Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E
The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300 cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance. PMID:26675915
Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P. D.; Vinson, D. S.; Lee Zhi Yi, A.
One proposed approach to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations from fossil fuel combustion is geologic sequestration, which involves injecting anthropogenic CO2 into subsurface traps. This study seeks to determine the ultimate fate(s) of an injected CO2 plume in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) "2800 foot sand" (2800' sd) of the Olla oil field of north-central Louisiana, USA, and includes testing a previous hypothesis that this CO2 injection stimulated a microbial "hotspot" in the injected sandstone and adjacent coals. Forty-four samples of formation water, gas, and oil were collected from five main locations along a 90-km northwest to southeast transect: the 2800' sd in the Olla field (CO2 flooded), the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd within the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically below the 2800' sd within the Olla field, and formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field. Comparable samples from sandstones that would have not been affected by the CO2 flood were collected as a surrogate for pre-injection conditions for the Olla 2800' sd, as well as to look for evidence of CO2 migration and to examine the geochemical trends in the Wilcox Group to help determine other possible causes (besides the CO2 injection) of an Olla microbial "hotspot." Initial results show high alkalinity "hotspot" concentrations (mean 38.0 meq/kg, range 26.8-57.7 meq/kg) for waters in the Olla 2800' sd, compared to 2800' sd samples collected outside the Olla field (mean 9.9 meq/kg, range 4.6-22.7 meq/kg). Carbon dioxide in gas samples from the 2800' sd is consistent with two-component mixing of native and injected CO2, as indicated by its δ13CCO2 signature. A preliminary fractionation model for 2800' sd δ13CCH4 suggests up to 60% of injected CO2 was converted to methane (Olla 2800' sd methane is isotopically enriched compared to non-Olla 2800' sd methane), suggesting
Pal, Akhilesh Kumar; Katiyar, Vimal
This article demonstrates the synthesis of lactic acid oligomer-grafted-chitosan (OLLA-g-CH), a nanoamphiphilic molecule, by in situ condensation polymerization and its effective use as a nanofiller for improvement in multiple properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films, essential for stringent food packaging applications. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows the presence of amide-ester bond at 1539 cm(-1), which confirms the structural grafting of OLLA chains with chitosan molecules. This nanoamphiphilic OLLA-g-CH molecule act as surfactant containing hydrophilic chitosan head and hydrophobic OLLA tails with average size in the range of ∼2-4 nm. Prepared PLA/OLLA-g-CH bionanocomposite films appear with uniform dispersion of nanoamphiphilic OLLA-g-CH molecules with self-assembled micelles having size as low as ∼20 nm and as high as ∼150 nm with core-shell morphology in PLA matrix. This nanofiller is found very effective toward significant reduction in oxygen permeability (OP) by ∼10-fold due to the reduction in solubility of oxygen molecules and improvement in crystal nucleation density due to availability of nanonucleating sites. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of PLA/OLLA-g-CH bionanocomposite films are relatively comparable to that of PLA, however, elongation at break is improved significantly. The onset of thermal degradation of PLA/(OLLA-g-CH) films is also found comparable to that of PLA film. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of bionanocomposites is decreased by more than 18 °C with increase in OLLA-g-CH loading, which indicates the improved plasticization characteristics of PLA matrix. The crystallization kinetics suggest nonthree dimensional truncated spherical structures, which is controlled by the combination of thermal and athermal instantaneous nucleations. POM analysis suggested that the spherulite growth of PLA is improved significantly with the addition of OLLA-g-CH. The reduction in Tg of PLA with improvement
In this study we determined the differential susceptibility of four native North American Coccinellidae (Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda munda, Olla v-nigrum and Hippodamia convergens) to different isolates of the insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. These species are all known to overlap w...
Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia
The “2800’ sandstone” of the Olla oil field is an oil and gas-producing reservoir in a coal-bearing interval of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana, USA. In the 1980s, this producing unit was flooded with CO2 in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, leaving ∼30% of the injected CO2 in the 2800’ sandstone post-injection. This study utilizes isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine to determine the fate of the injected CO2, including the possibility of enhanced microbial conversion of CO2 to CH4 via methanogenesis. Stable carbon isotopes of CO2, CH4 and DIC, together with mol% CO2 show that 4 out of 17 wells sampled in the 2800’ sandstone are still producing injected CO2. The dominant fate of the injected CO2appears to be dissolution in formation fluids and gas-phase trapping. There is some isotopic and geochemical evidence for enhanced microbial methanogenesis in 2 samples; however, the CO2 spread unevenly throughout the reservoir, and thus cannot explain the elevated indicators for methanogenesis observed across the entire field. Vertical migration out of the target 2800’ sandstone reservoir is also apparent in 3 samples located stratigraphically above the target sand. Reservoirs comparable to the 2800’ sandstone, located along a 90-km transect, were also sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. Microbial methane, likely sourced from biodegradation of organic substrates within the formation, was found in all oil fields sampled, while indicators of methanogenesis (e.g. high alkalinity, δ13C-CO2 and δ13C-DIC values) and oxidation of propane were greatest in the Olla Field, likely due to its more ideal environmental conditions (i.e. suitable range of pH, temperature, salinity, sulfate and iron concentrations).
Michaud, J.P.; Angela K., Grant
Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles. PMID:15841232
Dutcher, James D; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam
Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in "Desirable" variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738
Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.
Rocks in the Western Salton Trough region record the history of slip on the transtensional West Salton detachment fault and initiation of younger strike-slip faults in this plate boundary zone. Spatial and temporal patterns of vertical axis rotations as determined by paleomagnetism can be used to provide valuable constraints on the structural-tectonic evolution of this area. Prior work includes the magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin (FCVB) (Opdyke et al., 1977; Johnson et al., 1983), who found that these rocks contain a complete record of geomagnetic field reversals spanning Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Johnson et al. (1983) also concluded that the FCVB had undergone 35° of CW rotation during the past 0.9 Ma. We resampled and reanalyzed their section, and sampled additional sedimentary and plutonic rocks in the Western Salton Trough in order to better document the history of vertical axis rotation recorded by these rocks. Results from 29 sites in the FCVB have well-defined magnetizations with two components. The first removed component in all samples is unblocked between 90 and 220 °C, and the second-removed components are unblocked between 300 and 590 °C. The second-removed components have either normal or reversed polarity. Sites from the Diablo Fm are predominantly reversed and have a mean of D = 204, I = -48.3, k = 37, α95 = 12.7°, N = 5. Sites from the middle of the section (Olla and Tapiado Fms) are predominantly normal and have a mean of D = 8.1, I = 48, k = 32, α95= 8.7°, N = 10. Sites from the upper portion of the section (Hueso Fm) have predominantly reversed polarity with means of D = 179.6, I = -43.4, k = 82, α95 = 10.2°, N = 4. Results from weakly-magnetized and deformed rocks of the La Posta pluton, on the south side of Whale Peak, have well-defined magnetizations with a group mean direction of D = 16.3, I = 37.3, k = 44, α95 = 7.4°, N = 10. The stratigraphic distribution of declination
Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael
OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.
