker deflection, responses to ipsilateral stimuli are mediated mainly by intracortical projections from the contralateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The dominant pathway is the callosal projection from contralateral to ipsilateral S1. Our results suggest a functional difference between the cortico-basal ganglia pathways underlying bilateral sensory and motor processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. miR2Pathway: A novel analytical method to discover MicroRNA-mediated dysregulated pathways involved in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoxing; Dinu, Valentin

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown miRNAs as key regulators of a variety of biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, etc. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs influence individual gene expression level, but rewired miRNA-mRNA connections can influence the activity of biological pathways. Here, we define rewired miRNA-mRNA connections as the differential (rewiring) effects on the activity of biological pathways between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal phenotypes. Our work presented here uses a PageRank-based approach to measure the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways between HCC and normal samples based on rewired miRNA-mRNA connections. In our study, we regard the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways as disease risk of biological pathways. Therefore, we propose a new method, miR2Pathway, to measure and rank the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways by measuring the total differential influence of miRNAs on the activity of pathways between HCC and normal states. miR2Pathway proposed here systematically shows the first evidence for a mechanism of biological pathways being dysregulated by rewired miRNA-mRNA connections, and provides new insight into exploring mechanisms behind HCC. Thus, miR2Pathway is a novel method to identify and rank miRNA-dysregulated pathways in HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sirtuin 3, a New Target of PGC-1α, Plays an Important Role in the Suppression of ROS and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xingxing; Wang, Rui; Xue, Yuan; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Huabing; Chen, Yong; Fang, Fude; Chang, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1α induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood. Results Here we show that PGC-1α strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1α led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1α activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR) binding element (ERRE) (−407/−399) mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRα bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1α co-localized with ERRα in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRα reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1α-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1α on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1α on mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. Conclusion Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1α and mediates the PGC-1α effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, SIRT3 integrates cellular energy metabolism and ROS generation. The

  6. Sirtuin 1 Agonist Minimizes Injury and Improves the Immune Response Following Traumatic Shock.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Jason A; Kautza, Benjamin; Darwiche, Sophie; Martinez, Silvia; Stratimirovic, Sladjana; Waltz, Paul; Sperry, Jason; Rosengart, Matthew; Shiva, Sruti; Zuckerbraun, Brian S

    2015-08-01

    Survival from traumatic injury requires a coordinated and controlled inflammatory and immune response. Mitochondrial and metabolic responses to stress have been shown to play a role in these inflammatory and immune responses. We hypothesized that increases in mitochondrial biogenesis via a sirtuin 1 agonist would decrease tissue injury and partially ameliorate the immunosuppression seen following trauma. C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to a multiple trauma model. Mice were pretreated with either 100 mg/kg per day of the sirtuin 1 agonist, Srt1720, via oral gavage for 2 days prior to trauma and extended until the day the animals were killed, or they were pretreated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) siRNA via hydrodynamic tail vein injection 48 h prior to trauma. Markers for mitochondrial function and biogenesis were measured in addition to splenocyte proliferative capacity and bacterial clearance. Srt1720 was noted to improve mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial function, and complex IV activity following traumatic injury (P < 0.05), whereas knockdown of PGC1α resulted in exacerbation of mitochondrial dysfunction (P < 0.05). These changes in mitochondrial function were associated with altered severity of hepatic injury with significant reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase levels seen in mice treated with srt1720. Splenocyte proliferative capacity and intraperitoneal bacterial clearance were evaluated as markers for overall immune function following trauma-hemorrhage. Treatment with Srt1720 minimized the trauma-induced decreases in splenocyte proliferation (P < 0.05), whereas treatment with PGC1α siRNA led to diminished bacterial clearance. The PGC1α signaling pathway is an important regulator of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, which can potentially be harnessed to protect against hepatic injury and minimize the immunosuppression that is seen following trauma-hemorrhage.

  7. Fasting increases the phosphorylation of AMPK and expression of sirtuin1 in muscle of adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Lee, Debby; Martinez, Bridget; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-02-01

    Fasting typically suppresses thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular events and increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity. THs may regulate metabolism through nongenomic pathways and directly through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Adult male elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris ) are active, hypermetabolic, and normothermic during their annual breeding fast, which is characterized by stable TH levels. However, the contribution of TH to maintenance of their fasting metabolism is unknown. To investigate the fasting effects on cellular TH-mediated events and its potential association with SIRT1 and AMPK, we quantified plasma TH levels, mRNA expressions of muscle SIRT1 and TH-associated genes as well as the phosphorylation of AMPK in adult, male northern elephant seals ( n  = 10/fasting period) over 8 weeks of fasting (early vs. late). Deiodinase type I (DI1) expression increased twofold with fasting duration suggesting that the potential for TH-mediated cellular signaling is increased. AMPK phosphorylation increased 61 ± 21% with fasting suggesting that cellular metabolism is increased. The mRNA expression of the TH transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 10 (MCT10), increased 2.4-fold and the TH receptor (THr β -1) decreased 30-fold suggesting that cellular uptake of T 4 is increased, but its subsequent cellular effects such as activation of AMPK are likely nongenomic. The up-regulation of SIRT1 mRNA expression (2.6-fold) likely contributes to the nongenomic activation of AMPK by TH, which may be necessary to maintain the expression of PGC-1 α These coordinated changes likely contribute to the up-regulation of mitochondrial metabolism to support the energetic demands associated with prolonged fasting in adult seals. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Resveratrol protects against spinal cord injury by activating autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haosen; Chen, Shurui; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Zipeng; Wang, Chen; Shen, Zhaoliang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wan, Zhanghui; Liu, Chang; Mei, Xifan

    2017-04-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few effective treatments. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has exhibited neuroprotective effects in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, the explicit effect and mechanism of resveratrol on SCI is still unclear. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the downstream protein, play key roles in metabolizing of energy, resisting of resistance, and cellular protein homeostasis. In this study, we determined the effects of resveratrol on SCI and their potential relationship with SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis. To determine the effect of resveratrol on SCI recovery, a spinal cord contusion model was employed. Rats received treatment with resveratrol or DMSO immediately following contusion. We determined that Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were significantly higher for injured rats treated with resveratrol. Nissl and HE staining revealed that resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the loss of motor neurons and lesion size in the spinal cord of injured rats when compared to vehicle-treated animals. Spinal cord tissue was assessed by Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses 7days after injury for changes in expression of SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis proteins. Expression of SIRT1, p-AMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-B, and Bcl-2 was elevated in resveratrol-treated animals, whereas expression of p62, Cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was inhibited. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) revealed that treatment with the inhibitors blocks the increased LC3-B expression in cells and increases the portion of TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotective effects

  9. Increased podocyte Sirtuin-1 function attenuates diabetic kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Quan; Zhang, Lu; Das, Bhaskar; Li, Zhengzhe; Liu, Bohan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang; Lee, Kyung

    2018-06-01

    Podocyte injury and loss contribute to the progression of glomerular diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. We previously found that the glomerular expression of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is reduced in human diabetic glomeruli and that the podocyte-specific loss of SIRT1 aggravated albuminuria and worsened kidney disease progression in diabetic mice. SIRT1 encodes an NAD-dependent deacetylase that modifies the activity of key transcriptional regulators affected in diabetic kidneys, including NF-κB, STAT3, p53, FOXO4, and PGC1-α. However, whether the increased glomerular SIRT1 activity is sufficient to ameliorate the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease has not been explored. We addressed this by inducible podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression in diabetic OVE26 mice. The induction of SIRT1 overexpression in podocytes for six weeks in OVE26 mice with established albuminuria attenuated the progression of diabetic glomerulopathy. To further validate the therapeutic potential of increased SIRT1 activity against diabetic kidney disease, we developed a new, potent and selective SIRT1 agonist, BF175. In cultured podocytes BF175 increased SIRT1-mediated activation of PGC1-α and protected against high glucose-mediated mitochondrial injury. In vivo, administration of BF175 for six weeks in OVE26 mice resulted in a marked reduction in albuminuria and in glomerular injury in a manner similar to podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression. Both podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression and BT175 treatment attenuated diabetes-induced podocyte loss and reduced oxidative stress in glomeruli of OVE26 mice. Thus, increased SIRT1 activity protects against diabetes-induced podocyte injury and effectively mitigates the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid attenuates the inflammatory response by modulating microglia polarization through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangrong; Chen, Chunnuan; Fan, Sining; Wu, Shukai; Yang, Fuxing; Fang, Zhongning; Fu, Huangde; Li, Yasong

    2018-04-20

    Microglial polarization and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response are contributing factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced secondary injury. High mobile group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and it is considered to be pivotal in the late neuroinflammatory response. Activation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway is closely related to HMGB1 acetylation, which is regulated by the sirtuin (SIRT) family of proteins. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are known to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We previously demonstrated that ω-3 PUFA inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response by regulating the HMGB1/NF-κB signaling pathway. However, no studies have elucidated if ω-3 PUFA affects the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway in a HMGB1 deacetylation of dependent SIRT1 manner, thus regulating microglial polarization and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response. The Feeney DM TBI model was adopted to induce brain injury in rats. Modified neurological severity scores, rotarod test, brain water content, and Nissl staining were employed to determine the neuroprotective effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Assessment of microglia polarization and pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and HMGB1, were used to evaluate the neuroinflammatory responses and the anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis were used to detect HMGB1 nuclear translocation, secretion, and HMGB1/NF-κB signaling pathway activation to evaluate the effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. The impact of SIRT1 deacetylase activity on HMGB1 acetylation and the interaction between HMGB1 and SIRT1 were assessed to evaluate anti-inflammation effects of ω-3 PUFAs, and also, whether these effects were dependent on a SIRT1-HMGB1/NF-κB axis to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the

  12. Nicotinamide mononucleotide protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated impairment of mouse islet function.

    PubMed

    Caton, P W; Kieswich, J; Yaqoob, M M; Holness, M J; Sugden, M C

    2011-12-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD(+) biosynthesis, exists as intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) and extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT). eNAMPT, secreted from adipose tissue, promotes insulin secretion. Administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the eNAMPT reaction, corrects impaired islet function in Nampt ( +/- ) mice. One of its potential targets is the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1. We hypothesised that altered NAMPT activity might contribute to the suppression of islet function associated with inflammation, and aimed to determine whether NMN could improve cytokine-mediated islet dysfunction. Acute effects of NMN on cytokine-mediated islet dysfunction were examined in islets incubated with TNFα and IL1β, and in mice fed a fructose-rich diet (FRD) for 16 weeks. Changes in iNAMPT, eNAMPT and inflammation levels were determined in FRD-fed mice. FRD-fed mice displayed markedly lower levels of circulating eNAMPT, with impaired insulin secretion and raised islet expression of Il1b. NMN administration lowered Il1b expression and restored suppressed insulin secretion in FRD-fed mice. NMN also restored insulin secretion in islets cultured with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The changes in islet function corresponded with changes in key markers of islet function and differentiation. The anti-inflammatory effects of NMN were partially blocked by inhibition of sirtuin 1. Chronic fructose feeding causes severe islet dysfunction in mice. Onset of beta cell failure in FRD-fed mice may occur via lowered secretion of eNAMPT, leading to increased islet inflammation and impaired beta cell function. Administration of exogenous NMN to FRD-fed mice corrects inflammation-induced islet dysfunction. Modulation of this pathway may be an attractive target for amelioration of islet dysfunction associated with inflammation.

  13. The sirtuin 1/2 inhibitor tenovin-1 induces a nonlinear apoptosis-inducing factor-dependent cell death in a p53 null Ewing's sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Marx, Christian; Marx-Blümel, Lisa; Lindig, Nora; Thierbach, René; Hoelzer, Doerte; Becker, Sabine; Wittig, Susan; Lehmann, Roland; Slevogt, Hortense; Heinzel, Thorsten; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Beck, James F; Sonnemann, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    The sirtuin 1/2 inhibitor tenovin-1 activates p53 and may have potential in the management of cancer. Here, we investigated the responsiveness of Ewing's sarcoma cells to tenovin-1. We examined its effects in two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines with different p53 status, i.e. in p53 wild-type and p53 null cells. Effects were assessed by flow cytometric analyses of cell death, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, by caspase 3/7 activity measurement, by mRNA expression profiling and by immunoblotting. Tenovin-1 elicited caspase-mediated cell death in p53 wild-type cells, but caspase-independent cell death in p53 null cells. Remarkably, it induced a nonlinear concentration response in the latter: low concentrations of tenovin-1 were much more effective than were higher concentrations. Tenovin-1's effects in p53 null cells involved gene expression changes of Bcl-2 family members, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, ROS formation and DNA damage; all these effects followed a bell-shaped pattern. In conclusion, our results provide new insights into tenovin-1's mode of action by demonstrating that it can induce different pathways of cell death.

  14. The Molecular Pathway of Argon-Mediated Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Goebel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The noble gas argon has attracted increasing attention in recent years, especially because of its neuroprotective properties. In a variety of models, ranging from oxygen-glucose deprivation in cell culture to complex models of mid-cerebral artery occlusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage or retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in animals, argon administration after individual injury demonstrated favorable effects, particularly increased cell survival and even improved neuronal function. As an inert molecule, argon did not show signs of adverse effects in the in vitro and in vivo model used, while being comparably cheap and easy to apply. However, the molecular mechanism by which argon is able to exert its protective and beneficial characteristics remains unclear. Although there are many pieces missing to complete the signaling pathway throughout the cell, it is the aim of this review to summarize the known parts of the molecular pathways and to combine them to provide a clear insight into the cellular pathway, starting with the receptors that may be involved in mediating argons effects and ending with the translational response. PMID:27809248

  15. Transmission Pathways and Mediators as the Basis for Clinical Pharmacology of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Daniel R.; McEntire, Dan M.; Smith, Tyler A.; Dueck, Nicholas P.; Kerfeld, Mitchell J.; Hambsch, Zakary J.; Nelson, Taylor J.; Reisbig, Mark D.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mediators in pain transmission are the targets of a multitude of different analgesic pharmaceuticals. This review explores the most significant mediators of pain transmission as well as the pharmaceuticals that act on them. Areas Covered The review explores many of the key mediators of pain transmission. In doing so, this review uncovers important areas for further research. It also highlights agents with potential for producing novel analgesics, probes important interactions between pain transmission pathways that could contribute to synergistic analgesia, and emphasizes transmission factors that participate in transforming acute injury into chronic pain. Expert Commentary This review examines current pain research, particularly in the context of identifying novel analgesics, highlighting interactions between analgesic transmission pathways, and discussing factors that may contribute to the development of chronic pain after an acute injury. PMID:27322358

  16. Prolonged Fasting Identifies Heat Shock Protein 10 as a Sirtuin 3 Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongping; Chen, Yong; Aponte, Angel M.; Battaglia, Valentina; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Although Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrially enriched deacetylase and activator of fat oxidation, is down-regulated in response to high fat feeding, the rate of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial protein acetylation are invariably enhanced in this dietary milieu. These paradoxical data implicate that additional acetylation modification-dependent levels of regulation may be operational under nutrient excess conditions. Because the heat shock protein (Hsp) Hsp10-Hsp60 chaperone complex mediates folding of the fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, we tested whether acetylation-dependent mitochondrial protein folding contributes to this regulatory discrepancy. We demonstrate that Hsp10 is a functional SIRT3 substrate and that, in response to prolonged fasting, SIRT3 levels modulate mitochondrial protein folding. Acetyl mutagenesis of Hsp10 lysine 56 alters Hsp10-Hsp60 binding, conformation, and protein folding. Consistent with Hsp10-Hsp60 regulation of fatty acid oxidation enzyme integrity, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and fat oxidation are elevated by Hsp10 acetylation. These data identify acetyl modification of Hsp10 as a nutrient-sensing regulatory node controlling mitochondrial protein folding and metabolic function. PMID:25505263

  17. Parameters affecting plant defense pathway mediated recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are natural enemies and effective biological control agents of subterranean insect herbivores. Interactions between her bivores, plants, and entomopathogenic nematodes are mediated by plant defense pathways that can induce release of volatiles that recruit entomopathogenic...

  18. Dioscin alleviates BDL- and DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis via Sirt1/Nrf2-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lina; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Youwei

    Oxidative stress is involved in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and extracellular matrix overproduction. We previously reported the promising effects of dioscin against CCl{sub 4}-induced liver fibrosis, but its effects and mechanisms on BDL- and DMN-induced liver fibrosis remain unknown. The results in the present study indicated that dioscin significantly inhibited HSCs activation and attenuated hepatic fibrosis in rats. Furthermore, dioscin markedly up-regulated the levels of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), HO-1, GST, GCLC and GCLM via increasing the nuclear translocation of nuclear erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which in turn inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation and reducedmore » the levels of COL1A1, COL3A1, α-SMA and fibronectin. These results were further validated by knockdown of Sirt1 and Nrf2 using siRNAs silencing, and abrogation of p38 MAPK using SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) in HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells. Collectively, our findings confirmed the potent effects of dioscin against liver fibrosis and also provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this compound as a candidate for the prevention of liver fibrosis in the future. - Highlights: • Dioscin showed potent effects against BDL- and DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats. • Dioscin significantly suppressed oxidative stress. • Dioscin triggered Sirt1/Nrf2-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway. • Dioscin should be developed as a novel candidate to treat liver fibrosis.« less

  19. Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Bert N; Cribbet, Matthew; de Grey, Robert G Kent; Cronan, Sierra; Trettevik, Ryan; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-04-01

    Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men, 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple mediator models in testing distinct psychological pathways.

  20. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes.

  1. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes. PMID:26442070

  2. SIRT6 suppresses glioma cell growth via induction of apoptosis, inhibition of oxidative stress and suppression of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Yan, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Fang-Cheng; Zhao, Wo-Hua; Feng, Min

    2016-03-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the mammalian NAD+‑dependent deacetylase sirtuin family that acts to maintain genomic stability and to repress genes. SIRT6 has recently been reported to be a tumor suppressor that controls cancer metabolism, although this effect of SIRT6 is still in dispute. Moreover, the role of SIRT6 in glioma is largely unknown. In the present study, we found that overexpression of SIRT6 using an adenovirus inhibited glioma cell growth and induced marked cell injury in two glioma cell lines (U87‑MG and T98G). Fluorescent terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)‑mediated biotin‑16‑dUTP nick‑end labelling (TUNEL) assay showed that SIRT6 overexpression induced obvious apoptosis in the T98G glioma cells. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that SIRT6 overexpression promoted the mitochondrial-to‑nuclear translocation of apoptosis‑inducing factor (AIF), a potent apoptosis inducer. Moreover, we found that SIRT6 overexpression largely reduced oxidative stress and suppressed the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Finally, we showed that SIRT6 mRNA and protein levels in human glioblastoma multiforme tissues were significantly lower than the levels in peritumor tissues. In summary, our data suggest that SIRT6 suppresses glioma cell growth via induction of apoptosis, inhibition of oxidative stress and inhibition of the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results indicate that SIRT6 may be a promising therapeutic target for glioma treatment.

  3. Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew; Kent de Grey, Robert G.; Cronan, Sierra; Trettevik, Ryan; Smith, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men, 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple mediator models in testing distinct psychological pathways. PMID:27592128

  4. Aspirin may promote mitochondrial biogenesis via the production of hydrogen peroxide and the induction of Sirtuin1/PGC-1α genes

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Pratibha; Selvarajan, Krithika; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Nandave, Mukesh; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2013-01-01

    Based on the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) to salicylic acid (SA), the ability of SA to form dihydroxy benzoic acid (DBA), and the latter’s redox reactions to yield hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we predicted that ASA may have the potential to induce Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and its downstream effects. We observed that treatment of cultured liver cells with ASA resulted in the induction of Sirt1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) genes. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) siRNA transfections inhibited the induction of gene expressions by ASA suggesting the need for the acetyl ester hydrolysis and hydroxylation to DHBA. The latter also induced Sirt1, confirming the proposed pathway. As predicted, ASA and SA treatment resulted in the production of H2O2, a known inducer of Sirt1 and confirmed in the current studies. More importantly, ASA treatment resulted in an increase in mitochondria as seen by tracking dyes. We suggest that DHBA, generated from ASA, via its oxidation/reduction reactions mediated by Nqo1 might be involved in the production of O2-. and H2O2. As Sirt1 and PGC-1α profoundly affect mitochondrial metabolism and energy utilization, ASA may have therapeutic potential beyond its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases. PMID:23228932

  5. Epistatic role of base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Sawant, Akshada; Dangeti, Venkata Srinivas Mohan Nimai; Sobol, Robert W.; Patrick, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways play an important role in modulating cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) cytotoxicity. In this article, we identified a novel mechanistic role of both BER and MMR pathways in mediating cellular responses to cisplatin treatment. Cells defective in BER or MMR display a cisplatin-resistant phenotype. Targeting both BER and MMR pathways resulted in no additional resistance to cisplatin, suggesting that BER and MMR play epistatic roles in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity. Using a DNA Polymerase β (Polβ) variant deficient in polymerase activity (D256A), we demonstrate that MMR acts downstream of BER and is dependent on the polymerase activity of Polβ in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity. MSH2 preferentially binds a cisplatin interstrand cross-link (ICL) DNA substrate containing a mismatch compared with a cisplatin ICL substrate without a mismatch, suggesting a novel mutagenic role of Polβ in activating MMR in response to cisplatin. Collectively, these results provide the first mechanistic model for BER and MMR functioning within the same pathway to mediate cisplatin sensitivity via non-productive ICL processing. In this model, MMR participation in non-productive cisplatin ICL processing is downstream of BER processing and dependent on Polβ misincorporation at cisplatin ICL sites, which results in persistent cisplatin ICLs and sensitivity to cisplatin. PMID:23761438

  6. Astrocytes mediate synapse elimination through MEGF10 and MERTK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won-Suk; Clarke, Laura E.; Wang, Gordon X.; Stafford, Benjamin K.; Sher, Alexander; Chakraborty, Chandrani; Joung, Julia; Foo, Lynette C.; Thompson, Andrew; Chen, Chinfei; Smith, Stephen J.; Barres, Ben A.

    2013-12-01

    To achieve its precise neural connectivity, the developing mammalian nervous system undergoes extensive activity-dependent synapse remodelling. Recently, microglial cells have been shown to be responsible for a portion of synaptic pruning, but the remaining mechanisms remain unknown. Here we report a new role for astrocytes in actively engulfing central nervous system synapses. This process helps to mediate synapse elimination, requires the MEGF10 and MERTK phagocytic pathways, and is strongly dependent on neuronal activity. Developing mice deficient in both astrocyte pathways fail to refine their retinogeniculate connections normally and retain excess functional synapses. Finally, we show that in the adult mouse brain, astrocytes continuously engulf both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. These studies reveal a novel role for astrocytes in mediating synapse elimination in the developing and adult brain, identify MEGF10 and MERTK as critical proteins in the synapse remodelling underlying neural circuit refinement, and have important implications for understanding learning and memory as well as neurological disease processes.

  7. Specificity in mediated pathways by anxiety symptoms linking adolescent stress profiles to depressive symptoms: Results of a moderated mediation approach.

    PubMed

    Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical probing of the human sirtuin 5 active site reveals its substrate acyl specificity and peptide-based inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Claudia; Nowak, Theresa; Pannek, Martin; Gertz, Melanie; Nguyen, Giang T T; Scharfe, Michael; Born, Ilona; Sippl, Wolfgang; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2014-09-26

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases acting as sensors in metabolic pathways and stress response. In mammals there are seven isoforms. The mitochondrial sirtuin 5 is a weak deacetylase but a very efficient demalonylase and desuccinylase; however, its substrate acyl specificity has not been systematically analyzed. Herein, we investigated a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 derived peptide substrate and modified the lysine side chain systematically to determine the acyl specificity of Sirt5. From that point we designed six potent peptide-based inhibitors that interact with the NAD(+) binding pocket. To characterize the interaction details causing the different substrate and inhibition properties we report several X-ray crystal structures of Sirt5 complexed with these peptides. Our results reveal the Sirt5 acyl selectivity and its molecular basis and enable the design of inhibitors for Sirt5. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nickel chloride-induced apoptosis via mitochondria- and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent pathways in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2016-11-29

    Ni, a metal with industrial and commercial uses, poses a serious hazard to human and animal health. In the present study, we used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR to investigate the mechanisms of NiCl2-induced apoptosis in kidney cells. After treating 280 broiler chickens with 0, 300, 600 or 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days, we found that two caspase-dependent pathways were involved in the induced renal tubular cell apoptosis. In the mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, cyt-c, HtrA2/Omi, Smac/Diablo, apaf-1, PARP, and caspase-9, 3, 6 and 7 were all increased, while. XIAP transcription was decreased. Concurrently, in the Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, Fas, FasL, caspase-8, caspase-10 and Bid levels were all increased. These results indicate that dietary NiCl2 at 300+ mg/kg induces renal tubular cell apoptosis in broiler chickens, involving both mitochondrial and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. Our results provide novel insight into Ni and Ni-compound toxicology evaluated in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Nickel chloride-induced apoptosis via mitochondria- and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent pathways in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ni, a metal with industrial and commercial uses, poses a serious hazard to human and animal health. In the present study, we used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR to investigate the mechanisms of NiCl2-induced apoptosis in kidney cells. After treating 280 broiler chickens with 0, 300, 600 or 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days, we found that two caspase-dependent pathways were involved in the induced renal tubular cell apoptosis. In the mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, cyt-c, HtrA2/Omi, Smac/Diablo, apaf-1, PARP, and caspase-9, 3, 6 and 7 were all increased, while. XIAP transcription was decreased. Concurrently, in the Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, Fas, FasL, caspase-8, caspase-10 and Bid levels were all increased. These results indicate that dietary NiCl2 at 300+ mg/kg induces renal tubular cell apoptosis in broiler chickens, involving both mitochondrial and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. Our results provide novel insight into Ni and Ni-compound toxicology evaluated in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27806327

  11. Deacetylation of FOXO3 by SIRT1 or SIRT2 leads to Skp2-mediated FOXO3 ubiquitination and degradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sirtuin deacetylases and FOXO (Forkhead box, class O) transcription factors have important roles in many biological pathways, including cancer development. SIRT1 and SIRT2 deacetylate FOXO factors to regulate FOXO function. Because acetylation and ubiquitination both modify the '-amino group of lysi...

  12. Teaching resources. Model of the TIR1 pathway for auxin-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Marta

    2006-02-14

    Auxin mediates numerous plant responses, some of which have been shown to require transcriptional regulation. One auxin response pathway, which depends on the relief of transcriptional repression, is mediated by TIR1 (transport inhibitor response protein 1). TIR1 is an auxin receptor and also a subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase. In the presence of a low concentration of auxin in the nucleus, members of the Aux/IAA family of transcriptional repressors bind to ARF proteins and inhibit the transcription of specific auxin response genes. Increased nuclear concentrations of auxin promote auxin binding to TIR1, causing the Aux/IAA proteins to associate with TIR1 and leading to their degradation by a proteasome-mediated pathway. This decreases the concentration of Aux/IAA proteins in the nucleus and thereby enables the expression of certain auxin response genes.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the signaling pathway mediated by the heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1 of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Navarro, Ulises; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Zúñiga-León, Eduardo; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Fernández, Francisco J; Fierro, Francisco

    2016-10-06

    The heterotrimeric Gα protein Pga1-mediated signaling pathway regulates the entire developmental program in Penicillium chrysogenum, from spore germination to the formation of conidia. In addition it participates in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. We aimed to advance the understanding of this key signaling pathway using a proteomics approach, a powerful tool to identify effectors participating in signal transduction pathways. Penicillium chrysogenum mutants with different levels of activity of the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were used to perform comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Thirty proteins were identified which showed differences in abundance dependent on Pga1 activity level. By modifying the intracellular levels of cAMP we could establish cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent pathways in Pga1-mediated signaling. Pga1 was shown to regulate abundance of enzymes in primary metabolic pathways involved in ATP, NADPH and cysteine biosynthesis, compounds that are needed for high levels of penicillin production. An in vivo phosphorylated protein containing a pleckstrin homology domain was identified; this protein is a candidate for signal transduction activity. Proteins with possible roles in purine metabolism, protein folding, stress response and morphogenesis were also identified whose abundance was regulated by Pga1 signaling. Thirty proteins whose abundance was regulated by the Pga1-mediated signaling pathway were identified. These proteins are involved in primary metabolism, stress response, development and signal transduction. A model describing the pathways through which Pga1 signaling regulates different cellular processes is proposed.

  14. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated signaling pathways in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an antimalarial drug, has previously unrecognized anticancer activity, and is in clinical trials as a new anticancer agent for skin, lung, colon and breast cancer treatment. However, the anticancer mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that DHA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 and RD) cells, and concurrently inhibited the signaling pathways mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central controller for cell proliferation and survival, at concentrations (<3 μM) that are pharmacologically achievable. Of interest, in contrast to the effects of conventional mTOR inhibitors (rapalogs), DHA potently inhibited mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 but did not obviously affect mTORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. The results suggest that DHA may represent a novel class of mTORC1 inhibitor and may execute its anticancer activity primarily by blocking mTORC1-mediated signaling pathways in the tumor cells. PMID:23929438

  15. Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotides are essential coenzymes in many cellular redox reactions in all living systems. In addition to functioning as a redox carrier, NAD+ is also a required co-substrate for the conserved sirtuin deacetylases. Sirtuins regulate transcription, genome maintenance and metabolism and function as molecular links between cells and their environment. Maintaining NAD+ homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function and aberrant NAD+ metabolism has been implicated in a number of metabolic- and age-associated diseases. Recently, NAD+ metabolism has been linked to the phosphate-responsive signaling pathway (PHO pathway) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activation of the PHO pathway is associated with the production and mobilization of the NAD+ metabolite nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is mediated in part by PHO-regulated nucleotidases. Cross-regulation between NAD+ metabolism and the PHO pathway has also been reported; however, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The PHO pathway also appears to modulate the activities of common downstream effectors of multiple nutrient-sensing pathways (Ras-PKA, TOR, Sch9/AKT). These signaling pathways were suggested to play a role in calorie restriction-mediated beneficial effects, which have also been linked to Sir2 function and NAD+ metabolism. Here, we discuss the interactions of these pathways and their potential roles in regulating NAD+ metabolism. In eukaryotic cells, intracellular compartmentalization facilitates the regulation of enzymatic functions and also concentrates or sequesters specific metabolites. Various NAD+-mediated cellular functions such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are compartmentalized. Therefore, we also discuss several key players functioning in mitochondrial, cytosolic and vacuolar compartmentalization of NAD+ intermediates, and their potential roles in NAD+ homeostasis. To date, it remains unclear how NAD+ and NAD+ intermediates shuttle between different

  16. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shi; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of drugs and their carrier systems by using receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways was in its nascent stages 25 years ago. In the intervening years, an explosion of knowledge focused on design and synthesis of nanoparticulate delivery systems as well as elucidation of the cellular complexity of what was previously-termed receptor-mediated endocytosis has now created a situation when it has become possible to design and test the feasibility of delivery of highly specific nanoparticle drug carriers to specific cells and tissue. This review outlines the mechanisms governing the major modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis used in drug delivery and highlights recent approaches using these as targets for in vivo drug delivery of nanoparticles. The review also discusses some of the inherent complexity associated with the simple shift from a ligand-drug conjugate versus a ligand-nanoparticle conjugate, in terms of ligand valency and its relationship to the mode of receptor-mediated internalization. PMID:23026636

  17. Identification of a Novel Gnao-Mediated Alternate Olfactory Signaling Pathway in Murine OSNs.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Jansen, Fabian; Kalbe, Benjamin; Haering, Claudia; Klasen, Katharina; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR) triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG) and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone) trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl(-) efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), the recruitment of Ca(2+) from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling) are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.

  18. Urea cycle regulation by mitochondrial sirtuin, SIRT5.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Guarente, Leonard

    2009-06-29

    Mammalian sirtuins have diverse roles in aging, metabolism and disease. Recently we reported a new function for SIRT5 in urea cycle regulation. Our study uncovered that SIRT5 localized to mitochondria matrix and deacetylates carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), an enzyme which is the first and rate-limiting step of urea cycle. Deacetylation of CPS1 by SIRT5 resulted in activation of CPS1 enzymatic activity. Indeed, SIRT5-deficient mice failed to up-regulate CPS1 activity and showed hyper ammonemia during fasting. Similar effects are also observed on high protein diet or calorie restriction. These data indicate SIRT5 also has an emerging role in the metabolic adaptation to fasting, high protein diet and calorie restriction.

  19. Seeding for sirtuins: microseed matrix seeding to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 and Sirt2 suitable for soaking

    SciTech Connect

    Rumpf, Tobias; Gerhardt, Stefan; Einsle, Oliver, E-mail: einsle@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de

    2015-11-18

    In the present study, microseed matrix seeding was successfully applied to obtain a large number of crystals of the human sirtuin isotypes Sirt2 and Sirt3. These crystals appeared predictably in diverse crystallization conditions, diffracted to a higher resolution than reported in the literature and were subsequently used to study the protein–ligand interactions of two indole inhibitors. Sirtuins constitute a family of NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of various acyl groups from the ∊-amino group of lysines. They regulate a series of cellular processes and their misregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making sirtuins attractive drug targets. Tomore » date, only a few sirtuin modulators have been reported that are suitable for cellular research and their development has been hampered by a lack of structural information. In this work, microseed matrix seeding (MMS) was used to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 in its apo form and of human Sirt2 in complex with ADP ribose (ADPR). Crystal formation using MMS was predictable, less error-prone and yielded a higher number of crystals per drop than using conventional crystallization screening methods. The crystals were used to solve the crystal structures of apo Sirt3 and of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR at an improved resolution, as well as the crystal structures of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR and the indoles EX527 and CHIC35. These Sirt2–ADPR–indole complexes unexpectedly contain two indole molecules and provide novel insights into selective Sirt2 inhibition. The MMS approach for Sirt2 and Sirt3 may be used as the basis for structure-based optimization of Sirt2/3 inhibitors in the future.« less

  20. Sirtuin 1 Mediates the Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Seok; Ham, Sun Ah; Yoo, Taesik; Lee, Won Jin; Paek, Kyung Shin; Lee, Chi-Ho; Seo, Han Geuk

    2016-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) has been implicated in vascular pathophysiology. However, its functions in atherogenic changes of the vascular wall have not been fully elucidated. PPARδ activated by GW501516 (2-[2-methyl-4-[[4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]methylsulfanyl]phenoxy]acetic acid) significantly inhibited the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). These GW501516-mediated effects were significantly reversed by PPARδ-targeting small-interfering RNA (siRNA), indicating that PPARδ is involved in the action of GW501516. The antiproliferative effect of GW501516 was directly linked to cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 to S phase transition, which was followed by the down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 along with increased levels of p21 and p53. In VSMCs treated with GW501516, the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA and protein was time-dependently increased. This GW501516-mediated up-regulation of SIRT1 expression was also demonstrated even in the presence of oxLDL. In addition, GW501516-dependent inhibition of oxLDL-triggered migration and proliferation of VSMCs was almost completely abolished in the presence of SIRT1-targeting siRNA. These effects of GW501516 on oxLDL-triggered phenotypic changes of VSMCs were also demonstrated via activation or inhibition of SIRT1 activity by resveratrol or sirtinol, respectively. Finally, gain or loss of SIRT1 function imitated the action of PPARδ on oxLDL-triggered migration and proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, these observations indicate that PPARδ-dependent up-regulation of SIRT1 contributes to the antiatherogenic activities of PPARδ by suppressing the migration and proliferation of VSMCs linked to vascular diseases such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Protective effects of aspirin and vitamin C against corn syrup consumption-induced cardiac damage through sirtuin-1 and HIF-1α pathway.

    PubMed

    Aşcı, Halil; Saygın, Mustafa; Yeşilot, Şükriye; Topsakal, Şenay; Cankara, Fatma Nihan; Özmen, Özlem; Savran, Mehtap

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aspirin (AS) and vitamin C (VC) against cardiac damage induced by chronic corn syrup (CS) consumption via a mechanism involving sirtuin-1 (ST-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and the caspase-3 pathway in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14-16 weeks) that weighed 250-300 g were randomly distributed into 5 groups, each containing 8 rats: control group, CS+AS group, CS+VC group, CS+AS+VC group, and CS group. AS (10 mg/kg/day) and VC (200 mg/kg/day) were orally given to the rats. F30 (30% fructose syrup solution) was given to the rats in drinking water for 6 weeks. The rats were sacrificed by exsanguination 24 h after the last administration. Blood samples and tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test used for the parameters without normal distribution and ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were used for parameters with a normal distribution to compare groups. Uric acid, creatine kinase (CKMB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the CS group compared with the control group (1.45±0.39 and p=0.011; 3225.64±598.25 and p=0.004; 3906.83±1064.22 and p=0.002, respectively) and decreased in all the treatment groups. In addition, increased levels of MDA and decreased activity of CAT in the CS group (0.172±0.03 and p=0.000; 0.070±0.005 and p=0.007, respectively) were reversed with AS and VC therapy. A decrease in ST-1 activity and increases in caspase-3 and HIF-1 activities corrected by VC and AS therapy were observed. AS and VC, which display antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities, ameliorated cardiac damage induced by chronic fructose consumption by increasing the levels of ST-1 and decreasing the levels of HIF-1α and caspase-3.

  2. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) Regulates α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) Production through the Succinate Dehydrogenase-G Protein-coupled Receptor 91 (GPR91) Pathway in Hepatic Stellate Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying Hui; Choi, Dae Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Seo, Su Ryeon; Lee, Seungkoo

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase. Recent studies have shown that SIRT3 expression is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moreover, SIRT3 is a key regulator of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. Increased succinate concentrations and the specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) are involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish whether SIRT3 regulated the SDH activity, succinate, and GPR91 expression in HSCs and an animal model of NAFLD. Our goal was also to determine whether succinate released from hepatocytes regulated HSC activation. Inhibiting SIRT3 using SIRT3 siRNA exacerbated HSC activation via the SDH-succinate-GPR91 pathway, and SIRT3 overexpression or honokiol treatment attenuated HSC activation in vitro. In isolated liver and HSCs from methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NAFLD, the expression of SIRT3 and SDH activity was decreased, and the succinate concentrations and GPR91 expression were increased. Moreover, we found that GPR91 knockdown or resveratrol treatment improved the steatosis in MCD diet-fed mice. This investigation revealed a novel mechanism of the SIRT3-SDH-GPR91 cascade in MCD diet-induced HSC activation in NAFLD. These findings highlight the biological significance of novel strategies aimed at targeting SIRT3 and GPR91 in HSCs with the goal of improving NAFLD treatment. PMID:26912655

  3. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects

    PubMed Central

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across two generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2’s adolescence and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, while G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting. PMID:19702389

  4. Cardiotonic steroids-mediated Na+/K+-ATPase targeting could circumvent various chemoresistance pathways.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic, Tatjana; Kiss, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Many cancer patients fail to respond to chemotherapy because of the intrinsic resistance of their cancer to pro-apoptotic stimuli or the acquisition of the multidrug resistant phenotype during chronic treatment. Previous data from our groups and from others point to the sodium/potassium pump (the Na+/K+-ATPase, i.e., NaK) with its highly specific ligands (i.e., cardiotonic steroids) as a new target for combating cancers associated with dismal prognoses, including gliomas, melanomas, non-small cell lung cancers, renal cell carcinomas, and colon cancers. Cardiotonic steroid-mediated Na+/K+-ATPase targeting could circumvent various resistance pathways. The most probable pathways include the involvement of Na+/K+-ATPase β subunits in invasion features and Na+/K+-ATPase α subunits in chemosensitisation by specific cardiotonic steroid-mediated apoptosis and anoïkis-sensitisation; the regulation of the expression of multidrug resistant-related genes; post-translational regulation, including glycosylation and ubiquitinylation of multidrug resistant-related proteins; c-Myc downregulation; hypoxia-inducible factor downregulation; NF-κB downregulation and deactivation; the inhibition of the glycolytic pathway with a reduction of intra-cellular ATP levels and an induction of non-apoptotic cell death. The aims of this review are to examine the various molecular pathways by which the NaK targeting can be more deleterious to biologically aggressive cancer cells than to normal cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  6. Fas- and Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway Involved in Osteoblast Apoptosis Induced by AlCl3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feibo; Ren, Limin; Song, Miao; Shao, Bing; Han, Yanfei; Cao, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2018-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) is known to induce apoptosis of osteoblasts (OBs). However, the mechanism is not yet established. To investigate the apoptotic mechanism of OBs induced by aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3 ), the primary OBs from the craniums of fetal Wistar rats were exposed to 0 mg/mL (control group, CG), 0.06 mg/mL (low-dose group, LG), 0.12 mg/mL (mid-dose group, MG), and 0.24 mg/mL (high-dose group, HG) AlCl 3 for 24 h, respectively. We observed that AlCl 3 induced OB apoptosis with the appearance of apoptotic morphology and increase of apoptosis rate. Additionally, AlCl 3 treatment activated mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway, accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarization, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, as well as survival signal-related factor caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. AlCl 3 exposure also activated Fas/Fas ligand signaling pathway, presented as Fas, Fas ligand, and Fas-associated death domain expression enhancement and caspase-8 activation, as well as the hydrolysis of Bid to truncated Bid, suggesting that the Fas-mediated signaling pathway might aggravate mitochondria-mediated OB apoptosis through hydrolyzing Bid. Furthermore, AlCl 3 exposure inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression and increased the expressions of Bax, Bak, and Bim in varying degrees. These results indicated that AlCl 3 exposure induced OB apoptosis through activating Fas- and mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway and disrupted B-cell lymphoma-2 family proteins.

  7. A RuBisCO-mediated carbon metabolic pathway in methanogenic archaea

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Takunari; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Endo, Chikako; Kizu, Natsuko; Matusda, Mami; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Yokota, Akiho; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Ashida, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Two enzymes are considered to be unique to the photosynthetic Calvin–Benson cycle: ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), responsible for CO2 fixation, and phosphoribulokinase (PRK). Some archaea possess bona fide RuBisCOs, despite not being photosynthetic organisms, but are thought to lack PRK. Here we demonstrate the existence in methanogenic archaea of a carbon metabolic pathway involving RuBisCO and PRK, which we term ‘reductive hexulose-phosphate' (RHP) pathway. These archaea possess both RuBisCO and a catalytically active PRK whose crystal structure resembles that of photosynthetic bacterial PRK. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometric analysis of metabolites reveals that the RHP pathway, which differs from the Calvin–Benson cycle only in a few steps, is active in vivo. Our work highlights evolutionary and functional links between RuBisCO-mediated carbon metabolic pathways in methanogenic archaea and photosynthetic organisms. Whether the RHP pathway allows for autotrophy (that is, growth exclusively with CO2 as carbon source) remains unknown. PMID:28082747

  8. Diet-induced obesity mediated by the JNK/DIO2 signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vernia, Santiago; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Barrett, Tamera; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a key mediator of metabolic stress responses caused by consuming a high-fat diet, including the development of obesity. To test the role of JNK, we examined diet-induced obesity in mice with targeted ablation of Jnk genes in the anterior pituitary gland. These mice exhibited an increase in the pituitary expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), an increase in the blood concentration of thyroid hormone (T4), increased energy expenditure, and markedly reduced obesity compared with control mice. The increased amount of pituitary TSH was caused by reduced expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2), a gene that is required for T4-mediated negative feedback regulation of TSH expression. These data establish a molecular mechanism that accounts for the regulation of energy expenditure and the development of obesity by the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:24186979

  9. SCFSlmb E3 ligase-mediated degradation of Expanded is inhibited by the Hippo pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Changqing; Chen, Hanqing; Wei, Chuanxian; Dai, Fei; Wu, Honggang; Dui, Wen; Deng, Wu-Min; Jiao, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway has been implicated in abnormal development of animals and in several types of cancer. One mechanism of Hippo pathway regulation is achieved by controlling the stability of its regulatory components. However, the executive E3 ligases that are involved in this process, and how the process is regulated, remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify, through a genetic candidate screen, the SCFSlmb E3 ligase as a novel negative regulator of the Hippo pathway in Drosophila imaginal tissues via mediation of the degradation of Expanded (Ex). Mechanistic study shows that Slmb-mediated degradation of Ex is inhibited by the Hippo signaling. Considering the fact that Hippo signaling suppresses the transcription of ex, we propose that the Hippo pathway employs a double security mechanism to ensure fine-tuned homeostasis during development. PMID:25522691

  10. HDAC9 promotes glioblastoma growth via TAZ-mediated EGFR pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Wu, Yanan; Wang, Mei; Sun, Zhongfeng; Zou, Jiahua; Zhang, Yundong; Cui, Hongjuan

    2015-04-10

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), a member of class II HDACs, regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. We found that HDAC9 is over-expressed in prognostically poor glioblastoma patients. Knockdown HDAC9 decreased proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. HDAC9 accelerated cell cycle in part by potentiating the EGFR signaling pathway. Also, HDAC9 interacted with TAZ, a key downstream effector of Hippo pathway. Knockdown of HDAC9 decreased the expression of TAZ. We found that overexpressed TAZ in HDAC9-knockdown cells abrogated the effects induced by HDAC9 silencing both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that HDAC9 promotes tumor formation of glioblastoma via TAZ-mediated EGFR pathway activation, and provide the evidence for promising target for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  11. Sirtuin-6 deficiency exacerbates diabetes induced impairment of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Babu, Sahana Suresh; Jeyabal, Prince; Verma, Suresh K; Mackie, Alexander R; Khan, Mohsin; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kishore, Raj; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Delayed wound healing is one of the major complications in diabetes and is characterized by chronic proinflammatory response, and abnormalities in angiogenesis and collagen deposition. Sirtuin family proteins regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, including those involved in promotion of longevity, DNA repair, glycolysis and inflammation. However the role of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a NAD+-dependent nuclear deacetylase, in wound healing specifically under diabetic condition remains unclear. To analyze the role of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound healing, paired 6 mm stented wound were created in diabetic db/db mice and injected siRNA against SIRT6 in the wound margins (transfection agent alone and non-sensed siRNA served as controls). Wound time to closure was assessed by digital planimetry, and wounds were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. SIRT6-siRNA treated diabetic wound showed impaired healing, which was associated with reduced capillary density (CD31 staining vessels) when compared to control treatment. Interestingly, SIRT6 deficiency decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and proliferation markers in the wounds. Furthermore, SIRT6 ablation in diabetic wound promotes nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activation resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory markers (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and increased oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that loss of SIRT6 in cutaneous wound aggravates proinflammatory response by increasing NF-kB activation, oxidative stress and decrease in angiogenesis in the diabetic mice. Based on these findings, we speculate that activation of SIRT6 signaling might be a potential therapeutic approach for promoting wound healing in diabetics. PMID:26010430

  12. EVIDENCE FOR EGFR PATHWAY MEDIATION OF CLEFT PALATE INDUCTION BY TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVIDENCE FOR EGFR PATHWAY MEDIATION OF CLEFT PALATE INDUCTION BY TCDD. B D Abbott, A R Buckalew, and K E Leffler. RTD, NHEERL, ORD,US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is teratogenic in C57BL/6J mice, producing cleft palate (CP) after exposure...

  13. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1 − Cullin − F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in susceptibility of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root

  14. Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2017-09-01

    Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.

  15. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  16. SIRT1 and SIRT6 Signaling Pathways in Cardiovascular Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Servillo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress represents the common hallmark of pathological conditions associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, aging, diabetes, and other vascular system-related diseases. The sirtuin (SIRT) family, comprising seven proteins (SIRT1–SIRT7) sharing a highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-binding catalytic domain, attracted a great attention for the past few years as stress adaptor and epigenetic enzymes involved in the cellular events controlling aging-related disorder, cancer, and CVD. Recent Advances: Among sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT6 are the best characterized for their protective roles against inflammation, vascular aging, heart disease, and atherosclerotic plaque development. This latest role has been only recently unveiled for SIRT6. Of interest, in recent years, complex signaling networks controlled by SIRT1 and SIRT6 common to stress resistance, vascular aging, and CVD have emerged. Critical Issues: We provide a comprehensive overview of recent developments on the molecular signaling pathways controlled by SIRT1 and SIRT6, two post-translational modifiers proven to be valuable tools to dampen inflammation and oxidative stress at the cardiovascular level. Future Directions: A deeper understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms through which SIRT1 and SIRT6 act in the signalings responsible for onset and development CVD is a prime scientific endeavor of the upcoming years. Multiple “omic” technologies will have widespread implications in understanding such mechanisms, speeding up the achievement of selective and efficient pharmacological modulation of sirtuins for future applications in the prevention and treatment of CVD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 711–732. PMID:28661724

  17. Isonicotinamide Enhances Sir2 Protein-mediated Silencing and Longevity in Yeast by Raising Intracellular NAD+ Concentration*

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Julie M.; Wierman, Margaret B.; Maqani, Nazif; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that function in the regulation of gene transcription, cellular metabolism, and aging. Their activity requires the maintenance of an adequate intracellular NAD+ concentration through the combined action of NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a key NAD+ precursor that is also a byproduct and feedback inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nicotinamidase Pnc1 converts NAM to nicotinic acid (NA), which is then used as a substrate by the NAD+ salvage pathway enzyme NA phosphoribosyltransferase (Npt1). Isonicotinamide (INAM) is an isostere of NAM that stimulates yeast Sir2 deacetylase activity in vitro by alleviating the NAM inhibition. In this study, we determined that INAM stimulates Sir2 through an additional mechanism in vivo, which involves elevation of the intracellular NAD+ concentration. INAM enhanced normal silencing at the rDNA locus but only partially suppressed the silencing defects of an npt1Δ mutant. Yeast cells grown in media lacking NA had a short replicative life span, which was extended by INAM in a SIR2-dependent manner and correlated with increased NAD+. The INAM-induced increase in NAD+ was strongly dependent on Pnc1 and Npt1, suggesting that INAM increases flux through the NAD+ salvage pathway. Part of this effect was mediated by the NR salvage pathways, which generate NAM as a product and require Pnc1 to produce NAD+. We also provide evidence suggesting that INAM influences the expression of multiple NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways to promote homeostasis during stationary phase. PMID:22539348

  18. Two programmed cell death systems in Escherichia coli: an apoptotic-like death is inhibited by the mazEF-mediated death pathway.

    PubMed

    Erental, Ariel; Sharon, Idith; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the classical form of programmed cell death (PCD) is apoptosis, which has as its specific characteristics DNA fragmentation and membrane depolarization. In Escherichia coli a different PCD system has been reported. It is mediated by the toxin-antitoxin system module mazEF. The E. coli mazEF module is one of the most thoroughly studied toxin-antitoxin systems. mazF encodes a stable toxin, MazF, and mazE encodes a labile antitoxin, MazE, which prevents the lethal effect of MazF. mazEF-mediated cell death is a population phenomenon requiring the quorum-sensing pentapeptide NNWNN designated Extracellular Death Factor (EDF). mazEF is triggered by several stressful conditions, including severe damage to the DNA. Here, using confocal microscopy and FACS analysis, we show that under conditions of severe DNA damage, the triggered mazEF-mediated cell death pathway leads to the inhibition of a second cell death pathway. The latter is an apoptotic-like death (ALD); ALD is mediated by recA and lexA. The mazEF-mediated pathway reduces recA mRNA levels. Based on these results, we offer a molecular model for the maintenance of an altruistic characteristic in cell populations. In our model, the ALD pathway is inhibited by the altruistic EDF-mazEF-mediated death pathway.

  19. NAD+ and SIRT3 control microtubule dynamics and reduce susceptibility to antimicrotubule agents

    PubMed Central

    Harkcom, William T.; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Sung, Matthew S.; Matov, Alexandre; Brown, Kevin D.; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an endogenous enzyme cofactor and cosubstrate that has effects on diverse cellular and physiologic processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and axonal degeneration. A major goal is to identify the NAD+-regulated cellular pathways that may mediate these effects. Here we show that the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules is markedly altered by NAD+. Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of microtubule polymers elicited by microtubule depolymerizing agents is blocked by increasing intracellular NAD+ levels. We find that these effects of NAD+ are mediated by the activation of the mitochondrial sirtuin sirtuin-3 (SIRT3). Overexpression of SIRT3 prevents microtubule disassembly and apoptosis elicited by antimicrotubule agents and knockdown of SIRT3 prevents the protective effects of NAD+ on microtubule polymers. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NAD+ and SIRT3 regulate microtubule polymerization and the efficacy of antimicrotubule agents. PMID:24889606

  20. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) Regulates α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) Production through the Succinate Dehydrogenase-G Protein-coupled Receptor 91 (GPR91) Pathway in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Hui; Choi, Dae Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Seo, Su Ryeon; Lee, Seungkoo; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2016-05-06

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. Recent studies have shown that SIRT3 expression is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moreover, SIRT3 is a key regulator of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. Increased succinate concentrations and the specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) are involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish whether SIRT3 regulated the SDH activity, succinate, and GPR91 expression in HSCs and an animal model of NAFLD. Our goal was also to determine whether succinate released from hepatocytes regulated HSC activation. Inhibiting SIRT3 using SIRT3 siRNA exacerbated HSC activation via the SDH-succinate-GPR91 pathway, and SIRT3 overexpression or honokiol treatment attenuated HSC activation in vitro In isolated liver and HSCs from methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NAFLD, the expression of SIRT3 and SDH activity was decreased, and the succinate concentrations and GPR91 expression were increased. Moreover, we found that GPR91 knockdown or resveratrol treatment improved the steatosis in MCD diet-fed mice. This investigation revealed a novel mechanism of the SIRT3-SDH-GPR91 cascade in MCD diet-induced HSC activation in NAFLD. These findings highlight the biological significance of novel strategies aimed at targeting SIRT3 and GPR91 in HSCs with the goal of improving NAFLD treatment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  2. Comparison of Sirtuin 3 Levels in ALS and Huntington’s Disease—Differential Effects in Human Tissue Samples vs. Transgenic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Eva; Bayer, Hanna; Lindenberg, Katrin S.; Hanselmann, Johannes; Pasquarelli, Noemi; Ludolph, Albert C.; Weydt, Patrick; Witting, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington’s disease (HD) medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes. SIRT3 expression depends on the activity of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a modifier of ALS and HD in patients and model organisms. This prompted us to systematically probe Sirt3 mRNA and protein levels in mouse models of ALS and HD and to correlate these with patient tissue levels. We found a selective reduction of Sirt3 mRNA levels and function in the cervical spinal cord of end-stage ALS mice (superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1G93A). In sharp contrast, a tendency to increased Sirt3 mRNA levels was found in the striatum in HD mice (R6/2). Cultured primary neurons express the highest levels of Sirt3 mRNA. In primary cells from PGC-1α knock-out (KO) mice the Sirt3 mRNA levels were highest in astrocytes. In human post mortem tissue increased mRNA and protein levels of Sirt3 were found in the spinal cord in ALS, while Sirt3 levels were unchanged in the human HD striatum. Based on these findings we conclude that SIRT3 mediates the different effects of PGC-1α during the course of transgenic (tg) ALS and HD and in the human conditions only partial aspects Sirt3 dysregulation manifest. PMID:28603486

  3. Metformin Sensitizes Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells to an Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Treatment by Suppressing the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenxiao; Jiao, Yang; Xue, Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Hongying; Xing, Ligang; Chen, Guangxia; Wu, Jinchang; Zhang, Shuyu; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, is widely studied as a cancer chemopreventive agent with potential anti-cancer effects. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway is considered to mediate cellular resistance to EGCG. Metformin, a classical antidiabetic drug, has been shown to prevent cancer progression. Researchers have not reported whether metformin potentiates the anti-cancer efficacy of EGCG. In this study, metformin inhibited HO-1 expression and augmented the anti-tumor effect of EGCG. Metformin also enhanced ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation induced by EGCG (100 μM), subsequently resulting in apoptosis. Based on the results of the in vivo study, size of xenografts treated with the combination of metformin and EGCG was smaller than other groups. Mechanistically, metformin modulated the EGCG-activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway through Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent deacetylation of Nrf2. Moreover, metformin upregulated SIRT1 expression partially through the NF-kB pathway. Comparatively, the combination of EGCG and metformin showed little impact on normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Based on our findings, metformin sensitized NSCLC cells to the EGCG treatment by suppressing the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  4. Mediating pathways and gender differences between shift work and subjective cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2016-11-01

    Increased injury risk among shift workers is often attributed to cognitive function deficits that come about as a result of sleep disruptions. However, little is known about the intermediate influences of other factors (eg, work stress, health) which may affect this relationship. In addition, gender differences in these the complex relationships have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify the extent to which work and non-work factors mediate the relationship between shift work, sleep and subsequent subjective cognitive function; and (2) determine if the mediating pathways differ for men and women. Data from the 2010 National Population Health Survey was used to create a cross-sectional sample of 4255 employed Canadians. Using path modelling, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between shift work, sleep duration, sleep quality and subjective cognitive function. Multigroup analyses tested for significantly different pathways between men and women. Potential confounding effects of age and self-reported health and potential mediating effects of work stress were simultaneously examined. Work stress and sleep quality significantly mediated the effects of shift work on cognition. Age and health confounded the relationship between sleep quality and subjective cognition. No differences were found between men and women. Occupational health and safety programmes are needed to address stress and health factors, in addition to sleep hygiene, to effectively address cognitive function among shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Sirtuin-2 Regulates Sepsis Inflammation in ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianfeng; Buechler, Nancy L.; Martin, Ayana; Wells, Jonathan; Yoza, Barbara; McCall, Charles E.; Vachharajani, Vidula

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity increases morbidity and resource utilization in sepsis patients. Sepsis transitions from early/hyper-inflammatory to late/hypo-inflammatory phase. Majority of sepsis-mortality occurs during the late sepsis; no therapies exist to treat late sepsis. In lean mice, we have shown that sirtuins (SIRTs) modulate this transition. Here, we investigated the role of sirtuins, especially the adipose-tissue abundant SIRT-2 on transition from early to late sepsis in obese with sepsis. Methods Sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in ob/ob mice. We measured microvascular inflammation in response to lipopolysaccharide/normal saline re-stimulation as a “second-hit” (marker of immune function) at different time points to track phases of sepsis in ob/ob mice. We determined SIRT-2 expression during different phases of sepsis. We studied the effect of SIRT-2 inhibition during the hypo-inflammatory phase on immune function and 7-day survival. We used a RAW264.7 (RAW) cell model of sepsis for mechanistic studies. We confirmed key findings in diet induced obese (DIO) mice with sepsis. Results We observed that the ob/ob-septic mice showed an enhanced early inflammation and a persistent and prolonged hypo-inflammatory phase when compared to WT mice. Unlike WT mice that showed increased SIRT1 expression, we found that SIRT2 levels were increased in ob/ob mice during hypo-inflammation. SIRT-2 inhibition in ob/ob mice during the hypo-inflammatory phase of sepsis reversed the repressed microvascular inflammation in vivo via activation of endothelial cells and circulating leukocytes and significantly improved survival. We confirmed the key finding of the role of SIRT2 during hypo-inflammatory phase of sepsis in this project in DIO-sepsis mice. Mechanistically, in the sepsis cell model, SIRT-2 expression modulated inflammatory response by deacetylation of NFκBp65. Conclusion SIRT-2 regulates microvascular inflammation in obese mice with sepsis and may

  6. Changes of TSPO-mediated mitophagy signaling pathway in learned helplessness mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Zheng, Ji; Wang, Mingyang; Feng, Lu; Ren, Zhili; Liu, Yanyong; Yang, Nan; Zuo, Pingping

    2016-11-30

    Low response rate was witnessed with the present monoaminergic based antidepressants, urging a need for new therapeutic target identification. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest that mitochondrial deficit is implicated in major depression and 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. However the changes of TSPO and TSPO mediated mitophagy pathway in the depressive brain is unclear. In present study, a well validated animal model of depression, learned helplessness (LH), was employed to investigate the relevant changes. Significant behavioral changes were observed in the LH mice. Results showed that TSPO and other mitophagy related proteins, such as VDAC1, Pink1 and Beclin1 were significantly decreased by LH challenge. Moreover, KIFC2, relevant to the mitochondrial transport and Snap25, relevant to neurotransmitter vesicle release, were also obviously down-regulated in the LH mice, which further rendered supportive evidence for the existing mitochondrial dysfunction in LH mice. Present results demonstrated that LH induced depressive symptoms and affected TSPO-mediated mitophagy pathway, indicating a potential target candidate for depression treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  8. Long-term high-fat consumption leads to downregulation of Akt phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 and upregulation of Sirtuin-1 expression in rat cavernous tissue.

    PubMed

    Tomada, I; Negrão, R; Almeida, H; Neves, D

    2014-04-01

    Long-term consumption of high-fat diets negatively interferes with metabolic status and promotes endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. In the cavernous tissue, these outcomes become conspicuous in the elderly and strongly affect penile erection, a vascular process highly dependent on local nitric oxide bioavailability. Although epidemiological data links erectile dysfunction to nutritional patterns, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of long-term high-fat diet on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-Sirtuin-1 axis and Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in the cavernous tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats, and compared with energy-restricted animals. We demonstrated that high-fat diet intake led to a noteworthy decrease in eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 residue through the Akt pathway, which seems to be compensated by upregulation of phosphorylation at Ser615, but without an increment in nitric oxide production. These results are accompanied by an increase of systemic inflammatory markers and upregulation of the inducible NOS and of the deacetylase Sirtuin-1 in the cavernous tissue to levels apparently detrimental to cells and to metabolic homeostasis. Conversely, in long-term energy-restricted animals, the rate of phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 diminished, but the activation of the enzyme increased through phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser615, resulting in an enhancement in nitric oxide bioavailability. Taken together, our results demonstrate that long-term nutritional conditions override the influence of age on the eNOS expression and activation in rat cavernous tissue.

  9. Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Pyridine nucleotides are essential coenzymes in many cellular redox reactions in all living systems. In addition to functioning as a redox carrier, NAD(+) is also a required co-substrate for the conserved sirtuin deacetylases. Sirtuins regulate transcription, genome maintenance and metabolism and function as molecular links between cells and their environment. Maintaining NAD(+) homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function and aberrant NAD(+) metabolism has been implicated in a number of metabolic- and age-associated diseases. Recently, NAD(+) metabolism has been linked to the phosphate-responsive signaling pathway (PHO pathway) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activation of the PHO pathway is associated with the production and mobilization of the NAD(+) metabolite nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is mediated in part by PHO-regulated nucleotidases. Cross-regulation between NAD(+) metabolism and the PHO pathway has also been reported; however, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The PHO pathway also appears to modulate the activities of common downstream effectors of multiple nutrient-sensing pathways (Ras-PKA, TOR, Sch9/AKT). These signaling pathways were suggested to play a role in calorie restriction-mediated beneficial effects, which have also been linked to Sir2 function and NAD(+) metabolism. Here, we discuss the interactions of these pathways and their potential roles in regulating NAD(+) metabolism. In eukaryotic cells, intracellular compartmentalization facilitates the regulation of enzymatic functions and also concentrates or sequesters specific metabolites. Various NAD(+)-mediated cellular functions such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are compartmentalized. Therefore, we also discuss several key players functioning in mitochondrial, cytosolic and vacuolar compartmentalization of NAD(+) intermediates, and their potential roles in NAD(+) homeostasis. To date, it remains unclear how NAD(+) and NAD(+) intermediates

  10. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eighteen PCDPSs were tested in the H4IIE-luc transactivation assay, with 13/18 causing concentration-dependent AhR activation. Potencies of several congeners were similar to those of mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. A RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based transcriptomic analysis was performed on H4IIE cells treated with two PCDPS congeners, 2,2',3,3',4,5,6-hepta-CDPS, and 2,4,4',5-tetra-CDPS. Results of RNA-seq revealed a remarkable modulation on a relatively short gene list by exposure to the tested concentrations of PCDPSs, among which, Cyp1 responded with the greatest fold up-regulation. Both the identities of the modulated transcripts and the associated pathways were consistent with targets and pathways known to be modulated by other types of AhR agonists and there was little evidence for significant off-target effects within the cellular context of the H4IIE bioassay. The results suggest AhR activation as a toxicologically relevant mode of action for PCDPSs suggests the utility of AhR-related toxicity pathways for predicting potential hazards associated with PCDPS exposure in mammals and potentially other vertebrates. Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of en

  11. How Does MBCT for Depression Work? Studying Cognitive and Affective Mediation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Batink, Tim; Peeters, Frenk; Geschwind, Nicole; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce current symptoms and to prevent recurrence of major depressive disorder. At present, it is not well understood which underlying mechanisms during MBCT are associated with its efficacy. The current study (n = 130) was designed to examine the roles of mindfulness skills, rumination, worry and affect, and the interplay between those factors, in the mechanisms of change in MBCT for residual depressive symptoms. An exploratory but systematic approach was chosen using Sobel-Goodman mediation analyses to identify mediators on the pathway from MBCT to reduction in depressive symptoms. We replicated earlier findings that therapeutic effects of MBCT are mediated by changes in mindfulness skills and worry. Second, results showed that changes in momentary positive and negative affect significantly mediated the efficacy of MBCT, and also mediated the effect of worry on depressive symptoms. Third, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≤ 2 episodes of MDD, predominantly changes in cognitive and to a lesser extent affective processes mediated the effect of MBCT. However, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≥ 3 episodes of MDD, only changes in affect were significant mediators for the effect of MBCT. Trail Registration: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1084 PMID:24009704

  12. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  13. Host cell virus entry mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus G envelope glycoprotein occurs through a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway that requires actin and Rab5.

    PubMed

    Weir, Dawn L; Laing, Eric D; Smith, Ina L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-27

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), a rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus which circulates in both pteropid fruit bats and insectivorous bats in mainland Australia, has caused three fatal human infections, the most recent in February 2013, manifested as acute neurological disease indistinguishable from clinical rabies. Rhabdoviruses infect host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion mediated by their single envelope glycoprotein (G), but the specific host factors and pathways involved in ABLV entry have not been determined. ABLV internalization into HEK293T cells was examined using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) that express ABLV G glycoproteins. A combination of chemical and molecular approaches was used to investigate the contribution of different endocytic pathways to ABLV entry. Dominant negative Rab GTPases were used to identify the endosomal compartment utilized by ABLV to gain entry into the host cell cytosol. Here we show that ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells was significantly inhibited by the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore, chlorpromazine, a drug that blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and the actin depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. Over expression of dominant negative mutants of Eps15 and Rab5 also significantly reduced ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells. Chemical inhibitors of caveolae-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis and dominant negative mutants of Rab7 and Rab11 had no effect on ABLV entry. The predominant pathway utilized by ABLV for internalization into HEK293T cells is clathrin-and actin-dependent. The requirement of Rab5 for productive infection indicates that ABLV G-mediated fusion occurs within the early endosome compartment.

  14. Pathway Linking Internet Health Information Seeking to Better Health: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-08-01

    The Internet increasingly has been recognized as an important medium with respect to population health. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the potential impact of health-related Internet use on health outcomes. Based on the three-stage model of health promotion using interactive media, this study empirically tested a moderated mediation pathway model. Results showed that the effect of Internet health information seeking on three health outcomes (general, emotional, and physical) was completely mediated by respondents' access to social support resources. In addition, users' online health information seeking experience positively moderated this mediation path. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for the design of Internet-based health promotion resources to improve health outcomes.

  15. Transforming growth factor β-induced expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans is mediated through non-Smad signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Naima; Hannila, Sari S

    2015-01-01

    The expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by reactive astrocytes is a major factor contributing to glial scarring and regenerative failure after spinal cord injury, but the molecular mechanisms underlying CSPG expression remain largely undefined. One contributing factor is transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), which is upregulated after injury and has been shown to induce expression of CSPGs in vitro. TGFβ typically mediates its effects through the Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and it has been suggested that this pathway is responsible for CSPG expression. However, there is evidence that TGFβ can also activate non-Smad signaling pathways. In this study, we report that TGFβ-induced expression of three different CSPGs--neurocan, brevican, and aggrecan--is mediated through non-Smad signaling pathways. We observed significant increases in TGFβ-induced expression of neurocan, brevican, and aggrecan following siRNA knockdown of Smad2 or Smad4, which indicates that Smad signaling is not required for the expression of these CSPGs. In addition, we show that neurocan, aggrecan, and brevican levels are significantly reduced when TGFβ is administered in the presence of either the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, but not the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. This suggests that TGFβ mediates this effect through non-Smad-dependent activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, and targeting this pathway may therefore be an effective means of reducing CSPG expression in the injured CNS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. USP21 regulates Hippo pathway activity by mediating MARK protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Loya, Anand C; Cohen, Stephen M

    2017-09-08

    The Hippo pathway, which acts to repress the activity of YAP and TAZ trancriptional co-activators, serve as a barrier for oncogenic transformation. Unlike other oncoproteins, YAP and TAZ are rarely activated by mutations or amplified in cancer. However, elevated YAP/TAZ activity is frequently observed in cancer and often correlates with worse survival. The activity and stability of Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, AMOT and LATS1/2, are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin ligase complexes that regulate the turnover of Hippo components and deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases have been implicated in human cancer. Here we identify the USP21 deubiquitylating enzyme as a novel regulator of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that USP21 regulates YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of MARK kinases, which promote Hippo signaling. Low expression of USP21 in early stage renal clear cell carcinoma suggests that USP21 may be a useful biomarker.

  17. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B.; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cellsmore » to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP{sub 3} pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.« less

  18. Resveratrol Protects against TNF-α-Induced Injury in Human Umbilical Endothelial Cells through Promoting Sirtuin-1-Induced Repression of NF-KB and p38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shujie; Zhu, Pengli

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Resveratrol has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress activities, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis associated with the protective effects of resveratrol on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced injury in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a variety of approaches including a cell viability assay, reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining. We showed that TNF-α induced CD40 expression and ROS production in cultured HUVECs, which were attenuated by resveratrol treatment. Also, resveratrol increased the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1); and repression of SIRT1 by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and the SIRT1 inhibitor Ex527 reduced the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on CD40 expression and ROS generation. In addition, resveratrol downregulated the levels of p65 and phospho-p38 MAPK, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by the suppression of SIRT1 activity. Moreover, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SD203580 and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) achieved similar repressive effects as resveratrol on TNF-α-induced ROS generation and CD40 expression. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic link between resveratrol and the activation of SIRT1, the latter of which is involved in resveratrol-mediated repression of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway and ROS production in TNF-α-treated HUVECs. PMID:26799794

  19. Activation of sirtuin 1/3 improves vascular hyporeactivity in severe hemorrhagic shock by alleviation of mitochondrial damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyun; Meng, Xianzhong; Bian, Huining; Burns, Nana; Zhao, Ke-seng; Song, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity is one of the major causes responsible for refractory hypotension and associated mortality in severe hemorrhagic shock. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporeactivity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial injury in ASMCs during hemorrhagic shock is not well understood. Here we produced an in vivo model of severe hemorrhagic shock in adult Wistar rats. We found that sirtuin (SIRT)1/3 protein levels and deacetylase activities were decreased in ASMCs following severe shock. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed reduced levels of SIRT1 in the nucleus and SIRT3 in the mitochondria, respectively. Acetylation of cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of mPT pore, was increased. SIRT1 activators suppressed mPT pore opening and ameliorated mitochondrial injury in ASMCs after severe shock. Furthermore, administration of SIRT1 activators improved vasoreactivity in rats under severe shock. Our data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, namely histone post-translational modifications, are involved in regulation of mPT by SIRT1/SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of CyPD. SIRT1/3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock. PMID:26473372

  20. Deciphering the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in apicomplexan parasites: a potential strategy to interfere with parasite virulence.

    PubMed

    Ponts, Nadia; Yang, Jianfeng; Chung, Duk-Won Doug; Prudhomme, Jacques; Girke, Thomas; Horrocks, Paul; Le Roch, Karine G

    2008-06-11

    Reversible modification of proteins through the attachment of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers is an essential post-translational regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. The conjugation of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins has been demonstrated to play roles in growth, adaptation and homeostasis in all eukaryotes, with perturbation of ubiquitin-mediated systems associated with the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we describe the use of an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key components of the ubiquitin-mediated pathway necessary to activate and reversibly modify target proteins in eight apicomplexan parasitic protozoa for which complete or late-stage genome projects exist. In parallel, the same search was conducted on five model organisms, single-celled and metazoans, to generate data to validate both the search parameters employed and aid paralog classification in Apicomplexa. For each of the 13 species investigated, a set of proteins predicted to be involved in the ubiquitylation pathway has been identified and demonstrates increasing component members of the ubiquitylation pathway correlating with organism and genome complexity. Sequence homology and domain architecture analyses facilitated prediction of apicomplexan-specific protein function, particularly those involved in regulating cell division during these parasite's complex life cycles. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of proteins predicted to be involved in the apicomplexan ubiquitin-mediated pathway. Given the importance of such pathway in a wide variety of cellular processes, our data is a key step in elucidating the biological networks that, in part, direct the pathogenicity of these parasites resulting in a massive impact on global health. Moreover, apicomplexan-specific adaptations of the ubiquitylation pathway may represent new therapeutic targets for much needed drugs against apicomplexan parasites.

  1. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) Is Required for Promoting Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Busch, Franziska; Shayan, Parviz; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been linked to anabolic effects in cartilage, although the mechanisms of SIRT1 signaling during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to chondrocytes are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of SIRT1-mediated signaling during chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. High density and alginate cultures of MSCs were treated with chondrogenic induction medium with/without the SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide, antisense oligonucleotides against SIRT1 (SIRT1-ASO), IL-1β, and/or resveratrol. Transient transfection of MSCs with SIRT1-antisense oligonucleotides, nicotinamide, and IL-1β inhibited chondrogenesis-induced down-regulation of cartilage-specific proteins, cartilage-specific transcription factor Sox9, and enhanced NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in the inflammatory and degradative processes in cartilage (MMP-9, COX-2, and caspase-3), and NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation, and activation of IκBα kinase. In contrast, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol or BMS-345541 (inhibitor of IKK) inhibited IL-1β- and NAM-induced suppression of cartilage-specific proteins, Sox9, and up-regulation of NF-κB-regulated gene products. Moreover, SIRT1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB and resveratrol-suppressed IL-1β and NAM but not SIRT1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation, and activation of IκBα kinase. Knockdown of SIRT1 by mRNA abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on inflammatory and apoptotic signaling and Sox9 expression, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme. Finally, the modulatory effects of resveratrol were found to be mediated at least in part by the association between SIRT1 and Sox9. These results indicate for the first time that SIRT1 supports chondrogenic development of MSCs at least in part through inhibition/deacetylation of NF-κB and activation of Sox9. PMID:24962570

  2. The effect of chronic seaweed subsidies on herbivory: plant-mediated fertilization pathway overshadows lizard-mediated predator pathways.

    PubMed

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Takimoto, Gaku; Yang, Louie H; Wright, Amber N; Schoener, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Flows of energy and materials link ecosystems worldwide and have important consequences for the structure of ecological communities. While these resource subsidies typically enter recipient food webs through multiple channels, most previous studies focussed on a single pathway of resource input. We used path analysis to evaluate multiple pathways connecting chronic marine resource inputs (in the form of seaweed deposits) and herbivory in a shoreline terrestrial ecosystem. We found statistical support for a fertilization effect (seaweed increased foliar nitrogen content, leading to greater herbivory) and a lizard numerical response effect (seaweed increased lizard densities, leading to reduced herbivory), but not for a lizard diet-shift effect (seaweed increased the proportion of marine-derived prey in lizard diets, but lizard diet was not strongly associated with herbivory). Greater seaweed abundance was associated with greater herbivory, and the fertilization effect was larger than the combined lizard effects. Thus, the bottom-up, plant-mediated effect of fertilization on herbivory overshadowed the top-down effects of lizard predators. These results, from unmanipulated shoreline plots with persistent differences in chronic seaweed deposition, differ from those of a previous experimental study of the short-term effects of a pulse of seaweed deposition: while the increase in herbivory in response to chronic seaweed deposition was due to the fertilization effect, the short-term increase in herbivory in response to a pulse of seaweed deposition was due to the lizard diet-shift effect. This contrast highlights the importance of the temporal pattern of resource inputs in determining the mechanism of community response to resource subsidies.

  3. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A.; Bai, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD+ dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD+ substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological, or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and ageing). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:23357756

  4. Comparative Modeling and Benchmarking Data Sets for Human Histone Deacetylases and Sirtuin Families

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed the Maximal Unbiased Benchmarking Data Sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs covers all 4 Classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDACs isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24,609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of “artificial enrichment” and “analogue bias”. We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets, and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs is unique in that it can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the “2D bias” and “LBVS favorable” effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs is the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that is available so far. MUBD-HDACs is freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/. PMID:25633490

  5. Comparative modeling and benchmarking data sets for human histone deacetylases and sirtuin families.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-02-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed maximal unbiased benchmarking data sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs cover all four classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDAC isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of "artificial enrichment" and "analogue bias". We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs are unique in that they can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the "2D bias" and "LBVS favorable" effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs are the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that are available so far. MUBD-HDACs are freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/ .

  6. Discovery of potent and selective sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitors using a fragment-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huaqing; Kamal, Zeeshan; Ai, Teng; Xu, Yanli; More, Swati S; Wilson, Daniel J; Chen, Liqiang

    2014-10-23

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the sirtuins, a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that act on a variety of histone and non-histone substrates. Accumulating biological functions and potential therapeutic applications have drawn interest in the discovery and development of SIRT2 inhibitors. Herein we report our discovery of novel SIRT2 inhibitors using a fragment-based approach. Inspired by the purported close binding proximity of suramin and nicotinamide, we prepared two sets of fragments, namely, the naphthylamide sulfonic acids and the naphthalene-benzamides and -nicotinamides. Biochemical evaluation of these two series provided structure-activity relationship (SAR) information, which led to the design of (5-benzamidonaphthalen-1/2-yloxy)nicotinamide derivatives. Among these inhibitors, one compound exhibited high anti-SIRT2 activity (48 nM) and excellent selectivity for SIRT2 over SIRT1 and SIRT3. In vitro, it also increased the acetylation level of α-tubulin, a well-established SIRT2 substrate, in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. Further kinetic studies revealed that this compound behaves as a competitive inhibitor against the peptide substrate and most likely as a noncompetitive inhibitor against NAD(+). Taken together, these results indicate that we have discovered a potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitor whose novel structure merits further exploration.

  7. The neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis-like pathway mediated by circulating haemocytes in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Jiang, Qiufen; Wang, Lingling; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of host. In this study, a neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes was characterized in the oyster Crassostrea gigas Once invaded pathogen was recognized by the host, the nervous system would temporally release neurotransmitters to modulate the immune response. Instead of acting passively, oyster haemocytes were able to mediate neuronal immunomodulation promptly by controlling the expression of specific neurotransmitter receptors on cell surface and modulating their binding sensitivities, thus regulating intracellular concentration of Ca 2+ This neural immunomodulation mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes could influence cellular immunity in oyster by affecting mRNA expression level of TNF genes, and humoral immunity by affecting the activities of key immune-related enzymes. In summary, though simple in structure, the 'nervous-haemocyte' NIA-like pathway regulates both cellular and humoral immunity in oyster, meaning a world to the effective immune regulation of the NEI network. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) maintains bone homeostasis by regulating AMPK-PGC-1β axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Ji Hye; Jang, Eun Sun; Park, So Jeong; Park, Doo Ri; Ko, Ryeojin; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Choi, Yongwon; Kim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is involved in suppressing the onset of multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, age-related hearing loss, and breast cancer. But a physiological role of SIRT3 in bone metabolism is not known. Here we show that SIRT3 is a key regulatory molecule to maintain bone homeostasis. Mice deficient in SIRT3 exhibited severe osteopenia owing to increased numbers of osteoclasts. Osteoclast precursors from Sirt3−/− mice underwent increased osteoclastogenesis in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. SIRT3 expression from RANKL induction depended on the transcription coactivator PGC-1β (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1β) and the nuclear receptor ERRα (estrogen receptor-related receptor α), and that SIRT3 inhibited the differentiation by interfering with the RANKL-induced expression of PGC-1β. Thus an auto-regulatory feedback mechanism operates to induce its own inhibitor SIRT3 by PGC-1β. Moreover, Sirt3−/− osteoclast precursors reduced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation through down-regulating the expression of AMPK. Our results suggest that a mitochondrial SIRT3 is an intrinsic inhibitor for RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26928655

  9. Resveratrol supplement inhibited the NF-κB inflammation pathway through activating AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway in mice with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yueli; Ma, Jingting; Wang, Wudong; Zhang, Lingjuan; Xu, Jia; Wang, Kai; Li, Dongfu

    2016-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by high levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), inflammation, and hepatic steatosis. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of fatty liver. Resveratrol (RSV) supplement could improve inflammatory response and hepatic steatosis, whereas the underlying mechanism was not well understood. In this study, mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited severe hepatic injury and high blood concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Hepatic NF-κB inflammatory pathway was over-induced in HFD mice. In vitro, NEFA treatment further increased NF-κB pathway activation in mice hepatocytes, which then promoted the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, RSV treatment significantly inhibited overactivation of NF-κB pathway and improved hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, RSV further increased the AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα) phosphorylation and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) protein levels to inhibit overactivation of NF-κB pathway induced by HFD or high levels of NEFA. AMPKα or SIRT1 inhibition significantly decreased the improvement effect of RSV on the NF-κB pathway induced by high levels of NEFA. Taken together, these findings indicate that RSV supplement decreases the inflammatory level and improves hepatic steatosis through activating AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway. Therefore, these data suggested an important clinical application of RSV in preventing NAFLD in humans.

  10. Silencing of Pokemon enhances caspase-dependent apoptosis via fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Lin, Bi-Yun; Shi, Ying; Liu, Yun-Peng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Guleng, Bayasi; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor), a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced apoptosis was significantly increased in cells with silenced Pokemon. Western blots showed that p53 expression and phosphorylation were significantly increased in Pokemon defective cells, thereby initiating the mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. In the mitochondria-mediated pathway, expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (including Bad, Bid, Bim and Puma) as well as AIF was increased and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential resulted in cytochrome C released from mitochondrial in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells. In addition, upon oxaliplatin treatment of Pokemon-silenced cells, the FAS receptor, FADD and their downstream targets caspase-10 and caspase-8 were activated, causing increased release of caspase-8 active fragments p18 and p10. Increased activated caspase-8-mediated cleavage and activation of downstream effector caspases such as caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells as compared to control. Therefore, Pokemon might serve as an important mediator of crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that Pokemon could be an attractive therapeutic target gene for human cancer therapy.

  11. Silencing of Pokemon Enhances Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis via Fas- and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bi-Yun; Shi, Ying; Liu, Yun-Peng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Guleng, Bayasi; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor), a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced apoptosis was significantly increased in cells with silenced Pokemon. Western blots showed that p53 expression and phosphorylation were significantly increased in Pokemon defective cells, thereby initiating the mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. In the mitochondria-mediated pathway, expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (including Bad, Bid, Bim and Puma) as well as AIF was increased and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential resulted in cytochrome C released from mitochondrial in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells. In addition, upon oxaliplatin treatment of Pokemon-silenced cells, the FAS receptor, FADD and their downstream targets caspase-10 and caspase-8 were activated, causing increased release of caspase-8 active fragments p18 and p10. Increased activated caspase-8-mediated cleavage and activation of downstream effector caspases such as caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells as compared to control. Therefore, Pokemon might serve as an important mediator of crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that Pokemon could be an attractive therapeutic target gene for human cancer therapy. PMID:23874836

  12. Rme1 is necessary for Mi-1-mediated resistance and acts early in the resistance pathway.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Ilarduya, Oscar; Nombela, Gloria; Hwang, Chin-Feng; Williamson, Valerie M; Muñiz, Mariano; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2004-01-01

    The tomato gene Mi-1 confers resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), potato aphid, and whitefly. Using genetic screens, we have isolated a mutant, rme1 (resistance to Meloidogyne spp.), compromised in resistance to M. javanica and potato aphid. Here, we show that the rme1 mutant is also compromised in resistance to M. incognita, M. arenaria, and whitefly. In addition, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in leaves to express constitutive gain-of-function mutant Pto(L205D), we demonstrated that the rme1 mutation is not compromised in Pto-mediated hypersensitive response. Moreover, the mutation in rme1 does not result in increased virulence of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae or Mi-1-virulent M. incognita. Using a chimeric Mi-1 construct, Mi-DS4, which confers constitutive cell death phenotype and A. rhizogenes root transformation, we showed that the Mi-1-mediated cell death pathway is intact in this mutant. Our results indicate that Rme1 is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance and acts either at the same step in the signal transduction pathway as Mi-1 or upstream of Mi-1.

  13. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  14. 5-((3-Amidobenzyl)oxy)nicotinamides as Sirtuin 2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Wilson, Daniel J; More, Swati S; Xie, Jiashu; Chen, Liqiang

    2016-04-14

    Derived from our previously reported human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitors that were based on a 5-aminonaphthalen-1-yloxy nicotinamide core structure, 5-((3-amidobenzyl)oxy)nicotinamides offered excellent activity against SIRT2 and high isozyme selectivity over SIRT1 and SIRT3. Selected compounds also exhibited generally favorable in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. Kinetic studies revealed that a representative SIRT2 inhibitor acted competitively against both NAD(+) and the peptide substrate, an inhibitory modality that was supported by our computational study. More importantly, two selected compounds exhibited significant protection against α-synuclein aggregation-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, 5-((3-amidobenzyl)oxy)nicotinamides represent a new class of SIRT2 inhibitors that are attractive candidates for further lead optimization in our continued effort to explore selective inhibition of SIRT2 as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Intracortical pathways mediate nonlinear fast oscillation (>200 Hz) interactions within rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Staba, Richard J; Ard, Tyler D; Benison, Alexander M; Barth, Daniel S

    2005-05-01

    Whisker evoked fast oscillations (FOs; >200 Hz) within the rodent posteromedial barrel subfield are thought to reflect very rapid integration of multiwhisker stimuli, yet the pathways mediating FO interactions remain unclear and may involve interactions within thalamus and/or cortex. In the present study using anesthetized rats, a cortical incision was made between sites representing the stimulated whiskers to determine how intracortical networks contributed to patterns of FOs. With cortex intact, simultaneous stimulation of a pair of whiskers aligned in a row evoked supralinear responses between sites separated by several millimeters. In contrast, stimulation of a nonadjacent pair of whiskers within an arc evoked FOs with no evidence for nonlinear interactions. However, stimulation of an adjacent pair of whiskers in an arc did evoke supralinear responses. After a cortical cut, supralinear interactions associated with FOs within a row were lost. These data indicate a distinct bias for stronger long-range connectivity that extends along barrel rows and that horizontal intracortical pathways exclusively mediate FO-related integration of tactile information.

  16. Pathways to fraction learning: Numerical abilities mediate the relation between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ai; Resnick, Ilyse; Hansen, Nicole; Rodrigues, Jessica; Rinne, Luke; Jordan, Nancy C

    2016-12-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of number-related skills in the developmental relationship between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge using structural equation modeling. Fifth-grade numerical skills (i.e., whole number line estimation, non-symbolic proportional reasoning, multiplication, and long division skills) mapped onto two distinct factors: magnitude reasoning and calculation. Controlling for participants' (N=536) demographic characteristics, these two factors fully mediated relationships between third-grade general cognitive competencies (attentive behavior, verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities, and working memory) and sixth-grade fraction knowledge (concepts and procedures combined). However, specific developmental pathways differed by type of fraction knowledge. Magnitude reasoning ability fully mediated paths from all four cognitive competencies to knowledge of fraction concepts, whereas calculation ability fully mediated paths from attentive behavior and verbal ability to knowledge of fraction procedures (all with medium to large effect sizes). These findings suggest that there are partly overlapping, yet distinct, developmental pathways from cognitive competencies to general fraction knowledge, fraction concepts, and fraction procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleolus-derived mediators in oncogenic stress response and activation of p53-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2016-08-01

    Rapid growth and division of cells, including tumor ones, is correlated with intensive protein biosynthesis. The output of nucleoli, organelles where translational machineries are formed, depends on a rate of particular stages of ribosome production and on accessibility of elements crucial for their effective functioning, including substrates, enzymes as well as energy resources. Different factors that induce cellular stress also often lead to nucleolar dysfunction which results in ribosome biogenesis impairment. Such nucleolar disorders, called nucleolar or ribosomal stress, usually affect cellular functioning which in fact is a result of p53-dependent pathway activation, elicited as a response to stress. These pathways direct cells to new destinations such as cell cycle arrest, damage repair, differentiation, autophagy, programmed cell death or aging. In the case of impaired nucleolar functioning, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins mediate activation of the p53 pathways. They are also triggered as a response to oncogenic factor overexpression to protect tissues and organs against extensive proliferation of abnormal cells. Intentional impairment of any step of ribosome biosynthesis which would direct the cells to these destinations could be a strategy used in anticancer therapy. This review presents current knowledge on a nucleolus, mainly in relation to cancer biology, which is an important and extremely sensitive element of the mechanism participating in cellular stress reaction mediating activation of the p53 pathways in order to counteract stress effects, especially cancer development.

  18. Early Induction of NRF2 Antioxidant Pathway by RHBDF2 Mediates Rapid Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Farley, Michelle L.; Sundberg, John P.; Wiles, Michael V.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2017-01-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2cub/cub) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2cub/cub and Rhbdf2+/+ mice at 0h, 15 min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15 min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. PMID:28268192

  19. Early induction of NRF2 antioxidant pathway by RHBDF2 mediates rapid cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M; Stearns, Timothy M; Farley, Michelle L; Sundberg, John P; Wiles, Michael V; Shultz, Leonard D

    2017-04-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2 cub/cub ) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2 cub/cub and Rhbdf2 +/+ mice at 0h, 15min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Acetylase/Deacetylase Couple CREB-binding Protein/Sirtuin 1 Controls Hypoxia-inducible Factor 2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Min; Hogg, Richard T.; Li, Jiwen; Little, Bertis; Gerard, Robert D.; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are oxygen-sensitive transcription factors. HIF-1α plays a prominent role in hypoxic gene induction. HIF-2α target genes are more restricted but include erythropoietin (Epo), one of the most highly hypoxia-inducible genes in mammals. We previously reported that HIF-2α is acetylated during hypoxia but is rapidly deacetylated by the stress-responsive deacetylase Sirtuin 1. We now demonstrate that the lysine acetyltransferases cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are required for efficient Epo induction during hypoxia. However, despite close structural similarity, the roles of CBP and p300 differ in HIF signaling. CBP acetylates HIF-2α, is a major coactivator for HIF-2-mediated Epo induction, and is required for Sirt1 augmentation of HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia in Hep3B cells. In comparison, p300 is a major contributor for HIF-1 signaling as indicated by induction of Pgk1. Whereas CBP can bind with HIF-2α independent of the HIF-2α C-terminal activation domain via enzyme/substrate interactions, p300 only complexes with HIF-2α through the C-terminal activation domain. Maximal CBP/HIF-2 signaling requires intact CBP acetyltransferase activity in both Hep3B cells as well as in mice. PMID:22807441

  1. Potential mediating pathways through which sports participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J

    2010-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The participants were 450 undergraduate students. Measures assessed participants' involvement in university-run sports and other activities; frequency of physical activity; and perceived social support, self-esteem, depression, hopelessness, loneliness, and suicidal ideation. Regression analyses confirmed a path model and tested for mediation effects. Vigorous activity mediated relationships between sport participation and self-esteem and depression; and self-esteem and depression mediated the relationship between vigorous activity and suicidal ideation. Social support mediated relationships between sport participation and depression, hopelessness, and loneliness; and each of these risk factors partially mediated the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. However no variable fully mediated the relationship between sport participation and suicidal ideation. This study provides a foundation for research designed to examine pathways through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal behavior.

  2. Delineating the maladaptive pathways of child maltreatment: a mediated moderation analysis of the roles of self-perception and social support.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K

    2010-05-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self-perception (i.e., loneliness and self-esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0-6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6-8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self-esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self-esteem, and for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self-esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs.

  3. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self esteem, and, for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs. PMID:20423545

  4. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  5. Sirtuin1 and autophagy protect cells from fluoride-induced cell stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bartlett, John D

    2014-02-01

    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase functioning in the regulation of metabolism, cell survival and organismal lifespan. Active SIRT1 regulates autophagy during cell stress, including calorie restriction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that fluoride induces ER-stress in ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation, suggesting that ER-stress plays a role in dental fluorosis. However, the molecular mechanism of how cells respond to fluoride-induced cell stress is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that fluoride activates SIRT1 and initiates autophagy to protect cells from fluoride exposure. Fluoride treatment of ameloblast-derived cells (LS8) significantly increased Sirt1 expression and induced SIRT1 phosphorylation resulting in the augmentation of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. To demonstrate that fluoride exposure initiates autophagy, we characterized the expression of autophagy related genes (Atg); Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 and showed that both their transcript and protein levels were significantly increased following fluoride treatment. To confirm that SIRT1 plays a protective role in fluoride toxicity, we used resveratrol (RES) to augment SIRT1 activity in fluoride treated LS8 cells. RES increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased fluoride cytotoxicity. Rats treated with fluoride (0, 50, 100 and 125ppm) in drinking water for 6weeks had significantly elevated expression levels of Sirt1, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 in their maturation stage enamel organs. Increased protein levels of p-SIRT1, ATG5 and ATG8/LC3 were present in fluoride-treated rat maturation stage ameloblasts. Therefore, the SIRT1/autophagy pathway may play a critical role as a protective response to help prevent dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sirtuin1 and autophagy protect cells from fluoride-induced cell stress

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bartlett, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase functioning in the regulation of metabolism, cell survival and organismal lifespan. Active SIRT1 regulates autophagy during cell stress, including calorie restriction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation, suggesting that ER-stress plays a role in dental fluorosis. However, the molecular mechanism of how cells respond to fluoride-induced cell stress is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that fluoride activates SIRT1 and initiates autophagy to protect cells from fluoride exposure. Fluoride treatment of ameloblast-derived cells (LS8) significantly increased Sirt1 expression and induced SIRT1 phosphorylation resulting in the augmentation of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. To demonstrate that fluoride exposure initiates autophagy, we characterized the expression of autophagy related genes (Atg); Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 and showed that both their transcript and protein levels were significantly increased following fluoride treatment. To confirm that SIRT1 plays a protective role in fluoride toxicity, we used resveratrol (RES) to augmented SIRT1 activity in fluoride treated LS8 cells. RES increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased fluoride cytotoxicity. Rats treated with fluoride (0, 50 and 100 ppm) in drinking water for 6 weeks had significantly elevated expression levels of Sirt1, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 in their maturation stage enamel organs. Increased protein levels of p-SIRT1, ATG5 and ATG8/LC3 were present in fluoride-treated rat maturation stage ameloblasts. Therefore, the SIRT1/autophagy pathway may play a critical role as a protective response to help prevent dental fluorosis. PMID:24296261

  7. Over Expression of Wild Type or a Catalytically Dead Mutant of SIRTUIN 6 Does Not Influence NFκB Responses

    PubMed Central

    McKenary, Joanne; Hayes, Brian; Patel, Champa; Smith, Janet; Bridges, Angela; Fosberry, Andrew; Bhardwaja, Anshu; Mouzon, Bernadette; Chung, Chun-Wa; Barrett, Nathalie; Richmond, Nicola; Modha, Sundip; Solari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SIRT6 is involved in inflammation, aging and metabolism potentially by modulating the functions of both NFκB and HIF1α. Since it is possible to make small molecule activators and inhibitors of Sirtuins we wished to establish biochemical and cellular assays both to assist in drug discovery efforts and to validate whether SIRT6 represents a valid drug target for these indications. We confirmed in cellular assays that SIRT6 can deacetylate acetylated-histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Ac), however this deacetylase activity is unusually low in biochemical assays. In an effort to develop alternative assay formats we observed that SIRT6 overexpression had no influence on TNFα induced nuclear translocation of NFκB, nor did it have an effect on nuclear mobility of RelA/p65. In an effort to identify a gene expression profile that could be used to identify a SIRT6 readout we conducted genome-wide expression studies. We observed that overexpression of SIRT6 had little influence on NFκB-dependent genes, but overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant affected gene expression in developmental pathways. PMID:22792191

  8. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)*

    PubMed Central

    Harlan, Benjamin A.; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R.; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C.; Vargas, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in redox reactions and NAD+-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD+-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD+ as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1–7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD+ salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD+ from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1–2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD+ content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  9. 2',5'-Dihydroxychalcone-induced glutathione is mediated by oxidative stress and kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Remy; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Backos, Donald S; Franklin, Christopher C; McCord, Joe M; Day, Brian J

    2011-09-15

    Hydroxychalcones are naturally occurring compounds that continue to attract considerable interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. They have been reported to inhibit the synthesis of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and to induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1. This study examines the mechanisms by which 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone (2',5'-DHC) induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels using a cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by antioxidant-response elements (MCF-7/AREc32). The 2',5'-DHC-induced increase in cellular GSH levels was partially inhibited by the catalytic antioxidant MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+), suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the antioxidant adaptive response. 2',5'-DHC treatment induced phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which was also inhibited by MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+). These findings suggest a ROS-dependent activation of the AP-1 transcriptional response. However, whereas 2',5'-DHC triggered the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional response, cotreatment with MnTDE-1,3-IP(5+) did not decrease 2',5'-DHC-induced Nrf2/ARE activity, showing that this pathway is not dependent on ROS. Moreover, pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways showed a role for JNK and p38MAPK in mediating the 2',5'-DHC-induced Nrf2 response. These findings suggest that the 2',5'-DHC-induced increase in GSH levels results from a combination of ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways.

  11. Catabolite-mediated mutations in alternate toluene degradative pathways in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, M B; Phipps, D W; Ridgway, H F

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida 54g grew on mineral salts with toluene and exhibited catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) activity, indicating a meta pathway. After 10 to 15 days on toluene, nondegrading (Tol-) variants approached nearly 10% of total CFU. Auxotrophs were not detected among variants, suggesting selective loss of catabolic function(s). Variant formation was substrate dependent, since Tol- cells were observed on neither ethylbenzene, glucose, nor peptone-based media nor when toluene catabolism was suppressed by glucose. Unlike wild-type cells, variants did not grow on gasoline, toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, benzoate, or catechol, suggesting loss of meta pathway function. Catabolic and C23O activities were restored to variants via transfer of a 78-mDa TOL-like plasmid from a wild-type Tol+ donor. Tests for reversion of variants to Tol+ were uniformly negative, suggesting possible delection or excision of catabolic genes. Deletions were confirmed in some variants by failure to hybridize with a DNA probe specific for the xylE gene encoding C23O. Cells grown on benzoate remained Tol+ but were C23O- and contained a plasmid of reduced size or were plasmid free, suggesting an alternate chromosomal catabolic pathway, also defective in variants. Cells exposed to benzyl alcohol, the initial oxidation product of toluene, accumulated > 13% variants in 5 days, even when cell division was repressed by nitrogen deprivation to abrogate selection processes. No variants formed in identical ethylbenzene-exposed controls. The results suggest that benzyl alcohol mediates irreversible defects in both a plasmid-associated meta pathway and an alternate chromosomal pathway. PMID:7642499

  12. Sirtuin 7 promotes cellular survival following genomic stress by attenuation of DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, Shashi; Oddi, Vineesha; Ramakrishna, Gayatri, E-mail: gayatrirama1@gmail.com

    2015-02-01

    Maintaining the genomic integrity is a constant challenge in proliferating cells. Amongst various proteins involved in this process, Sirtuins play a key role in DNA damage repair mechanisms in yeast as well as mammals. In the present work we report the role of one of the least explored Sirtuin viz., SIRT7, under conditions of genomic stress when treated with doxorubicin. Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells to DNA damage induced cell death by doxorubicin. SIRT7 overexpression in NIH3T3 delayed cell cycle progression by causing delay in G1 to S transition. SIRT7 overexpressing cells when treated with low dose ofmore » doxorubicin (0.25 µM) showed delayed onset of senescence, lesser accumulation of DNA damage marker γH2AX and lowered levels of growth arrest markers viz., p53 and p21 when compared to doxorubicin treated control GFP expressing cells. Resistance to DNA damage following SIRT7 overexpression was also evident by EdU incorporation studies where cellular growth arrest was significantly delayed. When treated with higher dose of doxorubicin (>1 µM), SIRT7 conferred resistance to apoptosis by attenuating stress activated kinases (SAPK viz., p38 and JNK) and p53 response thereby shifting the cellular fate towards senescence. Interestingly, relocalization of SIRT7 from nucleolus to nucleoplasm together with its co-localization with SAPK was an important feature associated with DNA damage. SIRT7 mediated resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis and senescence was lost when p53 level was restored by nutlin treatment. Overall, we propose SIRT7 attenuates DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response thereby promoting cellular survival under conditions of genomic stress. - Highlights: • Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized cells to DNA damage induced apoptosis. • SIRT7 delayed onset of premature senescence by attenuating DNA damage response. • Overexpression of SIRT7 delayed cell cycle progression by delaying G1/S transition. • Upon DNA

  13. ATF3 mediates the inhibitory action of TNF-α on osteoblast differentiation through the JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Chul

    2018-05-15

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine, inhibits osteoblast differentiation under diverse inflammatory conditions. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein family of transcription factors, has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise interactions between ATF3 and the TNF-α signaling pathway in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. In this study, we examined the role of ATF3 in the TNF-α-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and investigated the signaling pathways involved. The treatment of cells with TNF-α downregulated osteogenic markers, but significantly upregulated the expression of Atf3. The inhibition of Atf3 by small interfering RNAs rescued osteogenesis, which was inhibited by TNF-α. Conversely, the enforced expression of Atf3 enhanced the TNF-α-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, as revealed by the measurement of osteogenic markers and alkaline phosphatase staining. Mechanistically, TNF-α-induced Atf3 expression was significantly suppressed by the inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Furthermore, the overexpression of Atf3 did not affect the rescue effect that inhibiting TNF-α expression using a JNK inhibitor had on alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. Taken together, these results indicate that ATF3 mediates the inhibitory action of TNF-α on osteoblast differentiation and that the TNF-α-activated JNK pathway is responsible for the induction of Atf3 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Host Type IA Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway Components in Invasin-Mediated Internalization of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Georgina C; Bhalla, Manmeet; Kean, Bernard; Thomas, Rowan; Ireton, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Many bacterial pathogens subvert mammalian type IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in order to induce their internalization into host cells. How PI3K promotes internalization is not well understood. Also unclear is whether type IA PI3K affects different pathogens through similar or distinct mechanisms. Here, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen to identify components of the type IA PI3K pathway involved in invasin-mediated entry of Yersinia enterocolitica, an enteropathogen that causes enteritis and lymphadenitis. The 69 genes targeted encode known upstream regulators or downstream effectors of PI3K. A similar RNAi screen was previously performed with the food-borne bacterium Listeria monocytogenes The results of the screen with Y. enterocolitica indicate that at least nine members of the PI3K pathway are needed for invasin-mediated entry. Several of these proteins, including centaurin-α1, Dock180, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Grp1, LL5α, LL5β, and PLD2 (phospholipase D2), were recruited to sites of entry. In addition, centaurin-α1, FAK, PLD2, and mTOR were required for remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during entry. Six of the human proteins affecting invasin-dependent internalization also promote InlB-mediated entry of L. monocytogenes Our results identify several host proteins that mediate invasin-induced effects on the actin cytoskeleton and indicate that a subset of PI3K pathway components promote internalization of both Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Two novel WD40 domain–containing proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, function in the retromer-mediated endosomal recycling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yufeng; Stefan, Christopher J.; Rue, Sarah M.; Teis, David; Emr, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Regulated secretion, nutrient uptake, and responses to extracellular signals depend on cell-surface proteins that are internalized and recycled back to the plasma membrane. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern membrane protein recycling to the cell surface are not fully known. Using a chemical-genetic screen in yeast, we show that the arginine transporter Can1 is recycled back to the cell surface via two independent pathways mediated by the sorting nexins Snx4/41/42 and the retromer complex, respectively. In addition, we identify two novel WD40-domain endosomal recycling proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, that function in the retromer pathway. Ere1 is required for Can1 recycling via the retromer-mediated pathway, but it is not required for the transport of other retromer cargoes, such as Vps10 and Ftr1. Biochemical studies reveal that Ere1 physically interacts with internalized Can1. Ere2 is present in a complex containing Ere1 on endosomes and functions as a regulator of Ere1. Taken together, our results suggest that Snx4/41/42 and the retromer comprise two independent pathways for the recycling of internalized cell-surface proteins. Moreover, a complex containing the two novel proteins Ere1 and Ere2 mediates cargo-specific recognition by the retromer pathway. PMID:21880895

  16. Carnosic acid prevents COL1A2 transcription through the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xue; Ding, Chunchun; Feng, Dongcheng; Li, Yang; Hu, Yan; Wang, Li; Gao, Dongyan; Tian, Xiaofeng; Yao, Jihong

    2018-01-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component in rosemary extract, has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. Smad3 acetylation can regulate the transcription of type I α2 collagen (COL1A2), which is the major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether CA inhibits COL1A2 transcription via the reduction of Smad3 acetylation against liver fibrosis. The results showed that CA treatment significantly suppressed COL1A2 transcription and markedly decreased the deposition of ECM induced by dimethylamine (DMN) in rats. Importantly, the suppression of COL1A2 transcription following CA treatment depended on the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the activation of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + (NAD + )-dependent deacetylase. SIRT1 siRNA increased the acetylation of Smad3 and blocked CA-down-regulated Smad3 deacetylation. Notably, CA-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα1) activation not only increased AMPKα1 phosphorylation but also increased SIRT1 expression, thus leading to a significant reduction in Smad3 acetylation. Furthermore, CA-mediated SIRT1 activation was inhibited by AMPKα1 siRNA. Collectively, CA can inhibit the transcription of COL1A2 through SIRT1-mediated Smad3 deacetylation, and the activation of SIRT1 by CA involves the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of the caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis as the primary entry pathway for aquareovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuxian; Guo, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Qingxiu; Fang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a member of the Aquareovirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is considered the most pathogenic aquareovirus. However, its productive viral entry pathways remain largely unclear. Using a combination of quantum dot (QD)-based live-virus tracking and biochemical assays, we found that extraction of cellular membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin strongly inhibited the internalization of GCRVs, and supplementation with cholesterol restored viral infection. In addition, the entry of the virus was restrained by genistein, an inhibitor known to block caveolar endocytosis. Subsequent real-time tracking experiments revealed that the QD-labeled GCRV particles were colocalized with caveolin-1, and transfection of cells with dominant-negative mutant (caveolin-1 Y14F) significantly reduced GCRV infection. In contrast, no effects on virus infection were detected when the clathrin-mediated endocytosis or the macropinocytosis inhibitors were used. Our results collectively suggest that aquareoviruses can use caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis as the primary entry pathway to initiate productive infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alpha-lipoic acid improves high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by modulating the transcription factors SREBP-1, FoxO1 and Nrf2 via the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Wang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Yuning; Li, Yan; Yao, Qing; Li, Jianning; Zhang, Qian; Gao, Yujing; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which alpha-lipoic acid supplementation has a protective effect upon nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in vivo and in vitro may lead to targets for preventing hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented with alpha-lipoic acid for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were incubated with normal medium, palmitate or alpha-lipoic acid. The lipid-lowering effects were measured. The protein expression and distribution were analyzed by Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. We found that alpha-lipoic acid enhanced sirtuin 1 deacetylase activity through liver kinase B1 and stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase. By activating the sirtuin 1/liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway, the translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 into the nucleus and forkhead box O1 into the cytoplasm was prevented. Alpha-lipoic acid increased adipose triacylglycerol lipase expression and decreased fatty acid synthase abundance. In in vivo and in vitro studies, alpha-lipoic acid also increased nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 levels and downstream target amounts via the sirtuin 1 pathway. Alpha-lipoic acid eventually reduced intrahepatic and serum triglyceride content. The protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid on hepatic steatosis appear to be associated with the transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, forkhead box O1 and NF-E2-related factor 2. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tyrosine kinase Btk regulates E-selectin-mediated integrin activation and neutrophil recruitment by controlling phospholipase C (PLC) gamma2 and PI3Kgamma pathways.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Helena; Stadtmann, Anika; Van Aken, Hugo; Hirsch, Emilio; Wang, Demin; Ley, Klaus; Zarbock, Alexander

    2010-04-15

    Selectins mediate leukocyte rolling, trigger beta(2)-integrin activation, and promote leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue. E-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) leads to activation of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway, which in turn activates the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). However, the signaling pathway linking Syk to integrin activation after E-selectin engagement is unknown. To identify the pathway, we used different gene-deficient mice in autoperfused flow chamber, intravital microscopy, peritonitis, and biochemical studies. We report here that the signaling pathway downstream of Syk divides into a phospholipase C (PLC) gamma2- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) gamma-dependent pathway. The Tec family kinase Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is required for activating both pathways, generating inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and inducing E-selectin-mediated slow rolling. Inhibition of this signal-transduction pathway diminished Galpha(i)-independent leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration through endothelial cells in inflamed postcapillary venules of the cremaster. Galpha(i)-independent neutrophil recruitment into the inflamed peritoneal cavity was reduced in Btk(-/-) and Plcg2(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate the functional importance of this newly identified signaling pathway mediated by E-selectin engagement.

  20. Sirtuin 1 and aging theory for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Conti, V; Corbi, G; Manzo, V; Pelaia, G; Filippelli, A; Vatrella, A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory syndrome that represents an increasing health problem, especially in the elderly population. Drug therapies are symptomatic and inadequate to contrast disease progression and mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for this condition in order to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Processes including oxidant/antioxidant, protease/antiprotease, and proliferative/antiproliferative balance and control of inflammatory response become dysfunctional during aging as well as in COPD. Recently it was suggested that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an antiaging molecule involved in the response to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, is implicated in both development and progression of COPD. The present review focuses on the involvement of SIRT1 in the regulation of redox state, inflammation, and premature senescence, all crucial characteristics of COPD phenotypes. Recent evidence corroborating the statement of the "aging theory for COPD" was also discussed.

  1. Endothelial sirtuin 1 deficiency perpetrates nephrosclerosis through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-14: relevance to fibrosis of vascular senescence.

    PubMed

    Vasko, Radovan; Xavier, Sandhya; Chen, Jun; Lin, Chi Hua Sarah; Ratliff, Brian; Rabadi, May; Maizel, Julien; Tanokuchi, Rina; Zhang, Frank; Cao, Jian; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) depletion in vascular endothelial cells mediates endothelial dysfunction and premature senescence in diverse cardiovascular and renal diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these pathologic effects remain unclear. Here, we examined the phenotype of a mouse model of vascular senescence created by genetically ablating exon 4 of Sirt1 in endothelial cells (Sirt1(endo-/-)). Under basal conditions, Sirt1(endo-/-) mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and angiogenesis, and fibrosis occurred spontaneously at low levels at an early age. In contrast, induction of nephrotoxic stress (acute and chronic folic acid-induced nephropathy) in Sirt1(endo-/-) mice resulted in robust acute renal functional deterioration followed by an exaggerated fibrotic response compared with control animals. Additional studies identified matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) as a target of SIRT1. In the kidneys of Sirt1(endo-/-) mice, impaired angiogenesis, reduced matrilytic activity, and retention of the profibrotic cleavage substrates tissue transglutaminase and endoglin accompanied MMP-14 suppression. Furthermore, restoration of MMP-14 expression in SIRT1-depeleted mice improved angiogenic and matrilytic functions of the endothelium, prevented renal dysfunction, and attenuated nephrosclerosis. Our findings establish a novel mechanistic molecular link between endothelial SIRT1 depletion, downregulation of MMP-14, and the development of nephrosclerosis.

  2. The Sirtuin 2 microtubule deacetylase is an abundant neuronal protein that accumulates in the aging CNS

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Michele M.; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Nobles, Johnathan; Wizeman, John W.; Amore, Allison M.; Quinti, Luisa; Chopra, Vanita; Hersch, Steven M.; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.

    2011-01-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of seven known mammalian protein deacetylases homologous to the yeast master lifespan regulator Sir2. In recent years, the sirtuin protein deacetylases have emerged as candidate therapeutic targets for many human diseases, including metabolic and age-dependent neurological disorders. In non-neuronal cells, SIRT2 has been shown to function as a tubulin deacetylase and a key regulator of cell division and differentiation. However, the distribution and function of the SIRT2 microtubule (MT) deacetylase in differentiated, postmitotic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we show abundant and preferential expression of specific isoforms of SIRT2 in the mammalian central nervous system and find that a previously uncharacterized form, SIRT2.3, exhibits age-dependent accumulation in the mouse brain and spinal cord. Further, our studies reveal that focal areas of endogenous SIRT2 expression correlate with reduced α-tubulin acetylation in primary mouse cortical neurons and suggest that the brain-enriched species of SIRT2 may function as the predominant MT deacetylases in mature neurons. Recent reports have demonstrated an association between impaired tubulin acetyltransferase activity and neurodegenerative disease; viewed in this light, our results showing age-dependent accumulation of the SIRT2 neuronal MT deacetylase in wild-type mice suggest a functional link between tubulin acetylation patterns and the aging brain. PMID:21791548

  3. Drinking to cope mediates the relationship between depression and alcohol risk: Different pathways for college and non-college young adults.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    It is well-established that drinking to cope with negative affective states mediates the relationship between depressed mood and alcohol risk outcomes among college students. Whether non-college emerging adults exhibit a similar pathway remains unknown. In the current study, we compared the mediating role of coping motives in the relationship between depressive symptoms and drinking risk outcomes (heavy episodic drinking and alcohol problems) in college and non-college emerging adult subgroups. Participants were three hundred forty-one community-recruited 18-25year olds reporting past month alcohol use. We used a structural equation modeling (SEM) for our primary mediation analysis and bias-corrected bootstrap resampling for testing the statistical significance of mediation. Participants averaged 20.8 (±1.97) years of age, 49% were female, 67.7% were White, 34.6% were college students, and 65.4% were non-college emerging adults. College and non-college emerging adults reported similar levels of drinking, alcohol problems, and drinking to cope with negative affect, and drinking to cope was associated with alcohol-related problems in both samples. However, while drinking to cope mediated the relationship between depressed mood and alcohol problems among students, it did not mediate the pathway among non-college emerging adults. These findings caution against extending college-based findings to non-college populations and underscore the need to better understand the role of coping motives and other intervening factors in pathways linking depressed mood and alcohol-related risk in non-college emerging adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sirtuin 1 stimulates the proliferation and the expression of glycolysis genes in pancreatic neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Gill, Anthony; Arshi, Mehreen; Warmerdam, Max; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Eling, Nils; Lie, Triyana; Kuster, Evelyne; Camargo, Simone; Biankin, Andrew V; Wu, Jianmin; Rooman, Ilse

    2016-11-15

    Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of neoplasia and tumor growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase of multiple targets including metabolic regulators such as p53. SIRT1 regulates metaplasia in the pancreas. Nevertheless, it is unclear if SIRT1 affects the development of neoplastic lesions and whether metabolic gene expression is altered.To assess neoplastic lesion development, mice with a pancreas-specific loss of Sirt1 (Pdx1-Cre;Sirt1-lox) were bred into a KrasG12D mutant background (KC) that predisposes to the development of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Similar grade PanIN lesions developed in KC and KC;Sirt1-lox mice but specifically early mucinous PanINs occupied 40% less area in the KC;Sirt1-lox line, attributed to reduced proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins in the glycolysis pathway, such as GLUT1 and GAPDH.The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 on proliferation and glycolysis gene expression was confirmed in a human PDAC cell line. In resected PDAC samples, higher proliferation and expression of glycolysis genes correlated with poor patient survival. SIRT1 expression per se was not prognostic but low expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 2 (CCAR2), a reported SIRT1 inhibitor, corresponded to poor patient survival.These findings open perspectives for novel targeted therapies in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Sirtuin1 protects endothelial Caveolin-1 expression and preserves endothelial function via suppressing miR-204 and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kassan, M; Vikram, A; Kim, Y R; Li, Q; Kassan, A; Patel, H H; Kumar, S; Gabani, M; Liu, J; Jacobs, J S; Irani, K

    2017-02-09

    Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) is a class III histone deacetylase that regulates a variety of physiological processes, including endothelial function. Caveolin1 (Cav1) is also an important determinant of endothelial function. We asked if Sirt1 governs endothelial Cav1 and endothelial function by regulating miR-204 expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Knockdown of Sirt1 in endothelial cells, and in vivo deletion of endothelial Sirt1, induced endothelial ER stress and miR-204 expression, reduced Cav1, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. All of these effects were reversed by a miR-204 inhibitor (miR-204 I) or with overexpression of Cav1. A miR-204 mimic (miR-204 M) decreased Cav1 in endothelial cells. In addition, high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induced vascular miR-204 and reduced endothelial Cav1. MiR-204-I protected against HFD-induced downregulation of endothelial Cav1. Moreover, pharmacologic induction of ER stress with tunicamycin downregulated endothelial Cav1 and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation that was rescued by overexpressing Cav1. In conclusion, Sirt1 preserves Cav1-dependent endothelial function by mitigating miR-204-mediated vascular ER stress.

  6. Positive and negative affect as predictors of urge to smoke: temporal factors and mediational pathways.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Greenberg, Jodie B; Trujillo, Michael A; Ameringer, Katherine J; Lisha, Nadra E; Pang, Raina D; Monterosso, John

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating interrelations between prior affective experience, current affective state, and acute urge to smoke could inform affective models of addiction motivation and smoking cessation treatment development. This study tested the hypothesis that prior levels of positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect predict current smoking urge via a mediational pathway involving current state affect. We also explored if tobacco deprivation moderated affect-urge relations and compared the effects of PA and NA on smoking urge to one another. At a baseline session, smokers reported affect experienced over the preceding few weeks. At a subsequent experimental session, participants were randomly assigned to 12-hr tobacco deprived (n = 51) or nondeprived (n = 69) conditions and reported state affect and current urge. Results revealed a mediational pathway whereby prior NA reported at baseline predicted state NA at the experimental session, which in turn predicted current urge. This mediational pathway was found primarily for an urge subtype indicative of urgent need to smoke and desire to smoke for NA relief, was stronger in the deprived (vs. nondeprived) condition, and remained significant after controlling for PA. Prior PA and current state PA were inversely associated with current urge; however, these associations were eliminated after controlling for NA. These results cohere with negative reinforcement models of addiction and with prior research and suggest that: (a) NA plays a stronger role in smoking motivation than PA; (b) state affect is an important mechanism linking prior affective experience to current urge; and (c) affect management interventions may attenuate smoking urge in individuals with a history of affective disturbance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii). These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO) encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular transport shows that 40% of Y

  8. The tumor suppressor gene WWOX links the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in HTLV-I Tax-mediated tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jing; Qu, Zhaoxia; Yan, Pengrong; Ishikawa, Chie; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Rabson, Arnold B.

    2011-01-01

    Both the canonical and noncanonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways have been linked to tumorigenesis. However, it remains unknown whether and how the 2 signaling pathways cooperate during tumorigenesis. We report that inhibition of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway significantly delays tumorigenesis mediated by the viral oncoprotein Tax. One function of noncanonical NF-κB activation was to repress expression of the WWOX tumor suppressor gene. Notably, WWOX specifically inhibited Tax-induced activation of the canonical, but not the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Mechanistic studies indicated that WWOX blocked Tax-induced inhibitors of κB kinaseα (IKKα) recruitment to RelA and subsequent RelA phosphorylation at S536. In contrast, WWOX Y33R, a mutant unable to block the IKKα recruitment and RelA phosphorylation, lost the ability to inhibit Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. These data provide one important mechanism by which Tax coordinates the 2 NF-κB pathways for tumorigenesis. These data also suggest a novel role of WWOX in NF-κB regulation and viral tumorigenesis. PMID:21115974

  9. Downregulation of toll-like receptor-mediated signalling pathways in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Sinon, Suraya H; Rich, Alison M; Parachuru, Venkata P B; Firth, Fiona A; Milne, Trudy; Seymour, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP). Initially, immunohistochemistry was used to determine TLR expression in 12 formalin-fixed archival OLP tissues with 12 non-specifically inflamed oral tissues as controls. RNA was isolated from further fresh samples of OLP and non-specifically inflamed oral tissue controls (n = 6 for both groups) and used in qRT(2)-PCR focused arrays to determine the expression of TLRs and associated signalling pathway genes. Genes with a statistical significance of ±two-fold regulation (FR) and a P-value < 0.05 were considered as significantly regulated. Significantly more TLR4(+) cells were present in the inflammatory infiltrate in OLP compared with the control tissues (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the numbers of TLR2(+) and TLR8(+) cells between the groups. TLR3 was significantly downregulated in OLP (P < 0.01). TLR8 was upregulated in OLP, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. The TLR-mediated signalling-associated protein genes MyD88 and TIRAP were significantly downregulated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), as were IRAK1 (P < 0.05), MAPK8 (P < 0.01), MAP3K1 (P < 0.05), MAP4K4 (P < 0.05), REL (P < 0.01) and RELA (P < 0.01). Stress proteins HMGB1 and the heat shock protein D1 were significantly downregulated in OLP (P < 0.01). These findings suggest a downregulation of TLR-mediated signalling pathways in OLP lesions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The “target of rapamycin” (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens. PMID:27043527

  11. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  12. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  13. Anti-apoptotic effect of heat shock protein 90 on hypoxia-mediated cardiomyocyte damage is mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yizhi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yuan, Zhiqiang

    2009-09-01

    1. Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to cardiac dysfunction following trauma, shock and burn injury. There is evidence that heat shock protein (HSP) 90 is anti-apoptotic in cardiomyocytes subjected to a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Because HSP90 acts as an upstream regulator of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt survival pathway during cellular stress, we hypothesized that HSP90 exerts a cardioprotective effect via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway. 2. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to normoxia or hypoxia in the absence or presence of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (1 μg/mL). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was assessed by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) staining and caspase 3 activity. Expression of HSP90, Akt, Bad and cytochrome c release was determined by western blot analysis. 3. Following exposure of cells to hypoxia, HSP90 was markedly elevated in a time-dependent manner, reaching a peak at 6 h (eightfold increase). Geldanamycin significantly increased hypoxia-induced release of LDH by 114%, the percentage of apoptotic cardiomyocytes by 102% and caspase 3 activity by 78%. Pretreatment of cells with geldanamycin also suppressed phosphorylation of both Akt and its downstream target Bad, but promoted the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. 4. In conclusion, HSP90 activity is enhanced in cardiomyocytes following hypoxic insult. The anti-apoptotic effect of HSP90 on cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia is mediated, at least in part, by the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Key words: apoptosis, cardiomyocyte, heart failure, heat shock protein 90, hypoxia, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt.

  14. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  15. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Division of Radioisotope Research, Department of Research Support, Research Promotion Project, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593; Hamanaka, Ryoji

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Realmore » time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.« less

  16. A silver lining for 24-hydroxycholesterol in Alzheimer's disease: The involvement of the neuroprotective enzyme sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Testa, Gabriella; Staurenghi, Erica; Giannelli, Serena; Gargiulo, Simona; Guglielmotto, Michela; Tabaton, Massimo; Tamagno, Elena; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella

    2018-05-22

    It is now established that cholesterol oxidation products (oxysterols) are involved in several events underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Of note, certain oxysterols cause neuron dysfunction and degeneration but, recently, some of them have been shown also to have neuroprotective effects. The present study, which aimed to understand the potential effects of 24-hydroxycholesterol (24-OH) against the intraneuronal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, stressed these latter effects. A beneficial effect of 24-OH was demonstrated in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells, and is due to its ability to modulate the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which contributes to preventing the neurotoxic accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Unlike 24-OH, 7-ketocholesterol (7-K) did not modulate the SIRT1-dependent neuroprotective pathway. To confirm the neuroprotective role of 24-OH, in vivo experiments were run on mice that express human tau without spontaneously developing tau pathology (hTau mice), by means of the intracerebroventricular injection of 24-OH. 24-OH, unlike 7-K, was found to completely prevent the hyperphosphorylation of tau induced by amyloid β monomers. These data highlight the importance of preventing the loss of 24-OH in the brain, and of maintaining high levels of the enzyme SIRT1, in order to counteract neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The role of RKIP mediated ERK pathway in hippocampus neurons injured by electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hong-Yan; Wang, De-Wen; Peng, Rui-Yun; Wang, Shui-Ming; Gao, Ya-Bing; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Xiao, Feng-Jun

    2008-07-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on RKIP and phosphorylated ERK in primary cultured hippocampus neurons. The inhibitor of MEK U0126 was applied to investigate the role of RKIP mediated ERK pathway in radiation injury. Primary hippocampus neurons were cultured in vitro. X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP were taken as radiation source respectively to establish three cell models exposed to electromagnetic radiation. RKIP and phosphorylated ERK were measured by immunofluorescent labelling and laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis and death fraction of the cells were detected by Annexin V-PI double labelling and flow cytometry. After three kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the expression of RKIP in hippocampus neurons decreased but the expression of phosphorylated ERK increased, and its nuclear translocation occurred. No significant differences were seen between radiation groups. Apoptosis and death fraction of the neurons in U0126 pretreatment groups was significantly lower than that in radiation groups but they were still higher than those in sham-radiation group. The excessive activation of RKIP mediated ERK pathway is one of the important mechanisms for the apoptosis and death of hippocampus neurons induced by electromagnetic radiation. U0126 have some protective effects on radiation injury.

  18. Multiple cytoskeletal pathways and PI3K signaling mediate CDC-42-induced neuronal protrusion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Alan, Jamie K; Struckhoff, Eric C; Lundquist, Erik A

    2013-01-01

    Rho GTPases are key regulators of cellular protrusion and are involved in many developmental events including axon guidance during nervous system development. Rho GTPase pathways display functional redundancy in developmental events, including axon guidance. Therefore, their roles can often be masked when using simple loss-of-function genetic approaches. As a complement to loss-of-function genetics, we constructed a constitutively activated CDC-42(G12V) expressed in C. elegans neurons. CDC-42(G12V) drove the formation of ectopic lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions in the PDE neurons, which resembled protrusions normally found on migrating growth cones of axons. We then used a candidate gene approach to identify molecules that mediate CDC-42(G12V)-induced ectopic protrusions by determining if loss of function of the genes could suppress CDC-42(G12V). Using this approach, we identified 3 cytoskeletal pathways previously implicated in axon guidance, the Arp2/3 complex, UNC-115/abLIM, and UNC-43/Ena. We also identified the Nck-interacting kinase MIG-15/NIK and p21-activated kinases (PAKs), also implicated in axon guidance. Finally, PI3K signaling was required, specifically the Rictor/mTORC2 branch but not the mTORC1 branch that has been implicated in other aspects of PI3K signaling including stress and aging. Our results indicate that multiple pathways can mediate CDC-42-induced neuronal protrusions that might be relevant to growth cone protrusions during axon pathfinding. Each of these pathways involves Rac GTPases, which might serve to integrate the pathways and coordinate the multiple CDC-42 pathways. These pathways might be relevant to developmental events such as axon pathfinding as well as disease states such as metastatic melanoma.

  19. Multiple cytoskeletal pathways and PI3K signaling mediate CDC-42-induced neuronal protrusion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Jamie K; Struckhoff, Eric C; Lundquist, Erik A

    2013-01-01

    Rho GTPases are key regulators of cellular protrusion and are involved in many developmental events including axon guidance during nervous system development. Rho GTPase pathways display functional redundancy in developmental events, including axon guidance. Therefore, their roles can often be masked when using simple loss-of-function genetic approaches. As a complement to loss-of-function genetics, we constructed a constitutively activated CDC-42(G12V) expressed in C. elegans neurons. CDC-42(G12V) drove the formation of ectopic lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions in the PDE neurons, which resembled protrusions normally found on migrating growth cones of axons. We then used a candidate gene approach to identify molecules that mediate CDC-42(G12V)-induced ectopic protrusions by determining if loss of function of the genes could suppress CDC-42(G12V). Using this approach, we identified 3 cytoskeletal pathways previously implicated in axon guidance, the Arp2/3 complex, UNC-115/abLIM, and UNC-43/Ena. We also identified the Nck-interacting kinase MIG-15/NIK and p21-activated kinases (PAKs), also implicated in axon guidance. Finally, PI3K signaling was required, specifically the Rictor/mTORC2 branch but not the mTORC1 branch that has been implicated in other aspects of PI3K signaling including stress and aging. Our results indicate that multiple pathways can mediate CDC-42-induced neuronal protrusions that might be relevant to growth cone protrusions during axon pathfinding. Each of these pathways involves Rac GTPases, which might serve to integrate the pathways and coordinate the multiple CDC-42 pathways. These pathways might be relevant to developmental events such as axon pathfinding as well as disease states such as metastatic melanoma. PMID:24149939

  20. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  1. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates Bmp2-mediated differentiation of dental follicle cells

    PubMed Central

    Silvério, Karina G.; Davidson, Kathryn C.; James, Richard G.; Adams, Allison M.; Foster, Brian L.; Nociti, Francisco H.; Somermam, Martha J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bmp2-induced osteogenic differentiation has been shown to occur through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas factors promoting canonical Wnt signaling in cementoblasts inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether putative precursor cells of cementoblasts, dental follicle cells (murine SVF4 cells), when stimulated with Bmp2, would exhibit changes in genes/proteins associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Materials and Methods SVF4 cells were stimulated with Bmp2, and the following assays were carried out: 1) Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation assessed by western blot, β-catenin/TCF reporter assay, and gene expression of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (Lef1), transcription factor 7 (Tcf7), Wnt inhibitor factor 1 (Wif1) and Axin2, and 2) cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Ocn) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) by qPCR after Wnt3a treatment and knockdown of β-catenin. Results Wnt3a induced β-catenin nuclear translocation and upregulated the transcriptional activity of a canonical Wnt-responsive reporter, suggesting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway functions in SVF4 cells. Activation of Wnt signaling with Wnt3a suppressed Bmp2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast maturation of SVF4 cells. However, β-catenin knockdown showed that Bmp2-induced expression of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation markers requires endogenous β-catenin. Wnt3a down-regulated transcripts for Runx2, Alp and Ocn in SVF4 cells compared to untreated cells. In contrast, Bmp2 induction of Bsp transcripts occurred independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Conclusions These data suggest that stabilization of β-catenin by Wnt-3a treatment inhibits Bmp2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation in SVF4

  2. Emergency room nurses' pathway to turnover intention: a moderated serial mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, Luk; Thoelen, Tom; Adriaenssens, Jef; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the quality of the work environment, job characteristics, demographic characteristics and a pathway of job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among nurses in emergency departments and perform subgroup analyses. Turnover intention among nurses is high. Multiple causes have been described, mostly in large studies of nurses working on general wards, often without considering complementarity of conceptual models and showing scant interest in the consistency of associations across subgroups of nurses. Cross-sectional multicentre survey. Convenience sample of 294 nurses in 11 Belgian emergency departments during 2014-2015. Indirect effects in the form of mediation and serial mediation were estimated to assess the association between work environment (Magnet model), job characteristics (Job Demand Control Support model) and turnover intention via job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Consistency of these indirect effects across subgroups of nurses was examined using moderated mediation analysis (conditional indirect effects). Several Magnet and Job Demand Control Support dimensions were related to turnover intention, either via job dissatisfaction (mediation) or via job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion (serial mediation). In the case of social support from supervisor, these indirect effects were only significant for female nurses, among whom turnover intention was higher. Last, nurses with more years of experience were less likely to indicate turnover intention. To maximize prevention of turnover intention at emergency departments, interventions could target early career nurses, work environment and job characteristics. Female nurses in particular may also benefit from improved social support from their supervisor. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying; Cai, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs.

  4. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J.; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying

    2015-01-01

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs. PMID:25761881

  5. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate-mediated neurotensin release via protein kinase C-delta downstream of the Rho/ROK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; O'Connor, Kathleen L; Greeley, George H; Blackshear, Perry J; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2005-03-04

    Myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) is a cellular substrate for protein kinase C (PKC). Recently, we have shown that PKC isoforms-alpha and -delta, as well as the Rho/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway, play a role in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-mediated secretion of the gut peptide neurotensin (NT) in the BON human endocrine cell line. Here, we demonstrate that activation of MARCKS protein is important for PMA- and bombesin (BBS)-mediated NT secretion in BON cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) to MARCKS significantly inhibited, whereas overexpression of wild-type MARCKS significantly increased PMA-mediated NT secretion. Endogenous MARCKS and green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type MARCKS were translocated from membrane to cytosol upon PMA treatment, further confirming MARCKS activation. MARCKS phosphorylation was inhibited by PKC-delta siRNA, ROKalpha siRNA, and C3 toxin (a Rho protein inhibitor), suggesting that the PKC-delta and the Rho/ROK pathways are necessary for MARCKS activation. The phosphorylation of PKC-delta was inhibited by C3 toxin, demonstrating that the role of MARCKS in NT secretion was regulated by PKC-delta downstream of the Rho/ROK pathway. BON cell clones stably transfected with the receptor for gastrin releasing peptide, a physiologic stimulant of NT, and treated with BBS, the amphibian equivalent of gastrin releasing peptide, demonstrated a similar MARCKS phosphorylation as noted with PMA. BBS-mediated NT secretion was attenuated by MARCKS siRNA. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for novel signaling pathways, including the sequential regulation of MARCKS activity by Rho/ROK and PKC-delta proteins, in stimulated gut peptide secretion.

  6. The Alternative Epac/cAMP Pathway and the MAPK Pathway Mediate hCG Induction of Leptin in Placental Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maymó, Julieta Lorena; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Maskin, Bernardo; Dueñas, José Luis; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Sánchez Margalet, Víctor; Varone, Cecilia Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy, particularly in the placenta, where it works as an autocrine hormone. In this work, we demonstrated that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) added to JEG-3 cell line or to placental explants induces endogenous leptin expression. We also found that hCG increased cAMP intracellular levels in BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated cAMP response element (CRE) activity and the cotransfection with an expression plasmid of a dominant negative mutant of CREB caused a significant inhibition of hCG stimulation of leptin promoter activity. These results demonstrate that hCG indeed activates cAMP/PKA pathway, and that this pathway is involved in leptin expression. Nevertheless, we found leptin induction by hCG is dependent on cAMP levels. Treatment with (Bu)2cAMP in combination with low and non stimulatory hCG concentrations led to an increase in leptin expression, whereas stimulatory concentrations showed the opposite effect. We found that specific PKA inhibition by H89 caused a significant increase of hCG leptin induction, suggesting that probably high cAMP levels might inhibit hCG effect. It was found that hCG enhancement of leptin mRNA expression involved the MAPK pathway. In this work, we demonstrated that hCG leptin induction through the MAPK signaling pathway is inhibited by PKA. We observed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased when hCG treatment was combined with H89. In view of these results, the involvement of the alternative cAMP/Epac signaling pathway was studied. We observed that a cAMP analogue that specifically activates Epac (CPT-OMe) stimulated leptin expression by hCG. In addition, the overexpression of Epac and Rap1 proteins increased leptin promoter activity and enhanced hCG. In conclusion, we provide evidence suggesting that hCG induction of leptin gene expression in placenta is mediated not only by activation of the MAPK signaling pathway but also by the

  7. The olfactory pathway mediates sheltering behavior of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to conspecific urine signals.

    PubMed

    Horner, Amy J; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2008-03-01

    The "noses" of diverse taxa are organized into different subsystems whose functions are often not well understood. The "nose" of decapod crustaceans is organized into two parallel pathways that originate in different populations of antennular sensilla and project to specific neuropils in the brain-the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway and the non-aesthetasc/lateral antennular neuropil pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of these pathways in mediating shelter selection of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in response to conspecific urine signals. We compared the behavior of ablated animals and intact controls. Our results show that control and non-aesthetasc ablated lobsters have a significant overall preference for shelters emanating urine over control shelters. Thus the non-aesthetasc pathway does not play a critical role in shelter selection. In contrast, spiny lobsters with aesthetascs ablated did not show a preference for either shelter, suggesting that the aesthetasc/olfactory pathway is important for processing social odors. Our results show a difference in the function of these dual chemosensory pathways in responding to social cues, with the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway playing a major role. We discuss our results in the context of why the noses of many animals contain multiple parallel chemosensory systems.

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Weijie; Xie, Xiao; Du, Miying; Bu, Yongjun; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xu, Fangyi; Xiang, Siyun; Zhang, Piwei; Chen, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    Scope Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Methods and Results Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2. Conclusion The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD. PMID:28814987

  9. Multiple Transduction Pathways Mediate Thyrotropin Receptor Signaling in Preosteoblast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Alisa; Neumann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the TSH receptor (TSHR) couples to a number of different signaling pathways, although the Gs-cAMP pathway has been considered primary. Here, we measured the effects of TSH on bone marker mRNA and protein expression in preosteoblast-like U2OS cells stably expressing TSHRs. We determined which signaling cascades are involved in the regulation of IL-11, osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL). We demonstrated that TSH-induced up-regulation of IL-11 is primarily mediated via the Gs pathway as IL-11 was up-regulated by forskolin (FSK), an adenylyl cyclase activator, and inhibited by protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 and by silencing of Gαs by small interfering RNA. OPN levels were not affected by FSK, but its up-regulation was inhibited by TSHR/Gi-uncoupling by pertussis toxin. Pertussis toxin decreased p38 MAPK kinase phosphorylation, and a p38 inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown of p38α inhibited OPN induction by TSH. Up-regulation of ALPL expression required high doses of TSH (EC50 = 395nM), whereas low doses (EC50 = 19nM) were inhibitory. FSK-stimulated cAMP production decreased basal ALPL expression, whereas protein kinase A inhibition by H-89 and silencing of Gαs increased basal levels of ALPL. Knockdown of Gαq/11 and a protein kinase C inhibitor decreased TSH-stimulated up-regulation of ALPL, whereas a protein kinase C activator increased ALPL levels. A MAPK inhibitor and silencing of ERK1/2 inhibited TSH-stimulated ALPL expression. We conclude that TSH regulates expression of different bone markers via distinct signaling pathways. PMID:26950201

  10. The cGMP/PKG pathway as a common mediator of cardioprotection: translatability and mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Inserte, Javier; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte cell death occurring during myocardial reperfusion (reperfusion injury) contributes to final infarct size after transient coronary occlusion. Different interrelated mechanisms of reperfusion injury have been identified, including alterations in cytosolic Ca2+ handling, sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated Ca2+ oscillations and hypercontracture, proteolysis secondary to calpain activation and mitochondrial permeability transition. All these mechanisms occur during the initial minutes of reperfusion and are inhibited by intracellular acidosis. The cGMP/PKG pathway modulates the rate of recovery of intracellular pH, but has also direct effect on Ca2+ oscillations and mitochondrial permeability transition. The cGMP/PKG pathway is depressed in cardiomyocytes by ischaemia/reperfusion and preserved by ischaemic postconditioning, which importantly contributes to postconditioning protection. The present article reviews the mechanisms and consequences of the effect of ischaemic postconditioning on the cGMP/PKG pathway, the different pharmacological strategies aimed to stimulate it during myocardial reperfusion and the evidence, limitations and promise of translation of these strategies to the clinical practice. Overall, the preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that modulation of the cGMP/PKG pathway may be a therapeutic target in the context of myocardial infarction. PMID:25297462

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals diverse proline hydroxylation-mediated oxygen-sensing cellular pathways in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Gao, Yankun; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Proline hydroxylation is a critical cellular mechanism regulating oxygen-response pathways in tumor initiation and progression. Yet, its substrate diversity and functions remain largely unknown. Here, we report a system-wide analysis to characterize proline hydroxylation substrates in cancer cells using an immunoaffinity-purification assisted proteomics strategy. We identified 562 sites from 272 proteins in HeLa cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that proline hydroxylation substrates are significantly enriched with mRNA processing and stress-response cellular pathways with canonical and diverse flanking sequence motifs. Structural analysis indicates a significant enrichment of proline hydroxylation participating in the secondary structure of substrate proteins. Our study identified and validated Brd4, a key transcription factor, as a novel proline hydroxylation substrate. Functional analysis showed that the inhibition of proline hydroxylation pathway significantly reduced the proline hydroxylation abundance on Brd4 and affected Brd4-mediated transcriptional activity as well as cell proliferation in AML leukemia cells. Taken together, our study identified a broad regulatory role of proline hydroxylation in cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and revealed potentially new targets that dynamically respond to hypoxia microenvironment in tumor cells. PMID:27764789

  12. Selenium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Halogenated Nucleosides and its Relevance to the DNA Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Santanu; Manna, Debasish; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-08-03

    Halogenated nucleosides can be incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of replicating cells and therefore are commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues. Dehalogenation of these modified nucleosides is one of the key pathways involved in DNA repair mediated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase. Herein, we report the first example of a selenium-mediated dehalogenation of halogenated nucleosides. We also show that the mechanism for the debromination is remarkably different from that of deiodination and that the presence of a ribose or deoxyribose moiety in the nucleosides facilitates the deiodination. The results described herein should help in understanding the metabolism of halogenated nucleosides in DNA and RNA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Anzilotti, Serenella

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our resultsmore » revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. - Highlights: • Resveratrol via SIRT1/c-Jun downregulates REST mRNA and protein in SH-SY5Y cells. • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 is

  14. Adipose tissue NAD+-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases -important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pirinen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD + /NADH redox balance and NAD + is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD + homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD + pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Rho/ROCK and p38 MAP kinase pathways in transforming growth factor-beta-mediated Smad-dependent growth inhibition of human breast carcinoma cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kamaraju, Anil K; Roberts, Anita B

    2005-01-14

    TGF-beta is a multifunctional cytokine known to exert its biological effects through a variety of signaling pathways of which Smad signaling is considered to be the main mediator. At present, the Smad-independent pathways, their interactions with each other, and their roles in TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibitory effects are not well understood. To address these questions, we have utilized a human breast cancer cell line MCF10CA1h and demonstrate that p38 MAP kinase and Rho/ROCK pathways together with Smad2 and Smad3 are necessary for TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition of this cell line. We show that Smad2/3 are indispensable for TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition, and that both p38 and Rho/ROCK pathways affect the linker region phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Further, by using Smad3 mutated at the putative phosphorylation sites in the linker region, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at Ser203 and Ser207 residues is required for the full transactivation potential of Smad3, and that these residues are targets of the p38 and Rho/ROCK pathways. We demonstrate that activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway is necessary for the full transcriptional activation potential of Smad2/Smad3 by TGF-beta, whereas activity of Rho/ROCK is necessary for both down-regulation of c-Myc protein and up-regulation of p21waf1 protein, directly interfering with p21waf1 transcription. Our results not only implicate Rho/ROCK and p38 MAPK pathways as necessary for TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition, but also demonstrate their individual contributions and the basis for their cooperation with each other.

  16. Bit-1 Mediates Integrin-dependent Cell Survival through Activation of the NFκB Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Grundl, Melanie; Leychenko, Anna; Reiter, Silke; Young-Robbins, Shirley S.; Sulzmaier, Florian J.; Caliva, Maisel J.; Ramos, Joe W.; Matter, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of properly regulated cell death and cell survival pathways can contribute to the development of cancer and cancer metastasis. Cell survival signals are modulated by many different receptors, including integrins. Bit-1 is an effector of anoikis (cell death due to loss of attachment) in suspended cells. The anoikis function of Bit-1 can be counteracted by integrin-mediated cell attachment. Here, we explored integrin regulation of Bit-1 in adherent cells. We show that knockdown of endogenous Bit-1 in adherent cells decreased cell survival and re-expression of Bit-1 abrogated this effect. Furthermore, reduction of Bit-1 promoted both staurosporine and serum-deprivation induced apoptosis. Indeed knockdown of Bit-1 in these cells led to increased apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activation and positive TUNEL staining. Bit-1 expression protected cells from apoptosis by increasing phospho-IκB levels and subsequently bcl-2 gene transcription. Protection from apoptosis under serum-free conditions correlated with bcl-2 transcription and Bcl-2 protein expression. Finally, Bit-1-mediated regulation of bcl-2 was dependent on focal adhesion kinase, PI3K, and AKT. Thus, we have elucidated an integrin-controlled pathway in which Bit-1 is, in part, responsible for the survival effects of cell-ECM interactions. PMID:21383007

  17. A Buoyancy-Based Screen of Drosophila Larvae for Fat-Storage Mutants Reveals a Role for Sir2 in Coupling Fat Storage to Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Tânia; Van Gilst, Marc R.; Hariharan, Iswar K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying mutant Drosophila larvae with increased levels of stored fat. Using this approach, we have identified 66 genes that when mutated increase organismal fat levels. Among these was a sirtuin family member, Sir2. Sirtuins regulate the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids by deacetylating key regulatory proteins. However, since mammalian sirtuins function in many tissues in different ways, it has been difficult to define their role in energy homeostasis accurately under normal feeding conditions. We show that knockdown of Sir2 in the larval fat body results in increased fat levels. Moreover, using genetic mosaics, we demonstrate that Sir2 restricts fat accumulation in individual cells of the fat body in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistent with this function, changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in Sir2 mutants point to a shift away from catabolism. Surprisingly, although Sir2 is typically upregulated under conditions of starvation, Sir2 mutant larvae survive better than wild type under conditions of amino-acid starvation as long as sugars are provided. Our findings point to a Sir2-mediated pathway that activates a catabolic response to amino-acid starvation irrespective of the sugar content of the diet. PMID:21085633

  18. A novel MVA-mediated pathway for isoprene production in engineered E. coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianming; Nie, Qingjuan; Liu, Hui; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2016-01-20

    To deal with the increasingly severe energy crisis and environmental consequences, biofuels and biochemicals generated from renewable resources could serve as a promising alternative for replacing petroleum as a source of fuel and chemicals, among which isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) in particular is of great significance in that it is an important platform chemical, which has been used in industrial production of synthetic rubber for tires and coatings or aviation fuel. We firstly introduced fatty acid decarboxylase (OleTJE) from Jeotgalicoccus species into E. coli to directly convert MVA(mevalonate) into 3-methy-3-buten-1-ol. And then to transform 3-methy-3-buten-1-ol to isoprene, oleate hydratase (OhyAEM) from Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was overexpressed in E. coli. A novel biosynthetic pathway of isoprene in E. coli was established by co-expressing the heterologous mvaE gene encoding acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase/HMG-CoA reductase and mvaS gene encoding HMG-CoA synthase from Enterococcus faecalis, fatty acid decarboxylase (OleTJE) and oleate hydratase (OhyAEM). Furthermore, to enhance isoprene production, a further optimization of expression level of OleTJE, OhyAEM was carried out by using different promoters and copy numbers of plasmids. Thereafter, the fermentation process was also optimized to improve the production of isoprene. The final engineered strain, YJM33, bearing the innovative biosynthetic pathway of isoprene, was found to produce isoprene up to 2.2 mg/L and 620 mg/L under flask and fed-batch fermentation conditions, respectively. In this study, by using metabolic engineering techniques, the novel MVA-mediated biosynthetic pathway of isoprene was successfully assembled in E. coli BL21(DE3) with the heterologous MVA upper pathway, OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus species and OhyAEM from Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Compared with traditional MVA pathway, the novel pathway is shortened by 3 steps. In addition, this is the first report on the

  19. Descending serotonergic facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT3 receptors engages spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Curtis O.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported the importance of spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in maintaining persistent pain-like states. A descending facilitatory drive mediated through spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) originating from superficial dorsal horn NK1-expressing neurons and that relays through the parabrachial nucleus and the rostroventral medial medulla to act on deep dorsal horn neurons is known be important in maintaining these pain-like states. To determine if spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways are activated by a descending serotonergic drive, we investigated the effects of spinally administered rapamycin on responses of deep dorsal horn neurons that had been pre-treated with the selective 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron. We also investigated the effects of spinally administered cell cycle inhibitor (CCI)-779 (a rapamycin ester analogue) on deep dorsal horn neurons from rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw. Unlike some other models of persistent pain, this model does not involve an altered 5-HT3R-mediated descending serotonergic drive. We found that the inhibitory effects of rapamycin were significantly reduced for neuronal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli when the spinal cord was pre-treated with ondansetron. Furthermore, CCI-779 was found to be ineffective in attenuating spinal neuronal responses to peripheral stimuli in carrageenan-treated rats. Therefore, we conclude that 5-HT3R-mediated descending facilitation is one requirement for activation of rapamycin-sensitive pathways that contribute to persistent pain-like states. PMID:20709148

  20. Cancer-related marketing centrality motifs acting as pivot units in the human signaling network and mediating cross-talk between biological pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia; Jia, Xu; Feng, Chenchen; Zhang, Liangcai; He, Weiming; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Li, Weiguo; Qu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yanyan; Shi, Yuchen

    2013-12-01

    Network motifs in central positions are considered to not only have more in-coming and out-going connections but are also localized in an area where more paths reach the networks. These central motifs have been extensively investigated to determine their consistent functions or associations with specific function categories. However, their functional potentials in the maintenance of cross-talk between different functional communities are unclear. In this paper, we constructed an integrated human signaling network from the Pathway Interaction Database. We identified 39 essential cancer-related motifs in central roles, which we called cancer-related marketing centrality motifs, using combined centrality indices on the system level. Our results demonstrated that these cancer-related marketing centrality motifs were pivotal units in the signaling network, and could mediate cross-talk between 61 biological pathways (25 could be mediated by one motif on average), most of which were cancer-related pathways. Further analysis showed that molecules of most marketing centrality motifs were in the same or adjacent subcellular localizations, such as the motif containing PI3K, PDK1 and AKT1 in the plasma membrane, to mediate signal transduction between 32 cancer-related pathways. Finally, we analyzed the pivotal roles of cancer genes in these marketing centrality motifs in the pathogenesis of cancers, and found that non-cancer genes were potential cancer-related genes.

  1. Sirtuins, Cell Senescence, and Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yujiro; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs) constitute a class of proteins with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferase activity. Seven SIRT family members have been identified in mammals, from SIRT1, the best studied for its role in vascular aging, to SIRT7. SIRT1 and SIRT2 are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial, and SIRT6 and SIRT7 are nuclear. Extensive studies have clearly revealed that SIRT proteins regulate diverse cell functions and responses to stressors. Vascular aging involves the aging process (senescence) of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Two types of cell senescence have been identified: (1) replicative senescence with telomere attrition; and (2) stress-induced premature senescence without telomere involvement. Both types of senescence induce vascular cell growth arrest and loss of vascular homeostasis, and contribute to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Previous mechanistic studies have revealed in detail that SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 show protective functions against vascular aging, and definite vascular function of other SIRTs is under investigation. Thus, direct SIRT modulation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stimulation of SIRT are promising candidates for cardiovascular disease therapy. A small number of pilot studies have been conducted to assess SIRT modulation in humans. These clinical studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that SIRT proteins alleviate morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of multiple ongoing clinical trials are awaited to define the efficacy of SIRT modulators and SIRT activators in cardiovascular diseases, along with the potential adverse effects of chronic SIRT modulation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SIRT2 and lysine fatty acylation regulate the transforming activity of K-Ras4a

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Stephanie A; Chen, Xiao; Spiegelman, Nicole A; Linder, Maurine E

    2017-01-01

    Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a. We further demonstrate that SIRT2-mediated lysine defatty-acylation promotes endomembrane localization of K-Ras4a, enhances its interaction with A-Raf, and thus promotes cellular transformation. Our study identifies lysine fatty acylation as a previously unknown regulatory mechanism for the Ras family of GTPases that is distinct from cysteine fatty acylation. These findings highlight the biological significance of lysine fatty acylation and sirtuin-catalyzed protein lysine defatty-acylation. PMID:29239724

  3. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA regulates CBX2 stability via a SUMO-triggered ubiquitin-mediated pathway in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Di Costanzo, Antonella; Del Gaudio, Nunzio; Conte, Lidio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Vermeulen, Michiel; de Thé, Hugues; Migliaccio, Antimo; Nebbioso, Angela; Altucci, Lucia

    2018-05-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate transcription, playing a key role in stemness and differentiation. Deregulation of PcG members is known to be involved in cancer pathogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that CBX2, a member of the PcG protein family, is overexpressed in several human tumors, correlating with lower overall survival. Unraveling the mechanisms regulating CBX2 expression may thus provide a promising new target for anticancer strategies. Here we show that the HDAC inhibitor SAHA regulates CBX2 stability via a SUMO-triggered ubiquitin-mediated pathway in leukemia. We identify CBX4 and RNF4 as the E3 SUMO and E3 ubiquitin ligase, respectively, and describe the specific molecular mechanism regulating CBX2 protein stability. Finally, we show that CBX2-depleted leukemic cells display impaired proliferation, underscoring its critical role in regulating leukemia cell tumorogenicity. Our results show that SAHA affects CBX2 stability, revealing a potential SAHA-mediated anti-leukemic activity though SUMO2/3 pathway.

  4. Insulin signaling pathway protects neuronal cell lines by Sirt3 mediated IRS2 activation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neha; Lata, Sonam; Deshmukh, Priyanka; Kamat, Kajal; Surolia, Avadhesha; Banerjee, Tanushree

    2018-05-01

    Cellular stress like ER and oxidative stress are the principle causative agents of various proteinopathies. Multifunctional protein PARK7/DJ-1 provides protection against cellular stress. Recently, insulin/IGF also has emerged as a neuro-protective molecule. However, it is not known whether DJ-1 and insulin/IGF complement each other for cellular protection in response to stress. In this study, we show for the first time, that in human and mouse neuronal cell lines, down regulation of DJ-1 for 48 h leads to compensatory upregulation of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway genes, namely, insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate, and Akt under normal physiological conditions as well as in cellular stress conditions. Moreover, upon exogenous supply of insulin there is a marked increase in the IIS components both at gene and protein levels leading to down regulation and inactivation of GSK3β. By immunoprecipitation, it was observed that Sirt3 mediated deacetylation and activation of FoxO3a could not occur under DJ-1 downregulation. Transient DJ-1 downregulation also led to Akt mediated increased phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of FoxO3a. When DJ-1 was downregulated increased interaction of Sirt3 with IRS2 was observed leading to its activation resulting in IIS upregulation. Thus, transient downregulation of DJ-1 leads to stimulation of IIS pathway by Sirt3 mediated IRS2 activation. Consequently, antiapoptotic program is triggered in neuronal cells via Akt-GSK3β-FoxO3a axis. © 2018 BioFactors, 44(3):224-236, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Myeloid-derived suppressor activity is mediated by monocytic lineages maintained by continuous inhibition of extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Jessica M; Smith, Amber M; Weinlich, Ricardo; Dillon, Christopher P; Qualls, Joseph E; Neale, Geoffrey; Koss, Brian; Kim, Young; Bronte, Vincenzo; Herold, Marco J; Green, Douglas R; Opferman, Joseph T; Murray, Peter J

    2014-12-18

    Nonresolving inflammation expands a heterogeneous population of myeloid suppressor cells capable of inhibiting T cell function. This heterogeneity has confounded the functional dissection of individual myeloid subpopulations and presents an obstacle for antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. Using genetic manipulation of cell death pathways, we found the monocytic suppressor-cell subset, but not the granulocytic subset, requires continuous c-FLIP expression to prevent caspase-8-dependent, RIPK3-independent cell death. Development of the granulocyte subset requires MCL-1-mediated control of the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway. Monocytic suppressors tolerate the absence of MCL-1 provided cytokines increase expression of the MCL-1-related protein A1. Monocytic suppressors mediate T cell suppression, whereas their granulocytic counterparts lack suppressive function. The loss of the granulocytic subset via conditional MCL-1 deletion did not alter tumor incidence implicating the monocytic compartment as the functionally immunosuppressive subset in vivo. Thus, death pathway modulation defines the development, survival, and function of myeloid suppressor cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dexter energy transfer pathways

    PubMed Central

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M.; Beratan, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor–acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways. PMID:27382185

  7. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  8. The BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway is involved in heat hyperalgesia mediated by Cdk5 in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Xue, Qing-Sheng; Yan-Luo; Huang, Jin-Lu; Zhang, Su; Shao, Hai-Jun; Lu, Han; Wang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to play an important role in mediating inflammation-induced heat hyperalgesia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, could reverse the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. Heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA was significantly reversed by roscovitine, TrkB-IgG, and the TrkB inhibitor K252a, respectively. Furthermore, BDNF was significantly increased from 0.5 h to 24 h after CFA injection in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Intrathecal adminstration of the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine had no obvious effects on BDNF levels. Increased TrkB protein level was significantly reversed by roscovitine between 0.5 h and 6 h after CFA injection. Cdk5 and TrkB co-immunoprecipitation results suggested Cdk5 mediates the heat hyperalgesia induced by CFA injection by binding with TrkB, and the binding between Cdk5 and TrkB was markedly blocked by intrathecal adminstration of roscovitine. Our data suggested that the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway was involved in CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia mediated by Cdk5. Roscovitine reversed the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA by blocking BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, suggesting that severing the close crosstalk between Cdk5 and the BDNF/TrkB signaling cascade may present a potential target for anti-inflammatory pain.

  9. 2′,5′-Dihydroxychalcone-induced glutathione is mediated by oxidative stress and kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Remy; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Backos, Donald S.; Franklin, Christopher C.; McCord, Joe M.; Day, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxychalcones are naturally occurring compounds that continue to attract considerable interest due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. They have been reported to inhibit the synthesis of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and to induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study examines the mechanisms by which 2′,5′-dihydroxychalcone (2′,5′-DHC) induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels using a cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by antioxidant response elements (MCF-7/AREc32). 2′,5′-DHC-induced increase in cellular GSH levels was partially inhibited by the catalytic antioxidant MnTDE-1,3-IP5+, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the antioxidant adaptive response. 2′,5′-DHC treatment induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway that was also inhibited by MnTDE-1,3-IP5+. These findings suggest a ROS-dependent activation of the AP-1 transcriptional response. However, while 2′,5′-DHC triggered the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional response, co-treatment with MnTDE-1,3-IP5+ did not decrease 2′,5′-DHC-induced Nrf2/ARE activity, showing that this pathway is not dependent on ROS. Moreover, pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways showed a role for JNK and p38MAPK in mediating the 2′,5′-DHC-induced Nrf2 response. These findings suggest that the 2′,5′-DHC-induced increase in GSH levels results from a combination of ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. PMID:21712085

  10. Gene Expression Profile of NF-κB, Nrf2, Glycolytic, and p53 Pathways During the SH-SY5Y Neuronal Differentiation Mediated by Retinoic Acid.

    PubMed

    de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; de Ramos, Vitor Miranda; Albanus, Ricardo D Oliveira; Kunzler, Alice; de Souza, Luis Henrinque Trentin; Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Ribeiro, Leila; Carro, Luigi; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    SH-SY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line that is a well-established model system to study the initial phases of neuronal differentiation, have been used in studies to elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated alterations of gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells during neuronal differentiation mediated by retinoic acid (RA) treatment. We evaluated important pathways involving nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glycolytic, and p53 during neuronal differentiation. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulating the gene expression profile of those pathways by antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox®, a hydrophilic analogue of α-tocopherol. We found that RA treatment increases levels of gene expression of NF-κB, glycolytic, and antioxidant pathway genes during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that ROS production induced by RA treatment in SH-SY5Y cells is involved in gene expression profile alterations, chiefly in NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways. Antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox® reversed the effects mediated by RA NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways gene expression. Interestingly, co-treatment with Trolox® did not reverse the effects in antioxidant gene expression mediated by RA in SH-SY5Y. To confirm neuronal differentiation, we quantified endogenous levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, a recognized marker of neuronal differentiation. Our data suggest that during neuronal differentiation mediated by RA, changes in profile gene expression of important pathways occur. These alterations are in part mediated by ROS production. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance in understanding the mechanism by which RA induces neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, principally due this model being commonly used as a neuronal cell model in studies of neuronal pathologies.

  11. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  12. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-23

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  13. Sirtuin-1 regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and supports cancer cell viability in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Elke; Sanchez-Arévalo Lobo, Victor J; Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Herranz, Daniel; Wu, Jianmin; Cowley, Mark J; Colvin, Emily K; Njicop, Erna Ngwayi; Sutherland, Rob L; Liu, Tao; Serrano, Manuel; Bouwens, Luc; Real, Francisco X; Biankin, Andrew V; Rooman, Ilse

    2013-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), as in the case of pancreatitis where precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can arise. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) has been implicated in carcinogenesis with dual roles depending on its subcellular localization. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of Sirt1 in different stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, i.e. ADM models and established PDAC. In addition, we analyzed the expression of KIAA1967, a key mediator of Sirt1 function, along with potential Sirt1 downstream targets. Sirt1 was co-expressed with KIAA1967 in the nuclei of normal pancreatic acinar cells. In ADM, Sirt1 underwent a transient nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling. Experiments where during ADM, we enforced repression of Sirt1 shuttling, inhibition of Sirt1 activity or modulation of its expression, all underscore that the temporary decrease of nuclear and increase of cytoplasmic Sirt1 stimulate ADM. Our results further underscore that important transcriptional regulators of acinar differentiation, that is, Pancreatic transcription factor-1a and β-catenin can be deacetylated by Sirt1. Inhibition of Sirt1 is effective in suppression of ADM and in reducing cell viability in established PDAC tumors. KIAA1967 expression is differentially downregulated in PDAC and impacts on the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the Sirt1/2 inhibitor Tenovin-6. In PDAC, acetylation of β-catenin is not affected, unlike p53, a well-characterized Sirt1-regulated protein in tumor cells. Our results reveal that Sirt1 is an important regulator and potential therapeutic target in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ©2012 AACR.

  14. SIRT1 is involved in oncogenic signaling mediated by GPER in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Santolla, M F; Avino, S; Pellegrino, M; De Francesco, E M; De Marco, P; Lappano, R; Vivacqua, A; Cirillo, F; Rigiracciolo, D C; Scarpelli, A; Abonante, S; Maggiolini, M

    2015-07-30

    A number of tumors exhibit an altered expression of sirtuins, including NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) that may act as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter mainly depending on the tumor types. For instance, in breast cancer cells SIRT1 was shown to exert an essential role toward the oncogenic signaling mediated by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In accordance with these findings, the suppression of SIRT1 led to the inhibition of the transduction pathway triggered by ERα. As the regulation of SIRT1 has not been investigated in cancer cells lacking ER, in the present study we ascertained the expression and function of SIRT1 by estrogens in ER-negative breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients. Our results show that 17β-estradiol (E2) and the selective ligand of GPER, namely G-1, induce the expression of SIRT1 through GPER and the subsequent activation of the EGFR/ERK/c-fos/AP-1 transduction pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is involved in the pro-survival effects elicited by E2 through GPER, like the prevention of cell cycle arrest and cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent etoposide. Interestingly, the aforementioned actions of estrogens were abolished silencing GPER or SIRT1, as well as using the SIRT1 inhibitor Sirtinol. In addition, we provide evidence regarding the involvement of SIRT1 in tumor growth stimulated by GPER ligands in breast cancer cells and xenograft models. Altogether, our data suggest that SIRT1 may be included in the transduction network activated by estrogens through GPER toward the breast cancer progression.

  15. SIRT1 is involved in oncogenic signaling mediated by GPER in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santolla, M F; Avino, S; Pellegrino, M; De Francesco, E M; De Marco, P; Lappano, R; Vivacqua, A; Cirillo, F; Rigiracciolo, D C; Scarpelli, A; Abonante, S; Maggiolini, M

    2015-01-01

    A number of tumors exhibit an altered expression of sirtuins, including NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) that may act as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter mainly depending on the tumor types. For instance, in breast cancer cells SIRT1 was shown to exert an essential role toward the oncogenic signaling mediated by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In accordance with these findings, the suppression of SIRT1 led to the inhibition of the transduction pathway triggered by ERα. As the regulation of SIRT1 has not been investigated in cancer cells lacking ER, in the present study we ascertained the expression and function of SIRT1 by estrogens in ER-negative breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients. Our results show that 17β-estradiol (E2) and the selective ligand of GPER, namely G-1, induce the expression of SIRT1 through GPER and the subsequent activation of the EGFR/ERK/c-fos/AP-1 transduction pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is involved in the pro-survival effects elicited by E2 through GPER, like the prevention of cell cycle arrest and cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent etoposide. Interestingly, the aforementioned actions of estrogens were abolished silencing GPER or SIRT1, as well as using the SIRT1 inhibitor Sirtinol. In addition, we provide evidence regarding the involvement of SIRT1 in tumor growth stimulated by GPER ligands in breast cancer cells and xenograft models. Altogether, our data suggest that SIRT1 may be included in the transduction network activated by estrogens through GPER toward the breast cancer progression. PMID:26225773

  16. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan; Son, Young-Ok; Lim, Shin-Saeng

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaFmore » induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53

  17. Resveratrol inhibits estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis through induction of NRF2-mediated protective pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupendra; Shoulson, Rivka; Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Bhat, Nimee K.; Dim, Daniel C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer is widely recognized. Estrogen-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in this carcinogenic process. Resveratrol (Res), a natural antioxidant phytoestrogen has chemopreventive effects against a variety of illnesses including cancer. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mechanism(s) of Res-mediated protection against estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. Female August Copenhagen Irish rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), Res and Res + E2 for 8 months. Cotreatment of rats with Res and E2 inhibited E2-mediated proliferative changes in mammary tissues and significantly increased tumor latency and reduced E2-induced breast tumor development. Resveratrol treatment alone or in combination with E2 significantly upregulated expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) in mammary tissues. Expression of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes NQO1, SOD3 and OGG1 that are involved in protection against oxidative DNA damage was increased in Res- and Res + E2-treated mammary tissues. Resveratrol also prevented E2-mediated inhibition of detoxification genes AOX1 and FMO1. Inhibition of E2-mediated alterations in NRF2 promoter methylation and expression of NRF2 targeting miR-93 after Res treatment indicated Res-mediated epigenetic regulation of NRF2 during E2-induced breast carcinogenesis. Resveratrol treatment also induced apoptosis and inhibited E2-mediated increase in DNA damage in mammary tissues. Increased apoptosis and decreased DNA damage, cell migration, colony and mammosphere formation in Res- and Res + E2-treated MCF-10A cells suggested a protective role of Res against E2-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of NRF2 inhibited Res-mediated preventive effects on the colony and mammosphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that Res inhibits E2-induced breast carcinogenesis via induction of NRF2-mediated protective

  18. Pleiotropic AT1 receptor signaling pathways mediating physiological and pathogenic actions of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Hunyady, László; Catt, Kevin J

    2006-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates a wide spectrum of signaling responses via the AT1 receptor (AT1R) that mediate its physiological control of blood pressure, thirst, and sodium balance and its diverse pathological actions in cardiovascular, renal, and other cell types. Ang II-induced AT1R activation via Gq/11 stimulates phospholipases A2, C, and D, and activates inositol trisphosphate/Ca2+ signaling, protein kinase C isoforms, and MAPKs, as well as several tyrosine kinases (Pyk2, Src, Tyk2, FAK), scaffold proteins (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1, p130Cas, paxillin, vinculin), receptor tyrosine kinases, and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. The AT1R also signals via Gi/o and G11/12 and stimulates G protein-independent signaling pathways, such as beta-arrestin-mediated MAPK activation and the Jak/STAT. Alterations in homo- or heterodimerization of the AT1R may also contribute to its pathophysiological roles. Many of the deleterious actions of AT1R activation are initiated by locally generated, rather than circulating, Ang II and are concomitant with the harmful effects of aldosterone in the cardiovascular system. AT1R-mediated overproduction of reactive oxygen species has potent growth-promoting, proinflammatory, and profibrotic actions by exerting positive feedback effects that amplify its signaling in cardiovascular cells, leukocytes, and monocytes. In addition to its roles in cardiovascular and renal disease, agonist-induced activation of the AT1R also participates in the development of metabolic diseases and promotes tumor progression and metastasis through its growth-promoting and proangiogenic activities. The recognition of Ang II's pathogenic actions is leading to novel clinical applications of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1R antagonists, in addition to their established therapeutic actions in essential hypertension.

  19. Cargo-mediated regulation of a rapid Rab4-dependent recycling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yudowski, Guillermo A; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A; Henry, Anastasia G; von Zastrow, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Membrane trafficking is well known to regulate receptor-mediated signaling processes, but less is known about whether signaling receptors conversely regulate the membrane trafficking machinery. We investigated this question by focusing on the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor whose cellular signaling activity is controlled by ligand-induced endocytosis followed by recycling. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM) and tagging with a pH-sensitive GFP variant to image discrete membrane trafficking events mediating B2AR endo- and exocytosis. Within several minutes after initiating rapid endocytosis of B2ARs by the adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, we observed bright "puffs" of locally increased surface fluorescence intensity representing discrete Rab4-dependent recycling events. These events reached a constant frequency in the continuous presence of isoproterenol, and agonist removal produced a rapid (observed within 1 min) and pronounced (approximately twofold) increase in recycling event frequency. This regulation required receptor signaling via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and a specific PKA consensus site located in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the B2AR itself. B2AR-mediated regulation was not restricted to this membrane cargo, however, as transferrin receptors packaged in the same population of recycling vesicles were similarly affected. In contrast, net recycling measured over a longer time interval (10 to 30 min) was not detectably regulated by B2AR signaling. These results identify rapid regulation of a specific recycling pathway by a signaling receptor cargo.

  20. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; ...

    2015-02-02

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering themore » polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 ( gnl1-1) and gnom ( van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.« less

  1. Mediating pathways between parental socio-economic position and allostatic load in mid-life: Findings from the 1958 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Barboza Solís, Cristina; Fantin, Romain; Castagné, Raphaële; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how human environments affect our health by "getting under the skin" and penetrating the cells, organs and physiological systems of our bodies is a key tenet in public health research. Here, we examine the idea that early life socioeconomic position (SEP) can be biologically embodied, potentially leading to the production of health inequalities across population groups. Allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of overall physiological wear-and-tear, could allow for a better understanding of the potential biological pathways playing a role in the construction of the social gradient in adult health. We investigate the factors mediating the link between two components of parental SEP, maternal education (ME) and parental occupation (PO), and AL at 44 years. Data was used from 7573 members of the 1958 British birth cohort follow-up to age 44. AL was constructed using 14 biomarkers representing four physiological systems. We assessed the contribution of financial/materialist, psychological/psychosocial, educational, and health behaviors/BMI pathways over the life course, in mediating the associations between ME, PO and AL. ME and PO were mediated by three pathways: educational, material/financial, and health behaviors, for both men and women. A better understanding of embodiment processes leading to disease development may contribute to developing adapted public policies aiming to reduce health inequalities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Resveratrol counteracts lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial inflammation by modulating a SOCS-1 dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Teresa; Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Porro, Chiara; Trotta, Teresa; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2014-09-01

    Brain damage or exposure to inflammatory agents provokes the activation of microglia and secretion of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators responsible for neuronal loss. Several lines of evidence show that resveratrol, a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol, may exert a neuroprotective action in neurodegenerative diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are a family of eight members expressed by immune cells and the central nervous system (CNS) cells, that regulate immune processes within the CNS, including microglia activation. We demonstrate that resveratrol had anti-inflammatory effects in murine N13 microglial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), through up-regulating SOCS-1 expression. Interestingly, in SOCS-1-silenced cells resveratrol failed to play a protective role after LPS treatment. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol can impair microglia activation by activating a SOCS-1 mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Binqiang; Zhao, Yingmei; Liang, Tao; Ye, Xuxiao; Li, Zuowei; Yan, Dongliang; Fu, Qiang; Li, Yonghui

    2017-08-01

    We have previously reported that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model. In this study, we report that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Curcumin inhibits IGF2 expression at the transcriptional level and decreases the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and IRS-1 in bladder cancer cells and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced urothelial tumor tissue. Ectopic expression of IGF2 and IGF1R, but not IGF1, in bladder cancer cells restored this process, suggesting that IGF2 is a target of curcumin. Moreover, introduction of constitutively active AKT1 abolished the inhibitory effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, migration, and restored the phosphorylation levels of 4E-BP1 and S6K1, suggesting that curcumin functions via suppressing IGF2-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, our results reveal that suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of action of curcumin. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer caused by aberrant activation of IGF2, which are useful for translational application of curcumin.

  4. Actin-binding and cell proliferation activities of angiomotin family members are regulated by Hippo pathway-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siew Wee; Lim, Chun Jye; Guo, Fusheng; Tan, Ivan; Leung, Thomas; Hong, Wanjin

    2013-12-27

    Whether the Hippo pathway has downstream targets other than YAP and TAZ is unknown. In this report, we have identified angiomotin (Amot) family members as novel substrates of Hippo core kinases. The N-terminal regions of Amot proteins contain a conserved HXRXXS consensus site for LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation. Phospho-specific antibodies showed that Hippo core kinases could mediate phosphorylation of endogenous as well as exogenous Amot family members. Knockdown of LATS1 and LATS2 endogenously reduced the phosphorylation of Amots detected by the phospho-specific antibodies. Mutation of the serine to alanine within this HXRXXS site in Amot and AmotL2 established that this site was essential for Hippo core kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Wild-type and non-phosphorylated Amot (Amot-S175A) were targeted to actin filaments, whereas phospho-mimic Amot (Amot-S175D) failed to be localized with actin. Overexpression of LATS2 caused dissociation of Amot from actin but not Amot-S175A. Mapping of the actin-binding site of Amot showed that serine 175 of Amot was important for the actin-binding activity. Amot-S175A promoted, whereas Amot and Amot-S175D inhibited, cell proliferation. These results collectively suggest that the Hippo pathway negatively regulates the actin-binding activity of Amot family members through direct phosphorylation.

  5. Ethylene Responses in Rice Roots and Coleoptiles Are Differentially Regulated by a Carotenoid Isomerase-Mediated Abscisic Acid Pathway[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cui-Cui; Ma, Biao; Collinge, Derek Phillip; Pogson, Barry James; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jin-Fang; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) act synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant growth and development. ABA is derived from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Here, we analyzed the interplay among ethylene, carotenoid biogenesis, and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa) using the rice ethylene response mutant mhz5, which displays a reduced ethylene response in roots but an enhanced ethylene response in coleoptiles. We found that MHZ5 encodes a carotenoid isomerase and that the mutation in mhz5 blocks carotenoid biosynthesis, reduces ABA accumulation, and promotes ethylene production in etiolated seedlings. ABA can largely rescue the ethylene response of the mhz5 mutant. Ethylene induces MHZ5 expression, the production of neoxanthin, an ABA biosynthesis precursor, and ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ5 overexpression results in enhanced ethylene sensitivity in roots and reduced ethylene sensitivity in coleoptiles. Mutation or overexpression of MHZ5 also alters the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Genetic studies revealed that the MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway acts downstream of ethylene signaling to inhibit root growth. The MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway likely acts upstream but negatively regulates ethylene signaling to control coleoptile growth. Our study reveals novel interactions among ethylene, carotenogenesis, and ABA and provides insight into improvements in agronomic traits and adaptive growth through the manipulation of these pathways in rice. PMID:25841037

  6. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-07-12

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  7. Involvement of the cGMP pathway in mediating the insulin-inhibitory effect of melatonin in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2008-10-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated an influence of melatonin on insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. The effects are receptor-mediated via two parallel signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of a second melatonin receptor (MT2) as well as the involvement of a third signaling cascade in mediating melatonin effects, i.e. the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. Our results demonstrate that the insulin-inhibiting effect of melatonin could be partly reversed by preincubation with the unspecific melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole as well as by the MT2-receptor-specific antagonist 4P-PDOT (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline). As melatonin is known to modulate cGMP concentration via the MT2 receptor, these data indicate transmission of the melatonin effects via the cGMP transduction cascade. Molecular investigations established the presence of different types of guanylate cyclases, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in rat insulinoma beta-cells (INS1). Moreover, variations in mRNA expression were found when comparing day and night values as well as different states of glucose metabolism. Incubation experiments provided evidence that 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated cGMP concentrations were significantly decreased in INS1 cells exposed to melatonin for 1 hr in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect could also be reversed by application of luzindole and 4P-PDOT. Stimulation with 8-Br-cGMP resulted in significantly increased insulin production. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the melatonin receptor subtype MT2 as well as the cGMP signaling pathway are involved in mediating the insulin-inhibiting effect of melatonin.

  8. Feedback regulation on PTEN/AKT pathway by the ER stress kinase PERK mediated by interaction with the Vault complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Neo, Suat Peng; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Poulsen, Anders; Boping, Liu; Ong, Esther Hongqian; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Pendharkar, Vishal; Hill, Jeffrey; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-03-01

    The high proliferation rate of cancer cells, together with environmental factors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation can cause Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress. The protein kinase PERK is an essential mediator in one of the three ER stress response pathways. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PERK has been reported to limit tumor growth in xenograft models. Here we provide evidence that inactive PERK interacts with the nuclear pore-associated Vault complex protein and that this compromises Vault-mediated nuclear transport of PTEN. Pharmacological inhibition of PERK under ER stress results is abnormal sequestration of the Vault complex, leading to increased cytoplasmic PTEN activity and lower AKT activation. As the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway is crucial for many aspects of cell growth and survival, this unexpected effect of PERK inhibitors on AKT activity may have implications for their potential use as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sulforaphane-induced autophagy flux prevents prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity through AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Jeong, J-K; Park, S-Y

    2014-10-10

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative and infectious disorders that involve accumulation of misfolded scrapie prion protein, and which are characterized by spongiform degeneration. Autophagy, a major homeostatic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components, has garnered attention as the potential target for neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease. We focused on protective effects of sulforaphane found in cruciferous vegetables on prion-mediated neurotoxicity and the mechanism of sulforaphane related to autophagy. In human neuroblastoma cells, sulforaphane protected prion protein (PrP) (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and increased autophagy flux marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II protein levels, following a decrease of p62 protein level. Pharmacological and genetical inhibition of autophagy by 3MA, wortmannin and knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) led to block the effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore we demonstrated that both sulforaphane-induced autophagy and protective effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity are dependent on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The present results indicated that sulforaphane of cruciferous vegetables enhanced autophagy flux led to the protection effects against prion-mediated neurotoxicity, which was regulated by AMPK signaling pathways in human neuron cells. Our data also suggest that sulforaphane has a potential value as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disease including prion diseases. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HCV upregulates Bim through the ROS/JNK signalling pathway, leading to Bax-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Chen, Ming; Tanaka, Motofumi; Ku, Yonson; Itoh, Tomoo; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by using the HCV J6/JFH1 strain and Huh-7.5 cells. However, it was still unclear how HCV-induced Bax activation. In this study, we showed that the HCV-induced activation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bax were significantly attenuated by treatment with a general antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or a specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, with the result suggesting that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/JNK signalling pathway is upstream of Bax activation in HCV-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrated that HCV infection transcriptionally activated the gene for the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and the protein expression of three major splice variants of Bim (BimEL, BimL and BimS). The HCV-induced increase in the Bim mRNA and protein levels was significantly counteracted by treatment with NAC or SP600125, suggesting that the ROS/JNK signalling pathway is involved in Bim upregulation. Moreover, HCV infection led to a marked accumulation of Bim on the mitochondria to facilitate its interaction with Bax. On the other hand, downregulation of Bim by siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly prevented HCV-mediated activation of Bax and caspase 3. Taken together, these observations suggest that HCV-induced ROS/JNK signalling transcriptionally activates Bim expression, which leads to Bax activation and apoptosis induction.

  11. Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis of Human Dental Pulp Cells Is Mediated by the Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Young; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kang, Gi Chang; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Sun Hun; Chung, Hyun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as a mediator and regulator of inflammatory responses. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and NOS is abundantly expressed in the human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). NO produced by NOS can be cytotoxic at higher concentrations to HDPCs. However, the mechanism by which this cytotoxic pathway is activated in cells exposed to NO is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the NO-induced cytotoxic mechanism in HDPCs. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, reduced the viability of HDPCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated the in vitro effects of nitric oxide on apoptosis of cultured HDPCs. Cells showed typical apoptotic morphology after exposure to SNP. Besides, the number of Annexin V positive cells was increased among the SNP-treated HDPCs. SNP enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ameliorated the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. However, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) did not inhibited the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. SNP increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression levels. Moreover, SNP-treated HDPCs elevated activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. While pretreatment with inhibitors of caspase (z-VAD-fmk, z-DEVD-fmk) reversed the NO-induced apoptosis of HDPCs. From these results, it can be suggested that NO induces apoptosis of HDPCs through the mitochondria-dependent pathway mediated by ROS and Bcl-2 family, but not by the cyclic GMP pathway. PMID:24634593

  12. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-mediated neuronal cell death occurs through intrinsic apoptotic pathways and mitochondrial alterations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Steven J; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2006-10-02

    Huntingtin interacting protein-1 (Hip1) is known to be associated with the N-terminal domain of huntingtin. Although Hip1 can induce apoptosis, the exact upstream signal transduction pathways have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we examined whether activation of intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptotic pathways occurs during Hip1-mediated neuronal cell death. Overexpression of Hip1 induced cell death through caspase-3 activation in immortalized hippocampal neuroprogenitor cells. Interestingly, proteolytic processing of Hip1 into partial fragments was observed in response to Hip1 transfection and apoptosis-inducing drugs. Moreover, Hip1 was found to directly bind to and activate caspase-9. This promoted cytosolic release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor via mitochondrial membrane perturbation. Furthermore, Hip1 could directly bind to Apaf-1, suggesting that the neurotoxic signals of Hip1 transmit through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and the formation of apoptosome complex.

  13. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor inhibits the P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway in human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuan; Chow, Alison W; Yip, Wallace C; Li, Chi H; Wan, Tai F; Tong, Benjamin C; Cheung, King H; Chan, Wood Y; Chen, Yangchao; Cheng, Christopher H; Ko, Wing H

    2016-08-01

    P2Y receptor activation causes the release of inflammatory cytokines in the bronchial epithelium, whereas G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a novel estrogen (E2) receptor, may play an anti-inflammatory role in this process. We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of GPER activation on the P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway and cytokine production in airway epithelia. Expression of GPER in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) or 16HBE14o- cells was confirmed on both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation of HBE or 16HBE14o- cells with E2 or G1, a specific agonist of GPER, attenuated the nucleotide-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)]i, whereas this effect was reversed by G15, a GPER-specific antagonist. G1 inhibited the secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, in cells stimulated by adenosine 5'-(γ-thio)triphosphate (ATPγS). G1 stimulated a real-time increase in cAMP levels in 16HBE14o- cells, which could be inhibited by adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of E2 or G1 on P2Y receptor-induced increases in Ca(2+) were reversed by treating the cells with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of G1 or E2 on P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and cytokine secretion were due to GPER-mediated activation of a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. This study has reported, for the first time, the expression and function of GPER as an anti-inflammatory component in human bronchial epithelia, which may mediate through its opposing effects on the pro-inflammatory pathway activated by the P2Y receptors in inflamed airway epithelia.

  14. Human Sirtuin 2 Localization, Transient Interactions, and Impact on the Proteome Point to Its Role in Intracellular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Budayeva, Hanna G; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-10-01

    Human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD + -dependent deacetylase that primarily functions in the cytoplasm, where it can regulate α-tubulin acetylation levels. SIRT2 is linked to cancer progression, neurodegeneration, and infection with bacteria or viruses. However, the current knowledge about its interactions and the means through which it exerts its functions has remained limited. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of its cellular functions by characterizing SIRT2 subcellular localization, the identity and relative stability of its protein interactions, and its impact on the proteome of primary human fibroblasts. To assess the relative stability of SIRT2 interactions, we used immunoaffinity purification in conjunction with both label-free and metabolic labeling quantitative mass spectrometry. In addition to the expected associations with cytoskeleton proteins, including its known substrate TUBA1A, our results reveal that SIRT2 specifically interacts with proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, secretory processes, and transcriptional regulation. By quantifying their relative stability, we found most interactions to be transient, indicating a dynamic SIRT2 environment. We discover that SIRT2 localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and that this recruitment requires an intact ER-Golgi trafficking pathway. Further expanding these findings, we used microscopy and interaction assays to establish the interaction and coregulation of SIRT2 with liprin-β1 scaffolding protein (PPFiBP1), a protein with roles in focal adhesions disassembly. As SIRT2 functions may be accomplished via interactions, enzymatic activity, and transcriptional regulation, we next assessed the impact of SIRT2 levels on the cellular proteome. SIRT2 knockdown led to changes in the levels of proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, including some of its interaction partners. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge of SIRT2 cytoplasmic functions to define a

  15. Human Sirtuin 2 Localization, Transient Interactions, and Impact on the Proteome Point to Its Role in Intracellular Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Budayeva, Hanna G.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2016-01-01

    Human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that primarily functions in the cytoplasm, where it can regulate α-tubulin acetylation levels. SIRT2 is linked to cancer progression, neurodegeneration, and infection with bacteria or viruses. However, the current knowledge about its interactions and the means through which it exerts its functions has remained limited. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of its cellular functions by characterizing SIRT2 subcellular localization, the identity and relative stability of its protein interactions, and its impact on the proteome of primary human fibroblasts. To assess the relative stability of SIRT2 interactions, we used immunoaffinity purification in conjunction with both label-free and metabolic labeling quantitative mass spectrometry. In addition to the expected associations with cytoskeleton proteins, including its known substrate TUBA1A, our results reveal that SIRT2 specifically interacts with proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, secretory processes, and transcriptional regulation. By quantifying their relative stability, we found most interactions to be transient, indicating a dynamic SIRT2 environment. We discover that SIRT2 localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and that this recruitment requires an intact ER-Golgi trafficking pathway. Further expanding these findings, we used microscopy and interaction assays to establish the interaction and coregulation of SIRT2 with liprin-β1 scaffolding protein (PPFiBP1), a protein with roles in focal adhesions disassembly. As SIRT2 functions may be accomplished via interactions, enzymatic activity, and transcriptional regulation, we next assessed the impact of SIRT2 levels on the cellular proteome. SIRT2 knockdown led to changes in the levels of proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, including some of its interaction partners. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge of SIRT2 cytoplasmic functions to define a

  16. Genomic pathway analysis reveals that EZH2 and HDAC4 represent mutually exclusive epigenetic pathways across human cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alterations in epigenetic marks, including methylation or acetylation, are common in human cancers. For many epigenetic pathways, however, direct measures of activity are unknown, making their role in various cancers difficult to assess. Gene expression signatures facilitate the examination of patterns of epigenetic pathway activation across and within human cancer types allowing better understanding of the relationships between these pathways. Methods We used Bayesian regression to generate gene expression signatures from normal epithelial cells before and after epigenetic pathway activation. Signatures were applied to datasets from TCGA, GEO, CaArray, ArrayExpress, and the cancer cell line encyclopedia. For TCGA data, signature results were correlated with copy number variation and DNA methylation changes. GSEA was used to identify biologic pathways related to the signatures. Results We developed and validated signatures reflecting downstream effects of enhancer of zeste homolog 2(EZH2), histone deacetylase(HDAC) 1, HDAC4, sirtuin 1(SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase 2(DNMT2). By applying these signatures to data from cancer cell lines and tumors in large public repositories, we identify those cancers that have the highest and lowest activation of each of these pathways. Highest EZH2 activation is seen in neuroblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, and melanoma, while highest HDAC activity is seen in pharyngeal cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Across all datasets studied, activation of both EZH2 and HDAC4 is significantly underrepresented. Using breast cancer and glioblastoma as examples to examine intrinsic subtypes of particular cancers, EZH2 activation was highest in luminal breast cancers and proneural glioblastomas, while HDAC4 activation was highest in basal breast cancer and mesenchymal glioblastoma. EZH2 and HDAC4 activation are associated with particular chromosome abnormalities: EZH2 activation with

  17. Evidence of Multiple Mediating Pathways in Associations Between Constructs of Stigma and Self-Reported Suicide Attempts in a Cross-Sectional Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Salway, Travis; Gesink, Dionne; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Ferlatte, Olivier; Rhodes, Anne E; Brennan, David J; Marchand, Rick; Trussler, Terry

    2018-05-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual men. This disparity is commonly interpreted using minority stress theory; however, specific pathways from antigay stigma to suicidal behavior are poorly understood. We aimed to estimate associations between multiple constructs of stigma and suicide attempts among adult GBM, and to measure the proportion of these associations mediated by distinct suicide risk factors, thus identifying proximal points of intervention. Data were drawn from a Canadian community-based survey of adult GBM. Structural equation modeling was used to compare associations between three latent constructs-enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination, harassment), anticipated prejudice (worry about encountering antigay/bisexual prejudice), and sexuality concealment-and self-reported suicide attempts (last 12 months). Coefficients were estimated for direct, indirect, and total pathways and evaluated based on magnitude and statistical significance. The proportion of associations mediated by depression, drug/alcohol use, and social isolation was calculated using indirect paths. Among 7872 respondents, 3.4% reported a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. The largest total association was observed for enacted stigma, and this association was partially mediated by depression and drug/alcohol use. The total association of anticipated prejudice was relatively smaller and mediated by depression and social isolation. Concealment had an inverse association with suicide attempts as mediated by depression but was also positively associated with suicide attempts when mediated through social isolation. Multiple constructs of antigay stigma were associated with suicide attempts; however, mediating pathways differed by construct, suggesting that a combination of strategies is required to prevent suicide in adult GBM.

  18. Molecular pathways of pannexin1-mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shestopalov, Valery I.; Slepak, Vladlen Z.

    2014-01-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) forms non-selective membrane channels, structurally similar to gap junction hemichannels, and are permeable to ions, nucleotides, and other small molecules below 900 Da. Panx1 activity has been implicated in paracrine signaling and inflammasome regulation. Recent studies in different animal models showed that overactivation of Panx1 correlates with a selective demise of several types of neurons, including retinal ganglion cells, brain pyramidal, and enteric neurons. The list of Panx1 activators includes extracellular ATP, glutamate, high K+, Zn2+, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs),pro-inflammatory cytokines, and elevation of intracellular Ca2+. Most of these molecules are released following mechanical, ischemic, or inflammatory injury of the CNS, and rapidly activate the Panx1 channel. Prolonged opening of Panx1 channel induced by these “danger signals” triggers a cascade of neurotoxic events capable of killing cells. The most vulnerable cell type are neurons that express high levels of Panx1. Experimental evidence suggests that Panx1 channels mediate at least two distinct neurotoxic processes: increased permeability of the plasma membrane and activation of the inflammasome in neurons and glia. Importantly, both pharmacological and genetic inactivation of Panx1 suppresses both these processes, providing a marked protection in several disease and injury models. These findings indicate that external danger signals generated after diverse types of injuries converge to activate Panx1. In this review we discuss molecular mechanisms associated with Panx1 toxicity and the crosstalk between different pathways. PMID:24575045

  19. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced invasion of pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiong; Liao, Jie; Lu, YeBin; Duan, XiaoHui; Sun, WeiJia

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling has an emerging role in pancreatic cancer. However, because of the multiple effects of different BMPs, no final conclusions have been made as to the role of BMPs in pancreatic cancer. In our studies, we have focused on bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2) because it induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerates invasion in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediates invasion of gastric and colon cancer cells, which is unrevealed in pancreatic cancer cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether BMP-2 mediated invasion might pass through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our results show that expression of phosphorylation of Akt was increased by treatment with BMP-2, but not Noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist. Then pretreatment of Panc-1 cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced EMT and invasiveness. The data suggest that BMP-2 accelerates invasion of panc-1 cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway in panc-1 cells, which gives clues to searching new therapy targets in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  20. Dissecting the Molecular Pathway Involved in PLK2 Kinase-mediated α-Synuclein-selective Autophagic Degradation.

    PubMed

    Dahmene, Manel; Bérard, Morgan; Oueslati, Abid

    2017-03-03

    Increasing lines of evidence support the causal link between α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation in the brain and Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Therefore, lowering α-syn protein levels may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD and related disorders. We recently described a novel selective α-syn degradation pathway, catalyzed by the activity of the Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), capable of reducing α-syn protein expression and suppressing its toxicity in vivo However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this degradation route remain elusive. In the present study we report that among PLK family members, PLK3 is also able to catalyze α-syn phosphorylation and degradation in living cells. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we confirmed the implication of the macroautophagy on PLK2-mediated α-syn turnover, and our observations suggest a concomitant co-degradation of these two proteins. Moreover, we showed that the N-terminal region of α-syn is important for PLK2-mediated α-syn phosphorylation and degradation and is implicated in the physical interaction between the two proteins. We also demonstrated that PLK2 polyubiquitination is important for PLK2·α-syn protein complex degradation, and we hypothesize that this post-translational modification may act as a signal for the selective recognition by the macroautophagy machinery. Finally, we observed that the PD-linked mutation E46K enhances PLK2-mediated α-syn degradation, suggesting that this mutated form is a bona fide substrate of this degradation pathway. In conclusion, our study provides a detailed description of the new degradation route of α-syn and offers new opportunities for the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce α-syn protein accumulation and toxicity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cold acclimation increases levels of some heat shock protein and sirtuin isoforms in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Laura E; Orczewska, Julieanna I; McLaughlin, Jessica; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2015-10-01

    Molecular chaperones [heat shock proteins (HSPs)] increase in response to rapid changes in temperatures, but long-term acclimation to cold temperature may also warrant elevations in HSPs. In fishes, cold acclimation increases mitochondrial density and oxidative stress in some tissues, which may increase demand for HSPs. We hypothesized that levels of HSPs, as well as sirtuins (SIRTs), NAD-dependent deacetylases that mediate changes in metabolism and responses to oxidative stress (including increases in HSPs), would increase during cold acclimation of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Transcript levels of hsp70, hsc70, hsp60 and hsp90-α, sirts1-4, as well as protein levels of HSP60, HSP90 and HSC70 were quantified in liver and pectoral adductor muscle of stickleback during cold acclimation from 20 °C to 8 °C. In liver, cold acclimation stimulated a transient increase in mRNA levels of hsp60 and hsc70. Transcript levels of sirt1 and sirt2 also increased in response to cold acclimation and remained elevated. In pectoral muscle, mRNA levels of hsp60, hsp90-α, hsc70 and sirt1 all transiently increased in response to cold acclimation, while levels of sirts2-4 remained constant or declined. Similar to transcript levels, protein levels of HSC70 increased in both liver and pectoral muscle. Levels of HSP90 also increased in liver after 4 weeks at 8 °C. HSP60 remained unchanged in both tissues, as did HSP90 in pectoral muscle. Our results indicate that while both HSPs and SIRTs increase in response to cold acclimation in stickleback, the response is tissue and isoform specific, likely reflecting differences in metabolism and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resveratrol Ameliorates Microcystin-LR-Induced Testis Germ Cell Apoptosis in Rats via SIRT1 Signaling Pathway Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haohao; Zhang, Shenshen; Liu, Chuanrui; Wu, Jinxia; Wang, Yueqin; Yuan, Le; Du, Xingde; Wang, Rui; Marwa, Phelisters Wegesa; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen

    2018-06-09

    Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), a cyclic heptapeptide produced by cyanobacteria, is a strong reproductive toxin. Studies performed in rat Sertoli cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells have demonstrated typical apoptosis after MC-LR exposure. However, little is known on how to protect against the reproductive toxicity induced by MC-LR. The present study aimed to explore the possible molecular mechanism underlying the anti-apoptosis and protective effects of resveratrol (RES) on the co-culture of Sertoli⁻germ cells and rat testes. The results demonstrated that MC-LR treatment inhibited the proliferation of Sertoli⁻germ cells and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and Bcl-2 were inhibited, while p53 and Ku70 acetylation, Bax expression, and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated by MC-LR. However, RES pretreatment ameliorated MC-LR-induced apoptosis and SIRT1 inhibition, and downregulated the MC-LR-induced increase in p53 and Ku70 acetylation, Bax expression, and caspase-3 activation. In addition, RES reversed the MC-LR-mediated reduction in Ku70 binding to Bax. The present study indicated that the administration of RES could ameliorate MC-LR-induced Sertoli⁻germ cell apoptosis and protect against reproductive toxicity in rats by stimulating the SIRT1/p53 pathway, suppressing p53 and Ku70 acetylation and enhancing the binding of Ku70 to Bax.

  3. The Ebola virus glycoprotein mediates entry via a non-classical dynamin-dependent macropinocytic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Mulherkar, Nirupama; Raaben, Matthijs; Torre, Juan Carlos de la

    2011-10-25

    Ebola virus (EBOV) has been reported to enter cultured cell lines via a dynamin-2-independent macropinocytic pathway or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The route(s) of productive EBOV internalization into physiologically relevant cell types remain unexplored, and viral-host requirements for this process are incompletely understood. Here, we use electron microscopy and complementary chemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the viral glycoprotein, GP, induces macropinocytic uptake of viral particles into cells. GP's highly-glycosylated mucin domain is dispensable for virus-induced macropinocytosis, arguing that interactions between other sequences in GP and the host cell surface are responsible. Unexpectedly, we also found a requirement for the largemore » GTPase dynamin-2, which is proposed to be dispensable for several types of macropinocytosis. Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line.« less

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alexander; Zhang, Guohua; Abdel Fattah, Elmoataz A.; Eissa, N. Tony; Li, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Cachectic muscle wasting is a frequent complication of many inflammatory conditions, due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. However, the pathogenesis and intervention strategies against it remain to be established. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a master regulator of inflammatory muscle catabolism. We demonstrate that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via up-regulating autophagosome formation and the expression of ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1. TLR4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is necessary and sufficient for the up-regulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and autophagosomes, resulting in myotube atrophy. Similarly, LPS up-regulates muscle autophagosome formation and ubiquitin ligase expression in mice. Importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine completely abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis, while proteasome inhibitor lactacystin partially blocks it. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout or p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis. Thus, TLR4 mediates LPS-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal pathways.—Doyle, A., Zhang, G., Abdel Fattah, E. A., Eissa, N. T., Li, Y.-P. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. PMID:20826541

  5. Identification of altered pathways in breast cancer based on individualized pathway aberrance score.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Jing; Sun, Long

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify altered pathways in breast cancer based on the individualized pathway aberrance score (iPAS) method combined with the normal reference (nRef). There were 4 steps to identify altered pathways using the iPAS method: Data preprocessing conducted by the robust multi-array average (RMA) algorithm; gene-level statistics based on average Z ; pathway-level statistics according to iPAS; and a significance test dependent on 1 sample Wilcoxon test. The altered pathways were validated by calculating the changed percentage of each pathway in tumor samples and comparing them with pathways from differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 688 altered pathways with P<0.01 were identified, including kinesin (KIF)- and polo-like kinase (PLK)-mediated events. When the percentage of change reached 50%, 310 pathways were involved in the total 688 altered pathways, which may validate the present results. In addition, there were 324 DEGs and 155 common genes between DEGs and pathway genes. DEGs and common genes were enriched in the same 9 significant terms, which also were members of altered pathways. The iPAS method was suitable for identifying altered pathways in breast cancer. Altered pathways (such as KIF and PLK mediated events) were important for understanding breast cancer mechanisms and for the future application of customized therapeutic decisions.

  6. Tissue-specific regulation of sirtuin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways identified in C57Bl/6 mice in response to high-fat feeding.

    PubMed

    Drew, Janice E; Farquharson, Andrew J; Horgan, Graham W; Williams, Lynda M

    2016-11-01

    The sirtuin (SIRT)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) system is implicated in development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet-induced obesity, a major risk factor for T2D. Mechanistic links have not yet been defined. SIRT/NAD system gene expression and NAD/NADH levels were measured in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from mice fed either a low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days up to 16 weeks. An in-house custom-designed multiplex gene expression assay assessed all 7 mouse SIRTs (SIRT1-7) and 16 enzymes involved in conversion of tryptophan, niacin, nicotinamide riboside and metabolic precursors to NAD. Significantly altered transcription was correlated with body weight, fat mass, plasma lipids and hormones. Regulation of the SIRT/NAD system was associated with early (SIRT4, SIRT7, NAPRT1 and NMNAT2) and late phases (NMNAT3, NMRK2, ABCA1 and CD38) of glucose intolerance. TDO2 and NNMT were identified as markers of HFD consumption. Altered regulation of the SIRT/NAD system in response to HFD was prominent in liver compared with WAT or muscle. Multiple components of the SIRTs and NAD biosynthetic enzymes network respond to consumption of dietary fat. Novel molecular targets identified above could direct strategies for dietary/therapeutic interventions to limit metabolic dysfunction and development of T2D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SIRT2 Inhibition Confers Neuroprotection by Downregulation of FOXO3a and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    She, David T; Wong, Lap Jack; Baik, Sang-Ha; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2018-04-14

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a family member of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent deacetylases which appears to have detrimental roles in an array of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). In light of the recently emerging roles of sirtuins in normal physiology and pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke, we investigated the role of SIRT2 in ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death. Primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) under in vitro ischemic conditions, and subsequently tested for the efficacy of SIRT2 inhibitors AK1 and AGK2 in attenuating apoptotic cell death caused by OGD. We have also evaluated the effect of SIRT2 inhibition in C57BL/6 mice subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h reperfusion, which is a model for ischemic reperfusion injury in vivo. Significant reductions in apoptotic cell death were noted in neurons treated with AK1 or AGK2, as evidenced by reduced cleaved caspase-3 and other apoptotic markers such as Bim and Bad. In addition, downregulation of phosphorylated-AKT and FOXO3a proteins of the AKT/FOXO3a pathway, as well as a marked reduction of JNK activity and its downstream target c-Jun, were also observed. When tested in animals subjected to MCAO, the neuroprotective effects of AGK2 in vivo were evidenced by a substantial reduction in ipsilateral infarct area and a significant improvement in neurological outcomes. A similar reduction in the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins in the infarct tissue, as well as downregulation of AKT/FOXO3a and JNK pathway, were also noted. In summary, the current study demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition in ischemic stroke, and identified the downregulation of AKT/FOXO3a and MAPK pathways as intermediary mechanisms which may contribute to the reduction in apoptotic cell death by SIRT2 inhibition.

  8. Measles Virus Enters Breast and Colon Cancer Cell Lines through a PVRL4-Mediated Macropinocytosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Sisson, Gary; Black, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles virus (MeV) is a member of the family Paramixoviridae that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease but has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies of MeV entry focused on the identification of cellular receptors. However, the endocytic and trafficking pathways utilized during MeV entry remain poorly described. The contribution of each endocytic pathway has been examined in cells that express the MeV receptors SLAM (signaling lymphocyte-activating molecule) and PVRL4 (poliovirus receptor-like 4) (nectin-4). Recombinant MeVs expressing either firefly luciferase or green fluorescent protein together with a variety of inhibitors were used. The results showed that MeV uptake was dynamin independent in the Vero.hPVRL4, Vero.hSLAM, and PVRL4-positive MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. However, MeV infection was blocked by 5-(N-ethyl-N-propyl)amiloride (EIPA), the hallmark inhibitor of macropinocytosis, as well as inhibitors of actin polymerization. By using phalloidin staining, MeV entry was shown to induce actin rearrangements and the formation of membrane ruffles accompanied by transient elevated fluid uptake. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) demonstrated that MeV enters both Vero.hPVRL4 and Vero.hSLAM cells in a PAK1-independent manner using a macropinocytosis-like pathway. In contrast, MeV entry into MCF7 human breast cancer cells relied upon Rac1 and its effector PAK1 through a PVRL4-mediated macropinocytosis pathway. MeV entry into DLD-1 colon and HTB-20 breast cancer cells also appeared to use the same pathway. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the life cycle of MeV, which could lead to therapies that block virus entry or methods that improve the uptake of MeV by cancer cells during oncolytic therapy. IMPORTANCE In the past decades, measles virus (MeV) has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies concerning MeV entry focused mainly on the identification

  9. Effect of phorbol esters on the macrophage-mediated biodegradation of polyurethanes via protein kinase C activation and other pathways.

    PubMed

    McBane, Joanne Eileen; Santerre, J P; Labow, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    It was previously found that re-seeding monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) on polycarbonate-based polyurethanes (PCNUs) in the presence of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) inhibited MDM-mediated degradation of PCNUs synthesized with 1,6-hexane diisocyanate (HDI), as well as esterase activity and monocyte-specific esterase (MSE) protein. However, no effect on the degradation of a 4,4'-methylene bisphenyl (MDI)-derived PCNU (MDI321) occurred. This finding suggested that oxidation, a process linked to the PKC pathway, was not activated in the same manner for all PCNUs. In the current study MDM were re-seeded onto the above PCNU surfaces with PMA, PKC-inactive 4alphaPMA and the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I hydrochloride (BIM) for 48 h before assaying for PCNU degradation, esterase activity, MSE protein, DNA, cell viability and cell morphology. 4alphaPMA did not alter MDM-mediated HDI PCNU degradation but MDI321 degradation increased in this condition. BIM alone had no effect on any parameter; however, when BIM and PMA were added together, the PMA inhibition of biodegradation, esterase activity and MSE protein was partially reversed for MDM on HDI PCNUs only. Adding PMA to MDM on HDI PCNUs increased intercellular connections, whereas 4alphaPMA or BIM+PMA increased cell size. Although this study demonstrated a role for oxidation via a PKC-activated pathway in MDM-mediated PCNU degradation, phorbol esters appear to also activate non-PKC pathways that have roles in biodegradation. Moreover, the sensitivity to material surface chemistry in the MDM response to each PCNU dictates a multi-factorial degradative process involving alternate material specific oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms.

  10. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  11. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  12. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways: potential mediators of skeletal muscle growth and development.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire E

    2009-11-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age and disuse has a significant impact on the physiological and social well-being of the aged; this is an increasingly important problem as the population becomes skewed towards older age. Exercise has psychological benefits but it also impacts on muscle protein synthesis and degradation, increasing muscle tissue volume in both young and older individuals. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in muscle mass and cross-sectional area and associated increased myofibrillar protein content. Attempts to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie muscle growth, development and maintenance, have focused on characterising the molecular pathways that initiate, maintain and regenerate skeletal muscle. Such understanding may aid in improving targeted interventional therapies for age-related muscle loss and muscle wasting associated with diseases. Two major routes through which skeletal muscle development and growth are regulated are insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways. Many reviews have focused on understanding the signalling pathways of IGF-I and its receptor, which govern skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, alternative molecular signalling pathways such as the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent transcriptional pathways should also be considered as potential mediators of muscle growth. These latter pathways have received relatively little attention and the purpose herein is to highlight the progress being made in the understanding of these pathways and associated molecules: calmodulin, calmodulin kinases (CaMKs), calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT), which are involved in skeletal muscle regulation. We describe: (1) how conformational changes in the Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin result in the exposure of binding pockets for the target proteins (CaMKs and calcineurin). (2) How Calmodulin consequently activates either the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases

  13. Extracellular vesicle-driven information mediates the long-term effects of particulate matter exposure on coagulation and inflammation pathways.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Bonzini, Matteo; Angelici, Laura; Motta, Valeria; Pergoli, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Cantone, Laura; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Apostoli, Pietro; Tripodi, Armando; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-09-30

    Continuous exposure to particulate air pollution (PM) is a serious worldwide threat to public health as it coherently links with increased morbidity and mortality of cardiorespiratory diseases (CRD), and of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circular plasma membrane fragments released from human cells that transfer microRNAs between tissues. In the present work it was explored the hypothesis that EVs with their encapsulated microRNAs (EVmiRNAs) contents might mediate PM effects by triggering key pathways in CRD and T2D. Expression of EVmiRNAs analyzed by real-time PCR was correlated with oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation markers, from healthy steel plant workers (n=55) with a well-characterized exposure to PM and PM-associated metals. All p-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. In-silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed to identify biological pathways regulated by PM-associated EVmiRNAs. Increased expression in 17 EVmiRNAs is associated with PM and metal exposure (p<0.01). Mir-196b that tops the list, being related to 9 different metals, is fundamental in insulin biosynthesis, however three (miR-302b, miR-200c, miR-30d) out of these 17 EVmiRNAs are in turn also related to disruptions (p<0.01) in inflammatory and coagulation markers. The study's findings support the hypothesis that adverse cardiovascular and metabolic effects stemming from inhalation exposures in particular to PM metallic component may be mediated by EVmiRNAs that target key factors in the inflammation, coagulation and glucose homeostasis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Possible involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in N-acetylcysteine-mediated antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Al-Samhari, Marwa M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rejaie, Salim; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Dzimiri, Nduna

    2016-03-01

    Advances in depression research have targeted inflammation and oxidative stress to develop novel types of treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in immune and inflammatory responses. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine, a putative precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, in an animal model of depression, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Fluoxetine, a classical antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming test and given N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine immediately after the pre-test session, 5 h later and 1 h before the test session of the forced swimming test. N-acetylcysteine decreased immobility time (P < 0.05), serum corticosterone (P < 0.001), and hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001), while restored glutathione concentration. Treatment of the rats with N-acetylcysteine produced significant (P < 0.001) down-regulation of STAT3 mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine significantly (P < 0.001) increased SOCS3 gene expression; however, SOCS3 protein was not changed. In conclusion, our study suggests that modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway might mediate the antidepressant-like effects of N-acetylcysteine. Therefore, depression research may target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to provide a novel effective therapy. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. Possible involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in N-acetylcysteine-mediated antidepressant-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samhari, Marwa M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rejaie, Salim; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Dzimiri, Nduna

    2015-01-01

    Advances in depression research have targeted inflammation and oxidative stress to develop novel types of treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in immune and inflammatory responses. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine, a putative precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, in an animal model of depression, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Fluoxetine, a classical antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming test and given N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine immediately after the pre-test session, 5 h later and 1 h before the test session of the forced swimming test. N-acetylcysteine decreased immobility time (P < 0.05), serum corticosterone (P < 0.001), and hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001), while restored glutathione concentration. Treatment of the rats with N-acetylcysteine produced significant (P < 0.001) down-regulation of STAT3 mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine significantly (P < 0.001) increased SOCS3 gene expression; however, SOCS3 protein was not changed. In conclusion, our study suggests that modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway might mediate the antidepressant-like effects of N-acetylcysteine. Therefore, depression research may target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to provide a novel effective therapy. PMID:26643864

  16. NAMPT is essential for the G-CSF-induced myeloid differentiation via a NAD+-sirtuin-1-dependent pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also known as pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF), as an essential enzyme mediating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-triggered granulopoiesis in healthy individuals and in individuals with severe congenital neutropenia....

  17. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  18. Kainate receptors mediate signaling in both transient and sustained OFF bipolar cell pathways in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Borghuis, Bart G; Looger, Loren L; Tomita, Susumu; Demb, Jonathan B

    2014-04-30

    A fundamental question in sensory neuroscience is how parallel processing is implemented at the level of molecular and circuit mechanisms. In the retina, it has been proposed that distinct OFF cone bipolar cell types generate fast/transient and slow/sustained pathways by the differential expression of AMPA- and kainate-type glutamate receptors, respectively. However, the functional significance of these receptors in the intact circuit during light stimulation remains unclear. Here, we measured glutamate release from mouse bipolar cells by two-photon imaging of a glutamate sensor (iGluSnFR) expressed on postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cell dendrites. In both transient and sustained OFF layers, cone-driven glutamate release from bipolar cells was blocked by antagonists to kainate receptors but not AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings from bipolar and ganglion cells confirmed the essential role of kainate receptors for signaling in both transient and sustained OFF pathways. Kainate receptors mediated responses to contrast modulation up to 20 Hz. Light-evoked responses in all mouse OFF bipolar pathways depend on kainate, not AMPA, receptors.

  19. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Beth J.; Kaandorp, Joepe J.; Kane, Andrew D.; Camm, Emily J.; Lusby, Ciara; Cross, Christine M.; Nevin-Dolan, Rhianon; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Derks, Jan B.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Giussani, Dino A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging and developmental programming are both associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanistic origins. However, their interrelationship has been little explored. In a rodent model of programmed cardiovascular dysfunction we determined endothelial function and vascular telomere length in young (4 mo) and aged (15 mo) adult offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy with or without maternal antioxidant treatment. We show loss of endothelial function [maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine (71 ± 3 vs. 55 ± 3%) and increased vascular short telomere abundance (4.2–1.3 kb) 43.0 ± 1.5 vs. 55.1 ± 3.8%) in aged vs. young offspring of normoxic pregnancy (P < 0.05). Hypoxic pregnancy in young offspring accelerated endothelial dysfunction (maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine: 42 ± 1%, P < 0.05) but this was dissociated from increased vascular short telomere length abundance. Maternal allopurinol rescued maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine in aged offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy but not in young offspring of hypoxic pregnancy. Aged offspring of hypoxic allopurinol pregnancy compared with aged offspring of untreated hypoxic pregnancy had lower levels of short telomeres (vascular short telomere length abundance 35.1 ± 2.5 vs. 48.2 ± 2.6%) and of plasma proinflammatory chemokine (24.6 ± 2.8 vs. 36.8 ± 5.5 pg/ml, P < 0.05). These data provide evidence for divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease, and aging being decelerated by antioxidants even prior to birth.—Allison, B. J., Kaandorp, J. J., Kane, A. D., Camm, E. J., Lusby, C., Cross, C. M., Nevin-Dolan, R., Thakor, A. S., Derks, J. B., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Ozanne, S. E., Giussani, D. A. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26932929

  20. Reversal of intramyocellular lipid accumulation by lipophagy and a p62-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Lam, T; Harmancey, R; Vasquez, H; Gilbert, B; Patel, N; Hariharan, V; Lee, A; Covey, M; Taegtmeyer, H

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed the reversal of lipid droplet deposition in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients following bariatric surgery. We now investigated whether activation of autophagy is the mechanism underlying this observation. For this purpose, we incubated rat L6 myocytes over a period of 6 days with long-chain fatty acids (an equimolar, 1.0 mM, mixture of oleate and palmitate in the incubation medium). At day 6, the autophagic inhibitor (bafilomycin A1, 200 nM) and the autophagic activator (rapamycin, 1 μM) were added separately or in combination for 48 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation was visualized and quantified colorimetrically. Protein markers of autophagic flux (LC3 and p62) and cell death (caspase-3 cleavage) were measured by immunoblotting. Inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin increased TG accumulation and also increased lipid-mediated cell death. Conversely, activation of autophagy by rapamycin reduced both intracellular lipid accumulation and cell death. Unexpectedly, treatment with both drugs added simultaneously resulted in decreased lipid accumulation. In this treatment group, immunoblotting revealed p62 degradation (autophagic flux), immunofluorescence revealed the colocalization of p62 with lipid droplets, and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of p62 with ADRP (adipose differentiation-related protein), a lipid droplet membrane protein. Thus the association of p62 with lipid droplet turnover suggests a novel pathway for the breakdown of lipid droplets in muscle cells. In addition, treatment with rapamycin and bafilomycin together also suggested the export of TG into the extracellular space. We conclude that lipophagy promotes the clearance of lipids from myocytes and switches to an alternative, p62-mediated, lysosomal-independent pathway in the context of chronic lipid overload (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, ****P<0.0001).

  1. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Allison, Beth J; Kaandorp, Joepe J; Kane, Andrew D; Camm, Emily J; Lusby, Ciara; Cross, Christine M; Nevin-Dolan, Rhianon; Thakor, Avnesh S; Derks, Jan B; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E; Giussani, Dino A

    2016-05-01

    Aging and developmental programming are both associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanistic origins. However, their interrelationship has been little explored. In a rodent model of programmed cardiovascular dysfunction we determined endothelial function and vascular telomere length in young (4 mo) and aged (15 mo) adult offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy with or without maternal antioxidant treatment. We show loss of endothelial function [maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine (71 ± 3 vs. 55 ± 3%) and increased vascular short telomere abundance (4.2-1.3 kb) 43.0 ± 1.5 vs. 55.1 ± 3.8%) in aged vs. young offspring of normoxic pregnancy (P < 0.05). Hypoxic pregnancy in young offspring accelerated endothelial dysfunction (maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine: 42 ± 1%, P < 0.05) but this was dissociated from increased vascular short telomere length abundance. Maternal allopurinol rescued maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine in aged offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy but not in young offspring of hypoxic pregnancy. Aged offspring of hypoxic allopurinol pregnancy compared with aged offspring of untreated hypoxic pregnancy had lower levels of short telomeres (vascular short telomere length abundance 35.1 ± 2.5 vs. 48.2 ± 2.6%) and of plasma proinflammatory chemokine (24.6 ± 2.8 vs. 36.8 ± 5.5 pg/ml, P < 0.05). These data provide evidence for divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease, and aging being decelerated by antioxidants even prior to birth.-Allison, B. J., Kaandorp, J. J., Kane, A. D., Camm, E. J., Lusby, C., Cross, C. M., Nevin-Dolan, R., Thakor, A. S., Derks, J. B., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Ozanne, S. E., Giussani, D. A. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. © FASEB.

  2. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein attenuates glucose uptake via a nitric oxide-mediated pathway in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kyoung Jae; Hwang, Eun Ah; Mun, Kyo-Cheol; Ha, Eunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Carbamylation is a cyanate-mediated posttranslational modification. We previously reported that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) increases reactive oxygen species and apoptosis via a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor mediated pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A recent study reported an association between cLDL and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current study, the effects of cLDL on glucose transport were explored in skeletal muscle cells. The effect of cLDL on glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and signaling pathway were examined in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using 2-deoxyglucose uptake, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The quantity of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by the Griess reaction. The effect of native LDL (nLDL) from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF-nLDL) on glucose uptake was also determined. It was observed that cLDL significantly attenuated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the membrane, which was mediated via the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO production. Tyrosine nitration of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS‑1) was increased. It was demonstrated that CRF-nLDL markedly reduced glucose uptake compared with nLDL from healthy subjects. Collectively, these findings indicate that cLDL, alone, attenuates glucose uptake via NO-mediated tyrosine nitration of IRS‑1 in L6 rat muscle cells and suggests the possibility that cLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  3. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  4. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, Maristela; Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP; Batista, Wagner L.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinasesmore » by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.« less

  5. Gastric relaxation induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by vagal afferent pathways in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Yi; Lu, Yuan-Xu; Owyang, Chung

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia has a profound effect on gastric motility. However, little is known about site and mechanism that sense alteration in blood glucose level. The identification of glucose-sensing neurons in the nodose ganglia led us to hypothesize that hyperglycemia acts through vagal afferent pathways to inhibit gastric motility. With the use of a glucose clamp rat model, we showed that glucose decreased intragastric pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to intravenous infusion of glucose, intracisternal injection of glucose at 250 and 500 mg dL−1 had little effect on intragastric pressure. Pretreatment with hexamethonium, as well as truncal vagotomy, abolished the gastric motor responses to hyperglycemia (250 mg dL−1), and perivagal and gastroduodenal applications of capsaicin significantly reduced the gastric responses to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hyperglycemia had no effect on the gastric contraction induced by electrical field stimulation or carbachol (10−5 M). To rule out involvement of serotonergic pathways, we showed that neither granisetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 0.5 g kg−1) nor pharmacological depletion of 5-HT using p-chlorophenylalanine (5-HT synthesis inhibitor) affected gastric relaxation induced by hyperglycemia. Lastly, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and a VIP antagonist each partially reduced gastric relaxation induced by hyperglycemia, and in combination, completely abolished gastric responses. In conclusion, hyperglycemia inhibits gastric motility through a capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent pathway originating from the gastroduodenal mucosa. Hyperglycemia stimulates vagal afferents, which, in turn, activate vagal efferent cholinergic pathways synapsing with intragastric nitric oxide- and VIP-containing neurons to mediate gastric relaxation. PMID:18356537

  6. Resveratrol prevents cognitive deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress: Sirt1/miR-134 signalling pathway regulates CREB/BDNF expression in hippocampus in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Xu, Linling; Qu, Chujie; Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian

    2018-04-30

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) leads to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol existed in polygonum cuspidatum and has been demonstrated to be a potent activator of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). Previous studies reported that resveratrol treatment ameliorated CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive deficits through upregulating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. However, the upstream signalling pathway mediating CREB/BDNF expression and then exerting a protective role on cognitive function remains unclear. The present study aims to investigate the possible mechanism of resveratrol on CUMS-induced cognitive deficits. Male Sprague Dawley rats were adminstrated resveratrol (40 and 80 mg/kg) every day for 4 consecutive weeks before exposure to CUMS procedure. Morris Water Maze test was used to appraise spatial learing and memory of rats. Sirt1/miR-134 signalling pathway and CREB/BDNF expression in hippocampus of rats were measured. We also explored Sirt1/miR-134 signalling pathway and CREB/BDNF expression in primary cultured hippocampus neurons with resveratrol (25, 50 and 100 μmol/L) treatment. We found that resveratrol treatment prevented spatial learing and memory impairment induced by CUMS. Meanwhile the potential mechanism of resveratrol was associated with increased levels of Sirt1, CREB phosphorylation (p-CREB), CREB, BDNF and decreased levels of miR-134 in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our study showed that the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on CUMS-induced cognitive impairment may rely on activating Sirt1/miR-134 pathway and then upregulating its downstream CREB/BDNF expression in hippocampus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) Overexpression in BaF3 Cells Contributes to Cell Proliferation Promotion, Apoptosis Resistance and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yan, Chao; Xin, Miaomiao; Han, Li; Zhang, Yunqing; Sun, Mingshu

    2017-03-27

    BACKGROUND B lymphocyte hyperactivity is a main characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and B lymphocytes play a prominent pathogenic role in the development and progression of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in B lymphocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse B lymphocytes BaF3 was transfected with Sirt1 vector or shRNA against Sirt1. Then the transfected cells viability and apoptosis were respectively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA levels of three pro-inflammatory cytokines and p53 were detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the expression levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway proteins were measured by Western blot. RESULTS Overexpression of Sirt1 significantly increased cell proliferation (p<0.05 or p<0.01) and significantly suppressed apoptosis (p<0.05). The mRNA level expressions of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly upregulated (p<0.05 or p<0.01), whereas p53 was significantly downregulated (p<0.05) by Sirt1 overexpression. In addition, the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) and p65 were significantly activated and phosphorylated (p<0.01 or p<0.001), and B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) was significantly upregulated (p<0.05) by Sirt1 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that Sirt1 overexpression could promote BaF3 cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. The NF-κB pathway might be involved in these effects of Sirt1 on BaF3 cells, and Sirt1 might be a potential risk factor of SLE.

  8. β-Adrenergic induced SR Ca2+ leak is mediated by an Epac-NOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Laëtitia; Bare, Dan J; Galice, Samuel; Shannon, Thomas R; Bers, Donald M

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and Ca 2+ -Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulate both physiological and pathophysiological Ca 2+ signaling. Elevated diastolic Ca 2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure and to arrhythmogenesis. β-AR activation is known to increase SR Ca 2+ leak via CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. Two independent and reportedly parallel pathways have been implicated in this β-AR-CaMKII cascade, one involving exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2) and another involving nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). Here we tested whether Epac and NOS function in a single series pathway to increase β-AR induced and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca 2+ leak. Leak was measured as both Ca 2+ spark frequency and tetracaine-induced shifts in SR Ca 2+ , in mouse and rabbit ventricular myocytes. Direct Epac activation by 8-CPT (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP) mimicked β-AR-induced SR Ca 2+ leak, and both were blocked by NOS inhibition. The same was true for myocyte CaMKII activation (assessed via a FRET-based reporter) and ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Inhibitor and phosphorylation studies also implicated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) downstream of Epac and above NOS activation in this pathway. We conclude that these two independently characterized parallel pathways function mainly via a single series arrangement (β-AR-cAMP-Epac-PI3K-Akt-NOS1-CaMKII) to mediate increased SR Ca 2+ leak. Thus, for β-AR activation the cAMP-PKA branch effects inotropy and lusitropy (by effects on Ca 2+ current and SR Ca 2+ -ATPase), this cAMP-Epac-NOS pathway increases pathological diastolic SR Ca 2+ leak. This pathway distinction may allow novel SR Ca 2+ leak therapeutic targeting in treatment of arrhythmias in heart failure that spare the inotropic and lusitropic effects of the PKA branch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. PI3K and MEK1/2 molecular pathways are involved in the erythropoietin-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command.

    PubMed

    Caravagna, Céline; Soliz, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    Erythropoietin stimulation modulates the central respiratory command in newborn mice. Specifically, the central respiratory depression induced by hypoxia is attenuated by acute (1h) or abolished by chronic erythropoietin stimulation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. As MEK and PI3K pathways are commonly involved in Epo-mediated effects of neuroprotection and erythropoiesis, we investigated here the implication of PI3K and MEK1/2 in the Epo-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command. To this end, in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 3 days old transgenic (Tg21; constitutively overexpressing erythropoietin in the brain specifically) and control mice were used. Our results show that blockade of PI3K or MEK1/2 stimulates normoxic bursts frequency in Tg21 preparations and abolish hypoxia-induced frequency depression in control preparations. These results show that MEK1/2 and PI3K pathways are involved in the Epo-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that MEK1/2 and PI3K are involved in the brainstem central respiratory command. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct polymer architecture mediates switching of complement activation pathways at the nanosphere-serum interface: implications for stealth nanoparticle engineering.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Islam; Al-Hanbali, Othman; Hunter, A Christy; Rutt, Kenneth J; Andresen, Thomas L; Moghimi, S Moein

    2010-11-23

    Nanoparticles with surface projected polyethyleneoxide (PEO) chains in "mushroom-brush" and "brush" configurations display stealth properties in systemic circulation and have numerous applications in site-specific targeting for controlled drug delivery and release as well as diagnostic imaging. We report on the "structure-activity" relationship pertaining to surface-immobilized PEO of various configurations on model nanoparticles, and the initiation of complement cascade, which is the most ancient component of innate human immunity, and its activation may induce clinically significant adverse reactions in some individuals. Conformational states of surface-projected PEO chains, arising from the block copolymer poloxamine 908 adsorption, on polystyrene nanoparticles trigger complement activation differently. Alteration of copolymer architecture on nanospheres from mushroom to brush configuration not only switches complement activation from C1q-dependent classical to lectin pathway but also reduces the level of generated complement activation products C4d, Bb, C5a, and SC5b-9. Also, changes in adsorbed polymer configuration trigger alternative pathway activation differently and through different initiators. Notably, the role for properdin-mediated activation of alternative pathway was only restricted to particles displaying PEO chains in a transition mushroom-brush configuration. Since nanoparticle-mediated complement activation is of clinical concern, our findings provide a rational basis for improved surface engineering and design of immunologically safer stealth and targetable nanosystems with polymers for use in clinical medicine.

  11. Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal a FluG-Mediated Signaling Pathway Relating to Asexual Sporulation of Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Xiang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jin-Song; Geng, Yan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Yan-He

    2017-09-01

    Medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata sporulate large numbers of arthroconidia in submerged fermentation, which is rarely reported in basidiomycetous fungi. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying this asexual sporulation (conidiation) remain unclear. Here, we used comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to elucidate possible signaling pathway relating to the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata. First, 104 differentially expressed proteins and 2586 differential cDNA sequences during the culture process of A. camphorata were identified by 2DE and RNA-seq, respectively. By applying bioinformatics analysis, a total of 67 genes which might play roles in the sporulation were obtained, and 18 of these genes, including fluG, sfgA, SfaD, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, nsdD, brlA, abaA, wetA, ganB, fadA, PkaA, veA, velB, vosA, and stuA might be involved in a potential FluG-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the 18 genes in the proposed FluG-mediated signaling pathway were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, our study helps elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata, and provides also useful transcripts and proteome for further bioinformatics study of this valuable medicinal mushroom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ablation of Sirtuin5 in the postnatal mouse heart results in protein succinylation and normal survival in response to chronic pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Kathleen A; Abraham, Dennis M; Liu, Juan; Locasale, Jason W; Grimsrud, Paul A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2018-05-16

    Mitochondrial Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is an NAD+-dependent demalonylase, desuccinylase, and deglutarylase that controls several metabolic pathways. A number of recent studies point to SIRT5 desuccinylase activity being important in maintaining cardiac function and metabolism under stress. Previously, we described a phenotype of increased mortality in whole-body SIRT5KO mice exposed to chronic pressure overload compared to their littermate WT controls. To determine if the survival phenotype we reported was due to a cardiac-intrinsic or cardiac-extrinsic effect of SIRT5, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, heart-specific SIRT5KO mouse model. Using our new animal model, we discovered that postnatal cardiac ablation of Sirt5 resulted in persistent accumulation of protein succinylation up to 30 weeks after SIRT5 depletion. Succinyl proteomics revealed that succinylation increased on proteins of oxidative metabolism between 15 and 31 weeks post ablation. Heart-specific SIRT5KO mice were exposed to chronic pressure overload to induce cardiac hypertrophy. We found that, in contrast to whole-body SIRT5KO mice, there was no difference in survival between heart-specific SIRT5KO mice and their littermate controls. Overall, the data presented here suggest that survival in SIRT5KO mice may be dictated by a multi-tissue or prenatal effect of SIRT5. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Polyubiquitination events mediate polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle activation of NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Abu-Amer, Yousef

    2011-07-08

    The pathologic response to implant wear-debris constitutes a major component of inflammatory osteolysis and remains under intense investigation. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, which are released during implant wear and loosening, constitute a major culprit by virtue of inducing inflammatory and osteolytic responses by macrophages and osteoclasts, respectively. Recent work by several groups has identified important cellular entities and secreted factors that contribute to inflammatory osteolysis. In previous work, we have shown that PMMA particles contribute to inflammatory osteolysis through stimulation of major pathways in monocytes/macrophages, primarily NF-κB and MAP kinases. The former pathway requires assembly of large IKK complex encompassing IKK1, IKK2, and IKKγ/NEMO. We have shown recently that interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK activation pathways, through introduction of inhibitors and decoy molecules, impedes PMMA-induced inflammation and osteolysis in mouse models of experimental calvarial osteolysis and inflammatory arthritis. In this study, we report that PMMA particles activate the upstream transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which is a key regulator of signal transduction cascades leading to activation of NF-κB and AP-1 factors. More importantly, we found that PMMA particles induce TAK1 binding to NEMO and UBC13. In addition, we show that PMMA particles induce TRAF6 and UBC13 binding to NEMO and that lack of TRAF6 significantly attenuates NEMO ubiquitination. Altogether, these observations suggest that PMMA particles induce ubiquitination of NEMO, an event likely mediated by TRAF6, TAK1, and UBC13. Our findings provide important information for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying PMMA particle-induced inflammatory responses.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Melatonin ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through SIRT3-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Mengen; Li, Buying; Duan, Weixun; Jing, Lin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Liming; Liu, Zhenhua; Yu, Bo; Ren, Kai; Gao, Erhe; Yang, Yang; Liang, Hongliang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yu, Shiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Sirtuins are a family of highly evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine nucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family that is localized primarily to the mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress-related diseases, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has a favorable effect in ameliorating MI/R injury. We hypothesized that melatonin protects against MI/R injury by activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. In this study, mice were pretreated with or without a selective SIRT3 inhibitor and then subjected to MI/R operation. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg) 10 minutes before reperfusion. Melatonin treatment improved postischemic cardiac contractile function, decreased infarct size, diminished lactate dehydrogenase release, reduced the apoptotic index, and ameliorated oxidative damage. Notably, MI/R induced a significant decrease in myocardial SIRT3 expression and activity, whereas the melatonin treatment upregulated SIRT3 expression and activity, and thus decreased the acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). In addition, melatonin increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 levels in response to MI/R. However, the cardioprotective effects of melatonin were largely abolished by the selective SIRT3 inhibitor 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (3-TYP), suggesting that SIRT3 plays an essential role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of melatonin. In vitro studies confirmed that melatonin also protected H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury (SIR) by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis, while SIRT3-targeted siRNA diminished these effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that melatonin treatment ameliorates MI/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis via activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  16. Degradation of sulfadimethoxine catalyzed by laccase with soybean meal extract as natural mediator: Mechanism and reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shangtao; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2017-08-01

    Natural laccase-mediator systems have been well recognized as an eco-friendly and energy-saving approach in environmental remediation, whose further application is however limited by the high cost of natural mediators and relatively long treatment time span. This study evaluated the water extract of soybean meal, a low-cost compound system, in mediating the laccase catalyzed degradation of a model contaminant of emerging concern, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and demonstrated it as a promising alternative mediator for soil and water remediation. Removal of 73.3% and 65.6% was achieved in 9 h using soybean meal extract (SBE) as the mediating system for laccase-catalyzed degradation of sulfadimethoxine at the concentration of 1 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. Further degradation of sulfadimethoxine was observed with multiple SBE additions. Using SBE as mediator increased the 9-h removal of SDM at 1 ppm initial concentration by 52.9%, 49.4%, and 36.3% in comparison to the system mediated by 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), p-Coumaric acid (COU) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), respectively. With the detection of stable coupling products formed with radical scavenger (5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, DMPO), three phenolic compounds (vanillin, apocynin, and daidzein) in SBE were confirmed to serve as mediators for Trametes versicolor laccase. Reaction pathways were proposed based on the results of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. SO 2 excursion happened during SDM transformation, leading to elimination of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, as a natural, phenol rich, and affordable compound system, the future application of SBE in wastewater and soil remediation is worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personal growth initiative and identity formation in adolescence through young adulthood: mediating processes on the pathway to well-being.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Robitschek, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Developing a personal identity is a challenging task throughout adolescence and the transition to adulthood. The present study sampling 551 14-35 year olds (54.1% female) examined personal growth initiative (PGI) as a potential predictor of core identity processes and explored whether identity functioned as a mediator on the pathway from PGI to self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Path analyses from a structural equation modeling approach indicated that all four components of PGI (i.e., planfulness, readiness for change, intentional behavior, and using resources) predicted different commitment and exploration processes, with planfulness being the most consistent predictor. Important age differences linking PGI-components to identity exploration were found. Finally, especially the degree to which individuals identified themselves with their identity commitments and the degree to which they relied on ruminative or maladaptive forms of identity exploration mediated pathways from PGI to self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of sirtuin 1 and mitofusin 2 contributes to enhanced ischemia/reperfusion injury in aged livers.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung Kook; Lee, Sooyeon; Flores-Toro, Joseph; U, Rebecca Y; Yang, Ming-Jim; Go, Kristina L; Biel, Thomas G; Miney, Catherine E; Pierre Louis, Schiley; Law, Brian K; Law, Mary E; Thomas, Elizabeth M; Behrns, Kevin E; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2018-05-17

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a causative factor contributing to morbidity and mortality during liver resection and transplantation. Livers from elderly patients have a poorer recovery from these surgeries, indicating reduced reparative capacity with aging. Mechanisms underlying this age-mediated hypersensitivity to I/R injury remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are affected by I/R in aged livers. Young (3 months) and old (23-26 months) male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to hepatic I/R in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from each age group were also exposed to simulated in vitro I/R. Biochemical, genetic, and imaging analyses were performed to assess cell death, autophagy flux, mitophagy, and mitochondrial function. Compared to young mice, old livers showed accelerated liver injury following mild I/R. Reperfusion of old hepatocytes also showed necrosis, accompanied with defective autophagy, onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Biochemical analysis indicated a near-complete loss of both SIRT1 and MFN2 after I/R in old hepatocytes, which did not occur in young cells. Overexpression of either SIRT1 or MFN2 alone in old hepatocytes failed to mitigate I/R injury, while co-overexpression of both proteins promoted autophagy and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death after reperfusion. Genetic approaches with deletion and point mutants revealed that SIRT1 deacetylated K655 and K662 residues in the C-terminus of MFN2, leading to autophagy activation. The SIRT1-MFN2 axis is pivotal during I/R recovery and may be a novel therapeutic target to reduce I/R injury in aged livers. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hypothalamic mTOR pathway mediates thyroid hormone-induced hyperphagia in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Varela, Luis; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Gallego, Rosalía; Vázquez, María J; Roa, Juan; Gándara, Marina; Schoenmakers, Erik; Nogueiras, Rubén; Chatterjee, Krishna; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized in rats by increased energy expenditure and marked hyperphagia. Alterations of thermogenesis linked to hyperthyroidism are associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism; however, the central mechanisms mediating hyperthyroidism-induced hyperphagia remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that hyperthyroid rats exhibit marked up-regulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway associated with increased mRNA levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased mRNA levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an area where mTOR co-localizes with thyroid hormone receptor-α (TRα). Central administration of thyroid hormone (T3) or genetic activation of thyroid hormone signalling in the ARC recapitulated hyperthyroidism effects on feeding and the mTOR pathway. In turn, central inhibition of mTOR signalling with rapamycin in hyperthyroid rats reversed hyperphagia and normalized the expression of ARC-derived neuropeptides, resulting in substantial body weight loss. The data indicate that in the hyperthyroid state, increased feeding is associated with thyroid hormone-induced up-regulation of mTOR signalling. Furthermore, our findings that different neuronal modulations influence food intake and energy expenditure in hyperthyroidism pave the way for a more rational design of specific and selective therapeutic compounds aimed at reversing the metabolic consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor mediates activation of ras through different signaling pathways in different cell types.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Williams, L T; Kaziro, Y

    1993-01-01

    A series of pieces of evidence have shown that Ras protein acts as a transducer of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-mediated signaling pathway: (i) formation of Ras.GTP is detected immediately on PDGF stimulation, and (ii) a dominant inhibitory mutant Ras, as well as a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody, can interfere with PDGF-induced responses. On the other hand, several signal transducing molecules including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) bind directly to the PDGF receptor and become tyrosine phosphorylated. Recently, it was shown that specific phosphorylated tyrosines of the PDGF receptor are responsible for interaction between the receptor and each signaling molecule. However, the roles of these signaling molecules have not been elucidated, and it remains unclear which molecules are implicated in the Ras pathway. In this study, we measured Ras activation in cell lines expressing mutant PDGF receptors that are deficient in coupling with specific molecules. In fibroblast CHO cells, a mutant receptor (Y708F/Y719F [PI3-K-binding sites]) was unable to stimulate Ras, whereas another mutant (Y739F [the GAP-binding site]) could do so, suggesting an indispensable role of PI3-K or a protein that binds to the same sites as PI3-K for PDGF-stimulated Ras activation. By contrast, both of the above mutants were capable of stimulating Ras protein in a pro-B-cell line, BaF3. Furthermore, a mutant receptor (Y977F/Y989F [PLC gamma-binding sites]) could fully activate Ras, and the direct activation of protein kinase C and calcium mobilization had almost no effect on the GDP/GTP state of Ras in this cell line. These results suggest that, in the pro-B-cell transfectants, each of the above pathways (PI3-K, GAP, and PLC gamma) can be eliminated without a loss of Ras activation. It remains unclear whether another unknown essential pathway which regulates Ras protein exists within BaF3 cells

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates TNF-α-induced iNOS expression in human endothelial cells: Involvement of Syk-mediated activation of PI3K-IKK-IκB signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhen; Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Song

    2013-08-15

    Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO) by activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and transcription of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We explored the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a compound derived from chuanxiong, on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced iNOS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explored the signal pathways involved by using RT-PCR and Western blot. TMP suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of iNOS by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, IκB degradation and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, which were required for NO gene transcription. Exposure to wortmannin abrogated IKK/IκB/NF-κB-mediated iNOS expression, suggesting activation of such a signal pathwaymore » might be phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) dependent. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor piceatannol significantly inhibited NO production. Furthermore, piceatannol obviously suppressed TNF-α-induced IκB phosphorylation and the downstream NF-κB activation, suggesting that Syk is an upstream key regulator in the activation of PI3K/IKK/IκB-mediated signaling. TMP significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of Syk and PI3K. Our data indicate that TMP might repress iNOS expression, at least in part, through its inhibitory effect of Syk-mediated PI3K phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. -- Highlights: •TMP suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of iNOS by inhibiting IKK/IκB/NF-κB pathway. •PI3K inhibitor wortmannin abrogated IKK/IκB/NF-κB-mediated iNOS expression. •Syk inhibitor piceatannol repressed PI3K/IKK/IκB mediated NO production. •Syk is an upstream regulator in the activation of PI3K/IKK/IκB-mediated signaling. •TMP might repress iNOS expression through Syk-mediated PI3K pathway.« less

  2. MEDIATOR18 and MEDIATOR20 confer susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, Jiri; Davoine, Celine; Björklund, Stefan; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M.

    2017-01-01

    The conserved protein complex known as Mediator conveys transcriptional signals by acting as an intermediary between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. As a result, Mediator subunits play multiple roles in regulating developmental as well as abiotic and biotic stress pathways. In this report we identify the head domain subunits MEDIATOR18 and MEDIATOR20 as important susceptibility factors for Fusarium oxysporum infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutants of MED18 and MED20 display down-regulation of genes associated with jasmonate signaling and biosynthesis while up-regulation of salicylic acid associated pathogenesis related genes and reactive oxygen producing and scavenging genes. We propose that MED18 and MED20 form a sub-domain within Mediator that controls the balance of salicylic acid and jasmonate associated defense pathways. PMID:28441405

  3. Metformin Restores Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy, Suppressed by Cytosolic p53

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Mi; Lee, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong-ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is known to alleviate hepatosteatosis by inducing 5’ adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-kinase-independent, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated autophagy. Dysfunctional mitophagy in response to glucolipotoxicities might play an important role in hepatosteatosis. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which metformin induces mitophagy through restoration of the suppressed Parkin-mediated mitophagy. To this end, our ob/ob mice were divided into three groups: (1) ad libitum feeding of a standard chow diet; (2) intraperitoneal injections of metformin 300 mg/kg; and (3) 3 g/day caloric restriction (CR). HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate (PA) plus high glucose in the absence or presence of metformin. We detected enhanced mitophagy in ob/ob mice treated with metformin or CR, whereas mitochondrial spheroids were observed in mice fed ad libitum. Metabolically stressed ob/ob mice and PA-treated HepG2 cells showed an increase in expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and cytosolic p53. Cytosolic p53 inhibited mitophagy by disturbing the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. However, metformin decreased ER stress and p53 expression, resulting in induction of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Furthermore, pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, increased mitochondrial incorporation into autophagosomes. Taken together, these results indicate that metformin treatment facilitates Parkin-mediated mitophagy rather than mitochondrial spheroid formation by decreasing the inhibitory interaction with cytosolic p53 and increasing degradation of mitofusins. PMID:26784190

  4. A Radical-Mediated Pathway for the Formation of [M + H](+) in Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Gyr, Luzia; Mirabelli, Mario F; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-09-01

    Active capillary plasma ionization is a highly efficient ambient ionization method. Its general principle of ion formation is closely related to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The method is based on dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), and can be constructed in the form of a direct flow-through interface to a mass spectrometer. Protonated species ([M + H](+)) are predominantly formed, although in some cases radical cations are also observed. We investigated the underlying ionization mechanisms and reaction pathways for the formation of protonated analyte ([M + H](+)). We found that ionization occurs in the presence and in the absence of water vapor. Therefore, the mechanism cannot exclusively rely on hydronium clusters, as generally accepted for APCI. Based on isotope labeling experiments, protons were shown to originate from various solvents (other than water) and, to a minor extent, from gaseous impurities and/or self-protonation. By using CO2 instead of air or N2 as plasma gas, additional species like [M + OH](+) and [M - H](+) were observed. These gas-phase reaction products of CO2 with the analyte (tertiary amines) indicate the presence of a radical-mediated ionization pathway, which proceeds by direct reaction of the ionized plasma gas with the analyte. The proposed reaction pathway is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These findings add a new ionization pathway leading to the protonated species to those currently known for APCI. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. The development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice: Effects of environmental enrichment, repeated testing, and differential mediation by indirect basal ganglia pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison R.; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Lewis, Mark H.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms mediating the development of repetitive behaviors in human or animals. Deer mice reared with environmental enrichment (EE) exhibit fewer repetitive behaviors and greater indirect basal ganglia pathway activation as adults than those reared in standard cages. The developmental progression of these behavioral and neural circuitry changes has not been characterized. We assessed the development of repetitive behavior in deer mice using both a longitudinal and cohort design. Repeated testing negated the expected effect of EE, but cohort analyses showed that progression of repetitive behavior was arrested after one week of EE and differed significantly from controls after 3 weeks. Moreover, EE reductions in repetitive behavior were associated with increasing activation of indirect pathway nuclei in males across adolescence, but not females. These findings provide the first assessment of developmental trajectories within EE and support indirect pathway mediation of repetitive behavior in male deer mice. PMID:28181216

  6. Rapamycin preserves the follicle pool reserve and prolongs the ovarian lifespan of female rats via modulating mTOR activation and sirtuin expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-mei; Li, Li; Xu, Jin-jie; Wang, Na; Liu, Wei-juan; Lin, Xuan-hao; Fu, Yu-cai; Luo, Li-li

    2013-07-01

    To maintain the normal length of female reproductive life, the majority of primordial follicles must be maintained in a quiescent state for later use. In this study, we aimed to study the effects of rapamycin on primordial follicle development and investigate the role of mTOR and sirtuin signaling. Rats were treated every other day with an intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (5mg/kg) or vehicle. After 10weeks of treatment, ovaries were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and analysis by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. HE staining showed that the number and percentage of primordial follicles in the rapamycin-treated group were twice the control group (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that mTOR and phosphorylated-p70S6K were extensively expressed in surviving follicles with strong staining observed in the cytoplasm of the oocyte. Western blotting showed decreased expression of phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated p70S6K in the rapamycin-treated group, and increased the expression of both SIRT1 and SIRT6 compared to the control group (P<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that rapamycin may inhibit the transition from primordial to developing follicles and preserve the follicle pool reserve, thus extending the ovarian lifespan of female rats via the modulation of mTOR and sirtuin signalings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    PubMed Central

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease. PMID:24161390

  8. Causal mediation analysis with multiple mediators.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R M; De Stavola, B L; Cousens, S N; Vansteelandt, S

    2015-03-01

    In diverse fields of empirical research-including many in the biological sciences-attempts are made to decompose the effect of an exposure on an outcome into its effects via a number of different pathways. For example, we may wish to separate the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (SBP) into effects via body mass index (BMI), via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and via other pathways. Much progress has been made, mainly due to contributions from the field of causal inference, in understanding the precise nature of statistical estimands that capture such intuitive effects, the assumptions under which they can be identified, and statistical methods for doing so. These contributions have focused almost entirely on settings with a single mediator, or a set of mediators considered en bloc; in many applications, however, researchers attempt a much more ambitious decomposition into numerous path-specific effects through many mediators. In this article, we give counterfactual definitions of such path-specific estimands in settings with multiple mediators, when earlier mediators may affect later ones, showing that there are many ways in which decomposition can be done. We discuss the strong assumptions under which the effects are identified, suggesting a sensitivity analysis approach when a particular subset of the assumptions cannot be justified. These ideas are illustrated using data on alcohol consumption, SBP, BMI, and GGT from the Izhevsk Family Study. We aim to bridge the gap from "single mediator theory" to "multiple mediator practice," highlighting the ambitious nature of this endeavor and giving practical suggestions on how to proceed. © 2014 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  9. Activity-guided isolation of a sirtuin2 inhibiting compound from coffee: structural and activity confirmation of Javamide-II (N-caffeoyltryptophan)and its cellular effects on histone H3 and alpha-tubulin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee is a most consumed drink worldwide, with potential health effects on several chronic diseases including neuronal degenerative diseases. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that the inhibition of sirtuin2 may be beneficial in restoring cognition in Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, in this pap...

  10. Extracellular UDP enhances P2X-mediated bladder smooth muscle contractility via P2Y6 activation of the phospholipase C/inositol trisphosphate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiqun; Sun, Xiaofeng; Robson, Simon C.; Hill, Warren G.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction characterized by abnormal bladder smooth muscle (BSM) contractions is pivotal to the disease process in overactive bladder, urge incontinence, and spinal cord injury. Purinergic signaling comprises one key pathway in modulating BSM contractility, but molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate, using myography, that activation of P2Y6 by either UDP or a specific agonist (MRS 2693) induced a sustained increase in BSM tone (up to 2 mN) in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, activation of P2Y6 enhanced ATP-mediated BSM contractile force by up to 45%, indicating synergistic interactions between P2X and P2Y signaling. P2Y6-activated responses were abolished by phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonists U73122 and xestospongin C, demonstrating involvement of the PLC/IP3 signal pathway. Mice null for Entpd1, an ectonucleotidase on BSM, demonstrated increased force generation on P2Y6 activation (150%). Thus, in vivo perturbations to purinergic signaling resulted in altered P2Y6 activity and bladder contractility. We conclude that UDP, acting on P2Y6, regulates BSM tone and in doing so selectively maximizes P2X1-mediated contraction forces. This novel neurotransmitter pathway may play an important role in urinary voiding disorders characterized by abnormal bladder motility.—Yu, W., Sun, X., Robson, S. C., Hill, W. G. Extracellular UDP enhances P2X-mediated bladder smooth muscle contractility via P2Y6 activation of the phospholipase C/inositol trisphosphate pathway. PMID:23362118

  11. Role of nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways in cancer-related symptoms and their regulation by nutritional agents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Reuter, Simone; Dougherty, Patrick M; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by dysregulation of multiple genes and is associated with symptoms such as cachexia, anorexia, fatigue, depression, neuropathic pain, anxiety, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders and delirium (acute confusion state) in medically ill patients. These symptoms are caused by either the cancer itself or the cancer treatment. During the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of inflammatory pathways contributes to the expression of these symptoms. Cancer patients have been found to have higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. The nuclear factor (NF)- κB is a major mediator of inflammatory pathways. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents that can modulate the NF-κB activation and inflammatory pathways may have potential in improving cancer-related symptoms in patients. Because of their multitargeting properties, low cost, low toxicity and immediate availability, natural agents have gained considerable attention for prevention and treatment of cancer-related symptoms. How NF-κB and inflammatory pathways contribute to cancer-related symptoms is the focus of this review. We will also discuss how nutritional agents such as curcumin, genistein, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene can modulate inflammatory pathways and thereby reduce cancer-related symptoms in patients. PMID:21565893

  12. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  13. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia. PMID:26157452

  14. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine interferes with the epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhihua; Yang, Jun; Huang, Yun; Yu, Yingnian

    2005-03-01

    Many environmental factors, such as ultraviolet (UV) and arsenic, can induce the clustering of cell surface receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is accompanied by the phosphorylation of the receptors and the activation of ensuing cellular signal transduction pathways, which are implicated in the various cellular responses caused by the exposure to these factors. In this study, we have shown that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent, also induced the clustering of EGFR in human amnion FL cells, which was similar in morphology to that of epidermal growth factor treatment. However, MNNG treatment did not activate Ras, the downstream mediator in EGFR signaling pathway, as compared to EGF treatment. The autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues Y1068 and Y1173 at the intracellular domain of EGFR, which is related to Ras activation under EGF treatment, was also not observed by MNNG exposure. Interestingly, although MNNG did not affect the binding of EGF to EGFR, MNNG can interfere with EGF function. For instance, pre-incubating FL cells with MNNG inhibited the autophosphorylation of EGFR by EGF treatment, as well as the activation of Ras. In addition, the phosphorylation of Y845 on EGFR by EGF, which is mediated through c-Src or related kinases but not autophosphorylation, was also affected by MNNG. Therefore, MNNG may influence the tyrosine kinase activity as well as the phosphorylation of EGFR through its interaction with EGFR.

  15. Phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway mediates angiotensin II-dependent apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts expressing AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Raul; Soto, Cristian; Copaja, Miguel; Mateluna, Francisca; Aranguiz, Pablo; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chiong, Mario; Garcia, Lorena; Letelier, Alan; Thomas, Walter G; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are the major non-myocyte cell constituent in the myocardium, and they are involved in heart remodeling. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediates the established actions of angiotensin II (Ang II), and changes in its expression have been reported in cardiac fibroblasts after myocardial infarction. However, the AT1R-dependent signaling pathways involved in cardiac fibroblast death remain unknown. Using adenovirus, we ectopically expressed AT1R in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and investigated the role of the phospholipase (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway on Ang II-dependent death. Ang II induced cardiac fibroblast death characterized by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. All these effects were prevented by the AT1R antagonist losartan, PLC inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor Gö6976. We conclude that Ang II stimulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in cultured cardiac fibroblasts by the AT1R/PLC/PKC signaling pathway.

  16. The LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1 (LRP1) Regulates the PDGF Signaling Pathway by Binding the Protein Phosphatase SHP-2 and Modulating SHP-2- Mediated PDGF Signaling Events

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Julie; Mikhailenko, Irina; Noyes, Nathaniel; Migliorini, Mary; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The PDGF signaling pathway plays a major role in several biological systems, including vascular remodeling that occurs following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Recent studies have shown that the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a physiological regulator of the PDGF signaling pathway. The underlying mechanistic details of how this regulation occurs have yet to be resolved. Activation of the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the LRP1 cytoplasmic domain within endosomes and generates an LRP1 molecule with increased affinity for adaptor proteins such as SHP-2 that are involved in signaling pathways. SHP-2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that positively regulates the PDGFRβ pathway, and is required for PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. We investigated the possibility that LRP1 may regulate the PDGFRβ signaling pathway by binding SHP-2 and competing with the PDGFRβ for this molecule. Methodology/Principal Findings To quantify the interaction between SHP-2 and phosphorylated forms of the LRP1 intracellular domain, we utilized an ELISA with purified recombinant proteins. These studies revealed high affinity binding of SHP-2 to phosphorylated forms of both LRP1 intracellular domain and the PDGFRβ kinase domain. By employing the well characterized dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, we established that PDGF-induced SHP-2 phosphorylation primarily occurs within endosomal compartments, the same compartments in which LRP1 is tyrosine phosphorylated by activated PDGFRβ. Immunofluorescence studies revealed colocalization of LRP1 and phospho-SHP-2 following PDGF stimulation of fibroblasts. To define the contribution of LRP1 to SHP-2-mediated PDGF chemotaxis, we employed fibroblasts expressing LRP1 and deficient in LRP1 and a specific SHP-2 inhibitor, NSC-87877. Our results reveal that LRP1 modulates SHP-2-mediated PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that phosphorylated forms of LRP1 and

  17. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  18. Hippo pathway mediates resistance to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Taranjit S; Kirschner, Marc W

    2017-05-02

    Chemotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness is limited by drug resistance. Here, we report a mechanism by which cell density activates the Hippo pathway, which in turn inactivates YAP, leading to changes in the regulation of genes that control the intracellular concentrations of gemcitabine and several other US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oncology drugs. Hippo inactivation sensitizes a diverse panel of cell lines and human tumors to gemcitabine in 3D spheroid, mouse xenografts, and patient-derived xenograft models. Nuclear YAP enhances gemcitabine effectiveness by down-regulating multidrug transporters as well by converting gemcitabine to a less active form, both leading to its increased intracellular availability. Cancer cell lines carrying genetic aberrations that impair the Hippo signaling pathway showed heightened sensitivity to gemcitabine. These findings suggest that "switching off" of the Hippo-YAP pathway could help to prevent or reverse resistance to some cancer therapies.

  19. NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway Mediates Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Haowen; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Xingping; Cheng, Jing; He, Yun; Jiang, Yugang

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have blossomed into an effective approach with great potential for the treatment of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying antifibrosis mechanisms by which the BMSC inhibit activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vivo and in vitro. To study the effect of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) on activated HSCs, we used HSCs and the coculture systems to evaluate the inhibition of activated HSCs from the aspects of the apoptosis of activated HSCs. In addition, activation of NADPH oxidase pathway and the changes in liver histopathology were tested by using the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 -) induced liver fibrosis in mice. Introduction of hBM-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of activated HSCs by inducing the apoptosis process of activated HSCs. The effect of hBM-MSCs reduced the signaling pathway of NADPH oxidase in activated HSCs. Besides, the signaling pathway of NADPH oxidase mediated hBM-MSC upregulation of the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and downregulation of the expression of α 1(I) collagen and alpha-smooth muscle actin ( α -SMA) in activated HSCs. Moreover, the hBM-MSC-induced decrease in the signaling pathway of NADPH oxidase was accompanied by the decrease of the activated HSC number and liver fibrosis in a mouse model of CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. The hBM-MSCs act as a promising drug source against liver fibrosis development with respect to hepatopathy as a therapeutic target.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Reddy, C Damodar; Swamy, Narasimha

    2003-09-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage-activating factor (DBP-maf) is derived from serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP) by selective deglycosylation during inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DBP-maf on RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying intracellular signal transduction pathways. DBP-maf increased proapoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. However, DBP, the precursor to DBP-maf did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Cell cycle analysis of DBP-maf-treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed growth arrest with accumulation of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the DBP-maf-induced apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells. DBP-maf increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, while it decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, attenuated DBP-maf-induced apoptosis. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, did not show a significant inhibition of apoptosis induced by DBP-maf. Taken together, these results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in DBP-maf-mediated apoptosis of macrophages. Our studies indicate that, during inflammation DBP-maf may function positively by causing death of the macrophages when activated macrophages are no longer needed at the site of inflammation. In summary, we report for the first time that DBP-maf induces apoptosis in macrophages via p38 and JNK1/2 pathway. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Cytotoxicity induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhe; Feng, Lin; Zhang, Yannan; Hu, Hejing; Shi, Yanfeng; Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Tong; Fu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2018-06-06

    Although the strongly causal associations were between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiovascular disease, the toxic effect and potential mechanism of PM 2.5 on heart was poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac toxicity of PM 2.5 exposure on human cardiomyocytes (AC16). The cell viability was decreased while the LDH release was increased in a dose-dependent way after AC16 exposed to PM 2.5 . The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased followed by the decreasing in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The damage of mitochondria was observed by ultra-structural analysis and MMP measurement. The apoptotic rate of AC16 were markedly elevated which was triggered by PM 2.5 . In addition, the proteins involved in mitochondria- mediated apoptosis pathway were measured. The protein levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 was down-regulated after AC16 exposed to PM 2.5 . In summary, our results demonstrated that mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway played a critical role in PM 2.5 -induced myocardial cytotoxicity in AC16, which suggested that PM 2.5 may contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial and Akt pathways in glioblastoma cell death induced by Cotinus coggygria flavonoid nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Jun Jie; To, Tony SS; Zhao, Hua Fu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, the major polyphenol components in Cotinus coggygria (CC), have been found to show an anticancer effect in our previous study; however, the exact mechanisms of inducing human glioblastoma (GBM) cell death remain to be resolved. In this study, a novel polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30/sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyethyleneglycol-coated liposome loaded with CC flavonoids (CCFs) was developed to enhance solubility and the antibrain tumor effect, and the molecular mechanism regarding how CCF nanoliposomes (CCF-NLs) induce apoptotic cell death in vitro was investigated. DBTRG-05MG GBM cell lines treated with CCF-NLs showed potential antiproliferative effects. Regarding the underlying mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG GBM cells, CCF-NLs were shown to downregulate the expression of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2), an apoptosis-related protein family member, but the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein was enhanced compared with that in controls. CCF-NLs also inhibited the activity of caspase-3 and -9, which is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Blockade of caspase activation consistently induced apoptosis and inhibited growth in CCF-NL-treated DBTRG-05MG cells. This study further investigated the role of the Akt pathway in the apoptotic cell death by CCF-NLs, showing that CCF-NLs deactivated Akt. Specifically, CCF-NLs downregulated the expression of p-Akt and SIRT1 as well as the level of phosphorylated p53. Together, these results indicated SIRT1/p53-mediated cell death was induced by CCF-NLs, but not by extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in DBTRG-05MG cells. Overall, this study suggested caspase-dependent activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways, probably through blockade of the SIRT1/p53-mediated mitochondrial and Akt pathways to exert the proapoptotic effect of CCF-NLs in DBTRG-05MG GBM cells. PMID:26345416

  3. Stromal Tissue Rigidity Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Corneal Wound Healing Through the Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ting-Lieh; Ji, Andrea Tung-Qian; Hsu, Wei-Tse; Liu, Chia-Yu; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun

    2016-10-01

    The healing of a corneal epithelial defect is essential for preventing infectious corneal ulcers and subsequent blindness. We previously demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the corneal stroma, through a paracrine mechanism, yield a more favorable therapeutic benefit for corneal wound re-epithelialization than do MSCs in the corneal epithelium. In this study, MSCs were grown on a matrix with the rigidity of the physiological human vitreous (1 kPa), corneal epithelium (8 kPa), or corneal stroma (25 kPa) for investigating the role of corneal tissue rigidity in MSC functions regarding re-epithelialization promotion. MSC growth on a 25-kPa dish significantly promoted the wound healing of human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells. Among growth factors contributing to corneal epithelial wound healing, corneal stromal rigidity selectively enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) secretion from MSCs. Inhibitors of TGF-β pan receptor, TGF-β receptor 1, and Smad2 dose dependently abrogated MSC-mediated HCE-T wound healing. Furthermore, MSCs growth on a matrix with corneal stromal rigidity enhanced the ability of themselves to promote corneal re-epithelialization by activating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and integrin β1 production in HCE-T cells through TGF-β signaling pathway activation. Smad2 activation resulted in the upregulation of MMP-2 and -13 expression in HCE-T cells, whereas integrin β1 production favored a Smad2-independent TGF-β pathway. Altogether, we conclude that corneal stromal rigidity is a critical factor for MSC-induced promotion of corneal re-epithelialization. The activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway, which maintains the balance between integrin and MMP expression, in HCE-T cells is the major pathway responsible for MSC-mediated wound healing. Stem Cells 2016;34:2525-2535. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    PubMed

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  5. The effect of tributyltin chloride on Caenorhabditis elegans germline is mediated by a conserved DNA damage checkpoint pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Tian, Huimin; Chu, Hongran; Wu, Jianjian; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yanhai

    2014-03-21

    Tributyltin (TBT), one of the environmental pollutants, has been shown to impact the reproduction of animals. However, due to the lack of appropriate animal model, analysis of the affected molecular pathways in germ cells is lagging and has been particularly challenging. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCL) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans germline. We show that exposure of C. elegans to TBTCL causes significantly elevated level of sterility and embryonic lethality. TBTCL exposure results in an increased number of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks in germ cells, subsequently leading to activated DNA damage checkpoint. Exposing C. elegans to TBTCL causes dose- and time-dependent germline apoptosis. This apoptotic response was blocked in loss-of-function mutants of hus-1 (op241), mrt-2 (e2663) and p53/cep-1 (gk138), indicating that checkpoints and p53 are essential for mediating TBTCL-induced germ cell apoptosis. Moreover, TBTCL exposure can inhibit germ cell proliferation, which is also mediated by the conserved checkpoint pathway. We thereby propose that TBT exhibits its effects on the germline by inducing DNA damage and impaired maintenance of genomic integrity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. RhoA/ROCK Signaling Pathway Mediates Shuanghuanglian Injection-Induced Pseudo-allergic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiayin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Yushi; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Pan, Chen; Tian, Jingzhuo; Yang, Yifei; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Lianmei; Liu, Suyan; Liu, Jing; Deng, Nuo; Liang, Aihua

    2018-01-01

    SHLI-induced hypersensitivity reactions in both endothelial cells and mice indicating its protective effect. SHLI-induced pseudo-allergic reactions were mediated by the activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Conclusion : This study presents a novel mechanism of SHLI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions and suggests a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the associated adverse reactions.

  7. RhoA/ROCK Signaling Pathway Mediates Shuanghuanglian Injection-Induced Pseudo-allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiayin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Yushi; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Pan, Chen; Tian, Jingzhuo; Yang, Yifei; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Lianmei; Liu, Suyan; Liu, Jing; Deng, Nuo; Liang, Aihua

    2018-01-01

    SHLI-induced hypersensitivity reactions in both endothelial cells and mice indicating its protective effect. SHLI-induced pseudo-allergic reactions were mediated by the activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Conclusion: This study presents a novel mechanism of SHLI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions and suggests a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the associated adverse reactions. PMID:29487527

  8. A high-throughput study on endothelial cell adhesion and growth mediated by adsorbed serum protein via signaling pathway PCR array

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yayun; Hong, Ying; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Yiwen; Yang, Dayun; Zhang, Fudan; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to utilize the signaling pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays to investigate the activation of two important biological signaling pathways in endothelial cell adhesion and growth mediated by adsorbed serum protein on the surface of bare and titanium nitride (TiN)-coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. First, the endothelial cells were cultured on the bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys and chitosan films as control for 4 h and 24 h, respectively. Then, the total RNA of the cells was collected and the PCR arrays were performed. After that, the differentially expressed genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway were screened out; and the further bioinformatics analyses were performed. The results showed that both TGF-β signaling pathway and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway were activated in the cells after 4 h and 24 h culturing on the surface of bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys compared to the chitosan group. The activated TGF-β signaling pathway promoted cell adhesion; the activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway promoted cell adhesion, spreading, growth and motility. In addition, the activation of both pathways was much stronger in the cells cultured for 24 h versus 4 h, which indicated that cell adhesion and growth became more favorable with longer time on the surface of two NiTi alloy materials. PMID:29423265

  9. Sulforaphane attenuates microglia-mediated neuronal necroptosis through down-regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sisi; Yang, Canhong; Huang, Weihua; Du, Shuhua; Mai, Hantao; Xiao, Jijie; Lü, Tianming

    2018-01-31

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural dietary isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage, has very strong anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of microglia leads to overexpression of a series of pro-inflammatory mediators, which play a vital role in neuronal damage. SFN may have neuroprotective effects in different neurodegenerative diseases related to inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying SFN's protection of neurons against microglia-mediated neuronal damage are not fully understood. Here, we investigated how SFN attenuated microglia-mediated neuronal damage. Our results showed that SFN could not directly protect the viability of neurons following pro-inflammatory mediators, but increased the viability of BV-2 microglia and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner in BV-2 cells. SFN also significantly blocked the phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK1/2) and NF-κB p65, both by itself and with MAPK inhibitors (SB203580, SP 600125, and U0126) or an NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC). The expression of pro-inflammatory proteins was also blocked by SFN with or without inhibitors. Further, SFN indirectly increased the viability and maintained the morphology of neurons, and the protein expression of RIPK3 and MLKL was significantly suppressed by SFN in neuronal necroptosis through p38, JNK, and NF-κB p65 but not ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Together, our results demonstrate that SFN attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through down-regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in BV-2 microglia and thus indirectly suppresses microglia-mediated neuronal damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of cytosolic sialidase Neu2 with plasma membrane enhances Fas-mediated apoptosis by impairing PI3K-Akt/mTOR-mediated pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shalini; Mandal, Chhabinath; Chatterjee, Uttara; Mandal, Chitra

    2018-02-12

    Modulation of sialylation by sialyltransferases and sialidases plays essential role in carcinogenesis. There are few reports on sialyltransferase, however, the contribution of cytosolic sialidase (Neu2) remains unexplored in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We observed lower expression of Neu2 in different PDAC cells, patient tissues, and a significant strong association with clinicopathological characteristics. Neu2 overexpression guided drug-resistant MIAPaCa2 and AsPC1 cells toward apoptosis as evidenced by decreased Bcl2/Bax ratio, activation of caspase-3/caspase-6/caspase-8, PARP reduction, reduced CDK2/CDK4/CDK6, and cyclin-B1/cyclin-E with unaffected caspase-9. Neu2-overexpressed cells exhibited higher expression of Fas/CD95-death receptor, FasL, FADD, and Bid cleavage confirming extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis. α2,6-linked sialylation of Fas helps cancer cells to survive, which is a substrate for Neu2. Therefore, their removal should enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis. Neu2-overexpressed cells indeed showed increased enzyme activity even on membrane. Interestingly, this membrane-bound Neu2 exhibited enhanced association with Fas causing its desialylation and activation as corroborated by decreased association of Fas with α2,6-sialic acid-binding lectin. Additionally, enhanced cytosolic Neu2 inhibited the expression of several growth factor-mediated signaling molecules involved in PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway probably through desialylation which in turn also causes Fas activation. Furthermore, Neu2-overexpressed cells exhibited reduced cell migration, invasion with decreased VEGF, VEGFR, and MMP9 levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cytosolic Neu2 on membrane, its association with Fas, enhanced desialylation, activation, and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our study ascertains a novel concept by which the function of Fas/CD95 could be modulated indicating a critical role of upstream Neu2 as a promising target for

  11. Detection of Sirtuin-1 protein expression in peripheral blood leukocytes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kuniko; Matsuu, Aya; Sasaki, Kai; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-11

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone deacetylase with a large number of protein substrates. It has attracted a lot of attention in association with extending lifespan. The objective of this study was to enable the evaluation of SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs by flow cytometry. Three transcript variants were amplified from PBMCs by reverse transcription PCR and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed. On the basis deduced amino acid sequence, a monoclonal antibody against human SIRT1, 1F3, was selected to detect canine SIRT1. Canine SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was successfully detected by western blotting using this antibody. Intracellular canine SIRT1 was also detected in permeabilized 293T cells transfected with a canine SIRT1 expression plasmid by flow cytometry using this antibody. SIRT1 was detected in all leukocyte subsets including lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. The expression level was markedly different among individual dogs. These results indicated that the method applied in this study is useful for evaluating canine SIRT1 levels in PBMCs from dogs.

  12. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. H19 mediates methotrexate resistance in colorectal cancer through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ke-feng; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Feng, Lu

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy, most of which remain unresponsive to chemotherapy. As one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs, methotrexate (MTX) serves as an anti-metabolite and anti-folate chemotherapy for various cancers. Unfortunately, MTX resistance prevents its clinical application in cancer therapy. Thereby, overcoming the drug resistance is an alternative strategy to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of MTX in clinics. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years. More and more emerging evidences have demonstrated that they play important regulatory roles in various biological activities and disease progression including drug resistance. In the present study, amore » MTX-resistant colorectal cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) was developed, which displayed the active proliferation and shortened cell cycle. LncRNA H19 was found to be significantly upregulated in this resistant cell line. Further investigation showed that H19 knockdown sensitized the MTX resistance in HT-29-R cells while its overexpression improved the MTX resistance in the parental cells, suggesting that H19 mediate MTX resistance. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in HT-29-R cells, and H19 knockdown suppressed this signaling in the parental cells. In conclusion, H19 mediated MTX resistance via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which help to develop H19 as a promising therapeutic target for MTX resistant CRC. - Highlights: • A methotrexate (MTX) -resistant colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) has been developed. • H19 was upregulated in HT-29-R cells. • H19 mediated MTX resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). • Wnt/β-catenin pathway was involved in the H19-mediated MTX resistance in CRC cells.« less

  14. Intracellular pathways and nuclear localization signal peptide-mediated gene transfection by cationic polymeric nanovectors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglian; Wang, Jinlei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Min; Jin, Xue; Tang, Guping; Chu, Paul K

    2012-02-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) - based polymers are promising cationic nanovectors. A good understanding of the mechanism by which cationic polymers/DNA complexes are internalized and delivered to nuclei helps to identify which transport steps may be manipulated in order to improve the transfection efficiency. In this work, cell internalization and trafficking of PEI-CyD (PC) composed of β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD) and polyethylenimine (PEI, Mw 600) are studied. The results show that the PC transfected DNA is internalized by binding membrane-associated proteoglycans. The endocytic pathway of the PC particles is caveolae- and clathrin-dependent with both pathways converging to the lysosome. The intracellular fate of the PC provides visual evidence that it can escape from the lysosome. Lysosomal inhibition with chloroquine has no effect on PC mediated transfection implying that blocking the lysosomal traffic does not improve transfection. To improve the nuclear delivery of PC transfected DNA, nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides are chosen to conjugate and combine with the PC. Compared to PC/pDNA, PC-NLS/pDNA, and PC/pDNA/NLS can effectively improve gene transfection in dividing and non-dividing cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tiantian; Zhang, Junhui; Tang, Di; Zhang, Xingyue; Jiang, Xupin; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Dongxia; Huang, Yuesheng

    2017-01-01

    Keratinocyte migration, the initial event and rate-limiting step in wound healing, plays a vital role in restoration of the intact skin barrier, also known as re-epithelialization. After acute tissue injury, hypoxic microenvironment gradually develops and acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing process. Although we have previously found that hypoxia induces keratinocyte migration, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we first observed that hypoxia increased mTORC1 activity. Recombinant lentivirus vector and Rapamycin were used for silencing mTORC1 in HaCaT cells and primary mouse keratinocytes (MKs). Using cell migration assay and a Zeiss chamber equipped with imaging system, we also demonstrated that mTORC1 downregulation reversed hypoxia-induced keratinocyte motility and lateral migration. Importantly, hypoxia-activated mTORC1 was accompanied by the AMPK downregulation, and we found that the AMPK pathway activators Metformin (Met) and 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) decreased the mTORC1 activity, cell motility and lateral migration. Thus, our results suggest that hypoxia regulates mTORC1-mediated keratinocyte motility and migration via the AMPK pathway. PMID:28068384

  16. Sirtuin 1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression induced by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide via targeting nuclear factor–κB in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Liu; Yu, Yaqiong; Qiu, Lihong; Yang, Di; Yan, Lu; Guo, Jiajie; Jahan, Rabita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (P.e LPS) is an important initiating factor for periapical inflammation and bone destruction. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been shown to participate in the formation and diffusion of periapical bone lesion in chronic apical periodontitis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a key regulator of inflammation in mammalian cells which suppresses the release of inflammatory mediators. This study aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in regulating MMP-13 expression induced by P.e LPS in osteoblasts. P.e LPS stimulated MMP-13 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 reinforced the increase of MMP-13mRNA expression induced by P.e LPS. SIRT1 activator resveratrol significantly reduced the expression of MMP-13 and SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 enhanced the expression of MMP-13. Moreover, SIRT1 activation with resveratrol inhibited acetylation of NF-κB p65 and NF-κB transcriptional activity, which were enhanced by P.e LPS. In addition, NF-κB p65 was involved in P.e LPS-induced MMP-13 expression via directly binding to the MMP-13 promoter. However, SIRT1 activation significantly interfered with this binding. These findings strongly suggest that P.e LPS induces MMP-13 expression in osteoblasts, and SIRT1 suppresses this expression of MMP-13 through targeting NF-κB p65. This provides new insights into understanding the actions of SIRT1 on anti-inflammatory and anti-bone resorption activity. PMID:28473882

  17. Sirtuin 1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression induced by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide via targeting nuclear factor-κB in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liu; Yu, Yaqiong; Qiu, Lihong; Yang, Di; Yan, Lu; Guo, Jiajie; Jahan, Rabita

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (P.e LPS) is an important initiating factor for periapical inflammation and bone destruction. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been shown to participate in the formation and diffusion of periapical bone lesion in chronic apical periodontitis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a key regulator of inflammation in mammalian cells which suppresses the release of inflammatory mediators. This study aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in regulating MMP-13 expression induced by P.e LPS in osteoblasts. P.e LPS stimulated MMP-13 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 reinforced the increase of MMP-13mRNA expression induced by P.e LPS. SIRT1 activator resveratrol significantly reduced the expression of MMP-13 and SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 enhanced the expression of MMP-13. Moreover, SIRT1 activation with resveratrol inhibited acetylation of NF-κB p65 and NF-κB transcriptional activity, which were enhanced by P.e LPS. In addition, NF-κB p65 was involved in P.e LPS-induced MMP-13 expression via directly binding to the MMP-13 promoter. However, SIRT1 activation significantly interfered with this binding. These findings strongly suggest that P.e LPS induces MMP-13 expression in osteoblasts, and SIRT1 suppresses this expression of MMP-13 through targeting NF-κB p65. This provides new insights into understanding the actions of SIRT1 on anti-inflammatory and anti-bone resorption activity.

  18. Activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate-induced delayed neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chaoshuang; Kou, Ruirui; Gao, Yuan; Xie, Keqin; Song, Fuyong

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that abnormal neurons death has been implicated in organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). However, the precise mechanism of neuronal death in OPIDN remains largely unknown. In this study, adult hens were treated with a dosage of 750 mg/kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) by gavage, and then sacrificed on the time-points of 1, 5, 10, and 21 days after dosing TOCP, respectively. The apoptotic change of spinal cord neurons induced by TOCP was examined, and the role of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of neurons during OPIDN was investigated. TUNEL assays showed that apoptotic neurons in hen spinal cords began to appear on day 5 following TOCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed a translocation of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm after dosing TOCP. Moreover, the level of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Pro-caspase3 and Pro-caspase9 in hen spinal cord was significantly decreased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved-PARP was significantly elevated. Taken together, these findings indicate that the administration of TOCP can induce neuron apoptosis in hen spinal cords, which might be mediated by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax-Deregulated Autophagy Pathway and c-FLIP Expression Contribute to Resistance against Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiansuo; Shi, Juan; Zhang, Yaxi; Liu, Shilian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein is considered to play a central role in the process that leads to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 Tax-expressing cells show resistance to apoptosis induced by Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The regulation of Tax on the autophagy pathway in HeLa cells and peripheral T cells was recently reported, but the function and underlying molecular mechanism of the Tax-regulated autophagy are not yet well defined. Here, we report that HTLV-1 Tax deregulates the autophagy pathway, which plays a protective role during the death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis of human U251 astroglioma cells. The cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which is upregulated by Tax, also contributes to the resistance against DR-mediated apoptosis. Both Tax-induced autophagy and Tax-induced c-FLIP expression require Tax-induced activation of IκB kinases (IKK). Furthermore, Tax-induced c-FLIP expression is regulated through the Tax-IKK-NF-κB signaling pathway, whereas Tax-triggered autophagy depends on the activation of IKK but not the activation of NF-κB. In addition, DR-mediated apoptosis is correlated with the degradation of Tax, which can be facilitated by the inhibitors of autophagy. IMPORTANCE Our study reveals that Tax-deregulated autophagy is a protective mechanism for DR-mediated apoptosis. The molecular mechanism of Tax-induced autophagy is also illuminated, which is different from Tax-increased c-FLIP. Tax can be degraded via manipulation of autophagy and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results outline a complex regulatory network between and among apoptosis, autophagy, and Tax and also present evidence that autophagy represents a new possible target for therapeutic intervention for the HTVL-1 related diseases. PMID:24352466

  20. Fisetin Protects PC12 Cells from Tunicamycin-Mediated Cell Death via Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Modulation of Nrf2-Driven Gene Expression, SIRT1 and MAPK Signaling in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Wu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2017-04-17

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavonol and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. However, high concentration of fisetin is reported to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cause cytotoxicity in cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effects of low concentration of fisetin against tunicamycin (Tm)-mediated cytotoxicity in neuronal-like catecholaminergic PC12 cells. Cell viability was assayed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and apoptotic and autophagic markers were analyzed by Western blot. Gene expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) and Phase II enzymes was further investigated using RT-Q-PCR or Western blotting. Intracellular ROS level was measured using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H₂DCFDA) by a fluorometer. The effects of fisetin on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. Fisetin (<20 µM) restored cell viability and repressed apoptosis, autophagy and ROS production in Tm-treated cells. Fisetin attenuated Tm-mediated expression of ER stress genes, such as glucose-regulated proteins 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP also known as GADD153) and Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3), but induced the expression of nuclear E2 related factor (Nrf)2-targeted heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT/SLC7A11), in both the presence and absence of Tm. Moreover, fisetin enhanced phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), JNK (c-JUN NH₂-terminal protein kinase), and p38 MAPK. Addition of JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly antagonized its cytoprotective activity and modulatory effects on UPR. Fisetin also restored Tm-inhibited SIRT1 expression and addition of sirtinol (SIRT1 activation inhibitor

  1. AT1 receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II and NHE-3 expression in proximal tubule cells through a microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Hopfer, Ulrich; Zhuo, Jia L

    2009-11-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is taken up by proximal tubule (PT) cells via AT1 (AT1a) receptor-mediated endocytosis, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the microtubule- rather than the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway regulates AT1-mediated uptake of ANG II and ANG II-induced sodium and hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE-3) expression in PT cells. The expression of AT1 receptors, clathrin light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) proteins, and type 1 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs; MAP-1A and MAP-1B) in PT cells were knocked down by their respective small interfering (si) RNAs before AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression were studied. AT1 siRNAs inhibited AT1 expression and blocked ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression in PT cells, as expected (P < 0.01). Clathrin LC or HC siRNAs knocked down their respective proteins by approximately 90% with a peak response at 24 h, and blocked the clathrin-dependent uptake of Alexa Fluor 594-transferrin (P < 0.01). However, neither LC nor HC siRNAs inhibited AT1-mediated uptake of FITC-ANG II or affected ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression. MAP-1A or MAP-1B siRNAs markedly knocked down MAP-1A or MAP-1B proteins in a time-dependent manner with peak inhibitions at 48 h (>76.8%, P < 0.01). MAP protein knockdown resulted in approximately 52% decreases in AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and approximately 66% decreases in ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with threefold decreases in ANG II-induced MAP kinases ERK 1/2 activation (P < 0.01), but not with altered AT1 expression or clathrin-dependent transferrin uptake. Both losartan and AT1a receptor deletion in mouse PT cells completely abolished the effects of MAP-1A knockdown on ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression and activation of MAP kinases ERK1/2. Our findings suggest that the alternative microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway, rather than the canonical clathrin

  2. RIP1 regulates TNF-α-mediated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer by modulating the NF-κB-VEGF-C pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Zong; Jiang, Xiao-Jie; Lin, Bin; Hong, Hai-Jie; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Tang, Nan-Hong; She, Fei-Fei; Chen, Yan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) enhances lymphangiogenesis in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) via activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB)-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) is a multifunctional protein in the TNF-α signaling pathway and is highly expressed in GBC. However, whether RIP1 participates in the signaling pathway of TNF-α-mediated VEGF-C expression that enhances lymphangiogenesis in GBC remains unclear. The RIP1 protein levels in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells upon stimulation with increasing concentrations of TNF-α as indicated was examined using Western blot. Lentiviral RIP1 shRNA and siIκBα were constructed and transduced respectively them into NOZ and GBC-SD cells, and then PcDNA3.1-RIP1 vectors was transduced into siRIP1 cell lines to reverse RIP1 expression. The protein expression of RIP1, inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), p-IκBα, TAK1, NF-κB essential modulator were examined through immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation. Moreover, VEGF-C mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, VEGF-C protein levels were measured by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and VEGF-C promoter and NF-κB activities were quantified using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The association of NF-κB with the VEGF-C promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. A three-dimensional coculture method and orthotopic transplantation nude mice model were used to evaluate lymphatic tube-forming and metastasis ability in GBC cells. The expression of RIP1 protein, TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessels in human GBC tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry, and the dependence between RIP1 protein with TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessel density was analysed. TNF-α dose- and time-dependently increased RIP1 protein expression in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells of GBC, and the strongest effect was observed with a concentration of 50 ng/ml. RIP1 is fundamental

  3. Excessive Time on Social Networking Sites and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Undergraduate Students: Appearance and Weight Esteem as Mediating Pathways.

    PubMed

    Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a popular form of communication among undergraduate students. Body image concerns and disordered eating behaviors are also quite prevalent among this population. Maladaptive use of SNS has been associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined if body image concerns (e.g., appearance and weight esteem) mediate the relationship between excessive time spent on SNS and disordered eating behaviors (restrained and emotional eating). The sample included 383 (70.2 percent female) undergraduate students (mean age = 23.08 years, standard deviation = 3.09) who completed self-report questionnaires related to SNS engagement, body image, disordered eating behaviors, and demographics. Parallel multiple mediation and moderated mediation analyses revealed that lower weight and appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and restrained eating for males and females, whereas appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and emotional eating for females only. The study adds to the literature by highlighting mediational pathways and gender differences. Intervention research is needed to determine if teaching undergraduate students more adaptive ways of using SNS or reducing exposure to SNS reduces body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in this high-risk population.

  4. Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test and develop, using structural equation modelling, a robust model of the mediational pathways through which health warning labels exert their influence on smokers’ subsequent quitting behaviour. Methods Data come from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. Waves 5–6 data (n=4988) were used to calibrate the hypothesized model of warning label impact on subsequent quit attempts via a set of policy-specific and general psychosocial mediators. The finalised model was validated using Waves 6–7 data (n=5065). Results As hypothesized, warning label salience was positively associated with thoughts about risks of smoking stimulated by the warnings (β=.58, p<.001), which in turn were positively related to increased worry about negative outcomes of smoking (β=.52, p<.001); increased worry in turn predicted stronger intention to quit (β=.39, p<.001) which was a strong predictor of subsequent quit attempts (β=.39, p<.001). This calibrated model was successfully replicated using Waves 6–7 data. Conclusions Health warning labels seem to influence future quitting attempts primarily through their ability to stimulate thoughts about the risks of smoking, which in turn help to raise smoking-related health concerns, which lead to stronger intentions to quit, a known key predictor of future quit attempts for smokers. By making warning labels more salient and engaging, they should have a greater chance to change behaviour. PMID:24977309

  5. Small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of caveolin-1 differentially modulates signaling pathways in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eva; Nagiel, Aaron; Lin, Alison J; Golan, David E; Michel, Thomas

    2004-09-24

    Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding/regulatory protein that interacts with diverse signaling molecules in endothelial cells. To explore the role of this protein in receptor-modulated signaling pathways, we transfected bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes to down-regulate caveolin-1 expression. Transfection of BAEC with duplex siRNA targeted against caveolin-1 mRNA selectively "knocked-down" the expression of caveolin-1 by approximately 90%, as demonstrated by immunoblot analyses of BAEC lysates. We used discontinuous sucrose gradients to purify caveolin-containing lipid rafts from siRNA-treated endothelial cells. Despite the near-total down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression, the lipid raft targeting of diverse signaling proteins (including the endothelial isoform of nitric-oxide synthase, Src-family tyrosine kinases, Galphaq and the insulin receptor) was unchanged. We explored the consequences of caveolin-1 knockdown on kinase pathways modulated by the agonists sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). siRNA-mediated caveolin-1 knockdown enhanced basal as well as S1P- and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt and did not modify the basal or agonist-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Caveolin-1 knock-down also significantly enhanced the basal and agonist-induced activity of the small GTPase Rac. We used siRNA to down-regulate Rac expression in BAEC, and we observed that Rac knockdown significantly reduced basal, S1P-, and VEGF-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Rac activation in the caveolin siRNA-mediated increase in Akt phosphorylation. By using siRNA to knockdown caveolin-1 and Rac expression in cultured endothelial cells, we have found that caveolin-1 does not seem to be required for the targeting of signaling molecules to caveolae/lipid rafts and that caveolin-1 differentially modulates specific kinase pathways in

  6. Cdk1, PKCδ and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathway contributes to mitochondrial fission-induced cardiomyocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Ivan; Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: xibai@mcw.edu; Liu, Yanan

    Highlights: • Drp1-mediated increased mitochondrial fission but not fusion is involved the cardiomyocyte death during anoxia-reoxygenation injury. • Reactive oxygen species are upstream initiators of mitochondrial fission. • Increased mitochondrial fission is resulted from Cdk1-, PKCδ-, and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathways. - Abstract: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to be involved in cardiomyocyte death. However, molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial fission during I/R injury has not yet been completely understood. In this study we aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms of controlling activation of dynamin-related protein 1more » (Drp1, a key protein in mitochondrial fission) during anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury of HL1 cardiomyocytes. A/R injury induced cardiomyocyte death accompanied by the increases of mitochondrial fission, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated Drp1 (pSer616 Drp1), and decrease of inactivated Drp1 (pSer637 Drp1) while mitochondrial fusion protein levels were not significantly changed. Blocking Drp1 activity with mitochondrial division inhibitor mdivi1 attenuated cell death, mitochondrial fission, and Drp1 activation after A/R. Trolox, a ROS scavenger, decreased pSer616 Drp1 level and mitochondrial fission after A/R. Immunoprecipitation assay further indicates that cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and protein kinase C isoform delta (PKCδ) bind Drp1, thus increasing mitochondrial fission. Inhibiting Cdk1 and PKCδ attenuated the increases in pSer616 Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and cardiomyocyte death. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, blocked the decrease in expression of inactivated pSer637 Drp1 and mitochondrial fission. Our findings reveal the following novel molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission during A/R injury of cardiomyocytes: (1) ROS are upstream initiators of

  7. Identification and classification of genes regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during neuronal differentiation in two subtypes of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yuichiro; Adati, Naoki; Ozawa, Ritsuko; Maeda, Aasami; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Tadayuki

    2008-10-28

    SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.

  8. Identifying miRNA-mediated signaling subpathways by integrating paired miRNA/mRNA expression data with pathway topology.

    PubMed

    Vrahatis, Aristidis G; Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios N; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    In the road for network medicine the newly emerged systems-level subpathway-based analysis methods offer new disease genes, drug targets and network-based biomarkers. In parallel, paired miRNA/mRNA expression data enable simultaneously monitoring of the micronome effect upon the signaling pathways. Towards this orientation, we present a methodological pipeline for the identification of differentially expressed subpathways along with their miRNA regulators by using KEGG signaling pathway maps, miRNA-target interactions and expression profiles from paired miRNA/mRNA experiments. Our pipeline offered new biological insights on a real application of paired miRNA/mRNA expression profiles with respect to the dynamic changes from colostrum to mature milk whey; several literature supported genes and miRNAs were recontextualized through miRNA-mediated differentially expressed subpathways.

  9. SREBP-1c overactivates ROS-mediated hepatic NF-κB inflammatory pathway in dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Huang, Weikun; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Xiliang; Lei, Lin; Yuan, Xue; Sun, Guoquan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Guowen

    2015-10-01

    Dairy cows with fatty liver are characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation and a severe inflammatory response. Sterol receptor element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) are components of the main pathways for controlling triglyceride (TG) accumulation and inflammatory levels, respectively. A previous study demonstrated that hepatic inflammatory levels are positively correlated with hepatic TG content. We therefore speculated that SREBP-1c might play an important role in the overactivation of the hepatic NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cows with fatty liver. Compared with healthy cows, cows with fatty liver exhibited severe hepatic injury and high blood concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Hepatic SREBP-1c-mediated lipid synthesis and the NF-κB inflammatory pathway were both overinduced in cows with fatty liver. In vitro, treatment with non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) further increased SREBP-1c expression and NF-κB pathway activation, which then promoted TG and inflammatory cytokine synthesis. SREBP-1c overexpression overactivated the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in hepatocytes by increasing ROS content and not through TLR4. Furthermore, SREBP-1c silencing decreased ROS content and further attenuated the activation of the NEFA-induced NF-κB pathway, thereby decreasing TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β synthesis. SREBP-1c-overexpressing mice exhibited hepatic steatosis and an overinduced hepatic NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that SREBP-1c enhances the NEFA-induced overactivation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway by increasing ROS in cow hepatocytes, thereby further increasing hepatic inflammatory injury in cows with fatty liver. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Distinctive effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in regulating neural stem cell fate are mediated via endocannabinoid signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dyall, S C; Mandhair, H K; Fincham, R E A; Kerr, D M; Roche, M; Molina-Holgado, F

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between the endocannabinoid system, omega-3 fatty acids and the immune system in the promotion of brain self-repair. However, it is unknown if all omega-3 fatty acids elicit similar effects on adult neurogenesis and if such effects are mediated or regulated by interactions with the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effects of DHA and EPA on neural stem cell (NSC) fate and the role of the endocannabinoid signalling pathways in these effects. EPA, but not DHA, significantly increased proliferation of NSCs compared to controls, an effect associated with enhanced levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and p-p38 MAPK, effects attenuated by pre-treatment with CB1 (AM251) or CB2 (AM630) receptor antagonists. Furthermore, in NSCs derived from IL-1β deficient mice, EPA significantly decreased proliferation and p-p38 MAPK levels compared to controls, suggesting a key role for IL-1β signalling in the effects observed. Although DHA similarly increased 2-AG levels in wild-type NSCs, there was no concomitant increase in proliferation or p-p38 MAPK activity. In addition, in NSCs from IL-1β deficient mice, DHA significantly increased proliferation without effects on p-P38 MAPK, suggesting effects of DHA are mediated via alternative signalling pathways. These results provide crucial new insights into the divergent effects of EPA and DHA in regulating NSC proliferation and the pathways involved, and highlight the therapeutic potential of their interplay with endocannabinoid signalling in brain repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NAD+-dependent sirtuin 1 and 6 proteins coordinate a switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation during the acute inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tie Fu; Vachharajani, Vidula T; Yoza, Barbara K; McCall, Charles E

    2012-07-27

    The early initiation phase of acute inflammation is anabolic and primarily requires glycolysis with reduced mitochondrial glucose oxidation for energy, whereas the later adaptation phase is catabolic and primarily requires fatty acid oxidation for energy. We reported previously that switching from the early to the late acute inflammatory response following TLR4 stimulation depends on NAD(+) activation of deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SirT1). Here, we tested whether NAD(+) sensing by sirtuins couples metabolic polarity with the acute inflammatory response. We found in TLR4-stimulated THP-1 promonocytes that SirT1 and SirT 6 support a switch from increased glycolysis to increased fatty acid oxidation as early inflammation converts to late inflammation. Glycolysis enhancement required hypoxia-inducing factor-1α to up-regulate glucose transporter Glut1, phospho-fructose kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, which interrupted pyruvate dehydrogenase and reduced mitochondrial glucose oxidation. The shift to late acute inflammation and elevated fatty acid oxidation required peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivators PGC-1α and β to increase external membrane CD36 and fatty acid mitochondrial transporter carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1. Metabolic coupling between early and late responses also required NAD(+) production from nicotinamide phosphoryltransferase (Nampt) and activation of SirT6 to reduce glycolysis and SirT1 to increase fatty oxidation. We confirmed similar shifts in metabolic polarity during the late immunosuppressed stage of human sepsis blood leukocytes and murine sepsis splenocytes. We conclude that NAD(+)-dependent bioenergy shifts link metabolism with the early and late stages of acute inflammation.

  12. A convergent and essential interneuron pathway for Mauthner-cell-mediated escapes.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, Alix M B; Schoppik, David; Robson, Drew N; Haesemeyer, Martin; Portugues, Ruben; Li, Jennifer M; Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-06-01

    The Mauthner cell (M-cell) is a command-like neuron in teleost fish whose firing in response to aversive stimuli is correlated with short-latency escapes [1-3]. M-cells have been proposed as evolutionary ancestors of startle response neurons of the mammalian reticular formation [4], and studies of this circuit have uncovered important principles in neurobiology that generalize to more complex vertebrate models [3]. The main excitatory input was thought to originate from multisensory afferents synapsing directly onto the M-cell dendrites [3]. Here, we describe an additional, convergent pathway that is essential for the M-cell-mediated startle behavior in larval zebrafish. It is composed of excitatory interneurons called spiral fiber neurons, which project to the M-cell axon hillock. By in vivo calcium imaging, we found that spiral fiber neurons are active in response to aversive stimuli capable of eliciting escapes. Like M-cell ablations, bilateral ablations of spiral fiber neurons largely eliminate short-latency escapes. Unilateral spiral fiber neuron ablations shift the directionality of escapes and indicate that spiral fiber neurons excite the M-cell in a lateralized manner. Their optogenetic activation increases the probability of short-latency escapes, supporting the notion that spiral fiber neurons help activate M-cell-mediated startle behavior. These results reveal that spiral fiber neurons are essential for the function of the M-cell in response to sensory cues and suggest that convergent excitatory inputs that differ in their input location and timing ensure reliable activation of the M-cell, a feedforward excitatory motif that may extend to other neural circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of Shugan Jianpi Recipe on LXRα/FAS signaling pathway mediated hepatocyte fatty deposits in NAFLD rats].

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiang-Wen; Yang-Qin-He; Yan, Hai-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Huang, Jin; Xu, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Lin, Chun-Mei

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effect of Shugan Jianpi Recipe (SJR) on LXRα/FAS signaling pathway mediated hepatocyte fatty deposits in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. Totally 75 SPF grade male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the model group, the Shugan Recipe (SR) treatment groups, the Jianpi Recipe (JR) treatment group, and the SJR group. Except rats in the normal control group, the NAFLD rat model was duplicated using high fat diet (HFD). SR (Chaihu Shugan Powder) was administered to rats in the SR group. JR (Shenlin Baizhu Powder) was administered to rats in the JR group. SJR (Chaihu Shugan Powder plus Shenlin Baizhu Powder) was administered to rats in the SJR group. Changes of liver fat were analyzed using automatic biochemical analyzer. Liver cells were separated by low-speed centrifugation. Their activities and purities were identify using Typan blue and flow cytometry (FCM). Expression levels of LXRα and FAS mRNA in hepatocytes detected by Real-time quantitative PCR. Expression levels of LXRα and FAS protein were detected by Western blot. (1) Pathological results showed in the model group, hepatocytes were swollen with nucleus locating at the cell edge after oil red O staining; unequal sized small vacuoles could be seen inside cytoplasm. Some small vacuoles merged big vacuoles. All these indi- cated a NAFLD rat model was successfully established by high fat diet. Pathological structural changes could be impaired to some degree in all medicated groups, especially in the SR group. (2) Compared with the normal control group, expression levels of LXRα and FAS genes and proteins obviously increased in the model group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, their expression levels were obviously down-regulated in the JR group and the SR group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). LXRα/FAS signaling pathway was an important signaling pathway for mediating lipid metabolism disorders of NAFLD rats. SJR could make hepatocyte fatty

  14. Hydrogen peroxide stimulation of CFTR reveals an Epac-mediated, soluble AC-dependent cAMP amplification pathway common to GPCR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ivonnet, P; Salathe, M; Conner, G E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE H2O2 is widely understood to regulate intracellular signalling. In airway epithelia, H2O2 stimulates anion secretion primarily by activating an autocrine PGE2 signalling pathway via EP4 and EP1 receptors to initiate cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl− secretion. This study investigated signalling downstream of the receptors activated by H2O2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anion secretion by differentiated bronchial epithelial cells was measured in Ussing chambers during stimulation with H2O2, an EP4 receptor agonist or β2-adrenoceptor agonist in the presence and absence of inhibitors of ACs and downstream effectors. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I) changes were followed by microscopy using fura–2-loaded cells and PKA activation followed by FRET microscopy. KEY RESULTS Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) were both necessary for H2O2 and EP4 receptor-mediated CFTR activation in bronchial epithelia. H2O2 and EP4 receptor agonist stimulated tmAC to increase exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activity that drives PLC activation to raise [Ca2+]i via Ca2+ store release (and not entry). Increased [Ca2+]i led to sAC activation and further increases in CFTR activity. Stimulation of sAC did not depend on changes in [HCO3−]. Ca2+-activated apical KCa1.1 channels and cAMP-activated basolateral KV7.1 channels contributed to H2O2-stimulated anion currents. A similar Epac-mediated pathway was seen following β2-adrenoceptor or forskolin stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2O2 initiated a complex signalling cascade that used direct stimulation of tmACs by Gαs followed by Epac-mediated Ca2+ crosstalk to activate sAC. The Epac-mediated Ca2+ signal constituted a positive feedback loop that amplified CFTR anion secretion following stimulation of tmAC by a variety of stimuli. PMID:25220136

  15. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  16. Raft-mediated trafficking of apical resident proteins occurs in both direct and transcytotic pathways in polarized hepatic cells: role of distinct lipid microdomains.

    PubMed

    Slimane, Tounsia Aït; Trugnan, Germain; Van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Hoekstra, Dick

    2003-02-01

    In polarized hepatic cells, pathways and molecular principles mediating the flow of resident apical bile canalicular proteins have not yet been resolved. Herein, we have investigated apical trafficking of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked and two single transmembrane domain proteins on the one hand, and two polytopic proteins on the other in polarized HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that the former arrive at the bile canalicular membrane via the indirect transcytotic pathway, whereas the polytopic proteins reach the apical membrane directly, after Golgi exit. Most importantly, cholesterol-based lipid microdomains ("rafts") are operating in either pathway, and protein sorting into such domains occurs in the biosynthetic pathway, largely in the Golgi. Interestingly, rafts involved in the direct pathway are Lubrol WX insoluble but Triton X-100 soluble, whereas rafts in the indirect pathway are both Lubrol WX and Triton X-100 insoluble. Moreover, whereas cholesterol depletion alters raft-detergent insolubility in the indirect pathway without affecting apical sorting, protein missorting occurs in the direct pathway without affecting raft insolubility. The data implicate cholesterol as a traffic direction-determining parameter in the direct apical pathway. Furthermore, raft-cargo likely distinguishing single vs. multispanning membrane anchors, rather than rafts per se (co)determine the sorting pathway.

  17. Raft-mediated Trafficking of Apical Resident Proteins Occurs in Both Direct and Transcytotic Pathways in Polarized Hepatic Cells: Role of Distinct Lipid Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Slimane, Tounsia Aït; Trugnan, Germain; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.; Hoekstra, Dick

    2003-01-01

    In polarized hepatic cells, pathways and molecular principles mediating the flow of resident apical bile canalicular proteins have not yet been resolved. Herein, we have investigated apical trafficking of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked and two single transmembrane domain proteins on the one hand, and two polytopic proteins on the other in polarized HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that the former arrive at the bile canalicular membrane via the indirect transcytotic pathway, whereas the polytopic proteins reach the apical membrane directly, after Golgi exit. Most importantly, cholesterol-based lipid microdomains (“rafts”) are operating in either pathway, and protein sorting into such domains occurs in the biosynthetic pathway, largely in the Golgi. Interestingly, rafts involved in the direct pathway are Lubrol WX insoluble but Triton X-100 soluble, whereas rafts in the indirect pathway are both Lubrol WX and Triton X-100 insoluble. Moreover, whereas cholesterol depletion alters raft-detergent insolubility in the indirect pathway without affecting apical sorting, protein missorting occurs in the direct pathway without affecting raft insolubility. The data implicate cholesterol as a traffic direction-determining parameter in the direct apical pathway. Furthermore, raft-cargo likely distinguishing single vs. multispanning membrane anchors, rather than rafts per se (co)determine the sorting pathway. PMID:12589058

  18. The hepatocyte-specific HNF4α/miR-122 pathway contributes to iron overload-mediated hepatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tang, Yuxiao; Wu, Lusha; Mo, Fengfeng; Wang, Xin; Li, Hongxia; Qi, Ruirui; Zhang, Hongwei; Srivastava, Arun; Ling, Chen

    2017-08-24

    Hepatic iron overload (IO) is a major complication of transfusional therapy. It was generally thought that IO triggers substantial inflammatory responses by producing reactive oxygen species in hepatic macrophages. Recently, a decrease in microRNA-122 (miR-122) expression was observed in a genetic knockout (Hfe -/- ) mouse model of IO. Because hepatocyte-enriched miR-122 is a key regulator of multiple hepatic pathways, including inflammation, it is of interest whether hepatocyte directly contributes to IO-mediated hepatic inflammation. Here, we report that IO induced similar inflammatory responses in human primary hepatocytes and Thp-1-derived macrophages. In the mouse liver, IO resulted in altered expression of not only inflammatory genes but also >230 genes that are known targets of miR-122. In addition, both iron-dextran injection and a 3% carbonyl iron-containing diet led to upregulation of hepatic inflammation, which was associated with a significant reduction in HNF4α expression and its downstream target, miR-122. Interestingly, the same signaling pathway was changed in macrophage-deficient mice, suggesting that macrophages are not the only target of IO. Most importantly, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of miR-122 rescued IO-mediated hepatic inflammation. Our findings indicate the direct involvement of hepatocytes in IO-induced hepatic inflammation and are informative for developing new molecular targets and preventative therapies for patients with major hemoglobinopathy. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. A beta1-adrenergic receptor CaM kinase II-dependent pathway mediates cardiac myocyte fetal gene induction.

    PubMed

    Sucharov, Carmen C; Mariner, Peter D; Nunley, Karin R; Long, Carlin; Leinwand, Leslie; Bristow, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    Beta-adrenergic signaling plays an important role in the natural history of dilated cardiomyopathies. Chronic activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta1-AR and beta2-AR) during periods of cardiac stress ultimately harms the failing heart by mechanisms that include alterations in gene expression. Here, we show that stimulation of beta-ARs with isoproterenol in neonate rat ventricular myocytes causes a "fetal" response in the relative activities of the human cardiac fetal and/or adult gene promoters that includes repression of the human and rat alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MyHC) promoters with simultaneous activation of the human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and rat beta-MyHC promoters. We also show that the promoter changes correlate with changes in endogenous gene expression as measured by mRNA expression. Furthermore, we show that these changes are specifically mediated by the beta1-AR, but not the beta2-AR, and are independent of alpha1-AR stimulation. We also demonstrate that the fetal gene response is independent of cAMP and protein kinase A, whereas inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) pathway blocks isoproterenol-mediated fetal gene program induction. Finally, we show that induction of the fetal program is dependent on activation of the L-type Ca2+ channel. We conclude that in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, agonist-occupied beta1-AR mobilizes Ca2+ stores to activate fetal gene induction through cAMP independent pathways that involve CaMK.

  20. Temporal Expression Profiling Identifies Pathways Mediating Effect of Causal Variant on Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saumya; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raharja-Liu, Pandu; Lin, Gen; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Gagneur, Julien; Sinha, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    allele-specific transcriptional dynamics of mediating genes. Applications in higher eukaryotes can be valuable for inferring causal molecular pathways underlying complex dynamic processes, such as development, physiology and disease progression. PMID:26039065

  1. Targeting the Interleukin-6/Jak/Stat Pathway in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Pasquale; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway was discovered 20 years ago as a mediator of cytokine signaling. Since this time, more than 2,500 articles have been published demonstrating the importance of this pathway in virtually all malignancies. Although there are dozens of cytokines and cytokine receptors, four Jaks, and seven Stats, it seems that interleukin-6–mediated activation of Stat3 is a principal pathway implicated in promoting tumorigenesis. This transcription factor regulates the expression of numerous critical mediators of tumor formation and metastatic progression. This review will examine the relative importance and function of this pathway in nonmalignant conditions as well as malignancies (including tumor intrinsic and extrinsic), the influence of other Stats, the development of inhibitors to this pathway, and the potential role of inhibitors in controlling or eradicating cancers. PMID:22355058

  2. Calcium and Superoxide-Mediated Pathways Converge to Induce Nitric Oxide-Dependent Apoptosis in Mycobacterium fortuitum-Infected Fish Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Datta, Debika; Khatri, Preeti; Banerjee, Chaitali; Singh, Ambika; Meena, Ramavatar; Saha, Dhira Rani; Raman, Rajagopal; Rajamani, Paulraj; Mitra, Abhijit; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum causes 'mycobacteriosis' in wide range of hosts although the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of calcium (Ca+2)-signalling cascade on M. fortuitum-induced apoptosis in headkidney macrophages (HKM) of Clarias sp. M. fortuitum could trigger intracellular-Ca+2 influx leading to the activation of calmodulin (CaM), protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) and Calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg). Gene silencing and inhibitor studies established the role of CaM in M. fortuitum pathogenesis. We noted that CaMKIIg activation is regulated by CaM as well as PKCα-dependent superoxide anions. This is altogether first report of oxidised CaMKIIg in mycobacterial infections. Our studies with targeted-siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors implicate CaMKIIg to be pro-apoptotic and critical for the activation of extra-cellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway attenuated nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Conversely, inhibiting the NOS2-NO axis by specific-siRNA and inhibitors down-regulated ERK1/2 activation suggesting the crosstalk between ERK1/2 and NO is essential for pathogenesis induced by the bacterium. Silencing the NOS2-NO axis enhanced intracellular bacterial survival and attenuated caspase-8 mediated activation of caspase-3 in the infected HKM. Our findings unveil hitherto unknown mechanism of M. fortuitum pathogenesis. We propose that M. fortuitum triggers intracellular Ca+2 elevations resulting in CaM activation and PKCα-mediated superoxide generation. The cascade converges in common pathway mediated by CaMKIIg resulting in the activation of ERK1/2-NOS2 axis. The crosstalk between ERK1/2 and NO shifts the balance in favour of caspase dependent apoptosis of M. fortuitum-infected HKM.

  3. Activity-Dependent Ubiquitination of GluA1 Mediates a Distinct AMPAR Endocytosis and Sorting Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Lindsay A.; Hall, Benjamin J.; Patrick, Gentry N.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the synapse is a critical component of learning and memory in the brain, while dysfunction of AMPAR trafficking is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease. Previous work has shown that ubiquitination of integral membrane proteins is a common post-translational modification used to mediate endocytosis and endocytic sorting of surface proteins in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that mammalian AMPARs become ubiquitinated in response to their activation. Using a mutant of GluA1 that is unable to be ubiquitinated at lysines on its carboxy-terminus, we demonstrate that ubiquitination is required for internalization of surface AMPARs and their trafficking to the lysosome in response to the AMPAR agonist AMPA, but not for internalization of AMPARs in response to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist NMDA. Through over-expression or RNAi-mediated knockdown, we identify that a specific E3 ligase, Nedd4-1, is necessary for this process. Finally, we show that ubiquitination of GluA1 by Nedd4-1 becomes more prevalent as neurons mature. Together, these data show that ubiquitination of GluA1-containing AMPARs by Nedd4-1 mediates their endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosome. Furthermore, these results provide insight into how hippocampal neurons regulate AMPAR trafficking and degradation with high specificity in response to differing neuronal signaling cues, and suggest that changes to this pathway may occur as neurons mature. PMID:21148011

  4. Higher Matrix Stiffness Upregulates Osteopontin Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Mediated by Integrin β1/GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    You, Yang; Zheng, Qiongdan; Dong, Yinying; Wang, Yaohui; Zhang, Lan; Xue, Tongchun; Xie, Xiaoying; Hu, Chao; Wang, Zhiming; Chen, Rongxin; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Jiefeng; Ren, Zhenggang

    2015-01-01

    Increased stromal stiffness is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanism by which matrix stiffness stimuli modulate HCC progress is largely unknown. In this study, we explored whether matrix stiffness-mediated effects on osteopontin (OPN) expression occur in HCC cells. We used a previously reported in vitro culture system with tunable matrix stiffness and found that OPN expression was remarkably upregulated in HCC cells with increasing matrix stiffness. Furthermore, the phosphorylation level of GSK3β and the expression of nuclear β-catenin were also elevated, indicating that GSK3β/β-catenin pathway might be involved in OPN regulation. Knock-down analysis of integrin β1 showed that OPN expression and p-GSK3β level were downregulated in HCC cells grown on high stiffness substrate compared with controls. Simultaneously, inhibition of GSK-3β led to accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its enhanced nuclear translocation, further triggered the rescue of OPN expression, suggesting that the integrin β1/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway is specifically activated for matrix stiffness-mediated OPN upregulation in HCC cells. Tissue microarray analysis confirmed that OPN expression was positively correlated with the expression of LOX and COL1. Taken together, high matrix stiffness upregulated OPN expression in HCC cells via the integrin β1/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. It highlights a new insight into a pathway involving physical mechanical signal and biochemical signal molecules which contributes to OPN expression in HCC cells.

  5. PARP1-mediated necrosis is dependent on parallel JNK and Ca2+/calpain pathways

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Diana L.; Baines, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear enzyme that can trigger caspase-independent necrosis. Two main mechanisms for this have been proposed: one involving RIP1 and JNK kinases and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the other involving calpain-mediated activation of Bax and mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). However, whether these two mechanisms represent distinct pathways for PARP1-induced necrosis, or whether they are simply different components of the same pathway has yet to be tested. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were treated with either N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or β-Lapachone, resulting in PARP1-dependent necrosis. This was associated with increases in calpain activity, JNK activation and AIF translocation. JNK inhibition significantly reduced MNNG- and β-Lapachone-induced JNK activation, AIF translocation, and necrosis, but not calpain activation. In contrast, inhibition of calpain either by Ca2+ chelation or knockdown attenuated necrosis, but did not affect JNK activation or AIF translocation. To our surprise, genetic and/or pharmacological inhibition of RIP1, AIF, Bax and the MPT pore failed to abrogate MNNG- and β-Lapachone-induced necrosis. In conclusion, although JNK and calpain both contribute to PARP1-induced necrosis, they do so via parallel mechanisms. PMID:25052090

  6. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  7. Piracetam inhibits ethanol (EtOH)-induced memory deficit by mediating multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifan; Feng, Jian; Xu, Fangyuan; Wang, Jianglin

    2017-12-01

    Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we found that Pir inhibited ethanol-induced memory deficit by mediating multiple pathways. Treatment with EtOH could cause cognitive deficit in juvenile rats, and triggered the alteration of synaptic plasticity. Administration with Pir significantly increased long-term potentiation and protected hippocampus neurons from EtOH neurotoxicity. Pir intervention ameliorated EtOH-induced cell apoptosis and inhibited the activation of Caspase-3 in vitro, suggesting that Pir protected neurons by anti-apoptotic effects. Pir could decrease the expression of LC3-II and Beclin-1 induced by EtOH, and increase the phosphorylation of mTOR and reduce the phosphorylation of Akt, which suggested that the protective effect of Pir was involved in regulation of autophagic process and mTOR/Akt pathways. In conclusion, we speculate that Pir reduces EtOH-induced neuronal damage by regulation of apoptotic action and autophagic action, and our research offers preclinical evidence for the application of Pir in ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Thompson, Mary E; Nagelhout, Gera E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-11-01

    To test and develop, using structural equation modeling, a robust model of the mediational pathways through which health warning labels exert their influence on smokers' subsequent quitting behavior. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Waves 5-6 data (n = 4,988) were used to calibrate the hypothesized model of warning label impact on subsequent quit attempts via a set of policy-specific and general psychosocial mediators. The finalized model was validated using Waves 6-7 data (n = 5065). As hypothesized, warning label salience was positively associated with thoughts about risks of smoking stimulated by the warnings (β = .58, p < .001), which in turn were positively related to increased worry about negative outcomes of smoking (β = .52, p < .001); increased worry in turn predicted stronger intention to quit (β = .39, p < .001), which was a strong predictor of subsequent quit attempts (β = .39, p < .001). This calibrated model was successfully replicated using Waves 6-7 data. Health warning labels seem to influence future quitting attempts primarily through their ability to stimulate thoughts about the risks of smoking, which in turn help to raise smoking-related health concerns, which lead to stronger intentions to quit, a known key predictor of future quit attempts for smokers. By making warning labels more salient and engaging, they should have a greater chance to change behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V; Eisenberg, Tobias; Megalou, Evgenia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Cabrera, Sandra; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Criollo, Alfredo; Kepp, Oliver; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Horio, Yoshiyuki; López-Otín, Carlos; Andersen, Jens S; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-02-21

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate the autophagic cascade. At doses at which neither resveratrol nor spermidine stimulated autophagy alone, these agents synergistically induced autophagy. Altogether, these data underscore the importance of an autophagy regulatory network of antagonistic deacetylases and acetylases that can be pharmacologically manipulated.

  10. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Megalou, Evgenia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Cabrera, Sandra; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Criollo, Alfredo; Kepp, Oliver; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Horio, Yoshiyuki; López-Otín, Carlos; Andersen, Jens S.; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate the autophagic cascade. At doses at which neither resveratrol nor spermidine stimulated autophagy alone, these agents synergistically induced autophagy. Altogether, these data underscore the importance of an autophagy regulatory network of antagonistic deacetylases and acetylases that can be pharmacologically manipulated. PMID:21339330

  11. Proteolipid Protein Is Required for Transport of Sirtuin 2 into CNS Myelin

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Hauke B.; Kuhlmann, Katja; Shen, Siming; Uecker, Marina; Schardt, Anke; Dimova, Kalina; Orfaniotou, Foteini; Dhaunchak, Ajit; Brinkmann, Bastian G.; Möbius, Wiebke; Guarente, Lenny; Casaccia-Bonnefil, Patrizia; Jahn, Olaf; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking the expression of proteolipid protein (PLP)/DM20 in oligodendrocytes provide a genuine model for spastic paraplegia (SPG-2). Their axons are well myelinated but exhibit impaired axonal transport and progressive degeneration, which is difficult to attribute to the absence of a single myelin protein. We hypothesized that secondary molecular changes in PLPnull myelin contribute to the loss of PLP/DM20-dependent neuroprotection and provide more insight into glia-axonal interactions in this disease model. By gel-based proteome analysis, we identified >160 proteins in purified myelin membranes, which allowed us to systematically monitor the CNS myelin proteome of adult PLPnull mice, before the onset of disease. We identified three proteins of the septin family to be reduced in abundance, but the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) was virtually absent. SIRT2 is expressed throughout the oligodendrocyte lineage, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed its association with myelin. Loss of SIRT2 in PLPnull was posttranscriptional, suggesting that PLP/DM20 is required for its transport into the myelin compartment. Because normal SIRT2 activity is controlled by the NAD+/NADH ratio, its function may be coupled to the axo-glial metabolism and the long-term support of axons by oligodendrocytes. PMID:17634366

  12. Resveratrol ameliorates depressive disorder through the NETRIN1-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifei; Wang, Jinhui; An, Jinghong; Yuan, Guoming; Hao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Depressive disorder is a mental health disorder caused by the dysfunction of nerve regeneration, neuroendocrine and neurobiochemistry, which frequently results in cognitive impairments and disorder. Evidence has shown that resveratrol offers benefits for the treatment of depressive disorder. In the present study, the therapeutic effects of resveratrol were investigated and the potential mechanisms mediated by resveratrol were analyzed in hippocampal neuron cells. The anti‑oxidative stress and anti‑inflammatory properties of resveratrol were also examined in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that resveratrol administration inhibited the inflammation in hippocampal neuron cells induced by ouabain. Oxidative stress in the hippocampal neuron cells was ameliorated by resveratrol treatment in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the apoptosis of hippocampal neuron cells was inhibited by the upregulation of anti‑apoptotic genes, including P53, B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated death promoter, and the downregulation of the cleaved caspase‑3 and caspase‑9. The analysis of the mechanism revealed that that resveratrol treatment suppressed the apoptosis of hippocampal neuron cells through the NETRIN1‑mediated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase/cAMP signal transduction pathway. The results of the in vivo assay showed that resveratrol treatment led to improvements in cognitive competence, learning memory ability and anxiety in a mouse model of depressive disorder induced by ouabain. In conclusion, these results indicated that resveratrol treatment had protective effects against oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory pathogenesis through the NETRIN1‑mediated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase/cAMP signal transduction pathway, suggesting that resveratrol treatment may be a potential antidepressant agent for the treatment of depressive disorder.

  13. RIP1 regulates TNF-α-mediated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer by modulating the NF-κB-VEGF-C pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; Hong, Hai-Jie; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Tang, Nan-Hong; She, Fei-Fei; Chen, Yan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) enhances lymphangiogenesis in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) via activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB)-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) is a multifunctional protein in the TNF-α signaling pathway and is highly expressed in GBC. However, whether RIP1 participates in the signaling pathway of TNF-α-mediated VEGF-C expression that enhances lymphangiogenesis in GBC remains unclear. Methods The RIP1 protein levels in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells upon stimulation with increasing concentrations of TNF-α as indicated was examined using Western blot. Lentiviral RIP1 shRNA and siIκBα were constructed and transduced respectively them into NOZ and GBC-SD cells, and then PcDNA3.1-RIP1 vectors was transduced into siRIP1 cell lines to reverse RIP1 expression. The protein expression of RIP1, inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), p-IκBα, TAK1, NF-κB essential modulator were examined through immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation. Moreover, VEGF-C mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, VEGF-C protein levels were measured by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and VEGF-C promoter and NF-κB activities were quantified using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The association of NF-κB with the VEGF-C promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. A three-dimensional coculture method and orthotopic transplantation nude mice model were used to evaluate lymphatic tube-forming and metastasis ability in GBC cells. The expression of RIP1 protein, TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessels in human GBC tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry, and the dependence between RIP1 protein with TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessel density was analysed. Results TNF-α dose- and time-dependently increased RIP1 protein expression in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells of GBC, and the strongest effect was observed with a concentration of 50

  14. [6]-Gingerol Affects Glucose Metabolism by Dual Regulation via the AMPKα2-Mediated AS160-Rab5 Pathway and AMPK-Mediated Insulin Sensitizing Effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Moon, Ji Wook; Lee, Soo Kyung; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Joong Kwan; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    [6]-Gingerol has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidemia; however, its metabolic role is poorly understood. In this study, [6]-gingerol increased adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Stimulation of glucose uptake by [6]-gingerol was dependent on AMPKα2. Moreover, both Inhibition and knockdown of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced glucose uptake. [6]-Gingerol significantly decreased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of PP2A activity with okadaic acid enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2. Moreover, the interaction between AMPKα2 and PP2A was increased by [6]-gingerol, suggesting that PP2A mediates the effect of [6]-gingerol on AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, [6]-gingerol increased the phosphorylation of Akt-substrate 160 (AS160), which is a Rab GTPase-activating protein. Inhibition of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced AS160 phosphorylation. [6]-gingerol increased the Rab5, and AMPKα2 knockdown blocked [6]-gingerol-induced expression of Rab5, indicating AMPK play as an upstream of Rab5. It also increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA and protein expression and stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, insulin-mediated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were further potentiated by [6]-gingerol treatment. This potentiation was not observed in the presence of AMPK inhibitor compound C. In summary, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol plays an important role in glucose metabolism via the AMPKα2-mediated AS160-Rab5 pathway and through potentiation of insulin-mediated glucose regulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nanocurcumin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Telomerase Via Stimulating TGFβ1 Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed

    Shariati, Molood; Hajigholami, Samira; Veisi Malekshahi, Ziba; Entezari, Maliheh; Bodaghabadi, Narges; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2017-10-10

    Curcumin, extracted from turmeric, represents enormous potential to serve as an anticancer agent. Telomerase is viewed as a prominent molecular target of curcumin, and Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) has proven to be a major inhibitory signaling pathway for telomerase activity. In the current study, we aimed to explore suppressive effects of nanocurcumin on telomerase expression through TGFβ1 pathway in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh7). MTT assay was used to determine the effect of nonocurcumin on viability of Huh7 cells. RT-PCR was used to analyze the gene expression patterns. MTT assay revealed that nanocurcumin acts in a dose- and time-dependent manner to diminish the cell viability. RT-PCR analysis indicated that nanocurcumin results in augmentation of TGFβ1 72 hours post treatment and leads to the reduction of telomerase expression 48 and 72 hours post exposure. Also, up-regulation of Smad3 and E2F1 and down-regulation of Smad7 confirmed the effect of nanocurcumin on intermediate components of TGFβ1 pathway. Furthermore, transfection of the proximal promoter of telomerase triggered a significant reduction in luciferase activity. The data from the present study lead us to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanocurcumin-mediated regulation of telomerase expression, thereby presenting a new perspective to the landscape of using nanocurcumin as a cancer-oriented therapeutic agent.

  16. Sulforaphane induces apoptosis in T24 human urinary bladder cancer cells through a reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway: the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Guk Heui; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Park, Kun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has received a great deal of attention because of its ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of sulforaphane in the T24 human bladder cancer line, and explored its molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment with sulforaphane inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in T24 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondria dysfunction, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, the increased activity of caspase-9 and -3, but not caspase-8, was accompanied by the cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating the involvement of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Concomitant with these changes, sulforaphane triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which, along with the blockage of sulforaphane-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis, was strongly attenuated by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Furthermore, sulforaphane was observed to activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, as demonstrated by the upregulation of ER stress‑related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP-homologous protein, and the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2 proteins in the nucleus and induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sulforaphane has antitumor effects against bladder cancer cells through an ROS-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and suggest that ER stress and Nrf2 may represent strategic targets for sulforaphane-induced apoptosis.

  17. EGF-like peptide-enhanced cell motility in Dictyostelium functions independently of the cAMP-mediated pathway and requires active Ca2+/calmodulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-04-01

    Current knowledge suggests that cell movement in the eukaryotic slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is mediated by different signaling pathways involving a number of redundant components. Our previous research has identified a specific motility-enhancing function for epidermal growth factor-like (EGFL) repeats in Dictyostelium, specifically for the EGFL repeats of cyrA, a matricellular, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein in Dictyostelium. Using mutants of cAMP signaling (carA(-), carC(-), gpaB(-), gpbA(-)), the endogenous calcium (Ca(2+)) release inhibitor TMB-8, the CaM antagonist W-7, and a radial motility bioassay, we show that DdEGFL1, a synthetic peptide whose sequence is obtained from the first EGFL repeat of cyrA, functions independently of the cAMP-mediated signaling pathways to enhance cell motility through a mechanism involving Ca(2+) signaling, CaM, and RasG. We show that DdEGFL1 increases the amounts of polymeric myosin II heavy chain and actin in the cytoskeleton by 24.1±10.7% and 25.9±2.1% respectively and demonstrate a link between Ca(2+)/CaM signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, our findings suggest that carA and carC mediate a brake mechanism during chemotaxis since DdEGFL1 enhanced the movement of carA(-)/carC(-) cells by 844±136% compared to only 106±6% for parental DH1 cells. Based on our data, this signaling pathway also appears to involve the G-protein β subunit, RasC, RasGEFA, and protein kinase B. Together, our research provides insight into the functionality of EGFL repeats in Dictyostelium and the signaling pathways regulating cell movement in this model organism. It also identifies several mechanistic components of DdEGFL1-enhanced cell movement, which may ultimately provide a model system for understanding EGFL repeat function in higher organisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependentmore » functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.« less

  19. Assessing natural direct and indirect effects through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Lange, Theis; Rasmussen, Mette; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-02-15

    Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical properties and developed powerful tools. However, in practical problems, it is not uncommon to have several distinct causal pathways from exposure to outcome operating through different mediators. In this article, we suggest a widely applicable approach to quantifying and ranking different causal pathways. The approach is an extension of the natural effect models proposed by Lange et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):190-195). By allowing the analysis of distinct multiple pathways, the suggested approach adds to the capabilities of modern mediation techniques. Furthermore, the approach can be implemented using standard software, and we have included with this article implementation examples using R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and Stata software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas).

  20. Bacterial superantigens bypass Lck-dependent T cell receptor signaling by activating a Galpha11-dependent, PLC-beta-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Clara; Lemke, Caitlin D; Criado, Gabriel; Baroja, Miren L; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Tsoukas, Constantine D; McCormick, John K; Madrenas, Joaquin

    2006-07-01

    The paradigm to explain antigen-dependent T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is based on the activation of the CD4 or CD8 coreceptor-associated kinase Lck. It is widely assumed that this paradigm is also applicable to signaling by bacterial superantigens. However, these bacterial toxins can activate human T cells lacking Lck, suggesting the existence of an additional pathway of TCR signaling. Here we showed that this alternative pathway operates in the absence of Lck-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylation events and was initiated by the TCR-dependent activation of raft-enriched heterotrimeric Galpha11 proteins. This event, in turn, activated a phospholipase C-beta and protein kinase C-mediated cascade that turned on the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and ERK-2, triggered Ca(2+) influx, and translocated the transcription factors NF-AT and NF-kappaB to the nucleus, ultimately inducing the production of interleukin-2 in Lck-deficient T cells. The triggering of this alternative pathway by superantigens suggests that these toxins use a G protein-coupled receptor as a coreceptor on T cells.

  1. Ethnic identity and mental health in American Indian youth: examining mediation pathways through self-esteem, and future optimism.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C

    2014-03-01

    Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.

  2. MicroRNA-1271 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells through inhibiting smoothened-mediated Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengwei; Huang, Chen; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in multiple myeloma (MM). miR-1271 is a tumor suppressor in many cancer types. However, the biological role of miR-1271 in MM remains unclear. In the present study, we elucidated the biological role of miR-1271 in MM. Results showed that miR-1271 was significantly decreased in primary MM cells from MM patients and MM cell lines. Overexpression of miR-1271 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of MM cells. Conversely, suppression of miR-1271 showed the opposite effect. Bioinformatics algorithm analysis predicted that smoothened (SMO), the activator of Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway, was a direct target of miR-1271 that was experimentally verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1271 inhibited SMO expression and HH signaling pathway. Conversely, the restoration of SMO expression markedly abolished the effect of miR-1271 overexpression on cell proliferation, apoptosis and HH signaling pathway in MM cells. Taken together, the present study suggests that miR-1271 functions as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of MM cells through inhibiting SMO-mediated HH signaling pathway. This finding implies that miR-1271 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MM.

  3. SH2-B promotes insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)- and IRS2-mediated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in response to leptin.