Podgorski, Thomas; Callens, Natacha; Minetti, Christophe; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Misbah, Chaouqi
The dynamics of a vesicle suspension in shear flow was investigated by digital holographic microscopy  in parabolic flights and in the MASER 11 sounding rocket. Vesicles are lipid membranes which mimic the mechanical behaviour of cells, such as red blood cells in flow. In a simple shear flow between parallel walls, a lift force of purely viscous origin pushes vesicles away from walls. Our parabolic flight experiments  reveal that the lift velocity in a dilute suspen-sion is well described by theoretical predictions by Olla. As vesicles gather near the center of the flow chamber due to lift forces from both walls, one expects hydrodynamic interactions of pairs of vesicles to result in shear induced diffusion in the suspension. The BIOMICS experi-ment in the MASER 11 sounding rocket revealed a complex spatial structure of a polydisperse vesicle suspension due to the interplay between lift forces from the walls and hydrodynamic interactions. These phenomena have a strong impact on the structure and rheology of blood in small vessels, and a precise knowledge of the dynamics of migration and diffusion of soft particles in flow can lead to alternative ways to separate and sort blood cells. 1. Dubois, F., Schockaert, C., Callens, N., Yourrassowsky, C., "Focus plane detection criteria in digital holography microscopy by amplitude analysis", Opt. Express, Vol. 14, pp 5895-5908, 2006 2. Callens, N., Minetti, C., Coupier, G., Mader, M.-A., Dubois, F., Misbah, C., Podgorski, T., "Hydrodynamics lift of vesicles under shear flow in microgravity", Europhys. Lett., Vol. 83, p. 24002, 2008
de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis. It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866). In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host. PMID:27324582
de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866) In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host. PMID:27324582
Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E
A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368
Rodrigues, Agna R S; Spindola, Aline F; Torres, Jorge B; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Colares, Felipe
Simultaneous use of biological and chemical controls is a valued and historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved. One explanation for this failure may be the inadequate documentation of field populations of natural enemies for insecticide tolerance or resistance because natural enemies surviving insecticide application do not create problems like resistant pest species. Therefore, this study investigated 31 populations of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) regarding their susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in cotton and other crops to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests that are not targeted as prey by lady beetles. The study focused on seven coccinellid species common in cotton fields Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa Germar, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and Brumoides foudrasi (Mulsant) and one lady beetle species [Curinus coeruleus Mulsant] from a non-cotton ecosystem for comparisons. Dose-mortality curves were estimated after topical treatment of adult lady beetles with lambda-cyhalothrin. Statistically significant variations in lady beetle susceptibility were observed between species and between populations of a given species. Seven and eighteen populations of lady beetles exhibited greater values of LD50 and LD90, respectively, than the highest recommended field rate of lambda-cyhalothrin (20g a.i./hectare≈0.2g a.i./L) for cotton fields in Brazil. Furthermore, based on LD50 values, 29 out of 30 tested populations of lady beetles exhibited ratios of relative tolerance varying from 2- to 215-fold compared to the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four populations of E. connexa were 10.5-37.7 times more tolerant than the most susceptible population and thus were considered to be resistant to lambda
Dorsey, R. J.; Housen, B. A.; Janecke, S. U.; McDougall, K.; Fanning, M.; Fluette, A.; Axen, G. J.; Shirvell, C. R.
delta into the Imperial seaway, and continued during deposition of the fluvial Diablo and Olla formations. It ended at 3.2 Ma, 0.4 m.y. prior to the end of Colorado River sand input and transition to locally-derived Hueso Fm. This abrupt change in sediment composition occurred during slip on the WSDF, and may have been driven by an increase in sediment supply related to climate change. The entire basin has been inverted and completely exhumed, suggesting a rock uplift rate of ca. 6 mm/yr during the past 0.9 m.y. Rapid uplift coincides with modern transpressional deformation and strike-slip faults that cross-cut and terminated slip on the WSDF starting at 1.1-1.3 Ma (Steely, 2006; Lutz et al., in press; Kirby et al., in press).
Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.
directions that are best clustered at 0-40% untilting, and sites from the base of the section have directions that are best-clustered at 80-100% untilting. For this initial interpretation, results are tilt-corrected for maximum degree of clustering. Sites from near the base of the section (Diablo Fm) are predominately reverse and have a mean of D = 204, I = -48.3, k = 37, α95 = 12.7°, N = 5. Sites from the middle of the section (Olla and Tapiado Fms) are predominantly normal and have a mean of D = 8.1, I = 48, k = 32, α95 = 8.7°, N = 10. Sites from the upper portion of the section (Hueso Fm) have predominately reverse polarity with means of D = 179.6, I = -43.4, k = 82, α95 = 10.2°, N = 4. Based on these results and correlations between the magnetostratigraphy of this section with the polarity timescale we tentatively conclude that little or no CW rotation has occurred in the FCVB during the past 2 Ma. Larger (24° CW) rotations are recorded by the 3-4 Ma rocks of the Diablo Fm, indicating that significant rotation occurred between 2 and 3 Ma. We tentatively ascribe slowing of the rotation rate in the FCVB to still poorly understood evolution of the west Salton detachment fault system. The relative lack of rotation since 2 Ma suggests that younger, post-detachment strike-slip faulting has not produced significant CW rotation between the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults.